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Sample records for bvdv em ovelhas

  1. Immunology of BVDV vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...

  2. Perspective on BVDV control programs.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Newcomer, Benjamin W

    2015-06-01

    Programs for control and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are often considered prudent when the expense of a control program within a specified time frame effectively prevents loss due to disease and the expense of control does not exceed the costs associated with infection. In some geographic areas, concerns about animal welfare or desires to reduce antibiotic usage may motivate BVDV control even when control programs are associated with a lack of financial return on investment. In other geographic areas, concerns about financial return on investment may be the key motivating factor in considering implementation of BVDV control programs. Past experiences indicate that systematic, well-coordinated control programs have a clear potential for success, while voluntary control programs in cultures of distributed decision-making often result in notable initial progress that ultimately ends in dissolution of efforts. Segmentation of the cattle industry into cow-calf producers, stocker/backgrounders, and feedlot operators amplifies the distribution of decision-making regarding control programs and may result in control measures for one industry segment that are associated with significant costs and limited rewards. Though the host range of BVDV extends well beyond cattle, multiple eradication programs that focus only on testing and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle have proven to be effective in various countries. While some individuals consider education of producers to be sufficient to stimulate eradication of BVDV, research surrounding the adoption of innovative health care procedures suggests that the process of adopting BVDV control programs has a social element. Collegial interactions and discussions may be crucial in facilitating the systematic implementation necessary to optimize the long-term success of control programs. Compulsory control programs may be considered efficient and effective in some regions; however, in a nation where

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Liao, Jinhu; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinjun; Wang, Jianye; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-08-30

    Cattle are the natural hosts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which causes mucosal disease, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, and reproductive problems in cattle. However, BVDV can also infect goats, sheep, deer, and pigs. The prevalence of BVDV infection in pig herds has substantially increased in the last several years, causing increased economic losses to the global pig breeding industry. This article is a summary of BVDV infections in pigs, including a historical overview, clinical signs, pathology, source of infection, genetic characteristics, impacts of porcine BVDV infection for diagnosis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), differentiation of infection with CSFV and BVDV, and future prospects of porcine BVDV infection.

  4. BVDV: Detection, Risk Management and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The terms bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are difficult to define in simple straightforward statements because both are umbrella terms covering a wide range of observations and entities. While diarrhea is in the name, BVD, it is used in reference to a number of ...

  5. Serological and virological BVDV prevalence and risk factor analysis for herds to be BVDV seropositive in Belgian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Steven; Veldhuis, Anouk; Méroc, Estelle; Vangeel, Ilse; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen; Caij, Ann Brigitte; Piepers, Sofie; Hooyberghs, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; Van Der Stede, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a worldwide spread virus that most commonly infects cattle and can cause considerable economic losses. To determine the prevalence of BVDV in Belgium, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2009 and March 2010. Young stock aged between 6 and 12 months from 773 randomly selected Belgian cattle herds were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies and antigen. With a target and maximum of 10 animals per sampled herd, a total of 5246 animals were selected. Additionally a questionnaire including different herd management topics and questions about participation in animal health programmes, including BVDV, was sent to 1100 Belgian cattle herds, including the 773 herds for BVDV testing. This paper focuses on results regarding these 773 herds. The true prevalence of BVDV-specific antibodies and antigen at herd level was respectively 47.4% and 4.4%, while at animal level this was respectively 32.9% and 0.3%. In 44.4% of the herds where BVDV-specific antibodies were detected at least 60% of the sampled young stock was BVDV seropositive. Interestingly, 83.4% of these farmers stated not to have suffered from problems related to BVDV. Moreover, only 8.4% of all farmers who completed the questionnaire (n=895) reported problems possibly related to BVDV the past 3 years. This demonstrates that farmers are often unaware of the presence of BVDV in their herd. Risk factors for a herd to be BVDV seropositive were identified by means of a multivariable logistic regression model. Large herds were significantly more likely to be BVDV seropositive (OR=1.004, p<0.01). The interaction between "Antigen positive animal detected in this study" and "BVDV vaccination in 2009" was significant (p<0.01). In non-vaccinating herds, the detection of antigen positive animals was significantly associated with BVDV seropositive herds (OR=13.8, p<0.01). In herds with no antigen positive animals detected, vaccination resulted in a significant risk factor to

  6. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from field cattle immune to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are permissive in vitro to BVDV.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Mishra, N; Pateriya, A; Behera, S P; Rajukumar, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro permissivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-immune field cattle to homologous and heterologous BVDVs. PBMCs from seventeen BVDV-naïve and sixteen BVDV-immune animals were infected with noncytopathic BVDV-1 or BVDV-2. The immune status of cattle was indicated by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies, while viral load of PBMCs was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the PBMCs from naïve or immune animals were permissive to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, but the viral load was significantly higher for the naïve than for the immune animals. Furthermore, the load of homologous virus in PBMCs from immune animals was lower than that of heterologous virus. Our results provide evidence that the PBMCs from BVDV-immune cattle in field are susceptible to reinfection with homologous or heterologous BVDV, albeit to a lower extent in the former case.

  7. Pathogenetic differences after experimental infection of calves with Korean non-cytopathic BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 isolates.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and virological differences between non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 and ncp BVDV-2 isolated from Korean field cases. Each five naïve calves were experimentally infected with Korean ncp BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 isolates. Two additional age-matched animals were used as uninfected controls. Leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts declined in all infected calves, but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2 isolate. The number of monocytes was greater in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. Flow cytometric assay showed that lymphocyte apoptosis occurred with an increase of annexin-V positive cells in all infected calves by day 6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentration in all infected calves was lower than in control calves. In ncp BVDV-1 infected calves, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in the serum were increased by day 6 compared to calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. These results demonstrated that the Korean ncp BVDV-2 isolate shows a reduced IFN-γ production, indicating prevention of the antiviral activity, and therefore promotes the development of pathological effects.

  8. Vaccination with a modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1a vaccine completely protected calves against challenge with BVDV type 1b strains.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Umbaugh, Jerry; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-12-10

    Vaccination plays a significant role in the control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection and spread. Recent studies revealed that type 1b is the predominant BVDV type 1 subgenotype, representing more than 75% of field isolates of BVDV-1. However, nearly all current, commercially available BVDV type 1 vaccines contain BVDV-1a strains. Previous studies have indicated that anti-BVDV sera, induced by BVDV-1a viruses, show less neutralization activity to BVDV-1b isolates than type 1a. Therefore, it is critically important to evaluate BVDV-1a vaccines in their ability to prevent BVDV-1b infection in calves. In current studies, calves were vaccinated subcutaneously, intradermally or intranasally with a single dose of a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing a BVDV-1a strain, and were challenged with differing BVDV-1b strains to determine the efficacy and duration of immunity of the vaccine against these heterologous virus strains. Vaccinated calves, in all administration routes, were protected from respiratory disease caused by the BVDV-1b viruses, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding and greater white blood cell counts than non-vaccinated control animals. The BVDV-1a vaccine elicited efficacious protection in calves against each BVDV-1b challenge strain, with a duration of immunity of at least 6 months.

  9. Preventive strategy for BVDV infection in North America.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia

    2012-02-01

    Despite 60 years of vaccination, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections remain a source of significant economic loss for producers in the United States. Control program design in the United States varies by region based on the incidence of BVDV, density of animal populations, animal movement, contact with wildlife populations, level of producer compliance, variation among circulating BVDV strains, prevalent type of production unit or industry and support offered by state institutions. The Upper Peninsula BVDV Eradication Program in Michigan, the Montana BVD-PI Herd Biosecurity Project, the Washington State BVDV Testing program and the Alabama Voluntary BVD Control Program illustrates four different regional approaches. All four programs are voluntary rather than government mandated and a large component of each was the identification and removal of animals persistently infected with BVDV. The Washington, Montana and Alabama programs focus on herd screening to eliminate PI's but did not have eradication as a goal. The Michigan program was unique in that its goal was to eradicate BVDV from a defined geographic region. While the Washington, Alabama and Montana programs were beneficial to individual producers they did not have a significant impact on the prevalence of BVDV. In contrast, the Michigan program has reduced incidence of herds harboring PI animals in the region. Organizers of all four programs noted that compliance with control programs was directly linked to education and the presence of a support network composed of fellow producers, engaged veterinarians and knowledgeable diagnosticians.

  10. Detection and impact of BVDV in wild ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While BVDV is most commonly associated with cattle there is evidence, based on virus isolation and/or serology, that BVDV replicates in a wide variety of domesticated and wild ruminants including cervidae such as white tail deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, and mousedeer and cap...

  11. Novel BVDV-2 mutants as new candidates for modified-live vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zemke, Johanna; König, Patricia; Mischkale, Katrin; Reimann, Ilona; Beer, Martin

    2010-04-21

    Protection against Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 infection of commercially available vaccines is often limited due to marked genetic and antigenic differences between BVDV types 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2). Therefore, the immunogenicity of selected BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 mutants derived from infectious full-length cDNA clones and their use as modified-live vaccine candidates against challenge infection with a virulent heterologous BVDV-2 field isolate were investigated. Deletion mutants of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 lacking a part of the N(pro) gene (BVDV-1DeltaN(pro)/BVDV-2DeltaN(pro)) were used as well as a packaged replicon with a deletion in the structural core protein encoding region (BVDV-2DeltaC-pseudovirions). The 25 calves used in this vaccination/challenge trial were allocated in five groups (n=5/group). One group received BVDV-1DeltaN(pro) (1 shot), one group BVDV-2DeltaN(pro) (1 shot), one group received both, BVDV-1DeltaN(pro) and BVDV-2DeltaN(pro) (1 shot), and one group was immunised with the BVDV-2DeltaC-pseudovirions (2 shots). The fifth group served as non-vaccinated control group. All groups were challenged intranasally with the BVDV-2 strain HI916 and monitored for signs of clinical disease, virus shedding and viremia. All tested BVDV vaccine candidates markedly reduced the outcome of the heterologous virulent BVDV-2 challenge infection showing graduated protective effects. The BVDV-2DeltaN(pro) mutant was able to induce complete protection and a "sterile immunity" upon challenge. Thus it represents a promising candidate for an efficacious future live vaccine.

  12. BVDV control and eradication in Europe--an update.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, Karl; Alenius, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are endemic in cattle populations worldwide and result in major economic losses. For long, attempts to control BVDV were limited to prophylactic vaccination practices, implemented primarily to reduce or prevent clinical disease on a herd basis. However, the benefit of preventing clinical disease in transiently infected animals is negligible when considering the overall losses of the disease. Another more systematic strategy to control evolved during the 1990s within eradication programmes in the Scandinavian countries. This was based on an initial determination of herd BVDV status, followed by implementation of systematic zoo-sanitary measures at a regional or national scale (without the use of vaccines) to prevent introduction of BVDV in non-infected herds, and to reduce the prevalence of infected herds by identification and elimination of PI animals. These programmes have been very successful, and all of the Scandinavian countries are currently either free, or almost free from BVDV. Today control programmes are underway in several European countries. This short review discusses the general model of BVDV control, and gives an overview of strategies used within, and the current status of, the ongoing control programmes in Europe.

  13. Economic impact of BVDV infection in dairies.

    PubMed

    Houe, Hans

    2003-06-01

    The detrimental effects of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections include reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, growth retardation, increased occurrence of other diseases, unthriftiness, early culling and increased mortality among young stock. These losses have been documented in several case descriptions and to some extent quantified in epidemiological studies. The detrimental effects together with information on population structure, incidence of infection and monetary value of production losses have been included in different models for estimating economic losses and benefits of different control strategies. This paper reviews different studies and methods for estimating economic losses and the economic effect of control strategies on both the local herd level and the national herd level. The estimated losses in individual herd outbreaks have varied from a few thousand up to $100000. There seems to be no universal truth for determining most optimal strategy at the herd level as it depends on herd-specific conditions. Most estimations of the losses at the national level range between 10 and 40 million $ per million calvings. In the few countries that have introduced eradication campaigns, the programmes have been shown to be cost effective. However, selection of a control strategy should always rely on thorough epidemiological investigations conducted under the same conditions in which the programme is going to be applied.

  14. Serological relationships among subgroups in bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1).

    PubMed

    Alpay, Gizem; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2015-01-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has various economic impacts associated with diarrhea, poor performance, an increase in the frequency of other infections and lethal outcomes. Both genotypes, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, as well as different subgroups within these genotypes have been reported worldwide. Understanding the serological differences among the BVDV subgroups is important for disease epidemiology and prevention as well as vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to determine the serological relatedness among the subgroups in BVDV-1. For that purpose, sheep hyperimmune sera were collected against representative strains from 6 of the subgroups of BVDV-1 (BVDV-1a, -1b, -1d, -1f, -1h and -1l). The serum samples that gave the peak antibody titer to the homologous strains were used to perform cross neutralization assays. The highest homologous antibody titer (1:5160) was obtained against BVDV-1h. Regarding the cross neutralizing (heterologous) antibodies, the lowest titer (1:20) was produced by the BVDV-1f antiserum against the BVDV-1a and BVDV1-b viruses. The highest cross neutralizing titer (1:2580) achieved by the BVDV-1h antiserum was against the BVDV-1b strain. The cross neutralization results indicated particular serological differences between the recently described subgroup (BVDV-1l) and BVDV-1a/-1b, which are widely used in commercial vaccines. Considering the cross neutralization titers, it is concluded that selected BVDV-1l and BVDV-1h strains can be used for the development of diagnostic and control tools.

  15. Practical significance of heterogeneity among BVDV strains: impact of biotype and genotype on U.S. control programs.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2005-11-15

    In the early 1990s research groups in North America noted that a newly recognized severe acute form of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection, referred to as hemorrhagic syndrome or severe acute BVDV (SA BVDV), was associated with a genetically distinct subgroup of BVDV strains. This new subgroup was named BVDV genotype 2 or BVDV2. All BVDV strains previously characterized in the literature belonged to a separate genotype, BVDV1. However, not all strains identified as BVDV2 were associated with severe acute infections. If I did this deletion, I did not mean to do it. I think it was already here, though. I see there are some other big edits that I did not do; fine. Hollis subsequent surveys of BVDV strains isolated from clinical submissions to diagnostic laboratories and contaminated fetal calf serum suggested that the ratio of BVDV2 to BVDV1 strains in the U.S. approached 50%. Further, while antigenic cross reactivity is seen between BVDV1 and BVDV2 strains, a log or more difference is typically observed in titers against viruses from different genotypes. These observations prompted vaccine manufacturers in North America to produce vaccines against BVDV that contained antigens from both BVDV1 and BVDV2 strains. Under experimental conditions, these new vaccines offered improved protection against type 2 strains, however field data are still insufficient to assess their efficacy in practice. The BVDV genotypes may also be segregated into subgenotypes. Two subgenotypes of both BVDV1 (BVDV1a and BVDV1b) and BVDV2 (BVDV2a and BVDV2b) have been reported in North American. BVDV2a predominates with BVDV2b isolation a rare event. In contrast, BVDV1a and BVDV1b are both commonly isolated. Antigenic differences observed between strains from the BVDV1a and BVDV1b subgenotypes have led to the suggestion that protection may be improved by inclusion of strains from both BVDV1a and BVDV1b in vaccines in addition to BVDV2. The cost to benefit ratio of this proposal is currently a

  16. Genetic change in BVDV occurs more rapidly during acute infections in pregnant rather than nonpregnant cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BVDV strains show significant sequence variation, so much so that they have been divided into 2 species and the BVDV-1 species into at least 12 subgenotypes. The source of variation is the rather sloppy RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The mechanism behind selection that results in new BVDV strains wit...

  17. The vaccination and challenge with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of calves previously infected with a non-cytopathic BVDV.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, G; Frigeri, F; Ferrari, M; Traldi, V

    1991-01-01

    Four calves were infected with noncytopathic (NCP) New York-1 strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). During the observation period of one month the calves remained clinically normal but the virus was repeatedly recovered from their pharyngeal swabbings and blood. Thirty days following infection the four calves were vaccinated, together with two uninfected calves, with a modified-live vaccine containing cytopathic (CP) BVDV, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and parainfluenza-3 virus. No detrimental effects were observed after vaccination. Forty-three days after vaccination the calves were challenged by exposure either with the CP TVM-2 strain or the NCP New York-1 strain of BVDV. The vaccinated calves remained healthy throughout the 60-day observation period.

  18. Immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese bovine viral diarrhea virus 1a (BVDV 1a) vaccine cross protects from BVDV 1b infection in young calves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua

    2014-08-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China.

  19. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Goga, Izedin; Berxholi, Kristaq; Hulaj, Beqe; Sylejmani, Driton; Yakobson, Boris; Stram, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates.

  20. BVDV vaccination in North America: risks versus benefits.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    The control and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections has provided substantial challenges. Viral genetic variation, persistent infections, and viral tropism for immune cells have complicated disease control strategies. Vaccination has, however, provided an effective tool to prevent acute systemic infections and increase reproductive efficiency through fetal protection. There has been substantial controversy about the safety and efficacy of BVDV vaccines, especially when comparing killed versus modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines. Furthermore, numerous vaccination protocols have been proposed to protect the fetus and ensure maternal antibody transfer to the calf. These issues have been further complicated by reports of immune suppression during natural infections and following vaccination. While killed BVDV vaccines provide the greatest safety, their limited immunogenicity makes multiple vaccinations necessary. In contrast, MLV BVDV vaccines induce a broader range of immune responses with a longer duration of immunity, but require strategic vaccination to minimize potential risks. Vaccination strategies for breeding females and young calves, in the face of maternal antibody, are discussed. With intranasal vaccination of young calves it is possible to avoid maternal antibody interference and induce immune memory that persists for 6-8 months. Thus, with an integrated vaccination protocol for both breeding cows and calves it is possible to maximize disease protection while minimizing vaccine risks.

  1. BVDV infection of pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine species. Previously we have shown that inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odoco...

  2. BVDV2-induced hypomyelinogenesis in a longhorn calf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia and nystagmus. In utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was suspected. The animal was euthanized and a necropsy was p...

  3. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Walz, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Walz, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV.

  5. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Ridpath, Julia; Turan, Nuri

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) infecting cattle in Turkey. A total of 1124 bovine blood samples from 19 farms in 4 different Turkish regions were tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE). BVDV antigen was found in 26 samples from 13 farms. Only 20 of the 26 initial test positive cattle were available for retesting. Of these, 6 of 20 tested positive for BVDV, by ACE and real-time RT-PCR, one month after initial testing. Phylogenetic analysis, based on comparison of the E2 or the 5'UTR coding regions, from 19 of the 26 initial positive samples, indicated that 17 belonged to the BVDV-1 genotype and 2 to the BVDV-2 genotype. Comparison of 5'UTR sequences segregated 8 BVDV-1 strains (strains 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19) to the BVDV1f, 1 strain (strain 8) to the BVDV1i and 1 strain (strain 14) to the BVDV1d subgenotypes. One strain (strain 4) did not group with other subgenotypes but was closer to the BVDV1f. The remaining 6 BVDV-1 strains (strains 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and 18) segregated to a novel subgenotype. The E2 sequence comparison results were similar, with the exception that strain 5 grouped with the novel subgenotype rather than BVDV1f subgenotype. It appears that among the diverse BVDV strains in circulation there may be a subgenotype that is unique to Turkey. This should be considered in the design of diagnostics and vaccines to be used in Turkey.

  6. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  7. Increased genetic diversity of BVDV-1: recent findings and implications thereof.

    PubMed

    Giammarioli, Monica; Ceglie, Letizia; Rossi, Elisabetta; Bazzucchi, Moira; Casciari, Cristina; Petrini, Stefano; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2015-02-01

    Sequence-based genotyping was recently used to distinguish between the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Quite recently, a new putative species, BVDV-3, was also detected. The phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and Npro region has revealed at least 17 distinct subtypes for BVDV-1 to date. The aim of this study was to further investigate the genetic heterogeneity of BVDV-1 in Italy, by analysing 173 virus sequences from isolates collected over an 18-year period (1997-2014). Viral RNA was extracted from the original biological samples identified as BVDV-1-positive. Reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting a 288-base pair (bp) region of the 5'-UTR and a 428-bp region encoding the autoprotease Npro were performed, and the RT-PCR products were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR and Npro sequences re-confirmed the circulation of ten out of eleven subtypes previously discovered in Italy. Interestingly, four isolates differed significantly from all of the bovine pestiviruses identified so far, thereby providing evidence for the circulation of three novel subtypes that have not been documented so far. The growing number of reports on BVDV-1 heterogeneity, including the recent findings reported herein, raises concern related to the emergence and spread of new BVDV variants, with possible implications for animal health and disease control. This global issue needs to be addressed with the highest priority.

  8. Morphologic lesions in type 2 BVDV infections experimentally induced by strain BVDV2-1373 recovered from a field case.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, B; Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F; Pohlenz, J

    2000-11-15

    Widespread outbreaks of severe acute BVDV, some associated with hemorrhagic syndrome (HS), were reported in Quebec and Ontario in 1993. These outbreaks caused significant economic hardship in infected herds. In the Ontario outbreak 150 dairy, 600 beef and 100 milk and grain fed veal herds were affected with losses estimated at $40000-$10000 per herd in lost animals, milk production, abortions and genetics. Fever, pneumonia, diarrhea, and sudden death occurred in all age groups of cattle. Abortions were frequently observed in pregnant cattle. The viruses associated with this outbreak were determined to be noncytopathic BVDV from the type 2 genotype. All BVDV2 associated with these outbreaks were noncytopathic. One of the viruses isolated from the Ontario outbreak, BVDV2-1373, was used to experimentally induce HS in 5-6 weeks old colostrum deprived, seronegative calves. All animals developed leukopenia and thrombocytopenia within 6-10 days with some developing bloody diarrhea and becoming moribund. Animals were killed for necropsy between 6 and 11 days postinfection. Histopathologically lesions were similar, but more severe, to those seen early on (within first 9 days after superinfection) in animals with experimentally induced mucosal disease (MD). There were no erosions and ulcerations present in the upper digestive tract. In hemorrhages in the mucosa, virus antigen (VA) was present in macrophages of both the lamina propria and the submucosa and in basal epithelial cells. Cells containing VA were vacuolated and separated from each other. The most severe lesions observed in the digestive tract were in the Peyers patches and were characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and proliferation of crypt cells resulting in crypthyperplasia. Apoptotic cells were present in crypts and areas of lymph follicles where viral antigen was detected. Out of the six animals, VA was present in four animals in the pancreas, three animals in the pituitary and in two animals in the

  9. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  10. First finding of genetic and antigenic diversity in 1b-BVDV isolates from Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Viruses (BVDV), which belongs to the pestivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae, results in significant economic losses for cattle producers. BVDV infection of cattle results in a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild respiratory disease to f...

  11. Increased risk of BVDV infection of calves from pregnant dams on communal Alpine pastures in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Siegwart, Nico; Hilbe, Monika; Hässig, Michael; Braun, Ueli

    2006-09-01

    Skin biopsies and blood samples from 117 calves, the offspring of dams that had been pastured on communal Alpine pastures while pregnant, were examined for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antigen. Immunohistochemical evaluation of skin biopsy samples revealed BVDV antigen in nine (7.7%) calves, and ELISA testing of serum samples was positive for BVDV antigen in six (5.1%). Three calves with positive skin biopsy samples and negative serum results were < 11 days old; it was assumed that maternal antibody interfered with the ELISA testing. Serum samples that were collected at a later date from two of the three calves were positive for BVDV antigen. These results were significantly different from those of a previous study in which the prevalence of persistently infected calves in an average Swiss cattle population was 0.64%. It was concluded that the risk of infection with BVDV is high in cattle sharing a communal Alpine pasture.

  12. Characterization of the cytopathic BVDV strains isolated from 13 mucosal disease cases arising in a cattle herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of t...

  13. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28–4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Quan-Jiang; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Cai, Dong-Jie; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), is an important pathogen of cattle and other wild animals throughout the world. BVDV infection typically leads to an impaired immune response in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Forsythoside A (FTA) on BVDV infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that Forsythoside A could not only promote proliferation of PBMCs and T cells activation but also inhibit the replication of BVDV as well as apoptosis induced by BVDV. FTA treatment could counteract the BVDV-induced overproduction of IFN-γ to maintain the immune homeostasis in bovine PBMCs. At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What’s more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA. Our data suggest that FTA protects PBMCs from BVDV infection possibly via TRAF2-dependent CD28–4-1BB signaling, which may activate PBMCs in response to BVDV infection. Therefore, this aids in the development of an effective adjuvant for vaccines against BVDV and other specific FTA-based therapies for preventing BVDV infection. PMID:27617959

  14. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).

  15. Failed detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 subgenotype a (BVDV-2a) by direct fluorescent antibody test on tissue samples due to reduced reactivity of field isolates to raw anti-BVDV antibody.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifang; Pace, Lanny W; Baughman, Brittany; Wilson, Floyd D; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Michael Z

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is associated with mild or subclinical infections, whereas BVDV-2 is frequently implicated in outbreaks of severe thrombocytopenia and acute fatal disease. In the present study, the carcass of a beef breed cow and tissue samples of a beef calf were received for laboratory diagnosis. Both animals exhibited severe clinical signs compatible with thrombocytopenia or hemorrhagic syndrome. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) failed to detect BVDV antigen in the tissue specimens of both cases. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed the presence of BVDV antigen in oral and esophageal mucosa and Peyer patches of the beef breed cow. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detected BVDV-2 in selected tissues of both animals. Subsequently, BVDV was isolated from both cases and subjected to genetic and serologic characterizations. Mutations in the 5'-untranslated genomic region (5'-UTR) primer and probe binding sites and the E2 gene were associated with reduced efficiency of an established real-time RT-PCR assay and amino acid alterations in the E2 glycoprotein, respectively. Both viral isolates were classified by real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis as BVDV-2 subgenotype a. Unlike BVDV reference strains Singer and 125c, the isolates cross-reacted with anti-BVDV-1 and anti-BVDV-2 reference sera, indicating antigenic variations in field isolates. The isolates also showed reduced reactivity to porcine anti-BVDV antiserum (the raw serum used to produce BVDV DFA conjugate). In summary, data from the present investigation indicated that genetic and antigenic variations affected the performance of detection assays, especially DFAT, highlighting the need for regular evaluation and modification of BVDV tests.

  16. Evaluation of long-term antibody responses to two inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines.

    PubMed

    González, Ana M; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Yus, Eduardo; Eiras, Carmen; Sanjuán, María; Diéguez, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the serological response of heifers after vaccination with two inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines by means of various ELISA tests. Three dairy farms were selected from the Galicia region of Spain. In each herd, a batch of heifers to be vaccinated for the first time was selected and followed for 15 months. Heifers from farm 1 (n=25) were vaccinated with Vaccine A, whereas heifers from farm 2 (n=16) were vaccinated with Vaccine B. Heifers from farm 3 (n=17), where no BVDV vaccines were used, acted as controls. Blood samples were analyzed periodically for BVDV antibodies, using five commercial ELISAs, based on BVDV p80 antigen or whole virus. At the end of the study, none of the animals vaccinated with Vaccine A seroconverted according to p80 antibody status, whereas up to 80% tested positive by ELISA against whole virus antigen. For the animals vaccinated with Vaccine B, 2/16 animals seroconverted according to p80 antibody ELISAs, whereas all had seroconverted according to the ELISA against whole virus antigen. In most cases, based on the use of ELISAs to detect specific antibodies against the p80 protein, at 15 months post-vaccination with inactivated BVDV vaccines the responses did not seem to interfere with detection of antibody to BVDV infection. However, the finding of a small proportion of vaccinated animals seropositive against BVDV p80 antigen suggests that antibodies that interfere with diagnosis of BVDV infection within the herd could exist, even when using p80 ELISAs.

