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Sample records for bystrozatverdevshikh splavov al-fe

  1. Removal of phosphate from water using six Al-, Fe-, and Al-Fe-modified bentonite adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Shanableh, Abdallah M; Elsergany, Moetaz M

    2013-01-01

    This study was part of a larger effort that involves evaluating alternatives to upgrading secondary treatment systems in the United Arab Emirates for the removal of nutrients. In this study, six modified bentonite (BNT) phosphate adsorbents were prepared using solutions that contained hydroxy-polycations of aluminum (Al-BNT), iron (Fe-BNT), and mixtures of aluminum and iron (Al-Fe-BNT). The adsorption kinetics and capacities of the six adsorbents were evaluated, and the adsorbents were used to remove phosphorus from synthetic phosphate solutions and from treated wastewater. The experimental adsorption kinetics results were well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with R(2) values ranging from 0.99 to 1.00. Similarly, the experimental equilibrium adsorption results were well represented by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, with R(2) values ranging from 0.98 to 1.00. The adsorption capacities of the adsorbents were dependent on the BNT preparation conditions; the types, quantities and combination of metals used; BNT particle size; and adsorption pH. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of the six adsorbents ranged from 8.9-14.5 mg P/g-BNT. The results suggested that the BNT preparations containing Fe alone or in combination with Al achieved higher adsorption capacities than the preparations containing only Al. However, the Al-BNT preparations exhibited higher adsorption rates than the Fe-BNT preparation. Three of the six adsorbents were used to remove phosphate from secondarily treated wastewater samples, and the removal results were comparable to those obtained using synthetic phosphate solutions. The BNT adsorbents also exhibited adequate settling characteristics and significant regeneration potential.

  2. Formation enthalpies of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system calculated by using geometric and Miedema's models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Rongcheng; Tao, Xiaoma; Guo, Hui; Chen, Hongmei; Ouyang, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    Formation enthalpy is important for the phase stability and amorphous forming ability of alloys. The formation enthalpies of Fe17RE2 (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and Er) obtained by Miedema's theory are in good agreement with those of the experiments. The dependence of formation enthalpy on concentration of Al for intermetallic (AlxFe1-x)17Nd2 have been calculated by Miedema's theory and the geometric model. The solid solubility of Al in (AlxFe1-x)17Nd2 is coincident with the concentration dependence of formation enthalpy. The mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys and formation enthalpies of alloys for Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system have been predicted. The calculated mixing enthalpy indicates that the adding of Fe or Nd decreases monotonously the magnitude of enthalpy. The formation enthalpies of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system indicate that the shape of the enthalpy contour map changes when the content of Al is less than 50.0 at% and then it remains unchanged except the decrease of magnitude. The formation enthalpy of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd increases with the increase of Fe and/or Nd content. The negative formation enthalpy indicates that Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system has higher amorphous forming ability and wide amorphous forming range. The certain contents of Zr and/or Al are beneficial for the formation of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd intermetallics.

  3. Modulus measurements in ordered Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmouche, M. R.; Wolfenden, A.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and/or temperature dependence of the dynamic Young's modulus for the ordered B2 Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al aluminides has been investigated using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique (PUCOT). The modulus has been measured in the composition interval 48.49 to 52.58 at. pct Co, 50.87 to 60.2 at. pct Fe, and 49.22 to 55.95 at. pct Ni for Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al, respectively. The measured values for Co-Al are in the temperature interval 300 to 1300 K, while those for the other systems are for ambient temperature only. The data points show that Co-Al is stiffer than Fe-Al, which is stiffer than Ni-Al. The data points for Fe-Al and Ni-Al are slightly higher than those reported in the literature.

  4. Shock response of porous 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.T. Jr.; Graham, R.A.; Anderson, M.U.

    1993-08-01

    Time-resolved pressure measurements have been conducted on 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder mixtures using the (PVDF) stress-rate gauge. These measurements were made on samples which were 53% of solid density. Measurements were made at pressures from 0.67 to more than 10 GPa utilizing both impact loading with a compressed gas gun and direct contact high explosive loading. The sample is pressed to the desired density in a copper capsule. PVDF gauges were positioned in front of and behind the powder sample in direct contact with the sample; they measure input and propagated stress-rate and are used for precise measurement of velocity through the 4 mm thick sample. In the case of high explosive loading, gauges are also installed on the explosive side and on the capsule side of a metal driver plate to measure the shock velocity through the driver so that the driver pressure can be determined. The response of 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under shock compression appears to demonstrate a more complex behavior than other materials. At approximately 4.6 GPa, the material compresses to beyond solid density. There was no evidence of chemical reaction.

  5. Comparison of metals extractability from Al/Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Bai, Leilei; Pei, Yuansheng; Wendling, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Recycling of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as environment amendments has attracted substantial interest due to their productive reuse concomitant with waste minimization. In the present study, the extractability of metals within six Al/Fe-hydroxide-comprised WTRs collected throughout China was investigated using fractionation, in vitro digestion and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results suggested that the major components and structure of the WTRs investigated were similar. The WTRs were enriched in Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, also contained varying quantities of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn, but Ag, Hg, Sb, and Se were not detected. Most of the metals within the WTRs were largely non-extractable using the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure, but many metals exhibited high bioaccessibility based on in vitro digestion. However, the WTRs could be classified as non-hazardous according to the TCLP assessment method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Further analysis showed the communication factor, which is calculated as the ratio of total extractable metal by BCR procedure to the total metal, for most metals in the six WTRs, was similar, whereas the factor for Ba, Mn, Sr, and Zn varied substantially. Moreover, metals in the WTRs investigated had different risk assessment code. In summary, recycling of WTRs is subject to regulation based on assessment of risk due to metals prior to practical application.

  6. Comparison of metals extractability from Al/Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Bai, Leilei; Pei, Yuansheng; Wendling, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Recycling of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as environment amendments has attracted substantial interest due to their productive reuse concomitant with waste minimization. In the present study, the extractability of metals within six Al/Fe-hydroxide-comprised WTRs collected throughout China was investigated using fractionation, in vitro digestion and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results suggested that the major components and structure of the WTRs investigated were similar. The WTRs were enriched in Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, also contained varying quantities of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn, but Ag, Hg, Sb, and Se were not detected. Most of the metals within the WTRs were largely non-extractable using the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure, but many metals exhibited high bioaccessibility based on in vitro digestion. However, the WTRs could be classified as non-hazardous according to the TCLP assessment method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Further analysis showed the communication factor, which is calculated as the ratio of total extractable metal by BCR procedure to the total metal, for most metals in the six WTRs, was similar, whereas the factor for Ba, Mn, Sr, and Zn varied substantially. Moreover, metals in the WTRs investigated had different risk assessment code. In summary, recycling of WTRs is subject to regulation based on assessment of risk due to metals prior to practical application. PMID:25023656

  7. Electron Diffraction Study of α- and α T -AlFeSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, C. L.; Wyss, R. K.

    1988-04-01

    Electron diffraction patterns from a-AIFeSi and α T -AlFeSi are compared. Unusual Kikuchi band patterns are found in both a and α T . Structure factor calculations can be used to explain these patterns. Additional higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) rings are seen in α T . Reflections located at n/9[521] are seen in some zero order Laue zones (ZOLZ) in α T . These additional reflections are responsible for the additional HOLZ rings found in α T . Most atomic positions in a and α T are similar. The specific structural feature which causes the additional reflections in α T is not known. Lattice imaging and image calculation will be necessary to determine the exact structure of α T .

  8. Exchange bias effects in Heusler alloy Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Kubota, Takahide; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Huminiuc, Teodor; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Takanashi, Koki

    2016-06-01

    Ni2MnAl Heusler alloy thin films were epitaxially grown on MgO(1 0 0) single crystal substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the structures of all the Ni2MnAl thin films were B2-ordered regardless of the deposition temperature ranging from room temperature to 600 °C. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity showed a kink about 280 K, which was consistent with a reported value of the Néel temperature for antiferromagnetic B2-Ni2MnAl. The magnetization curves of Ni2MnAl/Fe bilayer samples showed a shift caused by the interfacial exchange interaction at 10 K. The maximum value of the exchange bias field H ex was 55 Oe corresponding to the exchange coupling energy J k of 0.03 erg cm-2.

  9. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as "solid-state" welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  10. Structural and textural properties of Al,Fe-pillared clay catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banković, P.; Milutinović-Nikolić, A.; Rosić, A.; Jović-Jovičić, N.; Jovanović, D.

    2009-09-01

    Metal oxide pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) represent a new class of materials that have found a wide range of potential applications including catalytic oxidative degradation of organic pollutants in water. Al,Fe-pillared smectite clays with different Fe content were synthesized for possible catalytic application. Starting clay and the obtained PILCs were characterized. Phase composition, textural and morphological properties of the starting clay and synthesized PILCs were determined using X-ray diffraction, physisorption of nitrogen and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition of the PILCs was determined using EDX. It was found that the synthesized PILCs have similar phasal composition, textural and morphological properties differing only in Fe content in accordance with the amount of Fe introduced to clay during the pillaring process.

  11. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  12. Development of a high-rate, rechargeable bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Jansen, A.N.; Hash, M.C.; Prakash, J.; Turner, R.L.; Henriksen, G.L.

    1996-06-01

    Materials refinements have improved bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} batteries for power-demand applications. Current technology uses a two-phase Li-alloy cathode, LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte, and an upper-plateau (UP) FeS{sub 2} anode for a battery operated at 440 C; the battery is in sealed bipolar form. The two-phase Li alloy ({alpha}+{beta} Li-Al and Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}) cathode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that makes the bipolar design viable. The use of LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte in ``electrolyte-starved`` cells achieves low-burdened cells with low area-specific impedance, with MgO powder separator. Combining dense UP FeS{sub 2} electrodes with a CuFeS{sub 2} additive and a LiI-modified electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, with high power capabilities. Long cycle life depends on peripheral seals for each cell in the bipolar stack. Seal composition is based on stable sulfide ceramic/sealant materials that produce strong bonds between metals and ceramics. Using these seals, bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells and four-cell stacks are being built and tested (25 Ah, 13-cm dia). Adding 5 mol% LiI to the electrolyte increased specific energy by 50% under a 140 W/kg, constant power C/1 rate and a 544 W/kg power pulse (8-s) schedule. Cell capacity under the high-power pulse-demand approximates the C/3 rate discharge capacity. Cell specific energy is 155 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate.

  13. Room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in lead-free and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Cótica, Luiz F.; Santos, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ivair A.; Freitas, Valdirlei F.; Coelho, Adelino A.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.; Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, José A.

    2015-02-14

    It is still a challenging problem to obtain technologically useful materials displaying strong magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature. In the search for new effects and materials to achieve this kind of coupling, a nonlinear magnetoelectric effect was proposed in the magnetically disordered relaxor ferroelectric materials. In this context, the aluminum iron oxide (AlFeO{sub 3}), a room temperature ferroelectric relaxor and magnetic spin glass compound, emerges as an attractive lead-free magnetoelectric material along with nonlinear magnetoelectric effects. In this work, static, dynamic, and temperature dependent ferroic and magnetoelectric properties in lead-free AlFeO{sub 3} and 2 at. % Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} multiferroic magnetoelectric compositions are studied. Pyroelectric and magnetic measurements show changes in ferroelectric and magnetic states close to each other (∼200 K). The magnetoelectric coefficient behavior as a function of H{sub bias} suggests a room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in both single-phase and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3}-based ceramic compositions.

  14. Speciation of Al, Fe, and P in recent sediment from three lakes in Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Norton, Stephen A; Coolidge, Kyle; Amirbahman, Aria; Bouchard, Roy; Kopácek, Jirí; Reinhardt, Raquel

    2008-10-15

    Sequential extraction of sediments [Psenner R, Pucsko R. Die Fraktionierung organischer und anorganischer Phosphorverbindungen von Sedimenten. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 1988. 70(1): 111-155.] from short, (210)Pb-dated cores from three lakes in Maine USA demonstrates that sediment P is dominantly associated with the NaOH-extractable fraction (P-NaOH(25)) and less with the bicarbonate-dithionite extractable fraction (P-BD). The ratios (Al-NaOH(25))/(Fe-BD) and (Al-NaOH(25))/(P-NH(4)Cl+P-BD) for upper sediment for two oligo-mesotrophic lakes exceeded 3 and 25, the thresholds for preventing substantial release of P from sediments during hypolimnetic anoxia [Kopácek J, Borovec J, Hejzlar J, Ulrich K-U, Norton SA, Amirbahman A. Aluminum control of phosphorus sorption by lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2005a;39:8784-8789.]. Hypolimnetic water chemistry verifies this effect. The third lake, currently eutrophic, has values for the ratios that are below the thresholds and this lake has substantial release of P from recent sediment. The sediment characteristics remain relatively constant over the last 150+ years, indicating that the processes responsible for P retention have operated long before atmospheric acidification of watersheds might have influenced the flux of Al and Fe to the lake. In 2002, the pH of inlets and the lakes was generally between 6 and 8. Input to the lakes had high concentrations of acid-soluble particulate and dissolved Al, Fe, and P, and dissolved Al and Fe complexed with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Lake water column and outlet Al, Fe, and P were typically 90-95% lower than inlet concentrations over a 12 month period. Photo-oxidation of Al-DOC and Fe-DOC in the lake, liberation of inorganic Al and Fe, precipitation of Al(OH)(3) and Fe(OH)(3), adsorption of P by the hydroxides, and sedimentation are responsible for the changes in water quality and long-term sediment characteristics. PMID:18440053

  15. ACO-zeotype iron aluminum phosphates with variable Al/Fe ratios controlled by F⁻ ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jingzhe; Yan, Yan; Li, Jiyang; Yu, Jihong; Wang, Jincheng; Xu, Ruren

    2011-03-01

    Three new iron aluminum phosphates |(C(2)H(10)N(2))(4)|[Fe(8 - x)Al(x)F(x)(H(2)O)(2 - x)(PO(4))(8)]·2H(2)O (χ = 1.64, 1.33, 0.80) with ACO-zeotype structures denoted as FeAPO-CJ66(a), FeAPO-CJ66(b), and FeAPO-CJ66(c), respectively, have been synthesized in the fluoride ion system. Their framework structures are made of double 4-ring (D4R) building units formed by the alternating connection of Fe(Al)O(4)F(O) trigonal bipyramids and PO(4) tetrahedra, which possess 3D intersecting 8-ring channels running along the [001], [010], and [100] directions. Fluoride ions or water molecules reside in the center of D4Rs, and diprotonated ethylenediamine cations and water molecules are occluded in the free space of channels to stabilize the whole structure. Notably, the Al/Fe ratios in the frameworks can be effectively controlled from 1/3.9 to 1/5.0 to 1/9.0 by adjusting the amounts of phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid added to the initial reaction mixture. Mössbauer and magnetic measurements show that the Fe ions in the compounds are bivalent and undergo antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature.

  16. Designing stable capacity for LiAl/FeS multiplate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Miller, W.E.; Arntzen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    High-temperature (450 to 475/sup 0/C) LiAl/FeS cells for an electric-vehicle battery are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial contract partners. The battery cell design of the first development battery, Mark IA, contained three positive electrodes of FeS with Cu/sub 2/S additive and four LiAl (46 at. % Li) electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. The plurality of electrodes enabled greater cell capacity per unit of cell hardware weight (compared to earlier bicells). A specific energy of 100 W-h/kg was obtained at a C/4 h discharge rate. These cells, with 3.2 mm thick positive electrodes and 17.5 x 17.5 cm electrode dimensions, have also provided high (80 to 95%) active material utilization. The cycle-life testing of these high utilization cells unfortunately exhibited appreciable capacity decline rates, particularly during the initial 50 to 100 cycles. For the Mark IA design, a 0.27% decline in capacity per cycle was typical. The MK IA cells contained a negative to positive electrode capacity ratio of 1.0, while a developmental design (the D build) had a ratio of 1.1. The D build cells' capacity decline rate was generally lower - 0.15% decline per cycle. Cycle-life tests were performed, and results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  17. CWPO of 4-CP and industrial wastewater with Al-Fe pillared clays.

    PubMed

    Molina, C B; Zazo, J A; Casas, J A; Rodriguez, J J

    2010-01-01

    Catalysts based on pillared clays with Al-Fe have been synthesised from a commercial bentonite and tested for catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of aqueous 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) solution and industrial wastewater from cosmetics manufacture. The effect of the synthesis procedure, the iron load and reaction temperature on the catalytic activity was studied using 4-CP as target compound. A lower temperature in the preparation of the pillaring solution, as well as a higher Fe load, gave rise to a higher catalytic activity, but also a higher leaching of the active phase. The best catalyst, in terms of catalytic activity, was also tested for treating cosmetic wastewater by CWPO. Experiments were carried out at 90 degrees C and atmospheric pressure and the influence of Fe load, catalyst concentration and H(2)O(2)/COD ratio (between 0.5 and 2 times the stoichiometric ratio) were analysed. Higher values of these parameters favour COD reduction. The Fe leaching in all cases was lower than 1.2 mg/L, indicating that these catalysts have a high stability under these experimental conditions. PMID:20389016

  18. Transformation of polymetallic dust in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (field experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with an X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that the ash matter from the organic horizons (after ignition) of control and experimental plots mainly (>85%) consists of different soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (particularly magnetite). From 10% to 15% of particles in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (Albic Rustic Podzol) of the experimental plot were represented by polymetallic ball-shaped dust particles that were preserved in the soil without significant transformation for 14 years after their artificial application. The total contents of Cu, Pb, As, and Ni in the organic horizon on the experimental plot were 22-100 times higher than those in the control; the contents of Zn and Fe were 2-5 times higher. The sequence of chemical elements according to their total contents in the samples of control and experimental plots was different. The portion of available forms of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, and Co) compounds extractable with 1.0 M HCl averaged 20-30% of their total contents in the soil. More than 80% of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals were concentrated in the organic horizon of contaminated podzol soil, which represents the biogeochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants down the soil profile. Durable fixation of heavy metals in the organic horizon and their weak migration into the mineral soil layers significantly hamper the processes of self-purification of contaminated soils.

  19. Growth and characterization of insulating ferromagnetic semiconductor (Al,Fe)Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Anh, Le Duc Kaneko, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam

    2015-12-07

    We investigate the crystal structure, transport, and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin films up to x = 14% grown by molecular beam epitaxy. All the samples show p-type conduction at room temperature and insulating behavior at low temperature. The (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin films with x ≤ 10% maintain the zinc blende crystal structure of the host material AlSb. The (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin film with x = 10% shows intrinsic ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of 40 K. In the (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin film with x = 14%, a sudden drop of the hole mobility and T{sub C} was observed, which may be due to the microscopic phase separation. The observation of ferromagnetism in (Al,Fe)Sb paves the way to realize a spin-filtering tunnel barrier that is compatible with well-established III-V semiconductor devices.

  20. FP-LAPW study of structural, electronic, elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of AlFe intermetallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ekta; Pagare, Gitanjali; Sanyal, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of AlFe intermetallic compound in B2-type (CsCl) structure have been investigated using first-principles calculations. The exchange-correlation term was treated within generalized gradient approximation. Ground state properties i.e. lattice constants (a0), bulk modulus (B) and first-order pressure derivative of bulk modulus (B') are presented. The density of states are derived which show the metallic character of present compound. Our results for C11, C12 and C44 agree well with previous theoretical data. Using Pugh's criteria (B/GH < 1.75), brittle character of AlFe is satisfied. In addition shear modulus (GH), Young's modulus (E), sound wave velocities and Debye temperature (θD) have also been estimated.

  1. Synthesis of Cd/(Al+Fe) layered double hydroxides and characterization of the calcination products

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.R.; Barriga, C.; Fernandez, J.M.; Rives, V.; Ulibarri, M.A.

    2007-12-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method at a constant pH value of 8. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange at pH 9. The samples have been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Their thermal stability has been assessed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) and mass spectrometric analysis of the evolved gases. The PXRD patterns of the solids calcined at 800 deg. C show diffraction lines corresponding to Cd(Al)O and spinel-type materials, which precise nature (CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Cd{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4}, or Cd{sub x}Fe{sub 2.66}O{sub 4}) depends on location and concentration of iron in the parent material or precursor. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange. Calcination at 800 deg. C shows diffraction lines corresponding to CdO and to spinel-type materials. SEM micrograph of sample CdAlFe-N-0.

  2. X-rays structural analysis and thermal stability studies of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, J.; Bosselet, F.; Viala, J.C.

    2011-05-15

    From literature data presently available, the decomposition temperature and the nature of the decomposition reaction of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi (also designated as {alpha}{sub H} or {tau}{sub 5}) are not clearly identified. Moreover, some uncertainties remain concerning its crystal structure. The crystallographic structure and thermochemical behaviour of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi were meticulously studied. The crystal structure of {alpha}-AlFeSi was examined at room temperature from X-ray single crystal intensity data. It presents hexagonal symmetry, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc with unit cell parameters (293 K) a=12.345(2) A and c=26.210(3) A (V=3459 A{sup 3}). The average chemical formula obtained from refinement is Al{sub 7.1}Fe{sub 2}Si. From isothermal reaction-diffusion experiments and Differential Thermal Analysis, the title compound decomposes peritectically upon heating into {theta}-Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13}(Si), {gamma}-Al{sub 3}FeSi and a ternary Al-rich liquid. Under atmospheric pressure, the temperature of this reversible transformation has been determined to be 772{+-}12 {sup o}C. -- Graphical abstract: Partial representation of the crystal structure of the {alpha}-Al{sub 7.1}Fe{sub 2}Si compound. Display Omitted Highlights: The main findings of our work are: {yields} a detailed X-rays crystal structure determination of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi. {yields} The precision of the silicon atoms positions in the crystal structure. {yields} A precised determination of the decomposition temperature of this compound.

  3. Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than

  4. A multi-scale comparison of dissolved Al, Fe and S in a boreal acid sulphate soil.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Rita, Hannu; Toivonen, Janne; Hartikainen, Helinä; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-11-15

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils are most prevalent in the tropics, but the acidic discharge from cultivated AS soils also threatens water bodies under boreal conditions. Feasible options to reduce the acid load are needed. In this study, the groundwater of an AS field was monitored for 3.5 years, and the efficiency of waterlogging in mitigating the environmental risks caused by acidic discharge was investigated in a 2.5-year experiment with 10 monolithic lysimeters taken from the same field. In order to unravel the transferability of the results from lysimeters to the field scale, the Al, Fe and S concentrations in discharge water from the lysimeters were compared with those in the groundwater of the AS field (pedon and field scale), and in pore water (pedon and horizon scale). In the waterlogged bare lysimeters (HWB), the Al, Fe and S concentrations in discharge waters were broadly similar to those measured in the groundwater and followed the changes in the pore water. In the waterlogged cropped (reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea) lysimeters (HWC), in contrast, the discharge waters were markedly higher in Fe and lower in Al than the groundwater in the field. This outcome was attributable to the reduction of Fe(3+) to the more soluble Fe(2+) and the reduction-induced increase in pH, which enhanced the formation of Al(3+) hydroxy species. Lowering of the water table (LWC) caused soil ripening, which resulted in increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity and enhanced the oxidation of sulphidic materials and acid formation. The responses of Al, Fe and S in drainage waters from HWC and LWC lysimeters resembled previous findings in AS soils. Based on this and the similarity between dissolved element concentrations in the discharge water of HWB lysimeters and groundwater in the field, we conclude that our monolithic lysimeters yielded realistic results concerning the efficiency of various methods in mitigating environmental risks related to cultivated AS

  5. Fenton degradation of sulfanilamide in the presence of Al,Fe-pillared clay: Catalytic behavior and identification of the intermediates.

    PubMed

    Khankhasaeva, Sesegma Ts; Dambueva, Darima V; Dashinamzhilova, Elvira Ts; Gil, Antonio; Vicente, Miguel A; Timofeeva, Maria N

    2015-08-15

    Liquid phase catalytic degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 was carried out in the presence of Fe,Al/M-pillared clay (Fe,Al/M-MM, M=Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)) as heterogeneous Fenton type catalyst. Fe,Al/M-MMs were prepared by swelling of layered aluminosilicate (90-95 wt.% montmorillonite) from a bed located in Mukhortala (Buryatia, Russia) in Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) forms by means of the exchange of these cations with bulky Fe,Al-polyoxocations prepared at Al/Fe=10/1 and OH/(Al+Fe)=2.0, and then calcinated at 500°C. XRD method and chemical analysis demonstrated that the rate of crystalline swelling was dependent on the interlayer cations and decreased in the order: Fe,Al-/Na-MM>Fe,Al/Ca-MM>Fe,Al/Ba-MM. It was found that the catalytic properties of Fe,Al/M-MMs depended on the type of exchangeable cations. The effect of the H2O2/sulfanilamide molar ratio, the catalyst content, the reaction temperature and the reaction pH on the removal rate of sulfanilamide has been studied in the presence of Fe,Al/Na-MM. The catalyst can be applied for degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 for at least three successive cycles without loss of activity. HPLC analyses pointed out that the main degradation intermediate products were sulfanilic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, p-benzoquinone and aliphatic carboxylic acids.

  6. Fabrication of a novel light emission material AlFeO3 by a modified polyacrylamide gel route and characterization of the material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Fa; Zhang, Chuanfei; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Xiang, Xia; Wang, Hong; Fang, Leiming; Tian, Qiang; Ding, Qingping; Zu, XiaoTao

    2013-12-01

    AlFeO3 powders have been prepared by a modified polyacrylamide gel method and their thermal expansion and photoluminescence properties have been studied for the first time. The phase, morphology and thermal expansion behavior of as-prepared samples were analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal dilatometer. XRD analysis indicates that the as-synthesized AlFeO3 has the same structure as α-Fe2O3 without the presence of any other impurities. SEM observation shows that the morphology of AlFeO3 powder is significantly dependent on the sintering temperature. The thermal expansion and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of AlFeO3 sample analysis indicates that a phase transition near 700 °C. The crystal growth mechanisms, coordination mechanisms, phase transformation process and luminescence mechanisms of AlFeO3 have been discussed on the basis of the experimental results. The blue light emission at 2.76 eV is due to intracenter 4T1 → 6A1 transitions in Fe3+ ions.

  7. On the Influence of Dispersoids on the Particle Stimulated Nucleation of Recrystallization in an Al-Fe-Si Model Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, O.

    1997-12-31

    The recrystallization of Al-alloys is controlled by precipitates. Whereas large particles generally promote recrystallization by particle stimulated nucleation, finely dispersed precipitates - either already present in the as-deformed state or precipitating during the recrystallization anneal - are known to strongly retard recrystallization. It was the aim of the present study to elucidate these concurring effects of large particles and small dispersoids on recrystallization in a ternary Al-Fe-Si model alloy. For that purpose, samples were prepared according to different pre-annealing treatments so as to comprise different states of precipitation and supersaturation. The evolution of microstructure and texture during rolling and recrystallization was characterized by metallography and by conventional X-ray texture analysis. EBSD-local texture investigations were employed to yield information on the efficiency of nucleation at the various nucleation sites and, consequently, on the influence of dispersoids on recrystallization.

  8. Preparation and properties of the Ni-Al/Fe-Al intermetallics composite coating produced by plasma cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Liu, Bang-Wu; Sun, Dong-Bai

    2011-12-01

    A novel approach to produce an intermetallic composite coating was put forward. The microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear behavior of the composite coating were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis, microhardness test, and ball-on-disc wear experiment. XRD results indicate that some new phases FeAl, Fe0.23Ni0.77Al, and Ni3Al exit in the composite coating with the Al2O3 addition. SEM results show that the coating is bonded with carbon steel metallurgically and exhibits typical rapid directional solidification structures. The Cr7C3 carbide and intermetallic compounds co-reinforced composite coating has a high average hardness and exhibits an excellent wear resistance under dry-sliding wear test compared with the Cr7C3 carbide-reinforced composite coating. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was also investigated.

  9. Processing and characterization of Ni-Al-Fe-B shape-memory alloy wires produced by rapid solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, D.S.; Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; George, E.P.; Campbell, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    This work describes net-shape ductile wires of Ni-Al-Fe doped with boron produced directly from the melt by in-rotating-liquid (IRL) melt spinning, thus avoiding the difficult and costly problem of fabricating bulk castings. This method produces wires of 0.1 to 0.5 mm dia and lengths to 2 m. X-ray diffraction scans showed that the as-spun wires consist of B2, Ll{sub 2}, and bct martensite phases and that the B2 phase further transforms to bct martensite upon cold working. Shape-memory behavior showed an Ap temperature of {approximately} 180C as measured by bend recovery tests and by tensile cycling tests. Effects on the wires of IRL processing parameters are discussed.

  10. Structure and magnetic properties of a Ni3(Al, Fe, Cr) single crystal subjected to high-temperature deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Rigmant, M. B.; Stepanova, N. N.; Davydov, D. I.; Shishkin, D. A.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Vinogradova, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of the Ni3(Al, Fe, Cr) single crystal subjected to high-temperature tensile deformation to failure at 850-900°C have been studied. No recrystallized grains and metastable phases were found. The rupture zone of the alloy subjected to deformation (at 900°C) to the highest degree demonstrates the fragmentation accompanied by rotation of atomic layers and changes of the chemical composition in the nickel and aluminum sublattices. Magnetic studies of the alloy have shown the existence of two Curie temperatures for samples cut from the rupture zone. Samples cut away from the rupture zone exhibit no additional magnetic transitions; twines and planar stacking faults in the alloy structure. The alloy deformed to the lower degree of deformation (at 850°C) also demonstrates twins; no ferromagnetic state was found to form.

  11. Corrosion of the AlFeNi alloy used for the fuel cladding in the Jules Horowitz research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintergerst, M.; Dacheux, N.; Datcharry, F.; Herms, E.; Kapusta, B.

    2009-09-01

    The AlFeNi aluminium alloy (1 wt% Fe, 1 wt% Ni, 1 wt% Mg) is expected to be used as nuclear fuel cladding for the Jules Horowitz experimental reactor. To guarantee a safe behaviour of the fuel, a good understanding of the fuel clad corrosion mechanisms is required. In this field, the experimental characterization of the selected alloy was performed. Then experimental studies of the aluminium alloy corrosion product obtained in autoclaves have shown an oxide film composed of two layers. This duplex structure results from a mixed growth mechanism: an anionic growth to develop the inner oxide and a cationic diffusion parallel to a dissolution-precipitation process to form the outer zone. Dynamic experiments at 70 °C have demonstrated that a solid diffusion step controls the release kinetic. Then post-irradiation exams performed on irradiated fuel plates were used to investigate the effects of the irradiation on the corrosion behaviour in the reactor core.

  12. AFM study of the effects of laser surface remelting on the morphology of Al-Fe aerospace alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pariona, Moises Meza; Teleginski, Viviane; Santos, Kelly dos; Leandro Ribeiro dos Santos, Everton; Aparecida de Oliveira Camargo de Lima, Angela; Riva, Rudimar

    2012-12-15

    Laser beam welding has recently been incorporated into the fabrication process of aircraft and automobile structures. Surface roughness is an important parameter of product quality that strongly affects the performance of mechanical parts, as well as production costs. This parameter influences the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, creep life, etc., and other functional characteristics such as friction, wear, light reflection, heat transmission, lubrification, electrical conductivity, etc. The effects of laser surface remelting (LSR) on the morphology of Al-Fe aerospace alloys were examined before and after surface treatments, using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (LA-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), microhardness measurements (Vickers hardness), and cyclic voltammetry. This analysis was performed on both laser-treated and untreated sanded surfaces, revealing significant differences. The LA-XRD analysis revealed the presence of alumina, simple metals and metastable intermetallic phases, which considerably improved the microhardness of laser-remelted surfaces. The morphology produced by laser surface remelting enhanced the microstructure of the Al-Fe alloys by reducing their roughness and increasing their hardness. The treated surfaces showed passivity and stability characteristics in the electrolytic medium employed in this study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples laser-treated and untreated showed significant differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The La-XRD revealed the presence of alumina in Al-1.5 wt.% Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated reducing the roughness and increasing the hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated surfaces showed characteristic passive in the electrolytic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated is a promising technique for applications technological.

  13. Fenton degradation of sulfanilamide in the presence of Al,Fe-pillared clay: Catalytic behavior and identification of the intermediates.

    PubMed

    Khankhasaeva, Sesegma Ts; Dambueva, Darima V; Dashinamzhilova, Elvira Ts; Gil, Antonio; Vicente, Miguel A; Timofeeva, Maria N

    2015-08-15

    Liquid phase catalytic degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 was carried out in the presence of Fe,Al/M-pillared clay (Fe,Al/M-MM, M=Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)) as heterogeneous Fenton type catalyst. Fe,Al/M-MMs were prepared by swelling of layered aluminosilicate (90-95 wt.% montmorillonite) from a bed located in Mukhortala (Buryatia, Russia) in Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) forms by means of the exchange of these cations with bulky Fe,Al-polyoxocations prepared at Al/Fe=10/1 and OH/(Al+Fe)=2.0, and then calcinated at 500°C. XRD method and chemical analysis demonstrated that the rate of crystalline swelling was dependent on the interlayer cations and decreased in the order: Fe,Al-/Na-MM>Fe,Al/Ca-MM>Fe,Al/Ba-MM. It was found that the catalytic properties of Fe,Al/M-MMs depended on the type of exchangeable cations. The effect of the H2O2/sulfanilamide molar ratio, the catalyst content, the reaction temperature and the reaction pH on the removal rate of sulfanilamide has been studied in the presence of Fe,Al/Na-MM. The catalyst can be applied for degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 for at least three successive cycles without loss of activity. HPLC analyses pointed out that the main degradation intermediate products were sulfanilic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, p-benzoquinone and aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:25819990

  14. Template-free electrodeposition of AlFe alloy nanowires from a room-temperature ionic liquid as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Yuqi; Guo, Qingjun; Wang, Heng; Li, Bing

    2016-08-15

    AlFe alloy nanowires were directly electrodeposited on copper substrates from trimethylamine hydrochloride (TMHC)-AlCl3 ionic liquids with small amounts of FeCl3 at room temperature without templates. Coin cells composed of AlFe alloy nanowire electrodes and lithium foils were assembled to characterize the alloy electrochemical properties by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Effects of FeCl3 concentration, potential and temperature on the alloy morphology, composition and cyclic performance were examined. Addition of Fe into the alloy changed the nanowires from a 'hill-like' bulk morphology to a free-standing morphology, and increased the coverage area of the alloy on Cu substrates. As an inactive element, Fe could also buffer the alloys' large volume changes during Li intercalation and deintercalation. AlFe alloy nanowires composed of a small amount of Fe with an average diameter of 140 nm exhibited an outstanding cyclic performance and delivered a specific capacity of about 570 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. This advanced template-free method for the direct preparation of high performance nanostructure AlFe alloy anode materials is quite simple and inexpensive, which presents a promising prospect for practical application in Li-ion batteries. PMID:27200436

  15. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using tea waste loaded with Al/Fe oxides: A novel, safe and efficient biosorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hui-mei; Chen, Gui-jie; Peng, Chuan-yi; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Dong, Yang-yang; Shang, Guang-zhi; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Gao, Hong-jian; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading Al/Fe oxides onto tea waste and was tested for the ability to remove fluoride from drinking water. Key factors, including adsorbent dosage, initial fluoride concentration, contact time and initial pH of the biosorbent, were investigated. It was found that the solution pH played an important role in the removal of fluoride. The biosorbent combinations Tea-Al or Tea-Al-Fe could reduce the fluoride concentration to below 1.5 mg/L in the drinking water, a level which meets the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the residual concentrations of Al and Fe in the drinking water after Tea-Al-Fe treatment were below the standards set by WHO when treatment was conducted at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 10.0. The experimental data were analyzed using two-parameter theoretical models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacities for the original tea, Tea-Fe, Tea-Al and Tea-Al-Fe biosorbents were 3.83, 10.47, 13.79 and 18.52 mg/g, respectively. These findings demonstrate the suitability of a prepared biosorbent based on tea waste for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  16. Post-irradiation examination of AlFeNi cladded U 3Si 2 fuel plates irradiated under severe conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Koonen, E.; Parthoens, Y.; Lemoine, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    2008-04-01

    Three full size AlFeNi cladded U 3Si 2 fuel plates were irradiated in the BR2 reactor of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) under relatively severe, but well defined conditions. The irradiation was part of the qualification campaign for the fuel to be used in the future Jules Horowitz reactor in Cadarache, France. After the irradiation, the fuel plates were submitted to an extensive post-irradiation campaign in the hot cell laboratory of SCK·CEN. The PIE shows that the fuel plates withstood the irradiation successfully, as no detrimental defects have been found. At the cladding surface, a multilayered corrosion oxide film has formed. The U-Al-Si layer resulting from the interaction between the U 3Si 2 fuel and the Al matrix, has been quantified as U(Al,Si) 4.6. It is found that the composition of the fuel particles is not homogenous; zones of USi and U 3Si 2 are observed and measured. The fission gas-related bubbles generated in both phases show a different morphology. In the USi fuel, the bubbles are small and numerous while in U 3Si 2 the bubbles are larger but there are fewer.

