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Sample records for bwr pilot plant

  1. Development of BWR plant analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The BWR Plant Analyzer has been developed for realistic and accurate simulations of normal and severe abnormal transients in BWR power plants at high simulation speeds, low capital and operating costs and with outstanding user conveniences. The simulation encompasses neutron kinetics, heat conduction in fuel structures, nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous coolant dynamics, steam line acoustics, and the dynamics of turbines, condensers, feedwater pumps and heaters, of the suppression pool, the control systems and the plant protection systems. These objectives have been achieved. Advanced modeling, using extensively analytical integration and dynamic evaluation of analytical solutions, has been combined with modern minicomputer technology for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The High-Speed Interactive Plant Analyzer code HIPA-BWR has been implemented on the AD10 peripheral parallel processor.

  2. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced technology for high-speed interactive nuclear power plant simulations is of great value for timely resolution of safety issues, for plant monitoring, and for computer-aided emergency responses to an accident. Presented is the methodology employed at BNL to develop a BWR plant analyzer capable of simulating severe plant transients at much faster than real-time process speeds. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is given for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computers to achieve the very high simulation speeds. Typical results are shown to demonstrate the modeling fidelity of the BWR plant analyzer.

  3. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  4. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Yoshitake

    1995-03-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data.

  5. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    An engineering plant analyzer has been developed at BNL for realistically and accurately simulating transients and severe abnormal events in BWR power plants. Simulations are being carried out routinely with high fidelity, high simulation speed, at low cost and with unsurpassed user convenience. The BNL Plant Analyzer is the only operating facility which (a) simulates more than two orders-of-magnitude faster than the CDC-7600 mainframe computer, (b) is accessible and fully operational in on-line interactive mode, remotely from anywhere in the US, from Europe or the Far East (Korea), via widely available IBM-PC compatible personal computers, standard modems and telephone lines, (c) simulates both slow and rapid transients seven times faster than real-time in direct access, and four times faster in remote access modes, (d) achieves high simulation speed without compromising fidelity, and (e) is available to remote access users at the low cost of $160 per hour.

  6. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Poore, III, Willis P.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  7. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  8. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  9. Core damage frequency prespectives for BWR 3/4 and Westinghouse 4-loop plants based on IPE results

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.; Camp, S.; LaChance, J.; Mary Drouin

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the core damage frequency (CDF) insights gained by analyzing the results of the Individual Plant Examinations (IPES) for two groups of plants: boiling water reactor (BWR) 3/4 plants with Reactor Core Isolation Cooling systems, and Westinghouse 4-loop plants. Wide variability was observed for the plant CDFs and for the CDFs of the contributing accident classes. On average, transients-with loss of injection, station blackout sequences, and transients with loss of decay heat removal are important contributors for the BWR 3/4 plants, while transients, station blackout sequences, and loss-of-coolant accidents are important for the Westinghouse 4-loop plants. The key factors that contribute to the variability in the results are discussed. The results are often driven by plant-specific design and operational characteristics, but differences in modeling approaches are also important for some accident classes.

  10. Improvement technique of sensitized HAZ by GTAW cladding applied to a BWR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Tujimura, Hiroshi; Tamai, Yasumasa; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Kurosawa, Kouichi; Chiba, Isao; Nomura, Keiichi

    1995-12-31

    A SCC(Stress Corrosion Cracking)-resistant technique, in which the sleeve installed by expansion is melted by GTAW process without filler metal with outside water cooling, was developed. The technique was applied to ICM (In-Core Monitor) housings of a BWR power plant in 1993. The ICM housings of which materials are type 304 Stainless Steels are sensitized with high tensile residual stresses by welding to the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel). As the result, ICM housings have potential of SCC initiation. Therefore, the improvement technique resistant to SCC was needed. The technique can improve chemical composition of the housing inside and residual stresses of the housing outside at the same time. Sensitization of the housing inner surface area is eliminated by replacing low-carbon with proper-ferrite microstructure clad. High tensile residual stresses of housing outside surface area is improved into compressive side. Compressive stresses of outside surface are induced by thermal stresses which are caused by inside cladding with outside water cooling. The clad is required to be low-carbon metal with proper ferrite and not to have the new sensitized HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) on the surface by cladding. The effect of the technique was qualified by SCC test, chemical composition check, ferrite content measurement and residual stresses measurement etc. All equipment for remote application were developed and qualified, too. The technique was successfully applied to a BWR plant after sufficient training.

  11. Development of large-capacity main steam isolation valves and safety relief valves for next-generation BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Shin-ichi Furukawa; Gen Itoh; Kikuo Takeshima

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of high capacity main steam isolation valves (MSIV) and safety relief valves (SRV) for the main steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The next-generation BWR plants, which are planned to have higher thermal power, have raised concerns relating to the main steam line of an increase in maintenance work to SRVs and erosion of the MSIV valve seat due to the increased main steam flow velocity. In this research project, the capacity of the MSIV and SRV was increased and the valve configuration was changed in an attempt to solve these problems. (authors)

  12. Automated hydrotreating pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, S.J.; Graham, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    One of the major tasks facing catalyst supplies involved in hydrotreating/hydrogenation catalyst development work is proper catalyst evaluation. There are dozens of hydrotreating catalysts available to refiners, and selecting the optimum catalyst for a particular application is a challenging task. For fixed bed applications, the choice is especially difficult because, in addition to activity and selectivity, both catalyst life and pressure drop buildup are important considerations. Unfortunately, data on these latter effects are seldom available for new catalyst formulations. While pilot-plant data have been proven to be reliable indicators of the ultimate catalyst life achieved commercially, long-term catalyst aging data are expensive to gather, and proper pilot-plant design is mandatory to duplicate commercial results. Because the proper catalyst choice can earn millions of dollars per year for refiners in terms of enhanced downstream product values, it is justified to install top-quality pilot-plant facilities to demonstrate these benefits. This article describes an automated, minimum-attention set of five state-of-the-art hydrotreating pilot plants that are being completed for the Filtrol Catalyst Division of the Harshaw/Filtrol Partnership.

  13. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  14. High-temperature filtration measurements at the Isar BWR plant. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henzel, N.; Meier, M.; Greger, G.U.

    1983-03-01

    This report details results of an analytical program used to assess the performance of an electromagnetic filter at the Isar Nuclear Power Station (KKI) in the Federal Republic of Germany. This installation is the first full-scale (6100 gpm) high-temperature filtration system operating at a nuclear power plant. Performance was characterized for the application of processing high-pressure drains at a BWR. Effects of magnetic field variations and startup/shutdown transients also were tested. Characteristics of the corrosion products were investigated, e.g., particle size, species, isotopic and chemical composition. The study shows that with proper operating conditions and careful selection of the point of application reasonable crud removal efficiencies can be achieved.

  15. High-temperature filtration measurements at the Isar BWR Plant. Volume 1. Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henzel, N.; Meier, M.; Greger, G.U.

    1983-03-01

    This report details results of an analytical program used to assess the performance of an electromagnetic filter at the Isar Nuclear Power Station (KKI) in the Federal Republic of Germany. This installation is the first full-scale (6100 gpm) high-temperature filtration system operating at a nuclear power plant. Performance was characterized for the application of processing high-pressure drains at a BWR. Effects of magnetic field variations and startup/shutdown transients also were tested. Characteristics of the corrosion products were investigated, e.g., particle size, species, isotopic and chemical composition. The study shows that with proper operating conditions and careful selection of the point of application reasonable crud removal efficiencies can be achieved.

  16. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  17. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  18. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  19. Analysis of BWR OPRM plant data and detection algorithms with DSSPP

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Vedovi, J.; Chung, A. K.; Zino, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    All U.S. BWRs are required to have licensed stability solutions that satisfy General Design Criteria (GDC) 10 and 12 of 10 CFR 50 Appendix A. Implemented solutions are either detect and suppress or preventive in nature. Detection and suppression of power oscillations is accomplished by specialized hardware and software such as the Oscillation Power Range Monitor (OPRM) utilized in Option III and Detect and Suppress Solution - Confirmation Density (DSS-CD) stability Long-Term Solutions (LTSs). The detection algorithms are designed to recognize a Thermal-Hydraulic Instability (THI) event and initiate control rod insertion before the power oscillations increase much higher above the noise level that may threaten the fuel integrity. Option III is the most widely used long-term stability solution in the US and has more than 200 reactor years of operational history. DSS-CD represents an evolutionary step from the stability LTS Option III and its licensed domain envelopes the Maximum Extended Load Line Limit Analysis Plus (MELLLA +) domain. In order to enhance the capability to investigate the sensitivity of key parameters of stability detection algorithms, GEH has developed a new engineering analysis code, namely DSSPP (Detect and Suppress Solution Post Processor), which is introduced in this paper. The DSSPP analysis tool represents a major advancement in the method for diagnosing the design of stability detection algorithms that enables designers to perform parametric studies of the key parameters relevant for THI events and to fine tune these system parameters such that a potential spurious scram might be avoided. Demonstrations of DSSPPs application are also presented in this paper utilizing actual plant THI data. A BWR/6 plant had a plant transient that included unplanned recirculation pump transfer from fast to slow speed resulting in about 100% to {approx}40% rated power decrease and about 99% to {approx}30% rated core flow decrease. As the feedwater temperature

  20. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  1. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Morante, R. J.; Hambric, S. A.; Ziada, S.

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  2. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved ST or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume I contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS.

  3. Pilot Plant Makes Oxygen Difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F.; Lawton, Emil A.

    1989-01-01

    Pilot plant makes oxygen difluoride highly-energetic, space-storable oxidizer not made commercially. Designed to handle reactants, product, and byproduct, most of which highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic. Oxygen difluoride evolves continuously from reactor containing potassium hydroxide in water at 10 degree C. Collection tanks alternated; one filled while other drained to storage cylinder. Excess OF2 and F2 dissipated in combustion of charcoal in burn barrel. Toxic byproduct, potassium fluoride, reacted with calcium hydroxide to form nontoxic calcium fluoride and to regenerate potassium hydroxide. Equipment processes toxic, difficult-to-make substance efficiently and safely.

  4. Pilot Plant Makes Oxygen Difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F.; Lawton, Emil A.

    1989-01-01

    Pilot plant makes oxygen difluoride highly-energetic, space-storable oxidizer not made commercially. Designed to handle reactants, product, and byproduct, most of which highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic. Oxygen difluoride evolves continuously from reactor containing potassium hydroxide in water at 10 degree C. Collection tanks alternated; one filled while other drained to storage cylinder. Excess OF2 and F2 dissipated in combustion of charcoal in burn barrel. Toxic byproduct, potassium fluoride, reacted with calcium hydroxide to form nontoxic calcium fluoride and to regenerate potassium hydroxide. Equipment processes toxic, difficult-to-make substance efficiently and safely.

  5. The Pilot Conditioning Plant Gorleben

    SciTech Connect

    Willax, H.O.; Lahr, H.

    1995-12-31

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the feasibility of direct disposal of spent fuel elements has been examined and their safety aspects evaluated in the years between 1979 and 1985. In an assessment of the results, the Federal Government concluded that the technology of direct disposal has to be developed. According to this decision in April 1986, there was the application for the erection and operation of the Pilot Conditioning Plant (PKA) for the conditioning of spent fuel elements and other radioactive waste. Since February 1990, the PKA has been under construction and the hot commissioning will be in 1997.

  6. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  7. Nuclear-plant response to grid electrical disturbances. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.A.; Winter, M.C.; Follen, S.M.; Anderson, P.M.

    1983-02-01

    Grid electrical disturbances (GEDs) are characterized by variances in grid voltage and frequencies that result from transient imbalances between generation and load. Nuclear plant response to GEDs is constrained by process system limitations and design limitations in power system hardware. This report includes discussions based upon selected past studies which provide an introductory background to GED phenomena and nuclear plant response. A system frequency response model is derived for estimating load-frequency relationships during transient conditions. The analysis of two recent industry surveys is included which relates actual nuclear plant experience with GEDs, identifies design changes and operating procedures which have been used to mitigate the effects of GEDs, and provides data on plant transient monitoring systems. A model plant analysis is included, illustrating application of System Sequence Analysis methodology to the analysis of nuclear plant response to GEDs.

  8. RAMONA-4B code for BWR systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-12-31

    The RAMONA-4B code is a coupled thermal-hydraulic, 3D kinetics code for plant transient analyses of a complete Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) system including Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), Balance of Plant (BOP) and containment. The complete system representation enables an integrated and coupled systems analysis of a BWR without recourse to prescribed boundary conditions.

  9. High-speed BWR power plant simulations on the special-purpose peripheral processor AD10

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    A newly developed technique is described for fast, on-line simulations of normal and accidental transients in nuclear power plants. The technique is based on the utilization of the special-purpose peripheral processor ADlO, which is specifically designed for high-speed systems simulations through integration of large systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The Peach Bottom-II Boiling Water Reactor power plant has been simulated and results are presented. It is shown that the new technique not only advances safety analyses but also supports plant monitoring, failure diagnosis and accident mitigation, as well as the training of nuclear power plant operators.

  10. Overview of the use of prestressed concrete in US nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ashar, H.; Naus, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the United States it is required that the condition and functional capability of the ungrouted post-tensioning systems of prestressed-concrete nuclear-power-plant containments be periodically assessed. This is accomplished, in part, systematically through an inservice tendon inspection program which must be developed and implemented for each containment. An overview of the essential elements of the inservice inspection requirements is presented, and the effectiveness of these requirements is demonstrated through presentation of some of the potential problem areas which have been identified through the periodic assessments of the structural integrity of containments. Also, a summary of general problems which have been encountered with prestressed-concrete construction at nuclear-power-plant containments in the United States is presented: that is, dome delamination, cracking of anchorheads, settlement of bearing plates, etc. The paper will conclude with an assessment of the overall effectiveness of the prestressed-concrete containments.

  11. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700.

  12. Properties of colloidal corrosion products and their effects on nuclear plants. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, E.

    1982-09-01

    Detailed results from the first two years of work on the properties of corrosion product oxides common to light water nuclear reactor systems are presented. A smaller companion volume describes the results in overview fashion. Numerous methods are described for producing these model oxides in forms making their study simpler, i.e., particles with uniform diameter and composition. A number of studies of particle adhesion to simulated power plant surfaces are described. The magnetic properties of hematite of various particle sizes are described - a property important to the use of electromagnetic filtration in LWRs.

  13. Analysis of dose rates received around the storage pool for irradiated control rods in a BWR nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Abarca, A; Gallardo, S

    2011-08-01

    BWR control rods are activated by neutron reactions in the reactor. The dose produced by this activity can affect workers in the area surrounding the storage pool, where activated rods are stored. Monte Carlo (MC) models for neutron activation and dose assessment around the storage pool have been developed and validated. In this work, the MC models are applied to verify the expected reduction of dose when the irradiated control rod is hanged in an inverted position into the pool.

  14. Aging of electronics with application to nuclear power plant instrumentation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jr, R T; Thome, F V; Craft, C M

    1983-01-01

    A survey to identify areas of needed research to understand aging mechanisms for electronics in nuclear power plant instrumentation has been completed. The emphasis was on electronic components such as semiconductors, capacitors, and resistors used in safety-related instrumentation in the reactor containment area. The environmental and operational stress factors which may produce degradation during long-term operation were identified. Some attention was also given to humidity effects as related to seals and encapsulants, and failures in printed circuit boards and bonds and solder joints. Results suggest that neutron as well as gamma irradiations should be considered in simulating the aging environment for electronic components. Radiation dose-rate effects in semiconductor devices and organic capacitors need to be further investigated, as well as radiation-voltage bias synergistic effects in semiconductor devices and leakage and permeation of moisture through seals in electronics packages.

  15. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  16. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  17. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  18. Intro to NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema

    Magrini, Kim

    2016-07-12

    NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant converts biomass into higher hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.NREL is researching biomass pyrolysis. The lab is examining how to upgrade bio-oils via stabilization. Along with this, NREL is developing the engineering system requirements for producing these fuels and chemicals at larger scales.

  19. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

    2016-07-12

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  20. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  1. Intro to NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini, Kim

    2013-09-27

    NREL's Thermochemical Pilot Plant converts biomass into higher hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.NREL is researching biomass pyrolysis. The lab is examining how to upgrade bio-oils via stabilization. Along with this, NREL is developing the engineering system requirements for producing these fuels and chemicals at larger scales.

  2. Pilot Plants Enhance Brazosport Lab Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiential lab program for a two-year college's chemical technology program. Discusses student experiences in six miniature pilot plants that represent the essential instrumentation and chemical processes found in the chemical industry. Recognizes the industries that helped implement the program. (TW)

  3. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  4. Environmental assessment of HYGAS Pilot Plant streams

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia, L. J.; Evans, R. J.; Bossart, S. J.; Karst, R. H.; Biljetina, R.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has commissioned an environmental assessment program to obtain experimental data from the HYGAS Pilot Plant. An important objective of this program is the development of predictive methods to extend the environmental data base to larger-scale demonstration and commercial HYGAS coal gasification plants. This report discusses the systems which have been specifically established for sampling, analysis, and data evaluation to define the fate of compounds of environmental interest generated during pilot plant operation. The pilot plant units of interest include the pretreater and gasifier reactors which are considered scalable to larger plants. Sampling methods used in the program include scheduled, routine grab samples, composited grab samples, on-line composited liquids and solid samples, and on-line gas analysis for selected sulfur species. This paper also discusses the development and use of a high-pressure, high-temperature, sampling system to collect organic and inorganic species from the HYGAS gasifier. Even though the reactor sampling system adopted is very man-power intensive, it greatly reduces the number of samples required and results in a higher overall sampling efficiency. In addition, the on-line sampling train provides immediate capture and stabilization of reactive and volatile species, eliminates process unit lag times, avoids quench tower inefficiencies for many species, and allows rapid monitoring of differences in pollutant production with changing process conditions.

  5. Improving fuel-rod performance. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ocken, H.; Knott, S.

    1981-03-01

    To reduce the risk of fuel-rod failures, utilities operate their nuclear reactors within conservative limits on power increases proposed by nuclear-fuel vendors. Of particular concern to US utilities is that adopting these limits results in an industrywide average plant capacity loss of 3% in BWR designs and 0.3% in PWR designs. To replace lost BWR capacity by other generating means currently costs the utilities $150 million annually, and losses for PWRs are about $20 million. Efforts are therefore being made to identify the factors responsible for Zircaloy degradation under PCI condition and to improve nuclear-fuel-rod design and reactor operation.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR OTEC PILOT PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, P.

    1980-06-01

    Logical and orderly progression of the OTEC program from conceptual designs through component testing to the goal of commercially viable OTEC plants require that the socio-legal requirements be met and the proper operating permits be obtained and maintained. This function is accomplished in a series of activities including: (1) Development and annual revision of a published OTEC Environmental Development Plan (EDP); (2) Compliance with NEPA/EPA and other regulatory requirements; and (3) Studies and research in support of the above. The Environmental Development Plan (EDP) lists the concerns, outlines the program to consider the effects and validity of such concerns on the OTEC program, and gives the time-table to meet the schedule, integrated with that of the engineering and design programs. The schedules of compliance activities and, to a lesser degree, research also are governed by the development progress of the technology. However, because of the lead time necessary to insure proper review the appropriate regulatory agencies, the environmental assessment program for the OTEC pilot plants (initially starting with the 10/40 MWe unit) is founded on the strategy of progressive improvement of previously accepted documentation. Based on experience with OTEC-1, the procedure for pilot plants will be: (1) Produce generic Environmental Assessment (EA) at the appropriate level of technology in advance of hardware contract; (2) Produce generic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) at approximately the same time as the hardware procurement; (3) Monitor production of site specific supplement to the generic EIS prepared by the hardware contractor; (4) Assist pilot plant operator in applying and obtaining permits by providing current research and modeling data; (5) Monitor environmental program as required by regulatory agency; and (6) Use new site data for refining models for future pilot plant. assessments.

  7. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  8. Development of a reliable estimation procedure of radioactivity inventory in a BWR plant due to neutron irradiation for decommissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Ueno, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Reliable information of radioactivity inventory resulted from the radiological characterization is important in order to plan decommissioning planning and is also crucial in order to promote decommissioning in effectiveness and in safe. The information is referred to by planning of decommissioning strategy and by an application to regulator. Reliable information of radioactivity inventory can be used to optimize the decommissioning processes. In order to perform the radiological characterization reliably, we improved a procedure of an evaluation of neutron-activated materials for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Neutron-activated materials are calculated with calculation codes and their validity should be verified with measurements. The evaluation of neutron-activated materials can be divided into two processes. One is a distribution calculation of neutron-flux. Another is an activation calculation of materials. The distribution calculation of neutron-flux is performed with neutron transport calculation codes with appropriate cross section library to simulate neutron transport phenomena well. Using the distribution of neutron-flux, we perform distribution calculations of radioactivity concentration. We also estimate a time dependent distribution of radioactivity classification and a radioactive-waste classification. The information obtained from the evaluation is utilized by other tasks in the preparatory tasks to make the decommissioning plan and the activity safe and rational.

  9. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  11. Pilot plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Licki, Janusz

    Double stage gas irradiation (2 electron accelerators, {50 kW}/{700 keV} each) is the main technological principle employed in the Polish pilot plant (20,000 Nm 3/h) constructed at EPS Kawȩczyn (low/medium sulphur coal). The pilot plant design is described in the paper.

  12. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  13. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H.; Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  14. Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent BWR fuel in BWR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waris, A.; Sumbono, Prayudhatama, Dythia; Novitrian, Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Spent fuel management is considered to be one of the main problems in energy nuclear utilization. Recycling after reprocessing is one of the options for dealing with nuclear reactor spent fuel. Reprocessing is very costly and needs remote handling since spent fuel is very hazard high level waste. On top of that, only a small number of countries can manage a reprocessing plant. If country likes Indonesia decide to "go nuclear", it should find another way to deal with the nuclear spent fuel. Korea has proposed the DUPIC (Direct Utilization of Spent PWR fuel In CANDU) concept. Nevertheless, DUPIC concept requires two types of nuclear power plants, i.e., pressurized water reactor (PWR) and CANadian Deuterium Uranium reactor (CANDU). In this study, we evaluate a scheme of direct recycling of spent BWR fuel in BWR system, under the concept that we have called as a SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario. Several spent BWR fuel compositions in loaded BWR fuel has been evaluated to achieve the criticality of reactor.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  16. Benchmark calculation for radioactivity inventory using MAXS library based on JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.0/A for decommissioning BWR plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi

    2016-06-01

    We performed benchmark calculation for radioactivity activated in a Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) by using MAXS library, which was developed by collapsing with neutron energy spectra in the PCV of the BWR. Radioactivities due to neutron irradiation were measured by using activation foil detector of Gold (Au) and Nickel (Ni) at thirty locations in the PCV. We performed activation calculations of the foils with SCALE5.1/ORIGEN-S code with irradiation conditions of each foil location as the benchmark calculation. We compared calculations and measurements to estimate an effectiveness of MAXS library.

  17. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    J. Huffer

    2004-09-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I.

  18. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  19. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  20. Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Reese, Stephen Joseph

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  6. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  7. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  8. Safeguards techniques in a pilot conditioning plant for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, E.; Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. )

    1991-01-01

    The pilot conditioning plant at Gorleben, Germany, is designed as a multi-purpose plant. Its primary task is the conditioning of spent fuel assemblies into a form suitable for final disposal. As a pilot plant, it allows furthermore for the development and testing of various conditioning techniques. In terms of international safeguards, the pilot conditioning plant is basically considered an item facility. Entire fuel assemblies enter the plant in transport casks, whereas bins filled with fuel rods or canisters containing cut fuel rods leave the facility in final disposal packages (e.g. POLLUX). Each POLLUX final disposal package content is uniquely correlated to a definite number of fuel assemblies which have entered the conditioning process. For this type of facility, containment/surveillance (C/S) should take over the major role in nuclear material safeguards. This paper discusses the safeguards at the Gorleben plant.

  9. Seismic risk assessment of a BWR: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.Y.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Wells, J.E.; Johnson, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    The seismic risk methodology developed in the US NRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was demonstrated by its application to the Zion nuclear power plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR). A detailed model of Zion, including systems analysis models (initiating events, event trees, and fault trees), SSI and structure models, and piping models was developed and analyzed. The SSMRP methodology can equally be applied to a boiling water reactor (BWR). To demonstrate its applicability, to identify fundamental differences in seismic risk between a PWR and a BWR, and to provide a basis of comparison of seismic risk between a PWR and a BWR when analyzed with comparable methodology and assumptions, a seismic risk analysis is being performed on the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant.

  10. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  11. In-situ calibration of nuclear-plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise methods. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Methods for in situ calibration of reactor plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise measurements were tested in the laboratory and in two operating reactors: Diablo Canyon and Sequoyah. The Johnson noise methods provide an absolute measurement of the thermometer temperature and can be compared with the dc calibration of the thermometers to confirm their calibration without removing the thermometers from the plant coolant loops. Inaccuracies of less than 0.1% were obtained with these methods for ideal situations where the noise measuring equipment could be connected directly to the installed thermometer terminals. For measurements made at the ends of long extension cables, inaccuracies were 0.5 to 1.0%, at best. Extension cables must be optimized and well characterized electrically to achieve such accuracies. Other factors that affect the accuracy of these methods were evaluated.

  12. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  14. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR`s and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ``natural zinc`` plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry.

  15. LBB application in Swedish BWR design

    SciTech Connect

    Kornfeldt, H.; Bjoerk, K.O.; Ekstroem, P.

    1997-04-01

    The protection against dynamic effects in connection with potential pipe breaks has been implemented in different ways in the development of BWR reactor designs. First-generation plant designs reflect code requirements in effect at that time which means that no piping restraint systems were designed and built into those plants. Modern designs have, in contrast, implemented full protection against damage in connection with postulated pipe breaks, as required in current codes and regulations. Moderns standards and current regulatory demands can be met for the older plants by backfitting pipe whip restraint hardware. This could lead to several practical difficulties as these installations were not anticipated in the original plant design and layout. Meeting the new demands by analysis would in this situation have great advantages. Application of leak-before-break criteria gives an alternative opportunity of meeting modem standards in reactor safety design. Analysis takes into account data specific to BWR primary system operation, actual pipe material properties, piping loads and leak detection capability. Special attention must be given to ensure that the data used reflects actual plant conditions.

  16. INTERIOR PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT SECOND FLOOR DEPICTING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT SECOND FLOOR DEPICTING DETAIL OF SHIELDED CAVE (CPP-640) LOOKING SOUTHWEST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM NORTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-40-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 7/2006 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ARCHITECTURAL ROOF PLAN AND WESTSOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL ROOF PLAN AND WEST-SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111680. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111681. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. INTERIOR PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT SECOND FLOOR WITH SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT SECOND FLOOR WITH SOUTH SECTION OF SHIELDED CAVE IN FOREGROUND (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-40-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 7/2006 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Preliminary Risk Assessment Associated with IGSCC of BWR Vessel Internals

    SciTech Connect

    A. Ware; K. Morton; M. Nitzel; N. Chokshi; T-Y. Chang

    1999-08-01

    BWR core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. The paper presents an overview of the program, discusses the results of a preliminary qualitative assessment, and summarizes a simplified risk assessment that was conducted on sequences resulting from failures of jet pump components of a BWR/4 plant.