  17. Effect of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection on dairy calf rearing.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, Francisco J; Yus, Eduardo; Vilar, María J; Sanjuán, María L; Arnaiz, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cumulative incidence of mortality, clinical diarrhoea and respiratory disease in calves, during their first six months of age, in herds with different bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection status. Calves' health indicators were tested by comparing proportions in 101 farms with dissimilar infection condition. The results indicate that there was a significant relationship between the BVDV status (actively infected herd or not) and the cumulative incidence of mortality and respiratory disorders.

  18. Natural Outbreak of BVDV-1d-Induced Mucosal Disease Lacking Intestinal Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M V; Konradt, G; de Souza, S O; Bassuino, D M; Silveira, S; Mósena, A C S; Canal, C W; Pavarini, S P; Driemeier, D

    2017-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus, which is further divided into subgenotypes (1a-1u and 2a-c). When persistent infection occurs, the calf will be immunotolerant to BVDV and possibly develop mucosal disease. This study describes an outbreak of BVDV-1d-induced mucosal disease lacking intestinal lesions. Eleven calves presented with anorexia, sialorrhea, lameness, recumbency, and death. Three calves were necropsied, showing ulceration of the interdigital skin and the oral and nasal mucosa; linear ulcers in the tongue, esophagus, and rumen; and rounded ulcers in the abomasum. Microscopically, mucosa and skin had superficial necrosis, with single-cell necrosis and vacuolation in epithelial cells, and severe parakeratosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed BVDV antigen in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in skin and mucosa. All 11 dead calves were positive upon reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Pestivirus along with another 11 live calves from the herd, which were positive again by RT-PCR and IHC after a 4-week interval. Sequencing of the 5' untranslated region and N-terminal protease showed that viruses from these 22 calves were homologous and of subgenotype BVDV-1d. Cytopathic BVDV was isolated from 8 of 11 dead calves, but only noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from the 11 live animals. The findings indicate that this was an outbreak of mucosal disease caused by BVDV-1d, with high morbidity, and lesions restricted to the upper alimentary system and skin and absent from intestine. Thus, the epidemiological and pathological features in this form of mucosal disease may be similar to vesicular diseases, including foot and mouth disease.

  19. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  20. BVDV and BHV-1 Infections in Dairy Herds in Northern and Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, J; Ståhl, K; Moreno-López, J; Chanlun, A; Aiumlamai, S; Alenius, S

    2004-01-01

    Bulk milk samples from 220 dairy herds were collected at 9 public milk collection centres in the northeastern and northern Thailand, and a subset of 11 herds was selected for individual testing. The samples were tested for presence of antibodies to BVDV and BHV-1 using an indirect ELISA. The results from the bulk milk testing demonstrated a moderate level of exposure to BVDV and BHV-1 (73% and 67%, respectively). However, the low proportion of herds with high BVDV antibody-levels (13%) and the low within-herd seroprevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 in the 11 herds (24% and 5%, respectively), particularly among the young stock (15% and 0%, respectively), demonstrated a low prevalence of active BVDV infection and a low rate of reactivation of latent BHV-1. The presence of a self-clearance process was also indicated by the results from the individual testing. Moreover, a surprisingly low prevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 antibody-positive herds at one of the milk centres was found. This centre was established 5–10 years before the others. Our impression is that this reflects the self-clearance process, where consecutive replacement of imported infected animals without further spread has resulted in a nearly total elimination of the infections. Based on our experiences and on these results we are convinced that this process can continue if there is awareness of herd biosecurity. This is especially important in the context of a future intensification of the dairy production. PMID:15663078

  1. Acute BVDV-2 infection in beef calves delays humoral responses to a non-infectious antigen challenge.

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert; Horsman, Shawn R; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Muench, Greg; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Waeckerlin, Regula; Eschbaumer, Michael; Dardari, Rkia; Chaiyakul, Mark; Gajda, Pawel; Czub, Markus; van der Meer, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Immunosuppressive effects of an intranasal challenge with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 2a (strain 1373) were assessed through acquired and innate immune system responses to ovalbumin (OVA). Concurrent BVDV infection was hypothesized to delay and reduce the humoral response to ovalbumin (administered on days 3 and 15 post-inoculation). Infected animals followed the expected clinical course. BVDV titers, and anti-BVDV antibodies confirmed the course of infection and were not affected by the administration of OVA. Both the T-helper (CD4(+)) and B-cell (CD20(+)) compartments were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in infected animals, while the gamma-delta T-cell population (Workshop cluster 1+, WC1(+)) decreased slightly in numbers. Infection with BVDV delayed the increase in OVA IgG by approximately 3 d from day 12 through day 21 post-inoculation. Between days 25 and 37 post-inoculation following BVDV infection the IgM concentration in the BVDV- group decreased while the OVA IgM titer still was rising in the BVDV+ animals. Thus, active BVDV infection delays IgM and IgG responses to a novel, non-infectious antigen.

  2. Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections.

    PubMed

    Houe, H

    1999-01-01

    Infections with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are widespread throughout the world. Although the prevalence of infection varies among surveys, the infection tends to be endemic in many populations, reaching a maximum level of 1-2% of the cattle being persistently infected (PI) and 60-85% of the cattle being antibody positive. Persistently infected cattle are the main source for transmission of the virus. However, acutely infected cattle as well as other ruminants, either acutely or persistently infected, may transmit the virus. Transmission is most efficient by direct contact. However, as infections have been observed in closed, non-pasturing herds, other transmission routes seem likely to have some practical importance. Differences in BVDV prevalence among regions or introduction of virus in herds previously free of BVDV are often associated with particular epidemiological determinants such as cattle population density, animal trade and pasturing practices. However, on a few occasions there have been no obvious explanations for infection of individual herds. Estimates of economic losses due to BVDV infection vary depending on the immune status of the population and the pathogenicity of the infecting virus strains. Introduction of the infection into a totally susceptible population invariably causes extensive losses until a state of equilibrium is reached. Infection with highly virulent BVDV strains causing severe clinical signs and death after acute infection gives rise to substantial economical losses. At an estimated annual incidence of acute infections of 34%, the total annual losses were estimated as US$ 20 million per million calvings when modeling the losses due to a low-virulent BVDV strain. At the same incidence of infection, the losses due to a high-virulent BVDV strain were estimated as US$ 57 million per million calvings. Low-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum losses at an incidence of 45%, whereas high-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum

  3. Changes observed in the thymus and lymph nodes 14 days after exposure to BVDV field strains of enhanced or typical virulence in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical presentation following uncomplicated acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) ranges from clinically unapparent to severe (including hemorrhagic disease and death) depending on the strain virulence. Regardless of clinical presentation, BVDV infection of cattle results in i...

  4. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.

  5. Experimental infection of calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus type-2 (BVDV-2) isolated from a contaminated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Falcone, E; Cordioli, P; Tarantino, M; Muscillo, M; Sala, G; La Rosa, G; Archetti, I L; Marianelli, C; Lombardi, G; Tollis, M

    2003-10-01

    A non-cytopathic strain of BVDV-2 was isolated from a batch of live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccine, and inoculated intranasally into four 3-month-old calves. Severe signs of disease developed by days 4 and 6 in three of the calves, free of BVDV and antibodies to BVDV, that had been exposed to the virus. These calves survived the acute phase of the infection and progressively recovered. BVDV was consistently isolated, or the respective viral RNA was detected, in the buffy coats from blood samples collected starting from days 2 or 4 up to days 11 or 14 after the experimental infection. Viral RNA was also detected in sera from these infected calves until the presence in the serum of virus neutralizing antibodies was demonstrated. By contrast, the only calf having pre-existing neutralizing antibodies to BVDV at the start of the study was protected from the disease. No virus was detected at any time after experimental inoculation of this calf. Genomic characterization of the BVDV-2 isolated in cell cultures, or detected in sera from the experimentally infected animals, revealed 100%, homology in the nucleotide sequence with the BVDV-2 detected as a contaminant of the live IBR virus vaccine. These findings provided evidence of the infective nature of the contaminant BVDV-2 and of its potential to generate disease outbreaks when inoculated into susceptible animals.

  6. Difficulties arising from the variety of testing schemes used for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2016-03-19

    Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries' schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where there is potential cross-calibration and a summary of the obstacles preventing such data aggregation. Although differences in measuring BVDV present barriers to academic progress, they may also affect progress within individual eradication schemes. The authors examined the time taken to retest following an initial antibody BVDV test in the Scottish eradication scheme. The authors demonstrate that retesting occurred quicker if the initial not negative test was from blood rather than milk samples. Such differences in the response of farmers/veterinarians to tests may be of interest to the design of future schemes.

  7. Synthesis and anti-BVDV activity of acridones as new potential antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Tabarrini, Oriana; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Fravolini, Arnaldo; Cecchetti, Violetta; Sabatini, Stefano; De Clercq, Erik; Rozenski, Jef; Canard, Bruno; Dutartre, Hélène; Paeshuyse, Jan; Neyts, Johan

    2006-04-20

    In this study we report the design, synthesis, and activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of a novel series of acridone derivatives. BVDV is responsible for major losses in cattle. The virus is also considered to be a valuable surrogate for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in antiviral drug studies. Some of the synthesized acridones elicited selective anti-BVDV activity with EC(50) values ranging from 0.4 to 4 microg/mL and were not cytotoxic at concentrations that were 25- to 200-fold higher (CC(50) >100 microg/mL). It was proven that the most potent acridone derivative 10 was able to not only protect cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect but also reduce the production of infectious virus and extracellular viral RNA. Furthermore, compound 10, as well as a number of other analogues, inhibited HCV replication to some extent. However, there was no direct correlation between anti-BVDV and anti-HCV activity. Thus, the acridone scaffold, when appropriately functionalized, can yield compounds with selective activity against pestiviruses and related viruses such as the HCV.

  8. Evaluating Timing of Weaning Stress on Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 362 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 211) and fall (n = 151) of ...

  9. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.

  11. Risk assessment of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in abattoir-derived in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Perry, G H

    2007-07-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP

  12. Absolute quantification of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) RNA by the digital PCR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatschart, R. B.; Almeida, D. O.; Heinemann, M. B.; Medeiros, M. N.; Granjeiro, J. M.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The quality control of cell lines used in research and industry is critical to ensure confidence in experimental results and to guarantee the safety of biopharmaceuticals to consumers. The BVDV is a common adventitious agent in many cell lines. We preliminarly evaluate the use of Digital Droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection and enumeration of genome copies of BVDV in cell culture and on FBS. The application of a commercial Real-Time PCR kit with the ddPCR technique was successful on different matrices. The technique allowed the absolute quantification of the genome without the use of calibration standards, suggesting its promising application on the development of reference materials for quantification of nucleic acids.

  13. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.

  14. Embryos produced from fertilization with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-infected semen and the risk of disease transmission to embryo transfer (ET) recipients and offspring.

    PubMed

    Bielanski, A; Algire, J; Lalonde, A; Garceac, A

    2013-09-15

    Bovine diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes a variety of economically important enteric and infertility problems in cattle. For that reason, several countries have eradicated the disease, and some others have schemes in progress to achieve freedom. Although there is a considerable amount of information about the risk of BVDV transmission through contaminated semen used for artificial insemination (AI), there is no evidence to indicate whether the resulting embryos, when used for embryo transfer, can lead to the transmission of BVDV to recipients or offspring. For this experiment, semen from a bull persistently infected with BVDV (10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses/mL NY strain) was used for insemination (two times at estrus) of BVDV-seronegative, superovulated cows (N = 35). Embryos were collected 7 days after insemination and subsequently were washed according to the International Embryo Transfer Society recommendations or left unwashed. Out of 302 collected oocytes and embryos, 173 (57%) were fertilized and the remaining 129 (43%) had degenerated. Infectious BVDV was detected in 24% (17/71) of unwashed and 10% (8/77) of washed embryos, and in all (N = 11) follicular fluid samples, oviductal epithelial cells, endometrium, and corpora lutea tissues as determined by the virus isolation test. After transfer of 39 washed embryos to 27 BVDV-seronegative recipients, 12 (44%) cows became pregnant and 17 calves free of BVDV and BVDV antibodies, including five sets of twins, were born. After embryo transfer, all pregnant and nonpregnant recipients remained free of BVDV and antibodies. In conclusion, results herein suggest that BVDV can be transmitted by AI resulting in the production of some proportion of contaminated embryos. However, it appears that such embryos, when washed according to International Embryo Transfer Society and the World Organization for Animal Health guidelines do not cause BVDV transmission to recipients or their offspring.

  15. Time to first calving and calving interval in bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) sero-converted dairy herds in Norway.

    PubMed

    Valle, P S; Martin, S W; Skjerve, E

    2001-09-20

    Dairy herds in Møre and Romsdal County, Norway (regarded as initially free from the bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection) were studied retrospectively from 1992 to 1996. The herd reproductive performance (time to first calving, calving interval, and number of breeding services) was investigated for a potential effect of BVDV sero-conversion. The herd culling pattern--possibly affecting the above measurements--was included for investigation. Two different statistical models were used: the generalised estimating equation (GEE) method and multilevel modelling using Gibbs sampling. Though slightly different estimates resulted, both models agreed on an effect of BVDV in the second year after sero-conversion on the herd average time to first calving by--on an average-- 14-16 days. In subsets of case herds testing positive for BVDV antibodies among young stock, the impact on time to first calving tended to be more pronounced by an additional increase of 18 days. No effect on the number of breeding services for heifers or cows was observed (indicating a need to search for other determinants than reduced conception risk). There appeared to be no effect of BVDV on the herd average calving interval. There was a tendency for a higher risk for reporting animals lost/died in sero-converted herds, which we believe might be related to the occurrence of mucosal disease.

  16. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of BVDV, BHV-1, BHV-4, BHV-5 and Brucella spp. infections in cattle in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    ASLAN, Muhammet Eren; AZKUR, Ahmet Kursat; GAZYAGCI, Serkal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiological data of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4), bovine herpesvirus-5 (BHV-5) and Brucella–associated cattle that were previously reported to have abortion and infertility problems in Ankara, Corum, Kirikkale and Yozgat provinces, Turkey. Whole blood and sera samples were obtained from 656 cattle, and antibodies against Brucella spp. were detected in 45 (6.86%) and 41 (6.25%) animals by Rose Bengal plate and serum tube agglutination tests, respectively. The seropositivity rates against BVDV, BHV-1 and BHV-4 were 70.89%, 41.3% and 28.78%, respectively. RT-PCR and PCR were performed to detect RNA and DNA viruses in blood samples, respectively. The BVDV 5′-untranslated region and BHV-1 gB gene detected in this study were phylogenetically analyzed. The BVDV strains analyzed in this study were closely related to those previously reported from Turkey. The nucleotide sequence from the BHV-1 strain detected in this study is the first nucleotide sequence of BHV-1 circulating in this area of Turkey deposited in the GenBank. The presence of Brucella spp. and prevalence of BHV-1, BHV-4 and BVDV in cattle should be further investigated throughout these regions. PMID:26096964

  17. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    PubMed

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  18. Evaluation of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) between persistently infected and naive cattle by the horn fly (Haematobia irritans).

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Passler, Thomas; Givens, M Daniel; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Walz, Paul H

    2011-02-01

    Identifying reservoirs and transmission routes for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are important in developing biosecurity programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate BVDV transmission by the hematophagous horn fly (Haematobia irritans). Flies collected from four persistently infected cattle were placed in fly cages attached to principal (n = 4) and control (n = 4) BVDV-naïve calves housed individually in isolation rooms. Flies were able to feed on principal calves, but a barrier prevented fly feeding from control calves. Flies were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR and virus isolation at time of collection from PI cattle and after 48 h of exposure on BVDV-naïve calves. Blood samples were collected from calves and tested for BVDV infection. Virus was isolated from fly homogenates at collection from PI animals and at removal from control and principal calves. All calves remained negative for BVDV by virus isolation and serology throughout the study. Bovine viral diarrhea virus may be detected in horn flies collected from PI cattle, but horn flies do not appear to be an important vector for BVDV transmission.

  19. Morphological changes in cultured bovine lymphoid cell lines associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) single and dual infections with bovine leukemia virus (BLV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) makes available two cell lines derived from the same lymphoblast-like suspension cell that have been confirmed by next-generation sequencing and RT-PCR to have either a single contaminate of BVDV2a (CRL-8037) or dual contaminates of both BVDV and BL...

  20. Mechanisms regulating immunity and disease severity following high and low virulence BVDV type 2 infection in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection can result in a range of disease outcomes from subclinical in the case of low virulence (LV) strains, to anorexia, fever, bloody diarrhea, and death in cases of severe acute disease. Despite the significant range of clinical disease severity, it rem...

  1. Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Humphry, Roger W; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-10-17

    Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and open cows sold with a calf at foot were associated with an increased risk of beef herds being seropositive for BVDV. Based on the results from a dynamic within-herd simulation model, these findings may be partly explained by the age-related probability of animals being persistently infected with BVDV as well as the herd demographic structure at the time of animal introductions. There was also evidence that an epidemiologically important network statistic, "betweenness centrality" (a measure frequently associated with the potential for herds to acquire and transmit disease), was significantly higher for herds that supplied these particular types of replacement beef cattle. The trends for dairy herds were not as clear, although there was some evidence that open heifers and open lactating cows were associated with an increased risk of BVDV. Overall, these findings have important implications for developing simulation models that more accurately reflect the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases.

  2. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  3. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in young beef cattle in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wernicki, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stęgierska, D; Adaszek, Ł; Kalinowski, M; Puchalski, A; Dec, M

    2015-01-01

    In view of the scarcity of information concerning viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in beef cattle in Poland, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the BVDV in young beef cattle from selected herds in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland. The material consisted of 78 sera obtained from beef cattle from 15 farms, aged 6-12 months. The anti-BVDV antibody level in the sera was estimated with an ELISA kit, and detection of the BVDV was carried out by standard PCR and one step Real-Time RT-PCR. The ELISA results showed a high degree (80%) of positivity in 5 of the 78 samples. In 7 samples the degree of positivity was in the very low range: < 40%. Of the 78 cDNA samples, the presence of genetic material with a length of 288 bp was found by standard PCR in 3 sera. The genetic material of BVDV was also found in the sera of the same three calves by Real-Time HRM PCR. BVDV infection in young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland is not a significant problem. This was confirmed by the positive ELISA results for 6.4% of the animals and the positive PCR results for 3.9%. The percentage of positive beef herds was about 8.6%. However, due to the severe nature of the disease and rapid transmission of the virus, regular monitoring of BVDV should be carried out.

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  5. Enhanced neutralising antibody response to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) induced by DNA vaccination in calves.

    PubMed

    R El-Attar, Laila M; Thomas, Carole; Luke, Jeremy; A Williams, James; Brownlie, Joe

    2015-07-31

    DNA vaccination is effective in inducing potent immunity in mice; however it appears to be less so in large animals. Increasing the dose of DNA plasmid to activate innate immunity has been shown to improve DNA vaccine adaptive immunity. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a critical cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA pattern receptor required for innate immune activation in response to viral infection. RIG-I recognise viral RNA and trigger antiviral response, resulting in type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokine production. In an attempt to enhance the antibody response induced by BVDV DNA in cattle, we expressed BVDV truncated E2 (E2t) and NS3 codon optimised antigens from antibiotic free-plasmid vectors expressing a RIG-I agonist and designated either NTC E2t(co) and NTC NS3(co). To evaluate vaccine efficacy, groups of five BVDV-free calves were intramuscularly injected three times with NTC E2t(co) and NTC NS3(co) vaccine plasmids individually or in combination. Animals vaccinated with our (previously published) conventional DNA vaccines pSecTag/E2 and pTriExNS3 and plasmids expressing RIG-I agonist only presented both the positive and mock-vaccine groups. Our results showed that vaccines coexpressing E2t with a RIG-I agonist induced significantly higher E2 antigen specific antibody response (p<0.05). Additionally, E2t augmented the immune response to NS3 when the two vaccines were delivered in combination. Despite the lack of complete protection, on challenge day 4/5 calves vaccinated with NTC E2t(co) alone or NTC E2t(co) plus NTC NS3(co) had neutralising antibody titres exceeding 1/240 compared to 1/5 in the mock vaccine control group. Based on our results we conclude that co-expression of a RIG-I agonist with viral antigen could enhance DNA vaccine potency in cattle.

  6. Pharmacophore modeling, resistant mutant isolation, docking, and MM-PBSA analysis: Combined experimental/computer-assisted approaches to identify new inhibitors of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Michele; Boido, Vito; La Colla, Paolo; Loddo, Roberta; Posocco, Paola; Paneni, Maria Silvia; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina

    2010-03-15

    Starting from a series of our new 2-phenylbenzimidazole derivatives, shown to be selectively and potently active against the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), we developed a hierarchical combined experimental/molecular modeling strategy to explore the drug leads for the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase. Accordingly, a successful 3D pharmacophore model was developed, characterized by distinct chemical features that may be responsible for the activity of the inhibitors. BVDV mutants resistant to lead compounds in our series were then isolated, and the mutant residues on the viral molecular target, the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, were identified. Docking procedures upon pharmacophoric constraints and mutational data were carried out, and the binding affinity of all active compounds for the RdRp were estimated. Given the excellent agreement between in silico and in vitro data, this procedure is currently being employed in the design a new series of more selective and potent BVDV inhibitors.

  7. Construction of chimeric bovine viral diarrhea viruses containing glycoprotein E rns of heterologous pestiviruses and evaluation of the chimeras as potential marker vaccines against BVDV.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yugang; Yuan, Ying; Ankenbauer, Robert G; Nelson, Lynn D; Witte, Steven B; Jackson, James A; Welch, Siao-Kun W

    2012-06-06

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are enzootic in the cattle population and continue to cause significant economic losses to the beef and dairy industries worldwide. Extent of the damages has stimulated increasing interest in control programs directed at eradicating BVDV infections. Use of a BVDV marker vaccine would facilitate eradication efforts as a negatively marked vaccine would enable differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). We describe here the construction of three chimeric BVDVs containing glycoprotein E(rns) of heterologous pestiviruses and the evaluation of the chimera viruses as potential marker vaccines against BVDV infections. Chimeric NADL/G-E(rns), NADL/R-E(rns), and NADL/P-E(rns) were constructed by replacing the E(rns) gene of the full-length BVDV (NADL strain) genome with the E(rns) genes of giraffe (G-E(rns)), reindeer (R-E(rns)), or pronghorn antelope (P-E(rns)) pestiviruses, respectively. Each chimeric NADL virus was viable and infectious in RD 420 (bovine testicular) and BK-6 (bovine kidney) cells. By immunohistochemistry assays, NADL/G-E(rns) and NADL/R-E(rns) chimeric viruses reacted to BVDV E(rns) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 15C5, whereas the NADL/P-E(rns) chimeric virus did not. In an animal vaccination study, inactivated vaccines made from two chimeric viruses and the wild type NADL BVDV induced similar neutralizing antibody responses. NADL/P-E(rns)-vaccinated animals were distinguished from animals vaccinated with the wild type virus by means of a companion serological DIVA assay. These results show that chimeric NADL/P-E(rns) virus containing the E(rns) gene of pronghorn antelope pestivirus could be a potential marker vaccine candidate for use in a BVDV control and eradication program.

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) isolates from six different regions of the UK and links to animal movement data.

    PubMed

    Booth, Richard E; Thomas, Carole J; El-Attar, Laila M R; Gunn, George; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-06-19

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects cattle populations worldwide and is recognised as a significant source of economic loss through its impact on health and productivity. Studies investigating the molecular epidemiology of BVDV can give invaluable information about the diversity of viral strains present in a population and this, in turn, can inform control programs, drive vaccine development and determine likely infection sources. The current study investigated 104 viral isolates from forty farms across the UK. Through phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5'UTR and Npro regions of the isolates investigated, it was determined that BVDV 1a was the predominant sub-genotype. However, BVDV 1b, 1e and 1i were also identified and, for the first time in the UK, BVDV 1d. Through analysis of animal movement data alongside the phylogenetic analysis of these BVD isolates, it was possible to link animal movements to the viral isolates present on several premises and, for the first time, begin to elucidate the routes of viral transmission. With further work, this type of analysis would enable accurate determination and quantification of the true biosecurity risk factors associated with BVDV transmission.

  9. Prevalence of exposure to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sayers, R G; Byrne, N; O'Doherty, E; Arkins, S

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) are contagious bovine viral agents. The objectives of this study were to use quarterly bulk milk and 'spot' testing of unvaccinated youngstock to establish the national prevalence of exposure to BVDV and/or BoHV-1 in Irish dairy herds. Seasonality of bulk milk ELISA results was also examined. From a geographically representative population of 305 dairy herds, 88% and 80% of herds yielded mean annual positive bulk milk readings for BVDV and BoHV-1, respectively. Of these, 61% were vaccinated against BVDV and 12% against BoHV-1. A total of 2171 serum samples from weanlings having a mean age of 291 days yielded 543 (25%) seropositive for BVDV, and 117 (5.4%) seropositive for BoHV-1. A significant seasonal trend in bulk milk antibody ELISA readings and herd status was recorded for BVDV, with more herds categorised as positive in the latter half of the year.

  10. Comparison of blood non-specific immune parameters in Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) persistently infected and in immune heifers.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, R; Luzzago, C; Frigerio, M; Frigerio, V; Daprà, V; Liandris, E; Zecconi, A

    2006-03-01

    Several data from different authors show that Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) could be a key component in multiple-etiology diseases, indeed a lower leukocytes number and their impaired functions decrease the resistance to infections. However, most of the information on the impairment of immune function during BVDV infections arise from circumstantial evidence and from experimental infection studies, and few from field data. To assess the effects of BVDV on blood cells parameters, cellular and humoral functions under field conditions, we designed a controlled study in commercial dairy herds, comparing persistent infected (PI) and healthy heifers. A total of 45 heifers were considered, the PI animals were nine, the control animals were 34, while two controls were considered as acute infected animals. The comparison of the mean values in PI calves showed a significant decrease for leukocytes and granulocytes, while platelets showed a significant increase, when compared with control animals. The total number of lymphocytes decreased not significantly in PI animals, while the proportion significantly increased. The number and proportion of monocytes was significantly reduced in PI animals, when compared with controls. The data collected on markers of cellular immunity during our study cannot be compared with the literature because there are no reference values. The presence of a persistent infection affected the cellular enzymes: NAGase, lysozyme and respiratory burst showed a large statistically significant decrease in PI animals when compared with controls. The presence of a persistent infection with BVD virus influenced blood cells number and impaired some blood cell functions. Such impairment confirms that PI animals represent a threat to the herd not only because they could spread BVDV, but also because they are more susceptible to other infectious diseases.

  11. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  12. Expression of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 in Yeast Pichia pastoris and its Application to an ELISA for Detection of BVDV Neutralizing Antibodies in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Nema, Ram Kumar; Pandey, Pooja Dubey; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Prakash, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to express envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in yeast Pichia pastoris and its utility as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The BVDV E2 gene was cloned into the pPICZαA vector followed by integration into the Pichia pastoris strain X-33 genome for methanol-induced expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results showed that the recombinant BVDV E2 protein (72 kDa) was expressed and secreted into the medium at a concentration of 40 mg/L of culture under optimized conditions. An indirect ELISA was then developed by using the yeast-expressed E2 protein. Preliminary testing of 300 field cattle serum samples showed that the E2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.07% and a specificity of 92.02% compared to the reference virus neutralization test. The concordance between the E2 ELISA and VNT was 91.67%. This study demonstrates feasibility of BVDV E2 protein expression in yeast Pichia pastoris for the first time and its efficacy as an antigen in ELISA for detecting BVDV neutralizing antibodies in cattle.