  17. Modification of LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte for LiAl/FeS{sub 2} batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Jansen, A.N.; Henriksen, G.L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1996-06-01

    The bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery is being developed to achieve the high performance and long cycle life needed for electric vehicle application. The molten-salt (400 to 440 C operation) electrolyte composition for this battery has evolved to support these objectives. An earlier change to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte is responsible for significantly increased cycle life (up to 1,000 cycles). Recent electrolyte modification has significantly improved cell performance; approximately 50% increased power, with increased high rate capacity utilization. Results are based on power-demanding EV driving profile test at 600 W/kg. The effects of adding small amounts (1--5 mol%) of LiF and LiI to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte are discussed. By cyclic voltammetry, the modified electrolytes exhibit improved FeS{sub 2} electrochemistry. Electrolyte conductivity is little changed, but high current density (200 mA/cm{sup 2}) performance improved by approximately 50%. A specific feature of the LiI addition is an enhanced cell overcharge tolerance rate from 2.5 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2}. The rate of overcharge tolerance is related to electrolyte properties and negative electrode lithium activity. As a result, the charge balancing of a bipolar battery configuration with molten-salt electrolyte is improved to accept greater cell-to-cell deviations.

  18. High damping Al-Fe-Mo-Si/Zn-Al composites produced by rapidly solidified powder metallurgy process

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P.Y.; Dai, S.L.; Chai, S.C.; Li, Y.R.

    2000-05-10

    The metallic materials commonly used in aircraft and aerospace fields, such as aluminum and titanium alloys, steels, etc., show extremely low damping capacity (usually of the order of or less than 10{sup {minus}3}). Thus, some problems related to vibration may emerge and influence the reliability, safety and life of airplanes, satellites, etc. It has been reported that almost two thirds of errors for rockets and satellites are related to vibration and noise. One effective way to solve these vibration-related problems is to adopt high damping metallic materials. Conventional high damping alloys exhibit damping capacity above 10{sup {minus}2}, however, their densities are usually great than 5 x 10{sup 3} kg m{sup {minus}3}, or their strengths are less than 200 MPa (for alloys based on dislocation damping), making them impossible to be applied to aircraft and aerospace areas. Recently, some low-density high-damping metal/metal composites based on aluminum and high damping alloys have been developed in Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM) by the rapidly solidified power metallurgy process. This paper aims to report the properties of the composites based on a high temperature Al-Fe-Mo-Si alloy and a high damping Zn-Al alloy, and compare them with that of 2618-T61 alloy produced by the ingot metallurgy process.

  19. Structure of Fe3Si/Al/Fe3Si thin film stacks on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenichen, B.; Jahn, U.; Nikulin, A.; Herfort, J.; Kirmse, H.

    2015-11-01

    Fe3Si/Al/Fe3Si/GaAs(001) structures were deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy and characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The first Fe3Si film on GaAs(001) grew epitaxially as a (001) oriented single crystal. The subsequent Al film grew almost {111} oriented in a fibrous texture although the underlying Fe3Si is exactly (001) oriented. The growth in this orientation is triggered by a thin transition region which is formed at the Fe3Si/Al interface. In the end, after the growth of the second Fe3Si layer on top of the Al, the final properties of the whole stack depended on the substrate temperature T s during deposition of the last film. The upper Fe3Si films are mainly {110} oriented although they are poly-crystalline. At lower T s, around room temperature, all the films retain their original structural properties.

  20. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Reverse Monte Carlo study on structural order in liquid and glassy AlFe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing-Xiang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Xi-Gui; Bian, Xiu-Fang

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports that anomalous local order in liquid and glassy AlFeCe alloy has been detected by x-ray diffraction measurements. The addition of the element Ce has a great effect on this local structural order. The element Ce favours interpenetration of the icosahedra by sharing a common face and edges. It argues that frustration between this short-range order and the long-range crystalline order controls the glass-forming ability of these liquids. The obtained results suggest that a system having a stronger tendency to show local icosahedral order should be a better glass-former. This scenario also naturally explains the close relationship between the local icosahedral order in a liquid, glass-forming ability, and the nucleation barrier. Such topological local order has also been analysed directly using the reverse Monte Carlo method. It also estimated the fraction of local ordered and disordered structural units in a glassy AlFeCe alloy.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the pollution of Al-Fe-humus podzols in the impact zone of a nonferrous metallurgical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of the level of contamination of the upper horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzols (Podzols Rustic) with heavy metals (Ni, Cu) on the distance from the Severonickel smelter (Monchegorsk, Murmansk oblast) was studied on a number of test plots in the medium-aged pine stands. It was found that metal concentrations in the soils could be reasonably approximated by the negative exponential function. In the buffer zone of the smelter, the concentrations of Ni and Cu exceed background values by 8-17 times; in the impact zone, by 50-100 times. The study of the dynamics of acid-soluble forms of Ni and Cu in the organic horizons of podzols on the key plots showed that the boundaries of polluted territory shift towards background regions despite the recent five-eightfold decrease in the emissions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the litter horizons continued to increase in the buffer zone. In the impact zone, their contamination remained at the very high level. Firm bounding of heavy metals in the organic horizon coupled with their continuing aerial input did not allow the beginning of the soil self-purification process, which might last for decades and centuries. Raster electron microscope and X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that particles (>85%) of the ashed matter of organic horizons from the background region, the buffer zone, and the impact zone is mainly represented by various soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (in particular, magnetite). In the samples from the impact zone, about 5% of the mineral particles had the surface morphology and chemical composition typical of dust particles emitted into the air by metal smelters. Most probably, these spherical particles represented magnetite Fe3O4 enriched in heavy metals (Cu, Ni).

  2. Dependence of catalytic properties of Al/Fe2O3 thermites on morphology of Fe2O3 particles in combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ningning; He, Cuicui; Liu, Jianbing; Gong, Hujun; An, Ting; Xu, Huixiang; Zhao, Fengqi; Hu, Rongzu; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Jinzhong

    2014-11-01

    Three Fe2O3 particle samples with the same crystal structure but different morphologies were prepared by the hydrothermal method and then combined with Al nanoparticles to produce Al/Fe2O3 thermites using ultrasonic mixing. The properties of Fe2O3 and Al/Fe2O3 were studied using a combination of experimental techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influences of the three Al/Fe2O3 thermites on the combustion properties of the AP/HTPB (ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant were investigated in comparison to those of Fe2O3. The results show that the Al/Fe2O3 thermites are better than Fe2O3 in enhancing the combustion performance of AP/HTPB. Furthermore, the surface area, which depends on size and mophology, of Fe2O3 particles was found to play a vital role in improving the burning rate of the thermites-containing propellant formulation, with the smallest particles with the largest surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio performing the best. The enhanced catalytic property of the granular-shape Fe2O3 and the corresponding thermite is attributed to the large specific surface area of Fe2O3. The different thermal behaviors of these three superthemites were supposed to be attributed to the surface site of Fe2O3 particles. This work provides a better understanding on the catalytic properties of thermites that are important for combustion applications.

  3. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe2O3/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun

    2016-05-01

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe2O3/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe2O3 (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe2O3 (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe2O3/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe2O3 nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials.

  4. Tuning the reactivity of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoenergetic materials via an approach combining soft template self-assembly with sol–gel process process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tianfu; Wang, Zhen; Li, Guoping; Luo, Yunjun

    2015-10-15

    A bottom-up approach combining soft template self-assembly with sol–gel process, was adopted to prepare the assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoenergetic materials, assembly-Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample. The other two unassembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}a nanoenergetic materials, sol–gel–Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample and mixing-Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample, were prepared by sol–gel method and physical mixing method respectively. The assembly process within the preparation of the assembly-Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample was analyzed through the changes in the average hydrodynamic diameters of the particles and the micelles in solution. SEM, EDS and TEM tests were performed to demonstrate a significant improvement regarding to dispersity and arrangements of the Al and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in the assembled samples, compared to that of the unassembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples. DSC test was employed to characterize the reactivity of the samples. The heat release of the assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample was 2088 J/g, about 400 and 990 J/g more than that of the sol–gel–Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample and mixing-Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Modified aluminum (Al) nanoparticles with hydrophobic surface assembled into the Brij S10 micelle in Fe(III) sol, then the well dispersed system was transformed into Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoenergetic materials with high reactivity. - Highlights: • An approach combining soft template self-assembly with sol–gel process was adopted. • The aggregation of Al nanoparticles in the final product was reduced significantly. • The reactivity of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoenergetic materials was improved to a large extent.

  5. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation.

    PubMed

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2016-08-23

    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed. PMID:27220558

  6. The stability of Al,Fe-bearing phase H and a new pyrite-type hydroxide at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, M.; Kuwayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, J.; Irifune, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water plays an important role in the structure, dynamics, and evolution of planets because hydrogen can affect the physical properties and stabilities of constituent minerals in the planets. Since alumimous phase H (MgSiO4H2-AlOOH) is stable over the entire pressure range of the lower mantle, the hydrated subducting plate may deliver a certain amount of water into the bottom of the Earth's mantle (Tsuchiya 2013, Nishi et al. 2013, Ohira et al. 2014, Walter et al. 2015). Compositional analysis of phase H grains synthesized from natural serpentine shows the presence of the Fe component in this phase (Nishi et al., 2015). This result suggests that phase H would also form solid solutions with ɛ-FeOOH, since ɛ-FeOOH is isostructural to phase H and δ-AlOOH. Moreover, an ab initio calculation has recently predicted that the new high pressure form of AlOOH, which has pyrite-type structure, would be stabilized at pressures above 170 GPa (Tsuchiya and Tsuchiya, 2011). Although this pyrite-type hydroxide has been found in InOOH, this structure in AlOOH has not been reported by experimental studies. Here we examine the composition and stability of Al,Fe-bearing phase H using a multi-anvil apparatus combined with sintered diamond anvils. Results show that large amounts of Fe and Al are partitioned into phase H relative to bridgmanite. Fe likely affects the stability of phase H in the lower mantle. Also, we conducted high pressure experiments on pure δ-AlOOH by using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) techniques up to 200 GPa and 2,500 K. In-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the transition from the δ-AlOOH to the pyrite-type structure occurs at high pressures above 190 GPa. Our experimental results exhibited a density reduction of 2.6 wt.% through the structural transition, and both experimental data plots and theoretical calculations showed similar compressibilities of δ-AlOOH and pyrite-type AlOOH. In recent years, hundreds of extra

  7. Synthesis and performance evaluation of Al/Fe oxide coated diatomaceous earth in groundwater defluoridation: Towards fluorosis mitigation.

    PubMed

    Izuagie, Anthony A; Gitari, Wilson M; Gumbo, Jabulani R

    2016-08-23

    The quest to reduce fluoride in groundwater to WHO acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/L to prevent diseases such as teeth mottling and skeletal fluorosis was the motivation for this study. Al/Fe oxide-modified diatomaceous earth was prepared and its defluoridation potential evaluated by batch method. The sorbent with pHpzc 6.0 ± 0.2 is very reactive. The maximum 82.3% fluoride removal attained in 50 min using a dosage of 0.3 g/100 mL in 10 mg/L fluoride was almost attained within 5 min contact time; 81.3% being the percent fluoride removal at 5 min contact time. The sorbent has a usage advantage of not requiring solution pH adjustment before it can exhibit its fluoride removal potential. A substantial amount of fluoride (93.1%) was removed from solution when a sorbent dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL was contacted with 10 mg/L fluoride solution for 50 min at a mixing rate of 200 rpm. The optimum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 7.633 mg/g using a solution containing initially 100 mg/L fluoride. The equilibrium pH of the suspensions ranged between 6.77 and 8.26 for 10 and 100 mg/L fluoride solutions respectively. Contacting the sorbent at a dosage of 0.6 g/100 mL with field water containing 5.53 mg/L at 200 rpm for 50 min reduced the fluoride content to 0.928 mg/L-a value below the upper limit of WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The sorption data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms but better with the former. The sorption data obeyed only the pseudo-second-order kinetic, which implies that fluoride was chemisorbed.

  8. Distribution of Al-, Fe- and Mn-pools and their correlation in soils from two acid deposition small catchments in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Nandong; Seip, Hans Martin; Guo, Jinheng; Liao, Bohan; Zeng, Qingru

    2006-12-01

    Distribution of Al-, Fe- and Mn-pools was investigated in five forest soil profiles (consisting of four horizons) in each of two Hunan catchments (BLT and LKS) where acid deposition has been considered critical. Al- and Fe-pools were higher in BLT than those in LKS, but Mn-pools much lower in BLT. Mn-pools vary from topsoils to bottom soils, but there are different trends for different Mn speciation. Al- and Fe-pools, except amorphous Fe(ox), were positively correlated to contents of soil organic matter (OM) showed by the loss on ignition in the two catchments. Accumulation of Al- and Fe-pools may occur in the area where soil organic matter was enriched (e.g. in top soil and rhizosphere soil). However, no direct correlation is observed between Mn and OM. Acidic atmospheric deposition may affect transforming among speciations of Al-, Fe- and Mn-pools and leaching of soil Al, Fe and Mn through formation of soluble organo-metal dissolved Al which was potentially toxic, increased. There were significant correlations between Al-pools complexes or change of oxidation-reduction conditions. Mn(ex) (exchangeable Mn) and Mn(ox) (amorphous and organic Mn) were highly linearly correlation with soil pH values at LKS but at BLT. Under acid deposition, the availability of the nutrient Fe increased with the amount of dissolved Al, which was potentially toxic, in the two catchments. There are no significant correlations between Al(ex) (exchangeable Al) and Mn(ex), Fe(ex) (exchangeable Fe) and Mn(ex) in this work, indicating potentially toxic Mn increase seldom accompanying with Al increase in the two catchments.

  9. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.

  10. Elasticity of AlFeO3 and FeAlO3 perovskite and post-perovskite from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, R.

    2010-10-01

    We use state-of-the-art ab initio calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation of the density functional theory in the planar augmented wavefunction formalism to determine the elastic constants tensor of perovskite and post-perovskite with formulas AlFeO3 and FeAlO3 in which Fe or Al respectively occupy only octahedral sites, for the stable magnetic configurations. The phase transition between perovskite and post-perovskite is associated with a site exchange, during which Fe from the inter-octahedral site in perovskite moves into the octahedral site in post-perovskite. Following this transition path the elastic moduli show positive jumps, considerably larger than for MgSiO3. The phase transition is marked by a positive jump of 0.04 km/s (0.33%) in the velocity of the compressional waves and by a negative jump of -0.15 km/s (-1.87%) in shear wave velocity. We find that the effects of the Mg + Si <=> Al + Fe substitution on the seismic properties of MgSiO3 perovskite and post-perovskite depend on the crystallography of the substitution, namely the position the exchanged cations take in the structure.

  11. Solubility and release of fenbufen intercalated in Mg, Al and Mg, Al, Fe layered double hydroxides (LDH): The effect of Eudragit S 100 covering

    SciTech Connect

    Arco, M. del; Fernandez, A.; Martin, C.; Rives, V.

    2010-12-15

    Following different preparation routes, fenbufen has been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxides with Mg{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} or Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} in the layers. Well crystallized samples were obtained in most of the cases (intercalation was not observed by reconstruction of the MgAlFe matrix), with layer heights ranging between 16.1 and 18.8 A. The presence of the LDH increases the solubility of fenbufen, especially when used as a matrix. The dissolution rate of the drug decreases when the drug is intercalated, and is even lower in those systems containing iron; release takes place through ionic exchange with phosphate anions from the solution. Preparation of microspheres with Eudragit S 100 leads to solids with an homogeneous, smooth surface with efficient covering of the LDH surface, as drug release was not observed at pH lower than 7. - Graphical abstract: LDHs containing Mg, Al, Fe increase fenbufen solubility, release takes place through ionic exchange with phosphate anions from the medium. Spherical solids with homogeneous, smooth surface are formed when using Eudragit S 100, efficiently covering the LDH surface. Display Omitted

  12. Effects of pH, surface finish and thermal treatment on the corrosion of AlFeNi aluminum alloy. Characterization of oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabhan, D.; Kapusta, B.; Billaud, P.; Colas, K.; Hamon, D.; Dacheux, N.

    2015-02-01

    The aluminum alloy AlFeNi used as fuel cladding for the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) may undergo corrosion in the reactor environment. In order to qualify the corrosion behavior of the fuel elements of the JHR in accidental conditions, several specimens of AlFeNi have been corroded at 250 °C for different durations (9-34 days) in distilled water at various pH (4.9, 5.2 and 5.6) chosen to simulate that currently considered for the JHR. On all specimens, the only crystalline corrosion product formed is boehmite (AlOOH). The corrosion film is composed of three oxide layers which show through thickness chemical composition variations. The iron-nickel precipitates pre-existing in the metal matrix are present in the inner and intermediate oxide layers though oxidized. For long corrosion times, some of the iron and nickel particles are released in the water and some precipitation is observed at the surface of the oxide layer. The effect of surface finish (as received or polished) and thermal treatment (annealed and not annealed) on the oxide growth rate has also been investigated. For durations over 25 days, pH = 5.6 appears to be more favorable than pH = 5.2 and 4.9 in terms of oxide thickness and weight gain limitation. This effect of pH is however reduced on unpolished specimens. The effect of surface finish on the corrosion behavior as measured by optical microscopy appears to be strong, especially for pH = 4.9 where polished samples exhibited an accelerated evolution of the oxide thickness and of the mass gain. This could be due to the combined effect of a strong acid solution (pH = 4.9) and of the local microstructural changes formed at the interface through polishing. The effect of thermal treatment on the behavior of unpolished AlFeNi specimens during corrosion tests in the conditions investigated was found to be small. In this study, microstructural and chemical analyses were performed on the corroded specimens in order to get a better understanding of the

  13. Dependence of catalytic properties of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermites on morphology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in combustion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Ningning; He, Cuicui; Liu, Jianbing; Gong, Hujun; An, Ting; Xu, Huixiang; Zhao, Fengqi; Hu, Rongzu; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Jinzhong

    2014-11-15

    Three Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle samples with the same crystal structure but different morphologies were prepared by the hydrothermal method and then combined with Al nanoparticles to produce Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermites using ultrasonic mixing. The properties of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied using a combination of experimental techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influences of the three Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermites on the combustion properties of the AP/HTPB (ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant were investigated in comparison to those of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The results show that the Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermites are better than Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in enhancing the combustion performance of AP/HTPB. Furthermore, the surface area, which depends on size and mophology, of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles was found to play a vital role in improving the burning rate of the thermites-containing propellant formulation, with the smallest particles with the largest surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio performing the best. The enhanced catalytic property of the granular-shape Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the corresponding thermite is attributed to the large specific surface area of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The different thermal behaviors of these three superthemites were supposed to be attributed to the surface site of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. This work provides a better understanding on the catalytic properties of thermites that are important for combustion applications. - Graphical abstract: Effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been compared for the first time by analyzing combustion properties of formulations containing them, suggesting their potential application in AP/HTPB composite propellant systems. - Highlights:

  14. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  15. Microstructure Evolution in the Near-Surface Region During Homogenization of a Twin-Roll Cast AlFeMnSi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Xiaorong; Thompson, George E.; Hunter, John A.; Yuan, Yudie

    2016-08-01

    A near-surface deformed layer, comprising ultrafine grains of 50-500 nm diameters with the grain boundaries being decorated by a high population density of fine cubic α-Al15(FeMn)3Si2 dispersoids and oxide/lubricant particles, was generated in a foil stock AlFeMnSi alloy during twin-roll casting due to severe shear deformation within the near-surface region. During a subsequent multi-step homogenization treatment at temperatures in the range of 713 K and 853 K (440 °C and 580 °C), the fine cubic α-Al15(FeMn)3Si2 dispersoids within the near-surface layer were dissolved, while sparse, large lath-shaped Al3Fe particles formed in the same region. Significant grain growth took place within the near-surface layer due to the loss of grain boundary pinning by the dispersoids, leading to the removal of the ultrafine-grained microstructure within the near-surface region. However, at local regions where the population density of oxide particles was sufficiently high to provide grain boundary pinning, the ultrafine-grained microstructure was preserved within the near-surface layer.

  16. Polymorphism of the borophosphate anion in K(Fe,Al)[BP2O8(OH)] and Rb(Al, Fe)[BP2O8(OH)] crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovich, O. V.; Steele, I. M.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2010-09-01

    The crystal structure of two borophosphates, Rb(Al,Fe)[BP2O8(OH)] ( a = 9.381(6), b = 8.398(5), c = 9.579(6) Å, β = 102.605(10)°, sp. gr. P21/ c) and K(Fe,Al)[BP2O8(OH)] ( a = 5.139(2), b = 8.065(4), c = 8.290(4)Å, α = 86.841(8)°, β = 80.346(8)°, γ = 86.622(8)°, sp. gr. P bar 1 ), obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the AlCl3: FeCl3: K3PO4(Rb3PO4): B2O3: H2O system has been established using X-ray diffraction (Bruker Smart diffractometer, T = 100 K). Hydrogen atoms are located and their coordinates and thermal parameters are refined. It is shown that the polymorphism of the [BP2O8(OH)]4- borophosphate anion has a morphotropic nature and is related to the substitutions both in the cationic part of the structure and in the octahedral position of the anionic mixed framework. The synthesis of new isotypic triclinic compounds under hydrothermal conditions is predicted.

  17. Ultratrace determination of arsenic in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with Mg-Al-Fe ternary layered double hydroxide nano-sorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amini, Roghayeh

    2013-11-15

    A selective solid phase extraction method, based on nano-structured Mg-Al-Fe(NO3(-)) ternary layered double hydroxide as a sorbent, is developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of arsenic (As) prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. It is found that both As(III) and As(V) could be quantitatively retained on the sorbent within a wide pH range of 4-12. Accordingly, the presented method is applied to determination of total inorganic As in aqueous solutions. Maximum analytical signal of As is achieved when the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures are close to 900 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency including pH, sample flow rate, amount of nano-sorbent, elution conditions and sample volume are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (3Sb/m) and the relative standard deviation are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.9%, respectively. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 15.0-650 pg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979, sorption capacity and pre-concentration factor are 8.68 mg g(-1) and 300, respectively. The developed method is validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (SRM 1643e) and is successfully applied to the determination of ultra-trace amounts of As in different water samples.

  18. SOx removal by calcined MgAlFe hydrotalcite-like materials: effect of the chemical composition and the cerium incorporation method.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Manuel; López-Salinas, Esteban; Valente, Jaime S; Montiel, Ramon

    2005-12-15

    Sulfur oxides are one of the most hazardous atmospheric pollutants since they contribute directly to acid rain formation. Consequently, stringent environmental regulations limit atmospheric SOx emissions, motivating research on efficient ways to reduce them. To supply an alternative to reduce these emissions in fluid catalytic cracking units, this study discloses efficient SOx reducing materials based on calcined MgAlFe hydrotalcite-like compounds (HT's). Thus, HT materials were synthesized by several methods including cerium addition. The adsorption of SO2 was carried out by contacting the calcined solid with a mixture of SO2 (1%) in air at 650 degrees C. It was demonstrated that the isomorphic incorporation of iron increased its reduction capability which was reflected in higher reduction rates and metal sulfate reduction grade at 550 degrees C. Moreover, when cerium was present in the iron-containing materials the saturation rate was improved, because cerium oxide promotes the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. The way cerium is incorporated influences the SO2 adsorption capacity.

  19. Genesis of the Doğankuzu and Mortaş Bauxite deposits, Taurides, Turkey: separation of Al, Fe, and Mn and implications for passive margin metallogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Öztürk, Hüseyin; Hein, James R.; Hanilçi, Nurullah

    2002-01-01

    large amounts of organic matter to the ocean. Alteration of the organic matter provided CO2 that contributed to formation of a relatively 12C-rich marine footwall limestone. Relative sea-level fall resulted from strike-slip faulting associated with closure of the ocean and local uplift of the passive margin. That uplift resulted in karstification and bauxite formation in topographic lows, as represented by the Doğankuzu and Mortaş deposits. During stage 1 of bauxite formation, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ti were mobilized from deeply weathered aluminosilicate parent rock under acidic conditions and accumulated as hydroxides at the limestone surface owing to an increase in pH. During stage 2, Al, Fe, and Ti oxides and clays from the incipient bauxite (bauxitic soil) were transported as detrital phases and accumulated in the fault-controlled depressions and sinkholes. During stage 3, the bauxitic material was concentrated by repeated desilicification, which resulted in the transport of Si and Mn to the ocean through a well-developed karst drainage system. The transported Mn was deposited in offshore muds as Mn carbonates. The sulfides also formed in stage 3 during early diagenesis. Transgression into the foreland basin resulted from shortening of the ocean basin and nappe emplacement during the latest Cretaceous. During that time bioclastic limestone was deposited on the nappe ramp, which overlapped bauxite accumulation.

  20. Formation of mixed Al-Fe colloidal sorbent and dissolved-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn in the Cement Creek - Animas River Confluence, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Cox, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and chemical transformations of dissolved and colloidal Al, Fe, Cu and Zn were studied by detailed sampling in the mixing zone downstream from the confluence of Cement Creek (pH 4.1) with the Animas River (pH 7.6). Complete mixing resulted in circumneutral pH in the downstream reach of the 1300 m study area. All four metals were transported through this mixing zone without significant losses to the streambed, and they exhibited transformations from dissolved to colloidal forms to varying degrees during the mixing process. Nearly all of the Al formed colloidal hydrous Al oxides (HAO) as pH increased (4.8-6.5), whereas colloidal hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) were supplied by Cement Creek as well as formed in the mixing zone primarily at higher pH (>6.5). The short travel time through the mixing zone (approx. 40 min) and pH limited the formation of HFO from dissolved Fe2+ supplied by Cement Creek. Although the proportions of HAO and HFO varied as the streams mixed, the colloidal sorbent typically was enriched in HAO relative to HFO by a factor of 1.5-2.1 (by mole) in the pH range where dissolved-to-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn was observed. Model simulations of sorption by HFO (alone) greatly underestimated the dissolved-to-colloidal partitioning of Zn. Previous studies have shown that HAO-HFO mixtures can sorb greater amounts of Zn than HFO alone, but the high Zn-to-sorbent ratio in this mixing zone could also account for greater partitioning. In contrast to Zn, comparisons with model simulations did not show that Cu sorption was greater than that for HFO alone, and also indicated that sorption was possibly less than what would be expected for a non-interactive mixture of these two sorbents. These field results for Cu, however, might be influenced by (organic) complexation or other factors in this natural system. Laboratory mixing experiments using natural source waters (upstream of the confluence) showed that the presence of HFO in the mixed sorbent

  1. Constraints on silicates formation in the Si-Al-Fe system: Application to hard deposits in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Million-Picallion, Lisa; Lefevre, Grégory; Delaunay, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: The hydrothermal crystallization of silicates phases in the Si-Al-Fe system may lead to industrial constraints that can be encountered in the nuclear industry in at least two contexts: the geological repository for nuclear wastes and the formation of hard sludges in the steam generator of the PWR nuclear plants. In the first situation, the chemical reactions between the Fe-canister and the surrounding clays have been extensively studied in laboratory [1-7] and pilot experiments [8]. These studies demonstrated that the high reactivity of metallic iron leads to the formation of Fe-silicates, berthierine like, in a wide range of temperature. By contrast, the formation of deposits in the steam generators of PWR plants, called hard sludges, is a newer and less studied issue which can affect the reactor performance. Experiments: We present here a preliminary set of experiments reproducing the formation of hard sludges under conditions representative of the steam generator of PWR power plant: 275°C, diluted solutions maintained at low potential by hydrazine addition and at alkaline pH by low concentrations of amines and ammoniac. Magnetite, a corrosion by-product of the secondary circuit, is the source of iron while aqueous Si and Al, the major impurities in this system, are supplied either as trace elements in the circulating solution or by addition of amorphous silica and alumina when considering confined zones. The fluid chemistry is monitored by sampling aliquots of the solution. Eh and pH are continuously measured by hydrothermal Cormet© electrodes implanted in a titanium hydrothermal reactor. The transformation, or not, of the solid fraction was examined post-mortem. These experiments evidenced the role of Al colloids as precursor of cements composed of kaolinite and boehmite, and the passivation of amorphous silica (becoming unreactive) likely by sorption of aqueous iron. But no Fe-bearing was formed by contrast to many published studies on the Fe

  2. Impact of a long term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si from a Mediterranean forest soil: a short-term, lab-scale study.

    PubMed

    Koufopoulou, Sofia; Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2014-06-01

    Long term fire retardant (LTR) application for forest fire prevention purposes as well as wildland fires can result in chemical leaching from forest soils. Large quantities of sodium (Na), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and silicon (Si) in leachates, mainly due to ammonium (one of the major LTR components) soil deposition, could affect the groundwater quality. The leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si due to nitrogen based LTR application (Fire Trol 931) was studied at laboratory scale. The concentrations of Na(+), Al(3+), Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Si(4+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine trees alone and in combination with fire. The leaching of Na, Fe and Si from treated pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Al, Mn and Cu was extremely low.

  3. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral qingheiite Na2(Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3, a pegmatite phosphate mineral from Santa Ana pegmatite, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Moreira, Caio; de Lena, Jorge Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    The pegmatite mineral qingheiite Na2(Mn(2+),Mg,Fe(2+))2(Al,Fe(3+))(PO4)3 has been studied by a combination of SEM and EMP, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The studied sample was collected from the Santa Ana pegmatite, Argentina. The mineral occurs as a primary mineral in lithium bearing pegmatite, in association with beausite and lithiophilite. The Raman spectrum is characterized by a very sharp intense Raman band at 980 cm(-1) assigned to the PO4(3-) symmetric stretching mode. Multiple Raman bands are observed in the PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching region, providing evidence for the existence of more than one phosphate unit in the structure of qingheiite and evidence for the reduction in symmetry of the phosphate units. This concept is affirmed by the number of bands in the ν4 and ν2 bending regions. No intensity was observed in the OH stretching region in the Raman spectrum but significant intensity is found in the infrared spectrum. Infrared bands are observed at 2917, 3195, 3414 and 3498 cm(-1) are assigned to water stretching vibrations. It is suggested that some water is coordinating the metal cations in the structure of qingheiite.

  4. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  5. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral qingheiite Na2(Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3, a pegmatite phosphate mineral from Santa Ana pegmatite, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Moreira, Caio; de Lena, Jorge Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    The pegmatite mineral qingheiite Na2(Mn(2+),Mg,Fe(2+))2(Al,Fe(3+))(PO4)3 has been studied by a combination of SEM and EMP, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The studied sample was collected from the Santa Ana pegmatite, Argentina. The mineral occurs as a primary mineral in lithium bearing pegmatite, in association with beausite and lithiophilite. The Raman spectrum is characterized by a very sharp intense Raman band at 980 cm(-1) assigned to the PO4(3-) symmetric stretching mode. Multiple Raman bands are observed in the PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching region, providing evidence for the existence of more than one phosphate unit in the structure of qingheiite and evidence for the reduction in symmetry of the phosphate units. This concept is affirmed by the number of bands in the ν4 and ν2 bending regions. No intensity was observed in the OH stretching region in the Raman spectrum but significant intensity is found in the infrared spectrum. Infrared bands are observed at 2917, 3195, 3414 and 3498 cm(-1) are assigned to water stretching vibrations. It is suggested that some water is coordinating the metal cations in the structure of qingheiite. PMID:23792288

  6. Proton and deuteron double differential cross sections at angles from 10 deg to 60 deg from Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, W, and Pb under 558-MeV-proton irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, S. M.; Powell, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The double differential cross sections for the production of protons and deuterons from targets of Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, W, and Pb were obtained at laboratory angles of scatter of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 degrees for 558-MeV incident protons. The position of the quasi-elastic peak, discernible in the cross sections up to approximately 40 degrees, corresponded closely to the theoretical predictions for proton-proton elastic scattering at 558 MeV. The mean ratio of deuteron to proton energy-integrated cross sections was 0.056 + or - 0.008. The dependence of energy-integrated cross sections for both protons and deuterons on target mass number A varied from A to the 1/3 power at 10 degrees to A to the 2/3 power above approximately 30 degrees. The ratio of energy-integrated deuteron cross sections for quasielastic processes to that for reactions yielding a deuteron-pi-meson pair was approximately 10 percent.

  7. Investigation of magnetic properties and electronic structure of layered-structure borides AlT{sub 2}B{sub 2} (T=Fe, Mn, Cr) and AlFe{sub 2–x}Mn{sub x}B{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Ping; Stoian, Sebastian A.; Tan, Xiaoyan; Dube, Paul A.; Shatruk, Michael

    2015-04-15

    The ternary phases AlT{sub 2}B{sub 2} (T=Fe, Mn, Cr) and quaternary phases AlFe{sub 2–x}Mn{sub x}B{sub 2} have been synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electronic band structure calculations. All the compounds adopt the AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2}-type structure, in which infinite zigzag chains of B atoms are connected by Fe atoms into [Fe{sub 2}B{sub 2}] slabs that alternate with layers of Al atoms along the b axis. The magnetic measurements reveal that AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} is a ferromagnet with T{sub C}=282 K while AlMn{sub 2}B{sub 2} and AlCr{sub 2}B{sub 2} do not show magnetic ordering in the studied temperature range of 1.8–400 K. A systematic investigation of solid solutions AlFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}B{sub 2} showed a non-linear change in the structural and magnetic behavior. The ferromagnetic ordering temperature is gradually decreased as the Mn content (x) increases. The Mössbauer spectra reveal the presence of non-magnetic (NM) and ferromagnetic (FM) spectral components in all Mn-containing samples, with the amount of NM fraction increasing as the Mn content increases. While for the AlFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}B{sub 2} samples with x=0.0 and 0.4 the hyperfine splitting of the FM spectral component collapses at temperatures close to the Curie temperatures determined from the magnetic measurements, for the x=1.2 and 1.6 samples the FM fraction exhibits a sizable unquenched hyperfine splitting at room temperature, a finding that is inconsistent with the observed magnetic properties. Along with the increase in the amount of the NM fraction, this observation suggests formation of Fe-rich and Mn-rich regions in the structure of the solid solutions. Quantum-chemical calculations and crystal orbital Hamilton population analysis provide a clear explanation of the distinction in properties for this series of compounds and also reveal the importance of electronic factors in modifying the

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  9. Synthesis and properties of A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials for environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Anderson; Cunha, Lumena; Vieira, Andiara C.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials were synthesized. {yields} Chemical synthesis produced different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree. {yields} Structural investigation by Raman scattering revealed a complex band structure. {yields} A strong correlation between band structure and ionic radius was determined. -- Abstract: Double layered hydroxide materials of composition A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) were synthesized by chemical precipitation at 60 {sup o}C. Different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree were observed depending upon the chemical environment or the combination between divalent and trivalent cations. The results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanostructured layered samples were obtained with interplanar spacing compatible with previous literature. Raman scattering was employed to investigate the complex band structure observed, particularly the lattice vibrations at lower frequencies, which is intimately correlated to the cationic radius of both divalent and trivalent ions. The results showed that strongly coordinated water and chloride ions besides highly structured hydroxide layers have a direct influence on the stability of the hydrotalcites. It was observed that transition and decomposition temperatures varied largely for different chemical compositions.