  1. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R.

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  2. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  4. Initial second-generation PFB carbonizer pilot plant test results

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J. ); Froehlich, R. ); Bonk, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) plants promise higher efficiency with lower costs of electricity and lower stack emissions. With a l6.55 MPa/538{degree}C/538{degree}C/63.5-mm Hg(2400-psig/1000{degree} F/1000{degree}F/2.5-in.Hg) conventional steam cycle and a 3-percent sulfur Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity {approximately} 20 percent lower than that of a pulverized-coal-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing are being projected. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation has constructed and is operating a second-generation PFB pilot plant at the Foster Wheeler research facility (the John Blizard Research Center) in Livingston, New Jersey. Initial results of the pilot plant carbonizer test program supporting the development of this new type of plant are presented.

  5. [Pilot plant for microbiological synthesis. Engineer and technological aspects].

    PubMed

    Lukanin, A V

    2007-01-01

    A biotechnological pilot plant (National Research Centre of Antibiotics) and its technical potentialities in production of various biosynthetic products are described. Some engineer and technological aspects of the fermentation equipment and particularly sterilization of the media and apparatus, fermentation broth aeration under sterile conditions and control of biosynthesis technological parameters (t degrees, pO2, P, pH, foaming, etc.) are considered. The pilot plant is designed for fermentation processes under aseptic conditions with the use practically of any object, from bacteria to tissue cultures.

  6. Control of fractionation-area corrosion at SRC pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Baylor, V.B.; Canfield, D.R.; Barnett, W.P.

    1981-10-01

    Fractionating columns at the Fort Lewis, Washington, and Wilsonville, Alabama, Solvent Refined Coal pilot plants have experienced severe corrosion. This corrosion is most serious for materials exposed in the 230 to 250/sup 0/C (446 to 482/sup 0/F) range. Corrosion rates as high as 25 mm/year (1000 mils/year) on carbon steel and 6.4 mm/year (250 mils/year) on type 18-8 stainless steels have been observed. This corrosion problem has been studied at ORNL through exposure of coupons in the columns, analysis of failed components from the pilot plants, chemical analysis of liquids from the pilot plants, and operation of laboratory experiments. The in-plant exposure of coupons has shown that certain nickel-base alloys have adequate corrosion resistance for the environment. Chemical analyses of pilot plant liquids have shown that the presence of appreciable levels of water-soluble chloride is a necessary but not sufficient condition for these oils to be corrosive. By analysis of Fort Lewis and Wilpaw Shale (Kb), Fox Hills Sandstone (Kfh), and the Hell Creek formation (Khc). Anomaly No. 31 is over an area underlain by Recent alluvium (Qal).

  7. High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su Jong

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 milestone THM.CFD.P13.03: High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulation. High fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) was conducted to investigate the applicability and robustness performance of BWR closures. As a preliminary study, a CFD model with simplified Ferrule spacer grid geometry of NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) benchmark has been implemented. Performance of multiphase segregated solver with baseline boiling closures has been evaluated. Although the mean values of void fraction and exit quality of CFD result for BFBT case 4101-61 agreed with experimental data, the local void distribution was not predicted accurately. The mesh quality was one of the critical factors to obtain converged result. The stability and robustness of the simulation was mainly affected by the mesh quality, combination of BWR closure models. In addition, the CFD modeling of fully-detailed spacer grid geometry with mixing vane is necessary for improving the accuracy of CFD simulation.

  8. Performance of a second-generation PFB pilot plant combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Bonk, D.L.; Conn, R.; Van Hook, J.; Robertson, A.

    1995-04-01

    Second-generation on pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) plants promise higher efficiency with lower costs of electricity and lower stack emissions. With a conventional reheat cycle and a 3-percent sulfur Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, a 45-percent efficiency (HHV of coal basis) and a cost of electricity {approximately}20 percent lower than that of a pulverized-coal-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing are being projected. This advanced plant concept incorporates three major steps: carbonization, circulating fluidized bed combustion and topping combustion. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation has constructed and operated a second-generation PFB pilot plant at the Foster Wheeler research facility (the John Blizard Research Center) in Livingston, New Jersey. Results of the pilot plant combustor portion of the test program supporting the development of this new type of plant are presented. The fuels evaluated in this test program included several char-sorbent residues produced in a pressurized carbonizer pilot plant and their parent coals. The data confirmed the viability of the PFB combustor concept in terms of both combustion and emissions performance.

  9. Performance of a second-generation PFB pilot plant combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.; Van Hook, J.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-07-01

    Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) plants promise higher efficiency with lower costs of electricity and lower stack emissions. With a conventional reheat steam cycle and a 3% sulfur Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, a 45% efficiency (HHV of coal basis) and a cost of electricity 20% lower than that of a pulverized-coal-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing are being projected. This advanced plant concept incorporates three major steps: carbonization, circulating fluidized bed combustion and topping combustion. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation has constructed and operated a second-generation PFB pilot plant at the Foster Wheeler research facility (the John Blizard Research Center) in Livingston, New Jersey. Results of the pilot plant combustor portion of the test program supporting the development of this new type of plant are presented. The fuels evaluated in this test program included several char-sorbent residues produced in a pressurized carbonizer pilot plant and their parent coals. The data confirmed the viability of the PFB combustor concept in terms of both combustion and emissions performance.

  10. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  11. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  12. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  13. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, Phillip F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  14. Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

  15. Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Francke, C.; Saeb, S.

    1996-12-31

    The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot Project...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot Project...

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-17

    This report provides the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment led by the Savannah River National Laboratory and conducted by a team of experts in pertinent disciplines from SRNL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

  19. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot Project...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot Project...

  1. 7 CFR 1412.48 - Planting Transferability Pilot Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits... PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Direct and... § 1412.47, for each of the 2009 and subsequent crop years, the Planting Transferability Pilot Project...

  2. 77 FR 58421 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Plants,'' NUREG-1432 `` Combustion Engineering Plants,'' NUREG-1433 `` General Electric BWR/4 Plants,'' NUREG-1434, `` General Electric BWR/6 Plants.'' ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2012-0071 when...

  3. Calciner Pilot Plant waste minimization practices at the ICPP

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.

    1991-07-30

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear operates the DOE`s Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to recover uranium from spent Navy fuel. The high level radioactive liquid waste generated recovery operations is solidified in a fluidized bed calciner. Two calciner pilot plants at the Idaho Chemicaling plant are used to: (1) produce calcine, (2) develop new chemical flowsheets, and (3) optimize full-scale operations for the calcination of highly radioactive liquid waste at the ICPP`s New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). As a consequence of the pilot plants operations, non-radioactive solid and liquid waste is ted by the calciner Pilot Plants during their operation. Solid and liquid waste volume data between 1980--1990 have been gathered and evaluated. This data shows that solid hazardous generation volumes have been reduced by 59% and liquid waste (hazardous and non-hazardous) generation volumes have been reduced by an average of 58% over this time period. The improvements are a results of: (1) segregating potentially hazardous contaminated waste as non-hazardous after verification by random sampling (59% reduction), (2) reducing liquid waste at the source and (3) recycling the liquid waste (58% reduction).

  4. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  5. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  6. Presentation of the Cordy pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Bruno; Sobrero, R.

    1993-05-01

    This pilot has been set up to test the Avlis materials in conditions similar to those of a separator. It has therefore been designed as a corrosion loop where the feed is in gaseous phase and the circulation in liquid phase. The temperature is everywhere maintained above the uranium melting point. The facility includes an evaporation apparatus supplied by Leybold S.A., a set of 14 resistors controlled by a regulating system (Eurotherm software), and a cooled inner vessel aimed at the creation of a cold zone in the main vacuum vessel. A 60 kW scanning spot-focusing gun is used, set horizontally on the vacuum vessel. A coil and two magnetic arms set against the crucible create a constant and non homogeneous electromagnetic field which bends the electron beam towards the pool. The field configuration maintains a part of the back-scattered electrons in the crucible. The gun can be isolated from the vacuum vessel by a valve during the maintenance operations such as an emission filament replacement, the test materials being maintained in temperature and under vacuum. During the experiment a video camera records the condensation of the liquid metal in the upper part of the vessel and another camera gives a picture of the electron beam impact on the bath. Conclusions on the behavior of the materials are essentially post-mortem although the development of the gaseous phase is followed by mass spectrometry.

  7. Optimal design of a pilot OTEC power plant in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.H.; Kao, K.Y. ); Yang, J.C. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, an optimal design concept has been utilized to find the best designs for a complex and large-scale ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant. THe OTEC power plant under this study is divided into three major subsystems consisting of power subsystem, seawater pipe subsystem, and containment subsystem. The design optimization model for the entire OTEC plant is integrated from these sub-systems under the considerations of their own various design criteria and constraints. The mathematical formulations of this optimization model for the entire OTEC plant are described. The design variables, objective function, and constraints for a pilot plant under the constraints of the feasible technologies at this stage in Taiwan have been carefully examined and selected.

  8. New "wet type" electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Erdal; Ünal, Suat; Doğan, Alişan; Letournel, Eric; Pellizzari, Fabien

    2016-02-01

    We describe a new pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by a high energy electron beam. The special feature of this pilot plant is a uniquely designed reactor called VGS® (VIVIRAD Gas Scrubber, patent pending), that allows oxidation/reduction treating flue gas in a single step. The VGS® process combines a scrubber and an advanced oxidation/reduction process with the objective of optimizing efficiency and treatment costs of flue gas purification by electron accelerators. Promising treatment efficiency was achieved for SOx and NOx removal in early tests (99.2% and 80.9% respectively). The effects of various operational parameters on treatment performance and by-product content were investigated during this study.

  9. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  10. The development of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Brunet, Jean; Demey, Dries; Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for longterm manned missions. The MELiSSA loop is formed by five interconnected compartments, organized in three different loops (solid, liquid and gas). This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility has been designed to achieve the preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale, using animals as a model for the crew compartent. The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space. In this communication, the latests developments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant will be reported. Particularly, the completion of the design phase and instalation of all the different compartments will be discussed in detail. Each of the compartments had to be designed and constructed according to very specific characteristics, associated to the biological systems to be cultured, as part of the complete MELiSSA loop (anerobic, oxygenic, thermophilic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, axenic, photosynthetic, etc.). Additionally, the sizing of each reactor (ranging from 8 to 100 Liters, depending of each particular compartment) should compile with the global integration scenario proposed, and with the final goal of connection of all compartments to provide a demonstration of the MELiSSA concept, and generate data for the design and operation of future biological life support systems.

  11. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Fryer, D.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Johnson, C.K.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO{sub 3} Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90{degrees}C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO{sub 4}) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated.

  12. Synergistic failure of BWR internals

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Ware; T. Y. Chang

    1999-10-25

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. An initial phase has been completed in which background material was gathered and evaluated, and potential accident sequences were identified. A second phase is underway to perform a simplified, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment on a representative high-power BWR/4. Results of the initial study conducted on the jet pumps show that any cascading failures would not result in a significant increase in the core damage frequency. The methodology is currently being extended to other major reactor internals components.

  13. Synergistic Failure of BWR Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, Arthur Gates; Chang, T-Y

    1999-10-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. An initial phase has been completed in which background material was gathered and evaluated, and potential accident sequences were identified. A second phase is underway to perform a simplified, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment on a representative high-power BWR/4. Results of the initial study conducted on the jet pumps show that any cascading failures would not result in a significant increase in the core damage frequency. The methodology is currently being extended to other major reactor internals components.

  14. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the

  15. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  16. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  18. H-Coal-pilot-plant startup-oil study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This bench-unit program simulated the Catlettsburg H-Coal Pilot Plant start-up procedure in Run 6, which used catalytic cracker slurry oil, an aromatic petroleum oil. The program was designed to explore the reasons for Pilot Plant operational difficulties which included reactor product instability, vacuum pumping difficulties and unexpected product yields. Startup oil, hydroclone overflow and withdrawn catalyst were obtained from the Pilot Plant for use in this run with Illinois No. 6 coal. In this run the ratio of startup oil/coal was varied in Periods 1-10, from 2 to 0.2, while the ratio of recycle oil to coal was increased from 0 to 1.8. Recycle oils generated during this run were used as slurry oils in Periods 11 and 12. Initially, the C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F total distillate yield was 57.4 W %. As the startup oil feed was eliminated later in the run, the C/sub 4/-974/sup 0/F yield fell to 45.4 W %. Ancillary studies were performed on separator bottoms in order to establish their viscosity and settling characteristics as a function of time. Viscosity measurements were also made on bottoms containing 1 to 30 W % 975/sup 0/F/sup -/ distillate. For comparison, viscosities were measured as a function of temperature using PDU Run 5 hydroclone overflow samples which were vacuum distilled to contain < 33 W % 975/sup 0/F distillate. The propensity toward carbon formation was investigated by a series of Ramsbottom carbon residue (RCR) measurements on separator bottoms which covered the range of startup oil/coal ratios from 2 to 0. Finally, microautoclave tests were performed on startup oil and hydroclone overflow oils in order to assess their ability to dissolve coal.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  1. BWR steel containment corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  4. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-08-05

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose.

  5. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O'Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  6. Modeling temperature variations in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Domaschko, Max

    2011-05-01

    A model that predicts temperature changes in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester was developed based on fundamental thermodynamic laws. The methodology utilized two simulation strategies. In the first, model equations were solved through a searching routine based on a minimal square optimization criterion, from which the overall heat transfer coefficient values, for both biodigester and heat exchanger, were determined. In the second, the simulation was performed with variable values of these overall coefficients. The prediction with both strategies allowed reproducing experimental data within 5% of the temperature span permitted in the equipment by the system control, which validated the model. The temperature variation was affected by the heterogeneity of the feeding and extraction processes, by the heterogeneity of the digestate recirculation through the heating system and by the lack of a perfect mixing inside the biodigester tank. The use of variable overall heat transfer coefficients improved the temperature change prediction and reduced the effect of a non-ideal performance of the pilot plant modeled.

  7. Space Solar Power Concepts: Demonstrations to Pilot Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie K.; Feingold, Harvey; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of abundant, affordable power where needed is a key to the future exploration and development of space as well as future sources of clean terrestrial power. One innovative approach to providing such power is the use of wireless power transmission (WPT). There are at least two possible WPT methods that appear feasible; microwave and laser. Microwave concepts have been generated, analyzed and demonstrated. Technologies required to provide an end-to-end system have been identified and roadmaps generated to guide technology development requirements. Recently, laser W T approaches have gained an increased interest. These approaches appear to be very promising and will possibly solve some of the major challenges that exist with the microwave option. Therefore, emphasis is currently being placed on the laser WPT activity. This paper will discuss the technology requirements, technology roadmaps and technology flight experiments demonstrations required to lead toward a pilot plant demonstration. Concepts will be discussed along with the modeling techniques that are used in developing them. Feasibility will be addressed along with the technology needs, issues and capabilities for particular concepts. Flight experiments and demonstrations will be identified that will pave the road from demonstrations to pilot plants and beyond.

  8. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  10. A Program for Risk Assessment Associated with IGSCC of BWR Vessel Internals

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Ware; D. K. Morton; J. D. Page; M. E. Nitzel; S. A. Eide; T. -Y. Chang

    1999-08-01

    A program is being carried out for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to conduct an independent risk assessment of the consequences of failures initiated by intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the reactor vessel internals of boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, both singly and in combination with the failures of others, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects on system performance. This paper presents a description of the overall program that is underway to modify an existing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the BWR/4 plant to include IGSCC-initiated failures, subsequently to complete a quantitative PRA.

  11. SOUTH ELEVATION OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTH. INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTH. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-22-3-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/1998 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. (Boiling water reactor (BWR) CORA experiments)

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1990-10-16

    To participate in the 1990 CORA Workshop at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) GmbH, Karlsruhe, FRG, on October 1--4, and to participate in detailed discussions on October 5 with the KfK CORA Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) experiments. The traveler attended the 1990 CORA Workshop at KfK, FRG. Participation included the presentation of a paper on work performed by the Boiling Water Reactor Core Melt Progression Phenomena Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on posttest analyses of CORA BWR experiments. The Statement of Work (November 1989) for the BWR Core Melt Progression Phenomena Program provides for pretest and posttest analyses of the BWR CORA experiments performed at KfK. Additionally, it is intended that ORNL personnel participate in the planning process for future CORA BWR experiments. For these purposes, meetings were held with KfK staff to discuss such topics as (1) experimental test schedule, (2) BWR test conduct, (3) perceived BWR experimental needs, and (4) KfK operational staff needs with respect to ORNL support. 19 refs.

  13. [Pilot plant and experimental laboratory production. The role in biotechnology industry development].

    PubMed

    Volkov, H L

    2000-01-01

    A stage-phase approach can contribute to unnecessarily long product development time. A simultaneous approach that integrates all development resources through an effectively managed pilot plant can significantly shorten the product development cycle. An intensive development of the domestic biotechnology manufacturing is impossible without creation of the real pilot plant market in Ukraine.

  14. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  15. H-Coal Pilot Plant: skin contamination survey at the H-Coal Pilot Plant, E and H-13

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.H.; Tussey, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Occupational skin disease potential caused by process-material contamination of workers' skin is a major health concern within the coal-conversion industry. Fluorescence of coal-liquefaction process material caused by excitation with ultraviolet light is one technique being used to monitor skin contamination. A developmental instrument, the Spill Spotter, invented by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, can quantitate fluorescence of coal-liquefaction process materials on workers' skin. The Spill Spotter was loaned to Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. to monitor skin contamination of workers at the H-Coal Pilot Plant. Objectives of the study were to evaluate the degree of skin contamination using qualitative (blacklight) and quantitative (Spill Spotter) methods, to determine the effectiveness of showering in removing contamination, and to determine the quantitative relationship between Spill Spotter response and skin-contamination concentration. Field measurements at the pilot plant show wide ranges of background skin fluorescence caused by differing skin types and due to bodily location and pigmentation. Visible dirt on the skin partially quenched the fluorescence response of the Spill Spotter. Nonetheless, by using appropriate controls, and by utilizing discretion to minimize the quenching factor, fluorescent skin contamination on selected process workers was identified and quantified. The Spill Spotter measurements were also compared to skin screening using a hand-held blacklight. One group of plant operators was shown to exhibit a two-to three-fold increase in fluorescence during the work shift. Showering reduced the skin fluorescence to pre-shift levels in most cases, indicating that the fluorescent process material can be removed by washing.

  16. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; March-Leuba, Jose A; Thurston, Carl; Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ireland, A.; Wysocki, A.

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, the capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.

  17. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; ...

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, themore » capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.« less

  18. Florida's proposed OTEC pilot plant for Key West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, D. L.; Rotundo, L.; Griffin, A.; Kelly, T.

    1981-12-01

    A description of the organizational structure, resource, and plant design for an OTEC system near Key West, Fla., is presented. A consortium of government offices has contracted with individual industrial developers to form an initial design team and manage subcontracting. Key West was chosen because of high electric rates, a proximity to warm and deep seawater, and a cooperative utility. Ocean water temperatures range from 80 F for the surface to 42 F for deep waters. A 40 MWe pilot plant is planned, with a double hull design for the 600-700 ft by 100-200 ft barge; four 15 MWe power modules will use ammonia as a working fluid. Strong available currents have reduced the needed sizes of the surface water intake ducts; less than two weeks down time are projected for hurricanes. The fiber reinforced composite cooling water pipe will be 2,600 ft long and designed to withstand hurricane stresses. Mooring and power delivery cabling are described, and it is noted that the design for the Key West plant is transferable to anywhere in the world due to the built-in engineering considerations.

  19. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ≥ 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  1. The disturbed rock zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2003-12-01

    The Disturbed Rock Zone constitutes an important geomechanical element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The science and engineering underpinning the disturbed rock zone provide the basis for evaluating ongoing operational issues and their impact on performance assessment. Contemporary treatment of the disturbed rock zone applied to the evaluation of the panel closure system and to a new mining horizon improves the level of detail and quantitative elements associated with a damaged zone surrounding the repository openings. Technical advancement has been realized by virtue of ongoing experimental investigations and international collaboration. The initial portion of this document discusses the disturbed rock zone relative to operational issues pertaining to re-certification of the repository. The remaining sections summarize and document theoretical and experimental advances that quantify characteristics of the disturbed rock zone as applied to nuclear waste repositories in salt.

  2. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: An International Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Mark

    2003-02-25

    The United States Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is responsible for the successful management of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) in the United States. TRUW is a long-lived radioactive waste/material (LLRM). CBFO's responsibilities includes the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a deep geologic repository for the safe disposal of U.S. defense-related TRUW and is located 42 kilometers (km) east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP is the only deep-geological disposal site for LLRM that is operating in the world today. CBFO also manages the National Transuranic Waste Program (NTP), which oversees TRU waste management from generation to disposal. As of February 2003, approximately 1500 shipments of waste have been safely transported to the WIPP, which has been operating since March 1999.

  3. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  4. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  5. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  8. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  9. Role of BWR MK I secondary containments in severe accident mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The recent advent of detailed containment analysis codes such as CONTAIN and MELCOR has facilitated the development of the first large-scale, architectural-based BWR secondary containment models. During the past year ORNL has developed detailed, plant-specific models of the Browns Ferry and Peach Bottom secondary containments, and applied these models in a variety of studies designed to evaluate the role and effectiveness of BWR secondary containments in severe accident mitigation. The topology and basis for these models is discussed, together with some of the emerging insights from these studies.

  10. Steady Heat Removal Test by BWR Drywell Cooler under Accident Management Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, Seiichi; Tobimatsu, Toshimi; Akinaga, Makoto; Fukasawa, Masanori; Nagasaka, Hideo

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the heat removal performance of the BWR drywell local cooler (DWC) applied as a Japanese phase-II accident management. Separated effect tests were conducted using a single DWC unit of a typical BWR plant under severe accident (SA) condition. It was demonstrated that noncondensable gas mixture with nitrogen and helium was constantly vented from the DWC casing and the favorable steam condensation rate was maintained even under the highest assumed gas condition. The DWC was found to be promising even under wide range of SA conditions. (authors)

  11. Osmo-power - Theory and performance of an osmo-power pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.; Masuda, H.

    A theoretical and experimental study of the production of useful energy by the natural process of osmosis is presented. Using the results of the study a conceptual design of an osmotic pilot plant is performed. The power produced by a 1.6 MW/sq km plant has a competitive cost with that produced by both fossil power plants and nuclear power plants.

  12. TF Inner Leg Space Allocation for Pilot Plant Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Titus and Ali Zolfaghari

    2012-09-06

    A critical design feature of any tokamak is the space taken up by the inner leg of the toroidal field (TF) coil. The radial build needed for the TF inner leg, along with shield thickness , size of the central solenoid and plasma minor radius set the major radius of the machine. The cost of the tokamak core roughly scales with the cube of the major radius. Small reductions in the TF build can have a big impact on the overall cost of the reactor. The cross section of the TF inner leg must structurally support the centering force and that portion of the vertical separating force that is not supported by the outer structures. In this paper, the TF inner leg equatorial plane cross sections are considered. Out-of- Plane (OOP) forces must also be supported, but these are largest away from the equatorial plane, in the inner upper and lower corners and outboard sections of the TF coil. OOP forces are taken by structures that are not closely coupled with the radial build of the central column at the equatorial plane. The "Vertical Access AT Pilot Plant" currently under consideration at PPPL is used as a starting point for the structural, field and current requirements. Other TF structural concepts are considered. Most are drawn from existing designs such as ITER's circular conduits in radial plates bearing on a heavy nose section, and TPX's square conduits in a case, Each of these concepts can rely on full wedging, or partial wedging. Vaulted TF coils are considered as are those with some component of bucking against a central solenoid or bucking post. With the expectation that the pilot plant will be a steady state machine, a static stress criteria is used for all the concepts. The coils are assumed to be superconducting, with the superconductor not contributing to the structural strength. Limit analysis is employed to assess the degree of conservatism in the static criteria as it is applied to a linear elastic stress analysis. TF concepts, and in particular the PPPL AT

  13. 44 BWR Waste Package Loading Curve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2001-11-05

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of average initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of fuel into a potential 44 BWR waste package (WP). The potential WP design is illustrated in Attachment I. The scope of this calculation covers a range of initial enrichments from 1.5 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 50 GWd/mtU.

  14. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  15. Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sellakumar, K.M.; Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J.

    1993-05-01

    Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW{sub th} (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} (12.6 MMBtu/ft{sup 2} hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO{sub x} SO{sub 2} and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

  16. Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sellakumar, K.M. ); Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J. . Hans Ahlstroem Lab.)

    1993-05-01

    Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW[sub th] (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m[sup 2] (12.6 MMBtu/ft[sup 2] hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO[sub x] SO[sub 2] and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

  17. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  18. Controller Design Based on Nonlinear Separation Control Method for OTEC Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Uehara, Haruo

    An OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) pilot plant consists of two parts; an OTEC system of main part and a heat reservoir system of sub part. The nonlinear separation control method was applied to the controller design for the OTEC pilot plant. The nonlinear separation models were constructed for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system. The controller for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system was designed by using the both nonlinear separation models. A detail simulation study showed that the multi-layer controller for the OTEC pilot plant brought a satisfactory control performance by comparing a conventional PI control.

  19. Meteorological data for SRI study of mesoscale weather effects by pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-07

    The data required to estimate the probability of occurrence of initial meteorological conditions leading to an effect on the weather by the pilot solar thermal electric plant are discussed. No completely appropriate data summaries are available. Vertical atmospheric profiles are the most appropriate source of raw data for a statistical analysis, but these are not available from the pilot plant location either. The available stability data for the pilot plant site are presented. A procedure is outlined to obtain the required estimates of occurrence frequency if desired. However, it is recommended that more substantial effects be demonstrated with a physically realistic model before great effort is expended on data analysis.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  1. P-Recovery from sewage by seeded crystallisation in a pilot plant in batch mode technology.

    PubMed

    Ehbrecht, A; Schönauer, S; Fuderer, T; Schuhmann, R

    2011-01-01

    P-Recovery from actual sewage by P-RoC-technology (Phosphorus Recovery by Crystallisation of phosphate mineral phases from waste- and processwater) was studied in a pilot scale. Therewith the practicability of the pilot plant was tested and the quality of the so generated products was investigated.

  2. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions for BWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; DeHart, M.D.

    1998-09-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  3. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) Isotopic Predictions for BWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  5. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  6. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

  7. Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Paris pilot plant samples

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Kopfler, F.C.; Condie, L.W.; Pereira, M.A.; Meier, J.R.; Ringhand, H.P.; Robinson, M.; Casto, B.C.

    1986-11-01

    Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential association with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 x) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. A consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected.