  13. [Retrospective evaluation of data over five years of the BVDV prevention program using ear notch samples from the autonomous province of Bolzano (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Tavella, Alexander; Zambotto, Paolo; Stifter, Ernst; Lombardo, Dorotea; Rabini, Michela; Robatscher, Eva; Brem, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    In 2005 the Autonomous Province of Bolzano implemented a BVD-Virus control programme by testing all newborn calves for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) antigen by analysing ear notch samples. In eradication programs between November 2005 and October 2010 a total of 344,108 newborn calves were ear notch sampled and analysed for BVDV by an antigen ELISA detecting the E(rns) (HerdCheck BVDV Antigen/Serum Plus, Idexx Laboratories, Switzerland). The tissue samples were collected during calf ear tagging (within the first 20 days of life) using two sampling devices (TypiFix-System, Agrobiogen GmbH [Germany] and Allflex [France]). 0.4% (1400) of the collected samples showed a positive result, and of these, 583 calves were subjected to a follow-up examination, analysing the samples again by ELISA as well blood samples by Reverse transcriptase-PCR. Blood samples were also collected from the dam, if still present on the farm by the time of sampling. These results suggest that a BVDV control programme testing all newborn calves sampled for BVDV antigen by analysing an ear notch sample in principle is practicable. However, due to the low positive predictive value (75%) of the E(rns)-ELISA used, not all persistently infected calves can be detected.

  14. Risk and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using oocytes from persistently infected donors.

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Riddell, K P; Chen, S H; Galik, P K; Xiang, T; Guerra, T; Marley, M S; Polejaeva, I; Givens, M D

    2010-07-01

    The objective was to assess the risk of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), with oocytes obtained from persistently infected (PI) donors. Using ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration following superstimulation, oocytes were obtained from five female beef cattle, including three that were PI and two that were negative for BVDV. In the three PI cattle, seven aspirations yielded 32 oocytes (PI-1: three aspirations yielding six oocytes; PI-2: two aspirations yielding 14 oocytes; and PI-3: two aspirations yielding 12 oocytes). The oocyte recovery rate was better in negative control cattle, with 32 oocytes obtained from the two cattle in a single superstimulation and aspiration session. Oocytes were processed individually for SCNT, evaluated, and tested for BVDV. Nearly all (31/32) oocytes from the three PI donors were positive for BVDV by PCR, with detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5). The proportion of oocytes acceptable for SCNT embryo production (based on oocyte quality and maturation status) was only 16 to 35% from PI donors, but was 81% from control donors. Therefore, routine testing of unacceptable (discarded) oocytes could be an effective approach to identify batches that might contain infected oocytes from PI donors. Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production.

  15. Study on prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibodies in 29 Italian dairy herds with reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, C; Piccinini, R; Zepponi, A; Zecconi, A

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on prevalence distribution of antibodies to BVDV was carried out in dairy cattle herds during 1995-1996 in northern Italy. A total of 704 serum samples from 29 non-vaccinated herds reported to have reproductive problems were tested for serum neutralising antibodies. In each herd, sampling was based on the stratification by age into five classes (< 6 months old calves, 6-12 months old calves, pregnant heifers, uniparous, pluriparous). Overall, 53.3% of samples were serologically positive, with the lowest ratio in 6-12 months old calves (37.9%) and the highest in pluriparous cows (71.2%).

  16. Transient elimination of circulating bovine viral diarrhoea virus by colostral antibodies in persistently infected calves: a pitfall for BVDV-eradication programs?

    PubMed

    Fux, Robert; Wolf, Georg

    2012-12-28

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) cause substantial economic losses to cattle industries. Rapid detection of persistently BVDV infected (PI) calves is of utmost importance for the efficacy of BVDV control programs. Blood and ear skin biopsy samples are conveniently used for early mass screening of newborns. However, little is known about the impact of colostral antibodies on the outcome of relevant analyses. Here, we rigorously tested a series of samples obtained from five colostrum-fed PI calves from birth until they reached the status of seronegativity for NS3-specific antibodies. We comparatively quantified virus loads in blood samples and dried skin biopsies as detected with BVDV-NS3-, -Erns-capture ELISA and RT-qPCR. Monitoring of NS3-positive leukocytes was done with flow cytometry. Within seven days after colostrum intake, BVDV infected leukocytes disappeared for a three- to eight-week period. Immediately after colostrum ingestion, detectable Erns antigen levels dropped 10-100-fold in biopsy samples and in sera detection of Erns failed for one to two weeks. Virus demonstration in biopsy samples with a NS3-antigen-ELISA failed until days 90-158 after birth. Specific antibodies against BVDV also impaired the detection of viral RNA in leukocytes and blood. Mean RNA levels of the five calves were reduced in sera 2.500-fold and in leukocytes 400-fold, the lowest values were at week three of live. In contrast, levels of measurable viral RNA in biopsy samples remained constant during the observation period.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon and Use of the SPOT Test to Identify Herds with PI Calves

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian G.; Willoughby, Kim; Land, Fiona; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI) in the herd within the last year based on the “spot” test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21754993

  18. A newly developed BVDV-1 RT-qPCR Taqman assay based on Italian isolates: evaluation as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Roberto; Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Ricci, Emanuele; Forzan, Mario; Pizzurro, Federica; Giammarioli, Monica; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Tolari, Francesco

    2017-01-26

    A single-step TaqMan® RT-qPCR was developed for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), an important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The assay was based on conserved 5'UTR sequences of Italian BVDV-1 isolates. In order to establish a diagnostic protocol which simplifies sample collection and processing, the assay was tested on a variety of biological specimens collected from persistently infected calves. The samples analyzed included PBMCs, plasma, dry blood, ear notch and hair bulb. Time and costs required for the analysis of each type of specimen were compared. The RT-qPCR, whose lower limit of detection was 100 copies of viral RNA (1 TCID50), correctly identified all PI animals, irrespective of the type of specimen. The highest copy numbers were obtained from the RNAs extracted from PBMCs, ear notches and hair bulbs. Hair bulb-supernatants directly used as a template allowed identification of all PI animals. In conclusion, based on time and cost evaluation, the most effective and efficient protocol was the one based on the direct analysis of hair bulb-supernatants, avoiding the RNA extraction step.

  19. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  20. Vaccination of Cattle Persistently Infected with BVDV Does Not Cause a Change in the Consensus Sequence of the Structural Proteins of the Quasispecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen of cattle worldwide. An interesting aspect of these viruses is the great amount of sequence diversity that exists amongst strains in circulation in livestock herds that can impact diagnostic testing. The driving force behind change in...

  1. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  2. A prospective study of the effect of Neospora caninum and BVDV infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, K; Björkman, C; Emanuelson, U; Rivera, H; Zelada, A; Moreno-López, J

    2006-08-17

    We used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru, and its association with Neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Between January 2002 and March 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. Of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. The serological status to N. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas BVDV status was assessed at the herd level through consecutive samplings of young stock. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the effect of N. caninum and BVDV on the hazard of early (between day 42 and day 100 in gestation), and late (after day 100) abortions, respectively. Serological status to N. caninum was included as a dichotomous variable, and the effect of BVDV estimated at the herd level, as a time-dependent seasonal effect. Because data from repeated pregnancies were included, we considered possible lack of independence between observations and included frailty effects into the models. Our models also considered the possible confounding by parity and animal origin. Only multiparity was associated with the hazard of early abortion (HR=2.8 compared to nulliparous heifers). N. caninum seropositivity significantly affected the hazard of late abortion, but interacted with parity. The HRs for Neospora-positive animals were 6.4, 3.7 and 1.9, respectively, for nulliparous heifers, first-lactation cows and multiparous cows. Evidence of BVDV circulating (or not) among the young stock was not associated with abortions, but few cows in this herd were susceptible to incident infection.

  3. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals.

  4. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, J F; Bayles, D O; Neill, J D; Falkenberg, S M; Bauermann, F V; Holler, L; Braun, L J; Young, D B; Kane, S E; Chase, C C L

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) results in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections result from in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. Clinical presentation, in persistently infected cattle (PI), is highly variable. The reasons for this variation is largely unknown. The BVDV circulating in PI exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses). An outbreak resulting in 34 PI cattle presented an opportunity to compare a large number of PI׳s. Methods were developed to compare the circulating viral populations within PI animals. It was found that PI animals generated in the same outbreak carry circulating viral populations that differ widely in size and diversity. Further, it was demonstrated that variation in PI viral populations could be used as a quantifiable phenotype. This observation makes it possible to test the correlation of this phenotype to other phenotypes such as growth rate, congenital defects, viral shed and cytokine expression.

  5. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca; La Rocca, Severina Anna; Paton, David; Bensaude, Emmanuelle; Sandvik, Torstein; Davis, Leanne; Turner, Jane; Drew, Trevor; Raue, Rudiger; Vangeel, Ilse; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 102.55TCID50/ml, group B 105.25TCID50/ml and group C 106.7TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D) was inoculated with a medium dose (105.25TCID50/ml) and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS) to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS) resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds. PMID:25955849

  6. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  7. Serological response of guinea pigs to oily and aqueous inactivated vaccines containing a Brazilian isolate of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Jordão, Ricardo Spacagna; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Okuda, Líria Hiromi; Del Fava, Cláudia; Stefano, Eliana de; Filho, Moacir Marchiori; Mehnert, Dolores Ursula

    2011-10-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is widespread in cattle in Brazil and research shows its large antigenic variability. Available vaccines are produced with virus strains isolated in other countries and may not be effective. In this study, inactivated vaccines containing the Brazilian BVDV-Ib IBSP11 isolate were developed and tested on 6 groups of 10 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Animals in groups A and C received an aqueous vaccine (aluminum hydroxide); B and D groups received an oily vaccine (Montanide ISA50); Group E positive-control animals were given an imported commercial vaccine with BVDV-Ia Singer; Group F animals were sham vaccinated (negative control). Groups A, B and E received two doses, and Groups C and D, three, every 21 days. Twelve blood samples were taken, at 21-day intervals over 231 days, and evaluated for antibody titer through virus-neutralization (VN), using a homologous strain (IBSP11), and a heterologous strain (BVDV-Ia NADL). Most animals, 42 days following the first dose, seroconverted to both strains and, after the second dose, there was a significant increase of titers in all groups. The oily formulation induced greater response after the third administration. This increase was not observed with the aqueous vaccines, regardless of the virus used in the VN. Antibody decline was more rapid in animals that received aqueous vaccines. The results showed the importance of studying the influence of endemic strains of commercial vaccines, to improve the efficacy of BVD vaccination. Use of the endemic strain in vaccine formulation presented promising results, as well as the use of guinea pigs as a laboratory model.

  8. Large scale in vivo risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through transfer of bovine embryos produced via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Gosch, G; Guerra, T; Chen, S H; Xiang, T; Broek, D; Bruner, B; Polejaeva, I

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to use the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model to assess the risk of infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production and transfer via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The risks of BVDV transmission in the SCNT embryo production were previously evaluated. In that in vitro study, following standard operating procedures (SOP), including pre-nuclear transfer donor cell testing, oocyte decontamination and virus-free cell and embryo culture conditions, SCNT embryos produced were free of detectable viral RNA. The current study focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of disease transmission from SCNT embryos to recipients, and the risk of producing persistently infected animals via SCNT embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected from 553 recipients of SCNT embryos and 438 cloned calves and tested for the presence of BVDV viral RNA via a sensitive real time PCR method. All samples tested were negative. These results, in conjunction with the previous in vitro study, confirmed that the established SCNT embryo production and transfer system is safe and presents no detectable risk of disease transmission.

  9. Seroepidemiological study of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BoHV-1, PI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3) in dairy cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province).

    PubMed

    Shirvani, Edris; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Noaman, Vahid; Bahriari, Masumeh; Morovati, Hasan; Hatami, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible for major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Several viruses, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine adenoviruses (BAV), are detected in most clinical cases with respiratory signs. The aim of this study is to define seroprevalences of five major viral causes of bovine respiratory infections in cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province). The population targeted was 642 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian) from 25 farms. Samples of blood serum from female cattle were examined. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA kits to detect antibody against BRSV, BoHV-1, BPI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. In the present study, seroprevalences of BRSV, BoHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BAV-3 were 51.1%, 72%, 84.4%, 49.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. The present study shows that infections of bovine respiratory viruses are very common in cattle in Esfahan.

  10. A combined in silico/in vitro approach unveils common molecular requirements for efficient BVDV RdRp binding of linear aromatic N-polycyclic systems.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Briguglio, I; Piras, S; Corona, P; Ibba, R; Laurini, E; Fermeglia, M; Pricl, S; Desideri, N; Atzori, E M; La Colla, P; Collu, G; Delogu, I; Loddo, R

    2016-07-19

    In this work, we present and discuss a comprehensive set of both newly and previously synthesized compounds belonging to 5 distinct molecular classes of linear aromatic N-polycyclic systems that efficiently inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. A coupled in silico/in vitro investigation was employed to formulate a molecular rationale explaining the notable affinity of all molecules to BVDV RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) NS5B. We initially developed a three-dimensional common-feature pharmacophore model according to which two hydrogen bond acceptors and one hydrophobic aromatic feature are shared by all molecular series in binding the viral polymerase. The pharmacophoric information was used to retrieve a putative binding site on the surface of the BVDV RdRp and to guide compound docking within the protein binding site. The affinity of all compounds towards the enzyme was scored via molecular dynamics-based simulations, showing high correlation with in vitro EC50 data. The determination of the interaction spectra of the protein residues involved in inhibitor binding highlighted amino acids R295 and Y674 as the two fundamental H-bond donors, while two hydrophobic cavities HC1 (residues A221, I261, I287, and Y289) and HC2 (residues V216, Y303, V306, K307, P408, and A412) fulfill the third pharmacophoric requirement. Three RdRp (K263, R295 and Y674) residues critical for drug binding were selected and mutagenized, both in silico and in vitro, into alanine, and the affinity of a set of selected compounds towards the mutant RdRp isoforms was determined accordingly. The agreement between predicted and experimental data confirmed the proposed common molecular rationale shared by molecules characterized by different chemical scaffolds in binding to the BVDV RdRp, ultimately yielding compound 6b (EC50 = 0.3 μM; IC50 = 0.48 μM) as a new, potent inhibitor of this Pestivirus.

  11. The role of herpesviruses (BoHV-1 and BoHV-4) and pestiviruses (BVDV and BDV) in ruminant abortion cases in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer-Göktuna, Pelin; Alpay, Gizem; Öner, Eda Baldan; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2016-06-01

    The economic impact of abortions in ruminant breeders is one of the biggest problems in livestock. Of the infectious agents, viruses, especially herpesviruses and pestiviruses, are the most important causative agents of abortion in ruminants. In the present study, the role of herpesviruses (bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4)) and pestiviruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), border disease virus (BDV)) was investigated in cases of ruminant abortion between 2007 and 2015 in western Turkey. Out of 81 aborted fetal samples (60 calves, 19 lambs, and 2 kids), 42 were positive, which included 31 calves, 9 lambs, and 2 goats; 39 aborted fetal samples were negative for the pestivirus antigen ELISA. BoHV-1 antigen ELISA was positive in 3 cases which included 2 calves and 1 lamb; the remainder 78 cases were negative. Pestivirus and BoHV-1 were positive in 51.85 and 3.70 %, respectively, of the samples. According to PCR analysis, BoHV-4 was not encountered in any of the tested samples. In one of the calf fetus samples, both BVDV and BoHV-1 were positive; in one of the lamb fetus samples, BoHV-1 was positive. There was a much higher level of pestivirus antigen than the other viral agents evaluated in the study (p < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate that pestiviruses are a common viral cause of ruminant abortions in the examined area.

  12. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication.

  13. Impact of oral meloxicam and long-distance transport on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in feedlot steers receiving modified live BVDV booster vaccination on arrival.

    PubMed

    Van Engen, N K; Platt, R; Roth, J A; Stock, M L; Engelken, T; Vann, R C; Wulf, L W; Busby, W D; Wang, C; Kalkwarf, E M; Coetzee, J F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral meloxicam (MEL) and long-distance transportation on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in preconditioned steers receiving a booster vaccination on arrival. We hypothesized that steers treated with MEL at 1mg/kg body weight, 6h before night-time transport, would be less immunocompromised on arrival (day 0) and after 7days, and that CMI following vaccination with a modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recall antigen would be increased. Brahman crossbreed steers, 13-17 months of age (n=87), were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: MEL, transported (MTR) (n=22), MEL, non-transported (MNT) (n=22), lactose placebo, transported (CTR) (n=21), and lactose placebo, non-transported (CNT) (n=22). MTR and CTR steers were transported for approximately 16h non-stop on a truck from Mississippi to Iowa (approximately 1300km), whereas steers in the MNT and CNT groups remained in Mississippi as non-transported controls. Body weight was measured and jugular blood was collected at -1, 0, and 7days from all steers at the same time, regardless of location. Multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) was used to identify T-cell subsets and detect the expression of three activation markers (CD25 [interleukin (IL)-2 receptor], intracellular interferon-gamma [IFNγ], and IL-4) after in vitro stimulation with BVDV recall antigen. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured on day -1, 0, and 7 as a marker of transport-associated stress. Serum antibody titer to BVDV was assessed on day -1 and day 7 post-booster vaccination. Whole-blood samples were analyzed using MP-FCM on days 0 and 7. Results were log transformed and analyzed using repeated measures of analysis of variance. Compared with non-transported controls, transport led to an increase in BVDV-induced expression of CD25, IFNγ, and IL-4 in CD4(+), CD8(+), and γδ(+) T-cell subsets (P<0.05). MEL treatment mitigated the transportation-associated increase in

  14. BVDV: past, present, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a collection of diverse clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive diseases accompanied by immunosuppression. BVD may be caused by one of three different species of bovine pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea viru...

  15. Influence of the retention of PI calves identified in 2012 during the voluntary phase of the Irish national bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme on herd-level outcomes in 2013.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; O'Sullivan, P; More, S J

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the retention of calves born in one calving season and considered to be persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) on herd-level outcomes in the following calving season. A secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between retention and the number of BVD+ calves detected the following season. The study population included a subset of herds enrolled in the 2012 voluntary BVD eradication programme in Ireland, specifically those with a birth registered to more than 80% of the cows between 1st January and 15th July and BVDV test results available for at least 80% of these calves, during both 2012 and 2013. Calves were considered PI based on either an initial positive result without further testing (BVDPOS) or a positive result on confirmatory testing (BVDPI), collectively considered BVD+ calves. Herd-level outcomes included the BVD status of the herd, and the number of BVD+ calves born between 1st January and 15th July 2013 (the study period). There was a significant univariable association between herd BVD status in 2013 and a number of general herd factors, including location, herd type, size and number of introduced animals (overall and those pregnant at time of introduction), as well as with each of six different factors related to the retention of virus-positive calves: the number of BVD+ calves in 2012; the maximum time (days) any one BVD+ born in 2012 was retained up to September 2013; the mean time (days) BVD+ animal(s) born in 2012 were retained up to September 2013; the date (quarter/year) the last BVD+ left the herd; the presence/number of 2012-born BVD+ retained in the herd at 1st January 2013. Separate multivariable models were constructed for each retention variable. The best model fit (based on AIC) was obtained using the retention variable "date (quarter/year) last BVD+ calf left the herd", followed by "total time all BVD+ calves were retained in the herd", with (log

  16. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  17. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  18. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  19. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  20. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  1. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  2. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  3. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  4. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  5. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  6. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... a rural EMS unit find funding for major equipment, such as an ambulance? The following programs can ... EMS units. Grants may be used to purchase equipment (including vehicles), provide training, establish wellness and fitness ...

  7. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  8. Complaints against an EMS system.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  9. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  10. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  11. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  12. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  13. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  14. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  15. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  16. Reassessing training levels for prehospital EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Briese, G L

    1983-01-01

    One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.

  17. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  18. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  19. Filter banks and the EM algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.A.; Carroll, R.B.; Anderson, J.M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based modification of the ML-EM algorithm for reconstructing positron emission tomography images. By using the filter bank implementation of the wavelet transform, this algorithm has the flexibility to incorporate a priori information, while maintaining the same computational complexity as the standard ML-EM algorithm. Thus, it has a significant computational advantage over usual Bayesian methods. It differs from recent wavelet-based Bayesian methods as it achieves {open_quotes}regularization{close_quotes} by an adaptive, wavelet-based method of thresholding which minimizes Stein`s Unbiased Estimate of Risk. The basic method consists of applying Donoho and Johnstone`s SureShrink wavelet denoising of the Poisson data, and then applying the standard ML-EM algorithm to the denoised data. A more elaborate method is discussed in which a wavelet denoising step is inserted after each EM iteration. This technique differs from previous smoothing techniques applied to the ML-EM algorithm since it is able to recover edges in discontinuous images.

  20. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  1. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  2. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  3. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  4. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  5. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  6. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  7. Structural Composites With Tuned EM Chirality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0018 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Siavouche Nemat Nasser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/23...REPORT Grant/Contract  Title:        STRUCTURAL  COMPOSITES  WITH  TUNED  EM   CHIRALITY     Grant  No.:  FA9550-­‐09-­‐1...structural   composites  with   tunable   chiral   elements   has   produced   some   impressive   results   in   the

  8. Lessons Learned: Integrating EMS and Environmental Compliance Auditing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    audit an EMS against the – ISO 14001 :2004 Standard – Installation’s own commitments and procedures established under their EMS (i.e. are they doing...what they said they would do?) – Army Policy • Findings are documented in a Word report (external audits) • ISO 14001 conformance is determined by...regulatory requirements • EMS Findings – Conformance: management system conforms to ISO 14001 standard – Major Nonconformance: EMS is missing element

  9. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., District and County employees, provided there has not been a recent training meeting in that State. (b... employees in administering the EM loan program. (d) Comprehensive EM loan training package. A comprehensive EM loan training package has been developed for use by National Office and Staff Office personnel...

  10. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  11. Accuracy of EMS Trauma Transport Destination Plans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Cowden, Christopher S; Atterton, Laurie Meyer; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Fernandez, Antonio R; Evarts, Jeff S; Barrier, Brian; Lerner, E Brooke; Mann, N Clay; Lohmeier, Chad; Shofer, Frances S; Brice, Jane H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Planning for time-sensitive injury may allow emergency medical services (EMS) systems to more accurately triage patients meeting accepted criteria to facilities most capable of providing life-saving treatment. In 2010, North Carolina (NC) implemented statewide Trauma Triage and Destination Plans (TTDPs) in all 100 of North Carolina's county-defined EMS systems. Each system was responsible for identifying the specific destination hospitals with appropriate resources to treat trauma patients. We sought to characterize the accuracy of their hospital designations. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected TTDPs for each county-defined EMS system, including their assigned hospital capabilities (i.e., trauma center or community hospital). We conducted a survey with each EMS system to determine how their TTDP was constructed and maintained, as well as with each TTDP-designated hospital to verify their capabilities. We determined the accuracy of the EMS assigned hospital designations by comparing them to the hospital's reported capabilities. Results. The 100 NC EMS systems provided 380 designations for 112 hospitals. TTDPs were created by EMS administrators and medical directors, with only 55% of EMS systems engaging a hospital representative in the plan creation. Compared to the actual hospital capabilities, 97% of the EMS TTDP designations were correct. Twelve hospital designations were incorrect and the majority (10) overestimated hospital capabilities. Of the 100 EMS systems, 7 misclassified hospitals in their TTDP. EMS systems that did not verify their local hospitals' capabilities during TTDP development were more likely to incorrectly categorize a hospital's capabilities (p = 0.001). Conclusions. A small number of EMS systems misclassified hospitals in their TTDP, but most plans accurately reflected hospital capabilities. Misclassification occurred more often in systems that did not consult local hospitals prior to developing their

  12. What Do They Want from Us? A Survey of EM Program Directors on EM Application Criteria

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Kass, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although a relatively young specialty, emergency medicine (EM) is popular among medical students and is one of the most competitive large specialties. Consequently, students increasingly seek more opportunity to differentiate themselves from their colleagues by pursuing more clerkships at the cost of taking out additional loans: this despite the fact that those who match in EM typically do so in their top three choices. We sought to ascertain what factors EM program directors seek in their typical candidate. Methods We recruited EM program directors via the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors email listserv to participate in an anonymous survey regarding the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the number of standardized letters of evaluation (SLOE), and the number of EM rotations during the fourth year. Results 135 respondents completed the anonymous survey: 59% of respondents stated their program did not have a minimum USMLE Step 1 score, but 39% reported a minimum score of 210 or higher; 95% of programs do not require Step 2 to grant an interview, but 46% require it to place the student on the rank list; 80% require only one EM rotation to grant an interview and none require more than two; 95% of programs will accept two SLOEs for both application and rank list placement. Conclusion For the typical EM applicant, there is likely little benefit to performing more than two rotations and obtaining more than two SLOEs. Students can defer USMLE Step 2 but must complete it by the time rank lists are due. Our study was limited by the anonymity of the survey, and comments by the respondents revealed the questions did not account for some nuances programs apply to their application review process. PMID:28116023

  13. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J Sunil

    2015-04-04

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains.

  14. Cryo-EM: Spinning the Micelles Away.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Sigworth, Fred J

    2015-09-01

    Structural characterization of integral membrane proteins (MPs) demands that the samples be pure, monodisperse, and stable. Detergents are required to extract MPs from the lipid bilayer in which they reside and to stabilize them for downstream biophysical analyses. Some of the best MP-stabilizing detergents pose problems for cryo-EM studies, but in this issue of Structure, Hauer et al. (2015) now offer a solution called GraDeR.

  15. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  16. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  17. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  18. The US DOE EM international program

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Roach, Jay A.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into the remainder of FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  19. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-02-23

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury.

  20. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  1. Recruitment and retention in rural and urban EMS: results from a national survey of local EMS directors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Victoria A; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Patterson, P Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate staff is a challenge for rural emergency medical services (EMS) providers. This national survey of local EMS directors finds that rural EMS are more likely to be freestanding, that is, not affiliated with other public services, to employ only emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-Bs), and to be all volunteer. Rural EMS directors are more likely than urban ones to report that they are not currently fully staffed. The most common barriers to recruitment of EMTs in both urban and rural areas include unwillingness of community members to volunteer and lack of certified EMTs in the area. In rural areas, barriers to EMT training were noted more often than in urban areas as was the lack of employer support for employee volunteers. Similar rural training barriers affected retention of staff. Rural respondents reported that they lose staff to burnout and to difficulty in meeting continuing education requirements. Among rural respondents, those who direct all-volunteer EMS were the most likely to report recruitment and retention problems. The results suggest areas for further study including how volunteer EMS agencies can transition to paid agencies, how to bring EMS education to rural areas, and how EMS can work with other agencies to ensure EMS viability.

  2. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  3. Improving Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the United States Through Improved and Centralized Federal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    other emergencies. 4 • Public Awareness of the EMS Discipline. The public at large is not aware of the EMS structure in its community or at a higher...regard for its imperative role in community service. For this reason, placing EMS under the USFA at the federal level would cause EMS to still be...service to include EMS is appropriate, and in some cases, it is not. Not all communities have a dedicated fire service, which can make EMS provision

  4. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  5. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  6. Genetic-based EM algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Bouchaffra, Djamel

    2005-08-01

    We propose a genetic-based expectation-maximization (GA-EM) algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models from multivariate data. This algorithm is capable of selecting the number of components of the model using the minimum description length (MDL) criterion. Our approach benefits from the properties of Genetic algorithms (GA) and the EM algorithm by combination of both into a single procedure. The population-based stochastic search of the GA explores the search space more thoroughly than the EM method. Therefore, our algorithm enables escaping from local optimal solutions since the algorithm becomes less sensitive to its initialization. The GA-EM algorithm is elitist which maintains the monotonic convergence property of the EM algorithm. The experiments on simulated and real data show that the GA-EM outperforms the EM method since: 1) We have obtained a better MDL score while using exactly the same termination condition for both algorithms. 2) Our approach identifies the number of components which were used to generate the underlying data more often than the EM algorithm.

  7. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  8. Using Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) As Surrogate for Human Hepatitis C Virus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This test is designed to validate virucidal effectiveness claims for a product to be registered as a virucide. It determines the potential of the test agent to disinfect hard surfaces contaminated with human Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  9. Environmental and management factors influencing BVDV antibody levels and response to vaccination in weanling calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has many benefits for disease prevention and overall health status of animals. Not all animals respond equally to vaccinations. A number of factors can be shown to influence a young animal’s response to vaccination. Calves with more maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination have poo...