  10. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  11. The structure of rapidly solidified Al- Fe- Cr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearim, R.; Shechtman, D.

    1982-11-01

    Four aluminum alloys, designed for use at elevated temperatures, were studied. The alloys were supersaturated with iron and chromium, and one of them contained small amounts of Ti, V, and Zr. The starting materials were alloy powders made by the RSR (Rapid Solidification Rate) centrifugal atomization process. Extrusion bars were made from the four powders. The as-extruded microstructure and the microstructure of the alloys after annealing at 482 °C were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure consists of equiaxed grains of aluminum matrix and two types of precipitates, namely, Al3(Fe ,Cr) and a metastable phase, Al6(Fe,Cr). The precipitates were different in their shape, size, distribution, and location within the grains.

  12. Constraints on Al, Fe and Li Abundances in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, Alain; Leblanc, F.

    2009-09-01

    Before the arrival of Messenger and Bepi Colombo at Mercury, the only source of information available on Mercury's environment is observations done from ground based observatories. We performed high spectral resolution observations of the Mercury's exosphere on the 30th and 31st October 2005 using the ESO-NTT telescope, La Silla, Chile. The large spectral range, 385-855 nm of the spectrograph EMMI provides a unique opportunity to search for non-identified species in the Hermian's environment. In this paper, we report a tentative detection of atomic aluminium in the exosphere of Mercury. This detection should be confirmed by further observations and can be used as an upper limit for this element in Mercury's exosphere. We also estimate upper limit for the column densities of Fe and Si exospheric atoms. Detection of Al, a refractory element, if confirmed, as well as its high exospheric abundance (between 2 to 18) with respect to Ca would suggest either an unexpected surface composition or a relation between exosphere and surface composition that is not well understood.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr)

    SciTech Connect

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-15

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Sa/P=0.2 and Ca/M{sup III}=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP{sub 3}O{sub 9}, {beta}-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Cs{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Cs{sub 3}CaFe(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, Ca{sub 9}M{sup III}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M{sup III}-Fe, Cr), Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) A, c=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) A, respectively. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural relationships between {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and synthesized compounds is shown in terms aliovalent substitution of calcium atoms, which residue on three-fold axis, by other metals in {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} framework. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Phase formation in the melts of Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr) systems were determined. {yields} The composition and structure of the compounds depend on the nature of M{sup III} and initial ratio of Cs/P. {yields} Obtained compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. {yields} Crystal structures of CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} were determined by single crystal XRD.

  14. Synthesis of anion-deficient layered perovskites, ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3-x]M[sub x]O[sub 10-x] (A = Rb, Cs; M = Al, Fe), exhibiting ion-exchange and intercalation. Evidence for the formation of layered brownmillerites, ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]AlO[sub 9] (A = Cs, H)

    SciTech Connect

    Uma, S.; Gopalakrishnan, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Anion-deficient layered perovskite oxides of the formula, ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3-x]M[sub x]O[sub 10-x] (A = Rb, Cs; M = Al, Fe) for 0 < x [le] 1.0, possessing tetragonal structures similar to the parent ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3]O[sub 10], have been synthesized. The interlayer A cations in these materials are readily exchanged with protons in aqueous HNO[sub 3] to give the protonated derivatives, HCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3-x]M[sub x]O[sub 10-x]; the latter are solid Bronsted acids intercalating a number of organic amines including aniline (pK[sub a] = 4.63). The distribution of acid sites in the interlaying region of HCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]MO[sub 9] inferred from n-alkylamine intercalation suggests that oxygen vacancies and Nb/M atoms are disordered in the ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]MO[sub 9] samples prepared at 1100-1200[degrees]C. Annealing a disordered sample of CsCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]AlO[sub 9] for a long time at lower temperatures tends to order the Nb/Al atoms and oxygen vacancies to produce octahedral (NbO[sub 6/2])-tetrahedral (AlO[sub 4/2])-octahedral (NbO[sub 6/2]) layer sequence reminiscent of the brownmillerite structure. 22 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Ultra-flexible framework breathing in response to dehydration in liskeardite, [(Al,Fe){sub 16}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 9}(OH){sub 21}(H{sub 2}O){sub 11}]·26H{sub 2}O, a natural open-framework compound

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian. E.; Brand, Helen E.A.; Rumsey, Michael S.; Gozukara, Yesim

    2015-08-15

    Dehydration of the natural open-framework compound, liskeardite, [(Al,Fe){sub 16}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 9}(OH){sub 21}(H{sub 2}O){sub 11}]·26H{sub 2}O, is accompanied by a change in the sign of the thermal expansion from positive to negative above room temperature, and at ~100 °C the structure undergoes a dramatic 2D contraction by co-operative rotation of heteropolyhedral columns that constitute the framework walls. Monoclinic liskeardite, I112 with a≈b≈24.7 Å, c ≈7.8 Å and β≈90° is transformed to a tetragonal phase, I-4 with a≈20.6 Å, c ≈7.7 Å. The associated 30% decrease in volume is unprecedented in inorganic microporous compounds. The flexibility of the contraction is related to the double-hinged nature of the column rotations about [001]. Octahedra in adjacent columns are interconnected by corner-sharing with the two pairs of anions forming opposing edges of AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra, so a double-hinged rotation mechanism operates. Thermal analysis and mass spectroscopic results for liskeardite show that the phase transition at ~100 °C is related to removal of the channel water. The tetragonal phase shows exceptionally large NTE behaviour. Over the temperature range 148–178 the NTE along a and b is close to linear with a magnitude of the order of −900×10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}. The contraction along the channel direction is smaller but still appreciable at −200×10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: Structure of the collapsed liskeardite framework, formed on dehydration above 100 °C. - Highlights: • The thermal expansion of the mineral liskeardite changes + to − above ambient. • Dehydration at 100 °C results in a record reversible 30% volume reduction. • In situ synchrotron XRD has led to a structural model for the dehydrated phase. • Framework breathing flexibility is attributed to a double-hinge rotation mechanism. • The dehydrated phase shows unprecedented -ve expansion for inorganic materials.

  16. Materials Data on Ba2AlFe3O8 (SG:123) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-09-03

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Al(FeB)2 (SG:65) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-30

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on Al(FeO2)3 (SG:164) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-09-30

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Post-test examinations of Li-Al/FeS/sub x/ secondary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J E; Mrazek, F C; Otto, N C

    1980-12-01

    Post-test examinations were conducted to determine failure mechanisms, electrode morphologies, and in-cell corrosion of cell components, and to recommend appropriate design changes for improved cell performance and reliability. The reactive electrode materials required the design and construction of a special metallographic glovebox facility. Combinations of macro- and microscopic examinations determined that electrical short circuits were the predominant causes of cell failure. The major short circuit mechanism was extrusion of active material from one electrode and its subsequent contact with the opposing electrode (opposite polarity). Other mechanisms for short circuits included metallic deposits across separators, metallic deposits across the feedthrough insulator (electrolyte leakage and corrosion), equipment malfunctions, cell assembly difficulties, etc. Post-test examinations confirmed that the short circuits were of mechanical origin; appropriate design changes were, therefore, recommended. Extensive microscopic examinations were conducted on both negative and positive electrodes to determine the morphology. Agglomeration of Li-Al was observed in the negative electrodes of most multiplate cells. Examinations showed that the sulfides in the positive electrode remained as discrete particles in an electrolyte matrix. Also discussed are the results of post-test examinations to determine the following: lithium gradients in the negative electrodes, electrode expansion, materials distribution, copper deposition within electrode separators of FeS cells, Li/sub 2/S deposits within electrode separators of FeS/sub 2/ cells, and the in-cell corrosion of current collector materials in positive and negative electrodes. 50 figures, 7 tables.

  20. Materials Data on AlFe(WO4)2 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-09-30

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on AlFe(WO4)2 (SG:13) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-09-30

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Tensile deformation of 2618 and Al-Fe-Si-V aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leng, Y.; Porr, W. C., Jr.; Gangloff, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The present study experimentally characterizes the effects of elevated temperature on the uniaxial tensile behavior of ingot metallurgy 2618 Al alloy and the rapidly solidified FVS 0812 P/M alloy by means of two constitutive formulations: the Ramberg/Osgood equation and the Bodner-Partom (1975) incremental formulation for uniaxial tensile loading. The elastoplastic strain-hardening behavior of the ingot metallurgy alloy is equally well represented by either formulation. Both alloys deform similarly under decreasing load after only 1-5 percent uniform tensile strain, a response which is not described by either constitutive relation.

  3. Reduction Kinetics of Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag by Al-Fe Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehong; Oh, Joon Seok; Lee, Joonho

    2016-07-01

    Effects of temperature and slag basicity on the reduction rate of iron oxide in molten synthetic electric arc furnace oxidizing slag by Al-40 wt.%Fe alloy was investigated. An alloy sample was dropped into molten slag in an MgO crucible. When the initial slag temperature was 1723 K, there was no reduction. However, when the initial slag temperature was 1773 K and the slag basicity was 1.1, the reduction was initiated and the temperature of the slag rapidly increased. When the slag basicity was 1.1, increasing the initial slag temperature from 1773 K to 1823 K increases the reaction rate. As the slag basicity increased from 1.1 to 1.4 at 1773 K, the reaction rate increased. From SEM analysis, it was found that an Al2O3 or a spinel phase at the slag-metal interface inhibited the reaction at a lower temperature and a lower slag basicity.

  4. Materials Data on AlFeO3 (SG:33) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Thermomechanical behavior of simulated negative electrodes for Li-Al/FeS battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banoyopadhyay, G.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Negative electrodes in Li-Al batteries typically generate a porous, machanically stable microstructure. But agglomeration, associated with nonuniform elimination of porosity, have been detected. Agglomeration is the result of excessive sintering of the negative electrode. Excessive agglomeration can lead to poor utilization of active materials and may result in nonuniform swelling stresses. This paper collects data on the sinterability and deformability of simulated negative electrode compositions, in order to help prevent or minimize agglomeration. Aluminum and beta-Li-Al were each blended with eutectic LiCl-KCl salt and then cold pressed to form compacts. Beta-Li-Al compacts were much more deformable than Al specimens. The different deformation is evidently related to the lack of sintering in beta-Li-Al.

  6. Modeling of the Site Preference in Ternary B2-Ordered Ni-Al-Fe Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Khalil, Joseph; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2002-01-01

    The underlying equilibrium structure, site substitution behavior, and lattice parameter of ternary Ni-Fe-Al alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations and analytical calculations using the BFS method for alloys for the energetics. As a result of the theoretical calculations presented, a simple approach based on the energetics of small atomic clusters is introduced to explain the observed site preference schemes.

  7. The LiAl/FeS2 battery power source for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, J. Douglass; Embrey, J.; Oweis, S.; Press, K.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high power density rechargeable batteries are currently under development. These batteries have the potential of greatly increasing the power and energy densities available for space applications. Depending on whether the system is optimized for high power or high energy, values up to 150 Wh/kg and 2100 W/kg (including hardware) are projected. This is due to the fact that the system uses a high conductivity molten salt electrolyte. The electrolyte also serves as a separator layer with unlimited freeze thaw capabilities. Life of 1000 cycles and ten calendar years is projected. The electrochemistry consists of a lithium aluminum alloy negative electrode, iron disulfide positive electrode, and magnesium oxide powder immobilized molten salt electrolyte. Processed powders are cold compacted into circular discs which are assembled into bipolar cell hardware with peripheral ceramic salts. The culmination of the work will be a high energy battery of 40 kWh and a high power battery of 28 kWh.

  8. Solid state amorphization in the Al-Fe binary system during high energy milling

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P. Montes, J. M.; Cintas, J.

    2013-12-16

    In the present study, mechanical alloying (MA) of Al75Fe25 elemental powders mixture was carried out in argon atmosphere, using a high energy attritor ball mill. The microstructure of the milled products at different stages of milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the amorphous phase content increased by increasing the milling time, and after 50 hours the amorphization process became complete. Heating the samples resulted in the crystallization of the synthesized amorphous alloys and the appearance of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}.

  9. Reduction Kinetics of Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag by Al-Fe Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehong; Oh, Joon Seok; Lee, Joonho

    2016-09-01

    Effects of temperature and slag basicity on the reduction rate of iron oxide in molten synthetic electric arc furnace oxidizing slag by Al-40 wt.%Fe alloy was investigated. An alloy sample was dropped into molten slag in an MgO crucible. When the initial slag temperature was 1723 K, there was no reduction. However, when the initial slag temperature was 1773 K and the slag basicity was 1.1, the reduction was initiated and the temperature of the slag rapidly increased. When the slag basicity was 1.1, increasing the initial slag temperature from 1773 K to 1823 K increases the reaction rate. As the slag basicity increased from 1.1 to 1.4 at 1773 K, the reaction rate increased. From SEM analysis, it was found that an Al2O3 or a spinel phase at the slag-metal interface inhibited the reaction at a lower temperature and a lower slag basicity.

  10. Materials Data on AlFeCo2 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Study of fretting wear of Al-Fe-Ce-SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, M.; Xue, Q.

    1996-07-15

    Due to adoption of rapid solidification technology (RST) in conjunction with powder metallurgy processing, aluminum matrix composites (AMC) offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved aerospace vehicle performance. Fretting wear is a wear phenomena occurring between two surfaces having oscillatory relative motion of small amplitude. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of SiC reinforcement and fretting parameters on the fretting wear resistance of Al-7.8Fe-6.1Ce (AFC) alloys and to clarify the mechanism of material removal.

  12. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  13. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. PMID:26780135

  14. Materials Data on Mg3AlFe(SiO4)3 (SG:4) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on Mg11AlFeSi11O36 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Oxidation Resistant Ti-Al-Fe Diffusion Barrier for FeCrAlY Coatings on Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialke, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A diffusion barrier to help protect titanium aluminide alloys, including the coated alloys of the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha2) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C is disclosed. The coating may comprise FeCrAlX alloys. The diffusion barrier comprises titanium, aluminum, and iron in the following approximate atomic percent: Ti-(50-55)Al-(9-20)Fe. This alloy is also suitable as an oxidative or structural coating for such substrates.

  17. Al-Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 microm). Application of 500 microm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils. PMID:17081246

  18. Ferroelectric property of (Ba,Bi)(Ti,M)O3 (M; Cu, Mn, Al, Fe, In, Y, Yb) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiroki, K.; Kumada, N.; Ogiso, H.; Yonesaki, Y.; Takei, T.; Kinomura, N.; Wada, S.

    2011-10-01

    Two types of solid solutions, (Ba1-2xBi2x)(CuxTi1-x)O3 (x <= 0.04) and (Ba1-xBix)(MxTi1-x)O3 (M; Al, Mn, Fe, In, Y, Yb; x <= 0.03) were prepared by conventional high temperature reaction. For the solid solution of (Ba1-2xBi2x)(CuxTi1-x)O3 single phases with the tetragonal cell was obtained in the region of x <= 0.04 and for the solid solutions of (Ba1-xBix)(MxTi1-x)O3 (M; Al, Mn, Fe, In, Y, Yb) single phases with the tetragonal cell was observed in the region of x <= 0.03 except the sample of M = Al in which a small amount of the second phase was contained. In these solid solutions the Tc increased with the value of x except for M = Al, and was 144.7°C for x = 0.020 of M = Cu, and the highest Tc was observed for x = 0.020 of every M atom and the order of the highest Tc was Cu (144.7°C), Y (141.4°C), Yb (140.8°C), In (138.5°C), Mn (135.5°C) and Fe (131.3°C). The highest apparent piezoelectric constant, (d33 = 258 pm/V) in these solid solutions was observed for x = 0.010 of Al.

  19. Al-Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 microm). Application of 500 microm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils.

  20. Response of pore water Al, Fe and S concentrations to waterlogging in a boreal acid sulphate soil.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Hartikainen, Helinä; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-07-01

    Environmental hazards caused by acid sulphate (AS) soils are of worldwide concern. Among various mitigation measures, waterlogging has mainly been studied in subtropical and tropical conditions. To assess the environmental relevance of waterlogging as a mitigation option in boreal AS soils, we arranged a 2.5-year experiment with monolithic lysimeters to monitor changes in the soil redox potential, pH and the concentrations of aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and sulphur (S) in pore water in response to low and high groundwater levels in four AS soil horizons. The monoliths consisted of acidic oxidized B horizons and a reduced C horizon containing sulphidic material. Eight lysimeters were cropped (reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea) and two were bare without a crop. Waterlogging was conducive to reduction reactions causing a slight rise in pH, a substantial increase in Fe (Fepw) and a decrease in Al (Alpw) in the pore water. The increase in Fepw was decisively higher in the cropped waterlogged lysimeters than in the bare ones, which was attributable to the microbiologically catalysed reductive dissolution of poorly ordered iron oxides and secondary minerals. In contrast to warmer climates, Fepw concentrations remained high throughout the experiment, indicating that the reduction was poised in the iron range, while sulphate was not reduced to sulphide. Therefore, the precipitation of iron sulphide was negligible in the environment with a low pH and abundant with poorly ordered Fe oxides. Increased Fe in pore water counteracts the positive effects of waterlogging, when water is flushed from fields to watercourses, where re-oxidation of Fe causes acidity and oxygen depletion. However, waterlogging prevented further oxidation of sulphidic materials and decreased Alpw to one-tenth of the initial concentrations, and even to one-hundredth of the levels in the low water table lysimeters.

  1. Development of high temperature secondary Li-Al/FeS/sub x/ batteries at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J E; Gay, E C; Steunenberg, R K; Barney, D L

    1980-01-01

    A general introduction to the battery program is given first. Subsequent sections discuss cell development, results of cell testing, and materials and component development - electrical feedthrough, electrode separators, materials for current collectors, and post-test cell examination (cell failure mechanisms, copper deposition in electrode separators, lithium gradient in negative electrodes). The Mark IA battery developed a short circuit in one of the modules that resulted in complete failure of the module; the other module was unaffected. 10 tables. (RWR)

  2. Characterization of AlFe-pillared Unye bentonite: A study of the surface acidity and catalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Bulent; Cubuk, Osman; Demir, Ersin; Coldur, Fatih; Catir, Mustafa; Topcu, Cihan; Tabak, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite has been prepared by incorporation of the iron mixed aluminium-polyoxocation into bentonite layers and characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, thermal analysis and surface area measurement techniques. The characteristic d001 basal spacing of raw bentonite increased with the pillaring process and reached to 18.05 Å. The siloxane layers of bentonite were perturbed and the positions of Si-O stretching vibrations were altered by pillaring process. However, these pillars in the interlayer gallery spacing enhanced the thermal stability of bentonite. The new micropores were formed by the pillaring process and the specific surface area of raw bentonite increased by ca. 2-fold for aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite. FTIR spectra and thermal analysis curves of pyridine adsorbed samples clearly show that the surface Lewis acidity of aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite is greater than that of raw bentonite. Raw and aluminium-iron-pillared bentonites have been utilized as solid catalysts for benzoylation of benzene with benzoyl chloride. The aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite catalyst showed promising catalytic activity whereas raw bentonite showed no catalytic activity in benzoylation of benzene with benzoyl chloride.

  3. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported.

  4. Synthesis and Performance Characterization of a Nanocomposite Ternary Thermite: Al/Fe2O3/SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, D; Pantoya, M L; Clapsaddle, B J

    2005-02-04

    Making solid energetic materials requires the physical mixing of solid fuels and oxidizers or the incorporation of fuel and oxidizing moieties into a single molecule. The former are referred to as composite energetic materials (i.e., thermites, propellants, pyrotechnics) and the latter are deemed monomolecular energetic materials (i.e., explosives). Mass diffusion between the fuel and oxidizer is the rate controlling step for composite reactions while bond breaking and chemical kinetics control monomolecular reactions. Although composites have higher energy densities than monomolecular species, they release that energy over a longer period of time because diffusion controlled reactions are considerably slower than chemistry controlled reactions. Conversely, monomolecular species exhibit greater power due to more rapid kinetics than physically mixed energetics. Reducing the diffusion distance between fuel and oxidizer species within an energetic composite would enhance the reaction rate. Recent advances in nanotechnology have spurred the development of nano-scale fuel and oxidizer particles that can be combined into a composite and effectively reduce diffusion distances to nano-scale dimensions or less. These nanocomposites have the potential to deliver the best of both worlds: high energy density of the physically mixed composite with the high power of the monomolecular species. Toward this end, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed nano-particle synthesis techniques, based on sol-gel chemistry, for the production of thermite nanocomposites.

  5. Compositional, Order/Disorder, and Stable Isotope Characteristics of Al-Fe Epidote, State 2-14 Drill Hole, Salton Sea Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D. K.; Cho, M.; Janik, C. J.; Liou, J. G.; Caruso, L. J.

    1988-11-01

    Epidote (Ca2Fe3Si3O12(OH)-Ca2Al3Si3O12(OH)) is a common hydrothermal mineral in metasediments and veins at depths >900 m in the State 2-14 drill hole of the Salton Sea geothermal system. The mole fraction of Ca2Fe3Si3O12(OH) in epidotes (Xps) from this drill hole ranges from 0.11 to 0.42, and complex compositional zoning of octahedral Fe3+ and Al is typical within single grains. With increasing depth there is an overall, but irregular, decrease in the Fe3+ content of epidotes in metasandstones. In most samples, vein epidotes are more Fe3+ -rich and exhibit a wider compositional range than metasandstone epidotes from the same depth. Octahedral Fe3+ in the M(1) sites in four epidotes, evaluated by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, ranges from 7.5 ± 1.7% to 11.4 ± 1.5% of the total iron. The most ordered epidote formed in veins at 2618 m in the biotite zone. This epidote has an ordering parameter (σ = 1-2XFe3+,M(1)) of 0.85 ± 0.03 which corresponds to a calculated state of equilibrium order/disorder at ˜390° ± 60°C, in close agreement with the probable downhole temperature of ˜340°C, Two epidote samples from the chlorite + calcite zone (1420 m, ˜265°C; 1867 m, ˜300°C) are more disordered, corresponding to calculated states of equilibrium order/disorder of >450°C, These data suggest that the analyzed epidotes from the chlorite + calcite zone are in a metastable state of substitutional order/disorder. The measured value of δDepidote from 1420 m is -96‰, which is 5-6‰ lighter than epidotes from 1867 m (δDepidote = -90‰), 2227 m (δDepidote = -91‰), and 2618 m (δDepidote = -90 ‰). When compared to the reservoir fluid from the December 1985 flow test, the derived fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between epidote and the geothermal brine is -19‰ at 1867 m and ˜340°C. This value is in accord with published experimental hydrogen isotope fractionations between iron-rich epidote and aqueous electrolyte solutions. Therefore, considering the complexity of the Salton Sea brine, the isotopic temperature is similar to the inferred downhole temperature.

  6. Selective aluminum dissolution as a means to observe the microstructure of nanocrystalline intermetallic phases from Al-Fe-Cr-Ti-Ce rapidly solidified alloy.

    PubMed

    Michalcová, Alena; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Novák, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Rapidly solidified aluminum alloys are promising materials with very fine microstructure. The microscopy observation of these materials is complicated due to overlay of fcc-Al matrix and different intermetallic phases. A possible way to solve this problem is to dissolve the Al matrix. By this process powder formed by single intermetallic phase particles is obtained. In this paper a new aqueous based dissolving agent for Al-based alloy is presented. The influence of oxidation agent (FeCl(3)) concentration on quality of extraction process was studied. PMID:23177792

  7. Simulation and optimization of Al-Fe aerospace alloy processed by laser surface remelting using geometric Multigrid solver and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariona, Moisés Meza; de Oliveira, Fabiane; Teleginski, Viviane; Machado, Siliane; Pinto, Marcio Augusto Villela

    2016-05-01

    Al-1.5 wt% Fe alloy was irradiate by Yb-fiber laser beam using the laser surface remelting (LSR) technique, generating weld fillets that covered the whole surface of the sample. The laser-treatment showed to be an efficient technology for corrosion resistance improvements. In this study, the finite element method was used to simulate the solidification processes by LSR technique. The method Multigrid was employed in order to reduce the CPU time, which is important to the viability for industrial applications. Multigrid method is a technique very promising of optimization that reduced drastically the CPU time. The result was highly satisfactory, because the CPU time has fallen dramatically in comparison when it was not used Multigrid method. To validate the result of numerical simulation with the experimental result was done the microstructural characterization of laser-treated layer by the optical microscopy and SEM techniques and however, that both results showing be consistent.

  8. Geochemistry of dissolved aluminum at low pH: Extent and significance of Al-Fe(III) coprecipitation below pH 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-España, Javier; Yusta, Iñaki; Gray, Jennifer; Burgos, William D.

    2016-02-01

    This work examines the geochemical behavior of dissolved aluminum in sulfate-rich acidic waters. Our observations were obtained during several years of geochemical and mineralogical research in the San Telmo acidic pit lake and other pit lakes of SW Spain. The work includes scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) of suspended mineral colloids found in deep lake waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (STEM, HRTEM) revealed not only the presence and formation of discrete, sub-micron Al solids like alunite, but also the abundance and distribution of Al into Fe(III) phases typical of acid mine drainage, such as schwertmannite and jarosite, at a nanometric resolution. The main conclusion emerging from our work is that the fate and transport of Al at low pH (<4.0) can be largely influenced by adsorption on and/or coprecipitation with both schwertmannite and jarosite. Under the geochemical conditions studied (SO42- = 10-2 M, Fe(III) ∼ Al = 10-3 M), alunite formation may occur at pH > 3.3, as suggested by mineralogical observations and geochemical modelling. Below this pH, and contrary to the extended assumption, Al is not truly conservative, and in the presence of ferric iron, both metals may co-precipitate at a substantial extent to form either particles of Al-rich schwertmannite (containing up to ca. 8 at.% Al with [Fe/(Fe + Al)] = 0.77) and/or crystals of H3O+- to K+-jarosite (containing up to ca. 10 at.% Al with [Fe/(Fe + Al)] = 0.54). This Al incorporation seems to take place by adsorption on particle surfaces in schwertmannite and by atomic substitution for Fe3+ in jarosite. Alunite is also unstable at this low pH range with respect to jarosite, which may lead either to isomorphic transformation and/or to chemically zoned crystals with jarositic rims around previously formed alunite cores. As a whole, the compositional spectrum of the analyzed jarosites and alunites describes a discontinuous, coupled (Al3+-Fe3+, H3O+-K+) solid solution series with an apparent gap at intermediate compositions. However, this gap seems to follow geochemical aspects more than crystallographic factors (i.e., immiscibility). The combination of this macroscopically invisible Al incorporated into Fe(III) solids along with subordinate alunite formation may cause significant Al removal even at very low pH (e.g., 20% decrease in Al concentration in San Telmo at pH < 3.1). Furthermore, this Fe(III)-Al co-precipitation may also affect the fate of toxic trace elements like As and Pb.

  9. Al, Fe, and Si compounds in Tamm and Mehra-Jackson extracts from mucky-peaty-podzolic gley soil: Contents, reserves, and profile and particle-size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Maksimova, Yu. G.

    2014-05-01

    Equal or comparable contents of Fe and Al extractable by Tamm and Mehra-Jackson solutions have been revealed in all the horizons of a loamy mucky-peaty-podzolic gley soil on binary deposits. The content of Si extractable by the Mehra-Jackson solution has exceeded that of oxalate-soluble Si by an order of magnitude. The distributions of Al in the Tamm solutions from the entire soil and its fractions of 1-5 and >5 μm are of accumulative type with a maximum in the mucky H horizon and a gradual decrease of the content with depth in relation with the analogous distribution of Al-organic complexes. The maximum content of oxalate-soluble Al in the clay fraction has been found in the eluvial ELg horizon, which can be due to the partial dissolution of Al hydroxide interlayers in soil chlorites. The distribution of Fe in the entire soil has two maximums, in the H horizon due to the accumulation of Fe-organic complexes and in the concretion-rich ELnn,g horizon due to the accumulation of Fe hydroxides. Depletion of oxalate-soluble Fe in the eluvial ELg horizon has been observed in all the fractions, which can be related to its mobilization and removal under strongly acidic conditions and the development of reductive processes, as well as the enrichment of the concretion-rich horizon with these compounds because of an increase in pH and the development of conditions favorable for water stagnation and Fe segregation.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral kulanite Ba(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2(Al,Fe3+)2(PO4)3(OH)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Granja, Amanda; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    The mineral kulanite BaFe2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3, a barium iron aluminum phosphate, has been studied by using a combination of electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX shows the mineral is homogenous with no other phases present. The Raman spectrum is dominated by an intense band at 1022 cm-1 assigned to the PO43-ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Low intensity Raman bands at 1076, 1110, 1146, 1182 cm-1 are attributed to the PO43-ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The infrared spectrum shows a complex spectral profile with overlapping bands. Multiple phosphate bending vibrations supports the concept of a reduction in symmetry of the phosphate anion. Raman spectrum at 3211, 3513 and 3533 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibrations of the OH units. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects on the molecular structure of kulanite to be assessed.

  11. Variational-average-atom-in-quantum-plasmas (VAAQP) code and virial theorem: Equation-of-state and shock-Hugoniot calculations for warm dense Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Piron, R.; Blenski, T.

    2011-02-15

    The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included.

  12. Variational-average-atom-in-quantum-plasmas (VAAQP) code and virial theorem: equation-of-state and shock-Hugoniot calculations for warm dense Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb.

    PubMed

    Piron, R; Blenski, T

    2011-02-01

    The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included. PMID:21405914

  13. Layered double hydroxides as adsorbents and carriers of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA): systems Mg-Al, Mg-Fe and Mg-Al-Fe.

    PubMed

    Bruna, F; Celis, R; Pavlovic, I; Barriga, C; Cornejo, J; Ulibarri, M A

    2009-09-15

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds [Mg(3)Al(OH)(8)]Cl x 4H(2)O; [Mg(3)Fe(OH)(8)]Cl x 4H(2)O; [Mg(3)Al(0.5)Fe(0.5)(OH)(8)]Cl x 4H(2)O (LDHs) and calcined product of [Mg(3)Al(OH)(8)]Cl x 4H(2)O, Mg(3)AlO(4.5) (HT500), were studied as potential adsorbents of the herbicide MCPA [(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid] as a function of pH, contact time and pesticide concentration, and also as support for the slow release of this pesticide, with the aim to reduce the hazardous effects that it can pose to the environment. The information obtained in the adsorption study was used for the preparation of LDH-MCPA complexes. The results showed high and rapid adsorption of MCPA on the adsorbents as well as that MCPA formulations based on LDHs and HT500 as pesticide supports displayed controlled release properties and reduced herbicide leaching in soil columns compared to a standard commercial MCPA formulation. Thereby, we conclude that the LDHs employed in this study can be used not only as adsorbents to remove MCPA from aqueous solutions, but also as supports for the slow release of this highly mobile herbicide, thus controlling its immediate availability and leaching. PMID:19380194

  14. Experimental Study on Interlayer Magnetic Coupling in Sputtered Al/Fe/Al/Gd Magnetic Multilayer Films: II. Hysteresis Curves of X-ray Magnetic Circular Dicroism at the Gd-L3 Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuhiko Sakai,; Ritthikrai Chai-Ngam,; Akihisa Koizumi,; Hisao Kobayashi,

    2010-06-01

    The spacer thickness dependence of the interlayer magnetic coupling (IMC) between Gd and Fe layers separated by Al spacers has been studied. Magnetization measurement and X-ray magnetic circular dicroism (XMCD) spectroscopy at the Gd-L3 edge have been carried out on sputtered Fe (20 Å)/Al (R Å)/Gd (40 Å) multilayer films (MLFs) for R = 0, 5, 10, and 100 and on some reference films. Experimental data at low magnetic fields below 1 kOe are carefully investigated. A simple theoretical model is introduced to evaluate the strength of IMC. The energy of IMC is represented by the term J MFe \\cdot MGd, in which MFe and MGd denote the average overall magnetic moments of Fe and Gd layers, respectively. It is found that J, which is evaluated from the magnetization curves and the Gd-XMCD signals, is 370 × 104 Oe\\cdotcm2/emu for MLF of R = 0, and can be reduced by one order of magnitude when R is changed from 0 to 10. Most of characteristic features of the experimental data are ascribed to the varing magnetization of Gd layers. It is found that 40 Å Gd layers, which are paramagnetic at 5 K when isolated using 100 Å Al spacers, show magnetic hysteresis when sandwiched between Fe layers.

  15. Variational-average-atom-in-quantum-plasmas (VAAQP) code and virial theorem: equation-of-state and shock-Hugoniot calculations for warm dense Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb.

    PubMed

    Piron, R; Blenski, T

    2011-02-01

    The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included.

  16. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  17. Evolution of Fe Bearing Intermetallics During DC Casting and Homogenization of an Al-Mg-Si Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Grant, P. S.; O'Reilly, K. A. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of iron (Fe) bearing intermetallics (Fe-IMCs) during direct chill casting and homogenization of a grain-refined 6063 aluminum-magnesium-silicon (Al-Mg-Si) alloy has been studied. The as-cast and homogenized microstructure contained Fe-IMCs at the grain boundaries and within Al grains. The primary α-Al grain size, α-Al dendritic arm spacing, IMC particle size, and IMC three-dimensional (3D) inter-connectivity increased from the edge to the center of the as-cast billet; both α c-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi Fe-IMCs were identified, and overall α c-AlFeSi was predominant. For the first time in industrial billets, the different Fe-rich IMCs have been characterized into types based on their 3D chemistry and morphology. Additionally, the role of β-AlFeSi in nucleating Mg2Si particles has been identified. After homogenization, α c-AlFeSi predominated across the entire billet cross section, with marked changes in the 3D morphology and strong reductions in inter-connectivity, both supporting a recovery in alloy ductility.

  18. The fabrication of rapidly solidified high temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, P. S.; Rateick, R. G.; Testa, A.