  8. Installation of the Pulse-Plate Column Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nick R. Mann

    2009-07-01

    There are three primary types of solvent extraction equipment utilized in the nuclear industry for reprocessing of used nuclear fuel; pulse columns, mixer-settlers, and centrifugal contactors. Considerable research and development has been performed at the INL and throughout the DOE complex on the application of centrifugal contactors for used fuel reprocessing and these contactors offer many significant advantages. However, pulse columns have been used extensively in the past in throughout the world for aqueous separations processes and remain the preferred equipment by many commercial entities. Therefore, a pulse-plate column pilot plant has been assembled as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support experimentation and demonstration of pulse column operation. This will allow the training of personnel in the operation of pulse columns. Also, this capability will provide the equipment to allow for research to be conducted in the operation of pulse columns with advanced solvents and processes developed as part of the fuel cycle research and development being performed in the AFCI program.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  10. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  12. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  13. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-26

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  14. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD,BRYAN A.; CRAWFORD,M.B.; GALSON,D.A.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-22

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal.

  15. The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E.; Helton, J.C.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Information System (Public Access)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a DOE facility located in the desert outside Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its mission is to safely dispose of defense-related transuranic radioactive waste. Disposal ôroomsö are carved out of the Permian Salt Formation deep below the desertÆs surface. The WIPP Waste Information Service (WWIS) was established in accordance with an Agreement between the United States Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department, dated February 11, 2005, Docket Number HWB 04-07 (CO). The service provides information the containers emplaced at WIPP and the waste products they hold. The public may query by shipment number, location of waste stream or location of the container after it is placed at WIPP, date placed, and Haz Codes or other information about the waste stream profiles. For example, choosing the waste stream identified as ID-SDA-SLUDGE reveals that it may contain more than 20 chemical waste products, including arsenic, spent halogenated solvents, potassium cyanide, and chloroform. The system then tells you each numbered container that has this kind of sludge. Container data is available within 14 days after the containerÆs emplacement in the WIPP Repository.

  17. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  18. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act of 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources reports on the Bill S. 1272 and recommends passage of the bill as amended by the Committee. S. 1272 as amended withdraws 10,240 acres of land in Eddy county, New Mexico for the exclusive use of the Department of Energy (DOE) for construction, operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning control of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The lands, currently managed by the Department of the Interior, would be permanently withdrawn and transferred to the control of DOE. The bill sets forth specific instructions to the Secretary of Energy to preserve the ecology of these lands and mandates compliance with standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for storage and disposal of transuranium radioactive waste as set forth in 40 C.F.R. Part 191. In addition to the section-by-section analysis of the bill, a cost estimate from the Congressional Budget Office and copies of communications received by the Committee from DOE and the Department of the Interior setting forth executive recommendations relating to the bill are included.

  20. Key Geomechanics Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

    1999-09-01

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of rock salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory compliance determinations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) stand as testament to the widely held conclusion that salt provides excellent isolation properties. The WIPP saga began in the 1950s when the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommended a salt vault as a promising solution to the national problem of nuclear waste disposal. For over 20 years, the Scientific basis for the NAS recommendation has been fortified by Sandia National Laboratories through a series of large scale field tests and laboratory investigations of salt properties. These scientific investigations helped develop a comprehensive understanding of salt's 4 reformational behavior over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Sophisticated constitutive modeling, validated through underground testing, provides the computational ability to model long-term behavior of repository configurations. In concert with advancement of the mechanical models, fluid flow measurements showed not only that the evaporite lithology was essentially impermeable but that the WIPP setting was hydrologically inactive. Favorable mechanical properties ensure isolation of materials placed in a salt geological setting. Key areas of the geomechanics investigations leading to the certification of WIPP are in situ experiments, laboratory tests, and shaft seal design.

  1. Performance characteristics of an MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, J. S.; Jang, P. R.; Okhuysen, W. P.; Holt, J. K.

    In magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, a seed material, normally K2CO3, is added to enhance the conductivity of the coal-fired gas stream. The plasma is passed through a magnetic field and electricity is produced by the Hall effect. Future large scale MHD facilities are expected to be more efficient than conventional coal-fired power plants not only because of the dc electricity produced but also from increased heat recovery owing to the large (3000 K) combustion temperatures employed. There is; however, a finite cost for the seed material and the resulting K2SO4 particles (SO2 emissions are minimized by combination with seed potassium) must be collected, converted back to K2CO3 or KCO2H, and recycled back to the combustor. The performance characteristics of the MHD electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are therefore, of interest. We describe Mie scattering and electric field measurements on an MHD pilot scale ESP located at the Coal Fire Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. Results are reported for the determination of near-real-time collection efficiencies, the variation of the ESP performance with seed percentage, and initial studies on the extent of particle re-entrainment.

  2. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  3. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  4. Fate of sex hormones in two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants: conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Mar; Suidan, Makram T; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Gonzalez, Cristina; Sorial, George A; McCauley, Paul; Brenner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormones in both the liquid and the solid matrixes of the plants were determined. Each of the two 20-l/h pilot-scale plants consisted of a primary clarifier followed by a three-stage aeration tank and a final clarifier. The primary sludge and the waste activated sludge (WAS) were digested anaerobically in one pilot plant and aerobically in the other. The pilot plants were fed a complex synthetic wastewater spiked with the hormones. Levels of testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were close to method detection limit (MDL) concentrations in the final and digester effluents (both liquid and solid phases) and were considered as completely removed. Average mass flux removals from the liquid streams (plant influent minus secondary clarifier effluent) for the natural estrogens were 82% for E1, 99% for E2, and 89% for (E1+E2). An average overall removal of only 42% was achieved for EE2. These values reflect removals averaged for the two pilot plants.

  5. The 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: Solar facilities design integration. Pilot-plant station manual (RADL Item 2-1). Volume 1: System description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    The complete Barstow Solar Pilot Plant is described. The plant requirements and general description are presented, the mechanical, electric power, and control and instrumentation systems as well as civil engineering and structural aspects and the station buildings are described. Included in the mechanical systems are the heliostats, receiver, thermal storage system, beam characterization system, steam, water, nitrogen, and compressed air systems, chemical feed system, fire protection system, drains, sumps and the waste disposal systems, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  8. Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Parish pilot plant samples.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G; Kopfler, F C; Condie, L W; Pereira, M A; Meier, J R; Ringhand, H P; Robinson, M; Casto, B C

    1986-01-01

    Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential associated with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. The stability of the mutagenic activity of the samples tested was determined by repeated analysis using the Ames Salmonella assay. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 X) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. In the in vivo, subchronic 30-day toxicity test in mice, some statistically significant differences in organ weights and body weights of animals exposed to different concentrates of some of the samples were observed. However, a consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected. PMID:3816718

  9. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  10. PFLOTRAN Simulation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Single Waste Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Hammond, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations estimate the probability and consequence of potential radionuclide releases from the repository to the accessible environment arising from events and processes that could occur over the 10,000 year regulatory period. The conceptual model estimates three possible cases and the combinations of these cases: 1) undisturbed condition of the repository, 2) human borehole intrusion condition that penetrates the repository, and 3) human borehole intrusion that penetrates pressurized brine underlying the repository. To date, WIPP PA calculations have employed multiple two-dimensional (2D) numerical models requiring simplification of the mesh and processes including homogenization of materials and regions while maintaining volume aspect ratio. Introducing three-dimensional (3D) numerical models within WIPP PA enables increasingly realistic representations of the WIPP subsurface domain and improved flexibility for incorporating relevant features. PFLOTRAN is a state-of-art massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code that will be implemented to enhance PA with more physically realistic 3D flow and transport models; eliminating the need for multiple related, but decoupled 2D models. This paper demonstrates PFLOTRAN simulation of a single waste panel of the WIPP undisturbed condition in 3D. The simulation also employs newly implemented WIPP specific functionalities to PFLOTRAN: 1) gas generation from the wastes, 2) creep closure of bedded salt formation, 3) fractures of marker beds near the excavation, 4) Klinkenberg effect on gas permeability in low-permeable materials, and 5) Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state for gas density.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  12. 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant total capitol costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, H. F., Jr.

    1985-02-01

    A detailed breakdown of the capital cost of the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant located near Barstow, California is presented. The total capital requirements of the pilot plant are given in four cost breakdown structures: (1) project costs (research and development, design, factory, construction, and start up); (2) plant system costs (land, structures and improvements, collector system, receiver system, thermal transport system, thermal storage system, turbine generator plant system, electrical plant system, miscellaneous plant equipment, and plant level); (3) elements of work costs (sitework/earthwork, concrete work, metal work, architectural work. process equipment, piping and electrical work); and (4) recurring and nonrecurring costs. For all four structures, the total capital cost is the same; however, the allocation of costs within each structure is different. These cost breakdown structures were correlated to show the interaction and the assignment of costs for specific areas.

  13. Hydrogen injection in BWR and related radiation chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigure, Kenkichi; Takagi, Junichi; Shiraishi, Hirotsugu

    Hydrogen injection to feed water systems in boiling water reactors (BWR) has drawn wide attention as one of the possible countermeasures to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304 type stainless steel piping. To confirm the effectiveness of the hydrogen injection, a computer simulation of the complicated radiolysis reactions was carried out. The result of the simulation showed that the reactor water data monitored at the usual sampling points in actual plants reflect mainly the reactions in the downcomer portion but not in the reactor core in BWR. The calculation claimed approximately 300 ppb hydrogen in feed water to reduce the oxygen concentration in the recirculation lines to a negligible level, while one order of magnitude higher level of hydrogen is necessary to suppress oxygen in the reactor core. The computer simulation requires many radiation chemical data as in-put, among which are G values of initial products for water radiolysis at high temperature. An experimental approach was made to confirm the G values for high temperature radiolysis of water. The result does not seem to be consistent with the high temperature G values reported by Burns.

  14. Benchmarking of KRAM against the KRITZ-4 BWR cores

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The KRAM lattice-physics code can model the true geometry of a boiling water reactor (BWR) lattice in as much detail as desired. The two-dimensional flux solution is performed using the characteristics method. The characteristics module itself has been benchmarked against a number of various problems and has been found to be very accurate, calculating eigen-values within one standard deviation of those from Monte Carlo solutions. Solutions from the entire code, though, have not been benchmarked, although some analyses have been performed against plant operating data. These analyses serve more to benchmark the accuracy of the code package, in this case KRAM/PRESTO, rather than the KRAM code itself. The KRITZ-4 criticals present the opportunity to benchmark KRAM against measured power distributions and eigen-values. In this way, much of the methodology in KRAM, beginning with the cross-section library and continuing through to the characteristics solution, can be verified. In this paper, results are presented from the analyses of three KRITZ-4 BWR criticals, which had been performed at hot conditions and contained fission distributions.

  15. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  16. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FORMING FOR NORTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 4 AND 5; CONSTRUCTION 21 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1874. Holmes, Photographer, 4/21/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). INL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MISCELLANEOUS ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-640-00-279-111684. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF OPERATING AREA HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN OF OPERATING AREA HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111678. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ARCHITECTURAL WALL SECTIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). INL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL WALL SECTIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111682. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ARCHITECTURAL DOOR DETAILS AND SCHEDULE OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL DOOR DETAILS AND SCHEDULE OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-640-00-279-111683. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) OVERALL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) OVERALL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST; CONSTRUCTION 34 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3034. Holmes, Photographer, 6/23/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING OVERALL BLOCK EXTERIOR WALLS; CONSTRUCTION 65 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4976. Holmes, Photographer, 9/26/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DECK FORMING FOR SOUTH SECTION OF OPERATING CORRIDOR; CONSTRUCTION 44 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3624. Holmes, Photographer, 7/25/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING EAST SHOWING EXCAVATION AND FORMING; CONSTRUCTION 6 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-4935. J. Anderson, Photographer, 9/21/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. NORTH ELEVATION OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING SOUTH AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING SOUTH AFTER REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) WAS REMOVED. PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-33-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 7/2006 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam -start up and two stage irradiation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Licki, Janusz; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Andrzej

    1993-10-01

    The pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam has been built at Power Plant Kaweczyn, near Warsaw. The irradiation part of the pilot plant has been put in operation in 1991 whereas the complete installation including bag filter started to work in spring 1992. The starting tests consisted of studying the components reliability and influence of the two-stage irradiation process on efficiency of NO x removal. The results have shown that the two- stage irradiation leads to remarkable energy savings and retains high NO x removal. The mathematical models of the double and triple irradiation process are discussed.

  7. Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.

  8. Research and development on PFBC-CC in China and Jiawang pilot plant project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ningsheng; Zhang, Mingyao; Li, Daji; Fu, Wenling

    1994-09-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion(PFBC) is recognized as an advanced coal-fired technology which can improve efficiency in combined cycle scheme and reduce environmental pollution. Progressive status on PFBC-CC in China is presented in this paper. Test results on a 1 MWt bench scale experimental PFBC facility is reviewed briefly. Based on retrofitting of an old steam power plant located at Jiawang, a project to construct a PFBC-CC pilot plant is under way. Designed capacity of the pilot plant is about 15 MWe, 3 MWe from gas cycle and 12 MWe from steam cycle. The system configuration, main design parameters, estimated technical performance as well as construction schedule of the pilot plant are described. The bright future for PFBC-CC in China is also indicated.

  9. Assessment of two BWR accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Petek, M.

    1991-01-01

    Candidate mitigative strategies for management of in-vessel events during the late phase (after core degradation has occurred) of postulated BWR severe accidents were considered at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during 1990. The identification of new strategies was subject to the constraint that they should, to the maximum extent possible, make use of the existing equipment and water resources of the BWR facilities and not require major equipment modifications or additions. As a result of this effort, two of these candidate strategies were recommended for additional assessment. The first is a strategy for containment flooding to maintain the core and structural debris within the reactor vessel in the event that vessel injection cannot be restored to terminate a severe accident sequence. The second strategy pertains to the opposite case, for which vessel injection would be restored after control blade melting had begun; its purpose is to provide an injection source of borated water at the concentration necessary to preclude criticality upon recovering a damaged BWR core. Assessments of these two strategies have been performed during 1991 under the auspices of the Detailed Assessment of BWR In-Vessel Strategies Program. This paper provides a discussion of the motivation for and purpose of these strategies and the potential for their success. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Development of high performance BWR spacer

    SciTech Connect

    Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetu; Mitutake, Tohru; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Yano, Takashi; Kimura, Jiro

    1996-07-01

    The spacer has a significant effect on thermal hydraulic performance of BWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this study is to develop a new BWR spacer with high critical power and low pressure drop performance. The developed high performance spacer is a ferrule type spacer with twisted tape and improved flow tab. This spacer is called CYCLONE spacer. Critical power and pressure drop have been measured at BEST (BWR Experimental Loop for Stability and Transient test) of Toshiba Corporation. The test bundle consists of electrically heated rods in a 4x4 array configuration. These heater rods are indirectly heated. The heated length and outer diameter of the heater rod, as well as the number and the axial locations of the spacers, are the same as for those for a BWR fuel assembly. The axial power shape is stepped cosine (1.4 of the maximum peaking factor). Two test assemblies with different radial power distribution have been used. One test assembly has the maximum power rods at the center of the test assembly and the other has the maximum power rods near the channel wall. The results show that the critical power performance of CYCLONE spacer is 10 to 25 % higher than that of the ferrule spacers, while the pressure drop for CYCLONE spacer is nearly equal to that of the ferrule spacer.

  11. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  12. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  13. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a

  14. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-05-15

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project

  15. Operation result of 40kW class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Hatori, S.; Hosaka, M.; Uematsu, H.

    1996-12-31

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. developed unique Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) system based on our original concept. To demonstrate the possibility of this system, based on MCFC technology of consigned research from New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan, we designed 40kW class MCFC pilot plant which had all equipments required as a power plant and constructed in our TO-2 Technical Center. This paper presents the test results of the plant.

  16. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  17. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results : Anthony, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Aragon, Alicia R.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Holub, William E., Jr.; Wright, Jerome L.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2007-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting pilot scale evaluations of the performance and cost of innovative water treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot tests have been conducted in New Mexico where over 90 sites that exceed the new MCL have been identified by the New Mexico Environment Department. The pilot test described in this report was conducted in Anthony, New Mexico between August 2005 and December 2006 at Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) (Desert Sands) Well No.3. The pilot demonstrations are a part of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The Sandia National Laboratories pilot demonstration at the Desert Sands site obtained arsenic removal performance data for fourteen different adsorptive media under intermittent flow conditions. Well water at Desert Sands has approximately 20 ppb arsenic in the unoxidized (arsenite-As(III)) redox state with moderately high total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly due to high sulfate, chloride, and varying concentrations of iron. The water is slightly alkaline with a pH near 8. The study provides estimates of the capacity (bed volumes until breakthrough at 10 ppb arsenic) of adsorptive media in the same chlorinated water. Adsorptive media were compared side-by-side in ambient pH water with intermittent flow operation. This pilot is broken down into four phases, which occurred sequentially, however the phases overlapped in most cases.

  18. Optimization of limestone sizing for CFB combustors: Results of pilot plant and bench-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.; Edvardsson, C.; Wu, S.; Probst, S.

    1994-12-31

    A grant to study the performance of limestones in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor was obtained in 1991 from the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority (PEDA) by Tampella Power Corporation (TPC). The overall objective of this PEDA project was to carry out a systematic pilot plant tests at TPC`s pilot plant in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, in systematic order to identify ways of improving sulfur capture and limestone utilization through better control of the size distribution and residence time of the limestone particles in the furnace. It was also an objective to determine if bench scale testing could be of value in predicting CFB sorbent behavior. The pilot plant and bench test results were incorporated into an empirical Correlation which accounts for the size distribution and residence time of solids in CFB boiler.

  19. Sustainable reduction of bioreactor contamination in an industrial fermentation pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Junker, Beth; Lester, Michael; Leporati, James; Schmitt, John; Kovatch, Michael; Borysewicz, Stan; Maciejak, Waldemar; Seeley, Anna; Hesse, Michelle; Connors, Neal; Brix, Thomas; Creveling, Eric; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Facility experience primarily in drug-oriented fermentation equipment (producing small molecules such as secondary metabolites, bioconversions, and enzymes) and, to a lesser extent, in biologics-oriented fermentation equipment (producing large molecules such as recombinant proteins and microbial vaccines) in an industrial fermentation pilot plant over the past 15 years is described. Potential approaches for equipment design and maintenance, operational procedures, validation/verification testing, medium selection, culture purity/sterility analysis, and contamination investigation are presented, and those approaches implemented are identified. Failure data collected for pilot plant operation for nearly 15 years are presented and best practices for documentation and tracking are outlined. This analysis does not exhaustively discuss available design, operational and procedural options; rather it selectively presents what has been determined to be beneficial in an industrial pilot plant setting. Literature references have been incorporated to provide background and context where appropriate.

  20. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Y.C.

    1987-01-16

    Due to changing environmental regulations, the current practice of depleted uranium chip (machine turning) disposal via shallow land burial has become environmentally objectionable. The chips are pyrophoric and oxidize rapidly when exposed to air; therefore, long-term storage of the uranium chips presents a major fire hazard. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Development Division was contacted to devise a disposal method that would eliminate chip burial and minimize storage space requirements. The proposed method of accomplishing this task was oxidizing the uranium chips to uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) under controlled conditions. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility (UCOF) was initiated on May 20, 1985, by the Y-12 Development Division. The purpose of this initial development testing was to evaluate the equipment, determine operating parameters, and provide on-the-job training for Waste Treatment Operations (WTO) personnel. Startup of the UCOF began with the check-out of the equipment using only the No. 1 oxidizer. Following the verification stage, the oxidizer was loaded with an initial charge of cold uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) in preparation for test burning. Results of the test are given.

  1. BWRVIP-101: BWR Vessel and Internals Project: Proceedings: BWRVIP Symposium, Orlando, Florida, December 6-7, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    The Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP), formed in June 1994, is an association of utilities focused exclusively on BWR vessel and internals issues. This BWRVIP symposium--held December 6-7, 2001--provided an overview of products completed to date and how they are being implemented at individual plants.

  2. Macroscopic mass and energy balance of a pilot plant anaerobic bioreactor operated under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Bombardiere, John; Chatfield, Mark; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael; Stafford, David A; Castillo-Angeles, Saul; Castellanos-Hernandez, Nehemias

    2006-01-01

    Intensive poultry production generates over 100,000 t of litter annually in West Virginia and 9 x 10(6) t nationwide. Current available technological alternatives based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion for residuals treatment are diverse. A modification of the typical continuous stirred tank reactor is a promising process being relatively stable and owing to its capability to manage considerable amounts of residuals at low operational cost. A 40-m3 pilot plant digester was used for performance evaluation considering energy input and methane production. Results suggest some changes to the pilot plant configuration are necessary to reduce power consumption although maximizing biodigester performance.

  3. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  4. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  5. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  6. Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project Utilizing Biomass Gasification Technology: Pilot Plant Gasifier and Syngas Conversion Testing; August 2002 -- June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-02-01

    This report is part of an overall evaluation of using a modified Pearson Pilot Plant for processing rice straw into syngas and ethanol and the application of the Pearson technology for building a Demonstration Plant at Gridley. This report also includes information on the feedstock preparation, feedstock handling, feedstock performance, catalyst performance, ethanol yields and potential problems identified from the pilot scale experiments.

  7. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  8. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.; Burgess, T.; Dix, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Gerrity, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Kastner, R.; Kessel, C.; Malang, S.; Minervini, J.; Neilson, G. H.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Prager, S.; Sawan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Sternlieb, A.; Waganer, L.; Whyte, D.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2011-10-01

    A potentially attractive next-step towards fusion commercialization is a pilot plant, i.e. a device ultimately capable of small net electricity production in as compact a facility as possible and in a configuration scalable to a full-size power plant. A key capability for a pilot-plant programme is the production of high neutron fluence enabling fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) research. It is found that for physics and technology assumptions between those assumed for ITER and nth-of-a-kind fusion power plant, it is possible to provide FNST-relevant neutron wall loading in pilot devices. Thus, it may be possible to utilize a single facility to perform FNST research utilizing reactor-relevant plasma, blanket, coil and auxiliary systems and maintenance schemes while also targeting net electricity production. In this paper three configurations for a pilot plant are considered: the advanced tokamak, spherical tokamak and compact stellarator. A range of configuration issues is considered including: radial build and blanket design, magnet systems, maintenance schemes, tritium consumption and self-sufficiency, physics scenarios and a brief assessment of research needs for the configurations.

  9. Role of BWR secondary containments in severe accident mitigation: issues and insights from recent analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    All commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) plants in the US employ primary containments of the pressure suppression design. These primary containments are surrounded and enclosed by a secondary containment consisting of a reactor building and refueling bay (MK I and MK II designs), a shield building, auxiliary building and fuel building (MK III), or an auxiliary building and enclosure building (Grand Gulf style MK III). Although secondary containment designs are highly plant specific, their purpose is to minimize the ground level release of radioactive material for a spectrum of traditional design basis accidents. While not designed for severe accident mitigation, these secondary containments might also reduce the radiological consequences of severe accidents. This issue is receiving increasing attention due to concerns that BWR MK I primary containment integrity would be lost should a significant mass of molten debris escape the reactor vessel during a severe accident. This paper presents a brief overview of domestic BWR secondary containment designs and highlights plant-specific features that could influence secondary containment severe accident survivability and accident mitigation effectiveness. Current issues surrounding secondary containment performance are discussed, and insights gained from recent ORNL secondary containment studies of Browns Ferry, Peach Bottom, and Shoreham are presented. Areas of significant uncertainty are identified and recommendations for future research are presented.

  10. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results:Weatherford, Oklahoma.

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Arora, H. (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Karori, Saqib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Pathan, Sakib

    2007-05-01

    Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc. (NCS), under a contract with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), designed and operated pilot scale evaluations of the adsorption and coagulation/filtration treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The pilot evaluation was conducted at Well 30 of the City of Weatherford, OK, which supplies drinking water to a population of more than 10,400. Well water contained arsenic in the range of 16 to 29 ppb during the study. Four commercially available adsorption media were evaluated side by side for a period of three months. Both adsorption and coagulation/filtration effectively reduced arsenic from Well No.30. A preliminary economic analysis indicated that adsorption using an iron oxide media was more cost effective than the coagulation/ filtration technology.

  11. Dynamic modeling of Badaling molten salt tower CSP pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zijiang; Lu, Jiahui; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    Under the collaboration framework between EDF China R&D Centre and CAS-IEE, a preliminary numerical model of 1MWth molten salt tower solar power demonstration plant in Badaling, Beijing is presented in this paper. All key components in the plant are presented throughout detailed modules in the model according to its design specifications. Control strategies are also implemented to maintain the design system performance at transient scenario. By this model some key design figures of plant has been validated and it will be used to guide experiment set-up and plant commissioning.

  12. Risk Based Inspection Pilot Study of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant,Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brickstad, Bjorn; Letzter, Adam; Klimasauskas, Arturas; Alzbutas, Robertas; Nedzinskas, Linas; Kopustinskas, Vytis

    2002-07-01

    A project with the acronym IRBIS (Ignalina Risk Based Inspection pilot Study) has been performed with the objective to perform a quantitative risk analysis of a total of 1240 stainless steel welds in Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, unit 2 (INPP-2). The damage mechanism is IGSCC and the failure probabilities are quantified by using probabilistic fracture mechanics. The conditional core damage probabilities are taken from the plant PSA. (authors)

  13. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING FORMING AND PLACEMENT OF REINFORCING STEEL FOR SOUTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 3, 4 AND 5 AND WEST WALL FOR CELLS 1 AND 2; CONSTRUCTION 13 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS 59-6436. J. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, R.L.; Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A.

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  15. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  16. Chemistry research and development. Progress report, December 1978-May 1979. [Component, pilot plant, instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, F. J.

    1980-06-30

    Progress and activities are reported on component development, pilot plant development, and instrumentation and statistical systems. Specific items studied include processing of pond sludge, transport of radioactive materials and wastes, corrosion, decontamination and cleaning, fluidized-bed incineration, Pu contamination of soils, chemical analysis, radiometric analysis, security. (DLC)

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  18. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  19. Not-from-concentrate pilot plant ‘Wonderful’ cultivar pomegranate juice changes: Volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pilot plant ultrafiltration was used to mimic the dominant U.S. commercial pomegranate juice extraction method (hydraulic pressing whole fruit), to deliver a not-from-concentrate (NFC) juice that was high-temperature short-time pasteurized and stored at 4 and 25 °C. Recovered were 46 compounds, of ...

  20. 78 FR 34380 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Environmental Laws for the Period 2010 to 2012 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or ``we'') determined that,...

  1. 76 FR 31611 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with Applicable Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Environmental Laws for the Period 2008 to 2010 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or ``we'') determined that,...