  10. The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

  11. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  12. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  13. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  14. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  15. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.

  16. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  17. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  18. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  19. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-09-20

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  20. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  1. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  2. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-10-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms.

  3. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  4. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  5. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating.

  6. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  7. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  8. Databases and archiving for cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-EM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives – EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualising and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  9. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  10. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  11. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  12. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  13. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  14. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  15. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  17. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events. PMID:22606379

  18. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  19. Lietuvos Teritorijos Gravimetrinio Žemėlapio Tikslumo Vertinimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birvydienė, Rosita; Krikštaponis, Boleslovas; Obuchovski, Romuald; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Petroškevičius, Petras; Šlikas, Dominykas

    2010-01-01

    Remiantis matavimų, atliktų Lietuvos gravimetrinio tinklo punktuose, duomenimis, įvertintas Lietuvos teritorijos 1:200 000 mastelio Bouguer anomalijų gravimetrinio žemėlapio tikslumas. Vertinimui naudota 686 gravimetrinių punktų sunkio pagreičio reikšmės, kurių vidutinė kvadratinė paklaida neviršija 9 μGal. Nustatytos teritorijos, kuriose sunkio pagreitis, apskaičiuotas pagal žemėlapį, turi sistemingąsias paklaidas. Gautas vidutinis skirtumas tarp žemėlapyje taikomos Potsdamo sunkio sistemos ir IGSN 71 sistemos, apibrėžtos Lietuvos gravimetriniame tinkle atliktais absoliučiaisiais gravimetriniais matavimais.

  20. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  1. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  2. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  3. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  4. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  5. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  6. An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...2006- 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W91 2HQ-06-C-0050...239.18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  7. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  8. Implementing an Air Force Major Command-Level EMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    n c e 7 Required ISO Elements for AF Organizational-Level EMS  MAJCOMs Are Required to Have the Following ISO Elements:  Scope and Policy...systems - Satisfy requirements of Execut ive Orders 13423 and 13514 and the I SO 14001 environmental management standard - Integrate ESOH tools and

  9. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a method’s success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  10. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-10-19

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  11. EM-63 Decay Curve Analysis for UXO Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    rectangular with 25% duty cycle , 15 amps maximum. The EM bottom sensor coil is a circular 50 cm diameter multiturn air cored coil, co- planar with the...to discriminate metal objects (both UXO and non- UXO) from magnetic rocks /soil, 32% of target excavations, over 3,800 targets, would have been

  12. Functionalized Anatomical Models for EM-Neuron Interaction Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in-vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  13. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  14. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  15. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    PubMed

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  16. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  17. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  18. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  19. ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:23251350

  20. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress.

  1. Nonlinear Smoothing and the EM Algorithm for Positive Integral Equations of the First Kind

    SciTech Connect

    Eggermont, P. P. B.

    1999-01-15

    We study a modification of the EMS algorithm in which each step of the EMS algorithm is preceded by a nonlinear smoothing step of the form Nf-exp(S*log f) , where S is the smoothing operator of the EMS algorithm. In the context of positive integral equations (a la positron emission tomography) the resulting algorithm is related to a convex minimization problem which always admits a unique smooth solution, in contrast to the unmodified maximum likelihood setup. The new algorithm has slightly stronger monotonicity properties than the original EM algorithm. This suggests that the modified EMS algorithm is actually an EM algorithm for the modified problem. The existence of a smooth solution to the modified maximum likelihood problem and the monotonicity together imply the strong convergence of the new algorithm. We also present some simulation results for the integral equation of stereology, which suggests that the new algorithm behaves roughly like the EMS algorithm.

  2. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  3. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.

  4. EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

    Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

  5. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  6. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  7. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules.

  8. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  9. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  10. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  11. Color a bright energy picture with EMS controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    After 80 years in the crayon-manufacturing business, Binney and Smith found that more than 50% of their staggering annual utility costs were being generated by non-production loads. To curtail waste, they installed an expandable EMS which controls energy in the company's two separate, multi-building facilities from one central location. The system selected was an AI2100/MAX System manufactured by American Auto-Matrix, Export, PA.

  12. Love 'em or they'll leave: motivating volunteers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D

    1999-11-01

    Running a successful volunteer-based service does not begin and end with the recruitment of volunteers. You need to first consider what is in it for the prospective volunteer, define why you want volunteers and then decide exactly what you want those volunteers to do. Then you recruit them, face-to-face, ensuring that every prospect is offered something specific to do and is welcomed into your EMS family.

  13. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Addo-Quaye, Charles; Buescher, Elizabeth; Best, Norman; Chaikam, Vijay; Baxter, Ivan; Dilkes, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation. PMID:28040779

  14. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  15. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  16. A study on characteristics of EM radiation from stripline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayano, Yoshiki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, effective methods for predicting and suppressing electromagnetic interference over a broad band are required. In this paper, we focus on the prediction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from a stripline structure with a ground thin wire by an equivalent circuit model. First, frequency responses of common-mode (CM) current on the printed circuit board and EM radiation are studied with finite difference time domain modeling. Secondly, an equivalent circuit model for predicting CM current is proposed. The equivalent circuit model for prediction is based on the concepts of CM antenna impedance, distributed constant circuit, and electric coupling between the power plane and the thin ground wire. Good agreement between the predicted and full-wave analysis results indicates the validity of the proposed equivalent circuit model. The frequency response of EM radiation from the stripline structure can be identified using our proposed model. In addition, the equivalent circuit model provides enough flexibility for different geometric parameters and can be used to develop physical insights and design guidelines.

  17. Essential ethics for EMS: cardinal virtues and core principles.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond Logan

    2002-11-01

    Dutiful attention to virtue, teamwork, beneficence, justice, and respect for patient autonomy provides a coherent approach to addressing many ethical dilemmas in the out-of-hospital setting. Most of the great risks of EMS--abandonment, competence, and safe-driving skills--lie at the ethike or character of those who ply the prehospital art. Proactively fostering the personal and professional virtue of team members may be a kind of moral vaccination against the ethical pitfalls inherent in emergency medical service provision. Future training, education, disaster preparedness drills, and related exercises must include opportunities for character and team building before optimal performance and accountability can be assured. In the steady, almost glacial, maturation of the specialty of EMS medicine, truly the character of those who serve in the "line of fire" of evaluation, management, and transport in the out-of-hospital arena must be girded with more than the armor and shields of technology. Since September 11, 2001, it has become increasingly clear that EMS workers must strengthen their ability to bear the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," armed with swords of discipline, virtue, and character to provide the breadth of care that only a well orchestrated team can deliver. Ultimately, humans perform best when they share themselves unselfconsciously, surrendering to an enterprise and cause far greater than themselves. Our citizens, patients, and heroic colleagues deserve no less.

  18. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  19. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  20. Bayesian Modeling of Biomolecular Assemblies with Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A growing array of experimental techniques allows us to characterize the three-dimensional structure of large biological assemblies at increasingly higher resolution. In addition to X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance in solution, new structure determination methods such cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), crosslinking/mass spectrometry and solid-state NMR have emerged. Often it is not sufficient to use a single experimental method, but complementary data need to be collected by using multiple techniques. The integration of all datasets can only be achieved by computational means. This article describes Inferential structure determination, a Bayesian approach to integrative modeling of biomolecular complexes with hybrid structural data. I will introduce probabilistic models for cryo-EM maps and outline Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling model structures from the posterior distribution. I will focus on rigid and flexible modeling with cryo-EM data and discuss some of the computational challenges of Bayesian inference in the context of biomolecular modeling. PMID:28382301

  1. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  2. EM absorption reduction in wireless mobile antenna using printed paper-based metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin; Cho, Mengu; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a printed negative index metamaterial for electromagnetic (EM) absorption reduction in portable wireless antenna. The perceptible novelty exhibited in this paper is that EM absorption reduction toward the human head with paper-based metamaterial attachment. This research has been performed using human head phantom integrated in the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software package. The EM absorption has been reduced by 13.2 and 6% at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively.

  3. An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...Technical 2006-20 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W912HQ-06-C-0050...ANSI Std. Z39. 18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  4. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  5. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  6. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  7. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  9. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  10. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem.

    PubMed

    Katsevich, E; Katsevich, A; Singer, A

    2015-01-22

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise.

  11. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  12. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  13. Testing For EM Upsets In Aircraft Control Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of transient electrical signals evaluated in laboratory tests. Method of evaluating nominally fault-tolerant, aircraft-type digital-computer-based control system devised. Provides for evaluation of susceptibility of system to upset and evaluation of integrity of control when system subjected to transient electrical signals like those induced by electromagnetic (EM) source, in this case lightning. Beyond aerospace applications, fault-tolerant control systems becoming more wide-spread in industry; such as in automobiles. Method supports practical, systematic tests for evaluation of designs of fault-tolerant control systems.

  14. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care.

  15. Unravelling the structures of biological macromolecules by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Understanding how proteins and other biological macromolecules perform their complicated tasks in the living cell is often aided by knowledge of their three-dimensional structures. Because many tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterisation at the atomic level is most useful. Recent developments in electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-EM) have provided unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of new information about biological processes that were impossible to characterize with previously existing techniques in structural biology. PMID:27629640

  16. The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond the Veil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL∗ Patrick Godon1,4, Edward M. Sion1, Paul E. Barrett2, and Albert P. Linnell3 1...However, more recent full three-dimensional hydrodynami- cal simulations, e.g., (Blondin 1998; Kunze et al. 2001; Bisikalo et al. 2003), have followed...deflection is believed to cause X-ray absorption in CVs (and LMXBs) around orbital phase 0.7, if the inclination is at least 65◦ ( Kunze et al. 2001

  17. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  18. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  19. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1: Italian isolates clustered in at least seven subgenotypes.

    PubMed

    Giammarioli, Monica; Pellegrini, Claudia; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle. Two approved species are recognized, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. To date, only 4 subgenotypes of BVDV-2 are known, and at least 11 distinct subgenotypes have been detected for BVDV-1. In a previous study, the genetic characteristics of 38 field isolates of BVDV from northern Italy were investigated, and all 38 isolates were classified as BVDV-1 and could be assigned to 5 different subgenotypes, namely BVDV-1b, BVDV-1d, BVDV-1e, BVDV-1h, and BVDV-1f. However, the circulation of BVDV-2 has been reported in Italy as well. The aim of the current study was to type 88 BVD viruses found throughout Italy. Genetic study was based on the 5'-UTR, supported by select comparison within the N(pro) coding region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 5 isolates could be typed as BVDV-2a. The remaining 83 isolates were typed as BVDV-1 and were found to belong to 7 distinct subgenotypes, namely BVDV-1a (n = 8), BVDV-1b (n = 37), BVDV-1d (n = 3), BVDV-1e (n = 22), BVDV-1f (n = 4), BVDV-1g (n = 4), and BVDV-1h (n = 5). The majority of cattle farms in the current study were predominantly infected by BVDV-1b and BVDV-1e isolates, whereas the other BVDV subgenotypes occurred only sporadically. The results also provided evidence for circulation of additional subgenotypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-1g. The occurrence of BVDV-2 was also reconfirmed.

  20. Demonstrate a Leap-Ahead EM Gun Armament System that Proves the Maturity of the Technology for Future Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-26

    This report, comprised of viewgraphs, discusses the Army EM program and the challenges it faces. Topics include pulsed power, hypervelocity lethality plans, systems and technology integration , and the army EM gun program.

  1. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  2. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  3. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  4. EMS Instructor Training Program. National Standard Curriculum. Instructor Guide. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide for teaching a course to prepare emergency medical service (EMS) trainers focuses on the skills necessary to present any of the Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) EMS courses. Course topics are as follows: (1) introduction; (2) instructor roles and responsibilities; (3) legal…

  5. Broadband EM radiation amplification by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that a two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) (laser) field can amplify EM radiation waves of much lower frequency.

  6. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a…

  7. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-13

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables.

  8. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  9. Surgical treatment of moyamoya disease in children: which is more effective procedure, EDAS or EMS?

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Tamaki, N; Matsumoto, S

    1986-01-01

    At present, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) and encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) are the treatments of choice for moyamoya disease in children, but no attempts have been made to determine which is the more effective procedure, for the ischemic lesions in moyamoya disease. Ten patients (seven children and three adults) underwent EDAS and/or EMS: three patients EDAS on both sides; seven patients EDAS on one side and EMS on the other. These ten patients were followed up with a neurological examination and r-CBF and angiographic studies. Postoperative angiograms and r-CBF studies demonstrated more revascularization from the external carotid artery in sides treated with EDAS than with sides treated with EMS. From these results, it is concluded that the EDAS surgical procedure is superior to that of EMS for moyamoya disease.

  10. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  11. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

    2004-01-14

    Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

  12. The EM/MPM algorithm for segmentation of textured images: analysis and further experimental results.

    PubMed

    Comer, M L; Delp, E J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present new results relative to the "expectation-maximization/maximization of the posterior marginals" (EM/MPM) algorithm for simultaneous parameter estimation and segmentation of textured images. The EM/MPM algorithm uses a Markov random field model for the pixel class labels and alternately approximates the MPM estimate of the pixel class labels and estimates parameters of the observed image model. The goal of the EM/MPM algorithm is to minimize the expected value of the number of misclassified pixels. We present new theoretical results in this paper which show that the algorithm can be expected to achieve this goal, to the extent that the EM estimates of the model parameters are close to the true values of the model parameters. We also present new experimental results demonstrating the performance of the EM/MPM algorithm.

  13. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  14. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  15. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  16. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu E-mail: linnell@astro.washington.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} {approx} 0.65 and {phi} {approx} 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K {+-} 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s{sup -1}. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase {phi} < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white

  17. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  18. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  19. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  20. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  1. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  2. Updated bathymetric survey of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, R. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Johns, W. E.; Nelson, C.

    High-resolution bathymetric data obtained in July 1996 during a survey of the Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles revealed changes in the structure of the volcanic edifice compared to previously available surveys. The volcano's summit, at 178 m below sea level, was found to be approximately 18 m farther from the surface than was reported by Bouysse et al. (1988) and others. No dome was observed. Instead, an open crater, surrounded by walls that dropped significantly in elevation from one side to the opposite, suggest that eruptions, earthquakes, rockfalls or explosions may have altered the structure since the last detailed survey. The deepest contour of the volcano's crater was found 106 m below the summit.

  3. GW astronomy, EM observations, and the interactions between them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essick, Reed; LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    I present an overview of the types of low latency searches operated by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration, focusing on the products produced by each and how they tie into the broader astronomical community. This includes both automated and manual follow-up to characterize the source localization as well as statements about the data quality surrounding the candidate. In broad strokes, I'll also describe the internal and external communication mechanisms put in place to announce candidates and report follow-up activities, with particular emphasis placed on how GW and EM data are mutually beneficial. Time permitting, I will also describe some consequences of observed diurnal cycles governing when the LIGO detectors are likely to record data and studies comparing localizations from different algorithms.

  4. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  5. Development of A New Electromagnetic Sounding System, Em-across

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    We developed and tested a new electromagnetic sounding system. It is called EM- ACROSS (ElectroMagnetic - Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal Sys- tem), and originally Ogawa and Kumazawa (1996) proposed. The essential points of this method are the transmission of accurately controlled electromagnetic waves, and precise synchronization between the source and observation points, and acquisition the transfer function between the source and receivers. This transfer function includes the information of the area where the electromagnetic waves propagates. We developed hardware to establish an EM-ACROSS system. To generate the accu- rately controlled source signal and to synchronize the receivers with the source, we utilize GPS clock. The time-keeping for the transmission and data recordings is better than micro seconds. We examined this system by the transmission from the current dipole (moment 200Am) at the frequencies below 100Hz and the observations at the distances up to 3km in Tono area. We transmitted the controlled source signal which the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum from 200 seconds data attained up to 104. The accuracy of the synchronization was ascertained in data stacking of the received signal. The longer stacking reduced the error of the received signal as theoretically expected. From the observed transfer function, the resistivity of the experimental site was estimated as about 100 m, which is the typical value at the test site. We represent that the exploration using the accurately controlled electromagnetic sig- nal is realized. We come to convince ACROSS has a potential for explorations.

  6. Quantitative performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailean, James C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Sullivan, Barry J.

    1991-07-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate quantitatively the performance of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as a restoration technique for radiographic images. The 'perceived' signal-to-nose ratio (SNR), of simple radiographic patterns processed by the EM algorithm are calculated on the basis of a statistical decision theory model that includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to quantitatively compare the effects of the EM algorithm to two popular image enhancement techniques: contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering.

  7. DNA-ligase activities appear normal in the CHO mutant EM9.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; Thompson, L H; Becker, F F

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant strain EM9 was previously shown to be hypersensitive to killing by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), to have a 12-fold increased baseline incidence of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and to be defective in rejoining DNA strand breaks after treatment with EMS, MMS, or X-rays. A study was performed to determine if the primary biochemical defect might be a DNA ligase. DNA-ligase activities were assayed and compared after separation of the multiple forms of ligase by AcA 34 gel-filtration chromatography of total cellular extracts. In EM9 cells the levels of the presumptive replicative forms, DNA ligase Ia (480 kd) and ligase Ib (240 kd) were about 50% and 60%, respectively, of those in the parental AA8 cells, whereas DNA ligase II (80 kd) was unaltered in EM9 . In a phenotypic revertant line ( 9R1 ) ligases Ia, Ib and II levels were 35%, 37% and 100%, respectively, of those in AA8 . The reduced levels of ligases Ia and Ib in EM9 and 9R1 cells are apparently not related directly to the mutant phenotype and may be attributable to the somewhat slower growth rates of these strains compared with those of AA8 . To determine if the repair defect in EM9 might reside in the ability to induce DNA-ligase activity after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, AA8 and EM9 cells were treated with MMS at 30 micrograms/ml for 60 min before preparing fractions for ligase assays. Under these conditions the activities of ligases Ia and Ib decreases 70-80% in both cell lines, but ligase II increased 2.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, in AA8 and EM9 . As a further test of defective ligase activities in EM9 , assays were performed in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl or after heating the fractions for 10 min at 50 degrees C. Although all 3 forms of ligase showed altered activity under both of these conditions, there were no significant differences between EM9 and AA8 cells. These data combined with the above results provide strong

  8. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  9. Investigating the source of contaminated plumes downstream of the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant using EM34 conductivity data, VLF-EM and DC-resistivity geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz, Farzin Amirkhani; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coal washing factories may create serious environmental problems due to pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage generation from coal waste piles on nearby land. Infiltration of pyrite oxidation products through the porous materials of the coal waste pile by rainwater cause changes in the conductivity of underground materials and groundwater downstream of the pile. Electromagnetic and electrical methods are effective for investigation and monitoring of the contaminated plumes caused by coal waste piles and tailings impoundments. In order to investigate the environmental impact from a coal waste pile at the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, an EM34 ground conductivity meter was used on seven parallel lines in an E-W direction, downstream of the waste pile. Two-dimensional resistivity models obtained by the inversion of EM34 conductivity data identified conductive leachate plumes. In addition, quasi-3D inversion of EM34 data has confirmed the decreasing resistivity at depth due to the contaminated plumes. Comparison between EM34, VLF and DC-resistivity datasets, which were acquired for similar survey lines, agree well in identifying changes in the resistivity trend. The EM34 and DC-resistivity sections have greater similarity and better smoothness rather than those of the VLF model. Two-dimensional inversion models of these methods have shown some contaminated plumes with low resistivity.

  10. Simulating Suspended Silt Concentrations in the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmeijer, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Ems Estuary is situated in the North-east Netherlands on the border with Germany. Its area, including the tidal river and excluding the outer delta, is ± 500 km2. The area of the outer delta is ± 100 km2. The length of the estuary from the inlet to the town of Leer in Germany is approximately 75 km. The mean tidal range varies over years (de Jonge, 1992), but is approximately 2.3 m near the island of Borkum (tidal inlet) and approximately 3.2 m near the town of Emden in Germany. The estuary receives water from the rain-fed River Ems (approximately 115 m3/s on average). A second much smaller freshwater input emanates from the small canalized river Westerwoldsche Aa (12.5 m3/s on average). These discharges vary strongly within and between years. The result of the interaction between freshwater discharge and seawater brought in by the tide is a salinity gradient, the length and position of which is strongly dependent on the water discharge by the rivers. The present morphology of the estuary is the result of natural processes such as tidal currents, wind and wave driven currents and river discharge, resulting in sediment trans-port and sedimentation and erosion patterns. These natural processes are affected by human interferences like maintenance dredging of the navigation channels, land reclamation, building of dikes, etc. The greatest changes in the last 50 years in the physical functioning of the Ems estuary have been the increased sea level and tidal range, the increased amplitude and frequency of storm surge, and greatly increased turbidity and sediment concentrations (particularly near the estuarine turbidity maximum). Much of the changes can be traced directly or indirectly to anthropogenic influence. 2 Aim and approach We studied the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Ems estuary. One of the aims was to gain more insight in the behaviour of the suspended silt concentrations in the estuary and the anthropogenic influence thereon. We

  11. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness. PMID:26386606

  12. cryoSPARC: algorithms for rapid unsupervised cryo-EM structure determination.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Ali; Rubinstein, John L; Fleet, David J; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2017-03-01

    Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful method for determining the structures of biological macromolecules. With automated microscopes, cryo-EM data can often be obtained in a few days. However, processing cryo-EM image data to reveal heterogeneity in the protein structure and to refine 3D maps to high resolution frequently becomes a severe bottleneck, requiring expert intervention, prior structural knowledge, and weeks of calculations on expensive computer clusters. Here we show that stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and branch-and-bound maximum likelihood optimization algorithms permit the major steps in cryo-EM structure determination to be performed in hours or minutes on an inexpensive desktop computer. Furthermore, SGD with Bayesian marginalization allows ab initio 3D classification, enabling automated analysis and discovery of unexpected structures without bias from a reference map. These algorithms are combined in a user-friendly computer program named cryoSPARC (http://www.cryosparc.com).

  13. 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xiu-Yan; Qiu, Chang-Kai

    2016-12-01

    To improve the inversion accuracy of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data, we propose a parallel 3D inversion algorithm for airborne EM data based on the direct Gauss-Newton optimization. Forward modeling is performed in the frequency domain based on the scattered secondary electrical field. Then, the inverse Fourier transform and convolution of the transmitting waveform are used to calculate the EM responses and the sensitivity matrix in the time domain for arbitrary transmitting waves. To optimize the computational time and memory requirements, we use the EM "footprint" concept to reduce the model size and obtain the sparse sensitivity matrix. To improve the 3D inversion, we use the OpenMP library and parallel computing. We test the proposed 3D parallel inversion code using two synthetic datasets and a field dataset. The time-domain airborne EM inversion results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, efficient, and practical.

  14. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  15. Quantify Lateral Dispersion and Turbulent Mixing by Spatial Array of chi-EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    before being transported to the northeast, with strong south-east/north- west gradients. The other assets were moved northward immediately, causing an...experiments. REFERENCES Kunze, E., and Sanford, T. B., 1993, Submesoscale Dynamics near a Seamount . Part I: Measurements of Ertel Vorticity, American...EM-APEX Floats and Moorings (N00014-08-1-0560) as a part of the ITOP DRI. Fourteen EM-APEX floats were air-deployed into two W. Pacific typhoons

  16. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  17. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  18. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  19. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  20. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  1. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  2. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  3. Prehospital recognition of severe sepsis: development and validation of a novel EMS screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Carmen C.; Isakov, Alex; Yancey, Arthur H.; Wilson, Duncan K.; Anderson, Blake A.; Bloom, Ingrid; Martin, Greg S.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a predictive model and novel Emergency Medical Services (EMS) screening tool for severe sepsis (SS). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A single EMS system and an urban, public hospital. Patients Sequential adult, non-trauma, non-arrest, at-risk, EMS-transported patients between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At-risk patients were defined as having all 3 of the following criteria present in the EMS setting: heart rate >90bpm, 2) respiratory rate >20bpm, and 3) systolic blood pressure <110mmHg. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among 66,439 EMS encounters, 555 met criteria for analysis. Fourteen percent (n=75) of patients had SS, of which 19% (n=14) were identified by EMS clinical judgment. In-hospital mortality for patients with SS was 31% (n=23). Six EMS characteristics were found to be predictors of SS: older age, transport from nursing home, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) 9-1-1 chief complaint category of “Sick Person”, hot tactile temperature assessment, low systolic blood pressure, and low oxygen saturation. The final predictive model showed good discrimination in derivation and validation subgroups (AUC 0.843 and 0.820, respectively). Sensitivity of the final model was 91% in the derivation group and 78% in the validation group. At a pre-defined threshold of 2 or more points, prehospital severe sepsis (PRESS) score sensitivity was 86%. Conclusions The PRESS score is a novel EMS screening tool for SS that demonstrates a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 47%. Additional validation is needed before this tool can be recommended for widespread clinical use. PMID:26070235

  4. Using PAs in prehospital environments to reduce ED and EMS overuse.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine M; Tozier, William L

    2017-04-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) and EDs in large cities are burdened with a significant number of patients with chronic disease who have limited options for receiving proper care. Despite their relatively small numbers, these "superusers" can have a significant effect on EMS, particularly in large cities. Additionally, EDs are not designed to provide chronic and continuous healthcare. This article describes how several organizations use physician assistants to manage these patients.

  5. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  6. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns.

  7. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  8. Two SERK Receptor-Like Kinases Interact with EMS1 to Control Anther Cell Fate Determination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Ahsan, Nagib; Biener, Gabriel; Paprocki, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1. The SERK1/2 genes function in the same genetic pathway as EMS1 in anther development. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer, and coimmunoprecipitation approaches revealed that SERK1 interacted biochemically with EMS1. Transphosphorylation of EMS1 by SERK1 enhances EMS1 kinase activity. Among 12 in vitro autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation sites identified by tandem mass spectrometry, seven of them were found to be critical for EMS1 autophosphorylation activity. Furthermore, complementation test results suggest that phosphorylation of EMS1 is required for its function in anther development. Collectively, these data provide genetic and biochemical evidence of the interaction and phosphorylation between SERK1/2 and EMS1 in anther development. PMID:27920157

  9. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  10. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  11. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  12. Streptavidin crystals as nanostructured supports and image-calibration references for cryo-EM data collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguo; Ounjai, Puey; Sigworth, Fred J

    2008-11-01

    For cryo-EM structural studies, we seek to image membrane proteins as single particles embedded in proteoliposomes. One technical difficulty has been the low density of liposomes that can be trapped in the approximately 100nm ice layer that spans holes in the perforated carbon support film of EM grids. Inspired by the use of two-dimensional (2D) streptavidin crystals as an affinity surface for biotinylated DNA (Crucifix et al., 2004), we propose to use the crystals to tether liposomes doped with biotinylated lipids. The 2D crystal image also serves as a calibration of the image formation process, providing an absolute conversion from electrostatic potentials in the specimen to the EM image intensity, and serving as a quality control of acquired cryo-EM images. We were able to grow streptavidin crystals covering more than 90% of the holes in an EM grid, and which remained stable even under negative stain. The liposome density in the resulting cryo-EM sample was uniform and high due to the high-affinity binding of biotin to streptavidin. Using computational methods, the 2D crystal background can be removed from images without noticeable effect on image properties.