    The application of rapid solidification/powder metallurgy processing to metallic materials has led to a series of rapidly solidified aluminum-iron-vanadium-silicon alloys which combine a balanced set of elevated temperature strengths and ambient temperature properties critical for aerospace use. The rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloys are finding widespread interest throughout the aerospace community. However, to be fully utilized the high temperature Al-Fe-V-Si alloys must be amendable to traditional metalworking, machining and finishing operations. Powder metallurgy derived high performance alloys at times have proven difficult to fabricate. Recent progress in the fabrication of the high temperature Al-Fe-V-Si alloys into desirable product forms will be discussed, for example the production of thin foils and spun metal components. The effects of various fabrication sequences on material properties will be described.

  19. Removal of arsenic (V) from water using hierarchical flower-shaped AlOOH/Fe micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, O. V.; Glazkova, E. A.; Svarovskaya, N. V.; Berenda, A. V.; Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Lerner, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Hierarchical AlOOH/Fe micro/nanostructures with flower-shaped morphology were fabricated by the reaction of Al/Fe nanoparticles with water. Al/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of metal pairs in a nitrogen atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C forming the flower-shaped hierarchical pore structures with a high specific surface area. Al/Fe product transformations are presented by the flower-shaped pseudoboehmite surrounded by the lamellar structures enriched with ferric oxides. Flower-shaped AlOOH/Fe micro/nanostructure with flower-shaped morphology is found to serve as an effective adsorbent medium to remove As(V) from water. The adsorption capacity was 43 mg/g (pH = 6.7).

  20. Thermal batteries - Recent advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, K. K.; Laakso, E. R.

    A development status evaluation is presented for lithium aluminum-iron disulfide thermal battery systems employing inorganic salt eutectic electrolytes. A performance comparison is conducted between an LiAl/FeS2 battery and a similarly constructed Ca/CaCrO4 battery; it is found that the former is superior in virtue of both greater service life and greater energy density; energy densities of LiAl/FeS2 cells will with further development reach an energy density four times greater than that of the Ca/CaCrO4 type. In addition, LiAl/FeS2 batteries exhibit little or no electrical noise under low drain.

  1. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  2. Wetting and Interfacial Characteristics of Mg AZ61 Alloy/Galvanized Steel in Cold Metal Transfer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiaoli; Yang, Fan; Cao, Rui; Chen, Jianhong; Guo, Tingbiao

    2015-09-01

    The dynamic sessile drop method was used to study the wetting behavior of galvanized steel by molten Mg AZ61 alloy under cold metal transfer condition. The interfacial microstructures were also analyzed by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry. The observed results showed that the wetting behavior was directly determined by the wire feed speed (or the heat input). The Al-Fe intermetallic layer and Zn-rich zone were observed both at the interface and at the close of triple line. The formations of these interfacial characteristics satisfy the thermodynamic characteristic of Mg-Al/Fe and Mg-Zn/Fe systems.

  3. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  4. Comment on "High-temperature soft magnetic properties of antiperovskite nitrides ZnNFe3 and AlNFe3" by Yankun Fu, Shuai Lin, and Bosen Wang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 378 (2015) 54-58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, T.; Leineweber, A.; Dronskowski, R.

    2016-10-01

    The authors of the aforementioned manuscript have recently claimed the synthesis of the ternary nitrides ZnNFe3 (=ZnFe3N) and AlNFe3 (=AlFe3N), ordered substituted variants of the binary phase γ'-Fe4N [1]. While soft ferromagnets of such kind are presently attracting lots of attention, their history dates back for more than half a century. In particular, Al-substituted γ'-Fe4N has already been mentioned in 1961 [2], and the existence of AlFe3N has also been claimed in 2009 [3] from a two-step ammonolysis reaction combining a high-temperature sintering step and a low-temperature nitriding reaction [4]. Nonetheless, one of us had to withdraw the latter claim after finding out, by means of scanning-electron microscopy and elemental mapping, that all samples of "AlFe3N" consisted of an intimate solid mixture of γ'-Fe4N and amorphous Al2O3[5]. From what follows, we have strong reasons to believe that the authors of Ref. [1] overlooked our findings [5] and also did not synthesize ZnFe3N and AlFe3N.

  5. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  6. Analysis of tincal ore waste by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalfa, Orhan Murat; Üstündağ, Zafer; Özkırım, Ilknur; Kagan Kadıoğlu, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Etibank Borax Plant is located in Kırka-Eskişehir, Turkey. The borax waste from this plant was analyzed by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The standard addition method was used for the determination of the concentration of Al, Fe, Zn, Sn, and Ba. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Reactive trace metals in the stratified central North Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Bruland, K.W. ); Orians, K.J. ); Cowen, J.P. )

    1994-08-01

    Vertical concentration profiles of the dissolved and suspended particulate phases were determined for a suite of reactive trace metals, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd, during summertime at a station in the center of the North Pacific gyre. During summer the euphotic zone becomes stratified, forming a shallow (0-25 m), oligotrophic, mixed layer overlying a subsurface (25-140 m), strongly-stratified region. The physical, biological, and chemical structure within the euphotic zone during this period enhanced the effect of atmospheric inputs of Al, Fe, and Mn on mixed layer concentrations. For example, the concentration of dissolved Fe in the surface mixed layer was eighteen times that observed at a depth of 100 m. The observed aeolian signature of these metals matched that predicted from estimates of atmospheric input during the period between the onset of stratification and sampling. The distributions of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn all exhibited minima in the euphotic zone and increased with depth into the main thermocline. Particulate Al and Fe were then uniform with depth below 1000 m before increasing in the near bottom nepheloid layer. Average particulate phase concentrations in intermediate and deep waters of the central North Pacific were 1.0, 0.31, and 0.055 nmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] for Al, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The distribution of particulate Cd exhibited a maximum within the subsurface euphotic zone. Particulate zinc also exhibited a surface maximum, albeit a smaller one. Concentrations of particulate Zn and Cd in intermediate and deep waters were 17 and 0.2 pmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]. Substantial interbasin differences in particulate trace metals occur. Concentrations of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn were three to four times lower in the central North Pacific than recently reported for the central North Atlantic gyre, consistent with differences in atmospheric input to these two regions.

  8. Calcium phosphate formation due to pH-induced adsorption/precipitation switching along salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxmann, J. F.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    Mechanisms governing phosphorus (P) speciation in coastal sediments remain unknown due to the diversity of coastal environments and poor analytical specificity for P phases. We investigated P speciation along salinity gradients comprising diverse ecosystems in a P-enriched estuary. To determine P load effects on P speciation we compared the high P site with a P-unenriched site. To improve analytical specificity, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), authigenic apatite (carbonate fluorapatite; CFAP) and detrital apatite (fluorapatite) were quantitated in addition to Al/Fe-bound P (Al/Fe-P) and Ca-bound P (Ca-P). Sediment pH primarily affected P fractions across ecosystems and independent of the P status. Increasing pH caused a pronounced downstream transition from adsorbed Al/Fe-P to mineral Ca-P. Downstream decline in Al/Fe-P was counterbalanced by the precipitation of Ca-P. This marked upstream-to-downstream switch occurred at near-neutral sediment pH and was enhanced by increased P loads. Accordingly, the site comparison indicated two location-dependent accumulation mechanisms at the P-enriched site, which mainly resulted in elevated Al/Fe-P at pH < 6.6 (upstream; adsorption) and elevated Ca-P at pH > 6.6 (downstream; precipitation). Enhanced Ca-P precipitation by increased loads was also evident from disproportional accumulation of metastable Ca-P (Ca-PMmeta). The average Ca-Pmeta concentration was six-fold, whereas total Ca-P was only twofold higher at the P-enriched site compared to the P-unenriched site. Species concentrations showed that these largely elevated Ca-Pmeta levels resulted from transformation of fertilizer-derived Al/Fe-P to OCP and CFAP due to decreasing acidity from land to the sea. Formation of OCP and CFAP results in P retention in coastal zones, which may lead to substantial inorganic P accumulation by anthropogenic P input in near-shore sediments.

  9. Authigenic apatite and octacalcium phosphate formation due to adsorption-precipitation switching across estuarine salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxmann, J. F.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms governing phosphorus (P) speciation in coastal sediments remain largely unknown due to the diversity of coastal environments and poor analytical specificity for P phases. We investigated P speciation across salinity gradients comprising diverse ecosystems in a P-enriched estuary. To determine P load effects on P speciation we compared the high P site with a low P site. Octacalcium phosphate (OCP), authigenic apatite (carbonate fluorapatite, CFAP) and detrital apatite (fluorapatite) were quantitated in addition to Al/Fe-bound P (Al/Fe-P) and Ca-bound P (Ca-P). Gradients in sediment pH strongly affected P fractions across ecosystems and independent of the site-specific total P status. We found a pronounced switch from adsorbed Al/Fe-P to mineral Ca-P with decreasing acidity from land to sea. This switch occurred at near-neutral sediment pH and has possibly been enhanced by redox-driven phosphate desorption from iron oxyhydroxides. The seaward decline in Al/Fe-P was counterbalanced by the precipitation of Ca-P. Correspondingly, two location-dependent accumulation mechanisms occurred at the high P site due to the switch, leading to elevated Al/Fe-P at pH < 6.6 (landward; adsorption) and elevated Ca-P at pH > 6.6 (seaward; precipitation). Enhanced Ca-P precipitation by increased P loads was also evident from disproportional accumulation of metastable Ca-P (Ca-Pmeta) at the high P site. Here, sediments contained on average 6-fold higher Ca-Pmeta levels compared with the low P site, although these sediments contained only 2-fold more total Ca-P than the low P sediments. Phosphorus species distributions indicated that these elevated Ca-Pmeta levels resulted from transformation of fertilizer-derived Al/Fe-P to OCP and CFAP in nearshore areas. Formation of CFAP as well as its precursor, OCP, results in P retention in coastal zones and can thus lead to substantial inorganic P accumulation in response to anthropogenic P input.

  10. Oxide scales formed on Fe-Cr-Al-based model alloys exposed to oxygen containing molten lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenburger, A.; Jianu, A.; Doyle, S.; Bruns, M.; Fetzer, R.; Heinzel, A.; DelGiacco, M.; An, W.; Müller, G.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the state of the art oxide maps concerning oxidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Al model alloys at 800 and 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere, ten compositions, belonging to this alloy system, were designed in order to tap the borders of the alumina stability domain, during their exposure to oxygen (10-6 wt.%) containing lead, at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Eight alloys, Fe-6Cr-6Al, Fe-8Cr-6Al, Fe-10Cr-5Al, Fe-14Cr-4Al, Fe-16Cr-4Al, Fe-6Cr-8Al, Fe-10Cr-7Al and Fe-12Cr-5Al, were found to be protected against corrosion in oxygen containing lead, either by a duplex layer (Fe3O4 + (Fe1-x-yCrxAly)3O4) or by (Fe1-x-yCrxAly)3O4, depending on the temperature at which they were exposed. Two alloys namely Fe-12Cr-7Al and Fe-16Cr-6Al were found to form transient aluminas, κ-Al2O3 (at 400 and 500 °C) and θ-Al2O3 (at 600 °C), as protective oxide scale against corrosion in oxygen containing lead. An oxide map illustrating the stability domain of alumina, grown on Fe-Cr-Al alloys when exposed to molten, oxygen containing lead, was drawn. The map includes also additional points, extracted from literature and corresponding to alumina forming alloys, when exposed to HLMs, which fit very well with our findings. Chromium and aluminium contents of 12.5-17 wt.% and 6-7.5 wt.%, respectively, are high enough to obtain thin, stable and protective alumina scales on Fe-Cr-Al-based alloys exposed to oxygen containing lead at 400, 500 and 600 °C. For the temperature range and exposure times used during the current evaluation, the growth rate of the alumina scale was low. No area with detached scale was observed and no trace of α-Al2O3 was detected.

  11. Synthesis of low-size flower-like AlOOH structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bakina, Olga V. E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Glazkova, Elena A. E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Psakhie, Sergey G.; Svarovskaya, Natalia V.; Khorobraya, Elena G.

    2014-11-14

    Al/Cu, Al/Zn, and Al/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of metal pairs in an argon atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C forming flower-like hierarchical porous structures with a high specific surface area. As the Al/Cu nanopowder is oxidized with water, flower-like pseudoboehmite composite structures are formed with the size of under 1.0 μm; structurally heterogeneous electron-dense spherical inclusions of unreacted metal copper and intermetallides are identified inside them. Al/Fe product transformations are presented by the flower-like pseudoboehmite surrounded by lamellar structures enriched with ferric oxides. Al/Zn nanoparticles react with water, forming the flower-like pseudoboehmite and mainly hexagonal zinc oxide laminae. The composite particles obtained can be used as antibacterial agents in manufacturing medical supplies.

  12. Safety characteristics of lithium-alloy/metal sulfide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.; Vissers, D.R.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-06-01

    A battery using a Li-Al negative electrode, a molten LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte, a FeS{sub 2} or a FeS positive electrode, and a stable chalcogenide-based ceramic sealant is under development. Full-size bipolar Li-Al/FeS and Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells (13 cm dia) and four- cell stacks are being built and tested for electric-vehicle use. Chemical hazards, toxicity, thermal hazards, and hazards from electrical abuse are analyzed. The safety tests that have been conducted to date, including crash tests, are discussed; although they have not been extensive, they indicate that these batteries are inherently safe. A table of the preliminary hazard assessment is included.

  13. Development of powder metallurgy Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    In this continuing study, the development of mechanically alloyed heat resistant aluminum alloys for aircraft were studied to develop higher strength targets and higher service temperatures. The use of higher alloy additions to MA Al-Fe-Co alloys, employment of prealloyed starting materials, and higher extrusion temperatures were investigated. While the MA Al-Fe-Co alloys exhibited good retention of strength and ductility properties at elevated temperatures and excellent stability of properties after 1000 hour exposure at elevated temperatures, a sensitivity of this system to low extrusion strain rates adversely affected the level of strength achieved. MA alloys in the Al-Li family showed excellent notched toughness and property stability after long time exposures at elevated temperatures. A loss of Li during processing and the higher extrusion temperature 482 K (900 F) resulted in low mechanical strengths. Subsequent hot and cold working of the MA Al-Li had only a mild influence on properties.

  14. Analysis of interface states of FeO-Al2O3 spinel composite film/p-Si diode by conductance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataroğlu, Adem; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El-Tantawy, Farid; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoğlu, F.

    2016-03-01

    The interface states and series resistance properties of the Al/FeO-Al2O3/p-Si diode were investigated by the capacitance ( C) and conductance ( G) measurements. The measured capacitance and conductance values were corrected to eliminate the effect of series resistance to obtain the real capacitance and conductance values of the diode. The C and G characteristics indicate the presence of interface states at the interface of the diode. The interface states density, N ss, was determined using Hill-Coleman method, and it was found that the density of interface states is decreased with the frequency. The obtained results suggest that the series resistance and interface states affect significantly the electronic parameters of the Al/FeO-Al2O3/p-Si diode.

  15. The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, C E; Lacerda, L D; Ovalle, A R C; Souza, C M M; Gobo, A A R; Santos, D O

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling site compared to stations far from the site. Average concentrations of Al, Cu, and in particular of Ni, were significantly higher at the end of the drilling operation than at the beginning. Comparison between drilling area sediments with control sediments of the continental platform, however, showed no significant difference in trace metal concentrations. Under the operation conditions of this drilling event, the results show that while changes in some trace metal concentrations do occur during drilling operations, they are not significantly large to be distinguished from natural variability of the local background concentrations.

  16. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  17. The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, C E; Lacerda, L D; Ovalle, A R C; Souza, C M M; Gobo, A A R; Santos, D O

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling site compared to stations far from the site. Average concentrations of Al, Cu, and in particular of Ni, were significantly higher at the end of the drilling operation than at the beginning. Comparison between drilling area sediments with control sediments of the continental platform, however, showed no significant difference in trace metal concentrations. Under the operation conditions of this drilling event, the results show that while changes in some trace metal concentrations do occur during drilling operations, they are not significantly large to be distinguished from natural variability of the local background concentrations. PMID:12222892

  18. Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

  19. Synchrotron radiation studies of local structure and bonding in transition metal aluminides and rare earth transition metal magnetic nitrides. Final report, August 1, 1990--July 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Budnick, J.I.; Pease, D.M.

    1995-05-01

    The following areas of study are reported on: bonding and near neighbor force constants in NiAl, CoAl, FeAl via temperature dependent EXAFS; alloys formed when Fe or Ga is microalloyed into a NiAl matrix; EXAFS studies of nitrided versus non nitrided Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}; and transition metal x-ray spectra as related to magnetic moments.

  20. Removal of turbidity, COD and BOD from secondarily treated sewage water by electrolytic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2013-03-01

    A preliminary study was conducted for the removal of turbidity (TD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from secondarily treated sewage (STS) water through the electrolytic batch mode experiments with DC power supply (12 V) up to 30 min and using a novel concept of electrode combinations of different metals. The different surface areas (40, 80, 120 and 160 cm2) of the electrodes as a function of cross-sectional area of the reactor and the effect of inter-electrode distances (2.5-10 cm) on the electrolysis of STS water were studied. This study revealed that the effluent can be effectively treated with the aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrode combinations (Al-Fe and Fe-Al). The maximum removal of TD (81.51 %), COD (74.36 %) and BOD (70.86 %) was recorded with Al-Fe electrode system, while the removal of these parameters was found to be 71.11, 64.95 and 61.87 %, respectively, with Fe-Al electrode combination. The Al-Fe electrode combination had lower electrical energy consumption (2.29 kWh/m3) as compared to Fe-Al electrode combination (2.50 kWh/m3). The economic evaluation of electrodes showed that Al-Fe electrode combination was better than Fe-Al electrode combination. This revealed the superiority of aluminum as a sacrificial electrode over that of iron which can probably be attributed to better flocculation capabilities of aluminum than that of iron.

  1. Effect of high-temperature exposure on the structure of inertia-friction welds in RS/PM Al-8. 5Fe-1. 3V-1. 7Si

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, H.H.; Baeslack, W.A. III . Dept. of Welding Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 8009 (formerly FVS0812) is a dispersion-strengthened Al-Fe-V-Si alloy produced by rapid solidification/powder metallurgy (RS/PM) processing. This relatively new family of high-performance alloys is based on hypereutectic Al-Fe compositions (8.5--12 wt.% Fe) with lesser ternary and quaternary additions of V and Si. Through RS/PM processing, a unique microstructure is obtained that consists of a high-volume fraction of nearly spherical, submicron Al[sub 13](Fe,V)[sub 3]Si (body-centered cubic) dispersoids in a fine-grained alpha aluminum matrix. The unique microstructural characteristics of these RS/PM alloys restricts the application and effectiveness of many conventional fusion welding processes for their joining, particularly if a high joint efficiency is required. Detailed analysis of the weld region revealed that extensive high-temperature plastic deformation at the center of the weld heat-and-deformation zone (HDZ) effectively homogenizes the heterogeneous base metal microstructure. The application of Al-Fe-V-Si alloys at high temperatures (i.e., >350 C) requires an understanding of thermal effects on the alloy microstructure and mechanical properties.

  2. The nature and origin of smectites in the Kerguelen-Heard Archipelagoes of the southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Mario; Chapuy, Bruno; Pons, Jean-Claude; Latouche, Claude

    1991-04-01

    The clay phases of the Quaternary volcanics, soils and sediments from the northern part of the Kerguelen-Heard Plateau, southern Indian Ocean, are essentially well-crystallized smectites. The origin of these smectites was studied based on variations in their mineralogy and their different stages of development in the different environments. This study indicates: Two major groups of smectites occur in the hydrothermal alteration products of the Kerguelen Island volcanic formations Mg s.s. and Fe-Mg saponites of the basalts, and Al-Fe and Al beidellites in the other formations. In the soils formed on the volcanic substratum, the well-crystallized smectites are mainly of the Al beidellite type and, secondarily, of the Al-Fe beidellite type. In the Morbihan Gulf sediments, the well-crystallized smectites are dominant and of the Al-Fe and Al beidellite type: these smectites are inherited from the volcanic formations and soils of the Kerguelen Islands. In the Quaternary sediments of the Kerguelen-Heard Plateau, the well-crystallized and relatively abundant smectites are of the Mg-rich, Al nontronite type. The absence of related links with the Kerguelen Island smectites, the substantial dissolution of the siliceous tests, the degree of silica saturation of the water context and the occurrence of glauconite, the first stage of formation being a rich-Mg ferriferous smectite, supports the hypothesis of an authigenous origin for these smectites rather than originating by inheritance from the volcanic islands.

  3. Effect of trace elements vanadium and nickel on iron intermetallic phases formation and distribution in DC cast 5xxx series aluminum ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaofeng

    AA5657 alloy is one of the important members of 5xxx-series alloys. It has application in many fields as packing, electricity, architectural, and printing. These applications require high quality surface finishing, and the alloy ingots require homogeneous microstructure. In the industry of DC (direct-chill) casting of 1xxx and 5xxx-series aluminium ingots, there exist different cooling rates from the casting surface to the ingot center. Thus, different Fe intermetallic phases such as AlmFe, Al6Fe, alpha-AlFeSi and Al3Fe can form preferentially in different positions of the ingot. The Fe intermetallic phase transition in DC casting ingot may cause microstructure inhomogeneities, which in turn cause the so called fir-tree zones (FTZs) in the ingots as well as streaks and bands on the Al sheets. Nowadays, with the increase of impurity in aluminium smelting raw materials (coke, alumina, etc.), the levels of trace elements present in the primary metal is gradually increasing. The impact of this increase on the aluminium transformation process and the final products is uncertain. Thus, there is a clear need to better understand these impacts, which will allow identifying ways to mitigate the negative impacts. The study presented in this thesis was performed on AA5657 alloys to study the effect of trace elements V and Ni on Fe intermetallic phases formation and distribution. A slice of AA1050 alloy ingot with visible FTZs was also studied to characterize the Fe intermetallic phases transition across the FTZs. A DC simulator was built in the lab, which can reproduce the solidification conditions in the sub-surface regions of industry ingots. The methods for the characterization of Fe intermetallic particles were developed in this research. AlmFe, Al6Fe, alpha-AlFeSi and alpha-Al3Fe intermetallic phases were successfully identified by using Deep-etching method, EDS and EBSD technique in combination. Quantitative analysis of the Fe intermetallic particles was carried out by

  4. The Infidelity of Melt Inclusions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. R.; Freda, C.

    2007-12-01

    Melt inclusions are routinely used as evidence of magmatic compositions prior to volcanic eruptions. However, it has long been known that kinetic processes can modify melt inclusion compositions during trapping. We investigated the fidelity of melt inclusions as records of magmatic compositions by artificially creating melt inclusions through crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxene from a hawaiitic basalt bulk composition at 1.0 GPa, 1150 °C, or 75 °C undercooling. We compared melt inclusion compositions to those of melts 100's of μm away from the crystals and found measurable differences in the compositions. We modeled the concentration profiles of Al, Fe, P, S, and Cl in front of the crystals using classical impurity rejection theory during growth at a constant rate followed by a growth hiatus during which diffusive relaxation occurred. The values of the growth rates and times were constrained by measured crystal sizes and the experimental duration. The diffusion coefficients for the elements investigated were either calculated from transition state theory (Al, Fe) or measured in the same bulk composition as that used for this study (S and Cl from the literature, new measurements for P). An envelope of models bracket the observed compositional profiles of the elements studied and predict enrichments, or depletions, at the crystal-melt interface that are quantitatively similar to those seen in the melt inclusions. The differences between the melt far from the crystals and that at the interface are only 20% (relative) for the major elements, Al, Fe, but are about 50% for S and Cl and can exceed 100% for P. These differences correlate with the relative chemical diffusion coefficients of these ions in the melt. Based upon these experiments and models we advise caution in the use of melt inclusions as indicators of pre-eruptive melt compositions.

  5. Aluminum plasmonics for enhanced visible light absorption and high efficiency water splitting in core-multishell nanowire photoelectrodes with ultrathin hematite shells.

    PubMed

    Ramadurgam, Sarath; Lin, Tzu-Ging; Yang, Chen

    2014-08-13

    The poor internal quantum efficiency (IQE) arising from high recombination and insufficient absorption is one of the critical challenges toward achieving high efficiency water splitting in hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoelectrodes. By combining the nanowire (NW) geometry with the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor-metal-metal oxide core-multishell (CMS) NWs, we theoretically demonstrate an effective route to strongly improve absorption within ultrathin (sub-50 nm) hematite layers. We show that Si-Al-Fe2O3 CMS NWs exhibit photocurrent densities comparable to Si-Ag-Fe2O3 CMS and outperform Fe2O3, Si-Fe2O3 CS and Si-Au-Fe2O3 CMS NWs. Specifically; Si-Al-Fe2O3 CMS NWs reach photocurrent densities of ∼ 11.81 mA/cm(2) within a 40 nm thick hematite shell which corresponding to a solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 14.5%. This corresponds to about 93% of the theoretical maximum for bulk hematite. Therefore, we establish Al as an excellent alternative plasmonic material compared to precious metals in CMS structures. Further, the absorbed photon flux is close to the NW surface in the CMS NWs, which ensures the charges generated can reach the reaction site with minimal recombining. Although the NW geometry is anisotropic, the CMS NWs exhibit polarization independent absorption over a large range of incidence angles. Finally, we show that Si-Al-Fe2O3 CMS NWs demonstrate photocurrent densities greater than ∼ 8.2 mA/cm(2) (STH efficiency of 10%) for incidence angles as large as 45°. These theoretical results strongly establish the effectiveness of the Al-based CMS NWs for achieving scalable and cost-effective photoelectrodes with improved IQE, enabling a novel route toward high efficiency water splitting.

  6. Assessment of elemental and NROM/TENORM hazard potential from non-nuclear industries in North Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Mekawy, A F; Badran, H M; Seddeek, M K; Sharshar, T; Elnimr, T

    2015-09-01

    Non-nuclear industries use raw materials containing significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The processing of these materials may expose workers engaged in or even people living near such sites to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) above the natural background. Inductively coupled plasma and gamma ray spectrometry have been used to determine major and trace elements and radionuclide concentrations in various samples, respectively, in order to investigate the environmental impact of coal mining and cement plant in North Sinai, Egypt. Generally, very little attention was directed to the large volumes of waste generated by either type of industrial activities. Different samples were analyzed including various raw materials, coal, charcoal, Portland and white cement, sludge, and wastes. Coal mine and cement plant workers dealing with waste and kaolin, respectively, are subjected to a relatively high annual effective dose. One of the important finding is the enhancement of all measured elements and radionuclides in the sludge found in coal mine. It may pose an environmental threat because of its large volume and its use as combustion material. The mine environment may have constituted Al, Fe, Cr, and V pollution source for the local area. Higher concentration of Al, Fe, Mn, B, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, and TENORM were found in Portland cement and Zn in white cement. Coal has higher concentrations of Al, Fe, B, Co, Cr, and V as well as (226)Ra and (232)Th. The compiled results from the present study and different worldwide investigations demonstrate the obvious unrealistic ranges normally used for (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in coal and provided ranges for coal, Portland and white cement, gypsum, and limestone. PMID:26297416

  7. Possible indication of an A-dependence of R in deep-inelastic electron scattering from nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of R for deuterium, He, Al, Fe and Au were made at Q/sup 2/ = 5 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ and x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. An indication of a possible A-dependence of R has been found which would result in large differences among sigma/sup A//sigma/sup d/, F/sub 2//sup A//F/sub 2//sup d/ and F/sub 1//sup A//F/sub 1//sup d/. 7 references, 4 figures.

  8. The Effect of Gaseous Additives on Dynamic Pressure Output and Ignition Sensitivity of Nanothermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszynski, Jan; Doorenbos, Zac; Walters, Ian; Redner, Paul; Kapoor, Deepak; Swiatkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    This contribution addresses important combustion characteristics of nanothermite systems. In this research the following nanothermites were investigated: a) Al-Bi2O3, b)Al-Fe2O3 and c)Al-Bi2O3-Fe2O3. The effect of various gasifying additives (such as nitrocellulose (NC) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)) as well as reactant stoichiometry, reactant particle size and shape on processability, ignition delay time and dynamic pressure outputs at different locations in a combustion chamber will be presented. In addition, this contribution will report electrostatic and friction sensitivities of standard and modified nanothermites.

  9. Natural weathering of archaeo-metallurgical slags: an analog for present day vitrified wastesL'altération naturelle des scories de la métallurgie ancienne : un analogue de déchets vitrifiés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé-Le Carlier, Cécile; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Ploquin, Alain; Royer, Jean-Jacques

    2000-02-01

    The study of the natural alteration of ancient vitreous slags (100 to 4 000 years) suggests a single global mechanism. In a first stage, weathering consists of a selective extraction of the modifier cations of glass (including Pb and Ba). This phenomenon is associated with an increase of the solution pH, inducing the glass dissolution. The elements with a weak limit of solubility remain in place and can form hydroxides (Al, Fe). Pb and Ba are extracted from weathered glass. Pb is located in Fe-hydroxides, Ba may form sulfides. The rate of alteration varies from 20 to 180 μm per 1 000 years.

  10. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  11. Up-and-coming IMCs. [Intermetallic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Randy; Noebe, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    While the good oxidation and environmental resistance, high melting points, and comparatively low densities of such ordered intermetallics as Ti3Al, NiAl, FeAl, and NbAl3 render them good candidates for advanced aerospace structures, their poor toughness at low temperatures and low strength at elevated temperatures have prompted the development of fiber-reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites (IMCs) with more balanced characteristics. Fabrication methods for continuous-fiber IMCs under development include the P/M 'powder cloth' method, the foil/fiber method, and thermal spraying. The ultimate success of IMCs depends on fibers truly compatible with the matrix materials.

  12. Metal/metal exothermic reactions induced by low velocity impact

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, D.L.; Davis, J.J.; Miller, P.J.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses experimental results from an effort conducted to discern the basic mechanism of reactions in porous metal/metal compositions under rapid plastic flow conditions. Small-scale impact tests were performed on various intermetallic mixtures: 3CuO + 2Al, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 2Al, Ni + Al, and 5Ti + 3Si. The addition of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) to the metal/metal mixtures has been demonstrated to affect the extent of the reactions. Real-time emissivity and species evolution measurements of the reacting materials were used to discern the chemical reactions occurring under rapid plastic flow conditions.

  13. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1986-01-01

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  14. Deetherification process

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1985-01-01

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  15. Formation of calcium in the products of iron oxide-aluminum thermite combustion in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, A. A.; Gromov, A. M.; Popenko, E. M.; Sergienko, A. V.; Sabinskaya, O. G.; Raab, B.; Teipel, U.

    2016-10-01

    The composition of condensed products resulting from the combustion of thermite mixtures (Al + Fe2O3) in air is studied by precise methods. It is shown that during combustion, calcium is formed and stabilized in amounts of maximal 0.55 wt %, while is missing from reactants of 99.7 wt % purity. To explain this, it is hypothesized that a low-energy nuclear reaction takes place alongside the reactions of aluminum oxidation and nitridation, resulting in the formation of calcium (Kervran-Bolotov reaction).

  16. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  17. Deetherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1985-11-05

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isoolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  18. Reflectivity (visible and near IR), Moessbauer, static magnetic, and X ray diffraction properties of aluminum-substituted hematites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Schulze, Darrell G.; Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Agresti, David G.; Shelfer, Tad D.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of substituting iron by aluminum in polymorphs of Fe2O3 and FeOOH on their reflectivity characteristics was investigated by comparing data on visible and NIR reflectivities and on static magnetic, XRD, and Moessbauer properties for a family of aluminum-substituted hematites alpha-(Fe,Al)2O3, with compositions where the values of the Al/(Al+Fe) ratio were up to 0.61. Samples were prepared by oxidation of magnetite, dehydroxylation of goethite, and direct precipitation. The analytical methods used for obtaining diffuse reflectivity spectra (350-2200 nm), Moessbauer spectra, and static magnetic data are those described by Morris et al. (1989).

  19. Analysis of vegetable seedlings grown in contact with Apollo 14 lunar surface fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Johnson, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of plant seedlings treated with lunar material, grown for 14 to 21 days, and then subjected to chemical analyses and other measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether plants growing in contact with lunar-surface fines contained a different elemental composition compared with untreated seedlings. The results indicate a direct interaction between germfree plants and lunar material. Treated plants dissolved and absorbed significant quantities of Al, Fe, and Ti from the lunar fines. Cabbage and Brussel sprouts were particularly efficient in the dissolution and absorption of Mn.

  20. Creep Deformation of B2 Alumindes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The creep resistance and elevated temperature deformation mechanisms in CoAl, FeAl, and NiAl are reviewed. The stress and temperature dependencies of the steady state creep rate, the primary creep behavior, the dislocation substructure, and the response during transient tests are used as the main indicators of the deformation processes. In single phase intermetallics, the influence of grain size, stoichiometry, and solid solution hardening have been examined. In addition, the effect of adding dispersoids, precipitates, and other types of reinforcements to improve creep strength are compared.

  1. Solubility of hydrogen in metals and its effect of pore-formation and embrittlement. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahani, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements on hydrogen solubility were determined by evaluating solubility equations and interaction coefficients. The solubility of dry hydrogen at one atmosphere was investigated in liquid aluminum, Al-Ti, Al-Si, Al-Fe, liquid gold, Au-Cu, and Au-Pd. The design of rapid heating and high pressure casting furnaces used in meta foam experiments is discussed as well as the mechanism of precipitation of pores in melts, and the effect of hydrogen on the shrinkage porosity of Al-Cu and Al-Si alloys. Hydrogen embrittlement in iron base alloys is also examined.

  2. Third element effect in the surface zone of Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airiskallio, E.; Nurmi, E.; Heinonen, M. H.; Väyrynen, I. J.; Kokko, K.; Ropo, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Pitkänen, H.; Alatalo, M.; Kollár, J.; Johansson, B.; Vitos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The third element effect to improve the high temperature corrosion resistance of the low-Al Fe-Cr-Al alloys is suggested to involve a mechanism that boosts the recovering of the Al concentration to the required level in the Al-depleted zone beneath the oxide layer. We propose that the key factor in this mechanism is the coexistent Cr depletion that helps to maintain a sufficient Al content in the depleted zone. Several previous experiments related to our study support that conditions for such a mechanism to be functional prevail in real oxidation processes of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  3. Analysis of the physical and chemical aspects of leaching behavior in lead and chromium-doped portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.C. ); Cocke, D.L. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Interactions between simulated waste and Type 1 Portland cement were evaluated. Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} were mixed with cement to produce waste forms; these samples were leached using a Modified Extraction Procedure. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to correlate matrix structural changes to the addition of metal nitrates and subsequent leaching of waste forms. Changes in elemental composition through the leached samples were measured for the added metals and Ca, Si, Al, Fe and S using electron dispersion spectroscopy.

  4. Tuning the reactivity of TEMPO by coordination to a Lewis acid: isolation and reactivity of MCl3(η1-TEMPO) (M = Fe, Al).

    PubMed

    Scepaniak, Jeremiah J; Wright, Ashley M; Lewis, Richard A; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2012-11-28

    Addition of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) to MCl(3) (M = Fe, Al) results in the formation of MCl(3)(η(1)-TEMPO) [M = Fe (1), Al (2)]. Both 1 and 2 oxidize alcohols to generate ketones or aldehydes along with the reduced complexes MCl(3)(η(1)-TEMPOH) [M = Fe (3), Al (4)]. Complexes 1-4 were fully characterized, including analysis by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, control experiments indicated that neither MCl(3) (M = Al, Fe) nor TEMPO are capable of effecting the oxidation of alcohols independently.