  2. A&M. TAN607. Process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) in north machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) in north machine shop of TAN-607. First floor plan shows kiln area, internal room dividers, air locks, and other features integrated within TAN-607. Ralph M. Parsons A-2. Date: February 1984. INEEL index no. 034-0607-00-693-147021 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Use of a Modern Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza-Bustos, S. A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Described is a project where students gain experience in handling large volumes of hazardous materials, process start up and shut down, equipment failures, operational variations, scaling up, equipment cleaning, and run-time scheduling while working in a modern pilot plant. Included are the system design, experimental procedures, and results. (KR)

  4. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  5. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  7. Planting aspen to rehabilitate riparian areas: a pilot study

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Stephen A. Mata

    2005-01-01

    We planted 742 greenhouse-grown containerized aspen seedlings in the riparian area of Hurd Creek on the Arapaho National Forest east of Tabernash, Colorado. Objectives were to (1) determine whether aspen seedlings can be planted in an operational setting and survive in sufficient numbers to successfully establish a mature aspen stand and (2) determine the effectiveness...

  8. Recent SCDAP/RELAP5 improvements for BWR severe accident simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, F.P.

    1995-12-31

    A new model for the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code that represents the control blade and channel box structures in a boiling water reactor (BWR) has been under development since 1991. This model accounts for oxidation, melting, and relocation of these structures, including the effects of material interactions between B{sub 4}C, stainless steel, and Zircaloy. This paper describes improvements that have been made to the BWR control blade/channel box model during 1994 and 1995. These improvements include new capabilities that represent the relocation of molten material in a more realistic manner and modifications that improve the usability of the code by reducing the frequency of code failures. This paper also describes a SCDAP/RELAP5 assessment calculation for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant design based upon a short-term station blackout accident sequence.

  9. Benchmark Validation of Tort Code Using Kkm Measurement and its Application to 800 Mwe Bwr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukiyama, Toshihisa; Hayashi, Katsumi; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Hayashida, Yoshihisa; Asano, Kyoichi; Koyabu, Ken

    2003-06-01

    To estimate the applicability of the TORT code, a benchmark calculation was performed using the measured neutron flux in a 375MWe BWR in Switzerland. The calculated neutron flux was compared with the measured neutron fluxes at 27 locations between the shroud and the RPV. The reaction rates of thermal and fast dosimeters calculated by TORT agreed well with the measured data. As a next step, the TORT code was applied to estimate the neutron flux distribution in Japanese 800MWe BWR plants and compared with the measured radioactivity of a few pieces of the top guide beam, shroud and in-core monitor guide tube. Because a reasonable C/M value was obtained, we conclude that we can obtain reasonable neutron distribution profiles with TORT.

  10. Pilot-plant technical assessment of wet flue gas desulfurization using limestone

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, F.J.G.; Vidal, F.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Cortes, V.; Gimenez, A.

    2006-02-15

    An experimental study was performed on a countercurrent pilot-scale packed scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The flow rate of the treated flue gas was around 300 Nm{sup 3}/h, so the pilot-plant capacity is one of the largest with respect to other published studies on a pilot-plant wet FGD. The tests were carried out at an SO{sub 2} inlet concentration of 2000 ppm by changing the recycle slurry pH to around 4.8 and the L/G ratio to between 7.5 and 15. Three types of limestone were tested, obtaining desulfurization efficiencies from 59 to 99%. We show the importance of choosing an appropriate limestone in order to get a better performance from the FGD plant. Thus, it is important to know the reactivity (on a laboratory scale) and the sorbent utilization (on a pilot-plant scale) in order to identify if a limestone is reactive enough and to compare it with another type. In addition, by using the transfer-unit concept, a function has been obtained for the desulfurization efficiency, using the L/G ratio and the recycle slurry pH as independent variables. The Ca/S molar ratio is related to these and to the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. This function, together with a simplified function of the operation variable cost, allows us to determine the pair (L/G ratio and pH) to achieve the desired SO{sub 2} removal with the minimum operation cost. Finally, the variable operation costs between packed towers and spray scrubbers have been compared, using as a basis the pilot packed tower and the industrial spray column at the Compostilla Power Station's FGD plant (in Leon, Spain).

  11. Recovery of glass from the inert fraction refused by MBT plants in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Dias, Nilmara; Garrinhas, Inés; Maximo, Angela; Belo, Nuno; Roque, Paulo; Carvalho, M Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Selective collection is a common practice in many countries. However, even in some of those countries there are recyclable materials, like packaging glass, erroneously deposited in the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW). In the present paper, a solution is proposed to recover glass from the inert reject of Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plants treating MMSW aiming at its recycling. The inert reject of MBT (MBTr) plants is characterized by its small particle size and high heterogeneity. The study was made with three real samples of diverse characteristics superimposed mainly by the different upstream MBT. One of the samples (VN) had a high content in organics (approximately 50%) and a particle size smaller than 16 mm. The other two were coarser and exhibited similar particle size distribution but one (RE) was rich in glass (almost 70%) while the other (SD) contained about 40% in glass. A flowsheet was developed integrating drying, to eliminate moisture related with organic matter contamination; magnetic separation, to separate remaining small ferrous particles; vacuum suction, to eliminate light materials; screening, to eliminate the finer fraction that has a insignificant content in glass, and to classify the >6mm fraction in 6-16 mm and >16 mm fractions to be processed separately; separation by particle shape, in the RecGlass equipment specifically designed to eliminate stones; and optical sorting, to eliminate opaque materials. A pilot plant was built and the tests were conducted with the three samples separately. With all samples, it was possible to attain approximately 99% content in glass in the glass products, but the recovery of glass was related with the feed particle size. The finer the feed was, the lower the percentage of glass recovered in the glass product. The results show that each one of the separation processes was needed for product enrichment. The organic matter recovered in the glass product was high, ranging from 0.76% to 1

  12. Virtual pilot plants: What is the goal and what technology development is needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Bryden, K.M.; O'Brien, T.J.

    2000-07-01

    Within the coal utilization industry, moving virtual reality from a visualization tool to a design tool has the potential to reduce design time and cost, improve plant design and operation, and reduce the risk associated with new technologies. The goal of developing this technology is to enable an engineering design team based in disparate geographical locations to interact simultaneously with the virtual pilot plant and to see immediately the effect on performance of their design changes. In order to promote this capability, the US Department of Energy has identified virtual demonstrations as one of the key supporting technologies needed for the development of Vision 21 plants. This will require that many computational intensive technologies be enhanced and closely integrated: computer aided design/engineering (CAD/CAE), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element analysis, intelligent process control, systems analysis, information management, and advanced visualization. Virtual pilot plants will create a design environment that will be a low-cost alternative to a physical pilot plant, allowing changes in plant operation and design to be rapidly and inexpensively tested. Following construction, the virtual environment will be used as the front-end of a total information system containing all of the design, construction, operation, research scale, pilot scale, and economic information available on the system. The information will be intuitively accessible by going to the place of interest in the virtual plant and entering the dimension of interest. The goal of the virtual demonstration will be to provide easily accessible information at any level of detail to anyone who needs it from policy maker to operating engineer.

  13. Extended Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Martinez, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    [Full Text] Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and depleted fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date, investigating some aspects of extended BUC, and it also describes the plan to complete the evaluations. The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper. Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC, including investigation of the axial void profile effect and the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of an operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. While a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to use to determine the primary effects and identify conservative modeling approaches. Using data resulting from a single cycle, the axial void profile is studied by first determining the temporal fidelity necessary in depletion modeling, and then using multiple void profiles to examine the effect of the void profile on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied is control blade exposure. Control blades

  14. Coolant Density and Control Blade History Effects in Extended BWR Burnup Credit

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Marshall, William BJ J; Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and predicted spent fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date investigating some aspects of extended BUC. (The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper.) Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC: (1) the effect of axial void profile and (2) the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of a modern operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. Although a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to determine the primary effects and to identify conservative modeling approaches. These data were used in a study of the effect of axial void profile. The first stage of the study was determination of the necessary moderator density temporal fidelity in depletion modeling. After the required temporal fidelity was established, multiple void profiles were used to examine the effect on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied was control blade history. Control blades are inserted in

  15. Pilot plant test of the advanced flash stripper for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Jeng; Chen, Eric; Rochelle, Gary T

    2016-10-20

    Alternative stripping processes have been proposed to reduce energy use for CO2 capture, but only a few have been applied to pilot-scale experiments. This paper presents the first pilot plant test results of one of the most promising stripper configurations, the advanced flash stripper with cold and warm rich solvent bypass. The campaign using aqueous piperazine was carried out at UT Austin in 2015. The advanced flash stripper improves the heat duty by over 25% compared to previous campaigns using the two-stage flash, achieving 2.1 GJ per tonne CO2 of heat duty and 32 kJ mol(-1) CO2 of total equivalent work. The bypass control strategy proposed minimized the heat duty. The test successfully demonstrated the remarkable energy performance and the operability of this advanced system. An Aspen Plus® model was validated using the pilot plant data and used to explore optimum operating and design conditions. The irreversibility analysis showed that the pilot plant performance has attained 50% thermodynamic efficiency and further energy improvement should focus on the absorber and the cross exchanger by increasing absorption rate and solvent capacity.

  16. BWR Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST) Phase II test results and TRAC-BWR model qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, W A; Alamgir, M; Findlay, J A; Hwang, W S

    1985-10-01

    Eight matrix tests were conducted in the FIST Phase I. These tests investigated the large break, small break and steamline break LOCA's, as well as natural circulation and power transients. There are nine tests in Phase II of the FIST program. They include the following LOCA tests: BWR/6 LPCI line break, BWR/6 intermediate size recirculation break, and a BWR/4 large break. Steady state natural circulation tests with feedwater makeup performed at high and low pressure, and at high pressure with HPCS makeup, are included. Simulation of a transient without rod insertion, and with controlled depressurization, was performed. Also included is a simulation of the Peach Bottom turbine trip test. The final two tests simulated a failure to maintain water level during a postulated accident. A FIST program objective is to assess the TRAC code by comparisons with test data. Two post-test predictions made with TRACB04 are compared with Phase II test data in this report. These are for the BWR/6 LPCI line break LOCA, and the Peach Bottom turbine trip test simulation.

  17. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A: Detailed report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    Baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants are presented. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW sub e (net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and use underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market.

  18. Status report: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of BWR core shrouds and other internal components

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    On July 25, 1994, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 94-03 to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements regarding the structural integrity of core shrouds in domestic boiling water reactors (BWRs). This report begins with a brief description of the safety significance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) as it relates to the design and function of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. It then presents a brief history of shroud cracking events both in the US and abroad, followed by an indepth summary of the industry actions to address the issue of IGSCC in BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report summarizes the staff`s basis for issuing GL 94-03, as well as the staff`s assessment of plant-specific responses to GL 94-03. The staff is continually evaluating the licensee inspection programs and the results from examinations of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1995. An update of this report will be issued at a later date.

  19. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  20. A simplified spatial model for BWR stability

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Y.; Lederer, Y.; Meron, E.

    2012-07-01

    A spatial reduced order model for the study of BWR stability, based on the phenomenological model of March-Leuba et al., is presented. As one dimensional spatial dependence of the neutron flux, fuel temperature and void fraction is introduced, it is possible to describe both global and regional oscillations of the reactor power. Both linear stability analysis and numerical analysis were applied in order to describe the parameters which govern the model stability. The results were found qualitatively similar to past results. Doppler reactivity feedback was found essential for the explanation of the different regions of the flow-power stability map. (authors)

  1. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 2 - PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  2. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 2 - PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a mini-pilot test program to investigate potential new sorbents and processes for dry SO2 removal. Initial tests showed that the 85 cu m/h pilot plant could be used successfully to evaluate both spray dryer and dry injection processes using traditional calciu...

  3. Proposed 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, L. E.; Chan, G. L.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant has been proposed for the island of Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. This unique small OTEC plant is intended as a prototype for commercial plants in the small Pacific Island territories and nations. The system concept minimizes local construction to accommodate a lack of local skilled labor and facilities. The baseline design is a concrete barge-mounted plant built in Portland, Oregon, towed to Saipan, and permanently anchored in near-shore shallow water. Details of key subsystem design features are provided including a bottom-mounted cold water pipe, modular power subsystem, and wave shield for storm protection. The results of economic analyses are presented to illustrate the cost competitiveness of electricity from the OTEC plant compared to the current oil-fired diesel units in Saipan.

  4. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.; Rehmat, A.

    1993-11-01

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  5. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years.

  6. 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: plant maintenance/training manual (RADL Item 2-37). Section 9. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. The material provided is intended for training and maintenance usage by Southern California Edison Operations Personnel. (BCS)

  7. 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: solar facilities design integration. Plant maintenance/training manual (RADL Item 2-37). Section 10. Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Instructional and maintenance manuals are provided for several facilities of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. The facilities include fire protection, elevator buildings, electronics enclosures, receiver tower and pipe rack. (BCS)

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Durão, Fernando; Ferreira, Célia

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

  10. HDS pilot plant design and operation: The state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, S.J.; Graham, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major tasks facing catalyst suppliers involved in hydrotreating/hydrogenation catalyst development work is proper catalyst evaluation. There are dozens of hydrotreating catalysts available to refiners, and selecting the optimum catalyst for a particular application is a challenging task. For fixed bed applications, the choice is especially difficult because in addition to activity and selectivity both catalyst life and pressure drop buildup are important considerations. Unfortunately, data on these latter effects are seldom available for new catalyst formulations. While pilot plant data have been proven to be reliable indicators of the ultimate catalyst life achieved commercially, long term catalyst aging data are expensive to gather, and proper pilot plant design is mandatory to duplicate commercial results.

  11. Portable pilot plant for evaluating marine biofouling growth and control in heat exchangers-condensers.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, J F; Sánchez, J; García-Morales, J L; Casanueva-Robles, T; López, J A; Portela, J R; Nebot, E; Sales, D

    2003-01-01

    Biofouling frequently involves a serious impediment to achieving optimum operating conditions in heat exchangers-condensers. The economic coat and energy losses associated with this phenomenon are significant and the environmental impact of biocides must satisfy stringent regulations. A portable pilot plant has been designed in order to carry out in-situ experimental study as biofilm is formed under thermal and hydrodynamically controlled conditions. The pilot plant has an automatic monitoring, control and data acquisition system, which automatically processes data from indirect measure of fouling in terms of increased fluid frictional and heat transfer resistances. A particular method is used and proposed for direct measuring and biofilm characterization. Once we know the actual film thickness, we can calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the layer by using the appropriate heat transfer equations.

  12. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Removal of actinides from nuclear reprocessing wastes: a pilot plant study using non-radioactive simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, H.R.; McIsaac, L.D.; Chamberlain, D.B.; McManus, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes generated at the ICPP contain small amounts of actinides, primarily Pu and Am. Removal of these actinides reduces the long term storage hazards of the waste. The development of a flowsheet to remove trivalent actinides is discussed in this paper. Pilot plant studies used actinide simulants. As a result of these studies, the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) was selected as the better measure of pulse column separation efficiency.

  14. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  15. Bio-isolation analysis of plants and humans in a piloted Mars sprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novara, M.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The bioisolation dynamics of humans and plants in a piloted Mars sprint is discussed. The bioisolation requirements for a crew of six and two food crops, lettuce, and winged beans in this type of space mission were studied and found to be within technological reach. It was found that the garbage problem of the shorter missions increases in magnitude in proportion with the mission duration and poses problems of launch mass, storage space availability, and microbial growth.

  16. Data used in preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P ); Luzzolino, H. ); Sandha, J.S. )

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the data available as of August 1990 and used by the Performance Assessment Division of Sandia National Laboratories in its December 1990 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Parameter values are presented in table form for the geologic subsystem, engineered barriers, borehole flow properties, climate variability, and intrusion characteristics. Sources for the data and a brief discussion of each parameter are provided. 101 refs., 72 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. Bio-isolation analysis of plants and humans in a piloted Mars sprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novara, M.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The bioisolation dynamics of humans and plants in a piloted Mars sprint is discussed. The bioisolation requirements for a crew of six and two food crops, lettuce, and winged beans in this type of space mission were studied and found to be within technological reach. It was found that the garbage problem of the shorter missions increases in magnitude in proportion with the mission duration and poses problems of launch mass, storage space availability, and microbial growth.

  18. Core analyses for selected samples from the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, V.A.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Two groups of core samples from the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were analyzed to provide estimates of hydrologic parameters for use in flow-and-transport modeling. Whole-core and core-plug samples were analyzed by helium porosimetry, resaturation and porosimetry, mercury-intrusion porosimetry, electrical-resistivity techniques, and gas-permeability methods. 33 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.; Molecke, M.A.; Lappin, A.R. ); Westerman, R.E. ); Tong, X.; Black, J.N.P.; Grbic-Galic, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Vreeland, R.E. . Dept. of Biology); Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United Stat

    1991-01-01

    The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H{sub 2}O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P.

    2009-04-15

    In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

  1. Solar photocatalytic degradation of some hazardous water-soluble pesticides at pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    Oller, I; Gernjak, W; Maldonado, M I; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Malato, S

    2006-12-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of six water-soluble pesticides (cymoxanil, methomyl, oxamyl, dimethoate, pyrimethanil and telone) have been studied at pilot-plant scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural solar UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. TiO(2) photocatalysis tests were performed in a 35L solar pilot plant with three Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) under natural illumination and a 75L solar pilot plant with four CPC units was used for homogeneous photocatalysis tests. The initial pesticide concentration studied was 50 mg L(-1) and the catalyst concentrations employed were 200 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) and 20 mg L(-1) of iron. Both toxicity (Vibrio fischeri, Biofix) and biodegradability (Zahn-Wellens test) of the initial pesticide solutions were also measured. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and nearly complete mineralization were attained with all pesticides tested. Treatment time, hydrogen peroxide consumption and release of heteroatoms are discussed.

  2. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  3. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  4. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume B. Engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This is one part of a two-volume report that presents baseline design data for two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants: (a) a moored plant that uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company, and (b) a cruising plantship that uses the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. This volume provides the engineering drawings of the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  5. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume B: Engineering drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    Baseline design data are presented for two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants: (1) a moored plant that uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company, and (2) a cruising plantship that uses the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. Engineering drawings of the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers are provided.

  6. Analysis of 70-tube pilot-plant solar-receiver-panel test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetyk, L. N.; Byers, R. K.

    1981-08-01

    An analytic model for a solar receiver boiler panel was developed, using the RELAP4 nuclear plant systems thermal hydraulic computer code. Results are compared to other computer calculations and experimental data. The test panels were prototypes of panels to be used in the Barstow 10 MWe solar electric pilot power plant central receiver. Steady state operating conditions for a given incident heat flux were calculated from a zero power cold water startup. The effects of incident flux axial profile shape and of lateral flux gradients were studied, as was the dynamic response of the model to flux and flow transients. The nodalization detail required for accurate simulation was also determined.

  7. Data evaluation plan for the 10 MWe solar thermal central receiver pilot plant power production phase

    SciTech Connect

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes the planned data evaluation for the three-year Power Production Phase of the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Power Production Phase, which began in August 1984, will demonstrate the operational capability of the plant to reliably supply electrical power to the utility grid. Data evaluation will be performed for design point and annual plant energy output; heliostat optical performance and mirror module corrosion; receiver tube life and absorber coating life; storage fluid degradation and storage tank thermal stresses; plant availability, operating procedures, and operating costs; and component reliability and maintenance costs. The objective, test needs, data needs, approach, expected output, and planned data dissemination are presented for each evaluation.

  8. Impact of physics and technology innovations on compact tokamak fusion pilot plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    For magnetic fusion to be economically attractive and have near-term impact on the world energy scene it is important to focus on key physics and technology innovations that could enable net electricity production at reduced size and cost. The tokamak is presently closest to achieving the fusion conditions necessary for net electricity at acceptable device size, although sustaining high-performance scenarios free of disruptions remains a significant challenge for the tokamak approach. Previous pilot plant studies have shown that electricity gain is proportional to the product of the fusion gain, blanket thermal conversion efficiency, and auxiliary heating wall-plug efficiency. In this work, the impact of several innovations is assessed with respect to maximizing fusion gain. At fixed bootstrap current fraction, fusion gain varies approximately as the square of the confinement multiplier, normalized beta, and major radius, and varies as the toroidal field and elongation both to the third power. For example, REBCO high-temperature superconductors (HTS) offer the potential to operate at much higher toroidal field than present fusion magnets, but HTS cables are also beginning to access winding pack current densities up to an order of magnitude higher than present technology, and smaller HTS TF magnet sizes make low-aspect-ratio HTS tokamaks potentially attractive by leveraging naturally higher normalized beta and elongation. Further, advances in kinetic stabilization and feedback control of resistive wall modes could also enable significant increases in normalized beta and fusion gain. Significant reductions in pilot plant size will also likely require increased plasma energy confinement, and control of turbulence and/or low edge recycling (for example using lithium walls) would have major impact on fusion gain. Reduced device size could also exacerbate divertor heat loads, and the impact of novel divertor solutions on pilot plant configurations is addressed. For

  9. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  10. Entrainment and deposition modeling of liquid films with applications for BWR fuel rod dryout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, Ruwan Kumara

    While best estimate computer codes provide the licensing basis for nuclear power facilities, they also serve as analytical tools in overall plant and component design procedures. An ideal best estimate code would comprise of universally applicable mechanistic models for all its components. However, due to the limited understanding in these specific areas, many of the models and correlations used in these codes reflect high levels of empiricism. As a result, the use of such models is strictly limited to the range of parameters within which the experiments have been conducted. Disagreements between best estimate code predictions and experimental results are often explained by the mechanistic inadequacies of embedded models. Significant mismatches between calculated and experimental critical power values are common observations in the analyses of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Based on experimental observations and calculations, these mismatches are attributed to the additional entrainment and deposition caused by spacer grids in BWR fuel assemblies. In COBRA-TF (Coolant Boiling in Rod Arrays-Two Fluid); a state of the art industrial best estimate code, these disagreements are hypothesized to occur due the absence of an appropriate spacer grid model. In this thesis, development of a suitably detailed spacer grid model and integrating it to COBRA-TF is documented. The new spacer grid model is highly mechanistic so that the applicability of it is not seriously affected by geometric variations in different spacer grid designs. COBRA-TF (original version) simulations performed on single tube tests and BWR rod bundles with spacer grids showed that single tube predictions were more accurate than those of the rod bundles. This observation is understood to arise from the non-availability of a suitable spacer grid model in COBRA-TF. Air water entrainment experiments were conducted in a test section simulating two adjacent BWR sub channels to visualize the flow behavior at

  11. Surface water and wastewater treatment using a new tannin-based coagulant. Pilot plant trials.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Solera-Hernández, C

    2010-10-01

    A new tannin-based coagulant-flocculant (Tanfloc) was tested for water treatment at a pilot plant level. Four types of water sample were treated: surface water (collected from a river), and municipal, textile industry (simulated by a 100 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an acid dye), and laundry (simulated by a 50 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant) wastewaters. The pilot plant process consisted of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration. The experiments were carried out with an average coagulant dosage of 92.2 mg L(-1) (except in the case of the surface water for which the dosage was 2 mg L(-1)). The efficacy of the water purification was notable in every case: total turbidity removal in the surface water and municipal wastewater, about 95% dye removal in the case of the textile industry wastewater, and about 80% surfactant removal in the laundry wastewater. Filtration improved the removal of suspended solids, both flocs and turbidity, and slightly improved the process as a whole. The efficiency of Tanfloc in these pilot studies was similar to or even better than that obtained in batch trials.

  12. Reduction of sediment micro-pollution by means of a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Petavy, F; Ruban, V; Conil, P; Viau, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Solutions need to be found to manage polluted (organic matter, trace elements, hydrocarbons and PAHs) stormwater sediments while complying with stringent economic and environmental requirements. The cost of transport is a relatively large part of the treatment cost for such sediments, hence the development of a pilot unit that could provide their in situ treatment. Seven stormwater sediments were treated by means of the ATTRISED pilot plant, based on sieving and attrition. The objective is to apply a treatment procedure by which as much clean material as possible is recovered, while the pollutants are concentrated in a small volume ready for final destruction or isolation from the environment. Application of the attrition process serves to remove fine particles and contaminants from the surface of sediments and hydrocyclone separations allow to isolate fine contaminated particles (< 60 microm). The results show that particle size separations coupled to an attrition step allow decontamination efficiencies of 76% and 70% for street sweeping and pond sediments, respectively. Although the experiments were carried out on stormwater sediments, all kinds of sediments may be treated by the ATTRISED pilot plant if the mean particle size is greater than 60 microm.

  13. Microbial process translation--laboratory to pilot plant at the Frederick Cancer Research Center.

    PubMed

    Langlykke, A F

    1978-01-01

    In summary, operations in the FCRC pilot plant have included training an operating staff, operability trials, equipment modification and repair, and supplementation of the original equipment to gain greater versatility. In addition to effort spent on proving and improving the capacity of the pilot plant, development studies and production operations involving translation of laboratory operations to pilot level or volume have included: 1. Development of a production process for interferon as described above. As a by-product of the interferon program, samples of cell culture have been studied in the Basic Research Division of FCRC for the production of lymphokines. 2. Production of starting materials (cell paste) for carboxypeptidase G1, using three different organisms, and production of refined material from the FCRC 252 organism as described herein. 3. Production of large quantities of crude phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the form of cell paste for Prof. Creed Abell at the University of Texas, Medical Branch, at Galveston,. 4. Production of a crude staphylococcal nuclease for the program of Dr. David Sachs, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. 5. Developmental studies and limited production of a crude cysteine desulfhydrase according to the protocols of Dr. J. Uren, Sidney Farber Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts. 6. Preliminary production studies on the agent produced by Culture FCRC 14, discovered in the CFL search program. 7. Developmental fermentation studies on the antitumor antibiotic, piperazinedione 593A [6], in preparation for production of quantities of this antibiotic to support clinical studies under the auspices of the National Cancer Institute.

  14. Research and development in pilot plant production of granular NPK fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failaka, Muhamad Fariz; Firdausi, Nadia Zahrotul; Chairunnisa, Altway, Ali

    2017-05-01

    PT Pupuk Kaltim (Pupuk Kaltim) as one of the biggest fertilizer manufacturer in Indonesia, always striving to improve the product quality and achieve the optimal performance while facing the challenges of global competition NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) market. In order to continuously improve operations and processes of two units NPK compound plant, Pupuk Kaltim has successfully initiated a new facility which is referred to as a NPK pilot-scale research facility with design capacity of 30 kg/hr. This mini-plant is used to assist in the scale up of new innovations from laboratory research to better understand the effect of using new raw materials and experiment with process changes to improve quality and efficiency. The pilot installation is composed of the following main parts: mixer, screw feeder, granulator, dryer and cooler. The granulator is the equipment where NPK granules is formed by spraying appropriate steam and water onto raw materials in a rotating drum. The rotary dryer and cooler are intended for the drying process where temperature reduction and the final moisture are obtained. As a part of innovations project since 2014, the pilot plant has conducted many of experiments such as trials using Ammonium Sulfate (ZA) as a new raw material, alternative raw materials of Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), Potassium Chloride (KCl) and clay, and using a novel material of fly ash. In addition, the process engineering staff also conduct the trials of raw materials ratio so that an ideal formulation with lower cost can be obtained especially when it is applied in the existing full-scale plant.