  13. Anisotropic 3D inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, J.; Midgley, J.; Zhdanov, M. S.; ENDO, M.

    2013-12-01

    Obviating the need for ocean bottom receivers, the towed streamer EM system enables CSEM data to be acquired simultaneously with seismic over very large areas in frontier and mature basins for higher production rates and more cost effective than conventional marine CSEM. The towed streamer EM data are currently processed and delivered as a spectrum of frequency-domain responses. We apply a 3D anisotropic inversion methodology for towed streamer EM data that includes a moving sensitivity domain. Our implementation is based on the 3D contraction integral equation method for computing the EM responses and Fréchet derivatives, and uses the re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient method for minimizing the objective functional with focusing regularization. We present an actual case study for the 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province in the North Sea, and demonstrate our ability to image the Troll West Oil and Gas Provinces. We conclude that 3D anisotropic inversion of the data from the current generation of towed streamer EM system can adequately recover both the vertical and horizontal resistivities in anisotropic hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

  14. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E.M.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling. PMID:26846888

  15. An Uncertainty Analysis for Predicting Soil Profile Salinity Using EM Induction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    Proximal soil sensing techniques such as electromagnetic (EM) induction have been used to identify and map the areal variation of average soil properties. However, soil varies with depth owing to the action of various soil forming factors (e.g., parent material and topography). In this work we collected EM data using an EM38 and EM34 meter along a 22-km transect in the Trangie District, Australia.We jointly inverted these data using EM4Soil software and compare our 2-dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with depth against measured electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe - dS/m) at depth of 0-16 m. Through the use of a linear regression (LR) model and by varying forward modelling algorithms (cumulative function and full solution), inversion algorithms (S1 and S2), and damping factor (lambda) we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) which was optimal when using the full solution, S2 and lambda = 0.6. To evaluate uncertainty of the inversion process and the LR model, we conducted an uncertainty analysis. The distribution of the model misfit shows the largest uncertainty caused by inversion (mostly due to EM34-40) occurs at deeper profiles while the largest uncertainty of the LR model occurs where the soil profile is most saline. These uncertainty maps also illustrate us how the model accuracy can be improved in the future.

  16. Stroke savvy. The accuracy of EMS-reported last known normal times.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Keith; Wesley, Karen

    2014-09-01

    We collected EMS-reported "last known normal" (LKN) times for patients brought to the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the neurologist-determined and EMS-reported LKN times (deltaLKN). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use if the EMS-reported times were used instead of the neurologist-determined times. Of 251 patients, mean and median deltaLKN were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. deltaLKN was < 15 minutes in 91% of the entire group and < 15 minutes in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke. Of patients who received IV tPA, none would've been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who didn't receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times by an average of 208 minutes. All of the potentially incorrectly included patients would've been wake-up strokes.

  17. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  18. An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects. PMID:28304348

  19. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in

  20. If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellard, Stanley J.

    2012-10-01

    Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

  1. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  2. CryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after branching

    PubMed Central

    Galej, Wojciech P.; Wilkinson, Max E.; Fica, Sebastian M.; Oubridge, Chris; Newman, Andrew J.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing proceeds by two consecutive trans-esterification reactions via a lariat-intron intermediate. We present the 3.8Å cryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after lariat formation. The 5’-splice site is cleaved but remains close to the catalytic Mg2+ site in the U2/U6 snRNA triplex, and the 5’-phosphate of the intron nucleotide G(+1) is linked to the branch adenosine 2’OH. The 5’-exon is held between the Prp8 N-terminal and Linker domains, and base-pairs with U5 snRNA loop 1. Non-Watson-Crick interactions between the branch helix and 5’-splice site dock the branch adenosine into the active site, while intron nucleotides +3 to +6 base-pair with the U6 snRNA ACAGAGA sequence. Isy1 and the step one factors Yju2 and Cwc25 stabilise docking of the branch helix. The intron downstream of the branch site emerges between the Prp8 RT and Linker domains and extends towards Prp16 helicase, suggesting a plausible mechanism of remodelling before exon ligation. PMID:27459055

  3. Primary Mechanism of EM Interaction with the Live Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakhanyan, Viktor

    There is a prevailing opinion that the theoretical explanation of electromagnetic (EM) fields influence on live organisms is impossible to explain theoretically and even the play between parameters of waves and tissues is unknown to us. The explanation of mechanism of this influence is vitally important owing to the development of new types of electronic devices operating in different frequency ranges and due to the still continuing controversy about their adverse health effect. It is shown that the application of newly developed procedure of shutting-on of the interaction of charged particles with electromagnetic fields allows explaining their influence on live tissue by origination of macroscopic polarization currents due to the joint action of electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves. The currents originate in the case of resonance between the proper frequency of the medium and of frequency of external electromagnetic fields. Thus, the experiments to measure these polarization currents can provide information about dangerous frequency ranges and these ranges, with maximal polarization currents, should be excluded during construction of electronic devices.

  4. Specimen preparation for high-resolution cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Lori A.; Russo, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various specimen supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector and support technology. PMID:27572723

  5. An EM Induction Hi-Speed Rotation Angular Rate Sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuan; Han, Yan

    2017-03-17

    A hi-speed rotation angular rate sensor based on an electromagnetic induction signal is proposed to provide a possibility of wide range measurement of high angular rates. An angular rate sensor is designed that works on the principle of electromagnetism (EM) induction. In addition to a zero-phase detection technique, this sensor uses the feedback principle of magnetic induction coils in response to a rotating magnetic field. It solves the challenge of designing an angular rate sensor that is suitable for both low and high rotating rates. The sensor was examined for angular rate measurement accuracy in simulation tests using a rotary table. The results show that it is capable of measuring angular rates ranging from 1 rps to 100 rps, with an error within 1.8‰ of the full scale (FS). The proposed sensor is suitable to measurement applications where the rotation angular rate is widely varied, and it contributes to design technology advancements of real-time sensors measuring angular acceleration, angular rate, and angular displacement of hi-speed rotary objects.

  6. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z G

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  7. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  8. Expert witness qualifications and ethical guidelines for emergency medical services litigation: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, W Ann Winnie; Kupas, Douglas F; Glushak, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The clinical provision of medical care by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the out-of-hospital environment and the operation of EMS systems to provide that care are unique in the medical arena. There is a substantive difference in the experience of individuals who provide medical care in the out-of-hospital setting and the experience of those who provide similar care in the hospital or other clinical settings. Furthermore, physicians who provide medical direction for EMS personnel have a clinical and oversight relationship with EMS personnel. This relationship uniquely qualifies EMS medical directors to provide expert opinions related to care provided by nonphysician EMS personnel. Physicians without specific EMS oversight experience are not uniformly qualified to provide expert opinion regarding the provision of EMS. This resource document reviews the current issues in expert witness testimony in cases involving EMS as these issues relate to the unique qualifications of the expert witness, the standard of care, and the ethical expectations.

  9. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  10. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS).

    PubMed

    Tun, Hein M; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 10(5) copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS.

  11. Employee retention: applying hospital strategies to EMS. With increasing demand for and decreasing supply of EMTs and paramedics, retention strategies should be a priority for EMS organizations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Retention strategies are a priority for EMS organizations. These strategies must be broad and varied to address the variety of reasons employees leave healthcare organizations. The value of creating these programs should manifest itself through increased employee satisfaction and an increased sense of belonging to the organization.

  12. Accurate 2D/3D electromagnetic modeling for time-domain airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Hodges, G.

    2012-12-01

    The existing industry software cannot deliver correct results for 3D time-domain airborne EM responses. In this paper, starting from the Fourier transform and convolution, we compare the stability of different modeling techniques and analyze the reason for instable calculations of the time-domain airborne EM responses. We find that the singularity of the impulse responses of EM systems at very early time that are used in the convolution is responsible for the instability of the modeling (Fig.1). Based on this finding, we put forward an algorithm that uses step response rather than impulse response of the airborne EM system for the convolution and create a stable algorithm that delivers precise results and maintains well the integral/derivative relationship between the magnetic field B and the magnetic induction dB/dt. A three-step transformation procedure for the modeling is proposed: 1) output the frequency-domain EM response data from the existing software; 2) transform into step-response by digital Fourier/Hankel transform; 3) convolve the step response with the transmitting current or its derivatives. The method has proved to be working very well (Fig. 2). The algorithm can be extended to the modeling of other time-domain ground and airborne EM system responses.Fig. 1: Comparison of impulse and step responses for an airborne EM system Fig. 2: Bz and dBz/dt calculated from step (middle panel) and impulse responses (lower panel) for the same 3D model as in Fig.1.

  13. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel.

  15. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  16. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  17. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  18. National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guidelines Strategy: A Summary for EMS Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Gaither, Joshua B; Bigham, Blair L; Myers, J Brent; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple national organizations have recommended and supported a national investment to increase the scientific evidence available to guide patient care delivered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and incorporate that evidence directly into EMS systems. Ongoing efforts seek to develop, implement, and evaluate prehospital evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) using the National Model Process created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS (FICEMS) and the National EMS Advisory Council (NEMSAC). Yet, these and other EBG efforts have occurred in relative isolation, with limited direct collaboration between national projects, and have experienced challenges in implementation of individual guidelines. There is a need to develop sustainable relationships among stakeholders that facilitate a common vision that facilitates EBG efforts. Herein, we summarize a National Strategy on EBGs developed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) with involvement of 57 stakeholder organizations, and with the financial support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EMS for Children program. The Strategy proposes seven action items that support collaborative efforts in advancing prehospital EBGs. The first proposed action is creation of a Prehospital Guidelines Consortium (PGC) representing national medical and EMS organizations that have an interest in prehospital EBGs and their benefits to patient outcomes. Other action items include promoting research that supports creation and evaluates the impact of EBGs, promoting the development of new EBGs through improved stakeholder collaboration, and improving education on evidence-based medicine for all prehospital providers. The Strategy intends to facilitate implementation of EBGs by improving guideline dissemination and incorporation into protocols, and seeks to establish standardized evaluation methods for prehospital EBGs. Finally, the Strategy

  19. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice.

  20. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  1. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  2. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  3. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same

  4. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  5. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-01-18

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  6. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  7. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  8. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

  9. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  10. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  11. Facility location: a review of context-free and EMS models.

    PubMed Central

    ReVelle, C; Bigman, D; Schilling, D; Cohon, J; Church, R

    1977-01-01

    EMS location models are those formulated to address specific problems of emergency medical services systems; context-free location models are those developed without reference to particular applications. The literature on these two types of public facility location models is reviewed, and the development of the maximal covering model from several earlier context-free models is described, with emphasis on problem statements and articulation of service objectives. An application of the maximal covering model to fire truck location points up the ability of this model to handle multiple objectives; its ability to compare alternative solutions gives it great utility for planning and evaluating EMS systems of a wide range of complexity. Potential applications of the maximal covering model are discussed regarding EMS problems involving multiple time standards and service objectives, location of special equipment, and siting of fixed facilities. PMID:885725

  12. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  13. Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica EM1, Isolated from a Patient with a Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Soehnlen, Marty; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica EM1 was isolated from a whole-blood sample from a female patient. The draft genome sequence of Em1 contains 4,038,467 bp, with a G+C content of 36.37%. A preliminary genome analysis showed that Em1 contains genes conferring resistance to β-lactams. The bacterium has hemolysin genes and a set of genes involved in heme uptake and heme utilization, showing its potential to cause bloodstream infections. A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system was identified. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis assigned the bacterium to the species E. meningoseptica (ANI, >95%). The annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a pathogen in humans. PMID:27789634

  14. Fabs enable single particle cryoEM studies of small proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Kim, JungMin; Booth, David S; Greenberg, Charles H; Rossi, Andrea; Liao, Maofu; Li, Xueming; Alian, Akram; Griner, Sarah L; Juge, Narinobu; Yu, Yadong; Mergel, Claudia M; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Strop, Pavel; Tampé, Robert; Edwards, Robert H; Stroud, Robert M; Craik, Charles S; Cheng, Yifan

    2012-04-04

    In spite of its recent achievements, the technique of single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has not been widely used to study proteins smaller than 100 kDa, although it is a highly desirable application of this technique. One fundamental limitation is that images of small proteins embedded in vitreous ice do not contain adequate features for accurate image alignment. We describe a general strategy to overcome this limitation by selecting a fragment antigen binding (Fab) to form a stable and rigid complex with a target protein, thus providing a defined feature for accurate image alignment. Using this approach, we determined a three-dimensional structure of an ∼65 kDa protein by single particle cryoEM. Because Fabs can be readily generated against a wide range of proteins by phage display, this approach is generally applicable to study many small proteins by single particle cryoEM.

  15. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  16. Robust estimation for class averaging in cryo-EM Single Particle Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenxi; Tagare, Hemant D

    2014-01-01

    Single Particle Reconstruction (SPR) for Cryogenic Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) aligns and averages the images extracted from micrographs to improve the Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR). Outliers compromise the fidelity of the averaging. We propose a robust cross-correlation-like w-estimator for combating the effect of outliers on the average images in cryo-EM. The estimator accounts for the natural variation of signal contrast among the images and eliminates the need for a threshold for outlier rejection. We show that the influence function of our estimator is asymptotically bounded. Evaluations of the estimator on simulated and real cryo-EM images show good performance in the presence of outliers.

  17. Network Analysis of Students' Representation Use in Mechanics and E&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPadden, Daryl; Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the representational tools that students in the Modeling Instruction-Introductory E&M (MI-E&M) course use on introductory physics problems. Representational competence is a critical skill needed for students to develop and communicate a sophisticated understanding of science topics, particularly in physics where multiple representations are often used within a single problem. The Modeling Instruction curriculum highlights representation development as a part of the modeling process, making the MI-E&M course a rich context to collect data. In the Spring 2015 and Spring 2016 semesters, over 150 students total (from 3 sections of MI-E&M) were given a survey of 25 physics problem statements both pre- and post- instruction, covering both Newtonian Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism (E&M), and asked which representations they would use in that given situation. Using network analysis, we compare how students use representations in Mechanics and E&M contexts.

  18. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  19. A comparative study of the PIFA and printed monopole antenna EM absorption.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Ikbal; Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Rashed; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents a comparative study on electromagnetic (EM) absorption in the human head between a printed monopole antenna and a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA). The specific absorption rate (SAR) values and total absorbed power in the human head phantom are used to evaluate EM absorption for both antennae. Moreover, antenna performances in terms of return loss, radiation efficiency, and gain are also investigated in this study. The finite integration technique (FIT) based on CST Microwave studio and SAM head phantom are used in this study. The antenna performances are measured in an anechoic chamber and the SAR is tested using COMOSAR measurement system. The obtained results indicate that the printed monopole antenna lead to higher EM absorption in the human head as compared to PIFA for both GSM frequencies.

  20. Next-Generation Sequencing for Identification of EMS-Induced Mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Ji, Fei; Sadreyev, Ruslan

    2017-01-05

    Forward genetic analysis using chemical mutagenesis in model organisms is a powerful tool for investigation of molecular mechanisms in biological systems. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, mutagenesis screens using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) have led to important insights into genetic control of animal development and physiology. A major bottleneck to this approach is identification of the causative mutation underlying a phenotype of interest. In the past, this has required time-consuming genetic mapping experiments. More recently, next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed development of new methods for rapid mapping and identification of EMS-induced lesions. In this unit we describe a protocol to map and identify EMS-induced mutations in C. elegans. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. EM Safety Innovations Aim Toward Safer Technologies and Better Information for Users

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, M.; Geiger, J.; Carpenter, C.

    2002-02-26

    Beginning in 2000, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science and Technology (OST) has substantially re-examined and improved our approach to worker safety and health. Consistent with OST's responsibilities for safety, these initiatives can be categorized generally as: (1) Making our technologies inherently safer to use; and (2) Providing useful safety and health information about our technologies to the sites and technology operators. This evolved through a collaborative process by the EM Office of Safety, Health and Security, the EM Office of Science and Technology, EM Focus Areas and others. It was, initially, largely in response to a set of eight recommendations by the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) and to lessons learned from a serious accident in August, 2000 involving an OST-funded new technology. The cornerstone of this effort is the Policy for Occupational Safety and Health in EM's Science and Technology Program, issued in January 2001. DOE Focus Areas are focusing more attention on worker safety and health in their solicitations and procurement documents for new technology research and development (R&D) projects. EM Headquarters is working with Focus Areas, site environmental contractors, technology developers, and their respective DOE field organizations to ensure that roles and responsibilities for worker safety and health are clearly defined when a new technology is demonstrated at an environmental management site. The peer review process administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) now requires technology developers to think through their approach to safety and health in a more detailed, focused way than previously. In Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs), developers are comparing their new technologies to baseline technologies on the basis of safety and health. Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are being prepared for new technologies when they reach the

  2. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  3. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  4. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  5. Recidivism Among Licensed-Released Prisoners Who Participated in the EM Program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2015-08-01

    Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EM361-97 Isolated from the Blood of a Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis EM361-97 was isolated from the blood of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lung cancer. We report the draft genome sequence of EM361-97, which contains a G+C content of 35.7% and 3,611 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27789647

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EM361-97 Isolated from the Blood of a Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Yi-Han; Lin, Hsi-Hsun

    2016-10-27

    Elizabethkingia anophelis EM361-97 was isolated from the blood of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lung cancer. We report the draft genome sequence of EM361-97, which contains a G+C content of 35.7% and 3,611 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  8. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one,…

  9. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  10. Preliminary Seafloor Controlled Source EM Results From APPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, J. P.; MacGregor, L.; Constable, S.; Everett, M.

    2001-12-01

    Certain events in the life cycle of oceanic lithosphere are dominantly two-dimensional. These include formation of crust at axial spreading centers and deformation at the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary. These processes may result in an electrically anisotropic oceanic lithosphere by creating conductive pathways in preferred orientations. Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) soundings and Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were made during the Anisotropy and Physics of the Pacific Lithosphere Experiment (APPLE), carried out in February/March 2001 approximately 600 km west of San Diego, California. Twenty seafloor electromagnetic field sensors were deployed: 4 long-wire CSEM recorders with 200 m electrode offsets, 6 high-frequency MT/CSEM recorders with two orthogonal 10 m offset electrodes and two orthogonal induction coil magnetometers, and 10 low-frequency MT recorders with a three-component fluxgate magnetometer and two orthogonal 10 m electric dipoles, 5 of which also recorded CSEM data. Every instrument was recovered, with data, during this primary cruise and a follow-up recovery cruise for the long-period instruments in August 2001. The deep-towed EM transmitter (DASI) was a 100 m horizontal electric dipole, which was towed in a 30 km radius circle around a central core of recorders. A radial tow was also performed. DASI transmitted a 4 Hz square wave throughout the CSEM phase of the experiment. Initial processing of the CSEM data reveals evidence of crustal anisotropy. In particular, transmitted electromagnetic energy is attenuated more strongly when propagating from west to east than from north to south. The difference in attenuation is about a factor of two, at a range of 30 km and a frequency of 4Hz. This confirms earlier results from the PEGASUS experiment, which proposed that oceanic lower crust and upper mantle with east-west trending lineaments of increased conductivity will exhibit greater attenuation of electric fields in the east

  11. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas Using Microstructure EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-18

    and Fisheries of Republic of Indonesia (KKP), Bali BPPL lab on their Baruna Jaya 8 cruise in August 2016. Arrangement to sh ip the EM APEX float to...windy period when the processes measured by the EM APEX floats were most active) by Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of Republic of Indonesia...story why ww D10ftd to RDCMFT). The..,. boold is lr. Matheus Eko Rud.an1o. M.Sus..IT Ministly of Morine AJfairs and Fisheries (KKP) lMRO·Bali

  12. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings

  13. Genomic characterization of EmsB microsatellite loci in Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Valot, Benoît; Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    EmsB is a molecular marker applied to Echinococcus multilocularis genotyping studies. This marker has largely been used to investigate the epidemiology of the parasite in different endemic foci. The present study has lifted the veil on the genetic structure of this microsatellite. By in silico analysis on the E. multilocularis genome the microsatellite was described in about 40 copies on the chromosome 5 of the parasite. Similar structure was found in the relative parasite Echinococcus granulosus, where the microsatellite was firstly described. The present study completes the first investigations made on the EmsB microsatellite origins and confirms the reliability of this highly discriminant molecular marker.

  14. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as ‘movies’ made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired. PMID:26546989

  15. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  16. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  17. Specially Conditioned EM Fields for Propellant-less Impulsion within Higher Dimensional Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. David

    2009-03-01

    A higher dimensional realm with room for both slower than light (STL) and faster-than-light (FTL) travel is defined, together with paths within this realm that enable: unlabored (momentum-conserving and energy-preserving) ship acceleration and deceleration between STL and FTL speeds. And it is shown that fields guiding ships on unlabored paths within this deeper realm must have components in more than the 3 spatial directions in which ordinary electromagnetic (EM) fields act. This is shown possible with EM fields that are transformed from lower U1 to higher SU2 Lie symmetry.

  18. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C.

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  19. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  20. Study on rheo-diecasting process of 7075R alloys by SA-EMS melt homogenized treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihua, G.; Jun, X.; Zhifeng, Z.; Guojun, L.; Mengou, T.

    2016-03-01

    An advanced melt processing technology, spiral annular electromagnetic stirring (SA-EMS) based on the annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) process was developed for manufacturing Al-alloy components with high integrity. The SA-EMS process innovatively combines non-contact electromagnetic stirring and a spiral annular chamber with specially designed profiles to in situ make high quality melt slurry, and intensive forced shearing can be achieved under high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence inside the spiral annular chamber. In this paper, the solidification microstructure and hardness of 7075R alloy die-casting connecting rod conditioned by the SA-EMS melt processing technology were investigated. The results indicate that, the SA-EMS melt processing technology exhibited superior grain refinement and remarkable structure homogeneity. In addition, it can evidently enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the crack tendency.

  1. In Situ Data Processing With Workflow-based Embedded Cyberinfrastructure (emCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, G.; Silva, F.; Graham, E. A.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Rundel, P.

    2011-12-01

    The decreasing cost of sensors and sensor networks has led to the wide scale adoption of this technology by large numbers of scientists for the collection of data in the field. At the same time, advances in both hardware and software have resulted in increased processing power at the sensor, enabling sensors in the field to do more than just data collection. With an increase in the number of sensors and deployments, scientists need tools for the configuration, operation, and debugging problems on their sensor networks. Furthermore, as the amount of data increases, scientists need a way to quickly and easily tag, process, archive, and share their datasets. Without proper tools, it is common for data processing to happen weeks or sometimes months after it is collected. This leads to important events being missed and makes real-time data analysis impossible. Additionally, because data is often manually processed through a series of repetitive steps, the analysis is susceptible to errors that are hard to track after data is combined and shared among researchers. Our emCI (embedded cyberinfrastructure) toolkit enables researchers to easily collect, analyze, and share their data. emCI provides a web-portal with upload/download capabilities that accept data in a number of different formats and ultimately can be used to archive data and share datasets among scientists. emCI uses an embedded general-purpose computer in the field for interfacing with sensors, coordinating data collection, and providing reliable data transfer to the emCI web portal. emCI relies on workflow technologies to automate data processing pipelines and to provide provenance information. In particular, emCI uses the Pegasus Workflow Management System as a core component, adapting it to the embedded computation environment. emCI allows scientists to distribute tasks among sensors in field and servers in the lab. In-situ processing using embedded workflows enable data reduction and validation in the

  2. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  3. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help.

  4. Properties of the EM cascade: A tutorial utilizing high resolution 3D color graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W R

    1987-02-01

    The fundamental interactions of electrons and photons are reviewed that are important to shower physics. The shower is then described, including a simple model, an advanced analytic model, and Monte Carlo approaches. Examples of real, as well as simulated, EM showers are discussed, and some ''rules of thumb'' are provided. (LEW)

  5. Dynamic partnership: A new approach to EM technology commercialization and deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1996-12-31

    The task of restoring nuclear defense complex sites under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program presents an unprecedented challenge to the environmental restoration community. Effective and efficient cleanup requires the timely development or modification of novel cleanup technologies applicable to radioactive wastes. Fostering the commercialization of these innovative technologies is the mission of EM-50, the EM Program Office of Science and Technology. However, efforts are often arrested at the {open_quotes}valley of death,{close_quotes} the general term for barriers to demonstration, commercialization, and deployment. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a not-for-profit, contract-supported organization focused on research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C) of energy and environmental technologies, is in the second year of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) designed to deliver EM technologies into the commercial marketplace through a unique combination of technical support, real-world demonstration, and brokering. This paper profiles this novel approach, termed {open_quotes}Dynamic Partnership,{close_quotes} and reviews the application of this concept to the ongoing commercialization and deployment of four innovative cleanup technologies. 2 tabs.

  6. Correction to ATel 10128: Spectral Comparison Object SN 1999em -> SN 1999ee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-01

    We report a correction to the spectroscopic classification announced in ATel #10128. The spectral comparison shows that SN 2017bke is similar to type Ia supernova SN 1999ee (which was incorrectly typed as SN 1999em) at t = -7 days from the maximum light. We apologize for any confusion caused by this typo error.

  7. EmPOWERing Children with Learning Disabilities: A Practitioner-Based Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the expressive writing needs of students who struggle have become a critical and life-influencing problem. This article provides an overview of current research on the writing needs of students with LD and a practitioner-based reflection on the Singer and Bashir EmPOWER approach, a resource that can help teachers meet…

  8. Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

    2013-01-01

    "EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated…

  9. Automated structure refinement of macromolecular assemblies from cryo-EM maps using Rosetta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Song, Yifan; Barad, Benjamin A; Cheng, Yifan; Fraser, James S; DiMaio, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM has revealed the structures of many challenging yet exciting macromolecular assemblies at near-atomic resolution (3–4.5Å), providing biological phenomena with molecular descriptions. However, at these resolutions, accurately positioning individual atoms remains challenging and error-prone. Manually refining thousands of amino acids – typical in a macromolecular assembly – is tedious and time-consuming. We present an automated method that can improve the atomic details in models that are manually built in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM maps. Applying the method to three systems recently solved by cryo-EM, we are able to improve model geometry while maintaining the fit-to-density. Backbone placement errors are automatically detected and corrected, and the refinement shows a large radius of convergence. The results demonstrate that the method is amenable to structures with symmetry, of very large size, and containing RNA as well as covalently bound ligands. The method should streamline the cryo-EM structure determination process, providing accurate and unbiased atomic structure interpretation of such maps. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17219.001 PMID:27669148

  10. The Role of Journals in Building up Communities: The Experience of "Ciência em Tela"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel; de Souza Barros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    "Ciência em Tela" is an open access Brazilian science teacher education online journal that has been published twice a year since 2008 and which encourages the participation of professionals with different backgrounds and the submission of a variety of textual genres, besides research papers. Another feature is that the journal includes…

  11. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  12. Unsupervised Cryo-EM Data Clustering through Adaptively Constrained K-Means Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaofang; Wu, Jiayi; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Mao, Youdong

    2016-01-01

    In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), K-means clustering algorithm is widely used in unsupervised 2D classification of projection images of biological macromolecules. 3D ab initio reconstruction requires accurate unsupervised classification in order to separate molecular projections of distinct orientations. Due to background noise in single-particle images and uncertainty of molecular orientations, traditional K-means clustering algorithm may classify images into wrong classes and produce classes with a large variation in membership. Overcoming these limitations requires further development on clustering algorithms for cryo-EM data analysis. We propose a novel unsupervised data clustering method building upon the traditional K-means algorithm. By introducing an adaptive constraint term in the objective function, our algorithm not only avoids a large variation in class sizes but also produces more accurate data clustering. Applications of this approach to both simulated and experimental cryo-EM data demonstrate that our algorithm is a significantly improved alterative to the traditional K-means algorithm in single-particle cryo-EM analysis. PMID:27959895

  13. Advanced Spacecraft EM Modelling Based on Geometric Simplification Process and Multi-Methods Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leman, Samuel; Hoeppe, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    This paper is about the first results of a new generation of ElectroMagnetic (EM) methodology applied to spacecraft systems modelling in the low frequency range (system's dimensions are of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength).This innovative approach aims at implementing appropriate simplifications of the real system based on the identification of the dominant electrical and geometrical parameters driving the global EM behaviour. One rigorous but expensive simulation is performed to quantify the error generated by the use of simpler multi-models. If both the speed up of the simulation time and the quality of the EM response are satisfied, uncertainty simulation could be performed based on the simple models library implementing in a flexible and robust Kron's network formalism.This methodology is expected to open up new perspectives concerning fast parametric analysis, and deep understanding of systems behaviour. It will ensure the identification of main radiated and conducted coupling paths and the sensitive EM parameters in order to optimize the protections and to control the disturbance sources in spacecraft design phases.