  5. Influence of the preparation methods on the structure and magnetic properties of nanosized Al-substituted barium hexaferrite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, P.; Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Vertruyen, B.; Henrist, C.; Closet, R.; Cloots, R.; Zaleski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies on the correlation between the method of preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanosized monodomain Al-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaAlFe11O19) powders. The powders were obtained by the co-precipitation and single microemulsion methods. The particles in the samples had a size between 80 nm and 135 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. The value of the saturation magnetization Ms measured was very high, namely, 66.12 emu/g. The hysteresis loop was very narrow, with the coercivity Hc being 163 Oe, which indicated that the particles were in a near-superparamagnetic state.

  6. Geochemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of selected metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Khazaali, Aida; Molamohyeddin, Neda; Afkhami, Majid; Nourbakhsh, Shahram; Dehghani, Mohsen; Aghaei, Sina; Firouzbakht, Mohammad

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to geochemical speciation of metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order: Al>Fe>Cr>Ni>V>Zn>Cu>Co>As>Pb>Cd. The results of sequential extraction procedure revealed that all metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Among the metals, Cu and As exhibited higher bioavailability. The risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that Cu, As and Cd had medium environmental risk at some sampling sites. Based on enrichment factor (EF), Cd and As had moderate to significant enrichment. PMID:27210564

  7. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition of single-wall carbon nanotubes at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Cantoro, Mirco; Hofmann, Stephan; Pisana, Simone; Scardaci, Vittorio; Parvez, Atlus; Ducati, Caterina; Ferrari, Andrea C; Blackburn, Arthur M; Wang, Kai-You; Robertson, John

    2006-06-01

    We report surface-bound growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) at temperatures as low as 350 degrees C by catalytic chemical vapor deposition from undiluted C2H2. NH3 or H2 exposure critically facilitates the nanostructuring and activation of sub-nanometer Fe and Al/Fe/Al multilayer catalyst films prior to growth, enabling the SWNT nucleation at lower temperatures. We suggest that carbon nanotube growth is governed by the catalyst surface without the necessity of catalyst liquefaction.

  8. Feasibility of meltcasing strontium fluoride to produce high-density heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    A modest proof-of-principle effort has been conducted to investigate melt casting as a process for compacting SrF/sub 2/ to near theoretical density. A nonradioactive SrF/sub 2/ mixture, similar in chemical composition and method of prepartion to SrF/sub 2/ encapsulated at the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was used for the test evaluations. Hard, dimensionally stable, monolithic ingots that are >98% of theoretical density have been produced. Significant chemical purification from Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Na and Zr has been demonstrated.

  9. Beryllium isotopes as tracers of Lake Lisan (last Glacial Dead Sea) hydrology and the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmaker, Reuven; Stein, Mordechai; Beer, Jürg; Christl, Marcus; Fink, David; Lazar, Boaz

    2014-08-01

    The content of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (t1/2=1.39 Ma) in lacustrine sediments that deposit in lakes with a large watershed is susceptible to both climate and cosmogenic production rate variations. In order to distinguish between these two controls, we measured 10Be and major elements in several sections of the annually laminated sediments of the Lake Lisan (the last Glacial precursor of the Dead Sea) that are composed of detrital sediments and primary (evaporitic) aragonites. The sections were selected to represent regional hydrology and climate as reflected by different lake configurations (level rise, drop and high-stands) and rapid change in the 10Be production rate during the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. Since the short-lived cosmogenic “sister” of 10Be, 7Be (t1/2=53.3 d) has virtually no recycled component, the recycled 10Be in Lake Lisan detrital sediments was evaluated by measuring 7Be in their modern equivalents: modern flood suspended matter, dust and mud cracks. Our results demonstrate that although the recycled 10Be component is significant, secular variations in the 10Be concentration in Lake Lisan sediments correlate with hydrological variations and geomagnetic excursions. During periods of moderate variations in 10Be production rate, the 10Be concentration in the Lisan detrital sediments positively correlates with lake level, Al + Fe content and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. These correlations suggest that the 10Be is adsorbed on the fine silicate component (probably clays) of the detrital laminae. The fine silicates together with carbonates were transported to Dead Sea drainage basin mainly as airborne dust that after a short residence time was washed into Lake Lisan as flood suspended matter. We suggest that preferential dissolution of carbonates in the flood suspended matter concentrated the residual fine component leading to the positive correlation between 10Be and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. During periods of increased water

  10. Examination of metals from aerospace-related activity in surface water samples from sites surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida.

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Scheidt, Douglas M; Lowers, Russell H; Nocito, Brian A; Young, Vaneica Y; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-05-01

    Metal contamination from Space Shuttle launch activity was examined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy in a two-tier study sampling surface water collected from several sites at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in east central Florida. The primary study examined both temporal changes in baseline metal concentrations (19 metals) in surface water (1996 to 2009, 11 sites) samples collected at specific long-term monitoring sites and metal deposition directly associated with Space Shuttle launch activity at two Launch Complexes (LC39A and LC39B). A secondary study examined metal concentrations at additional sites and increased the amount of elements measured to 48 elements. Our examination places a heavy focus on those metals commonly associated with launch operations (e.g., Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn), but a brief discussion of other metals (As, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Pb) is also included. While no observable accumulation of metals occurred during the time period of the study, the data obtained postlaunch demonstrated a dramatic increase for Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Comparing overall trends between the primary and secondary baseline surface water concentrations, elevated concentrations were generally observed at sampling stations located near the launch complexes and from sites isolated from major water systems. While there could be several natural and anthropogenic sources for metal deposition at KSC, the data in this report indicate that shuttle launch events are a significant source.

  11. Evolution of the Spectral Emissivity and Phase Transformations of the Al-Si Coating on Usibor® 1500P Steel During Austenitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cangji; Daun, Kyle J.; Wells, Mary A.

    2016-08-01

    Usibor® 1500P coupons are austenitized in a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator using a two-step heating procedure in an argon atmosphere. Variations in spectral emissivity are measured in-situ using a near infrared spectrometer and ex situ with a Fourier transform infrared reflectometer. Microstructural evolution and surface roughness are investigated using optical microscopy, FE-scanning electron microscopy, and a surface profilometer. A series of phase transformations of Al-Fe-Si intermetallic phases at the coating/steel substrate interface cause the surface phase and surface roughness to change, which in turn influences the spectral emissivity. At the beginning of the first heating step, the coupons have very low spectral emissivity, due to the molten Al-Si coating. Spectral emissivity increases significantly with increasing soak time from 5 to 12 minutes, associated with the surface phase transformation of the coating into Al7Fe2Si intermetallic phase and an increase in surface roughness. Through the second step heating at 1173 K (900 °C), the spectral emissivity shows a gradually decreasing trend with increasing soak time, caused by the surface phase transformation from Al5Fe2 into AlFe intermetallic phase with a decrease in surface roughness.

  12. Natural colloidal P and its contribution to plant P uptake.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Daniela; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-03-17

    Phosphorus (P) bioavailability depends on its concentration and speciation in solution. Andisols and Oxisols have very low soil solution concentration of free orthophosphate, as they contain high concentrations of strongly P-sorbing minerals (Al/Fe oxyhydroxides, allophanes). Free orthophosphate is the form of P taken up by plants, but it is not the only P species present in the soil solution. Natural colloidal P (P associated with Al, Fe, and organic matter of sizes ranging from 1 to 1000 nm) constitutes an important fraction of soil solution P in these soils; however, its availability has not been considered. We measured the uptake of P by wheat (Triticum aestivum) from radiolabeled nonfiltered (colloid-containing) and 3-kDa filtered (nearly colloid-free) soil-water extracts from Andisols and Oxisols. In the Andisol extracts, P uptake was up to 5-fold higher from the nonfiltered solutions than the corresponding 3-kDa filtered solutions. In the Oxisol extract, no difference in P uptake between both solutions was observed. Also the diffusional flux of P as measured with the DGT technique was larger in the nonfiltered than in the 3-kDa filtered solutions. Our results suggest that colloidal P from Andisols is not chemically inert and contributes to plant uptake of P. PMID:25719745

  13. Fragipan horizon fragmentation in slaking experiments with amendment materials and ryegrass root tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Karathanasis, A D; Murdock, L W; Matocha, C J; Grove, J; Thompson, Y L

    2014-01-01

    Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB), fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC), D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5-18.8 mm compared to the 44.2-47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in solution were ambiguous. The poor efficiency of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments was attributed to their high ionic strength, while the high efficiency of the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and rye grass root solutions to their high sodium soluble ratio (SSR). A slaking mechanism is proposed suggesting that aqueous solutions with high SSR penetrate faster into the fragipan capillaries and generate the critical swelling pressure and shearing stress required to rupture the fragipan into several fragments. Additional fragmentation occurs in a followup stage during which potential Si, Al, Fe, and Mn binding agents may be released into solution. Field experiments testing these findings are in progress. PMID:25254233

  14. Numerical Study of Microstructural Evolution During Homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee; Johnson, David R.; Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Microstructural evolution during homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn alloys occurs in two stages at different length scales: while holding at the homogenization temperature (diffusion on the scale of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in micrometers) and during quenching to room temperature (dispersoid precipitation at the nanometer to submicron scale). Here a numerical study estimates microstructural changes during both stages. A diffusion-based model developed to simulate evolution at the SDAS length scale predicts homogenization times and microstructures matching experiments. That model is coupled with a Kampmann Wagner Neumann-based precipitate nucleation and growth model to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during posthomogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. A homogenization schedule of 853 K (580 °C) for 8 hours, followed by cooling at 250 K/h, is suggested to optimize microstructures for easier extrusion, consisting of minimal α-Al(FeMn)Si, no β-AlFeSi, and Mg2Si dispersoids <1 μm size.

  15. Examination of metals from aerospace-related activity in surface water samples from sites surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida.

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Scheidt, Douglas M; Lowers, Russell H; Nocito, Brian A; Young, Vaneica Y; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-05-01

    Metal contamination from Space Shuttle launch activity was examined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy in a two-tier study sampling surface water collected from several sites at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in east central Florida. The primary study examined both temporal changes in baseline metal concentrations (19 metals) in surface water (1996 to 2009, 11 sites) samples collected at specific long-term monitoring sites and metal deposition directly associated with Space Shuttle launch activity at two Launch Complexes (LC39A and LC39B). A secondary study examined metal concentrations at additional sites and increased the amount of elements measured to 48 elements. Our examination places a heavy focus on those metals commonly associated with launch operations (e.g., Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn), but a brief discussion of other metals (As, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Pb) is also included. While no observable accumulation of metals occurred during the time period of the study, the data obtained postlaunch demonstrated a dramatic increase for Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Comparing overall trends between the primary and secondary baseline surface water concentrations, elevated concentrations were generally observed at sampling stations located near the launch complexes and from sites isolated from major water systems. While there could be several natural and anthropogenic sources for metal deposition at KSC, the data in this report indicate that shuttle launch events are a significant source. PMID:24738662

  16. Effect of homogenization and alloying elements on hot deformation behaviour of 1XXX series aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, Mohammad

    In the present study, the effect of different alloying elements as well as the homogenization treatment on the hot workability and microstructure of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys was investigated using hot compression tests, optical microscopy, SEM, electron EBSD, TEM, electrical conductivity measurements. The effect of the homogenization treatment on the microstructure and hot workability of two dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys was first investigated. Homogenization promoted the phase transformation from the metastable AlmFe or alpha-AlFeSi phase to the Al3Fe equilibrium phase and induced a significant change in solute levels in the solid solution. Homogenization at 550°C significantly reduced the solid solution levels due to the elimination of the supersaturation originating from the cast ingot and produced the lowest flow stress under all of the deformation conditions studied. The hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys containing different amounts of Fe (0.1 to 0.7 wt%) and Si (0.1 to 0.25 wt%) was studied by uniaxial compression tests conducted at various temperatures (350-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s-1). The flow stress of the 1xxx alloys increased with increasing Fe and Si content. Increasing the Fe content from 0.1 to 0.7% raised the flow stress by 11-32% in Al-Fe-0.1Si alloys, whereas the flow stress increased 5-14% when the Si content increased from 0.1 to 0.25% in Al-0.1Fe-Si alloys. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to drive constitutive equations correlating flow stress, deformation temperature and strain rate considering the influence of the chemical composition. The microstructural analysis results revealed that dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism during hot deformation of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys. Increasing the Fe and Si content retarded dynamic recovery and resulted in a decrease in the subgrain size and mean misorientation angle of the boundaries. Furthermore, the hot deformation behavior of dilute Al-Fe-Si alloys

  17. Metal contents in tench otoliths: relationships to the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Adami, G; Miletić, M; Siviero, P; Barbieri, P; Reisenhofer, E

    2001-01-01

    A monitoring of the quality of waters was attempted determining metal accumulation in target organs as otoliths of freshwater fish. Tenchs of age ranging between 2 and 10 years were sampled in three different canals receiving wastewater from industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Metal contents were determined in both lapilli and asterisci otoliths, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Analytical data are reported for minor metals and for some trace metals. Al, Fe and Zn have contents depending on the environment where the fish has lived, while Na, K, Ca and Sr contents are insensitive to the different aquatic habitat. Considering the two types of otolith separately, lapilli display a different affinity for trace metals (Al, Fe and Zn), while in asterisci this affinity is matched only for zinc. The high affinity of zinc for both types of otoliths suggests using this metal for discriminating the fresh waters by checking its accumulation in otoliths, as well as correlating this accumulation with age of the fish: a negative power curve equation is proposed. Since highest concentrations are found in individuals of 2-3 yr., it is advisable to use this fish for such environmental studies. PMID:11554178

  18. Natural colloidal P and its contribution to plant P uptake.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Daniela; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-03-17

    Phosphorus (P) bioavailability depends on its concentration and speciation in solution. Andisols and Oxisols have very low soil solution concentration of free orthophosphate, as they contain high concentrations of strongly P-sorbing minerals (Al/Fe oxyhydroxides, allophanes). Free orthophosphate is the form of P taken up by plants, but it is not the only P species present in the soil solution. Natural colloidal P (P associated with Al, Fe, and organic matter of sizes ranging from 1 to 1000 nm) constitutes an important fraction of soil solution P in these soils; however, its availability has not been considered. We measured the uptake of P by wheat (Triticum aestivum) from radiolabeled nonfiltered (colloid-containing) and 3-kDa filtered (nearly colloid-free) soil-water extracts from Andisols and Oxisols. In the Andisol extracts, P uptake was up to 5-fold higher from the nonfiltered solutions than the corresponding 3-kDa filtered solutions. In the Oxisol extract, no difference in P uptake between both solutions was observed. Also the diffusional flux of P as measured with the DGT technique was larger in the nonfiltered than in the 3-kDa filtered solutions. Our results suggest that colloidal P from Andisols is not chemically inert and contributes to plant uptake of P.

  19. Dissolved, particulate and acid-leachable trace metal concentrations in North Atlantic precipitation collected on the Global Change Expedition

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, B.; Jickells, T.D. )

    1990-12-01

    Atmospheric inputs of trace metals into surface waters are an important pathway for the oceanic biogeochemical cycling of many trace constituents. Rainwater samples from six precipitation events were collected on board ship during legs 3 and 4 of the Global Change Expedition over the North Atlantic Ocean and analyzed for dissolved, particulate (Al and Pb), and acid-leachable trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn). Acid-leachable concentrations of the elements were similar to reported values from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans which were measured using comparable acidification procedures. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate Al and Pb were determined in rain events acid-leachable and total trace metal concentrations suggest that the acid-leachable fraction of metals can significantly underestimate total concentrations of crustal elements in rain. The solubilities of Al and Pb in precipitation were variable and mean solubilities of the elements were 13% and 45%, respectively. Recycled sea salt components were less than 14% for Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, indicating that the net trace metal flux is from the atmosphere to the oceans. Deep sea particle fluxes for these metals through the western tropical North Atlantic exceed atmospheric deposition fluxes by a factor of 18 to 41. 57 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened aluminum alloys for elevated temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Kennedy, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Rapidly solidified alloys, based upon the Al-Fe-V-Si system and designed for elevated temperature applications, were evaluated for superplasticity and diffusion bonding behavior. Alloys with 8, 16, 27, and 36 volume percent silicide dispersoids were produced; dispersoid condition was varied by rolling at 300, 400, and 500 C (572, 752, and 932 F). Superplastic behavior was evaluated at strain rates from 1 x 10(exp -6)/s to 8.5/s at elevated temperatures. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in elongation at higher strain rates and at temperatures above 600 C (1112 F). However, the exposure of the alloys to temperatures greater than 600 C (1112 F) resulted in the coarsening of the strengthening dispersoid and the degradation of mechanical properties. Diffusion bonding was possible using low gas pressure at temperatures greater than 600 C (1112 F) which also resulted in degraded properties. The bonding of Al-Fe-V-Si alloys to 7475 aluminum alloy was performed at 516 C (960 F) without significant degradation in microstructure. Bond strengths equal to 90 percent that of the base metal shear strength were achieved. The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the alloys were investigated.

  1. Effect of Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting on Microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 Powder Consolidated Parts

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75 μm layer thickness, and 50 μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process. PMID:24526879

  2. Source composition and seasonal variation of particulate trace element fluxes in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ping; Han, Zheng-Bing; Hu, Chuan-Yu; Pan, Jian-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Particulate fluxes of trace elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Co) in the polynya area of Prydz Bay were measured using time series sediment trap lasting from December 16th 2010 to December 16th 2011. The comparison of annual fluxes from different regions, the seasonality and sources of trace element, and their association with organic matters were investigated. The fluxes of Cu, Zn and Cd in the polynya area of Prydz Bay are dominated by marine biogenic sources. Their similar seasonality with the export of biological materials (biogenic silica, organic carbon, and calcite carbonate) is strongly related to the ice coverage and biological production. Mineral debris derived from Antarctic continent is suggested to account for the particulate fluxes of Al, Fe, Mn, Pb and Co in the polynya. Their seasonal variations are most likely controlled by ice melting and freezing process. Furthermore, their fluxes are also influenced by scavenging onto biogenic material for Pb and uptake by phytoplankton for Co. The excess fluxes of Cu, Zn and Cd have good relationship with organic carbon export. The coupling patterns are mainly regulated by source composition of trace elements and non-lithogenic input from atmospheric deposition or upwelling, and partly influenced by biological uptake process.

  3. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  4. Current status of research and development on nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of current status of research and development on nickel and iron aluminides based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl. These aluminides possess attractive properties for elevated-temperature structural use; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance have limited their use as engineering materials in many cases. in recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of these aluminides; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Surprisingly, moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement has been recognized as one of the major causes of low ductility and brittle fracture in Ni{sub 3}Al, Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl at ambient temperatures. These efforts have led to the development of ductile and strong aluminide alloys for structural applications. Industrial interest in these aluminide alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  5. Nanomineralogy in the real world: A perspective on nanoparticles in the environmental impacts of coal fire.

    PubMed

    Sehn, Janaína L; de Leão, Felipe B; da Boit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Hidalgo, Gelsa E; Sampaio, Carlos H; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-03-01

    Detailed geochemistry similarities between the burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. While no visible flames were detected, this research revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The occurrence of several amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and many other Al/Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present work using multi-analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and newmineral creation. It recording huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szmolnockite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The information presented the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing potential hazardous elements (PHEs), such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. Most of the nano-particles and ultra-fine particles found in the burned coal-dump wastes are the same as those commonly associated with coal cleaning rejects, in which oxidation of sulphides plays an important impact to environment and subsequently animal and human health.

  6. Fragipan Horizon Fragmentation in Slaking Experiments with Amendment Materials and Ryegrass Root Tissue Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Karathanasis, A. D.; Murdock, L. W.; Matocha, C. J.; Grove, J.; Thompson, Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB), fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC), D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5–18.8 mm compared to the 44.2–47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in solution were ambiguous. The poor efficiency of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments was attributed to their high ionic strength, while the high efficiency of the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and rye grass root solutions to their high sodium soluble ratio (SSR). A slaking mechanism is proposed suggesting that aqueous solutions with high SSR penetrate faster into the fragipan capillaries and generate the critical swelling pressure and shearing stress required to rupture the fragipan into several fragments. Additional fragmentation occurs in a followup stage during which potential Si, Al, Fe, and Mn binding agents may be released into solution. Field experiments testing these findings are in progress. PMID:25254233

  7. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    PubMed

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  8. Source composition and seasonal variation of particulate trace element fluxes in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ping; Han, Zheng-Bing; Hu, Chuan-Yu; Pan, Jian-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Particulate fluxes of trace elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Co) in the polynya area of Prydz Bay were measured using time series sediment trap lasting from December 16th 2010 to December 16th 2011. The comparison of annual fluxes from different regions, the seasonality and sources of trace element, and their association with organic matters were investigated. The fluxes of Cu, Zn and Cd in the polynya area of Prydz Bay are dominated by marine biogenic sources. Their similar seasonality with the export of biological materials (biogenic silica, organic carbon, and calcite carbonate) is strongly related to the ice coverage and biological production. Mineral debris derived from Antarctic continent is suggested to account for the particulate fluxes of Al, Fe, Mn, Pb and Co in the polynya. Their seasonal variations are most likely controlled by ice melting and freezing process. Furthermore, their fluxes are also influenced by scavenging onto biogenic material for Pb and uptake by phytoplankton for Co. The excess fluxes of Cu, Zn and Cd have good relationship with organic carbon export. The coupling patterns are mainly regulated by source composition of trace elements and non-lithogenic input from atmospheric deposition or upwelling, and partly influenced by biological uptake process. PMID:26774295

  9. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-16

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L2(1) parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L2(1) parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  10. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials. PMID:26880700

  11. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  12. Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Ni-50Cr Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Joel A. Simpson; Terry C. Totemeier; Richard N. Wright

    2006-06-01

    Thermal spray coatings represent a potential cost-effective means of protecting structural components in advanced fossil energy systems. Previous work at the INL has focused on relationships between thermal spray processing conditions, structure, and properties in alumina- and silica-forming coatings, namely Fe3Al, FeAl, and Mo-Si-B alloys. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of chromia-forming Ni-50%Cr coatings, an alloy similar to the INCOCLAD 671 cladding, which has shown excellent performance in the Niles Plant service tests. The structure and properties of Ni-50Cr coatings are similar to other HVOF-sprayed metallic coatings: a typical lamellar microstructure is observed with essentially no porosity and little oxide. The microhardness and compressive residual stress both increase with increased spray particle velocity. Corrosion tests were performed on a variety of free-standing coatings (removed from the substrate, wrought Fe3Al alloy, and Grade 91 steel in a simulated coal combustion gas (N2-10%CO-5%CO2-2%H2O-0.12%H2S) and gas-slag environments (same gas, with iron sulfide powder in contact with the coating surface). The coatings tested included Fe3Al, FeAl, and Ni-50Cr alloys sprayed at different velocities. In these tests the iron aluminides in wrought and coating form showed the best performance, with Ni-50Cr coatings slightly worse; the Grade 91 steel was severely attacked.

  13. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    PubMed

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process. PMID:24526879

  14. Near-Surface Microstructure on Twin-Roll Cast 8906 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Xiaorong; Thompson, George E.; Hunter, John A.; Yuan, Yudie

    2015-06-01

    The microstructure of the near-surface region of twin-roll cast foil stock 8906 AlFeSi alloy has been investigated. It was revealed that a near-surface layer with microstructure differing from that of the underlying bulk alloy was generated due to severe surface shear strain during twin-roll casting. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the near-surface layer consists of nano-sized grains with diameters varying in the range of 50 to 600 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that grain boundaries within the near-surface layer were decorated by aluminum oxide particles and carbon-containing lubricant inclusions. Preferential precipitation of a high population density of cubic α-AlFeSi dispersoids, of 30 to 150 nm diameter, was observed within the near-surface layer. The near-surface layer was associated with shingles on the twin-roll cast alloy surface and the maximum layer thickness of approximately 6 µm was observed at the shingles. Other areas of the surface were either free of the near-surface layer or had a thinner near-surface layer.

  15. Sources and fluxes of atmospheric trace elements to the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Paytan, Adina; Chase, Zanna; Measures, Christopher; Beck, Aaron J.; SañUdo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Post, Anton F.

    2008-03-01

    We present the first comprehensive investigation of the concentrations, fluxes and sources of aerosol trace elements over the Gulf of Aqaba. We found that the mean atmospheric concentrations of crustally derived elements such as Al, Fe and Mn (1081, 683, and 16.7 ng m-3) are about 2-3 times higher than those reported for the neighboring Mediterranean area. This is indicative of the dominance of the mineral dust component in aerosols over the Gulf. Anthropogenic impact was lower in comparison to the more heavily populated areas of the Mediterranean. During the majority of time (69%) the air masses over the Gulf originated from Europe or Mediterranean Sea areas delivering anthropogenic components such as Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, and P. Airflows derived from North Africa in contrast contained the highest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Sr but generally lower Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, and P. Relatively high Pb, Ni, and V were found in the local and Arabian airflows suggesting a greater influence of local emission of fuel burning. We used the data and the measured trace metal seawater concentrations to calculate residence times of dissolved trace elements in the upper 50 m surface water of the Gulf (with respect to atmospheric input) and found that the residence times for most elements are in the range of 5-37 years while Cd and V residence times are longer.

  16. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  17. Mechanisms on the morphology variation of hematite crystals by Al substitution: The modification of Fe and O reticular densities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaoliang; An, Pengfei; Feng, Xionghan; Tan, Wenfeng; Qiu, Guohong; Yin, Hui; Liu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Al substitution in hematite is ubiquitous in soils. With the increase of Al amount, the hematite morphology changes from rhombohedral crystals to disk-shaped ones, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, a series of Al-substituted hematite were synthesized and characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution electron transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, to investigate the effects of Al3+ substitution on the hematite structure and morphology. EXAFS and Rietveld structural refinement analyses find an increase in face-sharing (along c axis) Fe-Me (Me = Al, Fe) distances, edge-sharing (in a-b plane) Fe-Me (Me = Al, Fe) distances, and O-O average distances. Moreover, the face-sharing Fe-Me distances and O-O distances along c axis increase more significantly. This indicates a more apparent decrease in the reticular densities of Fe and O along the direction of c axis, which facilitates faster crystal growth along c axis and results in the evolution of morphology of Al-substituted hematite to disk-shaped crystals. The above results provide new insights into the morphology changes and environmental geochemistry behaviors of Al-contained hematite in soils, and are benefit for the control of crystal morphologies during its application as environmentally-friendly materials. PMID:27786290

  18. Nanostructure evolution in joining of Al and Fe nanoparticles with femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z.; Huang, H.; Zhou, Y. E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca; Liu, L.; Hu, A.; Duley, W.; He, P. E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-04-07

    The joining of Al-Fe nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation is reported in this paper. Fe and Al NPs were deposited on a carbon film in vacuum via fs laser ablation. Particles were then exposed to multiple fs laser pulses at fluences between 0.5 and 1.3 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction X-ray observations indicate that Al and Fe NPs bond to each other under these conditions. For comparison, bonding of Al to Al and Fe to Fe NPs was also investigated. The nanostructure, as observed using TEM, showed that individual Al NPs were monocrystalline while individual Fe NPs were polycrystalline prior to joining and that these structures are retained after the formation of Al-Al and Fe-Fe NPs. Al-Fe NPs produced by fs laser joining exhibited a mixed amorphous and crystalline phase at the interface. Bonding is suggested to originate from intermixing within a region of high field intensity between particles.

  19. Metals in sediments and fish from Sea Lots and Point Lisas harbors, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, Azad; May, Thomas; Echols, Kathy; Walther, Mike; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in nearshore marine sediments and fish tissue from Sea Lots area on the west coast, at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and in the Point Lisas harbor, Trinidad. The most dominant metals found in sediments were Al, Fe and Zn with mean concentrations highest at Sea Lots (Al-39420 μg/g; Fe-45640 μg/g; Zn-245 μg/g), when compared to sediments from Point Lisas (Al-11936 μg/g; Fe-30171 μg/g; Zn-69 μg/g) and Caroni (Al-0400 μg/g; Fe-19000 μg/g; Zn-32 μg/g), High concentration of Cu, Al, Fe and Zn were also detected in fish tissue from Point Lisas and Caroni. Metal concentrations in fish tissue showed significant correlation with sediment metals concentration, which suggests that tissue levels are influenced by sediment concentration. Of the metals, only Zn, Hg and Cu had a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) greater than one, which suggests a high bioaccumulation potential for these metals.

  20. Metals in sediments and fish from Sea Lots and Point Lisas Harbors, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, A.; May, T.; Echols, K.; Walther, M.; Manoo, A.; Maraj, D.; Agard, J.; Orazio, C.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in nearshore marine sediments and fish tissue from Sea Lots area on the west coast, at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and in the Point Lisas harbor, Trinidad. The most dominant metals found in sediments were Al, Fe and Zn with mean concentrations highest at Sea Lots (Al-39420 ??g/g; Fe-45640 ??g/g; Zn-245 ??g/g), when compared to sediments from Point Lisas (Al-11936 ??g/g; Fe-30171 ??g/g; Zn-69 ??g/g) and Caroni (Al-0400 ??g/g; Fe-19000 ??g/g; Zn-32 ??g/g), High concentration of Cu, Al, Fe and Zn were also detected in fish tissue from Point Lisas and Caroni. Metal concentrations in fish tissue showed significant correlation with sediment metals concentration, which suggests that tissue levels are influenced by sediment concentration. Of the metals, only Zn, Hg and Cu had a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) greater than one, which suggests a high bioaccumulation potential for these metals. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. EXPLORING ANTICORRELATIONS AND LIGHT ELEMENT VARIATIONS IN NORTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Mészáros, Szabolcs; Martell, Sarah L.; Shetrone, Matthew; Lucatello, Sara; Troup, Nicholas W.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R.; Bovy, Jo; Cunha, Katia; García-Hernández, Domingo A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Overbeek, Jamie C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Holtzman, Jon; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. We derive abundances of 9 elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 GCs. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C–N and Mg–Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal-poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that {sup 28}Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N, and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent of stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of α-element (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

  2. The puzzling MgAl anticorrelation in globular-cluster red giants: primordial plus deep mixing scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denissenkov, P. A.; Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, J. E.; Weiss, A.

    1998-05-01

    Star-to-star abundance variations of C, N, O, Na and Al in globular-cluster red giants have been recently supplemented by the finding that [Mg/Fe] is depleted in stars with extremely large [Al/Fe] (Shetrone 1996a). To find out which of the magnesium isotopes is responsible for the observed depletion of [Mg/Fe] Shetrone (1996b) also undertook an isotopic analysis of Mg and found that it is (24) Mg which is depleted in Al-rich giants. On the other hand, Norris & Da Costa (1995) demonstrated that even in the massive globular cluster omega Cen which has intrinsic spreads in both [Fe/H] and the abundances of the s-process elements, [O/Fe] anticorrelates with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] as in ``normal'' monometallic clusters. These new spectroscopic results allow us to test current models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as those of the formation and chemical enrichment of globular clusters. In an effort to explain self-consistently these observations we have considered two possibilities: (1) a deep mixing scenario which assumes that in red giants some kind of (extra)mixing transports products of nuclear reactions from the hydrogen burning shell (HBS) to the base of the convective envelope; and (2) a combination of primordial and deep mixing scenarios. It is shown that (1) cannot account for the anticorrelation of [Mg/Fe] vs. [Al/Fe] without additional ad hoc assumptions, among which we identify a strong but still undetected low energy resonance in the reaction (24) Mg(p,gamma )(25) Al, and episodical increases of the HBS temperature up to the value T~ 7410(6) K. In (2) intermediate mass AGB stars are assumed to produce the decreased (24) Mg and increased (25) Mg initial abundances in some globular-cluster low mass stars and Al is synthesized at the expense of (25) Mg in the HBS and transported to the surface of the red giant by extramixing. We discuss advantages and deficiencies of both scenarios and propose some observational tests.

  3. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of

  4. Materials and mechanisms of high temperature lithium sulfide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Hash, M.C.; Henriksen, G.L.; Jansen, A.N.; Vissers, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    New materials have encouraged development of bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Current technology employs a two-phase Li-alloy negative electrode low-melting, LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr molten salt electrolyte, and either an FeS or an upper-plateau (UP) FeS{sub 2} positive electrode. These components are assembled in a sealed bipolar battery configuration. Use of the two-phase Li-alloy ({alpha} + {beta} Li-Al and Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}) negative electrode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that renders the bipolar design viable. Employing LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte in ``electrolyte-starved`` calls achieves low-burdened cells, that possess low area-specific impedance; comparable to that of flooded cells using LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte. The combination of dense UP FeS{sub 2} electrodes and low-melting electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, achieving over 1000 cycle life in flooded cells, with high power capabilities. In addition, a family of stable sulfide ceramic/sealant materials was developed that produce high-strength bonds between a variety of metals and ceramics, which renders lithium/iron suffide bipolar stacks practical. Bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells and four-cell stacks using these seals are being built and tested in the 13 cm diameter size for EV applications. To date, Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells have attained 400 W/kg power at 80% DOD and 180 Wh/kg energy at the 30 W/kg rate. When cell performance characteristics are used to model full-scale EV and hybrid vehicle (HV) batteries, they are projected to meet or exceed the performance requirements for a large variety of EV and HV applications. Efficient production and application of Li-alloys and Li-salt electrolyte are critical to approaching battery cost objectives.

  5. Lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.; Vissers, D. R.

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide batteries have been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1972. ANL's technology employs a two-phase Li alloy negative electrode, low-melting point LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr molten salt electrolyte, and either an FeS or an upper-plateau (UP) FeS 2 positive electrode. These components are assembled in an 'electrolyte-starved' bipolar cell configuration. Use of the multi-phase Li alloy ((α+β)-Li-Al and Li 5Al 5Fe 2) negative electrode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that renders the bipolar design viable. Employing LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte is 'electrolyte-starved" cells achieves low-burdened cells that possess low area-specific impedance, comparable with that of flooded cells using LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte. The combination of dense UP FeS 2 electrodes and low-melting electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, achieving over 1000 cycles in flooded cells, with high power capabilities. In addition, a new class of stable chalcogenide ceramic/sealant materials was developed. These materials produce high-strength bonds between a variety of metals and ceramics, which make fabrication of lithium/iron sulfide bipolar stacks practical. Bipolar Li-Al/FeS and Li-Al/FeS 2 cells and four-cell stacks using these seals have been built and tested for electric vehicle (EV) applications. When cell performance characteristics are used to model full-scale EV ad hybrid vehicle (HV) batteries, they are projected to meet or exceed the performance requirements for a large variety of EV and HV applications. In 1992, the US Advanced Battery Consortium awarded contracts to ANL and SAFT America to continue the development of the bipolar Li-Al/FeS 2 battery to meet their long-term criteria. Both ANL and sAFT are working together to refine this technology for EV applications and scale it up to larger stacks and fully integrated battery modules.

  6. Materials and mechanisms of high temperature lithium sulfide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.; Hash, M. C.; Henriksen, G. L.; Jansen, A. N.; Vissers, D. R.