  15. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  16. Development of ECP models for BWR applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.; Niedrach, L.W.; Lin, C.C.; Ramp, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    The electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of stainless steel has been measured under simulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) coolant circuit conditions using a rotating cylinder electrode. Based on the results of measurements an empirical model has been developed to predict the ECP of structure materials in a BVTR primary circuit as a function of H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations in reactor coolant and water flow velocity. The ECP modeling results using the H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations calculated by the radiolysis model are compared with the available reactor internal ECP data obtained in an operating reactor.

  17. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A.

    2009-06-15

    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  18. Experimental investigation and modeling of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kiil, S.; Michelsen, M.L.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-07-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate-determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallization of gypsum were included. Population balance equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas-phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid-phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modeling tools developed may be applicable to other wet FGD plants.

  19. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  20. Modeling the development of damage in BWR primary coolant circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, T.K.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) has been explored as a remedial measure for inhibiting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), and for recently for mitigating irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in boiling water reactors over the past ten years. However, it is not clear if HWC can successfully protect all of the structural components in BWR primary heat transport circuits (HTCS) from IGSCC and LASCC. The authors have explored this issue using DAMAGE-PREDICTOR, which is a computer code that is capable of estimating the concentrations of radiolysis species, the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), and the growth rate of a reference crack in sensitized Type 304 stainless steel. This code was developed specifically for modeling the HTCs of BWRs. The primary objective of this code is to theoretically evaluate the effectiveness of HWC in BWRs as a function of feedwater hydrogen concentration and reactor power level. HWC simulations have been carried out for full power conditions for two reactors that differ markedly in their responses to HWC. It is found that DAMAGE-PREDICTOR can successfully account for plant data from both reactors using a single set of model parameter values.

  1. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  2. Beta and gamma dose calculations for PWR and BWR containments

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.B.

    1989-07-01

    Analyses of gamma and beta dose in selected regions in PWR and BWR containment buildings have been performed for a range of fission product releases from selected severe accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that safety-related equipment could experience during the selected severe accident sequences. The resulting dose calculations demonstrate the extent to which design basis accident qualified equipment could also be qualified for the severe accident environments. Surry was chosen as the representative PWR plant while Peach Bottom was selected to represent BWRs. Battelle Columbus Laboratory performed the source term release analyses. The AB epsilon scenario (an intermediate to large LOCA with failure to recover onsite or offsite electrical power) was selected as the base case Surry accident, and the AE scenario (a large break LOCA with one initiating event and a combination of failures in two emergency cooling systems) was selected as the base case Peach Bottom accident. Radionuclide release was bounded for both scenarios by including spray operation and arrested sequences as variations of the base scenarios. Sandia National Laboratories used the source terms to calculate dose to selected containment regions. Scenarios with sprays operational resulted in a total dose comparable to that (2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rads) used in current equipment qualification testing. The base case scenarios resulted in some calculated doses roughly an order of magnitude above the current 2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rad equipment qualification test region. 8 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 9. Results of Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal ... Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task I are not severe enough to saturate the

  4. Vendor test studies supporting the design of a biomass-to-ethanol pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    In support of the effort to develop the biomass-to-ethanol process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is building a pilot plant based on the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to ethanol. The plant will incorporate operations for feed handling, size reduction, pretreatment, fermentation, distillation, and solids separation. Pilot plant testing of critical equipment at vendor facilities was undertaken to ensure good and reliable designs. Specifically, vendors tested pumping, agitation, and centrifugation of biomass slurries. Sulfuric acid pretreated wood was successfully pumped at solids concentrations up to 30%. Agitation of pretreated biomass slurries was investigated over a range of solids concentrations from 11 to 18.5%. Pretreated and fermented biomass slurries can be successfully dewatered in a centrifuge to a 30% solids concentration. Additionally, metals were tested for corrosion under conditions likely to be encountered in a dilute sulfuric acid prehydrolysis to identify suitable materials of construction for a pretreatment system. Corrosion rates were found to be highly dependent on temperature. Zirconium was the only material that had low corrosion rates at conditions of 2% sulfuric acid and 200{degrees}C.

  5. Adsorption and removal at low atrazine concentration in an MBR pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Buttiglieri, G; Migliorisi, L; Malpei, F

    2011-01-01

    Atrazine is a persistent organic pollutant and it has been widely used in agriculture and forestry in the world for more than fifty years. Atrazine shows ecotoxicity effects in aquatic ecosystems even at very low level concentrations with endocrine disruptor activity. Few studies were carried out on atrazine removal performances in drinking and waste-water by biological treatments, especially in membrane bio-reactors (MBRs). MBR technology might be more efficient than the conventional one in the removal of micro-pollutants. The fate of atrazine in wastewater treatment plants and its influence on the biomass activity was evaluated in this study. The experimental work was divided in three different phases: inhibition studies on different types of biomass (by means of microcalorimetry); adsorption studies on different sludges (conventional activated sludge (CAS) - and MBR) calculating adsorption isotherms and, finally, atrazine removal in an MBR pilot plant (simulating a treatment of atrazine and nitrate contaminated groundwater). The absence of significant inhibition was observed; higher atrazine adsorption on MBR sludge was detected for lower atrazine concentration (<50 µg L(-1)); the removal efficiency in the MBR pilot plant was lower than 25% but higher than the theoretical one (based on adsorption isotherms).

  6. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; Lind, Randall F.; Elkins, James G.; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Graham, David E.

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  7. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; ...

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-Lmore » pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.« less

  8. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  9. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; Lind, Randall F.; Elkins, James G.; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Graham, David E.

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  10. A pilot plant for removing chromium from residual water of tanneries.

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technical process for removing trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via precipitation. This process can be considered an alternative that avoids a remediation procedure against the metal presence in industrial wastes. This process was verified in a treatment pilot plant located in León, México handling 10 m3/day of three types of effluents. The effluent streams were separated to facilitate the elimination of pollutants from each one. The process was based on in situ treatment and recycle to reduce problems associated with transportation and confinement of contaminated sludges. Two types of treatment were carried out in the pilot plant: The physical/chemical and biological treatments. Thirty-five experiments were conducted and the studied variables were the pH, type of flocculant, and its dose. The statistical significance of chromium samples was 94.7% for its precipitation and 99.7% for recovery. The objectives established for this phase of the development were accomplished and the overall efficiencies were measured for each stage in the pilot plant. The results were: a) chromium precipitation 99.5% from wastewater stream, b) chromium recovery 99% for recycling, and c) physical/chemical treatment to eliminate grease and fat at least 85% and 65 to 70% for the biological treatment. The tanning of a hide lot (350 pieces) was accomplished using 60% treated and recycled water without affecting the product quality. The recovered chromium liquor was also used in this hide tanning. This technical procedure is also applicable for removing heavy metals in other industrial sectors as well as in reducing water consumption rates, if pertinent adjustments are implemented. PMID:7621802

  11. Development of a continuous rotating cone reactor pilot plant for the pyrolysis of polyethene and polypropene

    SciTech Connect

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1998-06-01

    A pilot plant for the high-temperature pyrolysis of polymers to recycle plastic waste to valuable products was constructed based on the rotating cone reactor (RCR) technology. The RCR used in this pilot plant, termed the continuous RCR ([C]RCR) was an improved version of the bench-scale RCR ([B]RCR) previously used for the pyrolysis of biomass, Polyethene (PE), and Polypropene (PP). The improvements resulted in a higher total alkene yield in the [C]RCR compared to the [B]RCR for the pyrolysis of PE and PP. While the total alkene product yield amounts only to 51 wt% in the [B]RCR for PE, in the [C]RCR it could be increased to 66 wt%, which is comparable to the 65 wt% total alkene yield obtained in a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of similar scale. Together with the fact that almost no utilities are required for operation of a RCR, the product spectra obtained make this technology a good alternative to the reactor technologies presently applied in pyrolysis processes. Optimum total alkene yields are obtained at temperatures around 1023 K, as intermediate waxlike compounds are not converted at lower temperatures whereas too much aromatics and methane are formed at higher temperatures. The reactor and BFB temperature in the pilot plant have the largest impact on the product spectrum obtained, while the sand and polymer mass flow rates have a very limited effect. For PP pyrolysis the effect of the aforementioned parameters is more pronounced, because this polymer is more sensitive to thermal degradation.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  13. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  15. Complete study of the pyrolysis and gasification of scrap tires in a pilot plant reactor.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, I; Font, R; Jauhiainen, J

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of tires was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 450, 750, and 1000 degrees C both in nitrogen and 10% oxygen atmospheres. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids, char, and soot) are presented. In the gas phase only methane and benzene yields increase with temperature until 1000 degrees C. In the liquids the main components are styrene, limonene, and isoprene. The solid fraction (including soot) increases with temperature. Zinc content of the char decreases with increasing temperature.

  16. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.

    1994-11-15

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

  17. Perspective of the Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    WEART,WENDELL D.

    1999-09-03

    In 1975 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was asked by the predecessor to the Department of Energy to assume responsibility for the scientific programs necessary to assure the safe and satisfactory development of a geologic repository in the salt beds of southeast New Mexico. Sandia has continued in the role of Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to the present time. This paper will share the perspectives developed over the past 25 years as the project was brought to fruition with successful certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 13, 1998 and commencement of operations on April 26, 1999.

  18. Reconsolidation of salt as applied to permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Callahan, G.D.; Van Sembeek, L.L.

    1993-07-01

    Reconsolidated salt is a fundamental component of the permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As regulations are currently understood and seal concepts envisioned, emplaced salt is the sole long-term seal component designed to prevent the shafts from becoming preferred pathways for rating gases or liquids. Studies under way in support of the sealing function of emplaced salt include laboratory testing of crushed salt small-scale in situ tests, constitutive modeling of crushed salt, calculations of the opening responses during operation and closure, and design practicalities including emplacement techniques. This paper briefly summarizes aspects of these efforts and key areas of future work.

  19. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This Revision 4 of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), WIPP-DOE-069, identifies and consolidates existing criteria and requirements which regulate the safe handling and preparation of Transuranic (TRU) waste packages for transportation to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This consolidation does not invalidate any existing certification of TRU waste to the WIPP Operations and Safety Criteria (Revision 3 of WIPP-DOE--069) and/or Transportation: Waste Package Requirements (TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging [SARP]). Those documents being consolidated, including Revision 3 of the WAC, currently support the Test Phase.

  20. From science to compliance: Geomechanics studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

    2000-06-05

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) testifies to the nearly ideal characteristics of bedded salt deposits in southeast New Mexico. The WIPP history includes decades of testing and scientific investigations, which have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of salt's mechanical deformational and hydrological properties over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Comprehensive evaluation of salt's favorable characteristics helped demonstrate regulatory compliance and ensure isolation of radioactive waste placed in a salt geological setting.

  1. Improvement of the ethanol productivity in a high gravity brewing at pilot plant scale.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Giuliano; Silva, Daniel P; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista; de Almeida Lima, Urgel

    2003-07-01

    A 23 full factorial design was used to study the influence of different experimental variables, namely wort gravity, fermentation temperature and nutrient supplementation, on ethanol productivity from high gravity wort fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lager strain), under pilot plant conditions. The highest ethanol productivity (0.69 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at 20 degrees P [degrees P is the weight of extract (sugar) equivalent to the weight of sucrose in a 100 g solution at 20 degrees C], 15 degrees C, with the addition of 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 24 mg l(-1) ergosterol and 0.24% (v/v) Tween 80.

  2. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2008-09-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50° C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a

  3. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    PubMed

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  4. A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

    2005-03-01

    The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented.

  5. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott Francis; Sprinkle, James K.

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  6. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  7. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  8. Pilot scale study on retrofitting conventional activated sludge plant for biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W W; Qasim, S R; Zhu, G; Crosby, E C

    1999-01-01

    Eutrophication of receiving waters due to the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus through the wastewater effluent has received much interest in recent years. Numerous techniques have been proposed and aimed at retrofitting the existing conventional activated sludge process for nutrient removal. A pilot-scale research program was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a biological nutrient process for this purpose. The results indicated that creating an anoxic/anaerobic zone before aeration basin significantly enhances total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal. Without internal cycle, about 80 percent TP and TN removal were respectively achieved under their optimal conditions. However, adverse trends for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed when the ratio of return sludge to the influent was varied in the range between 0.5 and 3.0. The total phosphorus removal decreased as the concentration of BOD5 in the mixture of influent and return sludge decreased. Improved sludge settling properties and reduced foaming problems were also observed during the pilot plant operation. Based upon experimental results, the strategies to modify an existing conventional activated sludge plant into a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system are discussed.

  9. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  10. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as an integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gòdia, F.; Albiol, J.; Pérez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montràs, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  11. The Melissa Pilot Plant Facility as an Integration Test-bed for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, C.

    The MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory provides the site where the different advances around the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project coordinated and fostered by the European Space Agency, as well as other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated. During its first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re- designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of MELISSA as life support system, and to use this facility as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological systems. This includes the testing the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the loop, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. This new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. The presentation will summarize the present status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  12. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  13. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2016-09-27

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under-predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under-predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  14. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at theWaste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  15. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Process improvement for semipurified oleosomes on a pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Hui; Murphy, Patricia A

    2011-08-01

    Semipurified oleosomes were isolated on a pilot-plant scale using improved-process extraction conditions. The improved process consisted of continuous centrifugation in a three-phase decanter with recirculation of slurry until most of the oleosomes were recovered. Oleosome fractionation, oleosin identification, and isoflavone and saponin mass distributions and recoveries were investigated. The improved pilot-plant oleosome extraction process was achieved in 8 h. A total of 91%± 1% of soybean oil was recovered as intact oleosomes. The oil content of the aqueous supernatant and the residue fractions were low at 2% and 3%, respectively. The aqueous supernatant fraction contained 40% total soybean protein. About 76% of the proteins present in the oleosome fraction were soybean storage proteins. Washing the semipurified oleosomes with a 0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.6 containing 0.4 M sucrose, and 0.5 M NaCl resulted in the recovery of the associated storage proteins. The recovery of these proteins in addition to the protein in aqueous supernatant accounted for 79% of the total soybean storage proteins fractionated by this process. Oleosins were detected at 17 and 18 kDa. Isoflavones and saponins partitioned into the oleosome, aqueous supernatant, and residue fractions at different ratios with the majority, about 82 and 63 mole%, respectively, in oleosome and aqueous supernatant fractions, making these fractions an attractive source for phytochemicals. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. LLB hot gas filter and its operational experiences in Ebara PICFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Masahide; Sawada, Iwao; Krein, J.; Sekikawa, Shinji

    1999-07-01

    Ebara Corp. installed and commissioned a 4MWth PICFB Hot Model Test Unit in November, 1996 at its Boiler Test Facility located 70 km east of Tokyo, Japan, which employs Ebara's proprietary technology of Pressurized Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Boiler (PICFB). An LLB Hot Gas Filter is incorporated in it as an essential part of the system so as to filter the pressurized flue gas which is discharged at the top of the pressure vessel of the pilot plant and is supplied directly to it. The trial operation of the hot gas filter was successfully conducted in December, 1996, then the integrated test operation of the PICFB was started. And the whole test program of the first phase of the R and D was successfully completed in March, 1998, in which the total cumulative operation period reached 2,284 hours. The feature of the LLB Hot Gas Filter is the standing candles arranged in multiple decks, which enables easy scale-up to the large commercial installation. This arrangement also assures the safe use of the brittle ceramic filter candles since they are not subjected to the tensile force. The operation of the hot gas filter at the PICFB Hot Model Test Unit has proven the reliability of the LLB hot gas filter successfully. This paper reports the operational results and the important topics of the hot gas filter experienced in the above operation of the pilot plant.

  18. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  20. Status update of the BWR cask simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Durbin, Samuel G.

    2015-09-01

    The performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are typically evaluated through detailed numerical analysis of the system's thermal performance. These modeling efforts are performed by the vendor to demonstrate the performance and regulatory compliance and are independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Numerous studies have been previously conducted. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have moved the storage location from above ground to below ground and significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the canister helium pressure. Previous cask performance validation testing did not capture these parameters. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks. These modern cask designs utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister or are intended for subsurface storage. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above ground and below ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below ground storage configurations of

  1. BWR Source Term Generation and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Ryman

    2003-07-31

    This calculation is a revision of a previous calculation (Ref. 7.5) that bears the same title and has the document identifier BBAC00000-01717-0210-00006 REV 01. The purpose of this revision is to remove TBV (to-be-verified) -41 10 associated with the output files of the previous version (Ref. 7.30). The purpose of this and the previous calculation is to generate source terms for a representative boiling water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly for the first one million years after the SNF is discharged from the reactors. This calculation includes an examination of several ways to represent BWR assemblies and operating conditions in SAS2H in order to quantify the effects these representations may have on source terms. These source terms provide information characterizing the neutron and gamma spectra in particles per second, the decay heat in watts, and radionuclide inventories in curies. Source terms are generated for a range of burnups and enrichments (see Table 2) that are representative of the waste stream and stainless steel (SS) clad assemblies. During this revision, it was determined that the burnups used for the computer runs of the previous revision were actually about 1.7% less than the stated, or nominal, burnups. See Section 6.6 for a discussion of how to account for this effect before using any source terms from this calculation. The source term due to the activation of corrosion products deposited on the surfaces of the assembly from the coolant is also calculated. The results of this calculation support many areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), which include thermal evaluation, radiation dose determination, radiological safety analyses, surface and subsurface facility designs, and total system performance assessment. This includes MGR items classified as Quality Level 1, for example, the Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (Ref. 7.27, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the

  2. TRACE Model for Simulation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram in a BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng L. Y.; Baek J.; Cuadra,A.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    A TRACE model has been developed for using theTRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] to simulate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The model represents a BWR/5 housed in a Mark II containment. The reactor and the balance of plant systems are modeled in sufficient detail to enable the evaluation of plant responses and theeffectiveness of automatic and operator actions tomitigate this beyond design basis accident.The TRACE model implements features thatfacilitate the simulation of ATWS events initiated by turbine trip and closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIV). It also incorporates control logic to initiate actions to mitigate the ATWS events, such as water levelcontrol, emergency depressurization, and injection of boron via the standby liquid control system (SLCS). Two different approaches have been used to model boron mixing in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel: modulate coolant flow in the lower plenum by a flow valve, and use control logic to modular.

  3. BWR transient analysis using neutronic / thermal hydraulic coupled codes including uncertainty quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, C.; Sanchez, V.; Tietsch, W.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    The KIT is involved in the development and qualification of best estimate methodologies for BWR transient analysis in cooperation with industrial partners. The goal is to establish the most advanced thermal hydraulic system codes coupled with 3D reactor dynamic codes to be able to perform a more realistic evaluation of the BWR behavior under accidental conditions. For this purpose a computational chain based on the lattice code (SCALE6/GenPMAXS), the coupled neutronic/thermal hydraulic code (TRACE/PARCS) as well as a Monte Carlo based uncertainty and sensitivity package (SUSA) has been established and applied to different kind of transients of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). This paper will describe the multidimensional models of the plant elaborated for TRACE and PARCS to perform the investigations mentioned before. For the uncertainty quantification of the coupled code TRACE/PARCS and specifically to take into account the influence of the kinetics parameters in such studies, the PARCS code has been extended to facilitate the change of model parameters in such a way that the SUSA package can be used in connection with TRACE/PARCS for the U and S studies. This approach will be presented in detail. The results obtained for a rod drop transient with TRACE/PARCS using the SUSA-methodology showed clearly the importance of some kinetic parameters on the transient progression demonstrating that the coupling of a best-estimate coupled codes with uncertainty and sensitivity tools is very promising and of great importance for the safety assessment of nuclear reactors. (authors)

  4. Interpretation of the results of the CORA-33 dry core BWR test

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.; Hagen, S.

    1993-11-01

    All BWR degraded core experiments performed prior to CORA-33 were conducted under ``wet`` core degradation conditions for which water remains within the core and continuous steaming feeds metal/steam oxidation reactions on the in-core metallic surfaces. However, one dominant set of accident scenarios would occur with reduced metal oxidation under ``dry`` core degradation conditions and, prior to CORA-33, this set had been neglected experimentally. The CORA-33 experiment was designed specifically to address this dominant set of BWR ``dry`` core severe accident scenarios and to partially resolve phenomenological uncertainties concerning the behavior of relocating metallic melts draining into the lower regions of a ``dry`` BWR core. CORA-33 was conducted on October 1, 1992, in the CORA tests facility at KfK. Review of the CORA-33 data indicates that the test objectives were achieved; that is, core degradation occurred at a core heatup rate and a test section axial temperature profile that are prototypic of full-core nuclear power plant (NPP) simulations at ``dry`` core conditions. Simulations of the CORA-33 test at ORNL have required modification of existing control blade/canister materials interaction models to include the eutectic melting of the stainless steel/Zircaloy interaction products and the heat of mixing of stainless steel and Zircaloy. The timing and location of canister failure and melt intrusion into the fuel assembly appear to be adequately simulated by the ORNL models. This paper will present the results of the posttest analyses carried out at ORNL based upon the experimental data and the posttest examination of the test bundle at KfK. The implications of these results with respect to degraded core modeling and the associated safety issues are also discussed.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from the oxidation tank of a pilot activated sludge plant.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; Wunderlin, Pascal; Joss, Adriano; Kipf, Marco; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2012-07-01

    This study discusses the results of the continuous monitoring of nitrous oxide emissions from the oxidation tank of a pilot conventional wastewater treatment plant. Nitrous oxide emissions from biological processes for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants have drawn great attention over the last years, due to the high greenhouse effect. However, even if several studies have been carried out to quantify nitrous oxide emission rates from different types of treatment, quite wide ranges have been reported. Only grab samples or continuous measurements over limited periods were considered in previous studies, which can account for the wide variability of the obtained results. Through continuous monitoring over several months, our work tries to fill this gap of knowledge and get a deeper insight into nitrous oxide daily and weekly emission dynamics. Moreover, the influence of some operating conditions (sludge age, dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxidation tank, nitrogen load) was studied to determine good practices for wastewater treatment plant operation aiming at the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions. The dissolved oxygen set-point is shown to play a major role in nitrous oxide emissions. Low sludge ages and high nitrogen loads are responsible for higher emissions as well. An interesting pattern has been observed, with quite negligible emissions during most of the day and a peak with a bell-like shape in the morning in the hours of maximum nitrogen load in the plant, correlated to the ammonia and nitrite peaks in the tank.

  6. (Severe accident technology of BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.J.

    1989-10-23

    The traveler attended the 1989 CORA Workshop at KfK, FRG. Participation included the presentation included the presentation of three papers on work performed by the Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident analyses. The Statement of Work (June 1989) for the BWRSAT Program provides for code analyses of the BWR CORA experiments performed at KfK. Additionally, it is intended that BWRSAT personnel participate in the planning process for future CORA BWR experiments. For these purposes, meetings were held with KfK staff to arrange for acquisition of detailed CORA facility drawings, experimental data, and related engineering. 17 refs.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  11. Study on BWR with Advanced Recycle System (BARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouji Hiraiwa; Yasushi Yamamoto; Shinichi Morooka; Mitsuaki Yamaoka; Nobuaki Abe; Ishi Mitsuhashi; Junji Mimatu; Akira Inoue

    2002-07-01

    High conversion BWR core concept named BARS (BWR with an Advanced Recycle System) was proposed. Further analytical and experimental study project, especially on tight lattice MOX, has been initiated as the joint study of Toshiba and Gifu University. Neutronic study showed that the twice width bundle was advantageous for the plutonium conversion performance. Additionally, conversion ratio and discharged MA vectors when fresh Pu was contaminated with MA and/or FP were evaluated. The evaluation showed that fissionable plutonium content hardly decreased. The experiment programs and equipment designs were established in both the critical assembly experiment and thermal hydraulics measurements. (authors)

  12. Advanced BWR stability monitoring tests with a hybrid reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    He, Weidong; Huang, Zhengyu; Edwards, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    A stability monitor for a boiling reactor is implemented and evaluated with the Penn State Hybrid Reactor System. The stability monitor is based on an extended Kalman filter which employs a reduced-order BWR reactor model. The filter uses measured power signal and estimates the void reactivity feedback gain and the decay ratio. The hybrid reactor system is a system combining a simulation module of BWR thermal hydraulics and the Penn State TRIGA reactor. A description of the hybrid system is also presented. (authors)

  13. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  14. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS). Review of conceptual and preliminary designs of Pilot Plant SKSS. Appendix. Recommendations for OTEC commercial plant SKSS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-15

    The aim of the study is primarily an assessment of the adequacy, accuracy, and practicality of the proposed designs, in order to make comment on the feasibility of developing a viable station-keeping subsystems (SKSS) for the OTEC Pilot Plant. Included in this report is information on: design criteria and safety factors; environmental data and response analysis; materials and components; deployment concept; maintenance and replacement concepts; concept evaluation - risk/reliability/cost; and recommendations for OTEC commercial plant station-keeping subsystems.

  15. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: plant-support subsystem procurement documentation (RADL Item 7-44D)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Purchase specifications are given for the specific long lead items to be procured for the 10 MWe Solar Pilot Plant. The hardware is grouped into two categories: 480 Volt Load Center and 480 Volt Motor Control Centers; and Power, Control and Instrumentation Cable. The purchase orders for each procurement are included. Need dates for each item are identified. (LEW)

  16. Performances and fouling control of a flat sheet membrane in a MBR pilot-plant.

    PubMed

    Grélot, A; Grelier, P; Tazi-Pain, A; Lesjean, B; Brüss, U; Grasmick, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and the optimisation of the hydraulic operating conditions of the A3 Water Solutions flat sheet membrane technology in a MBR pilot-plant to achieve a satisfying fouling control and also a reduction in the required aeration. Two vertically stacked modules were tested at pilot-scale at Anjou Recherche under typical biological operating conditions (mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) =10 g/l; sludge retention time (SRT) =28 days; food to microorganism ratio (F/M)=0.12 kg COD/kg MLSS/d). The use of a double-deck and of specific backwashes for this membrane technology enabled to achieve satisfying membrane performances for a net flux of 25 L h(-1) m(-2), 20 degrees C at a low specific aeration demand per membrane surface (SADm = 0.2 Nm(3) h(-1) m(-2)) which corresponds to a specific aeration demand per permeate volume unit (SADp) of 8 Nm(3) air/m(3) permeate, which is lower than reported for many commercial membrane systems. The mixed liquor characteristics (foaming, MLSS concentration) appeared to influence the fouling behaviour of the membranes but no correlation was found with the fouling rate. However, with the new operating conditions, the system is robust and can cope with fouling resulting from biological stress and daily peak flows for MLSS concentrations in the membrane tank up to 18 g/l.