  14. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  15. Unsupervised Cryo-EM Data Clustering through Adaptively Constrained K-Means Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaofang; Wu, Jiayi; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Mao, Youdong

    2016-01-01

    In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), K-means clustering algorithm is widely used in unsupervised 2D classification of projection images of biological macromolecules. 3D ab initio reconstruction requires accurate unsupervised classification in order to separate molecular projections of distinct orientations. Due to background noise in single-particle images and uncertainty of molecular orientations, traditional K-means clustering algorithm may classify images into wrong classes and produce classes with a large variation in membership. Overcoming these limitations requires further development on clustering algorithms for cryo-EM data analysis. We propose a novel unsupervised data clustering method building upon the traditional K-means algorithm. By introducing an adaptive constraint term in the objective function, our algorithm not only avoids a large variation in class sizes but also produces more accurate data clustering. Applications of this approach to both simulated and experimental cryo-EM data demonstrate that our algorithm is a significantly improved alterative to the traditional K-means algorithm in single-particle cryo-EM analysis.

  16. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python.

  17. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…

  18. Injury risks of EMS responders: evidence from the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Davis, Andrea L; Barnes, Brittany; Lacovara, Alicia V; Patel, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed near-miss and injury events reported to the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) to investigate the workplace hazards and safety concerns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders in the USA. Methods We reviewed 769 ‘non-fire emergency event’ reports from the NFFNMRS using a mixed methods approach. We identified 185 emergency medical calls and analysed their narrative text fields. We assigned Mechanism of Near-Miss/Injury and Nature of Injury codes and then tabulated frequencies (quantitative). We coded major themes regarding work hazards and safety concerns reported by the EMS responders (qualitative). Results Of the 185 emergency medical calls, the most commonly identified Mechanisms of Near-Miss/Injury to EMS responders was Assaults, followed by Struck-by Motor Vehicle, and Motor Vehicle Collision. The most commonly identified weapon used in an assault was a firearm. We identified 5 major domains of workplace hazards and safety concerns: Assaults by Patients, Risks from Motor Vehicles, Personal Protective Equipment, Relationships between Emergency Responders, and Policies, Procedures and Practices. Conclusions Narrative text from the NFFNMRS is a rich source of data that can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to provide insight into near-misses and injuries sustained by EMS responders. Near-miss reporting systems are critical components for occupational hazard surveillance. PMID:26068510

  19. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  20. The VLF-EM imaging of potential collapse on the LUSI embankment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungkono; Husein, Alwi; Prasetyo, Hardi; Bahri, Ayi S.; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Santosa, Bagus J.

    2014-10-01

    Collapse and overtopping repeatedly occur in LUSI Embankment. Discontinuities (crack or fracture) in the embankment are major reasons for embankment failures or collapses. Very-low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) measurement is essentially a non-destructive technique which displays subsurface 2-D cross section of resistivity. The cross section result has the possibility of detecting discontinuities and liquid saturation in embankment before it collapsed by observing which part of it in the cross section has low resistivity. This paper presents results of a survey conducted at the LUSI embankment in Eastern Java, Indonesia in a part of potential collapse. VLF-EM profiles measured along the embankment crest provided an overview of the whole embankment and served to detect anomalous zones. The noise assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) is applied to reject unwanted VLF-EM noise and Inv2DVLF software is applied to obtain result of 2-D resistivity models. In the selected area, the drill log and the standard penetration test (SPT) value gave detailed information about subsurface layer below embankment. This information is valuable for supporting 2-D resistivity image obtained from VLF-EM data inversion. Furthermore, the low resistivity in embankment layer is associated to discontinuities (fracture, crack or fault) along the embankment which caused its collapse.

  1. 12 Years of Action Learning at EM Normandie: Monitored Field Projects as Regular Pedagogical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Sophie Gay; Hachard, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The Master Grande Ecole curriculum at EM Normandie School is organized around junior consulting projects and real problem solving activities aiming at bridging the gap between classroom knowledge and professional competencies. Since the 90's, students are involved in regular consulting activities for local and national companies following the…

  2. Virtual Environmental Management Office (VEMO): The Air National Guard’s Multi-Site Organization EMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Installation report to leadership Start all over again Guarding America – Defending Freedom How do you communicate and “share” this ANG utilizes...the tabs at the top will allow you to see pages associated to that tab. Click on the appropriate page and it will open that site The EMS/ISO 14001

  3. Demographics and Fellowship Training of Residency Leadership in EM: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Josh; Hardy, Ross; Chacko, Jerel; Husain, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medicine (EM) fellowships are becoming increasingly numerous, and there is a growing trend among EM residents to pursue postgraduate fellowship training. Scant data have been published on the prevalence of postgraduate training among emergency physicians. We aimed to describe the prevalence and regional variation of fellowships among EM residency leadership. Methods We conducted an online anonymous survey that was sent to the Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) membership in October 2014. The survey was a brief questionnaire, which inquired about fellowship, secondary board certification, gender, and length in a leadership position of each member of its residency leadership. We separated the responses to the survey into four different geographic regions. The geographic regions were defined by the same classification used by the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). We defined residency leadership as program director (PD), associate PD and assistant PD. Residencies that did not complete the survey were then individually contacted to encourage completion. The survey was initially piloted for ease of use and understanding of the questions with a select few EM PDs. Results We obtained responses from 145 of the 164 Accrediting Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited EM residencies (88%). The fellowship prevalence among PDs, associate PDs, and assistant PDs was 21.4%, 20.3%, and 24.9% respectively. The most common fellowship completed was a fellowship in toxicology. Secondary board certification among PDs, associate PDs, and assistant PDs was 9.7%, 4.8%, and 2.9% respectively. Eighty-two percent of PDs have at least five years in residency leadership. Seventy-six percent of PDs were male, and there was a near-even split of gender among associate PDs and assistant PDs. The Western region had the highest percentage of fellowship and or secondary board certification among all levels of residency leadership. Conclusion There is a

  4. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  5. Empirical and accurate method for the three-dimensional electrostatic potential (EM-ESP) of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Shi; Wang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2010-04-01

    The electrostatic potential (ESP) is an important property of interactions within and between macromolecules, including those of importance in the life sciences. Semiempirical quantum chemical methods and classical Coulomb calculations fail to provide even qualitative ESP for many of these biomolecules. A new empirical ESP calculation method, namely, EM-ESP, is developed in this study, in which the traditional approach of point atomic charges and the classical Coulomb equation is discarded. In its place, the EM-ESP generates a three-dimensional electrostatic potential V(EM)(r) in molecular space that is the sum of contributions from all component atoms. The contribution of an atom k is formulated as a Gaussian function g(r(k);alpha(k),beta(k)) = alpha(k)/r(k)(betak) with two parameters (alpha(k) and beta(k)). The benchmark for the parameter optimization is the ESP obtained by using higher-level quantum chemical approaches (e.g., CCSD/TZVP). A set of atom-based parameters is optimized in a training set of common organic molecules. Calculated examples demonstrate that the EM-ESP approach is a vast improvement over the Coulombic approach in producing the molecular ESP contours that are comparable to the results obtained with higher-level quantum chemical methods. The atom-based parameters are shown to be transferrable between one part of closely related aromatic molecules. The atom-based ESP formulization and parametrization strategy can be extended to biological macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules. Since ESP is frequently used to rationalize and predict intermolecular interactions, we expect that the EM-ESP method will have important applications for studies of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions in numerous areas of chemistry, molecular biology, and other life sciences.

  6. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  7. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  8. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  9. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Pektaş, Bayram; Altintaş, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 µg, 1 µg and 0.18 µg per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the

  10. An optimal hydrodynamic model for the normal type IIP supernova 1999em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utrobin, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is still no consensus about progenitor masses of type IIP supernovae. Aims: We study a normal type IIP SN 1999em in detail and compare it to a peculiar type IIP SN 1987A. Methods: We computed the hydrodynamic and time-dependent atmosphere models interpreting simultaneously both the photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results: The bolometric light curve of SN 1999em and the spectral evolution of its Hα line are consistent with a presupernova radius of 500 ± 200~R⊙, an ejecta mass of 19.0 ± 1.2~M⊙, an explosion energy of (1.3±0.1) × 1051 erg, and a radioactive 56Ni mass of 0.036 ± 0.009~M⊙. A mutual mixing of hydrogen-rich and helium-rich matter in the inner layers of the ejecta guarantees a good fit of the calculated light curve to that observed. Based on the hydrodynamic models in the vicinity of the optimal model, we derive the approximate relationships between the basic physical and observed parameters. The hydrodynamic and atmosphere models of SN 1999em are inconsistent with the short distance of 7.85 Mpc to the host galaxy. Conclusions: .We find that the hydrogen recombination in the atmosphere of a normal type IIP SN 1999em, as well as most likely other type IIP supernovae at the photospheric epoch, is essentially a time-dependent phenomenon. It is also shown that in normal type IIP supernovae the homologous expansion of the ejecta in its atmosphere takes place starting from nearly the third day after the supernova explosion. A comparison of SN 1999em with SN 1987A reveals two very important results for supernova theory. First, the comparability of the helium core masses and the explosion energies implies a unique explosion mechanism for these core collapse supernovae. Second, the optimal model for SN 1999em is characterized by a weaker 56Ni mixing up to ≈660 km s-1 compared to a moderate 56Ni mixing up to ~3000 km s-1 in SN 1987A, hydrogen being mixed deeply downward to ~650 km s-1.

  11. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  12. 200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cady, Geoff

    2002-02-01

    This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities

  13. A cross-validation procedure for stopping the EM algorithm and deconvolution of neutron depth profiling spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Coakley, K.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The iterative EM algorithm is used to deconvolve neutron depth profiling spectra. Because of statistical noise in the data, artifacts in the estimated particle emission rate profile appear after too many iterations of the EM algorithm. To avoid artifacts, the EM algorithm is stopped using a cross-validation procedure. The data are split into two independent halves. The EM algorithm is applied to one half of the data to get an estimate of the emission rates. The algorithm is stopped when the conditional likelihood of the other half of the data passes through its maximum. The roles of the two halves of the data are then switched to get a second estimate of the emission rates. The two estimates are then averaged.

  14. <em>Excitati>on ofem>> em>>Fast em>>Waves and em>>Global Kink-Mode em>>Oscillations em>from> anem>> em>>Erupting em>>Arched em>>Laboratory em>Magnetoplasma>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    Arched magnetoplasma structures ubiquitously exist in the solar atmosphere and affect energetic phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. In a laboratory setup, excitation of fast-waves (with characteristics of EUV/EIT waves on the Sun) and global kink-mode oscillations from an erupting arched magnetoplasma was recorded with an unprecedented detail by capturing spatio-temporal evolution of the three-dimensional magnetic-field and plasma density. Images of the arched magnetoplasma evolution were recorded using a fast-CCD camera. The global kink-mode oscillations were observed as transverse oscillations across the symmetry plane of the magnetoplasma. The arched magnetoplasma (plasma β ≈ 10-3, Lundquist number ≈ 102-105, radius/ion-gyroradius ≈ 20, B ≈ 1000 Gauss at footpoints) was created using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) plasma source and it evolved in an ambient magnetoplasma produced by another LaB6 source (See Ref. [2] for details). The experiment runs continuously with a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. Hence, plasma parameters were recorded with a good resolution (spatial-resolution/magnetoplasma-length ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, temporal-resolution/eruption-time ≈ 10-3) using movable probes in three-dimensions. Mimicking the behavior of solar eruptions, a long pre-eruption phase (lasting up to 150 Alfvén transit times) was created in the laboratory by gradually increasing the electrical current. This leads to an impulsive eruption of the arched magnetoplasma within 4 Alfvén transit times. The relative magnitudes of the parameters of the arched and ambient magnetoplasma were varied to simulate a variety of conditions relevant to solar eruptions, examine the relevance of the existing models of the kink-mode oscillations, and investigate the dispersion characteristics of the fast wave. References: (1) Tripathi and Gekelman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 075005 (2010); (2) Tripathi and Gekelman, Solar Phys. 286, 479 (2013)Figure Caption: Time-evolution of the density-profile of the magnetoplasma showing the pre-eruption, impulsive eruption, and post-eruption phases. The magnetoplasma expands along the negative x-axis. The kink-mode oscillations are indicated in the post-eruption phase.(Work performed at Basic Plasma Science Facility, UCLA and supported by US DOE and NSF)

  15. A high EMS daisy-chain SPI interface for battery monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qidong; Yang, Yintang; Chai, Changchun

    2017-03-01

    A high EMS current-mode SPI interface for battery monitor IC (BMIC) is presented to form a daisychain bus configuration for the cascaded BMICs and the communication between the MCU and master BMIC. Based on analog and digital mixed filtering technique, the proposed daisy-chain can avoid the isolated communication issue in electromagnetic interference environment, and reduce the extensively required I/O ports of MCU, at the same time reduce the system cost. The proposed daisy-chain interface was introduced in a 6-ch battery monitor IC which was fabricated with 0.35 μm 30 V BCD process. The measurement result shows that the presented daisy-chain SPI interface achieves better EMS performance with different EMI injection while just consuming a total operation current up to 1 mA. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334003).

  16. Surgical treatment for paediatric patients with moyamoya disease by indirect revascularization procedures (EDAS, EMS, EMAS).

    PubMed

    Matsushima, T; Fujiwara, S; Nagata, S; Fujii, K; Fukui, M; Kitamura, K; Hasuo, K

    1989-01-01

    Surgical results of paediatric patients with Moyamoya disease who were treated by indirect revascularization procedures are reported. Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS), encephalomyo-arterio-synangiosis (EMAS), and/or encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) were performed on 47 sides of 29 children with Moyamoya disease. The results of those non-anastomotic EC-IC bypass procedures were evaluated clinically, angiographically, and by computed tomography (CT). Postoperative external carotid angiograms showed a good collateral formation through EDAS, EMAS, or EMS in about 70-80 percent of all surgically treated sides. The symptoms such as TIA, RIND, and/or involuntary movements disappeared in the cases with a good collateral formation but not in those with insufficient development of the collateral circulation. The indirect EC-IC bypass surgery seems effective for most of the children with Moyamoya disease who present with ischaemic signs.

  17. Focus: The interface between data collection and data processing in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Nikhil; Righetto, Ricardo D; McLeod, Robert; Caujolle-Bert, Daniel; Castano-Diez, Daniel; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning

    2017-03-23

    We present a new software package called Focus that interfaces cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data collection with computer image processing. Focus creates a user-friendly environment to import and manage data recorded by direct electron detectors and perform elemental image processing tasks in a high-throughput manner while new data is being acquired at the microscope. It provides the functionality required to remotely monitor the progress of data collection and data processing, which is essential now that automation in cryo-EM allows a steady flow of images of single particles, two-dimensional crystals, or electron tomography data to be recorded in overnight sessions. The rapid detection of any errors that may occur greatly increases the productivity of recording sessions at the electron microscope.

  18. Denoising and covariance estimation of single particle cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Bhamre, Tejal; Zhang, Teng; Singer, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The problem of image restoration in cryo-EM entails correcting for the effects of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) and noise. Popular methods for image restoration include 'phase flipping', which corrects only for the Fourier phases but not amplitudes, and Wiener filtering, which requires the spectral signal to noise ratio. We propose a new image restoration method which we call 'Covariance Wiener Filtering' (CWF). In CWF, the covariance matrix of the projection images is used within the classical Wiener filtering framework for solving the image restoration deconvolution problem. Our estimation procedure for the covariance matrix is new and successfully corrects for the CTF. We demonstrate the efficacy of CWF by applying it to restore both simulated and experimental cryo-EM images. Results with experimental datasets demonstrate that CWF provides a good way to evaluate the particle images and to see what the dataset contains even without 2D classification and averaging.

  19. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensore

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    2000-09-15

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  20. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L C

    2001-02-06

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced, 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions'' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions or other targets vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding synthesis and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  1. Validation of cryo-EM structure of IP₃R1 channel.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stephen C; Flanagan, John; Popova, Olga B; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J; Serysheva, Irina I

    2013-06-04

    About a decade ago, three electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle reconstructions of IP3R1 were reported at low resolution. It was disturbing that these structures bore little similarity to one another, even at the level of quaternary structure. Recently, we published an improved structure of IP3R1 at ∼1 nm resolution. However, this structure did not bear any resemblance to any of the three previously published structures, leading to the question of why the structure should be considered more reliable than the original three. Here, we apply several methods, including class-average/map comparisons, tilt-pair validation, and use of multiple refinement software packages, to give strong evidence for the reliability of our recent structure. The map resolution and feature resolvability are assessed with the gold standard criterion. This approach is generally applicable to assessing the validity of cryo-EM maps of other molecular machines.

  2. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  3. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  4. Acute phase response elicited by experimental bovine diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection is associated with decreased vitamin D and E status of vitamin-replete preruminant calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in young animals have shown an association between vitamin deficiencies and increased risk of infectious disease; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the impact of acute infection on the vitamin status of the vitamin-replete neonate. In order to characterize the effects of a...

  5. Double immunization strategy with a BoHV-4-vectorialized secreted chimeric peptide BVDV-E2/BoHV-1-gD.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, G; Sartori, C; Franceschi, V; Capocefalo, A; Cavirani, S; Taddei, S; Flammini, C F

    2008-11-11

    A bovine herpesvirus 4 was isolated from the milk cell fraction of a healthy cow and his full genome cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. So cloned viral genome was used as a vector platform to deliver in vitro and in vivo an optimized secreted chimeric peptide obtained by the fusion of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus glycoprotein E2 ectodomain with the bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D ectodomain. Recombinant virus infected cells robustly expressed and secreted the chimeric peptide into the culture medium and inoculated animals with the recombinant virus successfully responded toward antigens, gE2 and gD. Thus, this work has implications for the development of safe and effective polyvalent vaccines.

  6. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  7. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  8. [Function analysis of the effective strain Rhodococcus ruber Em1 in wastewater treatment system by quantitative competitive PCR].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Li, Xi-wu; Li, Xu-dong; Liu, Shuang-jiang; Liu, Zhi-pei; Tan, Zhou-liang

    2007-04-01

    A quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) system was developed to quantify the number and analyze the function of the Rhodococcus ruber Em1 strain in a wastewater treatment system in Nanchong oil refinery plant. Strain Em1 was able to degrade various kinds of hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds with high efficiency and produce bioemulsifier, so it was introduced into the waste liquid petroleum-disposing system. The sediment samples were collected from the disposing system in the range of 5 months, and then the numbers of strain Eml and degrading efficiencies were studied. The results showed that the primers based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Em1 were specific at species level. The PCR products amplified from sediment total DNA with the specific primers were cloned and sequenced, in which 62.2% were the fragments of 16S rRNA gene of strain Em1. Furthermore, the number of Em1 strain ranging from 3.4 x 10(5) - 4.3 x 10(8) CFU/g in the sediment samples were detected, which indicated that the strain Eml added into purposely did exist stably and reproduced well in the waste-deposing system during a long period. The high relativity, with relative coefficient R2 of 0.89, between Eml cell number and the amount of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal proved that the strain Em1 played an important role in this bio-augmentation treatment system.

  9. Process Study of Oceanic Responses to Typhoons Using Arrays of EM-APEX Floats and Moorings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Arrays of EM-APEX Floats and Moorings Ren-Chieh Lien Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington...Long-term observations of atmospheric forcing and upper oceanic conditions were made by moorings in the western Pacific Ocean, in collaboration with...of ITOP), subsurface temperature measurements on the moorings were transmitted via Iridium satellite, and one upward-looking 75-kHz Long Ranger ADCP

  10. Simultaneous Magnetometer and EM61 MK2 Vehicle-Towed Array for Wide Area Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    years old whereas other portions were only designed to survive a single 2002 APG fielding, the system is best operated by its inventors . Through...check, cleaning air filters, and greasing the axles of the tow platform. Major unforeseen problems included persistent jamming of our GPS base-to-radio...coils are deployed on their native wheels ). Although the system is capable of using EM61 upper coils and employing the “D” setting on the electronics

  11. Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband EM Sensor for UXO Detection and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    chose to use a MOTU audio signal processing system that ESS already had on hand. This system provides 24 ADC channels and 24 DAC channels, and...processing system with a PC and the MOTU digital audio unit (left). Photograph of the MOTU digital audio unit and signal cables that connect to the...resistance COTS Commercial-Off-The-Shelf DAC Digital to Analog Converter DC Direct Current DSP Digital Signal Processor EM Electromagnetic EMI

  12. Improved EM Tactical Applications through UAS-Enhanced High-Resolution Mesoscale Data Assimilation and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    transition the prototype end-to-end (observation to tactical decision aid ( TDA )) demonstration system. All meteorological inputs to the demonstration...developed NAVDAS (including aircraft data assimilation), COAMPS, adjoint, and EM TDA technologies to produce a UAS-enabled, integrated, and...enhance synergistic development of UAS-based TDAs . Six specific technologies that will be developed, tested, and integrated in this project are i

  13. Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the EMS Estimated Service Life at Site 81

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    nitric acid (HNO3 at 1:1 with deionized H2O). Solu- tions were then filtered and stored in vials. Chloride content analysis was performed using ion...ER D C SR -1 3- 1 Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the EMS Estimated Service Life at Site 81 En gi ne er...at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC SR-13-1 February 2013 Investigation of the Corrosion Mechanism and Determination of the

  14. Remedial investigation Phase 2 supplemental work plan for the Hanford Site 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 1100 Area, the central warehousing, vehicle maintenance, and transportation operations center for the Hanford Site, was designated an (NPL) National Priorities List site in July 1989. This NPL site was divided into four operable units, and the first equipment maintenance operable unit, 1100-EM-1, was assigned the highest priority. The following summary focuses on the major issues related to contaminant sources, meteorology, surface hydrology, geology, pedology, hydrogeology, and ecology. The 110-EM-1 Phase 1 R1 report recommended further investigation at six waste management units assigned to or within the operable unit. 1100-1 (Battery Acid Pit)--an unlined dry sump, or french drain, used for the disposal of waste acid from vehicle batteries; 1100-2 (Paint and solvent Pit)--a former sand and gravel pit subsequently used for the disposal of construction debris and, reportedly, waste paints, thinner, and solvents; 1100-4 (Antifreeze Tank Site)--The site of a former underground storage tank used for the disposal of waste vehicle antifreeze; UN-1100-6 (Discolored Soil Site)--the location of an apparent disposal event onto the ground surface involving a container of organic waste liquids; Horn Rapids Landfill--a solid waste facility used primarily for the disposal of office and construction waste and the burning of classified documents; asbestos, sewage sludge, fly ash, and, potentially, drums of unidentified organic liquids alleged to be disposed at this location; and Ephemeral Pool--the location of 1100 Area parking lot runoff accumulation during infrequent, high-intensity precipitation events. This remedial investigation supplemental work plan details the efforts for final characterization of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit that will provide data to be used for the evaluation of remedial operations in the Phase 3 1100-EM-1 feasibility study. 19 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Motions: Analysis of LatMix -EM-APEX Float Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    observing processes that lead to lateral mixing of water properties. The exploitation of autonomous platforms is a long-term goal. OBJECTIVES...Primary conclusions of the experiment are • EM-APEX float array is a powerful tool in assessing the motion and water properties on small...Goodman. (2015). Submesoscale water -mass spectra in the Sargasso Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 1325-1338. Lien, R.-C. and P. Müller (1992). Normal mode

  16. Sector collapse at Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano (Lesser Antilles): numerical simulation and landslide behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Kelfoun, Karim; Fournier, Nicolas; Randrianasolo, Auran

    2012-03-01

    Kick 'em Jenny volcano is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles. It lies within a horseshoe-shaped structure open to the west northwest, toward the deep Grenada Basin. A detailed bathymetric survey of the basin slope at Kick 'em Jenny and resulting high-resolution digital elevation model allowed the identification of a major submarine landslide deposit. This deposit is thought to result from a single sector collapse event at Kick 'em Jenny and to be linked to the formation of the horseshoe-shaped structure. We estimated the volume and the leading-edge runout of the landslide to be ca. 4.4 km3 and 14 km, respectively. We modelled a sector collapse event of a proto Kick 'em Jenny volcano using VolcFlow, a finite difference code based on depth-integrated mass and momentum equations. Our models show that the landslide can be simulated by either a Coulomb-type rheology with low basal friction angles (5.5°-6.5°) and a significant internal friction angle (above 17.5°) or, with better results, by a Bingham rheology with low Bingham kinematic viscosity (0 < ν B < 30 m2/s) and high shear strength (130 < γ ≤ 180 m2/s2). The models and the short runout distance suggest that the landslide travelled as a stiff cohesive flow affected by minimal granular disaggregation and slumping on a non-lubricated surface. The main submarine landslide deposit can therefore be considered as a submarine mass slide deposit that behaved like a slump.

  17. Model Selection Criteria for Missing-Data Problems Using the EM Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph G; Zhu, Hongtu; Tang, Niansheng

    2008-12-01

    We consider novel methods for the computation of model selection criteria in missing-data problems based on the output of the EM algorithm. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving incomplete data within an EM framework, from covariates missing at random in arbitrary regression models to nonignorably missing longitudinal responses and/or covariates. Toward this goal, we develop a class of information criteria for missing-data problems, called IC(H) (,) (Q), which yields the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion as special cases. The computation of IC(H) (,) (Q) requires an analytic approximation to a complicated function, called the H-function, along with output from the EM algorithm used in obtaining maximum likelihood estimates. The approximation to the H-function leads to a large class of information criteria, called IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q). Theoretical properties of IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q), including consistency, are investigated in detail. To eliminate the analytic approximation to the H-function, a computationally simpler approximation to IC(H) (,) (Q), called IC(Q), is proposed, the computation of which depends solely on the Q-function of the EM algorithm. Advantages and disadvantages of IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q) and IC(Q) are discussed and examined in detail in the context of missing-data problems. Extensive simulations are given to demonstrate the methodology and examine the small-sample and large-sample performance of IC(H̃) (() (k) (),) (Q) and IC(Q) in missing-data problems. An AIDS data set also is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  18. The development of a water rescue unit in an urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Weiss, L D; McCaughan, R J; Paris, P M; Kennedy, R A

    1989-08-01

    A river rescue unit was developed in Pittsburgh in March 1986. From its time of inception through December 31, 1987, the unit responded 572 times (325 times in 1987); this included 144 medical calls. Many of the other calls were police related, false alarms, routine patrols, or public service calls. We present a description of the service, type of training necessary, costs involved, and administrative aspects of running a marine emergency medical services system and its integration into an urban EMS system.

  19. Investigation of Electromagnetic Signatures of a FPGA Using an APREL EM-ISIGHT System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    signature. Every part emits a unique EM signature similar to that of a human fingerprint . The same types of parts will have similar signatures, but with...DNA) fingerprinting is a new way to identify embedded ICs through the collection of unintentional RF emissions (Cobb et al., 2010). This leaked...fabrication practices that create a unique fingerprint for each device. Extreme variations can be linked to a process defect, a counterfeit device, or

  20. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-05-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  1. Comments on the New Tesla Electromagnetics. Part I. Discrepancies in Present EM Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    new "superrelativity" to describe the expanded electromagnetic reality uncovered by Nikola Tesla . (14) "Charge" is assumed to be quantized, in addition...California, 94030, 1980. The present electromagnetics is just a special case of a much more fundamental electromagnetics discovered by Nikola Tesla , just...AD-RI27 574 COMMENTS ON THE NEW TESLA ELECTROMAGNET ICS PART I L/i DISCREPANCIES IN PRESENT EM THEORY(U) BEARDEN (THOMAS E) HUNTSVILLE AL T E BEARDEN

  2. The Effect of Ambulance Staffing Models in a Metropolitan, Fire-Based EMS System.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Eric J; Panchal, Ashish R; Davis, James E; Keseg, David P

    2017-01-18

    Introduction The staffing of ambulances with different levels of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers is a difficult decision with evidence being mixed on the benefit of each model. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to describe a pilot program evaluating alternative staffing on two ambulances utilizing the paramedic-basic (PB) model (staffed with one paramedic and one emergency medical technician[EMT]).