    1994-05-01

    New materials have encouraged development of bipolar Li-Al/FeS2 batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Current technology employs a two-phase Li-alloy negative electrode low-melting, LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr molten salt electrolyte, and either an FeS or an upper-plateau (UP) FeS2 positive electrode. These components are assembled in a sealed bipolar battery configuration. Use of the two-phase Li-alloy (alpha + beta Li-Al and Li5Al5Fe2) negative electrode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that renders the bipolar design viable. Employing LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte in 'electrolyte-starved' cells achieves low-burdened cells that possess low area-specific impedance, comparable to that of flooded cells using LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte. The combination of dense UP FeS2 electrodes and low-melting electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, achieving over 1000 cycle life in flooded cells, with high power capabilities. In addition, a family of stable sulfide ceramic/sealant materials was developed that produce high-strength bonds between a variety of metals and ceramics, which renders lithium/iron suffide bipolar stacks practical. Bipolar Li-Al/FeS2 cells and four-cell stacks using these seals are being built and tested in the 13 cm diameter size for EV applications. To date, Li-Al/FeS2 cells have attained 400 W/kg power at 80% DOD and 180 Wh/kg energy at the 30 W/kg rate. When cell performance characteristics are used to model full-scale EV and hybrid vehicle (HV) batteries, they are projected to meet or exceed the performance requirements for a large variety of EV and HV applications. Efficient production and application of Li-alloys and Li-salt electrolyte are critical to approaching battery cost objectives.

  7. Combining cross flow ultrafiltration and diffusion gradients in thin-films approaches to determine trace metal speciation in freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruixia; Lead, Jamie R.; Zhang, Hao

    2013-05-01

    Cross flow ultrafiltration (CFUF) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) with open pore gel (OP) and restricted pore gel (RP) were used to measure trace metal speciation in selected UK freshwaters. The proportions of metals present in particulate forms (>1 μm) varied widely between 40-85% Pb, 60-80% Al, 7-56% Mn, 10-49% Cu, 0-55% Zn, 20-38% Cr, 20-30% Fe, 6-25% Co, 5-22% Cd and <7% Ni. In the colloidal fraction (2 kDa-1 μm) values varied between 53-91% Pb, 33-55% Al, 21-55% Cu, 20-44% Fe, 34-36% Cr, 20-40% Cd, 7-28% Co and Ni, 2-32% Zn and <8% Mn. Wide variations were also observed in the ultrafiltered fraction (<2 kDa). These results indicated that colloids indeed influenced the occurrence and transport of Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb metals in rivers, while inorganic or organic colloids did not exert an important control on Mn transport in the selected freshwaters. Of total species, total labile metal measured by DGT-OP accounted for 1.4-50% for Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb in all selected waters. Of these metals total labile Pb concentration was the lowest with value less than 1.4% although this value slightly increased after deducting particulate fractions. In some waters, a majority of total Mn, Zn and Cr is DGT labile, in which the DGT labile Mn fraction accounted for 98-118% of the total dissolved phase. In most cases, the inorganic labile concentration measured by DGT-RP was lower than the total labile metal concentration. By the combination of CFUF and DGT techniques, the concentrations of total labile and inorganic labile metal species in CFUF-derived truly dissolved phase were measured in four water samples. 100% of ultrafiltered Mn species was found to be total DGT labile. The proportions of total labile metal species were lower than those of ultrafiltered fraction for Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb in all selected waters, and Cr and Zn in some cases, indicating a large amount of natural complexing ligands with smaller size for the

  8. Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Szabolcs; Martell, Sarah L.; Shetrone, Matthew; Lucatello, Sara; Troup, Nicholas W.; Bovy, Jo; Cunha, Katia; García-Hernández, Domingo A.; Overbeek, Jamie C.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Holtzman, Jon; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Smith, Verne V.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. We derive abundances of 9 elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 GCs. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal-poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that 28Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N, and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent of stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of α-element (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

  9. Post-depositional memory record of mercury in sediment near the effluent disposal site of a chlor-alkali plant in Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour, India.

    PubMed

    Rama, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Zingde, D; Boroleb, D V

    2009-07-01

    A mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant, operating for 40 years at Airoli (eastern bank of Thane Creek), India, has caused widespread contamination of the surrounding environment. Untreated wastewater from the plant was discharged to Thane Creek for several years. Thane Creek joins the Ulhas Estuary by a narrow arm and opens to the Arabian Sea through Mumbai Harbour. The Ulhas Estuary is impacted by mercury (Hg) released from several industries including two chlor-alkali industries. In order to understand the historical record of anthropogenic Hg and its association to Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC), estimation of Hg, Al, Fe and TOC was made in surface sediments and cores from Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour and the adjacent coastal area. Though 70% of the chlor-alkali plant has been changed to membrane cell technology, surficial sediment in the vicinity of effluent release contains a high concentration (up to 1.19 microg g(-1) dry wt) of Hg compared with its background value (0.10 microg g(-1) dry wt). The contaminated creek sediments are prone to current-driven resuspension and are acting as a strong source of Hg to the sediment of the coastal region. Several rocks and sediments from the catchment area were analysed to find out the natural background level of Hg. A high suspended load transported from the catchment region provides natural dilution to the Hg-contaminated sediment of the Bay. Lithogenic and anthropogenic Hg buried in marine sediments is quantified based on normalization with Al, Fe and TOC, and inter-comparisons of the results indicate comparable values obtained by using Al and Fe, while discernible deviations are found when normalization is carried out using TOC. The Hg profile in the core, from the effluent release site for which sedimentation rate has been established, is discussed in terms of the progressive removal of Hg from the effluent after the mid-1970s and partial changeover of the manufacturing process from Hg cell to membrane cell

  10. Crack growth in high temperature materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stoloff, N.S.

    1998-12-31

    Many intermetallic compounds are brittle at low temperatures. Some compounds, including NiAl and MoSi, seem to be intrinsically brittle. Other compounds, including Ni{sub 3}Al, FeAl and Fe{sub 3}Al, are reasonably ductile when tested in inert environments. Water and water vapor can severely embrittle these and other compounds because they contain an active element such as aluminum or silicon. The release of atomic hydrogen from water leads, at room temperature, to hydrogen embrittlement. Another source of embrittlement, at elevated temperatures, is oxygen from the atmosphere. The effects of aggressive environments on the crack growth behavior of several intermetallics under monotonic or cyclic loading are described. Alleviation of embrittlement by means of alloying, the use of coatings or by prestrain are described, although no single method is effective for all intermetallics. A brief survey of environmentally induced crack growth in superalloys is included.

  11. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing on the Impurity Content of Alumina-Forming Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously, the effect of hydrogen annealing on increasing the adhesion of Al2O3 scales had been related to the effective desulfurization that occurred during this process. The simultaneous reduction of other impurities has now been re-examined for up to 20 impurity elements in the case of five different alloys (NiCrAl, FeCrAl, PWA 1480, Rene'142, and Rene'N5). Hydrogen annealing produced measurable reductions in elemental concentration for B, C, Na, Mg, P, K, Sr, or Sn in varying degrees for at least one and up to three of these alloys. No single element was reduced by hydrogen annealing for all the alloys except sulfur. In many cases spalling occurred at low levels of these other impurities, while in other cases the scales were adherent at high levels of the impurities. No impurity besides sulfur was strongly correlated with adhesion.

  12. Laboratory investigation of electric charging of dust particles by electrons, ions, and UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svestka, Jiri; Pinter, S.; Gruen, E.

    1989-01-01

    In many cosmic environments electric charging of dust particles occurs by electrons, ions, and UV radiation. In case of interstellar dust particles the value of their electric charge can have, for instance, very important consequences for their destruction rate in supernova remnant's shock waves and can globally influence the overall life cycle of dust particles in galaxies. For experimental simulation of charging processes a vacuum chamber was used in which the particles fall through an electron or ion beam of energies up to 10 KeV. The aim of the experiments was to attain maximum charge of dust particles. Furthermore the influence of the rest gas was also determined because electrons and ions produced by collisional ionization of the rest gas can result in significant effects. For measurement particles from 1 to 100 microns from glass, carbon, Al, Fe, MgO, and very loosely bound conglomerates of Al2O3 were used.

  13. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  14. Association of metals with plastic production pellets in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Karen; Holmes, Luke; Turner, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Plastic production pellets sampled from four beaches along a stretch of coastline (south Devon, SW England) and accompanying, loosely adhered and entrapped material removed ultrasonically have been analysed for major metals (Al, Fe, Mn) and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Sb, Sn, U) following acid digestion. In most cases, metal concentrations in composite pellet samples from each site were less than but within an order of magnitude of corresponding concentrations in the pooled extraneous materials. However, normalisation of data with respect to Al revealed enrichment of Cd and Pb in plastic pellets at two sites. These observations are not wholly due to the association of pellets with fine material that is resistant to ultrasonication since new polyethylene pellets suspended in a harbour for 8 weeks accumulated metals from sea water through adsorption and precipitation. The environmental implications and potential applications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Compositional changes in soil water and runoff water following managed burning on a UK upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Gareth D.; Worrall, Fred; Fraser, Evan D. G.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThis study examines the effect managed rotational burning has on soil water and runoff water compositions at the end of a 10 year burning cycle and into the year following a managed burn. This study includes aluminium, iron, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, sulphate, chloride, bromide, fluoride, phosphate and nitrate along with pH, conductivity and DOC. The main findings of this study are: The presence of burning leads to lower concentrations of species associated with deep water sources in both soil and runoff waters. Following burning, soil water has increased concentrations in shallow soil water components (i.e. Al, Fe). Conversely runoff water shows a decrease in the concentration of shallow water components Principal component analysis shows that in the post-burn period, soil water is less mixed with rainwater and runoff water becomes more rainwater-like in composition, i.e. compositions of soil and runoff have diverged as a result of the burn.

  16. Investigation of slective laser melting of mecanically alloyed metastable Al5Fe2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Hugo

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM), an Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, enables the production of complex structured metal products. Aluminum alloys are used in SLM as high-strength lightweight materials for weight reduction in structural components. Previous investigations report high laser powers (300 W) and slow scanning speeds (500 mm/s) to process aluminum alloys under SLM. This research investigates the SLM processing of Al-Fe alloy by utilizing metastable Al5Fe2 powder system produced by mechanical alloying. Metastable systems are thermodynamically activated with internal energy that can generate an energy shortcut when processing under SLM. The optimum laser power, scan speeds and scan distances were investigated by test series experiments. Results indicate that metastable Al5Fe2 alloy can be processed and stabilized under a 200 W laser scanning and a relative high scanning speed of 1000 mm/s. Thus, the internal energy of metastable powder contributes in reducing laser energy for SLM process for Al alloys.

  17. Determination of the geographic origin of rice by chemometrics with strontium and lead isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-02-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for determining the country of origin of rice in the Japanese market. The rice samples included a total of 350 products grown in Japan (n = 200), the United States (n = 50), China (n = 50), and Thailand (n = 50). In this study, (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios and multielement concentrations (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By combining three chemometric techniques based on different principles and determination criteria, the countries of origin of rice were determined. The predictions made by 10-fold cross-validation were around 97% accurate. The presented method demonstrated the effectiveness of determining the geographic origin of an agricultural product by combining several chemometric techniques using heavy element isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

  18. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis reveals specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.

  19. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element. PMID:25466128

  1. On the influence of dispersoids on the particle stimulated nucleation of recrystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, O.

    1996-12-31

    Recrystallization of Al alloys is controlled by precipitates. Whereas large particles are generally assumed to promote recrystallization by particle stimulated nucleation, finely dispersed precipitates, either already present in the as-deformed state or precipitating during the recrystallization anneal, are known to strongly retard the progress of recrystallization. It was the aim of this study to elucidate these concurring effects of large particles, and small dispersoids as well as of a supersaturation of solutes on recrystallization in a ternary Al-Fe-Si model alloy. Samples were prepared with different pre-annealing treatments to produce different states of precipitation and supersaturation. Evolution of the microstructure and of the crystallographic texture was followed during cold rolling and recrystallization. Conclusions were drawn on the efficiency of recrystallization nucleation at the various nucleation sites and, especially, on the influence of dispersoids on recrystallization.

  2. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  3. Morphology and structure of various phases at the bonding interface of Al/steel formed by explosive welding

    PubMed

    Li; Hashimoto; Sukedai; Zhang; Zhang

    2000-01-01

    The bonding interface of explosively-welded aluminium and steel in three explosive conditions have been investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis methods. The results show that all the interfaces have the shape of waves with curled front formed by process of superplasticity and some discontinuous reacted zones. They consist of amorphous and nano sized crystals and quasi-crystals as well as the compounds such as AlFe, Al2Fe, Al3Fe and Al6Fe with various shapes. The basal steel crystal near the interface has structure of martensite and perlite crystals which are deformed by the process of superplasticity. The size of reacted zone becomes large with increasing amount of explosive charge powder and separation of the driver Al plate from the basal steel plate.

  4. Accelerated Discovery of Thermoelectric Materials: Combinatorial Facility and High-Throughput Measurement of Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Adkins, Nicholas J E; McCain, Stephen; Hauptstein, Bastian; Brew, Ashley; Jarvis, David J; Min, Gao

    2016-06-13

    A series of processes have been developed to facilitate the rapid discovery of new promising thermoelectric alloys. A novel combinatorial facility where elements are wire-fed and laser-melted was designed and constructed. Different sample compositions can be achieved by feeding different element wires at specific rates. The composition of all the samples prepared was tested by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Then, their thermoelectric properties (power factor) at room temperature were screened in a specially designed new high-throughput setup. After the screening, the thermoelectric properties can be mapped with the possibility of identifying compositional trends. As a proof-of-concept, a promising thermoelectric ternary system, Al-Fe-Ti, has been identified, demonstrating the capability of this accelerated approach.

  5. Metal elements in the bottom sediments of the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent continental shelf of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu; Hong, Gi Hoon; Liu, Sumei

    2015-06-15

    The metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Ca) in the bottom sediment of the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent continental shelf of the East China Sea were studied to map their spatial distribution and to assess their potential risk to the marine biota. These metal concentrations except Ca were generally higher in the inner shelf and northeastern part, and were found to decrease from the coast to the offshore of the Changjiang Estuary. Sedimentary Ca was most abundant in the outer shelf sediments and decreased in inner shelf. Arsenic (As) appeared to be contaminated due to economic development from 1980s in the inner shelf overall, but the potential ecological risk from the selected metals was low in the coastal sea off the Changjiang.

  6. Storage of ions from laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    A method of storing large numbers of metal ions created in laser-produced plasmas is presented. The outer electrode of the electrostatic ion trap is designed to give a harmonic axial potential. The ions trapped by the technique included Be(+), C(+), Al(+), Fe(+), and Pb(+). The initial number of ions stored (2 x 10 to the 8th) appeared to be the trap maximum since increasing the laser power beyond 2-3 MW did not change the ion number. An initial rapid decay in the 30-50 msec range was generally followed by a long tail at the 10% level with times greater than 100 msec. The technique should be valuable for refractory elements which cannot be easily vaporized for electron impact ionization.

  7. Influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in sediments of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Honglei; Xing, Meinan; Shao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Feng; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiongqiong; Yu, Dan; Yuan, Xuezhu; Yuan, Min

    2014-11-15

    The influence of early diagenesis on the vertical distribution of metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay was discussed in this paper. The results showed that the concentrations were: Al > Fe ≈ Ca > Mn > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. In vertical distribution, the forms of Cr and Pb were stable from the top to the bottom. However, the exchangeable forms and acid-extracted forms of Cd, Cu and Zn presented an obvious declining trend. The metals would be transformed to more stable forms during the early-diagenesis process. Further analysis found that early diagenesis can change the sedimentary environment, affecting pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), total dissolved solid (TDS) and the structure of organic matter (OM), all main factors influencing metal forms in the sediments of Bohai Bay.

  8. Effect of acid rain on the soil environment: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Rechcigl, J.E.; Sparks, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on acid rain, with emphasis on soils and leaching of soil elements. Several questions still exist concerning the effects of atmospheric acid deposition on soils: (1) does acid rain enhance mobilization of harmful heavy metals in soils which could leach into the groundwater; (2) does acid rain accelerate the kinetics of weathering of primary minerals and of secondary clay minerals in soils which would release large quantities of Al, Fe, and Si into the groundwater making it unfit for human consumption; and (3) do the beneficial effects of acid deposition outweigh the negative effects or vice versa. Literature pertaining to these questions is addressed in this review. 63 references.

  9. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element.

  10. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  11. Glass forming ability and magnetic properties of Nd48Al20Fe27Co5 bulk metallic glass with distinct glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Tang, M. B.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.; Dong, Y. D.

    2004-06-01

    Nd48Al20Fe27Co5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was prepared in the shape of rods 3 mm in diameter by suction casting. In contrast to the previously reported hard magnetic Nd-Al-Fe-Co BMGs, the Nd48Al20Fe27Co5 as-cast rod exhibits a distinct glass transition, multi-step crystallizations in DSC traces and much lower coercivity. The glass forming ability as well as the kinetics of the glass transition and crystallizations of the Nd48Al20Fe27Co5 as-cast rod have been studied. The magnetic properties of the alloy were investigated in comparison with Nd60Al10Fe20Co10 glass forming alloys.

  12. Sediment ingestion of two sympatric shorebird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    Black-bellied Plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) have short bills and primarily peck while foraging whereas Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) have long bills and primarily probe with bills open in sediments. Intestinal digesta were collected from these species at sympatric overwintering sites in southern California near San Diego to relate sediment ingestion to bill length and feeding behavior. Plover digesta contained an estimated 29% sediment, and Willet digesta an estimated 3% sediment. Techniques based on acid insoluble ash and on the elemental markers of Al, Fe, and Ti in digesta provided similar results. High Ca concentrations in Willet digesta and our observations suggested that the willets in our sample fed primarily on molluscs and crustaceans. Sediment ingestion may be species specific, not necessarily linked to bill length or probing behaviors, and may greatly affect a bird?s exposure to environmental contaminants in sediment.

  13. Multi-element accumulation near Rumex crispus roots under wetland and dryland conditions.

    PubMed

    Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Otte, Marinus L

    2010-05-01

    Rumex crispus was grown under wet and dry conditions in two-chamber columns such that the roots were confined to one chamber by a 21 mum nylon mesh, thus creating a soil-root interface ('rhizoplane'). Element concentrations at 3 mm intervals below the 'rhizoplane' were measured. The hypothesis was that metals accumulate near plant roots more under wetland than dryland conditions. Patterns in element distribution were different between the treatments. Under dryland conditions Al, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, La, Mg, Na, Sr, V, Y and Zn accumulated in soil closest to the roots, above the 'rhizoplane' only. Under wetland conditions Al, Fe, Cr, K, V and Zn accumulated above as well as 3 mm below the 'rhizoplane' whereas La, Sr and Y accumulated 3 mm below the 'rhizoplane' only. Plants on average produced 1.5 times more biomass and element uptake was 2.5 times greater under wetland compared to dryland conditions. PMID:19939528

  14. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  15. Environmental Effects in Advanced Intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-11-24

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of environmental embrittlement in iron and nickel aluminizes. The embrittlement involves the interaction of these intermetallics with moisture in air and generation of atomic hydrogen, resulting in hydrogen-induced embrittlement at ambient temperatures. Environmental embrittlement promotes brittle grain-boundary fracture in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys but brittle cleavage fracture in Fe{sub 3}Al-FeAl alloys. The embrittlement strongly depends on strain rate, with tensile-ductility increase with increasing strain rate. It has been demonstrated that environmental embrittlement can be alleviated by alloying additions, surface modifications, and control of grain size and shape. Boron tends to segregate strongly to grain boundaries and is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. The mechanistic understanding of alloy effects and environmental embrittlement has led to the development of nickel and iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments.

  16. Magnetic composites based on hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Tiago P.; Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Sasaki, José M.; Fabris, J. D.; de Oliveira, Diana Q. L.; Valentini, Antoninho

    2010-03-01

    Materials containing hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides were obtained from a chemical precursor prepared by admixing chitosan and iron and aluminum hydroxides. The oxides were first characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the size distribution of the resulting spheres to be highly homogeneous. The occurrence of nano-composites containing aluminum oxides and iron oxides was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction patterns; except for the sample with no aluminum, the superparamagnetic relaxation due to iron oxide particles were observed from Mössbauer spectra obtained at 298 and 110 K; the onset six line-spectrum collected at 20 K indicates a magnetic ordering related to the blocking relaxation effect for significant portion of small spheres in the sample with a molar ratio Al:Fe of 2:1.

  17. Mapping of different structures on large area of granite sample using laser-ablation based analytical techniques, an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, K.; Kaiser, J.; Galiová, M.; Konečná, V.; Novotný, J.; Malina, R.; Liška, M.; Kanický, V.; Otruba, V.

    2008-10-01

    Laser-ablation based analytical techniques represent a simple way for fast chemical analysis of different materials. In this work, an exploratory study of multi-element (Ca, Al, Fe, Mn) mappings of a granite sample surface was performed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and subsequently by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. The operating parameters (e.g. pulse energy, ablation-crater size) were optimized for both techniques in order to achieve the appropriate conditions for two-dimensional high-resolution compositional mappings of mineral microstructures in large sample areas. The sample was scanned with 100 × 100 individual sample points to map an area of 20 × 20 mm 2. The normalized signals were used for construct of contour plots which were colored according local distribution of the selected elements. The results of two laser-based methods were compared and found to be similar.

  18. Contents, seasonal variations, and forms of migration of major and minor elements in surface waters in the area of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Combine (TTMC) and adjacent areas (Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russian Federation) and actions for recovery of the ecological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Gazeev, V. M.; Lexin, A. B.; Shevchenko, A. V.; Dolov, S. M.; Dudarov, Z. I.

    2016-04-01

    Anomalous concentrations of numerous major and minor elements significantly exceeding the threshold limit values (TLV) for drinking water were registered in the area of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Combine (TTMC). The maximal excess of the TLV (by one or two orders of magnitude) were obtained for Mo (up to 11 mg/L), W (4.4 mg/L), As (1.5 mg/L), Mn (8.4 mg/L), and Tl (up to 3.3 μg/L) in water of the Bolshoi Mukulan Brook flowing through the mines and three brooks flowing out from the base of the embankment of the tailing store no. 1. They are the major pollutants for water of the Baksan River. Upon flowing out to the plain, water of the Baksan River shows significant excess of the TLVs (in summer) for Al, Fe, Mn, Be, Si, Ti, Tl, and Hg.

  19. Equation of state of aluminum-iron oxide-epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Ferranti, Louis; Austin, Ryan A.; Dick, Richard D.; Foley, Jason R.; Thadhani, Naresh N.; McDowell, David L.; Benson, David J.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the measurements of the shock equation of state (Hugoniot) of an Al/Fe2O3/epoxy composite, prepared by epoxy cast curing of powder mixtures. Explosive loading, with Baratol, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and Octol, was used for performing experiments at higher pressures, in which case shock velocities were measured in the samples and aluminum, copper, or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) donor material, using piezoelectric pins. The explosive loading of the metal donors (aluminum and copper) will be discussed. Gas gun experiments provide complementary lower pressure data in which piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) stress gauges were used to measure the input and propagated stress wave profiles in the sample and the corresponding shock propagation velocity. The results of the Hugoniot equation of state are compared with mesoscale finite-element simulations, which show good agreement.

  20. Fe-bearing perovskite and post-perovskite: phase stability, spin transitions, and the consequences for the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, R.; Mainprice, D.; Thomas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Using lattice dynamical calculations based on density functional perturbation theory we are able to disentangle a part of the complex phase diagram and spin behavior of the (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite (pv). To do this we investigate the dynamic stability of Pbnm FeSiO3 pv and show the existence of unstable phonon modes. We track the eigen-displacements of the phonons modes to find low-spin and intermediate spin states. On solid-state physical basis we explore a set of hypothetical structures with various spin configurations and considerably lower enthalpy than the parent orthorhombic Pbnm structure. At megabar pressures we study various stable monoclinic and triclinic configurations with intermediate spin state and a triclinic low-spin structure. Our results demonstrate that pv with intermediate spin state can exist in the Earth as an independent phase or can coexist with domains in a high-spin configuration. Changes due to chemistry or temperature or both can easily shift the equilibrium from one spin configuration to the other; this would in turn affect the thermal and electrical conductivities, the seismic properties, the rheology and the chemical behavior of the mantle and thus could be at the origin of small-scale mantle heterogeneities and enhance chaotic convection. The elastic moduli and the bulk seismic wave velocities are weakly affected by the spin transition. However, the intrinsic differences in seismic anisotropy between the high-spin and low-spin phases of Fe-bearing pv coupled with lattice preferred orientation that can develop during mantle flow lead to distinct seismic signatures between the top and the bottom of the lower mantle. These signatures are detectable by seismic observations and they need to be taken into account in tomographic studies of the Earth's lower mantle. Then we extend the field of investigation of the pv to post-perovskite (ppv) phase transition with a study of the double substitution Mg+Si = Al+Fe. We distinguish two

  1. Accelerated Discovery of Thermoelectric Materials: Combinatorial Facility and High-Throughput Measurement of Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Adkins, Nicholas J E; McCain, Stephen; Hauptstein, Bastian; Brew, Ashley; Jarvis, David J; Min, Gao

    2016-06-13

    A series of processes have been developed to facilitate the rapid discovery of new promising thermoelectric alloys. A novel combinatorial facility where elements are wire-fed and laser-melted was designed and constructed. Different sample compositions can be achieved by feeding different element wires at specific rates. The composition of all the samples prepared was tested by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Then, their thermoelectric properties (power factor) at room temperature were screened in a specially designed new high-throughput setup. After the screening, the thermoelectric properties can be mapped with the possibility of identifying compositional trends. As a proof-of-concept, a promising thermoelectric ternary system, Al-Fe-Ti, has been identified, demonstrating the capability of this accelerated approach. PMID:27186664

  2. Creation of mixed beam from alloy target and couple of pure targets with laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Shunsuke Sekine, Megumi; Romanelli, Mark; Cinquegrani, David; Kumaki, Masafumi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Munemoto, Naoya; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Jin, Qianyu

    2014-02-15

    To create mixed species ion beam with laser pulses, we investigated charge state distributions of plasma formed from both Al-Fe alloy targets and pure Al and Fe targets placed close together. With two targets, we observed that the two kinds of atoms were mixed when the interval of two laser pulses was large enough (40 μs). On the other hand, when the interval was 0.0 μs, we observed fewer Fe ions and they did not mix well with the Al ions. The two species were mixed well in the plasma from the alloy target. Furthermore, we observed that specific charge states of Fe ions increased. From the results, it was determined that we can use two pure targets to mix two species whose difference of the drift velocity is large. On the other hand, we must use an alloy target when the drift velocities of the species are close.

  3. Chemical and particle-size evidence for addition of fine dust to soils of the midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Joseph A.; Jacobs, Peter M.

    1998-12-01

    Significant long-term atmospheric dust additions to soils are well documented in many parts of the world, but not in the midwestern United States. We investigated elemental mass fluxes associated with soil development in late Wisconsinan loess in Illinois and Minnesota, using Zr as a stable index element. Positive mass fluxes of Al, Fe, and Ti can most plausibly be explained by additions to these soils of fine far-traveled dust, with higher Al/Zr, Fe/Zr, and Ti/Zr ratios than the coarser locally derived loess. High-resolution particle-size analyses support this explanation. The proposed dust influx will complicate efforts to quantify weathering processes in these soils. Far-traveled dust influx could have occurred simultaneously with the final phase of local loess deposition, and/or later, in the Holocene. Depending on the timing of dust influx, many other soils of the region may have been affected by it.

  4. Impact of sediment characteristics on the heavy metal concentration and their ecological risk level of surface sediments of Vaigai river, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramasivam, K.; Ramasamy, V.; Suresh, G.

    2015-02-01

    The distributions of the metals (Al, Fe, Mg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured for the surface sediments of the Vaigai river, Tamilnadu, India. These values are compared with different standard values to assess the level of toxicity of the heavy metals in the sediments. Risk indices (CF, PLI and PER) are also calculated to understand the level of toxicity of the metals. Multivariate statistical analyses (Pearson's correlation analysis, cluster analysis and factor analysis) are carried out to know the inter-relationship between sediment characteristics and the heavy metals. From this analysis, it is confirmed that the contents of clay and organic matter play an important role to raise the level of heavy metal contents as well as PLI and PER (level of toxicity). Heavy metal concentrations of the samples (after removing silt and clay fractions from bulk samples) show decrease in their concentrations and risk indices compared to the level of bulk samples.

  5. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  6. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  7. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay.

  8. Variation in the Composition and In Vitro Proinflammatory Effect of Urban Particulate Matter from Different Sites

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Quintana, Raúl; Sánchez, Brisa; Serrano, Jesús; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Tania; O’Neill, Marie S.; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Rosas, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variation in particulate matter–related health and toxicological outcomes is partly due to its composition. We studied spatial variability in particle composition and induced cellular responses in Mexico City to complement an ongoing epidemiologic study. We measured elements, endotoxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two particle size fractions collected in five sites. We compared the in vitro proinflammatory response of J774A.1 and THP-1 cells after exposure to particles, measuring subsequent TNFα and IL-6 secretion. Particle composition varied by site and size. Particle constituents were subjected to principal component analysis, identifying three components: C1 (Si, Sr, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, endotoxin), C2 (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and C3 (Zn, S, Sb, Ni, Cu, Pb). Induced TNFα levels were higher and more heterogeneous than IL-6 levels. Cytokines produced by both cell lines only correlated with C1, suggesting that constituents associated with soil induced the inflammatory response and explain observed spatial differences. PMID:23335408

  9. Seasonal variation of monomethylmercury concentrations in surface sediments of the Tagus Estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Canário, João; Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediments (0-2cm) were collected at 40 sites along the Tagus Estuary in July and December 2004. The sediments were analysed for total mercury, monomethylmercury (MMHg) and interpretative parameters (e.g. redox potential, pH, C(org)). No significant differences in total Hg, pH, Al, Fe, Mn and C(org) were found between sediments collected in the two periods, but MMHg concentrations were higher in July. On average sediments were warmer and more reducing in summer. On the basis of these results, an increase of 7kg of MMHg (+37%) in surface sediments of the Tagus Estuary was estimated. Presumably higher temperatures in summer promote the increase of microbial activity and higher methylation rates. The alterations observed in this study point to the potential importance of seasonal changes in MMHg production at surface sediments with eventual changes in the MMHg uptake by benthic invertebrates and other organisms in the food web. PMID:17240023

  10. Microstructure of arc brazed and diffusion bonded joints of stainless steel and SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elßner, M.; Weis, S.; Grund, T.; Wagner, G.; Habisch, S.; Mayr, P.

    2016-03-01

    Joint interfaces of aluminum and stainless steel often exhibit intermetallics of Al-Fe, which limit the joint strength. In order to reduce these brittle phases in joints of aluminum matrix composites (AMC) and stainless steel, diffusion bonding and arc brazing are used. Due to the absence of a liquid phase, diffusion welding can reduce the formation of these critical in- termetallics. For this joining technique, the influence of surface treatments and adjusted time- temperature-surface-pressure-regimes is investigated. On the other hand, arc brazing offers the advantage to combine a localized heat input with the application of a low melting filler and was conducted using the system Al-Ag-Cu. Results of the joining tests using both approaches are described and discussed with regard to the microstructure of the joints and the interfaces.

  11. Mismatch between sediment metal distribution and pollution source gradient: a case study of a small-size drainage basin (Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Noronha, Frederico Ricardo C; Schultz, Mario Sergio; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Silveira, Carla Semiramis

    2015-06-01

    Metal contamination in aquatic environments may occur when the anthropogenic emission exceeds the natural contribution although other factors might influence the metal distribution. In the small-size Macaé river basin, most of the metal emission was originated from anthropogenic sources suggesting a contamination status. Total and exchangeable metal concentrations were determined in sediments from the pristine upstream to the urban estuary and compared to the metal content in rocks to establish contamination and background concentrations. The enrichment of Pb in sediments compared to the regional background and high exchangeable concentrations suggest the influence of anthropogenic sources on Pb distribution. Al, Fe Mn, Zn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni concentrations in sediments were similar to the rock content and the values were considered regional background. Spatial distribution did not follow the whole-basin emission source gradient suggesting that despite actual anthropogenic sources, the sediment mineralogy and basin geomorphology might influence the sediment metal distribution. PMID:25792107

  12. Twin Knudsen Cell Configuration for Activity Measurements by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.

    1996-01-01

    A twin Knudsen cell apparatus for alloy activity measurements by mass spectrometry is described. Two Knudsen cells - one containing an alloy and one containing a pure component - are mounted on a single flange and translated into the sampling region via a motorized x-y table. Mixing of the molecular beams from the cells is minimized by a novel system of shutters. Activity measurements were taken on two well-characterized alloys to verify the operation of the system. Silver activity measurements are reported for Ag-Cu alloys and aluminum activity measurements are reported for Fe-Al alloys. The temperature dependence of activity for a 0.474 mol fraction Al-Fe alloy gives a partial molar heat of aluminum. Measurements taken with the twin cell show good agreement with literature values for these alloys.

  13. Electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of fluoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Prejza, J.; Lundstrom, I.; Skotheim, T.

    1982-08-01

    The formation of polypyrrole on some metallic films (Pt,Pd,Ti,Au,Ni,Cr,In,Al,Fe,Ag, etc.) has been studied under potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. The role of pyrrole and the fluoborate ion in the polymerization process has been investigated at room temperature. From the analysis of galvanostatic current-potential curves it has been possible to distinguish the particular processes: initiator formation, polymerization, polymer degradation, and gas evolution. The polymerization in acetonitrile is indirectly initiated with a reaction order of /approximately equals/1 with respect to the BF/sub 4//sup -/ concentration. There are at least two different kinds of polypyrrole, depending on polymerization potential, that differ structurally. The formation of polymers on nonpolarized electrodes has also been observed. This work is pertinent to solar cells. 23 refs.

  14. Surface studies on aluminized and thermally oxidized superalloy 690 substrates interacted with simulated nuclear waste and sodium borosilicate melt

    SciTech Connect

    Yusufali, C. Sengupta, P.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.

    2014-04-24

    Aluminized and thermally oxidized Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on top have been exposed in nitrate based environment (simulated high level nuclear liquid waste) at 373 K for 216 hours and sodium borosilicate melt at 1248 K for 192 hours. The surfaces of exposed samples have been characterized by using Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Elemental X-ray mapping on coated specimen that exposed in simulated nuclear waste solution revealed that the surface is enriched with Ni, Cr and Al. X-ray mapping on surface of the specimen that interacted with sodium borosilicate melt indicated that the surface is composed of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr.

  15. Structure - property relationship of permutite-like amorphous silicates, Nax+2yM3+xSi1-xO2+y(M3+= Al, Mn, Fe, Y), for ion-exchange reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jason D.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Maxwell, Robert S.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene

    2005-03-01

    A series of amorphous silicate materials with the general formula Na{sub x+2y}M{sub x}{sup 3+}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}(M{sup 3+} = Al, Mn, Fe, Y) were studied. Samples were synthesized by a precipitation reaction at room temperature. The results indicate that the ion-exchange capacity (IEC) decreases as follows: Al > Fe > Mn > Y. Additionally, the IEC increases with increasing aluminum concentration. Structural studies show that the relative amount of octahedrally coordinated aluminum increases with increasing Al content, as does the total amount of AlO{sub 4} species increases. The data suggest that the IEC value of these amorphous aluminosilicates is dependent on the tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum. Regeneration of the Al-silicate with acetic acid does not decrease the IEC significantly.

  16. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. PMID:25537749

  17. Characterization by thermoelectric power of a commercial aluminum-iron-silicon alloy (8011) during isothermal precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Luiggi A., N.J.