  17. Optimising the operation of a MBR pilot plant by quantitative analysis of the membrane fouling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Kennedy, M D; Guinzbourg, B F; Vanrolleghem, P A; Schippers, J C

    2005-01-01

    In order to optimize some operational conditions of MBR systems, a MBR pilot plant equipped with a submerged hollow fibre membrane module was employed in this study. The pilot MBR was fed with real municipal wastewater and the filtration flux, backwashing interval, aeration frequency and temperature were varied. A filtration flux below 25 I/m2h is generally recommended, at below this flux, the MBR operated at sub-critical flux conditions, the filter cake was minimized and membrane fouling was mainly attributed to the membrane pore blocking. Moreover, the membrane fouling, at below 25 I/m2h, was more reversible to backwashing; above this value, backwashing became less efficient to clean the membrane. Less frequent backwashing (e.g. 600 s filtration/45 s backwashing) decreased the amount of fouling irreversible to backwashing and its performance was superior to that of frequent backwashing (e.g. 200 s filtration/15 s backwashing). The MBR suffered more fouling at low temperature conditions (e.g. at 13-14 degrees C) than at high temperature conditions (e.g. at 17-18 degrees C). A conceptual model was built up and successfully interpreted this temperature effect.

  18. Pilot uranium lysimeter studies at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Hyder, L.K.; Howard, S.C.; Cline, J.E.; Clapp, R.B.

    1993-08-01

    A field lysimeter test facility has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant to evaluate land burial of wastes containing depleted uranium. The principal objective in the construction of such a facility is to provide a means for monitoring waste leachate characteristics over time, in particular uranium concentrations in leachate. The design of the field lysimeter test facility allows, via the portals along the side walls of the lysimeter, the collection of leachate as a function of depth in the lysimeter. The methodology to collect leachate from within the field lysimeter has not been clearly defined. Thus, before wastes were loaded into the field lysimeter facility, a pilot lysimeter study was initiated to test several design concepts for the collection of in situ leachate. The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility and quality assurance of proposed instrumentation used to monitor leachate generation and characteristics in the full-scale field lysimeter. Secondary objectives included gaining experience in the handling/packing of wastes, installation/operation of the leachate collection devices, and waste leachate characterization

  19. Letdown valve (anti eroded type for slurry use) on 150 t/d coal liquefaction pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Mitsushi; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Yamagiwa, Hisashi

    1999-07-01

    The letdown valve developed by NEDO has been tested on the 150 t/d coal liquefaction pilot plant using the NEDOL process for more than 6,000 hours of on-coal operation. Several factors affecting the damage of the letdown valve that handled a fluid containing coal-derived oil, catalyst and residue including ash have been evaluated. The countermeasure for the damage has been studied to develop an advanced letdown valve to be used demonstration plant.

  20. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  1. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  2. Demonstration of a 100-kWth high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor pilot plant for ZnO dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepf, E.; Villasmil, W.; Meier, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting is a viable pathway towards sustainable and large-scale production of synthetic fuels. A reactor pilot plant for the solar-driven thermal dissociation of ZnO into metallic Zn has been successfully developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Promising experimental results from the 100-kWth ZnO pilot plant were obtained in 2014 during two prolonged experimental campaigns in a high flux solar simulator at PSI and a 1-MW solar furnace in Odeillo, France. Between March and June the pilot plant was mounted in the solar simulator and in-situ flow-visualization experiments were conducted in order to prevent particle-laden fluid flows near the window from attenuating transparency by blocking incoming radiation. Window flow patterns were successfully characterized, and it was demonstrated that particle transport could be controlled and suppressed completely. These results enabled the successful operation of the reactor between August and October when on-sun experiments were conducted in the solar furnace in order to demonstrate the pilot plant technology and characterize its performance. The reactor was operated for over 97 hours at temperatures as high as 2064 K; over 28 kg of ZnO was dissociated at reaction rates as high as 28 g/min.

  3. Nitrogen removal rates at a technical-scale pilot plant with the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process.

    PubMed

    Cema, G; Szatkowska, B; Plaza, E; Trela, J; Surmacz-Górska, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditional nitrification/denitrification is not suitable for nitrogen removal when wastewater contains high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and low concentrations of biodegradable carbon. Recently, a deammonification process was developed and proposed as a new technology for treatment of such streams. This process relies on a stable interaction between aerobic bacteria Nitrosomonas, that accomplish partial nitritation and anaerobic bacteria Planctomycetales, which conduct the Anammox reaction. Simultaneous performance of these two processes can lead to a complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in one single reactor. The experiments where nitrogen was removed in one reactor were performed at a technical-scale moving-bed pilot plant, filled with Kaldnes rings and supplied with supernatant after dewatering of digested sludge. It was found that a nitrogen removal rate obtained at the pilot plant was 1.9 g m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant run, a series of batch tests were carried out under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Within the batch tests, where the pilot plant's conditions were simulated, removal rates reached up to 3 g N m(-2)d(-1). Moreover, the batch tests with inhibition of Nitrosomonas showed that only the Anammox bacteria (not anoxic removal by Nitrosomonas) are responsible for nitrogen removal.

  4. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  6. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  7. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  8. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.

    1994-03-01

    Scenario developments is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review, and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence is this aspect of the PA will be through the use of a systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable.

  9. Convective loss measurements at the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M C

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed at the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant to measure the convective heat transfer from the receiver. Determining the convective loss will help reduce the uncertainty in the calculation of thermal efficiency for solar central receivers. Two types of results are presented from the data: (1) the overall receiver convective coefficient, and (2) detailed information on the local (panel) losses as a function of wind direction. The overall measured convective coefficient is also compared with predictions from correlations developed to calculate the convective coefficient. The comparison between the measured and predicted convective coefficients is good, although the correlations tend to overpredict the measured data by about 10%.

  10. Environmental thermoluminescent dosimetry measurements at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Site, 1976-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    In 1975, the US Energy Research and Development Administration began evaluating a site in southeastern New Mexico for the possible construction and operation of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The purpose of the facility was to test and demonstrate the operations and technical principles of a permanent repository in bedded salt for ERDA-generated transuranic radioactive waste. An extensive preoperational environmental study program to document the region's meterorology, geology, hydrology, flora and fauna, existing air and water quality, and background radiation was undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of this document is to report the final results of environmental thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements performed from January 1976 through December 1985. The final results were obtained by reevaluating the quarterly raw data using a uniform analysis procedure. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  13. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP`s environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence.

  14. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.; McDaniel, E.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to ensure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.; McDaniel, E.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to assure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Removal of diethyl phthalate from water by ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Jabesa, Abdisa; Ghosh, Pallab

    2016-09-15

    Ozone microbubbles (OMBs) were used to remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from water in a pilot plant. The removal of DEP and the mineralization efficiency were investigated under various reaction conditions. The removal of DEP by OMBs was very effective at the high pH and high ozone generation rates. Almost complete mineralization of DEP could be achieved at the high pH. The contribution of OH was computed by using a hydroxyl radical scavenger (i.e. t-BuOH). In neutral and alkaline media, the reaction of DEP with OH dominated over its direct reaction with ozone. The overall oxidation reaction fitted a second-order kinetic model. The overall rate constant and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of ozone slightly increased with increasing pH. The results indicate that the OMBs were efficient in terms of the reduction of concentration of DEP and its complete mineralization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Software/firmware design specification for 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ladewig, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    The software and firmware employed for the operation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are completely described. The systems allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats, and include the capability of operator-commanded control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy, and interfaces to the Operational Control System, the Data Acquisition System, and the Beam Characterization System. The requirements are decomposed into eleven software modules for execution in the Heliostat Array Controller computer, one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Field Controller microprocessor, and one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Controller microprocessor. The design of the modules to satisfy requirements, the interfaces between the computers, the software system structure, and the computers in which the software and firmware will execute are detailed. The testing sequence for validation of the software/firmware is described. (LEW)

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

    1980-02-01

    The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

  19. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    SciTech Connect

    Hertz, M.R.; Figgins, P.E.; Deal, W.R.

    1983-02-10

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 100/sup 0/C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  1. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, K.M.; Guzowski, R.V.; Hora, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  2. Modeling of Human Intrusion Scenarios at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, M.B.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Larson, K.W.; Thompson, T.W.

    1998-12-04

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a mined, geologic repository designed for permanent disposal of transuranic waste. The facility is owned by the United States Department of Energy, and licensed for operations by the Environmental Protection Agency. Compliance with license requirements dictates that the repository must comply with regulatory stipulations that performance assessment calculations include the effects of resource exploitation on probable releases. Scenarios for these releases incorporate inadvertent penetration of the repository by an exploratory drilling operation. This paper presents the scenarios and models used to predict releases from the repository to the biosphere during. an inadvertent intrusion into the waste disposal regions. A summary of model results and conclusions is also presented.

  3. Potash ore reserves in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Charles B.; Cheeseman, R.J.; Lorenz, J.C.; Millgate, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area includes about 18,960 acres in Tps. 22 and 23 S., Rs. 30 and 31 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico. It is located within the Carlsbad Mining District about 25 miles east of Carlsbad. The WIPP area is immediately south of the Capitan Limestone subcrop, which formed the northern margin of the Delaware basin in Permian time. During Late Permian (Ochoan) time, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite were deposited in the seas of the Delaware basin to form the Castile Formation. These deposits have a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet and grade upward into the more argillaceous beds of the Salado Formation. The Salado Formation contains abundant sulfate minerals, notably anhydrite and polyhalite. The potash ore minerals, langbeinite and sylvite, occur in the upper part of the Salado Formation in the McNutt potash zone, a local name applied to a potassium-rich zone.

  4. Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  5. Identification and evaluation of appropriate backfills for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bynum, R.V.; Stockman, C.; Papenguth, H.

    1998-08-01

    A backfill system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which will control the chemical environment of the post-closure repository to a domain where the actinide solubility is within its lowest region. The actinide solubility is highly dependent on the chemical species which constitute the fluid, the resulting pH of the fluid, and the oxidation state of the actinide which is stable under the specific conditions. The use of magnesium oxide (MgO) has the backfill material not only controls the pH of the expected fluids, but also effectively removes carbonate from the system, which has a significant impact on actinide solubility. The backfill selection process, emplacement system design, and confirmatory experimental results are presented.

  6. Model tests of a baseline 40 MW OTEC pilot plant. Volume A: Narrative report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Stadler, J. T.; Donnelly, H. L.; Richards, D.; Biewer, F. N.; Hutchinson, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A baseline design of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant, configured as a floating platform for large scale, at-sea, practical demonstrations of OTEC system operation, has been completed. Model tests at 1/30 scale were conducted in a model basin. Waves were produced to simulate a variety of ocean conditions, including 100- year storm seas where hurricane waves equivalent to a maximum height of 65 ft were created. The platform survived all simulated conditions, although it was observed that a shaped bow, bilge keels, and additional hull length would improve seakeeping in the hurricane seas. Quantitative data were obtained on ship motions, cold water pipe loads and motions, mooring forces, and seawater system pressures.

  7. Model tests of a baseline 40 MW pilot plant. Volume B: Test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Stadter, J. T.; Donnelly, H. L.; Richards, D.; Brewer, F. N.; Hutchison, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A baseline design of an OTEC pilot plant, configured as a floating platform for large scale, at sea, practical demonstrations of OTEC system operation, was completed. Model tests at 1/30 scale were conducted in a model basin. Waves were produced to simulate a variety of ocean conditions, including 100 year storm seas where hurricane waves equivalent to a maximum height of 65 ft were created. The platform survived all simulated conditions, although it was observed that a shaped bow, bilge keels, and additional hull length would improve seakeeping in the hurricane seas. Quantitative data were obtained on ship motions, cold water pipe loads and motions, mooring forces, and seawater system pressures. a compilation of the test data is presented.

  8. Limestone/adipic acid FGD and stack opacity reduction pilot plant tests at Big Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Laslo, D.; Bakke, E.; Chisholm, E.

    1984-01-01

    Big Rivers Electric Corporation (BREC) contracted Peabody Process Systems, Inc. (PPSI) to install a flue gas cleaning (FGC) pilot plant at the BREC R.D. Green Station Unit No. 2 located at Sebree, KY. A six month test program was completed demonstrating technology for: alternatives to using lime as an alkali; methods for improving cake dewatering; identification of the causes of high stack opacity; and methods for the reduction of high stack opacity. This paper presents highlights extracted from the reports submitted by PPSI to BREC on this test program. BREC was primarily interested in reduction of operating costs, if possible, by using an alkali less expensive than lime, and by improving the poor dewatering characteristic inherent in a dolomitic lime system. BREC was also within compliance for particulate emissions and opacity in the duct after the dry electrostatic precipitator, but not in compliance with the stack opacity regulation, and therefore wanted to investigate methods for stack opacity reduction.

  9. State oversight review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant radiation protection and measurement programs

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG), an interdisciplinary organization attached to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, has been providing an independent scientific oversight of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP project since 1978. Evaluations cover all aspects of the project that have potential radiological health and safety considerations. During the early years, most of the review emphasis was on site suitability and involved heavy emphasis on the disciplines of geology and hydrogeology. During the middle years, the amount of emphasis on facility design, waste characterization, waste transportation package development, and quality assurance increased. Now, as final preparations are being made for the receipt of radioactive wastes, EEG is heavily involved in evaluating on-site health physics programs and radiation-measurement systems. Also, EEG is conducting an independent environmental radiation-monitoring program.

  10. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.

    1994-07-01

    Scenario development is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence in this aspect of the PA will be through the use of the systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable.

  11. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.

    1999-02-16

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years.

  12. Status of the Low-Background Counting Laboratory at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, Victor M.

    2004-10-01

    The Majorana Project will endeavor to provide direct limits on the effective Majorana mass of the electron neutrino at the level of 50 meV through the measurement of neutrinoless double-beta decay in ^76Ge. An important part of the R preparation for Majorana is the development of low-background test-bed and experimental facilities. Construction of these facilities has begun underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. We present a report on the design and current progress in the construction of the underground lab at WIPP, as well as an overview of the R and science goals to be undertaken there in connection to the Majorana project.

  13. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  14. Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARTELL,MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY,MARTIN S.

    2000-05-18

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty.

  15. Use of geothermal heat for sugar refining in Imperial County: pilot plant implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the phase was to develop a successful geothermal resource and use it in conjunction with a geothermal process heat pilot plant to demonstrate the adequacy of a system which could provide technically sound, economical and environmentally acceptable process heat. During the second phase drilling of and exploratory production well was carried out. The well reached a total depth of about 10,000 feet. Static bottom hole temperatures as high as 393 degreees F were calculated. However, the well did not produce a free flow of more than 2 to 3 barrels of brine per hour. Attempts were made to stimulate the well by gas lift and circulation. These procedures were unsuccessful in promoting flow, and the well was shut in. At that point the DOE decided to terminate the project.

  16. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  17. BWR ex-vessel steam explosion analysis with MC3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, M.

    2012-07-01

    A steam explosion may occur, during a severe reactor accident, when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. To resolve the open issues in steam explosion understanding and modeling, the OECD program SERENA phase 2 was launched at the end of year 2007, focusing on reactor applications. To verify the progress made in the understanding and modeling of fuel coolant interaction key phenomena for reactor applications a reactor exercise has been performed. In this paper the BWR ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the MC3D code in conditions of the SERENA reactor exercise for the BWR case, is presented and discussed. The premixing simulations were performed with two different jet breakup modeling approaches and the explosion was triggered also at the expected most challenging time. For the most challenging case, at the cavity wall the highest calculated pressure was {approx}20 MPa and the highest pressure impulse was {approx}90 kPa.s. (authors)

  18. Crack growth rate in core shroud horizontal welds using two models for a BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    An empirical crack growth rate correlation model and a predictive model based on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth rate in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth rate was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth rate and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism model for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical model predicted better the SCC growth rate than the slip-oxidation model for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the models predictions for SCC growth rate behavior depends on knowing the model parameters.

  19. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Peach Bottom Turbine Trip Simulations with RETRAN Using INER/TPC BWR Transient Analysis Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kao Lainsu; Chiang, Show-Chyuan

    2005-03-15

    The work described in this paper is benchmark calculations of pressurization transient turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom boiling water reactor (BWR). It is part of an overall effort in providing qualification basis for the INER/TPC BWR transient analysis method developed for the Kuosheng and Chinshan plants. The method primarily utilizes an advanced system thermal hydraulics code, RETRAN02/MOD5, for transient safety analyses. Since pressurization transients would result in a strong coupling effect between core neutronic and system thermal hydraulics responses, the INER/TPC method employs the one-dimensional kinetic model in RETRAN with a cross-section data library generated by the Studsvik-CMS code package for the transient calculations. The Peach Bottom Turbine Trip (PBTT) tests, including TT1, TT2, and TT3, have been successfully performed in the plant and assigned as standards commonly for licensing method qualifications for years. It is an essential requirement for licensing purposes to verify integral capabilities and accuracies of the codes and models of the INER/TPC method in simulating such pressurization transients. Specific Peach Bottom plant models, including both neutronics and thermal hydraulics, are developed using modeling approaches and experiences generally adopted in the INER/TPC method. Important model assumptions in RETRAN for the PBTT test simulations are described in this paper. Simulation calculations are performed with best-estimated initial and boundary conditions obtained from plant test measurements. The calculation results presented in this paper demonstrate that the INER/TPC method is capable of calculating accurately the core and system transient behaviors of the tests. Excellent agreement, both in trends and magnitudes between the RETRAN calculation results and the PBTT measurements, shows reliable qualifications of the codes/users/models involved in the method. The RETRAN calculated peak neutron fluxes of the PBTT

  3. Balance of plant for SOFC experiences with the planning, engineering, construction and testing of a 10 kW planar SOFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Klov, K.; Sundal, P.; Monsen, T.; Vik, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Statoil Solide Oxide Fuel Cell Research Program was started in January 1991. Some results from this Program were presented to the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar in San Diego. The final technical milestone for the program was to design, engineer, construct and test a 10 kW pilot plant. From the very beginning, the importance of coordination and integration in the development of components, subsystems and systems, combined with basic research on cell and stack performance, were established as the guidelines for the program. In this way the progress towards the final goal was not a matter of making the best individual cell, the best stack or a superior balance of plant, but to build an efficient, reliable and operative pilot plant system, and thus make a further step towards a verification of commercial SOFC system technology.

  4. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  5. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: solar-facilities design integration. Plant operating/training manual (RADL-Item 2-36)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Plant and system level operating instructions are provided for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. Individual status instructions are given that identify plant conditions, process controller responsibilities, process conditions and control accuracies, operating envelopes, and operator cautions appropriate to the operating condition. Transition operating instructions identify the sequence of activities to be carried out to accomplish the indicated transition. Most transitions involve the startup or shutdown of an individual flowpath. Background information is provided on collector field operations, and the heliostat groupings and specific commands to be used in support receiver startup are defined. (LEW)

  6. Catalytic seawater flue gas desulfurization process: an experimental pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    F. Vidal B.; P. Ollero; F.J. Gutierrez Ortiz; A. Villanueva

    2007-10-15

    In previous articles by the authors on seawater S(IV) oxidation kinetics, a significant catalytic effect was demonstrated by means of a commercially available activated carbon. The aims of this study carried out at pilot plant scale were to assess the use of high-efficiency structured packing and to validate the positive results obtained previously in laboratory studies. A comparison between a packed tower and a spray column was made by maintaining the same desulfurization efficiency. A 47% reduction in seawater flow can be obtained with a packed tower. This option seems to be more economical, with a reduction in operation costs of least of 33%. With the appropriate activated carbon, it is possible to reach a greater oxidation rate at a low pH level than by operating conventionally at a high pH level without a catalyst. A preliminary technical and financial comparison between the advanced seawater desulfurization process (equipped with a packed tower and a catalytic oxidation plant) and the conventional process (spray tower and noncatalytic oxidation) was carried out. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  8. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.L.; Stewart, M.H.; Liang, S.; McGuire, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages, four hydrogen peroxide/ozone weight ratios, and four contact times in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E.

  9. Application of Several Techniques for Prohibiting Fouling in Li-Recovery Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Kim, D.; Gong, M.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2010-12-01

    The problem of marine organisms adhering to any surfaces exposed in seawater is as old as time. Marine fouling is a major problem in the materials used in seawater worldwide. Marine coatings contain elements such as copper and triorganotin compounds were often used as an effective compound for control the fouling problem, but application of such coatings containing triorganotin compounds was prohibited and the former are considered undesirable because of its toxicity and accumulative in non-target organisms. Monitoring and field studies regarding fouling problems during operation of Li-recovery pilot plant which is designed by the Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources (KIGAM) were major concern of this study. Fouling could be the most troublesome tasks during the development of a large scale pilot production test for achieving a high performance adsorbent for seawater dissolved Li recovery. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm consortia formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were also tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant from the Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Sea Water Program funded by Ministry of Land Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korean Government (2010).

  10. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  11. Extraction of microalgae derived lipids with supercritical carbon dioxide in an industrial relevant pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Jan; Igl, Nadine; Tippelt, Marlene; Stege, Andrea; Qoura, Farah; Sohling, Ulrich; Brück, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are capable of producing up to 70% w/w triglycerides with respect to their dry cell weight. Since microalgae utilize the greenhouse gas CO2, they can be cultivated on marginal lands and grow up to ten times faster than terrestrial plants, the generation of algae oils is a promising option for the development of sustainable bioprocesses, that are of interest for the chemical lubricant, cosmetic and food industry. For the first time we have carried out the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) mediated lipid extraction from biomass of the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus obtusiusculus under industrrially relevant conditions. All experiments were carried out in an industrial pilot plant setting, according to current ATEX directives, with batch sizes up to 1.3 kg. Different combinations of pressure (7-80 MPa), temperature (20-200 °C) and CO2 to biomass ratio (20-200) have been tested on the dried biomass. The most efficient conditions were found to be 12 MPa pressure, a temperature of 20 °C and a CO2 to biomass ratio of 100, resulting in a high extraction efficiency of up to 92%. Since the optimized CO2 extraction still yields a crude triglyceride product that contains various algae derived contaminants, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids, a very effective and scalable purification procedure, based on cost efficient bentonite based adsorbers, was devised. In addition to the sequential extraction and purification procedure, we present a consolidated online-bleaching procedure for algae derived oils that is realized within the supercritical CO2 extraction plant.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Ecosystem studies at the Los Medanos Site Eddy County, New Mexico. Volume I of III

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, J.; Hart, J.S.

    1982-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of biological studies conducted at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico during 1981. Complete study reports prepared by the principal investigators are included as an appendix to this document. Biological studies have been underway at the Los Medanos site since 1975; this work constitutes a portion of the site characterization effort the US Department of energy (DOE) is pursuing in preparation for the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP is to be a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste material produced through national defense activities. The appendix contains the following: Avifauna Baseline Studies at the Los Medanos Site, Southeastern New Mexico; Aquatic Ecosystems of the Lower Pecos Drainage in New Mexico; Floristic Studies at the Los Medanos Site; Los Medanos Project - Soil Studies; Arthropod and Decomposition Studies at the WIPP Site; Ecology of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Area of New Mexico; Vertebrate Ecology at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico; and Statistical Evaluation of Plant Density Data Collected at the Los Medanos Site, New Mexico (1978-1980).

  13. Sono-photo-degradation of carbamazepine in a thin falling film reactor: Operation costs in pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Expósito, A J; Patterson, D A; Monteagudo, J M; Durán, A

    2017-01-01

    The photo-Fenton degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) assisted with ultrasound radiation (US/UV/H2O2/Fe) was tested in a lab thin film reactor allowing high TOC removals (89% in 35min). The synergism between the UV process and the sonolytic one was quantified as 55.2%. To test the applicability of this reactor for industrial purposes, the sono-photo-degradation of CBZ was also tested in a thin film pilot plant reactor and compared with a 28L UV-C conventional pilot plant and with a solar Collector Parabolic Compound (CPC). At a pilot plant scale, a US/UV/H2O2/Fe process reaching 60% of mineralization would cost 2.1 and 3.8€/m(3) for the conventional and thin film plant respectively. The use of ultrasound (US) produces an extra generation of hydroxyl radicals, thus increasing the mineralization rate. In the solar process, electric consumption accounts for a maximum of 33% of total costs. Thus, for a TOC removal of 80%, the cost of this treatment is about 1.36€/m(3). However, the efficiency of the solar installation decreases in cloudy days and cannot be used during night, so that a limited flow rate can be treated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth.

  15. A pilot study of workplace dermal exposures to cypermethrin at a chemical manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Timothy J; Geer, Laura A; Connor, Thomas H; Robertson, Shirley; Sammons, Deborah; Smith, Jerome; Snawder, John; Boeniger, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Exposure during the manufacture of pesticides is of particular concern due to their toxicity and because little is known about worker exposure, since most studies have focused on end-use application within agriculture or buildings. Even though dermal exposure can be expected to dominate for pesticides, little is known about workplace dermal exposures or even appropriate methods for their assessment. The current study begins to address this gap by evaluating alternative methods for assessing dermal exposure at a chemical manufacturing plant. For this pilot study, eight workers were recruited from a U.S. plant that produced the pesticide cypermethrin. Exposure was evaluated using three approaches: (1) survey assessment (questionnaire), (2) biological monitoring, and (3) workplace environmental sampling including ancillary measurements of glove contamination (interior and exterior). In each case, cypermethrin was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Environmental measurements identified two potential pathways of cypermethrin exposure: glove and surface contamination. Workplace exposure was also indicated by urine levels (specific gravity adjusted) of the parent compound, which ranged from 35 to 253 μg/L (median of 121 μg/L) with no clear trend in levels from pre- to post-shift. An exploratory analysis intended to guide future studies revealed a positive predictive association (Spearman correlation, p ≤ 0.10) between post-shift urine concentrations and a subset of survey questions evaluating worker knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) of workplace dermal hazards, i.e., personal protective equipment self-efficacy, and inverse associations with behavior belief and information belief scales. These findings are valuable in demonstrating a variety of dermal exposure methods (i.e., behavioral attributes, external contamination, and biomarker) showing feasibility and providing measurement ranges and preliminary associations to support future and

  16. A Practical Approach for Studying Fouling Process in Li-Recovery Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Yoon, H.; Eom, C.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of selective ion recovery such as lithium from seawater has been major interest of previous studies. However, the characterization of adsorption behavior as well as dissolution yield as discharging environmentally problematic chemical species must carefully studied in various conditions including different seawater conditions [1]. Marine biofouling communities are complex, highly dynamic ecosystems consisting of a diverse range of organisms. The development of such communities begins with bacterial attachment followed by the colonization of higher organisms such as invertebrate larvae and algal spores [2-3]. Monitoring and field studies regarding fouling problems during operation of Li-recovery pilot plant which is designed by the Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources (KIGAM) were major concern of this study. We examined fouling process for the duration of exposure time in real marine environment. Substrated with no-antifouling treated material and antifouling treated material were exposed and tested for different behaviors toward fouling in ocean. SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy dispersive Spectroscopy) analysis was done for surface identification of specific elements for possible dissolution during seawater exposure. To identify organic compound was used GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer) analysis. Experiment results, organisms such as alga are fouled the most on 30 days and antitreated material is fouled less than non antitreated material. Operating Li-recovery pilot plant to sea, we need to consider in order to effectively and economically resolve the fouling problem. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. References [1] M. Y. Diego, K. Soren, and D. J. Kim

  17. Guest editorial: The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-19

    The appropriate disposal of radioactive waste is a problem of great importance, wide-spread interest, and some controversy. As part of the solution to this problem the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by defense programs in the United States. The DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA){sup 17} for the WIPP to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and a positive certification decision for the WIPP was issued by the EPA in May 1998. The first disposal of TRU waste in the WIPP took place in March 1999. The 1996 CCA for the WIPP was supported by an extensive performance assessment (PA) carried out by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with this PA often designated the 1996 WIPP PA, the 1996 CCA PA, or simply the 1996 PA. In turn, the 1996 PA was supported by site characterization activities, experimental programs, model development programs, data development programs, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, a dedicated computational environment, a rigorous quality assurance (QA) program and a sequence of earlier PAs. Further, this PA was carried out in a regulatory environment defined by the following EPA regulations: Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191) and Criteria for the Certification and Re-Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations (40 CFR Part 194) The WIPP is the first licensed facility in the United States for the deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste. As a result, there is extensive interest in both the WIPP and the analyses that led to its certification by the EPA for the disposal of TRU waste. The WIPP program has produced large amounts of documentation both as part of the CCA itself and in large

  18. Evaluation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Public Outreach Program during the Certification Process at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) contracted with Phoenix Environmental and EnviroIssues to evaluate the effectiveness of its public outreach program during its certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM.