  3. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  4. Accurate model annotation of a near-atomic resolution cryo-EM map

    PubMed Central

    Hryc, Corey F.; Chen, Dong-Hua; Afonine, Pavel V.; Jakana, Joanita; Wang, Zhao; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Jiang, Wen; Adams, Paul D.; King, Jonathan A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2017-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo-EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages. PMID:28270620

  5. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-01-01

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ``barrel`` calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 {times} 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ``compartment``) [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ``Tailcatcher`` concept.

  6. Causal mechanisms of seismo-EM phenomena during the 1965-1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yuji; Yamabe, Tsuneaki; Okumura, Nobuo

    2017-03-21

    The 1965-1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations. Although the basic rupture process of this swarm of earthquakes is reasonably understood in terms of hydro-mechanical crust rupture, the associated seismo-EM processes remain largely unexplained. Here, we describe a series of seismo-EM mechanisms involved in the hydro-mechanical rupture process, as observed by coupling the electric interaction of rock rupture with CO2 gas and the dielectric-barrier discharge of the modelled fields in laboratory experiments. We found that CO2 gases passing through the newly created fracture surface of the rock were electrified to generate pressure-impressed current/electric dipoles, which could induce a magnetic field following Biot-Savart's law, decrease the atmospheric electric field and generate dielectric-barrier discharge lightning affected by the coupling effect between the seismic and meteorological activities.

  7. Direct electron detection yields cryo-EM reconstructions at resolutions beyond ¾ Nyquist frequency

    PubMed Central

    Bammes, Benjamin E.; Rochat, Ryan H.; Jakana, Joanita; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2012-01-01

    One limitation in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is the inability to recover high-resolution signal from the image-recording media at the full-resolution limit of the transmission electron microscope. Direct electron detection using CMOS-based sensors for digitally recording images has the potential to alleviate this shortcoming. Here, we report a practical performance evaluation of a Direct Detection Device (DDD) for biological cryo-EM at two different microscope voltages: 200 and 300 kV. Our DDD images of amorphous and graphitized carbon show strong per-pixel contrast with image resolution near the theoretical sampling limit of the data. Single-particle reconstructions of two frozen-hydrated bacteriophages, P22 and ε15, establish that the DDD is capable of recording usable signal for 3-D reconstructions at about 4/5 of the Nyquist frequency, which is a vast improvement over the performance of conventional imaging media. We anticipate the unparalleled performance of this digital recording device will dramatically benefit cryo-EM for routine tomographic and single-particle structural determination of biological specimens. PMID:22285189

  8. Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

    2003-10-30

    NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

  9. Modeling Beta-Traces for Beta-Barrels from Cryo-EM Density Maps.

    PubMed

    Si, Dong; He, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has produced density maps of various resolutions. Although α-helices can be detected from density maps at 5-8 Å resolutions, β-strands are challenging to detect at such density maps due to close-spacing of β-strands. The variety of shapes of β-sheets adds the complexity of β-strands detection from density maps. We propose a new approach to model traces of β-strands for β-barrel density regions that are extracted from cryo-EM density maps. In the test containing eight β-barrels extracted from experimental cryo-EM density maps at 5.5 Å-8.25 Å resolution, StrandRoller detected about 74.26% of the amino acids in the β-strands with an overall 2.05 Å 2-way distance between the detected β-traces and the observed ones, if the best of the fifteen detection cases is considered.

  10. Stability analysis, modeling, simulation and experimental testing of an EMS Maglev system with structural flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Aravind M.

    Vehicle-guideway interaction studies of Magnetically Levitated (Maglev) vehicles indicate that structural flexibility can adversely affect the overall stability and performance of such systems. This is one of the reasons why guideways are generally made very rigid. This in turn leads to increased cost of the overall system since guideway construction forms a significant portion of the overall cost. In this dissertation, the influence of structural flexibility on the stability of Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev systems is studied. It is shown how inherently unstable and flexible structure EMS Maglev systems can achieve guaranteed stability by using collocated actuators and sensors, along with de-centralized Proportional plus Derivative (PD) controllers. These results are valid even in the presence of Track/Guideway flexibility. A detailed dynamic model is developed for the EMS Maglev demonstration system (Test Bogie) currently under research and development at Old Dominion University (ODU). This model incorporates structural dynamics with flexible modes of vibration, non-linear electrodynamics, feedback controllers, discrete time implementation, noise filters and disturbance inputs. This model is validated via real time experimental testing. The model thus validated is used for simulation case studies involving levitation and lateral disturbance, lateral control, and centralized control.

  11. In vitro susceptibilities in lymphocytes from mothers and cord blood to the monofunctional alkylating agent EMS.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, N P; Falque-Gonzalez, C; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Whitelaw, D; Knudsen, L E; Anderson, D

    2007-03-01

    It has been reported that children may experience different levels of chemical exposures than adults and that their sensitivities to chemical toxins may be increased or decreased when compared to adults. The perinatal period is one period in which these susceptibilities may be examined. Midwives at the Bradford Royal Infirmary collected venous blood samples from mothers at the time of birth and venous cord blood post-delivery. Lymphocytes were isolated from both blood types and examined in the alkaline comet assay using the monofunctional alkylating agent ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). There were no biologically significant differences when subjects were categorized into subgroups based on lifestyle habits and physical characteristics, and overall there were no statistically significant differences in levels of DNA damage in mothers (n=22) and babies (n=22), except at the basal level (P<0.05), but mean values in babies were always lower over the EMS dose range. Whole blood was used in the micronucleus (MN) assay, and there was a significantly (P<0.05) higher rate of MN in mothers (n=17), per 1000 binucleates, as compared with lymphocytes from their offspring (n=17) at the basal level. This may be accounted for by age and endogenous factors. Overall, this current study cannot provide statistically significant evidence that children have either increased or decreased levels of susceptibility to a chemical toxin in comparison to adults when EMS is examined in vitro.

  12. Cryo-EM: A Unique Tool for the Visualization of Macromolecular Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an expanding structural biology technique that has recently undergone a quantum leap progression in its achievable resolution and its applicability to the study of challenging biological systems. Because crystallization is not required, only small amounts of sample are needed, and, because images can be classified in a computer, the technique has the potential to deal with compositional and conformational mixtures. Therefore, cryo-EM can be used to investigate complete and fully functional macromolecular complexes in different functional states, providing a richness of biological insight. In this review we underlie some of the principles behind the cryo-EM methodology of single particle analysis and discuss some recent results of its application to challenging systems of paramount biological importance. We place special emphasis on new methodological developments that are leading to an explosion of new studies, many of which are reaching resolutions that could only be dreamed of only a couple of years ago. PMID:26000851

  13. Causal mechanisms of seismo-EM phenomena during the 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Yuji; Yamabe, Tsuneaki; Okumura, Nobuo

    2017-03-01

    The 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations. Although the basic rupture process of this swarm of earthquakes is reasonably understood in terms of hydro-mechanical crust rupture, the associated seismo-EM processes remain largely unexplained. Here, we describe a series of seismo-EM mechanisms involved in the hydro-mechanical rupture process, as observed by coupling the electric interaction of rock rupture with CO2 gas and the dielectric-barrier discharge of the modelled fields in laboratory experiments. We found that CO2 gases passing through the newly created fracture surface of the rock were electrified to generate pressure-impressed current/electric dipoles, which could induce a magnetic field following Biot-Savart’s law, decrease the atmospheric electric field and generate dielectric-barrier discharge lightning affected by the coupling effect between the seismic and meteorological activities.

  14. Fast approximate EM induction modeling of metallic and UXO targets using a permeable prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asten, Michael W.; Duncan, Andrew C.

    2007-03-01

    The time-domain EM induction response of non-magnetic and magnetic targets can be approximated using a conductive permeable prism composed of six faces of conductive plates, each face being composed of a set of conductive ribbons. The effect of magnetic permeability is included by the use of two "apparent flux gathering" coefficients, and two "effective magnetic permeability" coefficients, in the axial and transverse directions. These four magnetic property coefficients are a function of physical properties and geometry of the target, but are independent of prism orientation relative to a transmitter. The approximation algorithm is computationally fast, allowing inversions for target parameters to be achieved in seconds. The model is tested on profiles acquired with a Geonics EM63 time-domain EM metal detector over a non-magnetic copper pipe target, and a steel artillery shell in horizontal and vertical orientations. Results show that this approximation to a permeable prism has a capability of fitting geometric, conductivity and magnetic parameters at both early and late sample times. The magnetic parameters show strong change from early to late times on the EMI decay curve, indicating that the magnetic properties of the target have non-linear characteristics. It is proposed that these magnetic parameters and the nature of their non-linearity may carry additional discrimination information for distinguishing between intact munitions and scrap in UXO studies.

  15. Accelerated cryo-EM structure determination with parallelisation using GPUs in RELION-2

    PubMed Central

    Kimanius, Dari; Forsberg, Björn O; Scheres, Sjors HW; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    By reaching near-atomic resolution for a wide range of specimens, single-particle cryo-EM structure determination is transforming structural biology. However, the necessary calculations come at large computational costs, which has introduced a bottleneck that is currently limiting throughput and the development of new methods. Here, we present an implementation of the RELION image processing software that uses graphics processors (GPUs) to address the most computationally intensive steps of its cryo-EM structure determination workflow. Both image classification and high-resolution refinement have been accelerated more than an order-of-magnitude, and template-based particle selection has been accelerated well over two orders-of-magnitude on desktop hardware. Memory requirements on GPUs have been reduced to fit widely available hardware, and we show that the use of single precision arithmetic does not adversely affect results. This enables high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination in a matter of days on a single workstation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18722.001 PMID:27845625

  16. Causal mechanisms of seismo-EM phenomena during the 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Yuji; Yamabe, Tsuneaki; Okumura, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The 1965–1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations. Although the basic rupture process of this swarm of earthquakes is reasonably understood in terms of hydro-mechanical crust rupture, the associated seismo-EM processes remain largely unexplained. Here, we describe a series of seismo-EM mechanisms involved in the hydro-mechanical rupture process, as observed by coupling the electric interaction of rock rupture with CO2 gas and the dielectric-barrier discharge of the modelled fields in laboratory experiments. We found that CO2 gases passing through the newly created fracture surface of the rock were electrified to generate pressure-impressed current/electric dipoles, which could induce a magnetic field following Biot-Savart’s law, decrease the atmospheric electric field and generate dielectric-barrier discharge lightning affected by the coupling effect between the seismic and meteorological activities. PMID:28322263

  17. Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Lobach, John; Hendricks, Stefan; Rabenstein, Lasse; Pfaffling, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and operated from icebreakers and small helicopters. Here, we describe the technical design of the bird operating at two frequencies of f1 = 3.68 kHz and f2 = 112 kHz, and study its technical performance. On average, noise amounts to ± 8.5 ppm and ± 17.5 ppm for f1 and f2, respectively. Electrical drift amounts to 200 ppm/h and 2000 ppm/h for f1 and f2, during the first 0.5 h of operation. It is reduced by 75% after 2 h. Calibration of the Inphase and Quadrature ppm signals varies by 2 to 3%. A sensitivity study shows that all these signal variations do affect the accuracy of the ice thickness retrieval, but that it remains better than ± 0.1 m over level ice in most cases. This accuracy is also confirmed by means of comparisons of the helicopter EM data with other thickness measurements. The paper also presents the ice thickness retrieval from single-component Inphase data of f1.

  18. Assessing EM Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Milestones Using a Novel Debate Format.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Mira; Scott, Kevin R; DeRoos, Francis J; Conlon, Lauren W

    2015-11-01

    Graduate medical education is increasingly focused on patient safety and quality improvement; training programs must adapt their curriculum to address these changes. We propose a novel curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs specifically addressing patient safety, systems-based management, and practice-based performance improvement, called "EM Debates." Following implementation of this educational curriculum, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the curriculum through resident self-assessment. Additionally, a cross-sectional study to determine the ED clinical competency committee's (CCC) ability to assess residents on specific competencies was performed. Residents were overall very positive towards the implementation of the debates. Of those participating in a debate, 71% felt that it improved their individual performance within a specific topic, and 100% of those that led a debate felt that they could propose an evidence-based approach to a specific topic. The CCC found that it was easier to assess milestones in patient safety, systems-based management, and practice-based performance improvement (sub-competencies 16, 17, and 19) compared to prior to the implementation of the debates. The debates have been a helpful venue to teach EM residents about patient safety concepts, identifying medical errors, and process improvement.

  19. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  20. VLBA Observations of SN 2001em: Supernova, Misdirected Gamma-Ray Burster, or Both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, C. J.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Weiler, K. W.; Sramek, R. A.; Panagia, N.; Rupen, M. P.; Paczynski, B.; Weiler, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    We present Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of Supernova (SN) 2001em. Initially detected on September 15, 2001 (Papenkova & Li 2001) and classified as a type Ic SN on October 20, 2001 (Filippenko & Chornock 2001), SN 2001em was later reclassified as a Type IIn SN (Soderberg, Frail, & Wieringa 2004). SN 2001em was not well studied until a Very Large Array 3.6 cm radio search of type Ib/Ic SNe within 100 Mpc detected radio emission in excess of 1028 erg s-1 Hz-1 (for 80 Mpc distance) in mid October 2003 (Stockdale et al. 2004). This is roughly 50 times more radio luminous than SN 1998bw was at a comparable age. X-ray emission was detected by Pooley & Lewin (2004) in excess of 1041 erg s-1 (for 80 Mpc distance), making it one of the brightest X-ray SNe ever observed. We measured this source in July 2004 with the VLBA at 3.6 cm in an attempt to determine if radio structure was present. We present our new results and discuss their implications at this meeting.

  1. Computational prediction of atomic structures of helical membrane proteins aided by EM maps.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Julio A; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2007-09-15

    Integral membrane proteins pose a major challenge for protein-structure prediction because only approximately 100 high-resolution structures are available currently, thereby impeding the development of rules or empirical potentials to predict the packing of transmembrane alpha-helices. However, when an intermediate-resolution electron microscopy (EM) map is available, it can be used to provide restraints which, in combination with a suitable computational protocol, make structure prediction feasible. In this work we present such a protocol, which proceeds in three stages: 1), generation of an ensemble of alpha-helices by flexible fitting into each of the density rods in the low-resolution EM map, spanning a range of rotational angles around the main helical axes and translational shifts along the density rods; 2), fast optimization of side chains and scoring of the resulting conformations; and 3), refinement of the lowest-scoring conformations with internal coordinate mechanics, by optimizing the van der Waals, electrostatics, hydrogen bonding, torsional, and solvation energy contributions. In addition, our method implements a penalty term through a so-called tethering map, derived from the EM map, which restrains the positions of the alpha-helices. The protocol was validated on three test cases: GpA, KcsA, and MscL.

  2. Onset of ischemic colitis following use of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) exercise equipment.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Takano, Masato; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Tsuruzono, Takuya; Matsumura, Yoshinobu; Kitano, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Yamao, Junichi; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    Our patient was a 71-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain, and bloody and white mucosal stools. He purchased by mail-order an electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) device, which he strapped onto his lower abdomen, and for 2 consecutive days he underwent muscle stimulation comprising 600 contractions at 2.40 mA and 1.20 V over a 10 minute period. He experienced the onset of lower abdominal pain immediately following muscle stimulation on the second day, and then passed stools containing blood and white mucus. The cause was thought to be electrical and mechanical stimulation of the lower abdomen by the EMS equipment, either inducing colonic or vascular spasm, or dislodging thrombi associated with atrial fibrillation or atherosclerosis. This is the first known report of ischemic colitis associated with the use of EMS exercise equipment. We report this case in the belief that this condition is likely to become more common with increasing use of such devices.

  3. Modeling Beta-Traces for Beta-Barrels from Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Si, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has produced density maps of various resolutions. Although α-helices can be detected from density maps at 5–8 Å resolutions, β-strands are challenging to detect at such density maps due to close-spacing of β-strands. The variety of shapes of β-sheets adds the complexity of β-strands detection from density maps. We propose a new approach to model traces of β-strands for β-barrel density regions that are extracted from cryo-EM density maps. In the test containing eight β-barrels extracted from experimental cryo-EM density maps at 5.5 Å–8.25 Å resolution, StrandRoller detected about 74.26% of the amino acids in the β-strands with an overall 2.05 Å 2-way distance between the detected β-traces and the observed ones, if the best of the fifteen detection cases is considered. PMID:28164115

  4. Accurate model annotation of a near-atomic resolution cryo-EM map.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Afonine, Pavel V; Jakana, Joanita; Wang, Zhao; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Jiang, Wen; Adams, Paul D; King, Jonathan A; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2017-03-21

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo-EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages.

  5. Supervoxel-based segmentation of mitochondria in em image stacks with learned shape features.

    PubMed

    Lucchi, Aurélien; Smith, Kevin; Achanta, Radhakrishna; Knott, Graham; Fua, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that mitochondria play an important role in neural function. Recent studies show mitochondrial morphology to be crucial to cellular physiology and synaptic function and a link between mitochondrial defects and neuro-degenerative diseases is strongly suspected. Electron microscopy (EM), with its very high resolution in all three directions, is one of the key tools to look more closely into these issues but the huge amounts of data it produces make automated analysis necessary. State-of-the-art computer vision algorithms designed to operate on natural 2-D images tend to perform poorly when applied to EM data for a number of reasons. First, the sheer size of a typical EM volume renders most modern segmentation schemes intractable. Furthermore, most approaches ignore important shape cues, relying only on local statistics that easily become confused when confronted with noise and textures inherent in the data. Finally, the conventional assumption that strong image gradients always correspond to object boundaries is violated by the clutter of distracting membranes. In this work, we propose an automated graph partitioning scheme that addresses these issues. It reduces the computational complexity by operating on supervoxels instead of voxels, incorporates shape features capable of describing the 3-D shape of the target objects, and learns to recognize the distinctive appearance of true boundaries. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is able to segment mitochondria at a performance level close to that of a human annotator, and outperforms a state-of-the-art 3-D segmentation technique.

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  7. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  8. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

  9. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that must be repaired for cell survival. Higher eukaryotes respond to DSBs by arresting the cell cycle, presumably to repair the DNA lesions before cell division. In mammalian cells, the nonhomologous end-joining DSB repair pathway is mediated by the 470 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) together with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. Mouse knock-out models of these three proteins are all exquisitely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. In the presence of DNA ends, Ku binds to the DNA and then recruits DNA-PKcs. After formation of the complex, the kinase activity associated with DNA-PKcs becomes activated. This kinase activity has been shown to be essential for repairing DNA DSBs in vivo since expression of a kinase-dead form of DNA-PKcs in a mammalian cell line that lacks DNA-PKcs fails to complement the radiosensitive phenotype. The immense size of DNA-PKcs suggests that it may also serve as a docking site for other DNA repair proteins. Since the assembly of the DNA-PK complex onto DNA is a prerequisite for DSB repair, it is critical to obtain structural information on the complex. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle reconstruction methods provide a powerful way to image large macromolecular assemblies at near atomic (10-15 ?) resolution. We have already used cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of the isolated DNA-PKcs protein. This structure reveals numerous cavities throughout the protein that may allow passage of single or double-stranded DNA. Pseudo two-fold symmetry was found for the monomeric protein, suggesting that DNA-PKcs may interact with two DNA ends or two Ku heterodimers simultaneously. Here we propose to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the complex. A second

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Italy.

    PubMed

    Falcone, E; Cordioli, P; Tarantino, M; Muscillo, M; La Rosa, G; Tollis, M

    2003-09-01

    The genetic characteristics, of 38 field isolates of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) collected in 1999 from sick or healthy and persistently infected cattle of dairy farms situated in northern Italy, were investigated. A partial 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequence of each isolate was determined and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. All the isolates were classified as belonging to the BVDV-1 genotype and could be assigned to different BVDV-1 groups, namely BVDV-1b (n = 20), BVDV-1d (n = 6) and BVDV-1e (n = 10). Two remaining isolates could be classified as BVDV-1f and BVDV-1h, respectively. These results provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of BVDV in Italy, and contribute to a better knowledge of the circulation of BVDV strains, and to their classification.

  11. Theory and detection scheme of seismic EM signals transferred into the atmosphere from the oceanic and continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Ershov, Sergey; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnov, Fedor; Volgin, Maxim

    2014-07-01

    Due to the compound structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances in the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in the lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors' detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain why Prof. Kopytenko (Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci.) and co-authors were able to estimate location of the future seismic epicenter area from their magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth's surface.

  12. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  13. Large-scale 3D EM modeling with a Block Low-Rank multifrontal direct solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantsev, Daniil V.; Jaysaval, Piyoosh; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien; Amestoy, Patrick R.; Buttari, Alfredo; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves; Mary, Theo

    2017-03-01

    We put forward the idea of using a Block Low-Rank (BLR) multifrontal direct solver to efficiently solve the linear systems of equations arising from a finite-difference discretization of the frequency-domain Maxwell equations for 3D electromagnetic (EM) problems. The solver uses a low-rank representation for the off-diagonal blocks of the intermediate dense matrices arising in the multifrontal method to reduce the computational load. A numerical threshold, the so called BLR threshold, controlling the accuracy of low-rank representations was optimized by balancing errors in the computed EM fields against savings in floating point operations (flops). Simulations were carried out over large-scale 3D resistivity models representing typical scenarios for marine controlled-source EM surveys, and in particular the SEG SEAM model which contains an irregular salt body. The flop count, size of factor matrices and elapsed run time for matrix factorization are reduced dramatically by using BLR representations and can go down to, respectively, 10%, 30% and 40% of their full rank values for our largest system with N = 20.6 million unknowns. The reductions are almost independent of the number of MPI tasks and threads at least up to 90 × 10 = 900 cores. The BLR savings increase for larger systems, which reduces the factorization flop complexity from O( {{N^2}} ) for the full-rank solver to O( {{N^m}} ) with m = 1.4 - 1.6 . The BLR savings are significantly larger for deep-water environments that exclude the highly resistive air layer from the computational domain. A study in a scenario where simulations are required at multiple source locations shows that the BLR solver can become competitive in comparison to iterative solvers as an engine for 3D CSEM Gauss-Newton inversion that requires forward modelling for a few thousand right-hand sides.

  14. Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

  15. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  16. The ISO 14001 EMS implementation process and its implications: A case study of Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Matouq

    2000-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Bhubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms towards other firms working for the same group, or branches--mainly small and medium sized enterprises--in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the environment. In other words, attention is given to life cycle analysis (LCA) among certified firms.

  17. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  18. An E-M algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Long, J C; Williams, R C; Urbanek, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes tend to be much smaller than the number of phenotypic categories. The EM method provides maximum-likelihood estimates and therefore allows hypothesis tests using likelihood ratio statistics that have chi 2 distributions with large sample sizes. We also suggest a data resampling approach to estimate test statistic sampling distributions. The resampling approach is more computer intensive, but it is applicable to all sample sizes. A strategy to test hypotheses about aggregate groups of gametic disequilibrium coefficients is recommended. This strategy minimizes the number of necessary hypothesis tests while at the same time describing the structure of disequilibrium. These methods are applied to three unlinked dinucleotide repeat loci in Navajo Indians and to three linked HLA loci in Gila River (Pima) Indians. The likelihood functions of both data sets are shown to be maximized by the EM estimates, and the testing strategy provides a useful description of the structure of gametic disequilibrium. Following these applications, a number of simulation experiments are performed to test how well the likelihood-ratio statistic distributions are approximated by chi 2 distributions. In most circumstances the chi 2 grossly underestimated the probability of type I errors. However, at times they also overestimated the type 1 error probability. Accordingly, we recommended hypothesis tests that use the resampling method. PMID:7887436

  19. Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

    2008-09-01

    A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 Ω m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

  20. A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian

    A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

  1. FAST WAVELET-BASED SINGLE-PARTICLE RECONSTRUCTION IN CRYO-EM.

    PubMed

    Vonesch, Cédric; Wang, Lanhui; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2011-06-09

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for the 3D tomographic inversion problem that arises in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (Cryo-EM). It is based on two key components: 1) a variational formulation that promotes sparsity in the wavelet domain and 2) the Toeplitz structure of the combined projection/back-projection operator. The first idea has proven to be very effective for the recovery of piecewise-smooth signals, which is confirmed by our numerical experiments. The second idea allows for a computationally efficient implementation of the reconstruction procedure, using only one circulant convolution per iteration.

  2. 2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm. The meeting format

  3. Fatal accident due to anti-personnel ARGES EM01 rifle grenade explosion.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakasi, Valeria; Birbilis, Theodossios-A

    2016-06-01

    During the process of unsealing an old ammunition box in order to destroy it, a 42-year-old ammunition technician was fatally injured due to an anti-personnel ARGES EM01-type rifle grenade detonation. The explosion took place in the victim's hands, in point-blank range. This report aimed to show the anatomical position, the severity and the dispersion extent of the multiple injuries in the human body due to the detonation, and draw firm conclusions regarding the position of the human body and the circumstances prevailing at the moment of the explosion.

  4. Advanced Metering Plan for Monitoring Energy and Potable Water Use in PNNL EMS4 Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Jason E.; Olson, Norman J.; Berman, Marc J.; Schielke, Dale R.

    2011-08-17

    This updated Advanced Metering Plan for monitoring whole building energy use in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) EMS4 buildings on the PNNL campus has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), Section 103, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.2B, and Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Federal Energy Management Program, October 2007 (Sullivan et al. 2007). The initial PNNL plan was developed in July 2007 (Olson 2007), updated in September 2008 (Olson et al. 2008), updated in September 2009 (Olson et al. 2009), and updated again in August 2010 (Olson et al. 2010).

  5. Using the Volta phase plate with defocus for cryo-EM single particle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Danev, Radostin; Tegunov, Dimitry; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we reported an in-focus data acquisition method for cryo-EM single-particle analysis with the Volta phase plate (Danev and Baumeister, 2016). Here, we extend the technique to include a small amount of defocus which enables contrast transfer function measurement and correction. This hybrid approach simplifies the experiment and increases the data acquisition speed. It also removes the resolution limit inherent to the in-focus method thus allowing 3D reconstructions with resolutions better than 3 Å. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23006.001 PMID:28109158

  6. EMS Systems in Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Suryanto; Plummer, Virginia; Boyle, Malcolm

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Prehospital care is one of the many issues that require addressing by lower-middle income countries (LMICs) where approximately 90% of global injuries occur. This may arise from more traffic in LMICs, poor road conditions, lack of public awareness of the importance of road safety, and the lack of ability to provide first aid to the victims. However, prehospital care in LMICs remains underdeveloped. Problem There is insufficient evidence regarding the development of prehospital care among LMICs. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the status of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in these countries.