    1998-11-01

    The author has characterized a commercial 8011 (Al-Fe-Si) alloy by studying samples under different initial states of strain hardening and iron and silicon supersaturation using thermoelectric power as a measurement technique. Isothermal kinetics of precipitation are obtained in the temperature range between 225 C and 600 C. He has determined the atom fraction precipitated for each microstructural condition, identifying the dominant alloying additions and evaluating the typical parameters of the precipitated phases, such as, for example, the apparent activation energy. Finally, he determined the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams. These results prove that iron is the alloying addition that controls the precipitation kinetics of the 8011 alloy in the temperature range studied.

  18. Phase composition of murataite ceramics for excess weapons plutonium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, I. A.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Myasoedov, B. F.; Kullako, Y. M.; Yudintsev, S. V.

    2000-07-01

    Among the host phases for actinides immobilization, murataite (cubic, space group Fm3m) with the general formula A4B2C7O22-x (A=Ca, Mn, Na, Ln, An; B=Mn, Ti, Zr, AnIV; C=Ti, Al, Fe; 0

  19. Ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation on-line low cost sulfur and ash analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Malito, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the testing to be performed on field collected coal slurry samples by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy). A total of 20 samples (8 from an Upper Freeport coal and 12 from an Oklahoma coal) are to be analyzed in triplicate for the elements S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg. For each of the two coal slurry types (Upper Freeport and Oklahoma), a container of slurry labeled calibration'' has been prepared. These calibration slurries may be used to get the system tuned'' (note that the volume of the field collected slurries is relatively small and cannot be used to tune'' the system). The calibration slurries were made from the slurry collected from the drain from the second sampling stage during the field testing.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polycrystalline brownmillerite cobalt doped Ca2Fe2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhankhar, Suchita; Bhalerao, Gopal; Baskar, K.; Singh, Shubra

    2016-05-01

    Brownmillerite compounds with general formula A2BB'O5 (BB' = Mn, Al, Fe, Co) have attracted attention in wide range of applications such as in solid oxide fuel cell, oxygen separation membrane and photocatalysis. Brownmillerite compounds have unique structure with alternate layers of BO6 octahedral layers and BO4 tetrahedral layers. Presence of dopants like Co in place of Fe increases oxygen vacancies. In the present work we have synthesized polycrystalline Ca2Fe2O5 and Ca2Fe1-xCoxO5 (x = 0.01, 0.03) by citrate combustion route. The as prepared samples were characterized by XRD using PANalytical X'Pert System, DRS (Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy).

  1. The Hall-Petch relationship and mechanisms of fracture in B2 compounds. Third year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.

    1992-12-30

    A study was initiated in 1987 to examine structure and properties of grain boundaries in the B2 ordered alloys FeAl and NiAl. This project continued from 1990, with initial emphasis on CoAl, FeCo, and CuZn, but with continued work on FeAl and NiAl. Effect of alloy composition on structure/chemistry and properties of grain boundaries were examined by measuring yield strength vs grain size, measuring grain boundary composition using a scanning Auger electron microprobe, examining dislocation/grain boundary interactions during in-situ straining in TEM, and determining fracture modes and assessing strain extent at fracture surfaces using selected area channeling patterns. Progress during the last 3 years is reviewed.

  2. Nanostructured materials: A novel approach to enhanced performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G.E.; Froes, F.H.; Suryanarayana, C.

    1996-05-01

    Nanostuctured materials are an emerging class of materials that can exhibit physical and mechanical characteristics often exceeding those exhibited by conventional course grained materials. A number of different techniques can be employed to produce these materials. In this program, the synthesis methods were (a) mechanical alloying , (b) physical vapor deposition, and (c) plasma processing. The physical vapor deposition and plasma processing were discontinued after initial testing with subsequent efforts focused on mechanical alloying. The major emphasis of the program was on the synthesis, consolidation, and characterization of nanostructured Al-Fe, Ti-Al, Ti-Al-Nb, and Fe-Al by alloying intermetallics with a view to increase their ductilities. The major findings of this project are reported.

  3. High-temperature battery calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.D.; Hart, R.H.; Chen, D.M.; Gibbard, H.F.

    1982-04-01

    A battery calorimeter was built for the measurement of thermal energy generation of high-temperature lithium--aluminum/iron sulfide battery cells, which are under development for electric vehicle propulsion and other energy storage applications. The calorimeter was designed with a temperature range of 400 /sup 0/--500 /sup 0/C, a detection limit of 1 mW, and an upper limit of heat flow of 50 W. The results of measurements on 200-Ah LiAl/FeS cells were in excellent agreement with the predictions of thermodynamic calculations based on precise measurements of the total cell polarization and the temperature coefficient of the emf. Details of the construction and operation principles of this calorimeter are given.

  4. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80°C controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  5. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gitelson, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degC controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  6. Structural investigation of the (010) surface of the Al13 Fe4 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ledieu, J; Gaudry, É; Loli, L N Serkovic; Villaseca, S Alarcón; de Weerd, M-C; Hahne, M; Gille, P; Grin, Y; Dubois, J-M; Fournée, V

    2013-02-15

    We have investigated the structure of the Al(13)Fe(4)(010) surface using both experimental and ab initio computational methods. The results indicate that the topmost surface layers correspond to incomplete puckered (P) planes present in the bulk crystal structure. The main building block of the corrugated termination consists of two adjacent pentagons of Al atoms, each centered by a protruding Fe atom. These motifs are interconnected via additional Al atoms referred to as "glue" atoms which partially desorb above 873 K. The surface structure of lower atomic density compared to the bulk P plane is explained by a strong Fe-Al-Fe covalent polar interaction that preserves intact clusters at the surface. The proposed surface model with identified Fe-containing atomic ensembles could explain the Al(13)Fe(4) catalytic properties recently reported in line with the site-isolation concept [M. Armbrüster et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 690 (2012)]. PMID:25166385

  7. Ultrasound assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol: kinetics and intraparticle diffusion effects.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Apostolos N; Igglessi-Markopoulou, Olga; Papayannakos, Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    The combination of ultrasound irradiation and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation was used as a means to degrade phenol. Direct and indirect irradiation were employed, while experiments in the absence of ultrasound were used as reference. A mixed (Al-Fe) pillared clay named FAZA, was used as a catalyst in the form of powder, extrudates and crushed extrudates. Ultrasound was found to clearly enhance the extrudates performance, increasing the conversion at 4h by more than 6 times under direct and almost 11 times under indirect irradiation. This observation is attributed to the reduction of diffusion resistance within the catalyst pores. The overall sonication-catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process appears very promising for environmental purposes. PMID:16223693

  8. Degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid by combined ultrasound irradiation and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Apostolos N; Igglessi-Markopoulou, Olga; Papayannakos, Nikolaos

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential benefits from the combined use of ultrasound irradiation and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation for the degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA). The target compound degradation was studied under direct and indirect sonication, while silent conditions were employed as reference. The catalyst, a mixed (Al-Fe) pillared clay named FAZA, was in the form of powder and of extrudates. In the case of extrudates it was observed that ultrasound improves the catalyst performance due to reduction of diffusion resistance, thereby increasing the conversion after 4 h by 12-15 times. Increasing the initial concentration of 4-HBA was found to lead to lower conversion. The combined ultrasonic/catalytic process appears very promising for environmental applications. PMID:15081978

  9. Comparison of rapid methods for chemical analysis of milligram samples of ultrafine clays.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Marinenko, J.W.; Khoury, H.N.; Jones, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Two rapid methods for the decomposition and chemical analysis of clays were adapted for use with 20-40mg size samples, typical amounts of ultrafine products (< 0.5 micrometer diameter) obtained from modern separation methods for clay minrals. The results of these methods were compared with those of 'classical' rock analyses. The two methods consisted of mixed lithium metaborate fusion and heated decomposition with HF in a closed vessel. The latter technique was modified to include subsequent evaporation with concentrated H2SO4 and re-solution in HCl, which reduced the interference of the fluoride ion in the determination of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and K.-from Authors

  10. Structural investigation of the (010) surface of the Al13 Fe4 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ledieu, J; Gaudry, É; Loli, L N Serkovic; Villaseca, S Alarcón; de Weerd, M-C; Hahne, M; Gille, P; Grin, Y; Dubois, J-M; Fournée, V

    2013-02-15

    We have investigated the structure of the Al(13)Fe(4)(010) surface using both experimental and ab initio computational methods. The results indicate that the topmost surface layers correspond to incomplete puckered (P) planes present in the bulk crystal structure. The main building block of the corrugated termination consists of two adjacent pentagons of Al atoms, each centered by a protruding Fe atom. These motifs are interconnected via additional Al atoms referred to as "glue" atoms which partially desorb above 873 K. The surface structure of lower atomic density compared to the bulk P plane is explained by a strong Fe-Al-Fe covalent polar interaction that preserves intact clusters at the surface. The proposed surface model with identified Fe-containing atomic ensembles could explain the Al(13)Fe(4) catalytic properties recently reported in line with the site-isolation concept [M. Armbrüster et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 690 (2012)].

  11. Advanced materials for the energy efficient production of aluminum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Hall process has always suffered from important problems, among which is the use of consumable carbon anodes, hence, attempts had been made in the past to find an inert anode. A different approach was taken in the present research: a metal anode covered by a protective oxide film is operated so that the film is thick enough to prevent chemical attack of underlying metal, yet thin enough to allow electric current to pass without increase in cell voltage. Specimens of various candidate alloy compositions (Cu-Al, Ni-Al, Cr-Al, Fe-Cr-Al) were electrolyzed; results are promising. Areas for further research on nonconsumable anode for Hall cell are outlined.

  12. Matrix effects on the determination of manganese in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry under different flame conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1978-01-01

    Suppression caused by five of the seven matrix elements studied (Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg) was observed in the atomic-absorption determination of manganese in geological materials, when synthetic solutions and the recommended oxidizing air-acetylene flame were used. The magnitude of the suppression effects depends on (1) the kind and concentration of the interfering elements, (2) the type of acid medium, and (3) the concentration of manganese to be determined. All interferences noted are removed or alleviated by using a reducing nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The atomic-absorption method using this flame can be applied to the determination of total and extractable manganese in a wide range of geological materials without interferences. Analyses of six U.S. Geological Survey rock standards for manganese gave results in agreement with the reported values. ?? 1978.

  13. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral vantasselite Al4(PO4)3(OH)3·9H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the phosphate mineral vantasselite Al4(PO4)3(OH)3·9H2O using a combination of SEM with EDX and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows Al, Fe and P. Raman bands at 1013 and 1027 cm-1 are assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. The observation of two bands suggests the non-equivalence of the phosphate units in the vantasselite structure. Raman bands at 1051, 1076 and 1090 cm-1 are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibration. A comparison is made with the spectroscopy of wardite. Strong infrared bands at 1044, 1078, 1092, 1112, 1133, 1180 and 1210 cm-1 are attributed to the PO43- ν3 antisymmetric stretching mode. Some of these bands may be due to δAl2OH deformation modes. Vibrational spectroscopy offers a mechanism for the study of the molecular structure of vantasselite.

  14. Mismatch between sediment metal distribution and pollution source gradient: a case study of a small-size drainage basin (Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Noronha, Frederico Ricardo C; Schultz, Mario Sergio; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Silveira, Carla Semiramis

    2015-06-01

    Metal contamination in aquatic environments may occur when the anthropogenic emission exceeds the natural contribution although other factors might influence the metal distribution. In the small-size Macaé river basin, most of the metal emission was originated from anthropogenic sources suggesting a contamination status. Total and exchangeable metal concentrations were determined in sediments from the pristine upstream to the urban estuary and compared to the metal content in rocks to establish contamination and background concentrations. The enrichment of Pb in sediments compared to the regional background and high exchangeable concentrations suggest the influence of anthropogenic sources on Pb distribution. Al, Fe Mn, Zn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni concentrations in sediments were similar to the rock content and the values were considered regional background. Spatial distribution did not follow the whole-basin emission source gradient suggesting that despite actual anthropogenic sources, the sediment mineralogy and basin geomorphology might influence the sediment metal distribution.

  15. Chemical mixing at “Al on Fe” and “Fe on Al” interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Süle, P.; Horváth, Z. E.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Balogh, J.; Nakanishi, A.

    2015-10-07

    The chemical mixing at the “Al on Fe” and “Fe on Al” interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp “Al on Fe” interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the “Fe on Al” interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/{sup 57}Fe/Al and Al/{sup 57}Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  16. Surface studies on aluminized and thermally oxidized superalloy 690 substrates interacted with simulated nuclear waste and sodium borosilicate melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufali, C.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Sengupta, P.; Dutta, R. S.; Dey, G. K.

    2014-04-01

    Aluminized and thermally oxidized Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates with Al2O3 layer on top have been exposed in nitrate based environment (simulated high level nuclear liquid waste) at 373 K for 216 hours and sodium borosilicate melt at 1248 K for 192 hours. The surfaces of exposed samples have been characterized by using Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Elemental X-ray mapping on coated specimen that exposed in simulated nuclear waste solution revealed that the surface is enriched with Ni, Cr and Al. X-ray mapping on surface of the specimen that interacted with sodium borosilicate melt indicated that the surface is composed of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr.

  17. Near real-time fluorescence detection of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    McCleskey, T. M.; Ehler, D. S.; Minogue, E. M.; Collis, G. E.; Keizer, T. S.; Burrell, A. K.; Sauer, N. N.; John, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a fluorescent test for beryllium designed for analyzing swipes. The detection is rapid, quantitative and deployable in the field with $5,000 portable fluorimeter. Swipes are placed in a vial and a dilution solution is added. The vials are then rotated for 30 minutes and then syringe filtered. An aliquot of 100 pL is added to a detector solution and fluorescence measured with a portable ocean optics unit. We can readily detect down to 0.02 {micro}g on a filter paper. Interference studies have been carried out with various metals including Al, Fe, Pb, U, Ca, W, Ni, Co and Cu. The technique has proven to be successful under various conditions including a variety of surfaces both in the lab and in field. It is a user-friendly, cost effective method.

  18. Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by acidophilic thermophile Acidianus brierleyi: Leaching mechanism and effect of decoking.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Abhilasha; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2013-02-01

    Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by thermophillic archae Acidianus brierleyi was investigated. The spent catalyst (containing Al, Fe, Ni and Mo as major elements) was characterized, and the effect of pretreatment (decoking) on two-step and spent medium leaching was examined at 1% w/v pulp density. Decoking resulted in removal of carbonaceous deposits and volatile impurities, and affected the solubility of metal compounds through oxidization of the metal sulfides. Nearly 100% extraction was achieved using spent medium leaching for Fe, Ni and Mo, and 67% for Al. Bioleaching reduced nickel concentration in the leachate below the regulated levels for safe waste disposal. Chemical (i.e. abiotic) leaching using equimolar concentration of sulfuric acid produced by the bacteria during two-step process achieved a lower leaching efficiency (by up to 30%). Results indicated that A. brierleyi successfully leached heavy metals from spent catalyst. PMID:23334026

  19. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-05-15

    We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and δ(15)N values or δ(13)C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  20. Symmetry and random sampling of symmetry independent configurations for the simulation of disordered solids.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Philippe; Mustapha, Sami; Ferrabone, Matteo; Noël, Yves; De La Pierre, Marco; Dovesi, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    A symmetry-adapted algorithm producing uniformly at random the set of symmetry independent configurations (SICs) in disordered crystalline systems or solid solutions is presented here. Starting from Pólya's formula, the role of the conjugacy classes of the symmetry group in uniform random sampling is shown. SICs can be obtained for all the possible compositions or for a chosen one, and symmetry constraints can be applied. The approach yields the multiplicity of the SICs and allows us to operate configurational statistics in the reduced space of the SICs. The present low-memory demanding implementation is briefly sketched. The probability of finding a given SIC or a subset of SICs is discussed as a function of the number of draws and their precise estimate is given. The method is illustrated by application to a binary series of carbonates and to the binary spinel solid solution Mg(Al,Fe)2O4.

  1. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  2. Ferrocene functionalized nanoscale mixed-oxides as a potent phosphate adsorbent from the synthetic and real (Persian Gulf) waters.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Zandi, H; Akbari, J; Shameli, A

    2015-07-15

    The application of covalently attached ferrocene groups to the aluminum-silicate nanoparticles (ASNPs) for phosphate (P) removal from the synthetic and real waters has been studied and the prepared nanomaterials were analyzed by XPS, EDS, BET, TEM, chemical analysis (CHN), FTIR, and ICP-AES. The immobilization of the ferrocene on the surface of the inorganic support (mixed oxides) can lead to reduce the drawback of the pristine ferrocene molecules which may have strong tendency to agglomerate into larger particles, resulting in the negative effect on both available active sites and catalyst performance. XPS of Fe ions evidenced that most of the active sites of the nano-adsorbent is in the form of Fe(III) ions at the surface. The heterogeneous Fe(III) ions were effective toward removal of phosphate. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum adsorption of phosphate (100%) was found to be 120 min. The adsorption kinetics of P has been evaluated in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models have also been tested to the equilibrium adsorption results. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. FTIR, EDS and XPS results confirmed the formation of Fe-O-P bond on the Si/Al@Fe surface after adsorption of P from aqueous media. The Si/Al@Fe displayed high reusability due to its high removal capacity after 10th adsorption-desorption runs. The proposed adsorbent could also be utilized to adsorb the P ions from the real sample (Persian Gulf water). The high removal capacity of P ions from the real water and the high levels of reusability confirmed the versatility of the heterogenized ferrocene groups on the ASNPs.

  3. Fast and inexpensive detection of total and extractable element concentrations in aquatic sediments using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    PubMed

    Kleinebecker, Till; Poelen, Moni D M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Hölzel, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Adequate biogeochemical characterization and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems, both for scientific purposes and for water management, pose high demands on spatial and temporal replication of chemical analyses. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) may offer a rapid, low-cost and reproducible alternative to standard analytical sample processing (digestion or extraction) and measuring techniques used for the chemical characterization of aquatic sediments. We analyzed a total of 191 sediment samples for total and NaCl-extractable concentrations of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, Si, and Zn as well as oxalate- extractable concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and P. Based on the NIR spectral data and the reference values, calibration models for the prediction of element concentrations in unknown samples were developed and tested with an external validation procedure. Except Mn, all prediction models of total element concentrations were found to be acceptable to excellent (ratio of performance deviation: RPD 1.8-3.1). For extractable element fractions, viable model precision could be achieved for NaCl-extractable Ca, K, Mg, NH4 (+)-N, S and Si (RPD 1.7-2.2) and oxalate-extractable Al, Fe and P (RPD 1.9-2.3). For those elements that showed maximum total values below 3 g kg(-1) prediction models were found to become increasingly critical (RPD <2.0). Low concentrations also limited the performance of NIRS calibrations for extracted elements, with critical concentration thresholds <0.1 g kg(-1) and 3.3 g kg(-1) for NaCl and oxalate extractions, respectively. Thus, reliable NIRS measurements of trace metals are restricted to sediments with high metal content. Nevertheless, we demonstrated the suitability of NIRS measurements to determine a large array of chemical properties of aquatic sediments. The results indicate great potential of this fast technique as an analytical tool to better understand the large spatial and temporal variation of sediment characteristics in an

  4. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  5. Effects of acid mine drainage on water, sediment and associated benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, L.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Zipper, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic constituents of abandoned mined land (AML) discharges (acidic pH, heavy metals, total suspended solids) are extremely toxic to aquatic life . Studies were undertaken to ascertain environmental impacts to the upper Powell River, Lee and Wise Counties, Va. These impacts included disruptions in physical water quality, sediment quality, altered benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and toxicity of the water column and sediments from short-term impairment bioassays, and the potential to bioaccumulate selected metals (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) by periphyton and resident bivalves. Water chemistry and macroinvertebrate assemblages were collected at upstream control, just below acid mine drainage and other downstream sites. Selected trace metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) were determined for water, sediment and resident bivalves using ICP-AES. Acidic pH ranged from 2.15--3.3 at three AML-influenced seeps and varied from 6.4--8.0 at reference stations. At one AML-influenced creek, acidic pH conditions worsened from summer to fall and eradicated aquatic life throughout a 1.5 km stretch of that creek as it flowed into another creek. An additional dilution of 3.4 km in the second creek was needed to nearly neutralize the acidic pH problem. Conductivity (umhos/cm) ranged from 32--278 at reference sites and from 245--4,180 at AML-impact sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and taxon richness were essentially eliminated in the seeps or reached numbers of 1 -3 taxa totaling < 10 organisms relative to reference areas where richness values were 12--17 and comprised 300--977 organisms. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Mg and Cu and Zn were highest in the environmentally stressed stations of low pH and high conductivity relative to the reference stations. Iron was, by far, the element in highest concentration followed by Al and Mg.

  6. Monitoring impacts of air pollution: PIXE analysis and histopathological modalities in evaluating relative risks of elemental contamination.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Camer, Gerry Amor; Anwar, Khaleeq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Environmental toxicants invariably affect all biological organisms resulting to sufferings ranging from subclinical to debilitating clinical conditions. This novel research aimed to determine the toxic burdens of increased environmental elements in some vital organs/tissues of the wild animals (starling, owl, crow and pigeon), exposed to air polluted environment were assessed using particle induced X-ray emission and histopathological approaches. The presence of significantly elevated amounts of elemental toxicants namely: Aluminum (Al), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Vanadium (V) from the skin, muscle, lungs, liver and kidney of sampled animals were in concurrence with the observed histopathological changes. The skin of sampled starling, owl, pigeon and crow spotlighted highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in Al, Cl, Mg and Si. Muscle samples with myodegenerative lesions and mineral depositions highlighted substantial augmentation (P < 0.001) in the amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Si and V. The lungs of starling, owl, and pigeon were severely intoxicated (P < 0.001) with increased amount of Al, Fe, K, Mn and Si producing pulmonary lesions of congestion, edema, pneumonitis and mineral debris depositions. Liver samples revealed that the sampled animals were laden with Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and V with histopathological profound degenerative changes and hepatic necrosis. Kidney sections presented severe tubular degenerative and necrotic changes that may be attributed to increased amounts of Cl and Fe. These current findings implied that the environmental/elemental toxicants and the accompanying lesions that were discerned in the organs/tissues of sampled birds may as well be afflicting people living within the polluted area. Further assessment to more conclusively demonstrate correlations of current findings to those of the populace within the area is encouraged.

  7. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  8. Size dependent structural and magnetic properties of Al substituted Co–Mg ferrites synthesized by the sol–gel auto-combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Imran; Abbas, Tahir; Ziya, A.B.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Maqsood, Asghari

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Well-crystalline Co{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}AlFeO{sub 4} nanoparticles with small grain size were obtained. • The approach is sol–gel auto-combustion technique for obtained nanoparticles. • The prepared Co{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}AlFeO{sub 4} ferrites are decent soft materials with low coercivity. • The minor decrease in lattice parameter with increase of temperature was observed. - Abstract: Single phased nanocrystalline Co{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}FeAlO{sub 4} ferrites having low coercivity were synthesized by the sol–gel auto-combustion route. The subsequent powder materials were sintered in a temperature range of 800–1200 °C for 2 h. The effects of sintering temperatures on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the prepared soft magnetic material were studied. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and magnetic property measurement system (MPMS) were used to characterize the samples. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed a single-phase cubic spinel structure and ruled out the presence of impurities like hematite. The higher sintering temperatures have caused in enhanced mark of crystallinity and bigger average grain size of the nanocrystals. A slight decrease in lattice parameters was noticed with a rise of grain size. Magnetic measurements revealed that grain size increase led to a decrease in the coercivity and, in difference, an increase in the saturation magnetization.

  9. Quaternary (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub x}(MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x} alloys and photosensitive structures on their basis

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnar, I. V.; Rud, V. Yu.; Rud, Yu. V.; Lozhkin, D. V.

    2011-07-15

    Using directional crystallization of the melt of the (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub x}(MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x} alloy, homogeneous crystals of a similar atomic composition are grown over the entire range of compositions 1 {>=} x {>=} 0. It is established that the crystals of the continuous series of quaternary alloys in the range x = 0-1 crystallize in the spinel structure and lattice parameter a linearly depends on x. It is established that it is possible to obtain In(Al)/(FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub x}(MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x} photosensitive structures. Room-temperature spectra of relative quantum efficiency of photoconversion of the In(Al)/(FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub x}(MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x} structures fabricated for the first time are obtained. From the analysis of these spectra, activation energies of direct and indirect band-to-band transitions for the crystals of the (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub x}(MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x} alloys are determined and the dependence of these parameters on the composition of the position-disordered phases of mentioned alloys is discussed. It is concluded that the crystals of the (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub x}(MnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x} alloys can be used in broadband photoconverters of optical radiation.

  10. Atmospheric deposition studies of heavy metals in Arctic by comparative analysis of lichens and cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Sharma, Jagdev; Gawas-Sakhalkar, Puja; Upadhyay, Ajay K; Naik, Simantini; Pedneker, Shailesh M; Ravindra, Rasik

    2013-02-01

    Lichens and cryoconite (rounded or granular, brownish-black debris occurring in holes on the glacier surface) from Ny-Ålesund were used for understanding the elemental deposition pattern in the area. Lichen samples collected from low-lying coastal region and cryoconite samples from high altitudinal glacier area were processed and analysed for elements such as aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metals, Al and Fe, are present in high concentration in the cryoconite samples. Al was also present in high amounts in seven of the eight lichen samples studied. The general scheme of elements in the decreasing order of their concentrations for most of the cryoconite samples was Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As > Cs > Cd while that for the lichen samples was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cs > Cr > Ni > V > Co > As > Cd. Similarity in trends in the two sample types confirms that the environment indeed contains these elements in that order of concentration which overtime got accumulated in the samples. Overall comparison showed most elements to be present in high concentrations in the cryoconite samples as compared to the lichen samples. Within the lichens, elemental accumulation data suggests that the low-lying site (L-2) from where Cladonia mediterranea sample was collected was the most polluted accumulating a number of elements at high concentrations. The probable reasons for such deposition patterns in the region could be natural (crustal contribution and sea salt spray) and anthropogenic (local and long-distance transmission of dust particles). In the future, this data can form a baseline for monitoring quantum of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in lichens and cryoconite of Svalbard, Arctic.

  11. Pioneering investigation of the characteristics and elemental concentrations in the environment of the declining Wadi Maryut Lake.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M I; Badran, H M

    2016-03-01

    Wadi Maryut Lake is one of the remaining parts of the ancient Lake Mareotis and is not mentioned in the scientific literature. For the first time, physical and chemical characteristics as well as elemental concentrations in sediment, water, soil, and plants were determined. The lowest metal pollution indices are in the northeastern end of the lake and tend to increase toward the other end. In lake aquatic environment, Al, Fe, K, Mn, Na, B, and Cr are more likely to exist in insoluble form in the southwestern part and in soluble form in the northeastern part. Using different approaches to assess sediment contamination demonstrates that sediments can be categorized as unpolluted. However, the geo-accumulation index suggests that two locations have low anthropogenic influence of Pb and the enrichment factors and the degree of contamination indicate that Co and Pb may be enriched in sediment of some locations. Comparisons with consensus-based sediment quality guidelines revealed that no sample exceeded the probable effect concentration for Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The most mobile elements in sediment-water and soil-plant systems are Na, K, and Pb. In sediment-water system, Al, Fe, and Mn oxides have the major influence on scavenging of B, K, and Cr. Similarity in the occurrences of Mn, K, and Fe in soil and Mn and Fe in wild plant was found. This work demonstrates the state of decontamination of the lake and confirms its importance as a reference and comparative case for south Mediterranean coastal water bodies. PMID:26899029

  12. Variations in metal levels accumulated in Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) mushroom collected at one site over four years.

    PubMed

    Brzostowski, Andrzej; Jarzyńska, Grazyna; Kojta, Anna K; Wydmańska, Daria; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Al, Fe, Mn, Rb, Cu, Sr, Ag, Ba, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Cr and Hg content have been examined in caps and stipes of mature fruiting bodies of Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) collected from the same site over 4 years in 1999-2002. Cluster analysis (CA) did indicate on a different composition of these mineral constituents in fruiting bodies that emerged in 1999 and 2000, when compared to 2001 and 2002. In light of principal component analysis (PCA), the metals differentiating these two biannual sets of fruiting bodies were Mn (greatest load to PC1) together with Ca, Fe, Al, Cu, Cd and Hg; Ni (greatest load to PC2) together with Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb and Co, and Ag (greatest load to PC3) together with Na. The elements such as Mg, Sr and Cr showed similar contents both in caps and stipes over four years (p > 0.05; U Mann-Whitney test). Depending on a year or years of collection, contents fluctuated (p < 0.05) for K, Ca, Zn, Al, Fe, Mn, Na, Rb, Cu, Ag, Ba, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co and Hg. The values of quotients for K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Ba, Rb, Cu, Sr, Mn, Co, Cr and Ni content between caps and stipes (Q(C/S)) remained constant (p > 0.05) over four years, and for Fe, Ag, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb fluctuated (p < 0.05). The results of this study imply that a potential of mycelium to up-take metallic elements from substratum and their further transportation within fruiting body and sequestration in Poison Pax, even at a stabile geochemical condition (the same stand and probably the same mycelia), can fluctuate over the years or the life-span of mycelium. PMID:21500073

  13. Effect of the addition of Mn on the tensile properties of a spray-formed and extruded Al-9Si-4Cu-1Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, G. D.; Jorge, A. M., Jr.; Kiminami, C. S.; Botta, W. J.; Bolfarini, C.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure and the tensile properties of a spray-formed and extruded Al- 9Si-4Cu-1Fe alloy were investigated. Manganese (0.3, 1, 2 in wt%) was added to the alloy to avoid the formation of the needle-like β-AlFeSi intermetallic phases that are highly detrimental to the alloy's ductility. The deposits were extruded at 623K with a n area reduction of 5 to 1. Small faceted dispersoids surrounding the equiaxial α-Al matrix, mainly in the form of silicon particles, were identified by SEM-EDS, as well as the Mn-containing α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase. The presence of the needle-like β-Al(Fe,Mn)Si was scanty, even with the lowest Mn content. The room temperature tensile tests of all the extruded alloys showed a significant increase in elongation to fracture when compared with the values observed fo r the as-spray formed deposits.This result can be ascribed to the elimination of porosity promoted by the extrusion process and to the smaller grain size of the extruded samples. PUBLISHER'S NOTE This article by Benetti et al was published in error, it was a duplicate of article 012114 which appears later in this volume, the duplicate PDF and references have been deleted. The missing article by S Jayalakshmi, E Fleury and D J Sordelet, which forms part of the section HYDROGEN IN METASTABLE ALLOYS, now appears at the end of the volume (012120).

  14. The influence of microtopography on soil nutrients in created mitigation wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moser, K.F.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between microtopography and soil nutrients (and trace elements), comparing results for created and reference wetlands in Virginia, and examining the effects of disking during wetland creation. Replicate multiscale tangentially conjoined circular transects were used to quantify microtopography both in terms of elevation and by two microtopographic indices. Corresponding soil samples were analyzed for moisture content, total C and N, KCl-extractable NH4-N and NO3-N, and Mehlich-3 extractable P, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Fe, and Mn. Means and variances of soil nutrient/element concentrations were compared between created and natural wetlands and between disked and nondisked created wetlands. Natural sites had higher and more variable soil moisture, higher extractable P and Fe, lower Mn than created wetlands, and comparatively high variability in nutrient concentrations. Disked sites had higher soil moisture, NH4-N, Fe, and Mn than did nondisked sites. Consistently low variances (Levene test for inequality) suggested that nondisked sites had minimal nutrient heterogeneity. Across sites, low P availability was inferred by the molar ratio (Mehlich-3 [P/(Al + Fe)] < 0.06); strong intercorrelations among total C, total N, and extractable Fe, Al, and P suggested that humic-metal-P complexes may be important for P retention and availability. Correlations between nutrient/element concentrations and microtopographic indices suggested increased Mn and decreased K and Al availability with increased surface roughness. Disking appears to enhance water and nutrient retention, as well as nutrient heterogeneity otherwise absent from created wetlands, thus potentially promoting ecosystem development. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  15. Selected thermal properties of beryllium and phase equilibria in beryllium systems relevant for nuclear fusion reactor blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleykamp, Heiko

    2001-04-01

    Enthalpies of the hcp-bcc transformation ΔtrH and melting ΔmH of Be were measured by anisothermal calorimetry which gave ΔtrH=6100 J/mol and ΔmH=7200 J/mol. The high value of ΔtrH is explained by the strongly reduced c/ a-axis ratio of the hcp modification. Maximum solubilities of the metallic impurities Al, Cr, Fe, Mg and Si in different Be qualities which annealed at about 800°C are 0.01 mol% or less in each case. In the Al-Be-Fe system, Be(Al, Fe) is in equilibrium with Al 5Fe 2 at 870°C. The phases AlFeBe 4 and Al 2FeBe 2.3 were not observed. The Be-C-Si system is marked by two two-phase equilibria Be 2C-Si and Be 2C-SiC at 900°C. The phase diagram of the pseudo-ternary BeO-Li 2O-SiO 2 system was established on the basis of in-pile Be-BeO-Li 4SiO 4-Li 2SiO 3 compatibility studies at about 450°C. The system is characterised by Li 2BeSiO 4 which is in equilibrium with BeO, Be 2SiO 4,SiO 2,Li 2Si 2O 5,Li 2SiO 3 and Li 4SiO 4. The latter phase is also in equilibrium with Li 2Be 2O 3.

  16. 57 Fe Mössbauer and X-ray characterisation of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Waanders, F. B.

    2013-04-01

    Sandstones from the Free State province in South Africa have been mined and processed mainly by small scale and artisanal miners in the rural areas. In the present investigation basic fire proof and water absorption tests, X-ray and γ-ray based characterisation techniques were used to study the sandstones. The collected samples were grouped according to their apparent colour in day light conditions and the elemental analysis showed the presence of a high amount of oxygen (>52%) and silicon (>38%) with Mn, Al, Fe and Ca as major elements in proportions related to the colour distribution of the various sandstones. The uniaxial compressive stress was found to be the highest (56 MPa) for the greyish sandstone and the lowest (8 MPa) for the white sandstone sample, also associated with the lowest (Al+Fe)/Si value of 0.082. The humidity test showed that the 6 % water absorption was lower than the recommended ASTM value of 8 %. The sandstone samples were also subjected to various high temperatures to simulate possible fire conditions and it was found that the non alteration of the mineral species might be one of the reasons why the sandstones are regarded as the most refractory amongst the building materials typically used. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that iron is present in all the sandstones, mainly as Fe3 + with the black sandstone showing an additional presence of 3 % Fe2 + indicating that a higher iron content coupled to higher silicon content, contributes to an increase in the uniaxial compressive strength.