  19. Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry

    2006-09-01

    The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 ºC and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

  20. The significance of certain Rustler aquifer parameters for predicting long-term radiation doses from WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    Wofsy, C.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Federal radioactive waste repository proposed for construction underground in an area near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The objective of the EEG evaluation is to protect the public health and safety and ensure that there is no environmental degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A.

  2. Achieving nitrogen removal via nitrite in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaolian

    2009-02-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is beneficial for carbon-limited biological wastewater treatment plants. However, partial nitrification to nitrite has proven difficult in continuous processes treating domestic wastewater. The nitrite pathway is achieved in this study in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant (V=300 L) treating domestic wastewater by controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 0.4-0.7 mg/L. It is demonstrated that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved, with over 95% of the oxidized nitrogen compounds at the end of the aerobic zone being nitrite. The nitrite pathway improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 20% in comparison to the nitrate pathway, and also reduced aeration costs by 24%. FISH analysis showed that the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population gradually reduced at low DO levels, and reached negligible levels when stable nitrite pathway was established. It is hypothesized that NOB was washed out due to its relatively lower affinity with oxygen. A lag phase was observed in the establishment of the nitrite pathway. Several sludge ages were required for the onset of the nitrite pathway after the application of low DO levels. However, nitrite accumulation increased rapidly after that. A similar lag phase was observed for the upset of the nitrite pathway when a DO concentration of 2-3 mg/L was applied. The nitrite pathway negatively impacted on the sludge settleability. A strong correlation between the sludge volume index and the degree of nitrite accumulation was observed.

  3. PREPP (Process Experimental Pilot Plant) rotary kiln seals: Problem and resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is a facility designed to demonstrate processing of low level chemical and transuranic hazardous waste. The plant includes equipment for handling the incoming waste containers, shredding, incineration and cooling the waste, grouting the residue and scrubbing and filtration of the off gas. The process incinerator is a rotary kiln approximately 8-{1/2} ft diameter and 25 ft long with a rotary seal assembly at each end. Each seal assembly consists of a primary, secondary and tertiary seal, with a positive air pressure between primary and secondary seals to prevent out-leakage from the kiln. The kiln operates at 0.5 inch water negative pressure. From the very outset the kiln seals exhibited excessive drag which taxed the kiln drive capacity and excessive in-leakage which limited kiln temperature. An engineering evaluation concluded that the original seals supplied by the kiln vendor could not accommodate expansion and centerline shift of the kiln resulting from heatup of the kiln and its support system. A totally new concept kiln seal design has been generated to replace the (modified) original seals. This new seal system has been designed to provide a very tight long lasting seal which will accommodate the 1.5 inch axial shift and up to 1 inch radial movement of the kiln shell. Design lifetime of the seal is 10,000 operating hours between major maintenance services while maintaining an acceptable leak rate hot or cold, rotating or stopped. The design appears adaptable to any size kiln and is suitable for retrofit to existing kilns. A one-third scale prototype seal assembly is being built to verify the concept prior to construction of the 10 ft diameter seals for the PREPP rotary kiln. 4 figs.

  4. Solar treatment of cork boiling and bleaching wastewaters in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, I; Malato, Sixto; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports on cork boiling and bleaching wastewaters treatment by solar photocatalytic processes, TiO(2)/UV and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (TiO(2)-only for bleaching wastewater), in a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors. The photo-Fenton reaction (k=0.12L/kJ(UV), r(0)=59.4 mg/kJ(UV)) is much more efficient that TiO(2) photocatalysis and TiO(2)+S(2)O(8)(2-) (k=0.0024 L/kJ(UV), r(0)=1.36 mg/kJ(UV)), leading to 94% mineralization of the bleaching wastewater after 31.5 kJ(UV)/L, consuming 77.1mM of H(2)O(2) (3.0 mmol/kJ(UV)) and using 20 mg/L of iron. For the cork boiling wastewater, after a slow initial reaction rate, the DOC degradation curve shows a first-order kinetics behaviour (k=0.015 L/kJ(UV), r(0)=20.8 mg/kJ(UV)) until 173 kJ(UV)/L ( approximately 300 mgC/L). According to the average oxidation state (AOS), toxicity profiles, respirometry and kinetic results obtained in two solar CPCs plants, the optimal energy dose estimated for phototreatment to reach a biodegradable effluent is 15 kJ(UV)/L and 114 kJ(UV)/L, consuming 33 mM and 151 mM of H(2)OT:/PGN/ELSEVIER/WR/web/00007490/(2), achieving almost 49% and 48% mineralization of the wastewaters, respectively for the cork bleaching and boiling wastewaters.

  5. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, J.W. ); Snyder, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O.; Siegel, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  8. Mini-pilot plant research and demonstration on liquid phase methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraghavan, P.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory scale mini-pilot plant was designed, built, and operated to study the liquid phase methanol synthesis (LPMeOH{trademark}) process and the liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor system, where syngas reacts in the presence of the catalyst-oil slurry which is being agitated by an impeller. A liquid phase process for the synthesis of methanol from syngas over a catalyst (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), has been developed. Process feasibility, kinetics, mass transfer, and thermodynamics of the LPMeOH process were investigated. The liquid phase methanol synthesis is a chemical equilibrium limited process. The productivity of methanol can be increased by successfully alleviating this chemical equilibrium limitation. A dual catalytic liquid phase process was developed, which coproduces dimethyl ether with methanol from syngas, over a hybrid catalytic system comprising of the methanol synthesis catalyst and the methanol dehydration catalyst ({gamma}-alumina). The process feasibility analysis that proves the alleviation of the equilibrium limitation will be presented. Comparisons between the hydrogenation extent, reactor productivity and syngas conversions, which are all higher in the LPDME process than in the LPMeOH process, will be presented.

  9. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application

    SciTech Connect

    GALSON,D.A.; SWIFT,PETER N.; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BENNETT,D.G.

    1998-09-23

    Demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) requires an assessment of the long-term performance of the disposal system. Scenario development is one starting point of this assessment, and generates inquiry about the present state and future evolution of the disposal system. Scenario development consists of four tasks: (1) identifying and classifying features, events and processes (FEPs), (2) screening FEPs according to well-defined criteria, (3) forming scenarios (combinations of FEPs) in the context of regulatory performance criteria and (4) specifying of scenarios for consequence analysis. The development and screening of a comprehensive FEP list provides assurance that the identification of significant processes and events is complete, that potential interactions between FEPs are not overlooked, and that responses to possible questions are available and well documented. Two basic scenarios have been identified for the WIPP: undisturbed performance (UP) and disturbed performance (DP). The UP scenario is used to evaluate compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Individual Dose (40 CFR Section 191-15) and Groundwater Protection (40 CFR Section 191-24) standards and accounts for all natural-, waste- and repository-induced FEPs that survive the screening process. The DP scenario is required for assessment calculations for the EPA's cumulative release standard (Containment Requirements, 40 CFR Section 191-13) and accounts for disruptive future human events, which have an uncertain probability of occurrence, in addition to the UP FEPs.

  10. Background radiation measurements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Minnema, D.M.; Brewer, L.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of background radiation measurements was performed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico. The survey consisted of gross gamma and gamma spectral measurements of the radiation fields, soil and salt grab sample gamma analysis, and radon and working level measurements. The survey included locations at the surface and also within the mine itself. Background radiation levels on the surface were measured to average 7.65 microR/hour, and 0.7 microR/hour within the mine. Radon and working levels were at or below detection levels at all locations, and the radon concentration was estimated to be about 0.01 pCi/liter on the surface based on spectral measurements. The spectral measurements were performed using an intrinsic germanium spectrometer, and calculations from the spectra indicated that potassium-40 contributed about 28% to the surface level dose rates, natural uranium daughters contributed about 64%, and cesium-137 from weapons testing fallout contributed about 8%. In the mine potassium-40 was the only identifiable contributor to the dose rate.

  11. Performance Assessment for the Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. S.; Hansen, C. W.; Lord, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Permanent, safe, and efficient disposal methods for nuclear waste need to be demonstrated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), run by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is the only licensed, operational geologic repository in the world for transuranic nuclear waste generated by defense activities associated with nuclear weapons production. WIPP is located near Carlsbad, New Mexico within the Salado Formation, a bedded, Permian evaporite deposit 655 meters beneath the surface of the Delaware Basin. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates the repository, approved the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) in 1998. WIPP opened for disposal activities in 1999, setting the clock for the periodic recertification that is required every five years until the repository is closed. The first Compliance Recertification Application (CRA) is due to the EPA before May 2004. An integral part of the CRA will be an updated Performance Assessment (PA). PA consists of a linked series of models and computer codes used to make a probabilistic assessment of the possible future states of the repository based on the best available scientific knowledge. Sandia National Laboratories, as the Scientific Advisor to the DOE, designs and runs the PA calculations. The PA for the CRA must account for any changes in activities or assumptions since the CCA. A summary of the PA used for the original certification and specific challenges associated with updating the PA for the CRA will be presented.

  12. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1993-09-18

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing head values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  14. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

  15. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge at pilot plant scale. 2. Technical solutions and process design.

    PubMed

    Ponti, C; Sonnleitner, B; Fiechter, A

    1995-01-15

    The performance of the ATS process depends essentially on the oxygen transfer efficiency. Improvement of the mass transfer capacity of a bioreactor allowed to reduce the incubation time necessary to attain sludge stabilization. It is important to use equipment with a high aeration efficiency such as an injector aeration system. The ratio between the total oxygen consumption and the organic matter degradation (delta COD) ranged between 0.4 and 0.8 in the pilot plant, whereas 1.23 was found in completely mixed bioreactors (Bomio, 1990). No significant improvement of the bacterial degradation efficiency was attained with a specific power input exceeding 6-8 kW m-3. A mean residence time of less than 1 d allowed organic matter removals up to 40% with specific power consumption of 10 kWh kg-1 COD oxidized. The sludge hygienization is one of the objectives and benefits of the thermophilic treatment: not only temperature but also the total solids content were important factors affecting inactivation of pathogens. The inactivation rate was promoted by the increase of temperature, while the residual colony forming units decreased with reducing the total solids content of sewage sludge. It is concluded that continuous operation mode would not affect the quality of the hygienization but could display the high degradation potential of the aerobic system.

  16. Blending mining and nuclear industries at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) traditional procedures for underground mining activities have been significantly altered in order to assure underground safety and project adherence to numerous regulatory requirements. Innovative techniques have been developed for WIPP underground procedures, mining equipment, and operating environments. The mining emphasis at WIPP is upon the quality of the excavation, not (as in conventional mines) on the production of ore. The WIPP is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) project that is located 30 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, where the nation's first underground engineered nuclear repository is being constructed. The WIPP site was selected because of its location amidst a 607 meter thick salt bed, which provides a remarkably stable rock formation for the permanent storage of nuclear waste. The underground facility is located 655 meters below the earth's surface, in the Salado formation, which comprises two-hundred million year old halites with minor amounts of clay and anhydrites. When completed, the WIPP underground facility will consist of two components: approximately 81 square kilometers of experimental areas, and approximately 405 square kilometers of repository. 3 figs.

  17. Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, A.; Monteagudo, J.M.; San Martin, I.; Aguirre, M.

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV/Fe(II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis of the oxidation of cyanides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). A factorial experimental design allowed the determination of the influences of operating variables (initial concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, oxalic acid and Fe(II) and pH) on the degradation kinetics. Temperature and UV-A solar power were also included in the Neural Network fittings. The pH was maintained at a value >9.5 during cyanide oxidation to avoid the formation of gaseous HCN and later lowered to enhance mineralization. Under the optimum conditions ([H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] = 2000 ppm, [Fe(II)] = 8 ppm, pH = 3.3 after cyanide oxidation, and [(COOH){sub 2}] = 60 ppm), it was possible to degrade 100% of the cyanides and up to 92% of Total Organic Carbon. (author)

  18. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  19. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  20. Conceptual structure of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BASABILVAZO,G.; JOW,HONG-NIAN; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-18

    The conceptual structure of the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. This structure involves three basic entities (EN1, EN2, EN3): (1) EN1, a probabilistic characterization of the likelihood of different futures occurring at the WIPP site over the next 10,000 yr, (2) EN2, a procedure for estimating the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment associated with each of the possible futures that could occur at the WIPP site over the next 10,000 yr, and (3) EN3, a probabilistic characterization of the uncertainty in the parameters used in the definition of EN1 and EN2. In the formal development of the 1996 WIPP PA, EN1 is characterized by a probability space (S{sub st}, P{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainly; EN2 is characterized by a function {line_integral} that corresponds to the models and associated computer programs used to estimate radionuclide releases; and EN3 is characterized by a probability space (S{sub su}, P{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty. A high-level overview of the 1996 WIPP PA and references to additional sources of information are given in the context of (S{sub st}, P{sub st}, p{sub st}), {line_integral} and (S{sub su}, P{sub su}, p{sub su}).

  1. The Geologic and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Corbet, T.F.

    1999-03-04

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a mined repository constructed by the US Department of Energy for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes generated since 1970 by activities related to national defense. The WIPP is located 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in bedded salt (primarily halite) of the Late Permian (approximately 255 million years old) Salado Formation 655 m below the land surface. Characterization of the site began in the mid-1970s. Construction of the underground disposal facilities began in the early 1980s, and the facility received final certification from the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1998. Disposal operations are planned to begin following receipt of a final permit from the State of New Mexico and resolution of legal issues. Like other proposed geologic repositories for radioactive waste, the WIPP relies on a combination of engineered and natural barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Engineered barriers at the WIPP, including the seals that will be emplaced in the access shafts when the facility is decommissioned, are discussed in the context of facility design elsewhere in this volume. Physical properties of the natural barriers that contribute to the isolation of radionuclides are discussed here in the context of the physiographic, geologic, and hydrogeologic setting of the site.

  2. Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

    1998-10-14

    The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

  3. Summary discussion of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BASABILVAZO,G.; JOW,HONG-NIAN; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-19

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for total radionuclide release from the WIPP to the accessible environment is described. The resultant CCDFs (1) combine releases due to cuttings and cavings, spallings, direct brine release, and long-term transport in flowing groundwater, (2) fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standard 40 CFR 191 for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste, and (3) constitute an important component of the DOE's successful Compliance Certification Application to the EPA for the WIPP. Insights and perspectives gained in the performance assessment (PA) that led to these CCDFs are described, including the importance of (1) an iterative approach to PA, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, (3) a clear conceptual model for the analysis, (4) the separation of stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, (5) quality assurance procedures, (6) early involvement of peer reviewers, regulators, and stake holders, (7) avoidance of conservative assumptions, and (8) adequate documentation.

  4. Struvite formation from the supernatants of an anaerobic digestion pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Pastor, L; Mangin, D; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the influence of the characteristics of the supernatants on the struvite precipitation process. Eighteen experiments with the supernatants generated in an anaerobic digestion pilot plant were performed in a stirred reactor. In order to obtain the pH control during the crystallization process, a Fuzzy Logic based controller was used. High phosphorus precipitation and recovery efficiencies were obtained. The composition of the supernatants was analyzed in order to study its influence on the solids formed from those solutions. The presence of calcium reduced the percentage of phosphorus precipitated as struvite leading to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which tended to be lost with the effluent of the reactor. Calcite was also formed when supernatants with high magnesium:phosphorus (Mg/P) and calcium:phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios were employed. Some ammonium volatilization by conversion to NH(3) occurred in all the experiments. The use of air to increase the pH to an adequate value showed to be feasible. Aeration cleaned struvite crystals from suspended solids, which makes aeration interesting for struvite separation. However, aeration slightly increased the loss of phosphorus with the effluent of the reactor and promoted ammonium volatilization.

  5. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

  6. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Baker, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  7. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 11 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Seismic reflection data from petroleum industry sources showed anomalous reflectors in the Castile Formation over a small area about 3 miles north of the center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Additional corroborative seismic reflection data were collected as part of WIPP investigations, and WIPP 11 was drilled to investigate the anomaly. WIPP 11 was drilled near the northwest corner of Section 9, T.22.S., R.31E. it penetrated, in descending order, sand dune deposits and the Gatuna Formation (29'), Santa Rosa Sandstone (132'), Dewey Lake Red Beds (502'), Rustler Formation (288'), Salado Formation (1379'), and most of the Castile Formation (1240'). Beds within the lower part of the Salado, and the upper anhydrite of the Castile, are thinner than normal; these beds are displaced upward structurally by the upper Castile halite which is highly thickened (about 968'). The lowest halite is thin (51') and the basal anhydrite was not completely penetrated. Subsequent seismic and borehole data has shown WIPP 11 to be in a structural complex now identified as the disturbed zone. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level waste, though there are no plans at this time to dispose of high level waste or spent fuel at WIPP.

  8. Influence of material and tube size on DUWLs contamination in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Zanetti, Franca

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the water discharged from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) contains high densities of bacteria, especially non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the material (polyethylene-PE and polytetrafluorethylene-PTFE) and size (1.6 and 4.0 mm) of 4 waterlines in a pilot plant influence the level of contamination in the output water. The water contamination was assessed by analyzing the trend of the heterotrophic plate counts at 22 degrees C as a function of time and by testing for non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria. In all waterlines, the bacterial density increased exponentially during the first months and thereafter remained between 10(4) and 10(6) cfu/ml. However, the plate count at 22 degrees C was lower in the water from PTFE tubes and from larger size tubes. Comamonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, responsible for infections associated with dental practice, was never isolated in the output water from PTFE tubes. In order to control bacterial contamination the results suggest the use of waterlines made of PTFE on account of their ability to inhibit the colonization and growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of the February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Release

    SciTech Connect

    Nasstrom, John; Piggott, Tom; Simpson, Matthew; Lobaugh, Megan; Tai, Lydia; Pobanz, Brenda; Yu, Kristen

    2015-07-22

    This report presents the results of a simulation of the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactivity released from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in New Mexico in February 2014. These simulations were made by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and supersede NARAC simulation results published in a previous WIPP report (WIPP, 2014). The results presented in this report use additional, more detailed data from WIPP on the specific radionuclides released, radioactivity release amounts and release times. Compared to the previous NARAC simulations, the new simulation results in this report are based on more detailed modeling of the winds, turbulence, and particle dry deposition. In addition, the initial plume rise from the exhaust vent was considered in the new simulations, but not in the previous NARAC simulations. The new model results show some small differences compared to previous results, but do not change the conclusions in the WIPP (2014) report. Presented are the data and assumptions used in these model simulations, as well as the model-predicted dose and deposition on and near the WIPP site. A comparison of predicted and measured radionuclide-specific air concentrations is also presented.

  10. Use of zeolitised coal fly ash for landfill leachate treatment: a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Luna, Y; Otal, E; Vilches, L F; Vale, J; Querol, X; Fernández Pereira, C

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate generally results in low percentages of nutrient removal due to the high concentration and accumulation of refractory compounds. For this reason, individual physical, chemical and biological processes have been used for the treatment of raw landfill leachate and sometimes for the mixture of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate. In this work, the possibility of treating landfill leachate was tested in a bench-scale pilot plant by a two-step method combining adsorption and coagulation-flocculation. Zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power stations, was used in this study both as a decantation aid reagent and as an adsorbent of COD and NH4-N. The coagulation-flocculation step was performed by the use of aluminium sulphate and a polyelectrolyte (ACTIPOL A-401). The leachate was collected directly from a storage unit of the organic fraction of MSW, before it was composted. For this reason the raw leachate was diluted before treatment. The sludge was recirculated to enhance the removal efficiency of nutrients as well as to optimize flocculant saving and to decrease sludge production. The results showed that it is possible to remove 43%, 53% and 82% of COD, NH4-N, and suspended solids, respectively. Therefore, this method may be an alternative for ammonium removal, as well as a suitable pre- or post-treatment step, in combination with other processes in order to meet regulatory limits.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  13. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  14. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. ); Swift, P.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Concepts for operational period panel seal design at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Lin, M.S.; Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-07-01

    Concepts for underground panel or drift seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are developed to satisfy sealing requirements of the operational period. The concepts are divided into two groups. In the ``NOW`` group, design concepts are considered in which a sleeve structure is installed in the panel access immediately after excavation and before waste is emplaced. In the ``LATER`` group, no special measures are taken during excavation or before waste emplacement; the seal is installed at a later date, perhaps up to 35 years after the drift is excavated. Three concepts are presented in both the NOW and LATER groups. A rigid sleeve, a yielding sleeve, and steel rings with inflatable tubes are proposed as NOW concepts. One steel ring concept and two concrete monoliths are proposed for seals emplaced in older drifts. Advantages and disadvantages are listed for each concept. Based on the available information, it appears most feasible to recommend a LATER concept using a concrete monolith as a preferred seal for the operational period. Each concept includes the potential of remedial grout and/or construction of a chamber that could be used for monitoring leakage from a closed panel during the operational period. Supporting in situ demonstrations of elements of the concepts are recommended.

  16. Results from simulated remote-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M A

    1992-01-01

    Multi-year, simulated remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU, nonradioactive) experiments are being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot-Plant (WIPP) facility. These experiments involve the near-reference (thermal and geometrical) testing of eight full size RH TRU test containers emplaced into horizontal, unlined rock salt boreholes. Half of the test emplacements are partially filled with bentonite/silica-sand backfill material. All test containers were electrically heated at about 115 W/each for three years, then raised to about 300 W/each for the remaining time. Each test borehole was instrumented with a selection of remote-reading thermocouples, pressure gages, borehole vertical-closure gages, and vertical and horizontal borehole-diameter closure gages. Each test emplacements was also periodically opened for visual inspections of brine intrusions and any interactions with waste package materials, materials sampling, manual closure measurements, and observations of borehole changes. Effects of heat on borehole closure rates and near-field materials (metals, backfill, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored as a function of time. This paper summarizes results for the first five years of in situ test operation with supporting instrumentation and laboratory data and interpretations. Some details of RH TRU waste package materials, designs, and assorted underground test observations are also discussed. Based on the results, the tested RH TRU waste packages, materials, and emplacement geometry in unlined salt boreholes appear to be quite adequate for initial WIPP repository-phase operations.

  17. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  18. Biorefinery concept in a microalgae pilot plant. Culturing, dynamic filtration and steam explosion fractionation.

    PubMed

    Nurra, C; Torras, C; Clavero, E; Ríos, S; Rey, M; Lorente, E; Farriol, X; Salvadó, J

    2014-07-01

    A 53 m(3) microalgae pilot plant with semi-closed photobioreactors has been operated in batch mode at Tarragona, where proper climatic conditions exist. Operations carried-out were microalgae culturing, concentration, cell disruption and lipid extraction. Culturing was performed with and without CO2 fertilization. pH was used to control CO2 dosing. With CO2 fertilization best microalgae concentrations were obtained. Productivities up to 19.9 g/m(2)/day were reached. Although sedimentation and centrifugation was performed, studies focused on dynamic membrane filtration as improved technique compared with conventional one. Significant fouling reduction was obtained by using a vibrational membrane setup. Cell disruption including product pre-extraction was performed by using steam explosion at moderate conditions, as novel technique for this application. Lipid extraction was performed by using conventional techniques with and without exploded material. The amount of lipids obtained from exploded material was higher than with non-exploded material, which shows that steam explosion provides a clear enhancement.

  19. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  20. Geochemistry of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Southeastern New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1992-05-01

    An extensive geochemical data base, including analyses of major and minor solutes, mineralogical studies of core samples, and isotopic studies of waters, carbonates and sulfates, has been assembled for evaporites and related rocks in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. These data were compiled for the geological and hydrological characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is excavated in the evaporites of the Salado Formation. These data were evaluated in order: 1. to determine the stability of the evaporite mineralogy over geological time; 2. to compare the aqueous geochemistry with host rock mineralogy; 3. to delineate the nature and timing of water-rock interactions, such as dissolution and recrystallization; and 4. to determine the geological and climatic conditions that have governed groundwater recharge. The resulting synthesis of data and current hypotheses concerning the origin, composition and history of waters in the evaporite rocks and related units of the Delaware Basin provides a tentative conceptual model for the behavior of the water-rock system since the deposition of the evaporites in the Permian. Essential components of this model include: 1. widespread Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evaporite recrystallization; 2. accumulation of deep-basin brines isolated from meteoric recharge; 3. evaporite dissolution by meteoric waters flowing in carbonates and sulfates interbedded in the uppermost Permian section and at the basin margin; 4. lateral rather than vertical infiltration of pre-Holocene meteoric waters in the uppermost Permian section; 5. climatic conditions presently less conducive to recharge than in the late Pleistocene.

  1. Characterization of alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic granular sludge in pilot-plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuemei; de Kreuk, Merle; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Adin, Avner

    2010-06-01

    To understand functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides in aerobic granular sludge, alginate-like exopolysaccharides were specifically extracted from aerobic granular sludge cultivated in a pilot plant treating municipal sewage. The exopolysaccharides were identified by the FAO/WHO alginate identification tests, characterized by biochemical assays, gelation with Ca(2+), blocks fractionation, spectroscopic analysis as UV-visible, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS, and electrophoresis. The yield of extractable alginate-like exopolysaccharides was reached 160+/-4mg/g (VSS ratio). They resembled seaweed alginate in UV-visible and MALDI-TOF MS spectra, and distinguished from it in the reactions with acid ferric sulfate, phenol-sulfuric acid and Coomassie brilliant blue G250. Characterized by their high percentage of poly guluronic acid blocks (69.07+/-8.95%), the isolated exopolysaccharides were capable to form rigid, non-deformable gels in CaCl(2). They were one of the dominant exopolysaccharides in aerobic granular sludge. We suggest that polymers play a significant role in providing aerobic granular sludge a highly hydrophobic, compact, strong and elastic structure.