  7. Hanford site performance summary - EM funded programs (formerly known as Hanford site performance summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1996-09-30

    Hanford fiscal-year-to-date (FYTD) schedule performance remains unfavorable with a three percent schedule variance (-$36.6 million*) and a four percent cost variance (+$47.5 million). The schedule var-iance is attributed to EM-30, Office of Waste Management (-$21.6 million), EM-40, Office of Environmental Restoration (-$7.7 million), and EM-60, Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (-$5.3 million). Sixty-one enforceable agreement milestones were scheduled FYTD; fifty-six were Completed on or ahead of schedule and five are overdue (see Enforceable Agreement Milestones). Notable accomplishments include: * completion of the draft Hanford FY 1997 Multi-Year Work Plans; * receipt of the draft TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline for review and comment; * issuance of the draft Hanford Strategic Plan for external review; * receipt of the 1997 Public/Private Partnership Award for work on the Hanford Metal Working Equipment Project; * completion of the 100-D Pond sediment removal project; * disposal of over 10,700 loose cubic yards (15,000 tons) of remediation waste since the July 1, 1996, opening of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility; * initiation of a program to test state-of-the-art technologies for characterizing waste burial sites slated for remediation; * completion of the 100-HR-3 Pump-and-Treat Test Program including unit shutdown and placement in safe storage; * processing of over 275 million liters (72.7 million gallons) of groundwater to date meeting the groundwater s1431ystem performance goal; * achievement of demolition of two N Area 280,000 gallon tanks utilizing equipment that reduced risk to workers and resulted in significant dollar savings; * deactivation of 18 of 19 N-Area facilities planned for F@` 1996; * demolition of five N Area facilities scheduled for D&D in FY 1997 by utilizing funds realized through efficiency savings; * completion of the EM-40 portion of the Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Program (-10

  8. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  9. Traditions & ceremonies in EMS. Passing traditions from one generation to the next.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Skip

    2009-08-01

    Traditions and ceremonies don't just happen on their own--they require vision and effort. When honor guard services are required, it is too late to think about getting one organized. Advance preparation and training are necessary if a ceremonial unit is to accomplish its mission in a manner that brings credit to the organization. A wise EMS leader will scan the environment and seek out opportunities to develop the capabilities, nurture traditions and arrange ceremonies that will contribute to organizational morale and support the achievement of the organization's mission.

  10. The mechanical and EM simulations of the CryoAC for the ATHENA X-IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, D.; Biasotti, M.; Gatti, F.; De Gerone, M.; Rossi, C.; Piro, L.; Macculi, C.

    2016-07-01

    The design phase of the CryoAC DM for the ATHENA X-IFU has concerned numerical simulations to exploit different fabrication possibilities. The mechanical simulations have accounted for the peculiar detector structure: 4 silicon chips asymmetrically suspended by means of 4 microbridges each. A preliminary study was performed to analyze the response to acceleration spectra in the frequency domain, shocks and time domain random displacement, prior to a real vibration test campaign. EM simulations to spot unwanted magnetic fields have been conducted as well. In this work we will show the latest advance in the design of the new detectors, showing the main results coming from various simulations.

  11. Use of low power EM radar sensors for speech articulator measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.

    1997-05-14

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions such as the vocal fold oscillations, jaw, tongue, and the soft palate. Data on vocal fold motions, that correlate well with established laboratory techniques, as well as data on the jaw, tongue, and soft palate are shown. The vocal fold measurements together with a volume air flow model are being used to perform pitch synchronous estimates of the voiced transfer functions using ARMA (autoregressive moving average) techniques. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold'em poker is solved.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Michael; Burch, Neil; Johanson, Michael; Tammelin, Oskari

    2015-01-09

    Poker is a family of games that exhibit imperfect information, where players do not have full knowledge of past events. Whereas many perfect-information games have been solved (e.g., Connect Four and checkers), no nontrivial imperfect-information game played competitively by humans has previously been solved. Here, we announce that heads-up limit Texas hold'em is now essentially weakly solved. Furthermore, this computation formally proves the common wisdom that the dealer in the game holds a substantial advantage. This result was enabled by a new algorithm, CFR(+), which is capable of solving extensive-form games orders of magnitude larger than previously possible.

  13. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus strains in intensive cattle herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, C; Bandi, C; Bronzo, V; Ruffo, G; Zecconi, A

    2001-11-26

    The genetic variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was studied by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 26 Italian field strains collected during the period 1995-2000 in 18 cattle herds. A fragment within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was sequenced directly from gel-purified products obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. BVDV-1b (n=14), -1c (n=1), -1d (n=1) and BVDV-2 (n=2) strains have been isolated. Most herds were infected by BVDV-1b. Pairwise similarity and cluster analysis of the remaining BVDV-1 isolates (n=8) did not provide a clear-cut assignation to defined BVDV-1 groups. This is the first time that a BVDV-2 isolation was reported in Italy. Among BVDV-2 reference strains, Italian BVDV-2 isolates showed the highest sequence similarity with the CD87 strain. Both BVDV-2 strains were isolated in two healthy animals from different herds. The 5'-UTR sequence of one of the two BVDV-2 strains was identical to a German BVDV field strain. Complete nucleotide homology was found only among BVDV strains isolated from the same herd, showing a herd-specific clustering. Moreover, 99.6% homology was observed between strains from herds linked by livestock trade. Despite the small number of BVDV isolates analysed, it revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Italian field BVDV strains.

  14. EM Sounding Characterization of Soil Environment toward Estimation of Potential Pollutant Load from Non-point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Ide, J.; Somura, H.; Morisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    A multi-frequency electro-magnetic (EM) sounding method was applied to agriculture fields to investigate the characteristics of non-point pollution load. Soil environmental properties such as differences in land management were analyzed with electrical conductivity (EC) maps. In addition, vertical EC profiles obtained from EM soundings were compared with EC in drainage ditch or river water. As results, surface soil EC maps successfully extracted the differences in land management affected by fertilizer application. Moreover, surface EC at the vertical profiles strongly related with drainage ditch or river EC, showing most of the EC in the water was explained by surface EC maps at the EM sounding data. The proposed method has strength in obtaining EC data without sampling river water, the situation we sometimes experienced at the field survey.

  15. Degradation of Microcystin-LR and RR by a Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain EMS Isolated from Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Liang Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Shao Hua; Yang, Jing Dong; Xue, Yan Feng; Shi, Zhi Qi

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain EMS with the capability of degrading microcystins (MCs) was isolated from Lake Taihu, China. The bacterium was tentatively identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. The bacterium could completely consume MC-LR and MC-RR within 24 hours at a concentration of 0.7 μg/mL and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR by EMS occurred preferentially in an alkaline environment. In addition, mlrA gene involved in the degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR was detected in EMS. Due to the limited literature this gene has rare homologues. Sequencing analysis of the translated protein from mlrA suggested that MlrA might be a transmembrane protein, which suggests a possible new protease family having unique function. PMID:20479990

  16. Parasitic Parameters Extraction for InP DHBT Based on EM Method and Validation up to H-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Oupeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Lei; Xu, Ruimin; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a small-signal model for InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). Parasitic parameters of access via and electrode finger are extracted by 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulation. By analyzing the equivalent circuit of seven special structures and using the EM simulation results, the parasitic parameters are extracted systematically. Compared with multi-port s-parameter EM model, the equivalent circuit model has clear physical intension and avoids the complex internal ports setting. The model is validated on a 0.5 × 7 μm2 InP DHBT up to 325 GHz. The model provides a good fitting result between measured and simulated multi-bias s-parameters in full band. At last, an H-band amplifier is designed and fabricated for further verification. The measured amplifier performance is highly agreed with the model prediction, which indicates the model has good accuracy in submillimeterwave band.

  17. Comparison of an Atomic Model and Its Cryo-EM Image at the Central Axis of a Helix.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Zeil, Stephanie; Hallak, Hussam; McKaig, Kele; Kovacs, Julio; Wriggers, Willy

    2015-11-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an important biophysical technique that produces three-dimensional (3D) density maps at different resolutions. Because more and more models are being produced from cryo-EM density maps, validation of the models is becoming important. We propose a method for measuring local agreement between a model and the density map using the central axis of the helix. This method was tested using 19 helices from cryo-EM density maps between 5.5 Å and 7.2 Å resolution and 94 helices from simulated density maps. This method distinguished most of the well-fitting helices, although challenges exist for shorter helices.

  18. The Caenorhabditis elegans ems class homeobox gene ceh-2 is required for M3 pharynx motoneuron function.

    PubMed

    Aspöck, Gudrun; Ruvkun, Gary; Bürglin, Thomas R

    2003-08-01

    Several homeobox genes, for example those of the ems class, play important roles in animal head development. We report on the expression pattern and function of ceh-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans ems/Emx ortholog. CEH-2 protein is restricted to the nuclei of one type of small muscle cell, one type of epithelial cell, and three types of neurons in the anterior pharynx in the head. We have generated a deletion allele of ceh-2 that removes the homeobox. Animals homozygous for this deletion are viable and fertile, but grow slightly slower and lay fewer eggs than wild type. We assayed the function of two types of pharynx neurons that express ceh-2, the pairs M3 and NSM. M3 activity is substantially reduced in electropharyngeograms of ceh-2 deletion mutants; this defect can account for the observed retardation in larval development, as M3 activity is known to be necessary for effective feeding. NSM function and metabolism are normal based on the assays used. All cells that express ceh-2 in wild type are present in the ceh-2 mutant and have normal morphologies. Therefore, unlike other ems/Emx genes, ceh-2 seems to be important for a late differentiation step and not for neuron specification or regional patterning. Because the CEH-2 homeodomain is well conserved, we tested whether ceh-2 can rescue ems(-) brain defects in Drosophila, despite the apparent differences in biological roles. We found that the C. elegans ems ortholog is able to substitute for fly ems in brain development, indicating that sequence conservation rather than conservation of biological function is important.

  19. The non-antibiotic macrolide EM900 inhibits rhinovirus infection and cytokine production in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lusamba Kalonji, Nadine; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Sato, Takeya; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ōmura, Satoshi; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides may be associated with a reduced frequency of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, because the long-term use of antibiotics may promote the growth of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of a treatment to prevent COPD exacerbation with macrolides that do not exert anti-bacterial effects is necessary. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of nonantibiotic macrolides on the replication of rhinovirus (RV), which is the major cause of COPD exacerbation, have not been demonstrated. Primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells and nasal epithelial cells were pretreated with the nonantibiotic macrolide EM900 for 72 h prior to infection with a major group RV type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) and were further treated with EM900 after infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection reduced RV14 titers in the supernatants and viral RNA within the cells. Moreover, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were reduced in the supernatants following RV14 infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection also reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the receptor for RV14, after infection and reduced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B protein p50 in nuclear extracts after infection. Pretreatment with EM900 reduced the number and fluorescence intensity of the acidic endosomes through which RV RNA enters the cytoplasm. Thus, pretreatment with EM900 may inhibit RV infection by reducing the ICAM-1 levels and acidic endosomes and thus modulate the airway inflammation associated with RV infections. PMID:26462747

  20. EMS-physicians' self reported airway management training and expertise; a descriptive study from the Central Region of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prehospital advanced airway management, including prehospital endotracheal intubation is challenging and recent papers have addressed the need for proper training, skill maintenance and quality control for emergency medical service personnel. The aim of this study was to provide data regarding airway management-training and expertise from the regional physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS). Methods The EMS in this part of The Central Region of Denmark is a two tiered system. The second tier comprises physician staffed Mobile Emergency Care Units. The medical directors of the programs supplied system data. A questionnaire addressing airway management experience, training and knowledge was sent to the EMS-physicians. Results There are no specific guidelines, standard operating procedures or standardised program for obtaining and maintaining skills regarding prehospital advanced airway management in the schemes covered by this study. 53/67 physicians responded; 98,1% were specialists in anesthesiology, with an average of 17,6 years of experience in anesthesiology, and 7,2 years experience as EMS-physicians. 84,9% reported having attended life support course(s), 64,2% an advanced airway management course. 24,5% fulfilled the curriculum suggested for Danish EMS physicians. 47,2% had encountered a difficult or impossible PHETI, most commonly in a patient in cardiac arrest or a trauma patient. Only 20,8% of the physicians were completely familiar with what back-up devices were available for airway management. Conclusions In this, the first Danish study of prehospital advanced airway management, we found a high degree of experience, education and training among the EMS-physicians, but their equipment awareness was limited. Check-outs, guidelines, standard operating procedures and other quality control measures may be needed. PMID:21303510

  1. Identification of leachate from livestock mortality burial using electrical resistivity and small-loop EM survey: case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Cho, In-Ky; Choi, Kwang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Leachate from livestock mortality burial is harmful to the soil and groundwater environment and adequate assessment approaches are necessary to manage burial sites. Among the methods used to detect leachate, geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) techniques, are used in many engineering approaches to environmental problems, such as identifying contaminant plumes and evaluating hydrogeological conditions. Electrical resistivity, with a small-loop EM survey, was used in this study as a reconnaissance technique to identify the burial shape and distribution of leachate from livestock mortality burial in five small separate zones. We conducted a multi-frequency small-loop EM survey using lattice nets and acquired apparent conductivity values along several parallel and perpendicular lines over a burial site. We also compared geophysical results to the geochemical analysis of samples from both a leachate collection well and a downstream observation well within the study area. Depth slices of apparent conductivities at each frequency (obtained from the small-loop EM survey data) clearly identified the subsurface structure of the burial shape and the extent of leachate transport. Low-resistivity zones, identified from two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity imaging results, were matched to the five burial zones (within a depth of 5 m), as well as high electrical conductivity of the leachate obtained from leachate collection wells, and depth slices of the apparent conductivity distribution obtained from the small-loop EM survey. A three-dimensional (3D) inversion of resistivity data provided a detailed 3D structure of the overall burial site and leachate pathways. Moreover, these zones were widely spread over the burial site, indicating that leachate potentially extended through damaged regions of the composite liner to a depth of 10 m along the downstream groundwater flow. Both the small-loop EM method and the electrical

  2. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  3. Using an EM Covariance Matrix to Estimate Structural Equation Models with Missing Data: Choosing an Adjusted Sample Size to Improve the Accuracy of Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Peugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Two methods, direct maximum likelihood (ML) and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, can be used to obtain ML parameter estimates for structural equation models with missing data (MD). Although the 2 methods frequently produce identical parameter estimates, it may be easier to satisfy missing at random assumptions using EM. However, no…

  4. An implementation of the Expectation-Maximisation (EM) algorithm for population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling in ACSLXTREME.

    PubMed

    Yates, James W T

    2009-10-01

    An implementation of the Expectation-Maximisation (EM) algorithm in ACSLXTREME (AEGIS Technologies) for the analyses of population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) data is demonstrated. The parameter estimation results are compared with those from NONMEM (Globomax) using the first order conditional estimate method. The estimates are comparable and it is concluded that the EM algorithm is a useful technique in population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling. The implementation also demonstrates the ease with which parameter estimation algorithms for population data can be implemented in simulation software packages.

  5. A Fast and Effective Microfluidic Spraying-Plunging Method for High-Resolution Single-Particle Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangsong; Fu, Ziao; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Jia, Yuan; Shah, Binita; Jin, Amy; Liu, Zheng; Sun, Ming; Chen, Bo; Grassucci, Robert A; Ren, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyuan; Frank, Joachim; Lin, Qiao

    2017-03-06

    We describe a spraying-plunging method for preparing cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) grids with vitreous ice of controllable, highly consistent thickness using a microfluidic device. The new polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based sprayer was tested with apoferritin. We demonstrate that the structure can be solved to high resolution with this method of sample preparation. Besides replacing the conventional pipetting-blotting-plunging method, one of many potential applications of the new sprayer is in time-resolved cryo-EM, as part of a PDMS-based microfluidic reaction channel to study short-lived intermediates on the timescale of 10-1,000 ms.

  6. Quantifying the Local Seebeck Coefficient using Scanning Thermoelectric Microscopy (SThEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walrath, Jenna; Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Pipe, Kevin; Goldman, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices allow reliable solid-state conversion of heat to electricity. The efficiency of a TE device is determined by the figure of merit, ZT, which is sensitive to the Seebeck coefficient, S. A promising alternative to traditional macroscale measurements of S is scanning thermoelectric microscopy (SThEM), which can profile S with nm resolution. In SThEM, an unheated scanning tunneling microscopy tip acts as a high-resolution voltmeter probe to measure the thermally-induced voltage, V, in a heated sample. However, the temperature (T) gradient is not localized to the sample, and the measured V is a convolution of voltages within the region of non-zero temperature gradient. Therefore we have developed a 1D Fourier heat conduction model to predict the T gradient in the tip and to deconvolute the measured V within the sample. This approach enables direct conversion between the measured V and the local S. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-PI0000012. Y.H. Lin and R.S. Goldman are supported in part by the DOE under contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46339.

  7. Microwave absorbance properties of zirconium–manganese substituted cobalt nanoferrite as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Kishwar Rehman, Sarish

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. • Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. • Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the Zr–Mn. • Higher the Zr–Mn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. • The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zr–Mn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2−2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1–0.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz–3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on Zr–Mn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of Zr–Mn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.

  8. Workforce planning for DOE/EM: Assessing workforce demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to bringing its facilities into regulatory compliance and restoring the environment of sites under its control by the year 2019. Responsibility for accomplishing this goal is vested with the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Concerns regarding the availability of workers with the necessary technical skills and the prospect of retraining workers from other programs within DOE or other industries are addressed in this report in several ways. First, various workforce projections relevant to EM occupations are compared to determine common findings and resolve inconsistencies. Second, case studies, interviews, and published data are used to examine the potential availability of workers for these occupations via occupational mobility, training/retraining options, and salary adjustments. Third, demand and supply factors are integrated in a framework useful for structuring workforce analyses. The analyses demonstrate that workforce skills are not anticipated to change due to the change in mission; science, engineering, and technician occupations tend to be mobile within and across occupational categories; experience and on-the-job training are more crucial to issues of worker supply than education; and, the clarity of an organization`s mission, budget allocation process, work implementation and task assignment systems are critical determinants of both workforce need and supply. DOE is encouraged to create a more stable platform for workforce planning by resolving organizational and institutional hindrances to accomplishing work and capitalizing on workforce characteristics besides labor {open_quotes}supply{close_quotes} and demographics.

  9. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  10. An approach to automated acquisition of cryoEM images from lacey carbon grids.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, William V; White, Howard; Trinick, John

    2010-12-01

    An approach to automated acquisition of cryoEM image data from lacey carbon grids using the Leginon program is described. Automated liquid nitrogen top up of the specimen holder dewar was used as a step towards full automation, without operator intervention during the course of data collection. During cryoEM studies of actin labelled with myosin V, we have found it necessary to work with lacey grids rather than Quantifoil or C-flat grids due to interaction of myosin V with the support film. Lacey grids have irregular holes of variable shape and size, in contrast to Quantifoil or C-flat grids which have a regular array of similar circular holes on each grid square. Other laboratories also prefer to work with grids with irregular holes for a variety of reasons. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a different strategy from normal Leginon usage for working with lacey grids for targeting holes for image acquisition and suitable areas for focussing prior to image acquisition. This approach was implemented by using the extensible framework provided by Leginon and by developing a new MSI application within that framework which includes a new Leginon node (for a novel method for finding focus targets).

  11. Emergency Incident Rehabilitation: Resource Document to the Position Statement of the National Association of EMS Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; McEntire, Serina J; Rittenberger, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Position Statement: Emergency Incident Rehabilitation The National Association of EMS Physicians® believes that: Emergency operations and training conducted while wearing protective clothing and respirators is physiologically and cognitively demanding. The heat stress and fatigue created by working in protective clothing and respirators creates additional risk of illness/injury for the public safety provider. Emergency incident rehabilitation provides a structured rest period for rehydration and correction of abnormal body core temperature following work in protective clothing and respirators. Emergency incident rehab should be conducted at incidents (e.g. fireground, hazardous materials, and heavy rescue emergencies) and trainings involving activities that may lead to exceeding safe levels of physical and mental exertion. Emergency incident rehabilitation is incident care, not fitness for duty, and meant to reduce physiologic strain and prepare the responder to return to duty at the current incident and for the remainder of the shift. EMS should play a role in emergency incident rehabilitation with providers trained to understand the physiologic response of healthy individuals to environmental, exertional, and cognitive stress and implement appropriate mitigation strategies. An appropriately qualified physician should have oversight over the creation and implementation of emergency incident rehabilitation protocols and may be separate from the roles and responsibilities of the occupational medicine physician. There are no peer-reviewed data related to cold weather rehabilitation. Future studies should address this limitation to the literature.

  12. Populações estelares em galáxias HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westera, P.; Cuisinier, F.; Telles, E.; Kehrig, C.

    2003-08-01

    Analisamos o conteúdo estelar de 74 galáxias HII a partir do contínuo observado nos espectros ópticos dessas galáxias, utilizando métodos de síntese de população estelar. Descobrimos que todas as galáxias para as quais encontramos soluções contêm uma população estelar velha que domina a massa estelar, e numa maioria dessas também encontramos evidência de uma população de idade intermediaria além da geração jovem que está se formando agora. Concluímos que a formação estelar dessas galáxias se realiza em surtos individuais, Esses surtos são interrompidos por longos períodos de inatividade, com os primeiros consumindo a maior parte do gás. Sugerimos, portanto, que as galáxias HII sejam galáxias anãs normais flagradas em um período de surto.

  13. STATegra EMS: an Experiment Management System for complex next-generation omics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing assays are now routinely used to study different aspects of genome organization. As decreasing costs and widespread availability of sequencing enable more laboratories to use sequencing assays in their research projects, the number of samples and replicates in these experiments can quickly grow to several dozens of samples and thus require standardized annotation, storage and management of preprocessing steps. As a part of the STATegra project, we have developed an Experiment Management System (EMS) for high throughput omics data that supports different types of sequencing-based assays such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, Methyl-seq, etc, as well as proteomics and metabolomics data. The STATegra EMS provides metadata annotation of experimental design, samples and processing pipelines, as well as storage of different types of data files, from raw data to ready-to-use measurements. The system has been developed to provide research laboratories with a freely-available, integrated system that offers a simple and effective way for experiment annotation and tracking of analysis procedures. PMID:25033091

  14. Fully anisotropic 3-D EM modelling on a Lebedev grid with a multigrid pre-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaysaval, Piyoosh; Shantsev, Daniil V.; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien; Bratteland, Tarjei

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical algorithm for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulations in conducting media with general electric anisotropy. The algorithm is based on the finite-difference discretization of frequency-domain Maxwell's equations on a Lebedev grid, in which all components of the electric field are collocated but half a spatial step staggered with respect to the magnetic field components, which also are collocated. This leads to a system of linear equations that is solved using a stabilized biconjugate gradient method with a multigrid preconditioner. We validate the accuracy of the numerical results for layered and 3-D tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) earth models representing typical scenarios used in the marine controlled-source EM method. It is then demonstrated that not taking into account the full anisotropy of the conductivity tensor can lead to misleading inversion results. For synthetic data corresponding to a 3-D model with a TTI anticlinal structure, a standard vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) inversion is not able to image a resistor, while for a 3-D model with a TTI synclinal structure it produces a false resistive anomaly. However, if the VTI forward solver used in the inversion is replaced by the proposed TTI solver with perfect knowledge of the strike and dip of the dipping structures, the resulting resistivity images become consistent with the true models.

  15. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  16. Electromagnetic (EM-60) survey in the Panther Canyon Area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.; Stark, M.; Haught, R.

    1980-05-01

    Eight frequency domain electromagnetic soundings were measured over the Panther Canyon thermal anomaly in Grass Valley, Nevada. The data were collected with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's large moment horizontal loop system (EM-60). At the transmitter site located near the center of the thermal anomaly, square wave currents of up to 70 A were impressed into a fourturn 50 m radius coil at frequencies from 0.033 to 500 Hz. At the eight receiver sites, 0.5 to 1.5 km from the loop, magnetic fields were detected with a three-component SQUID magnetometer and vertical and radial magnetic field spectra were calculated. Data were interpreted with a computer program which fit filled spectra and associated ellipse polarization data to one-dimensional resistivity models and results were compared to interpretations from earlier dipole-dipole resistivity measurements. Comparison of these interpretations indicates fairly close agreement between the two, with both models clearly indicating the presence and dimensions of the conductivity anomaly associated with the thermal zone. Although the dc data was better able to resolve the high resistivity bedrock, the EM-data were able to resolve all major features without distortion at shorter transmitter receiver separations and in about one-third of the field time.

  17. Unsupervised classification algorithm based on EM method for polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Michelli, J. I.; Hurtado, M.; Areta, J. A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we develop an iterative classification algorithm using complex Gaussian mixture models for the polarimetric complex SAR data. It is a non supervised algorithm which does not require training data or an initial set of classes. Additionally, it determines the model order from data, which allows representing data structure with minimum complexity. The algorithm consists of four steps: initialization, model selection, refinement and smoothing. After a simple initialization stage, the EM algorithm is iteratively applied in the model selection step to compute the model order and an initial classification for the refinement step. The refinement step uses Classification EM (CEM) to reach the final classification and the smoothing stage improves the results by means of non-linear filtering. The algorithm is applied to both simulated and real Single Look Complex data of the EMISAR mission and compared with the Wishart classification method. We use confusion matrix and kappa statistic to make the comparison for simulated data whose ground-truth is known. We apply Davies-Bouldin index to compare both classifications for real data. The results obtained for both types of data validate our algorithm and show that its performance is comparable to Wishart's in terms of classification quality.

  18. Real-time motion compensation for EM bronchoscope tracking with smooth output - ex-vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gergel, Ingmar; Menzel, Manuela; Hautmann, Hubert; Wegner, Ingmar; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Navab, Nassir

    2012-02-01

    Navigated bronchoscopy provides benefits for endoscopists and patients, but accurate tracking information is needed. We present a novel real-time approach for bronchoscope tracking combining electromagnetic (EM) tracking, airway segmentation, and a continuous model of output. We augment a previously published approach by including segmentation information in the tracking optimization instead of image similarity. Thus, the new approach is feasible in real-time. Since the true bronchoscope trajectory is continuous, the output is modeled using splines and the control points are optimized with respect to displacement from EM tracking measurements and spatial relation to segmented airways. Accuracy of the proposed method and its components is evaluated on a ventilated porcine ex-vivo lung with respect to ground truth data acquired from a human expert. We demonstrate the robustness of the output of the proposed method against added artificial noise in the input data. Smoothness in terms of inter-frame distance is shown to remain below 2 mm, even when up to 5 mm of Gaussian noise are added to the input. The approach is shown to be easily extensible to include other measures like image similarity.

  19. Varying-energy CT imaging method based on EM-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Han, Yan

    2016-11-01

    For complicated structural components with wide x-ray attenuation ranges, conventional fixed-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging cannot obtain all the structural information. This limitation results in a shortage of CT information because the effective thickness of the components along the direction of x-ray penetration exceeds the limit of the dynamic range of the x-ray imaging system. To address this problem, a varying-energy x-ray CT imaging method is proposed. In this new method, the tube voltage is adjusted several times with the fixed lesser interval. Next, the fusion of grey consistency and logarithm demodulation are applied to obtain full and lower noise projection with a high dynamic range (HDR). In addition, for the noise suppression problem of the analytical method, EM-TV (expectation maximization-total Jvariation) iteration reconstruction is used. In the process of iteration, the reconstruction result obtained at one x-ray energy is used as the initial condition of the next iteration. An accompanying experiment demonstrates that this EM-TV reconstruction can also extend the dynamic range of x-ray imaging systems and provide a higher reconstruction quality relative to the fusion reconstruction method.

  20. Computational model for time development of the EM field in pulsed laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrabelj, D.; Marincek, M.; Drevensek-Olenik, I.; Leskovar, M.; Copic, M.

    2007-05-01

    A computational model, which describes EM field formation in a pulsed laser from a randomly generated initial spontaneous field inside the laser cavity has been developed. The model is based on a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform and describes a real laser system taking into account a lensing and a diaphragm effect of the laser rod. The laser cavity is described by five effective planes, which represent different laser cavity elements-the back and the front mirror, the Q-switch element and the laser rod. At each plane the EM field is calculated in real space and propagation between the planes is achieved in Fourier space by multiplication with an appropriate phase factor. The computational time needed for simulation of a realistic pulse formation is in order of minutes. The model can predict the shape and the integral energy of the pulse, its transverse profile at different distances from the front mirror (including near and far field) and beam divergence. The results of the model were found to be in good agreement with measured parameters for a Q-switched ruby laser system running in stable as well as unstable cavity configurations. The temporal shape of a laser pulse was measured and calculated not only for the ruby laser, but also for a Nd:YAG laser. It was found that FWHM of a pulse produced by ruby laser is three times longer than FWHM of a pulse produced by Nd:YAG laser.