  2. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM )

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years'' the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  3. An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T. |

    1993-02-01

    Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the WIPP radiological facilities always have multiple confinement barriers to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material to the environment. The Waste Handling Building has standard confinement barriers that satisfy the regulatory requirements, but the underground confinement barriers.include a more complex system for filtering air in the event of-an accidental release. A continuous air monitor (CAM) is an integral part of the underground confinement barrier strategy. For the last four years`` the reliability and sensitivity of the CAMs have been the subject of numerous reports and meetings which are summarized in this report. Data supplied to the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) show that the Station A CAM, which monitors the underground.exhaust, does not satisfy the requirements of the FSAR. The CAM system is not fail-safe, and operations appear to be affected by high levels of salt aerosol and poor detector performance. Additional test information is needed to establish the limits of CAM performance. Findings and recommendations are also provided on alternative monitoring methods, procedures and calculations.

  4. Resolution of the long-term performance issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.; Rucker, D.F.; Chaturvedi, L.

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geological repository for disposal of U.S. defense transuranic radioactive waste. Built and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), it is located in the Permian age salt beds in southeastern New Mexico at a depth of 655 m. Performance assessment for the repository's compliance with the 10,000-year containment standards was completed in 1996 and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified in 1998 that the repository meets compliance with the EPA standards 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) review of the DOE's application for certification identified a number of issues. These related to the scenarios, conceptual models, and values of the input parameters used in the calculations. It is expected that these issues will be addressed and resolved during the first 5-year recertification process that began with the first receipt of waste at WIPP on March 26, 1999, and scheduled to be completed in March 2004.

  5. Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1993-05-01

    Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25{degrees}C or 100{degrees}C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators.

  6. TRU waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This document is intended to delineate the criteria by which unclassified waste will be accepted for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and describe the bases upon which these criteria were established. These criteria are not intended to be specifications but rather limits that will allow waste generating and shipping sites to develop their own procedures and specifications for preparation of TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. These criteria will also allow waste generating sites to plan future facilities for waste preparation that will produce TRU waste forms compatible with WIPP waste emplacement and isolation requirements. These criteria only apply to contract-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste forms and are not intended to apply to beta-gamma wastes, spent fuel, high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), low specific activity (LSA) waste, or forms of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. Specifications for receipt of experimental waste forms will be prepared by the responsible projects in conjunction with the staff of the WIPP project at a later date. In addition, these criteria only apply to waste emplaced in bedded rock salt. Technical bases for these criteria may differ significantly from those for other host rocks. 25 refs. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Characterization of airborne particles at a high-btu coal-gasification pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C I; Santhanam, S; Stetter, J R; Flotard, R D; Gebert, E

    1982-12-01

    Airborne particles in fugitive emissions have been measured at a slagging fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant using lignite. Sampling was conducted during shutdown operations and opening of the gasifier following an aborted startup. Aerosol collected with a Sierra high-volume impactor was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy; aerosol collected with an Andersen low-volume impactor was subjected to flameless atomic absorption analysis. The data show that the bulk of the trace organic material is associated with small particles: these data are similar to data on ambient air reported in the literature. Particle morphologies resemble those of fly ash from coal combustion, including smooth spheres, vesicular spheres, and crystalline material. Trace element size distributions are bimodal and resemble data for ambient air. Pb-containing particles are generally submicron, while particles containing Al, Fe, and other crustal species are mostly of supermicron size. Aluminum-based aerosol enrichment factors calculated from the lignite composition show that the composition of the aerosol resembles that of the coal, with the exception of modest enrichments of Mg, Na, As, and Pb in the submicron size range. Aerosol enrichment factors based on the earth's crustal composition are somewhat greater than those based on coal composition for several elements, suggesting potential errors in using crustal enrichment data to investigate chemical fractionation during aerosol formation.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of Procion Black 5B using cylindrical flow reactor--a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Raghu, S; Basha, C Ahmed

    2007-01-10

    The paper presents the results of an efficient electrochemical treatment of Procion Black 5B--a pilot plant study. Experiments were conducted at different current densities and selected electrolyte medium using Ti/RuO2 as anode, stainless-steel as cathode in a cylindrical flow reactor. By cyclic voltammetric analysis, the best condition for maximum redox reaction rate was found to be in NaCl medium. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, colour, FTIR, UV-vis spectra studies, energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient were computed and presented. The experimental results showed that the electrochemical oxidation process could effectively remove colour and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the synthetic dye effluent. The maximum COD reduction and colour removal efficiencies were 74.05% and 100%, respectively. Probable theory, reaction mechanism and modeling were proposed for the oxidation of dye effluent. The results obtained reveal the feasibilities of application of electrochemical treatment for the degradation of Procion Black 5B.

  9. Conceptual-Model-Driven Characterization of the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauheim, R. L.; McKenna, S. A.; Hart, D. B.

    2009-05-01

    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation would be the primary groundwater transport pathway for radionuclides released from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by inadvertent human intrusion. The WIPP, located in southeastern New Mexico, is the U.S. Department of Energy's underground repository for transuranic and mixed wastes. Characterization of the Culebra began in the late 1970s and showed that the Culebra is highly heterogeneous with transmissivity varying over ten orders of magnitude. Although multiple generations of groundwater flow models had been developed for the Culebra by the time the WIPP was first licensed in 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (a WIPP regulator) felt that a coherent conceptual model relating transmissivity variations to their cause(s) was lacking. A conceptual model relating Culebra transmissivity to geologic factors was developed and combined with a monitoring well network optimization study to identify locations where new wells would be of high value. Since 2003, 16 new wells have been sited, drilled, and tested. The wells provided confirmation of expected geologic conditions, local head and transmissivity measurements, and transient response data during large-scale pumping tests. The information provided by these new wells has been used in the development of a new groundwater flow model for the WIPP that provides the best representation yet achieved of measured heads and transient responses observed during large-scale pumping tests at the site. This model will be used in future performance assessment calculations for the WIPP.

  10. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  11. History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-03-05

    A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have supported characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical studies have provided significant understanding of the nature of site deformation, tectonics and stability. Geophysical methods have delineated possible brine reservoirs beneath the underground facility and have defined the disturbed rock zone that forms around underground excavations. The role of geophysics in the WIPP project has evolved with the project. The early uses were for site characterization to satisfy site selection criteria or factors. As the regulatory framework for WIPP grew since 1980, the geophysics program supported experimental and field programs such as Salado hydrogeology and underground room systems and excavations. In summary, the major types of issues that geophysical studies addressed for WIPP are: Site Characterization; Castile Brine Reservoirs; Rustler/Dewey Lake Hydrogeology; Salado Hydrogeology; and Excavation Effects. The nature of geophysics programs for WIPP has been to support investigation rather than being the principal investigation itself. The geophysics program has been used to define conceptual models (e.g., the Disturbed Rock Zone-DRZ) or to test conceptual models (e.g., high transmissivity zones in the Rustler Formation). The geophysics program primarily supported larger characterization and experimental programs. Funding was not available for the complete documentation and interpretation. Therefore, a great deal of the geophysics survey information resides in contractor reports.

  12. Criticality safety analysis for remote handled TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed to store transuranic (TRU) waste underground in a mined salt bed. All fissile nuclides except U/sup 235/ are considered TRU nuclides. This report presents the results of the nuclear criticality analysis for Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste stored at the WIPP site. The RH waste material will be contained in steel canisters that are five feet or ten feet long. Each ten foot canister is capable of holding three 55 gallon drums of waste material. The five foot canisters are to be welded together to form one ten foot long canister. In general the fissile waste material is mainly surface contamination on clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, etc., or mixed in a borosilicate glass matrix or concrete. Other fissile material may be contained in absorbent mixtures. As a result, the fissile material will typically be spread over a large fraction of the volume in most of the waste storage canisters. Typical isotopic content of the fissile/other radioactive material is shown in Table 1-1. This analysis will analyze the RH waste storage and handling configurations at the WIPP site to show that up to 600 grams of fissile material per ten foot canister can be received and stored at the site without criticality safety concerns. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  14. Test Results and Comparison of Triaxial Strength Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Clean Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, Stuart A.

    2016-12-01

    This memorandum documents laboratory thermomechanical triaxial strength testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) clean salt. The limited study completed independent, adjunct laboratory tests in the United States to assist in validating similar testing results being provided by the German facilities. The testing protocol consisted of completing confined triaxial, constant strain rate strength tests of intact WIPP clean salt at temperatures of 25°C and 100°C and at multiple confining pressures. The stratigraphy at WIPP also includes salt that has been labeled “argillaceous.” The much larger test matrix conducted in Germany included both the so-called clean and argillaceous salts. When combined, the total database of laboratory results will be used to develop input parameters for models, assess adequacy of existing models, and predict material behavior. These laboratory studies are also consistent with the goals of the international salt repository research program. The goal of this study was to complete a subset of a test matrix on clean salt from the WIPP undertaken by German research groups. The work was performed at RESPEC in Rapid City, South Dakota. A rigorous Quality Assurance protocol was applied, such that corroboration provides the potential of qualifying all of the test data gathered by German research groups.

  15. Correlation of drillhole and shaft logs. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jarolimek, L.; Timmer, M.J.; Powers, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report on stratigraphic correlations from drillhole and shaft data along a generally north-south section across the potential extent of underground excavations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility was prepared as part of the Site Validation Field Program Plan. The results provide (1) input for the report entitled ''Results of Site Validation Experiments,'' (2) input for other WIPP-related investigations, including the Design Validation Program, and (3) a framework for further underground activities at WIPP. In general, this correlation study confirmed previous findings, including: relatively high consistency of thickness and lateral continuity of all beds within the Salado Formation, especially in the host rock interval; gentle, generally south and southeastward dips/slopes of the host rock interval strata; close correspondence between stratigraphic data obtained from the present underground excavations and data derived from the previous investigative drillholes and shafts; and depositional origin of the undulations on the top of Marker Bed (MB) 139 and relatively small variation in its thickness (1.2 to 4.1 feet).

  16. Temperature control in a 30 stage, 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz

    2009-09-01

    Temperature profile testing was performed using a 30 stage 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. These tests were performed to evaluate the ability to control process temperature by adjusting feed solution temperatures. This would eliminate the need for complex jacketed heat exchanger installation on the centrifugal contactors. Thermocouples were installed on the inlet and outlets of each stage, as well as directly in the mixing zone of several of the contactor stages. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid were the solution feeds for the temperature profile testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total throughputs and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems were collected with selected profiles. The total throughput ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Inlet solution temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 °C were tested. Results of the two-phase temperature profile testing are detailed

  17. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  18. Conceptual structure of performance assessments conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. In support of this project, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting an ongoing performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP. The ordered triple representation for risk proposed by Kaplan and Garrick is used to provide a clear conceptual structure for this PA. This presentation describes how the preceding representation provides a basis in the WIPP PA for (1) the definition of scenarios and the calculation of scenario probabilities and consequences, (2) the separation of subjective and stochastic uncertainties, (3) the construction of the complementary cumulative distribution functions required in comparisons with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B), and (4) the performance of uncertainty and sensitivity studies. Results obtained in a preliminary PA for the WIPP completed in December of 1991 are used for illustration.

  19. Status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance with 40 CFR 191B, December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper describes the 1992 preliminary comparison with Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), which regulates long-term releases of radioactive waste. Results of the 1992 PA are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or noncompliance with EPA regulations because portions of the modeling system and data base are incomplete. Results are consistent, however, with those of previous iterations of PA, and the SNL WIPP PA Department has high confidence that compliance with 40 CFR 191B can be demonstrated. Comparison of predicted radiation doses from the disposal system also gives high confidence that the disposal system is safe for long-term isolation.

  20. Draft forecast of the final report for the comparison to 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.; Gomez, L.S.; Rechard, R.P. ); Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V. )

    1989-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes, which have been generated by defense programs, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The WIPP Project will assess compliance with the requirements of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This report forecasts the planned 1992 document, Comparison to 40 CFR, Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 130 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Integrated bicarbonate-form ion exchange treatment and regeneration for DOC removal: Model development and pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Boyer, Treavor H

    2017-05-15

    The application of bicarbonate-form anion exchange resin and sodium bicarbonate salt for resin regeneration was investigated in this research is to reduce chloride ion release during treatment and the disposal burden of sodium chloride regeneration solution when using traditional chloride-form ion exchange (IX). The target contaminant in this research was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The performance evaluation was conducted in a completely mixed flow reactor (CMFR) IX configuration. A process model that integrated treatment and regeneration was investigated based on the characteristics of configuration. The kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed to obtain required parameters for the process model. The pilot plant tests were conducted to validate the model as well as provide practical understanding on operation. The DOC concentration predicted by the process model responded to the change of salt concentration in the solution, and showed a good agreement with pilot plant data with less than 10% difference in terms of percentage removal. Both model predictions and pilot plant tests showed over 60% DOC removal by bicarbonate-form resin for treatment and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration, which was comparable to chloride-form resin for treatment and sodium chloride for regeneration. Lastly, the DOC removal was improved by using higher salt concentration for regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring and toxicity evaluation of phytoplankton on lithium manganese oxide adsorbents at lithium recovery pilot plant field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Kim, J. C.; Chung, K. S.; Ryu, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    For recovery of rare mineral resources such as lithium or boron from seawater, the lithium adsorbent material have been made by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and pilot plant was conducted in Okgye Harbor, Gangneung, Korea. The application of lithium adsorbent in pilot plant, it is important to consider the impact on the marine environment. Especially phytoplankton communities are important marine microorganism to represent marine primary product. At the same time, phytoplankton is possible to induce the decrease of lithium recovery rate due to cause of biofouling to surfaces of lithium adsorbents. Therefore long-term and periodic monitoring of phytoplankton is necessary to understand the environmental impact and biofouling problems near the lithium pilot plant. The abundance and biomass of phytoplankton have been evaluated through monthly interval sampling from February 2013 to May 2015. Abundance and species diversity of phytoplankton went up to summer from winter. When lithium adsorbents were immersing to seawater, eco-toxicities of released substances were determined using Microtox with bioluminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The adsorbents were soaked in sterilized seawater and aeration for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days intervals under controlled temperature. Maximum EC50 concentration was 61.4% and this toxicity was showed in more than 10 days exposure.

  3. Diagnosis of nonlinear BWR oscillations using TRAC/BF1

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, J.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Baratta, A.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear nature of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability has been demonstrated in both experimental tests and lumped parameter calculational models. Point kinetic reactivity feedback is nonlinear because of its functional dependence on fuel temperature and moderator density. The TRAC/BF1 model used in this analysis differs from a lumped parameter model in its spatial extent. The model, intended to be consistent with a BWR/4, was developed with four active fuel channel components representing one hot, two average, and one peripheral bundles. The vessel internals were modeled explicitly. These internals include lower and upper plena, separator/dryers, core shroud, and dryer skirt. The jet pump/recirculation system is modeled in an azimuthally symmetric fashion. The feedwater and steam line boundary conditions are based on time-dependent data representative of that observed during the LaSalle oscillation event.

  4. Environmental cracking of Alloy 600 in BWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungberg, L.G.

    1991-03-01

    Alloy 600 may be sensitized to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in both BWR normal water chemistry (NWC) and in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Carbide precipitation causes chromium depleted grain boundaries, which are susceptible to IGSCC in NWC but not in HWC. The mechanism for chromium depletion is complex due to the existence of two chromium carbides. Segregated phosphorous enhances IGSCC of Alloy 600 with chromium depleted grain boundaries in NWC. Under all other conditions phosphorous seems harmless. Grain boundary segregated sulfur is suspect of enhancing IGSCC in both NWC and HWC, but no verifying tests have been performed. Boron and nitrogen have a strong tendency to segregate to grain boundaries in Alloy 600, but seem to be harmless. Only few crack propagation data relevant to BWR conditions exist for Alloy 600. The paper describes mechanisms for sensitization, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation rates. 94 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Vertical Drop of 44-BWR Waste Package With Lifting Collars

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2005-08-23

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a waste package (WP) dropped flat on its bottom from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 44-Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The Uncanistered Waste Disposal Container System is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 4, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 16). AP-3. 12Q, Design Calculations and Analyses (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 44-BWR WP considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for that design.

  6. Determination of dispersion parameters for oxidizing air and the oxidation rate of calcium sulfites in a pilot desulfurization plant

    SciTech Connect

    Burenkov, D.K.; Derevich, I.V.; Rzaev, A.I.

    1995-10-01

    In the effort to remove sulfur oxides from waste gases, the widest use is gained by desulfurization plants based on wet collection of sulfur dioxide in empty absorbers in which a limestone-gypsum suspension is sprayed, with gypsum being produced as a commodity product. Dispersion of oxidizing air in a model liquid and the oxidation rate of calcium sulfites in a suspension contained in the sump of a pilot desulfurization plant absorber are studied experimentally. Flow velocities, bubble trajectories, and oxidation rates were determined and are presented.

  7. Application of the gamma thermometer to BWR core monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) core monitoring systems rely on in-core instrumentation to help determine the precise axial and radial power distribution of the core. Recently, it has been proposed to replace the existing traversing in-core probe (TIP) system with a system based on fixed in-core gamma thermometers. In this paper, the author describes the type of gamma thermometer (GT) that could be used in the proposed system and provides results from an ongoing implant test program.

  8. Study on High Conversion BWR with Island Type Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Takao Kondo; Takaaki Mochida; Junichi Yamashita

    2002-07-01

    High Conversion Boiling Water Reactor (HCBWR) has been studied as one of the next generation BWRs. HCBWR can be improved by the use of Island Type Fuel to have inherently negative void coefficient. The proposed reactor concept also has the sustainability to extend LWR's period by about 180 years, and the compatibility with conventional BWR system that only substitution of fuel bundles and control rods are required. As an example case, High Conversion ABWR-II was evaluated here. (authors)

  9. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  10. Investigation of Burnup Credit Modeling Issues Associated with BWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.

    2000-10-12

    Although significant effort has been dedicated to the study of burnup-credit issues over the past decade, U.S. studies to-date have primarily focused on spent pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel. The current licensing approach taken by the U.S. Department of Energy for burnup credit in transportation seeks approval for PWR fuel only. Burnup credit for boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel has not yet been formally sought. Burnup credit for PWR fuel was pursued first because: (1) nearly two-thirds (by mass) of the total discharged commercial spent fuel in the United States is PWR fuel, (2) it can substantially increase the fuel assembly capacity with respect to current designs for PWR storage and transportation casks, and (3) fuel depletion in PWRs is generally less complicated than fuel depletion in BWRs. However, due to international needs, the increased enrichment of modern BWR fuels, and criticality safety issues related to permanent disposal within the United States, more attention has recently focused on spent BWR fuel. Specifically, credit for fuel burnup in the criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel enables improved design efficiency, which, due to the large mass of fissile material that will be stored in the repository, can have substantial financial benefits. For criticality safety purposes, current PWR storage and transportation canister designs employ flux traps between assemblies. Credit for fuel burnup will eliminate the need for these flux traps, and thus, significantly increase the PWR assembly capacity (for a fixed canister volume). Increases in assembly capacity of approximately one-third are expected. In contrast, current BWR canister designs do not require flux traps for criticality safety, and thus, are already at their maximum capacity in terms of physical storage. Therefore, benefits associated with burnup credit for BWR storage and transportation casks may be limited to increasing the enrichment capacity and

  11. Determination of BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly Effective Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew D. Hinds

    2001-10-17

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide an effective thermal conductivity for use in predicting peak cladding temperatures in boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with 7x7,8x8, and 9x9 rod arrays. The first objective of this calculation is to describe the development and application of a finite element representation that predicts peak spent nuclear fuel temperatures for BWR assemblies. The second objective is to use the discrete representation to develop a basis for determining an effective thermal conductivity (described later) for a BWR assembly with srneared/homogeneous properties and to investigate the thermal behavior of a spent fuel assembly. The scope of this calculation is limited to a steady-state two-dimensional representation of the waste package interior region. This calculation is subject to procedure AP-3.124, Calculations (Ref. 27) and guided by the applicable technical work plan (Ref. 14). While these evaluations were originally developed for the thermal analysis of conceptual waste package designs emplaced in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, the methodology applies to storage and transportation thermal analyses as well. Note that the waste package sketch in Attachment V depicts a preliminary design, and should not be interpreted otherwise.

  12. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, R L; Stewart, M H; Liang, S; McGuire, M J

    1989-01-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/liter), four hydrogen peroxide/ozone (H2O2/O3) weight ratios (0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8), and four contact times (4, 5, 12, and 16 min) in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E. coli and MS2 was inactivated

  13. RAMONA-4B a computer code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics for BWR and SBWR system transient - models and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.; Neymotin, L.Y.

    1998-03-01

    This document describes the major modifications and improvements made to the modeling of the RAMONA-3B/MOD0 code since 1981, when the code description and assessment report was completed. The new version of the code is RAMONA-4B. RAMONA-4B is a systems transient code for application to different versions of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) such as the current BWR, the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), and the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). This code uses a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with a multichannel, non-equilibrium, drift-flux, two-phase flow formulation of the thermal hydraulics of the reactor vessel. The code is designed to analyze a wide spectrum of BWR core and system transients and instability issues. Chapter 1 is an overview of the code`s capabilities and limitations; Chapter 2 discusses the neutron kinetics modeling and the implementation of reactivity edits. Chapter 3 is an overview of the heat conduction calculations. Chapter 4 presents modifications to the thermal-hydraulics model of the vessel, recirculation loop, steam separators, boron transport, and SBWR specific components. Chapter 5 describes modeling of the plant control and safety systems. Chapter 6 presents and modeling of Balance of Plant (BOP). Chapter 7 describes the mechanistic containment model in the code. The content of this report is complementary to the RAMONA-3B code description and assessment document. 53 refs., 81 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  15. Rapid depressurization event analysis in BWR/6 using RELAP5 and contain

    SciTech Connect

    Mueftueoglu, A.K.; Feltus, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Noncondensable gases may become dissolved in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) water level instrumentation during normal operations. Any dissolved noncondensable gases inside these water columns may come out of solution during rapid depressurization events, and displace water from the reference leg piping resulting in a false high level. These water level errors may cause a delay or failure in actuation, or premature shutdown of the Emergency Core Cooling System. (ECCS). If a rapid depressurization causes an erroneously high water level, preventing automatic ECCS actuation, it becomes important to determine if there would be other adequate indications for operator response and other signals for automatic actuation such as high drywell pressure. It is also important to determine the effect of the level signal on ECCS operation after it is being actuated. The objective of this study is to determine the detailed coupled containment/NSSS response during this rapid depressurization events in BWR/6. The selected scenarios involve: (a) inadvertent opening of all ADS valves, (b) design basis (DB) large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and (c) main steam line break (MSLB). The transient behaviors are evaluated in terms of: (a) vessel pressure and collapsed water level response, (b) specific transient boundary conditions, (e.g., scram, MSIV closure timing, feedwater flow, and break blowdown rates), (c) ECCS initiation timing, (d) impact of operator actions, (e) whether indications besides low-low water level were available. The results of the analysis had shown that there would be signals to actuate ECCS other than low reactor level, such as high drywell pressure, low vessel pressure, high suppression pool temperature, and that the plant operators would have significant indications to actuate ECCS.

  16. Simulation of Thermal Stratification in BWR Suppression Pools with One Dimensional Modeling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The suppression pool in a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides the major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as a loss-of-coolant accident and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (available net positive suction head) and therefore the performance of the Emergency Core Cooling System and Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System pumps that draw cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use zero dimensional (0-D) lumped parameter models to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool; therefore, they have large uncertainties in the prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods can be used to analyze realistic 3-D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, resulting in a long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by one-dimensional (1-D) transient partial differential equations and substructures (such as free or wall jets) are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to multi-dimensional CFD modeling. One heat-up experiment performed at the Finland POOLEX facility, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, is used for

  17. Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels in BWR Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O. K.; Gruber, Eugene E.; Shack, William J.

    2010-06-01

    The internal components of light water reactors are exposed to high-energy neutron irradiation and high-temperature reactor coolant. The exposure to neutron irradiation increases the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because of the elevated corrosion potential of the reactor coolant and the introduction of new embrittlement mechanisms through radiation damage. Various nonsensitized SSs and nickel alloys have been found to be prone to intergranular cracking after extended neutron exposure. Such cracks have been seen in a number of internal components in boiling water reactors (BWRs). The elevated susceptibility to SCC in irradiated materials, commonly referred to as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), is a complex phenomenon that involves simultaneous actions of irradiation, stress, and corrosion. In recent years, as nuclear power plants have aged and irradiation dose increased, IASCC has become an increasingly important issue. Post-irradiation crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been performed to provide data and technical support for the NRC to address various issues related to aging degradation of reactor-core internal structures and components. This report summarizes the results of the last group of tests on compact tension specimens from the Halden-II irradiation. The IASCC susceptibility of austenitic SSs and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials sectioned from submerged arc and shielded metal arc welds was evaluated by conducting crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests in a simulated BWR environment. The fracture and cracking behavior of HAZ materials, thermally sensitized SSs and grain-boundary engineered SSs was investigated at several doses (≤3 dpa). These latest results were combined with previous results from Halden-I and II irradiations to analyze the effects of neutron dose, water chemistry, alloy compositions, and welding and processing conditions on IASCC

  18. An efficient modeling method for thermal stratification simulation in a BWR suppression pool

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Hua Li; Walter Villanueva; Pavel Kudinov

    2012-09-01

    The suppression pool in a BWR plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as LOCA and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; and the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (Available Net Positive Suction Head) and therefore the performance of the pump which draws cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use 0-D lumped parameter methods to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool and therefore have large uncertainty in prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze realistic 3D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, therefore long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. The POOLEX experiments at Finland, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, are used for validation. GOTHIC lumped parameter models are used to obtain boundary conditions for BMIX++ code and CFD simulations. Comparison between the BMIX++, GOTHIC, and CFD calculations against the POOLEX experimental data is discussed in detail.

  19. Creating a baseline radiological standard for the waste isolation pilot plant underground.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hung-Cheng; Hayes, Robert

    2004-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground geological repository for defense transuranic wastes. The creation of a full baseline radiological standard for the WIPP underground is essential in order to evaluate and account for the influence of the naturally occurring radioactive materials, and to prepare for any suspected contamination or the very unlikely event of a real accident scenario. In this report, we describe the establishment of the baseline information using the gamma background dose rate measurements and the salt rib smears of surface removable alpha and beta activities throughout the WIPP underground. The average background gamma dose rate in the WIPP underground is 8.27 x 10(-9) +/- 1.65 x 10(-9) Gy/h while the gamma dose rate on the WIPP surface is 3.46 x 10(-8) +/- 1.65 x 10(-9) Gy/h. The overall surface average alpha activity in the underground is 8.52 x 10(-5) +/- 1.22 x 10(-4) Bq/cm2 (at 1sigma level) with the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of 4.81 x 10(-4) Bq/cm2. The overall surface average beta activity is 8.25 x 10(-4) +/- 8.17 x 10(-4) Bq/cm2 (at 1sigma level) with the MDA of 3.19 x 10(-3) Bq/cm2. This baseline standard will be beneficial to the overall WIPP operational facility, ensuring the worker safety and adding to public confidence in the operation of the WIPP.

  20. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.