  17. MS title: Catalytic oxidation and removal of arsenite in the presence of Fe ions and zero-valent Al metals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Chen, Kai-Yue; Chan, Ya-Ting; Deng, Youjun; Hwang, Che-En; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Shan-Li; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic immobilization in acid mine drainage (AMD) is required prior to its discharge to safeguard aquatic organisms. Zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) such as aluminum beverage cans (AlBC) was used to induce the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and enhance the subsequent As removal from an artificially prepared AMD. While indiscernible As(III) oxidation was found in aerated ZVAl systems, the addition of 0.10-0.55mM Fe(II) or Fe(III) into the AMD significantly promoted the As(V) production. Reactions between Fe(II) and H2O2, which was produced through an oxidative reaction of ZVAl with dissolved oxygen, generated OH radicals. Such OH radicals subsequently induced the As(III) oxidation. Over the course of the Fenton like reaction, ZVAl not only directly generated the H2O2, but indirectly enhanced the OH radical production by replenishing Fe(II). Arsenite oxidation in the aerated ZVAl/Fe and AlBC/Fe systems followed zero- and first-order kinetics. Differences in the kinetic reactions of ZVAl and AlBC with respect to As(III) oxidation were attributed to higher productive efficiency of the oxidant in the AlBC systems. After the completion of As(III) oxidation, As(V) could be removed simultaneously with Al(III) and Fe(III) by increasing solution's pH to 6 to produce Al/Fe hydroxides as As(V) scavengers or to form Al/Fe/As co-precipitates. PMID:27285595

  18. Iron's Role in Aluminum: A Powder Metallurgy and Sustainability Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saller, Brandon Dale

    The family of Al-Fe alloys is both scientifically and technologically interesting for several reasons. First, the low equilibrium solid solubility (0.03 at.%) and diffusivity of Fe in Al suggest that the alloys containing these two elements should be thermally stable. Many studies have tried to extend this low solubility value via non-equilibrium processing routes. Second, published results suggest that there is a range of intermetallic phases, including the metastable orthorhombic Al6Fe and the equilibrium monoclinic Al13Fe4, for example, the formation of which depends on solidification and subsequent processing conditions. Third, from a sustainability standpoint, both Al and Fe are present in bauxite (aluminum ore), however up to 40 wt.% Fe-oxide present in bauxite is discarded as a waste product, creating red mud pits. In order to understand the multiple facets and implications of iron's role in aluminum, a systematic investigation was performed into the precipitates that form as a function of thermal exposure and their subsequent effect on the tensile behavior of the alloy. In this study, Al-2at.% Fe and Al-5at.% Fe powders were synthesized via helium gas atomization and argon gas atomization, respectively. Cooling rates upwards of 106 K/s were achieved resulting in an intermetallic-free starting structure. Powders were subsequently severely plastically deformed via either cryomilling or high-pressure torsion to obtain nanostructured/ultrafine-grained powder or a consolidated specimen, respectively. Characterization via electron microscopy established a map of the powder microstructure as a function of atomization cooling rate. In addition, electron backscatter diffraction revealed a large number of low-angle grain boundaries, which influenced nucleation and precipitation of the metastable Al6Fe phase. X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography results provide the most comprehensive evidence to date of forcing of 2at.% Fe into solution with the Al matrix via

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of dissolution-rate data obtained in the laboratory to indicate the potential quality of effluent from a field-scale oxic limestone drain (OLD) treatment system for neutralization of dilute acidic mine drainage (AMD). Effluent from the Reevesdale Mine South Dip Tunnel, a large source of AMD and base flow to the Wabash Creek and Little Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of east-central Pennsylvania, is representative of AMD with low concentrations but high loadings of dissolved Fe, Al and other metals because of a high flow rate. In January 2003, rapid neutralization of the AMD from the Reevesdale Mine was achieved in laboratory tests of its reaction rate with crushed limestone in closed, collapsible containers (Cubitainers). The tests showed that net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with retention times greater than 3 h and that effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for Fe(OH)3-coated and uncoated limestone. On the basis of the laboratory results, a flushable OLD containing 1450 metric tons of high-purity calcitic limestone followed by two 0.7-m deep wetlands were constructed at the Reevesdale Mine. During the first year of operation, monthly data at the inflow, outflow and intermediate points within the treatment system were collected (April 2006-2007). The inflow to the treatment system ranged from 6.8 to 27.4 L/s, with median pH of 4.7, net acidity of 9.1 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of 1.0, 1.9 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding effluent from the OLD had computed void-volume retention times of 4.5-18 h, with median pH of 6.6, net acidity of -93.2 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of <0.1, 0.08 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively. The wetlands below the OLD were effective for retaining metal-rich solids flushed at monthly or more frequent intervals from the OLD, but otherwise had little effect on the effluent quality

  20. Elevated levels of ferrimagnetic metals in foodchains supporting the Guam cluster of neurodegeneration: do metal nucleated crystal contaminants [corrected] evoke magnetic fields that initiate the progressive pathogenesis of neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Elevated levels of aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) cations - combined with deficiencies of magnesium (Mg)/calcium (Ca) - have been observed in the foodchains that traditionally support the Chamorro populations affected by high incidence clusters of Alzheimer (AD), Parkinson-like (PD), motor neurone diseases and multiple sclerosis on the island of Guam. Soils drawn from the cluster region demonstrated an excessive fivefold increase in 'magnetic susceptibility' readings in relation to soils from disease free adjoining regions. A multifactorial aetiological hypothesis is proposed that pivots upon the combined exposure to high levels of natural/industrial sources of ferrimagnetic/ferroelectric compounds incorporating Al, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba (e.g., via yam/seafood consumption or exposure to world war 2 (WW2) munitions) and to low levels of Mg/Ca in all S. Pacific locations where these clusters of neurodegenerative disease have simultaneously erupted. Once gut/blood brain barrier permeability is impaired, the increased uptake of Al, Fe, Sr, Ba, or Mn into the Mg/Ca depleted brain leads to rogue metal substitutions at the Mg/Ca vacated binding domains on various enzyme/proteoglycan groups, causing a broad ranging disruption in Mg/Ca dependent systems - such as the glutamine synthetase which prevents the accumulation of neurotoxic glutamate. The rogue metals chelate sulphate, disrupting sulphated-proteoglycan mediated inhibition of crystal proliferation, as well as its regulation of the Fibroblast growth factor receptor complex which disturbs the molecular conformation of those receptors and their regulation of transphosphorylation between intracellular kinase domains; ultimately collapsing proteoglycan mediated cell-cell signalling pathways which maintain the growth and structural integrity of the neuronal networks. The depression of Mg/Ca dependent systems in conjunction with the progressive ferrimagnetisation of the CNS due to an

  1. Simultaneous growth of self-patterned carbon nanotube forests with dual height scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, Ebru Devrim; Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce; Baykal, Beril; Dalkilic, Zeynep; Rana, Kuldeep; Bengu, Erman

    2012-05-01

    catalyst configurations. Fig. S3; representative XPS spectra of (a) Si 2p, (b) Al 2p, (c) Fe 2p and (d) Co 2p for a reduced Al/Fe/Al/Co (20/20/20/20) catalyst film (grey line in all figures shows the peak backgrounds and orange line shows the curve fitted). Contact angle movies, Video S1 and Video S2, of Al/Fe/Al/Co samples 40/20/20/20 and 20/40/20/20, respectively. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30258f

  2. Basalt weathering in an Arctic Mars-analog site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesavage, Tiffany; Thompson, Aaron; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2015-07-01

    The martian surface has undergone chemical and physical weathering in the past, and these processes may continue intermittently today. To explore whether martian rocks are likely to retain features indicative of weathering, we investigated how basaltic material weathers on Earth. Specifically, we investigated weathering of a Quaternary-aged basaltic flow at the Sverrefjell volcano in Svalbard, above the Arctic Circle. This flow weathered since deglaciation under cold, dry (<400 mm/yr) conditions. We analyzed a ∼75-cm core of regolith for chemical loss and then characterized the mineralogical and morphological properties using electron microscopy (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and selective chemical dissolution. In addition, we ran colloidal dispersion, wetting/drying, and freeze/thaw experiments. In the regolith, we observed concentrations of short-range ordered (SRO) phases similar to those observed in warmer, wetter volcanic ash soils. IR and EM analyses of the clay-sized fraction were consistent with allophane as the predominant secondary phase. Selective chemical extractions targeting SRO phases indicated lower Al/Si ratios than those observed in volcanic soils reported in warmer localities, which we attribute to Si-rich allophane and/or abundant Si-rich rock coatings. The oxic circumneutral-pH colloidal dispersion experiments mobilized Al, Fe and Ti primarily as 260-415 nm particles and Ca, Mg and Na as solutes. Si was lost both in the colloidal and dissolved forms. Dispersed colloids likely contain allophane and ferrihydrite. Under anoxic conditions, dissolution of Fe oxide cements also released fines. The experiments help to explain elemental loss from the clay-sized regolith fraction at Svalbard: observed depletions in Ca, K, Mg and Na were likely due to solute loss, while particle-reactive Al, Fe, Si and Ti were mostly retained. Wetting/drying was observed to be as effective as freeze/thaw in driving material loss. It is thus

  3. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae. II. Magnesium isotopes and pollution scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Ventura, P.; Yong, D.; Collet, R.; Christlieb, N.; Melendez, J.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The phenomenon of multiple populations in globular clusters is still far from understood, with several proposed mechanisms to explain the observed behaviour. The study of elemental and isotopic abundance patterns are crucial for investigating the differences among candidate pollution mechanisms. Aims: We derive magnesium isotopic ratios for 13 stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to provide new, detailed information about the nucleosynthesis that has occurred within the cluster. For the first time, the impact of 3D model stellar atmospheres on the derived Mg isotopic ratios is investigated. Methods: Using both tailored 1D atmospheric models and 3D hydrodynamical models, we derive magnesium isotopic ratios from four features of MgH near 5135 Å in 13 giants near the tip of the red giant branch, using high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra. Results: We derive the magnesium isotopic ratios for all stars and find no significant offset of the isotopic distribution between the pristine and the polluted populations. Furthermore, we do not detect any statistically significant differences in the spread in the Mg isotopes in either population. No trends were found between the Mg isotopes and [Al/Fe]. The inclusion of 3D atmospheres has a significant impact on the derived 25Mg/24Mg ratio, increasing it by a factor of up to 2.5, compared to 1D. The 26Mg/24Mg ratio, on the other hand, essentially remains unchanged. Conclusions: We confirm the results seen from other globular clusters, where no strong variation in the isotopic ratios is observed between stellar populations, for observed ranges in [Al/Fe]. We see no evidence for any significant activation of the Mg-Al burning chain. The use of 3D atmospheres causes an increase of a factor of up to 2.5 in the fraction of 25Mg, resolving part of the discrepancy between the observed isotopic fraction and the predictions from pollution models. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope

  4. Neoformation of clay in lateral root catchments of mallee eucalypts: a chemical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Verboom, William H.; Pate, John S.; Aspandiar, Mehrooz

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims A previous paper (Annals of Botany 103: 673–685) described formation of clayey pavements in lateral root catchments of eucalypts colonizing a recently formed sand dune in south-west Western Australia. Here chemical and morphological aspects of their formation at the site are studied. Methods Chemical and physical examinations of soil cores through pavements and sand under adjacent heath assessed build-up of salts, clay and pH changes in or below pavements. Relationships of root morphology to clay deposition were examined and deposits subjected to scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Xylem transport of mineral elements in eucalypt and non-eucalypt species was studied by analysis of xylem (tracheal) sap from lateral roots. Key Results The columns of which pavements are composed develop exclusively on lower-tier lateral roots. Such sites show intimate associations of fine roots, fungal filaments, microbiota and clay deposits rich in Si, Al and Fe. Time scales for construction of pavements by eucalypts were assessed. Cores through columns of pavemented profiles showed gross elevations of bulk density, Al, Fe and Si in columns and related increases in pH, Mg and Ca status in lower profiles. A cutting through the dune exhibited pronounced alkalinity (pH 7–10) under mallee woodland versus acidity (pH 5–6·5) under proteaceous heath. Xylem sap analyses showed unusually high concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg and Si in dry-season samples from column-bearing roots. Conclusions Deposition of Al–Fe–Si-rich clay is pivotal to pavement construction by eucalypts and leads to profound chemical and physical changes in relevant soil profiles. Microbial associates of roots are likely to be involved in clay genesis, with parent eucalypts supplying the required key mineral elements and carbon sources. Acquisition of the Al and Fe incorporated into clay derives principally from hydraulic uplift from ground water via deeply

  5. The effect of organic matter on chemical weathering. Study of a small tropical watershed: Nsimi-Zoetele site, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, P.; Viers, J.; Dupre, B.; Fortune, J.P.; Martin, F.; Braun, J.J.; Nahon, D.; Robain, H.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of organic mater during soil/water interaction is still a debated issue on the controls of chemical weathering in a tropical environment. In order to study this effect in detail, the authors focused on the weathering processes occurring in a small tropical watershed (Nsimi-Zoetele, South Cameroon). The lateritic cover in this site can reach up to 40 m in depth and show two pedological distinct zones: unsaturated slope soils on the hills and/or elevated areas; and water-saturated soils in the swamp zone which represent 20% of the basin surface. The study presents chemical analysis performed on water samples collected monthly from different localities between 1994--1997 and on soil samples taken during a well drilling in December 1997. The results suggest the existence of chemical and spatial heterogeneities of waters in the basin: colored waters flooding the swamp zone have much higher concentrations of both organic matter (i.e., DOC) and inorganic ions (e.g., Ca,Mg,Al,Fe,Th,Zr) than those from springs and groundwater from the hills. Nevertheless, these organic-rich waters present cation concentrations (Na,Ca,Mg,K) which are among the lowest compared to that of most world rivers. The main minerals in the soils are secondary kaolinite, iron oxi-hydroxides, quartz, and accessory minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile). The authors mainly focused on the mineralogical and geochemical study of the swamp zone soils and showed through SEM observations the textural characterization of weathered minerals such a kaolinite, zircon, rutile, and the secondary recrystallization of kaolinite microcrystals within the soil profile. In order to explain the increase of element concentration in the organic-rich waters, the authors suggest that organic acids enhance dissolution of minerals such as kaolinite, goethite, and zircon and also favors the transport of insoluble elements such as Al, Fe, Ti, Zr, and REE by chemical complexation. Geochemical data obtained for this watershed

  6. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Laura; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socioeconomic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at 57 m water depth (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (AD 750-2000). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater versus marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous freshwater and sediment discharges. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between AD 850 and 1300, while the highest values occurred between AD 1300 and 1850. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a weakening of the South American summer monsoon system (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast, during the LIA, a strengthening of SAMS and SACZ may have led to an expansion of the RdlP river plume to the far north, as

  7. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of

  8. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  9. Formation enthalpies of LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) interlanthanide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaofeng; Mielewczyk-Gryn, Aleksandra

    2015-07-15

    High-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry using 3Na{sub 2}O·MoO{sub 3} at 802 °C was performed for interlanthanide perovskites LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and lanthanide oxides (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The enthalpies of formation of these interlanthanide perovskites from binary lanthanide oxides at room temperature (25 °C) were determined to be −8.3±3.4 kJ/mol for LaHoO{sub 3}, −9.9±3.0 kJ/mol for LaErO{sub 3}, −10.8±2.7 kJ/mol for LaTmO{sub 3} and −12.3±2.9 kJ/mol for LaYbO{sub 3}. There is a roughly linear relationships between these enthalpy values and the tolerance factor for these and for other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites, confirming that the distortion of the perovskites as results from ionic radius difference of A-site and B-site cations, is the main factor determining the stability of these compounds. - Graphical abstract: A linear relationship between the enthalpy of formation and the tolerance factor for interlanthanide LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) and other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites. - Highlights: • Interlanthanide perovskites were synthesized by solid state reactions. • Their enthalpies of formation were measured by oxide melt solution calorimetry. • ΔH{sub f,ox} shows a linear relationship with tolerance factor.

  10. The chemical composition of rivers and snow affected by the 2014/2015 Bárðarbunga eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2016-04-01

    The 2014/15 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption was the largest in Iceland for more than 200 years. This eruption released into the atmosphere on average 60,000 tonnes/day of SO2, 30,000 tonnes/day of CO2, and 500 tonnes/day of HCl affecting the chemical composition of rain, snow, and surface water. The interaction of these volcanic gases with natural waters, decreases fluid pH and accelerates rock dissolution. This leads to the enhanced release of elements, including toxic metals such as aluminium, to these waters. River monitoring, including spot and continuous osmotic sampling, shows that although the water conductivity was relatively stable during the volcanic unrest, the dissolution of volcanic gases increased the SO4, F, and Cl concentrations of local surface waters by up to two orders of magnitude decreasing the carbon alkalinity. In addition the concentration of SiO2, Ca, Mg, Na and trace metals rose considerably due to the water-molten lava and hot solid lava interaction. The presence of pristine lava and acidic gases increased the average chemical denudation rate, calculated based on Na flux, within Jökulsá á Fjöllum catchment by a factor of two compared to the background flux. Melted snow samples collected at the eruption site were characterised by a strong dependence of the pH on SO4, F and Cl and metal concentrations, indicating that volcanic gases and aerosols acidified the snow. Protons balanced about half of the negatively charged anions; the rest was balanced by water-soluble salts and aerosols containing a variety of metals including Al, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg. The concentrations of F, Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cu, and Pb in the snowmelt water surpassed drinking- and surface water standards. Snowmelt-river water mixing calculations indicate that low alkalinity surface waters, such as numerous salmon rivers in East Iceland, will be more affected by polluted snowmelt waters than high alkalinity spring and glacier fed rivers.

  11. Development and validation of a ReaxFF reactive force field for Fe/Al/Ni alloys: molecular dynamics study of elastic constants, diffusion, and segregation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Hyunwook; Zou, Chenyu; Vasenkov, Alex V; van Duin, Adri C T

    2012-12-13

    We have developed a ReaxFF force field for Fe/Al/Ni binary alloys based on quantum mechanical (QM) calculations. In addition to the various bulk phases of the binary alloys, the (100), (110) and (111) surface energies and adatom binding energies were included in the training set for the force field parametrization of the Fe/Al/Ni binary alloys. To validate these optimized force fields, we studied (i) elastic constants of the binary alloys at finite temperatures, (ii) diffusivity of alloy components in Al/Ni alloy, and (iii) segregation on the binary alloy surfaces. First, we calculated linear elastic constants of FeAl, FeNi(3), and Ni(3)Al in the temperature range 300 to 1100 K. The temperature dependences of the elastic constants of these three alloys, showing a decrease in C(11), C(12), and C(44) as temperature increases, were in good agreement with the experimental results. We also performed ReaxFF molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for Al or Ni diffusion in the system modeled as Al/Ni mixed layers with the linear composition gradients. At 1000 K, Al diffusivity at the pure Al end was 2 orders of magnitude larger than that in the Al trace layers, probably explaining the nature of different diffusion behavior between molten metals and alloys. However, the diffusivity of Ni at the pure Ni end was only slightly larger than that in the Ni trace layers at the system temperature much lower than the melting temperature of Ni. Third, we investigated the surface segregation in L1(2)-Fe(3)Al, Fe(3)Ni, and Ni(3)Al clusters at high temperature (2500 K). From the analysis of composition distribution of the alloy components from the bulk to the surface layer, it was found that the degree of segregation depended on the chemical composition of the alloy. Al surface segregation occurred most strongly in Fe(3)Al, whereas it occurred most weakly in Ni(3)Al. These results may support the segregation mechanism that surface segregation results from the interplay between the

  12. EXAFS and Computer Modeling Studies of the Structures of Aperiodic Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanjun

    EXAFS technique and computer modeling are used to investigate the structures of the aperiodic alloys, including icosahedral Al-Mn-(Si), Al-(Fe,Mn)-Si, Al-Cu -Li and decagonal Al-Mn, Al-(Fe,Mn) alloys. Some related crystalline compounds, including Al_4Mn, beta-AlMnSi, and Al_ {12}Mn, are also studied. Through comparisons with closely related crystalline compounds, particularly alpha-AlMnSi and R-AlCuLi, a good understanding of the local structures of the aperiodic alloys around TM elements is obtained. We identified the structural units in i-AlMnSi and in i-AlCuLi type of icosahedral alloys as a Mackay icosahedron (MI) of 54 atoms and a truncated icosahedron of about 104 atoms, respectively. The dimensions of the units are given. In addition, information concerning the connection between these units in the icosahedral phases is obtained. It is found that in i-AlMnSi each MI has a coordination of about seven as opposed to the eight in alpha -AlMnSi. The connection between the MI in the i -phase is also somewhat disordered. A new technique of EXAFS data analysis is applied to yield the radial distribution function of the aperiodic alloys. This technique is especially effective in studying non-gaussian distributions, and will have wide applications in EXAFS studies of the structures of amorphous metals. Close similarities between the Mn shells of i -AlMnSi and those of alpha-AlMnSi indicate that the cubic distortion of the MI in alpha-MlMnSi remains in i-AlMnSi. It is thus concluded that small cubic regions of size about 40 A exist in the icosahedral phase. Based on the EXAFS results two models for the structure of the icosahedral phase are presented. One is a randomly connected icosahedra model. In the second model, microcrystallites are added to the first one to simulate the EXAFS results that small crystallites exist in the i-phase. It is found by computer simulation that the second model improves many properties of the first model and is in better agreement with

  13. THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN PLUTONIUM ALLOYS - PART I

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Liu, Z; Zhou, S

    2004-08-18

    In this report we investigate order, stability, and phase transformations for a series of actinide-based alloys. The statics and kinetics of precipitation and ordering in this class of alloys are modeled with a scheme that couples fundamental information on the alloy energetics obtained from experimental and assessed thermo-chemical data to the CALPHAD approach commonly used in industry for designing alloys with engineering specificity with the help of the Thermo-Calc software application. The CALPHAD approach is applied to the study of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Pu-based alloys, Pu-X, where X=Al, Fe, Ga. The assessment of the equilibrium phase diagrams in the whole range of alloy composition has been performed with the PARROT module of the Thermo-Calc application software. Predictions are made on the low temperature and Pu-rich side of the phase diagrams of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al for which controversy has been noted in the past. The validity of the assessed thermo-chemical database will be discussed by comparing predicted heats of transformation for pure Pu with measured values from differential scanning calorimetry analysis. An overall picture for the stability properties of Pu-Ga and Pu-Al that reconciles the results of past studies carried out on these alloys is proposed. Results on phase stability in the ternary Fe-Ga-Pu and Al-Fe-Pu alloys are discussed. The information collected in this study is then used to model metastability, long-term stability and aging for this class of alloys by coupling Thermo-Calc with DICTRA, a series of modules that allow the analysis of DIffusion Controlled TRAnsformations. Kinetics information is then summarized in so-called TTT (temperature-time-transformations) diagrams for the most relevant phases of actinide alloys. Specifically, results are presented on kinetics of phase transformations associated with the eutectoid-phase decomposition reaction occurring at low temperature, and with the martensitic transformation

  14. Structure refinements of members in the brownmillerite solid solution series Ca{sub 2}Al{sub x}(Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}){sub 2-x}O{sub 5+{delta}} with 1/2{<=}x{<=}4/3

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeber, Stefan; Schorr, Susan; Poellmann, Herbert

    2013-01-15

    Four different brownmillerite solid solutions Ca{sub 2}Al{sub x}(Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}){sub 2-x}O{sub 5+{delta}} with 1/2{<=}x{<=}4/3 were synthesized by a solid oxide ceramic method. The phases crystallize either in a primitive centered orthorhombic cell with space group Pnma or in a body centered cell with space group I2mb dependent on the aluminum concentration present in the solid solution. Mn{sup 3+} ions occupy exclusively site 4a coordinated by six oxygen anions. Increasing Mn{sup 3+} concentrations cause a remarkable distortion of the octahedron and indirectly of the tetrahedron, resulting in twisted and tilted octahedral layers as well as buckled tetrahedral chains. The influences are discussed on the site 4a of trivalent manganese due to its Jahn-Teller activity, with regard to the occupation of octahedron and tetrahedron with different sized iron and aluminum ions. - Graphical Abstract: The coupled substitution Fe{sup 3+}>Mn{sup 3+}+Fe{sup 3+} <=>2 Al{sup 3+} in brownmillerite phases (Ca{sub 2}(Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}){sub 2-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 5+{delta}}) changes predominantly their structural properties, which is essential for the hydration performance of the calcium aluminate cement, where brownmillerites occur as clinker phases. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present structural data of four Ca-Al-Fe-Mn-brownmillerites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 3+}-ions occupy exclusively the octahedrally coordinated site 0,0,0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bonds and angles of the octahedrally coordinated site are distorted strongly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 3+}-ions influence indirectly the shape of the tetrahedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 3+}-ions stabilize Pnma instead of I2mb in Ca-Al-Fe-Mn-brownmillerites.

  15. The geostatistics of the metal concentrations in sediments from the eastern Brazilian continental shelf in areas of gas and oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Jose Edvar; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Miguens, Flavio Costa; Marins, Rozane Valente

    2014-04-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to evaluate the differences in the geochemistry of metals in the marine sediments along the Eastern Brazilian continental margin along the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern sector) and Espírito Santo (Southeastern sector). The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn were obtained from acid digestion and quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The metals showed a similar order of concentration: Al > Fe > Ba > Mn > V > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu, in both the Ceará; and Rio Grande do Norte shelf regions but different in the Espírito Santo shelf (Fe > Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > V > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were below the detection limit in all areas. A multivariate analysis revealed that the metals of siliciclastic origin on the continental shelf of Ceará are carried by Al. In addition, a large portion of metal deposits is connected to the iron and manganese oxides on the continental margin of Rio Grande do Norte. The metals from the continental supply on the coast of Espírito Santo (Cu, Ni, Ba, and Mn) are associated with Al; whereas Cr, Pb, V, and Zn are associated with iron in this southern area. Geochemical evaluations are needed to distinguish the origin and mineralogical differences of marine sediments within the regions. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) applied to the sediments from the coast of Ceará showed the morphological diversity of sediment grains: biological fragments, multifaceted particles, aggregates, and crystals occurred in the three regions analyzed. Among these grains, calcite, Mg-calcite, and aragonite were predominant in the northeastern sector, whereas silicates and other minerals were predominant the southeastern sector. Mg, K, Ti, and Zr as well as the

  16. Metal Concentrations and Hydrochemical Dynamics in a Tropical-Glacier Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, S. K.; Mark, B. G.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baraer, M.; Schoenfelt, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The rapid retreat of tropical glaciers and their related changes in hydrology has many implications for water resources, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial consumption water quality. The Cordillera Blanca is especially susceptible to water quality degradation given its abundant natural mineral resources and ongoing mining operations. Here we explore dissolved (<0.4 µm) Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations and behavior in the glacial-fed headwater region of the Rio Quilcay (9° S, 78° W) a stream that flows into the Rio Santa, Peru. Twenty-four samples were collected in July 2008 from the headwaters of the Rio Quilcay over a distance of 9 km between 4800 m and 3800 m above sea level. Samples were upstream of any mining activity and included the main channel, glacial headwater melt, joining tributaries, and shallow groundwater. Rio Quilcay headwater metal concentrations had broad ranges: (Al= 1.8 to 180 μM, Fe= 1.8 to 3,100 μM, Mn= 5.5 to 180 μM, Zn= 1.3 to 17 μM). Measured pH values had a significant negative correlation with elevation and dissolved Al, Mn, and Zn. However, dissolved Zn also had a significant positive correlation with Al, Fe, and Mn, suggesting possible adsorption of Zn to metal oxide surfaces. The greatest dissolved metal concentrations occurred immediately downstream of a reductive, high-sulfate, water-saturated region in association with the lowest pH values (~3.3). Visible metal precipitation was observed immediately downstream of this reductive environment and at subsequent downstream sites where less acidic tributaries joined the main channel. Dissolved metal concentrations observed in the Rio Quilcay exceed world river averages and are dramatically higher than other headwater streams. For example, both Fe and Mn concentrations were up to three orders of magnitude higher than those observed in tributaries of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada (Cameron et al., 1995). The prevalence of water-saturated, shallow

  17. Chemistry of trace elements in coalbed methane product water.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Ian; Reddy, Katta J; Skinner, Quentin D

    2003-02-01

    Extraction of methane (natural gas) from coal deposits is facilitated by pumping of aquifer water. Coalbed methane (CBM) product water, produced from pumping ground water, is discharged into associated unlined holding ponds. The objective of this study was to examine the chemistry of trace elements in CBM product water at discharge points and in associated holding ponds across the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Product water samples from discharge points and associated holding ponds were collected from the Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), and Little Powder River (LPR) watersheds during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Samples were analyzed for pH, Al (aluminum), As (arsenic), B (boron), Ba (barium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), F (fluoride), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese), Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), and Zn (zinc). Chemistry of trace element concentrations were modeled with the MINTEQA2 geochemical equilibrium model. Results of this study show that pH of product water for three watersheds increased in holding ponds. For example the pH of CBM product water increased from 7.21 to 8.26 for LPR watershed. Among three watersheds, the CBM product water exhibited relatively less change in trace element concentrations in CHR watershed holding ponds. Concentration of dissolved Al, Fe, As, Se, and F in product water increased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For example, concentration of dissolved Fe increased from 113 to 135 microg/L. Boron, Cu, and Zn concentrations of product water did not change in BFR watershed holding ponds. However, concentration of dissolved Ba, Mn, and Cr in product water decreased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For instance, Ba and Cr concentrations decreased from 445 to 386 microg/L and from 43.6 to 25.1 microg/L, respectively. In the LPR watershed, Al, Fe, As, Se, and F concentrations of product water increased substantially in holding ponds. For example, Fe concentration increased from 192 to 312 microg/L. However, concentration of

  18. Evaluation of redox-active iron sites in smectites using middle and near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Anke; Petit, Sabine; Hofstetter, Thomas B.

    2011-05-01

    Redox processes of structural Fe in clay minerals play an important role in biogeochemical cycles and for the dynamics of contaminant transformation in soils and aquifers. Reactions of Fe(II)/Fe(III) in clay minerals depend on a variety of mineralogical and environmental factors, which make the assessment of Fe redox reactivity challenging. Here, we use middle and near infrared (IR) spectroscopy to identify reactive structural Fe(II) arrangements in four smectites that differ in total Fe content, octahedral cationic composition, location of the negative excess charge, and configuration of octahedral hydroxyl groups. Additionally, we investigated the mineral properties responsible for the reversibility of structural alterations during Fe reduction and re-oxidation. For Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2), a smectite of low structural Fe content (2.8 wt%), we identified octahedral AlFe(II)-OH as the only reactive Fe(II) species, while high structural Fe content (>12 wt%) was prerequisite for the formation of multiple Fe(II)-entities (dioctahedral AlFe(II)-OH, MgFe(II)-OH, Fe(II)Fe(II)-OH, and trioctahedral Fe(II)Fe(II)Fe(II)-OH) in iron-rich smectites Ölberg montmorillonite, and ferruginous smectite (SWa-1), as well as in synthetic nontronite. Depending on the overall cationic composition and the location of excess charge, different reactive Fe(II) species formed during Fe reduction in iron-rich smectites, including tetrahedral Fe(II) groups in synthetic nontronite. Trioctahedral Fe(II) domains were found in tetrahedrally charged ferruginous smectite and synthetic nontronite in their reduced state while these Fe(II) entities were absent in Ölberg montmorillonite, which exhibits an octahedral layer charge. Fe(III) reduction in iron-rich smectites was accompanied by intense dehydroxylation and structural rearrangements, which were only partially reversible through re-oxidation. Re-oxidation of Wyoming montmorillonite, in contrast, restored the original mineral structure

  19. Crystallization control for remediation of an FetO-rich CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO EAF waste slag.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Suk; Sohn, Il

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the crystallization behavior of synthesized FetO-rich electric arc furnace (EAF) waste slags with a basicity range of 0.7 to 1.08 was investigated. Crystal growth in the melts was observed in situ using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and a delayed crystallization for higher-basicity samples was observed in the continuous cooling transformation and time temperature transformation diagrams. This result is likely due to the polymerization of the melt structure as a result of the increased number of network-forming FeO4 and AlO4 units, as suggested by Raman analysis. The complex incorporation of Al and Fe ions in the form of AlO4 and FeO4 tetrahedral units dominant in the melt structure at a higher basicity constrained the precipitation of a magnetic, nonstoichiometric, and Fe-rich MgAlFeO4 primary phase. The growth of this spinel phase caused a clear compositional separation from amorphous phase during isothermal cooling at 1473 K leading to a clear separation between the primary and amorphous phases, allowing an efficient magnetic separation of Fe compounds from the slag for effective remediation and recycling of synthesized EAF waste slags for use in higher value-added ordinary Portland cement.

  20. Inertization of pyrite cinders and co-inertization with electric arc furnace flue dusts by pyroconsolidation at solid state.

    PubMed

    Viñals, J; Balart, M J; Roca, A

    2002-01-01

    The viability of a pyroconsolidation process to render pyrite cinders inert and to co-inert pyrite cinders with a hazardous polymetallic residue such as electric arc furnace flue dusts (EAF) containing Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Ni and Mo were investigated. The effects of pyroconsolidation temperature (800-1200 degrees C), milling pyrite cinders and additions of both CaO and EAF on the resulting microstructure of the pellets were determined. The microstructural changes were then compared with the results of the standard leaching tests. Full inertization of pyrite cinders was achieved after milling to < 100 micron followed by a pelletization and pyroconsolidation process at a temperature of 1200 degrees C. This process also allows co-inertization of pyrite cinders with controlled additions of EAF (up to approximately to 10%). Following pyroconsolidation at 1200 degrees C, the metallic elements were inert components in the four main phases: traces of Cr in hematite; Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni in spinel-phase; traces of Cr and Zn in calcium ferrites; and Pb and traces of Cu, Zn and Ba in K-Ca-Al-Fe glassy silicate.

  1. The origin of spongy texture in minerals of mantle xenoliths from the Western Qinling, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Yang, Yue-Heng; Ying, Ji-Feng; Tang, Yan-Jie; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Xiao, Yan; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Mao, Qian; Ma, Yu-Guang

    2011-03-01

    Spongy textures are observed in mantle peridotite xenoliths hosted in Cenozoic kamafugites from the Western Qinling, central China. These textures are mainly developed in clinopyroxenes and spinels, and occur as spongy rims consisting of low-Na clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and bubbles, enclosing nonspongy cores. The ilmenites and bubbles exhibit shapes and sizes that vary with the width of the spongy rims. The spongy-textured minerals preserve primary shapes and well-defined grain boundaries and do not show apparent interaction with contact minerals or observed melts except the subsequent melts forming melt pockets. The xenocrysts display reactive zoning textures with host magmas rather than spongy textures. Compositionally, the spongy rims are enriched in Ca, Ti, and most trace elements, have high Cr#, and are depleted in Na, Al, Fe, AlVI, and AlIV/AlVI compared with the cores. These observations suggest that melts/host magmas did not play any significant role in the formation of the spongy textures. We therefore propose that spongy-textured clinopyroxenes and spinels in Western Qinling peridotite xenoliths developed from a decompression-induced partial melting event prior to formation of melt pockets and xenolith entrainment in host magmas.

  2. Modern and Ancient Extremely Acid Saline Deposits: Terrestrial Analogs for Martian Environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benison, Kathleen C.; LaClair, Deidre A.

    2003-11-01

    Extremely acid (pH <1) saline lakes and groundwaters existed in the mid-Permian of the mid-continent of North America. Modern counterparts have been found in acid saline lake systems throughout southern Australia. We compare and contrast the Permian Opeche Shale of North Dakota and Nippewalla Group of Kansas to modern Australian salt lakes in southern Western Australia and in northwest Victoria. With the exception of some minor variations in pH, evaporite mineralogy, and water geochemistry, the Permian and modern systems are similar and characterized by: (1) ephemeral saline continental playas hosted by red siliciclastic sediments, (2) evaporite minerals, including abundant sulfates, (3) Al-Fe-Si-rich waters with low pH values, (4) acidophilic microbes, and (5) paucity of carbonates. The composition of these terrestrial systems is strikingly similar to compositional data returned from the martian surface. Specifically, both Earth and martian systems have high amounts of iron oxides and sulfates, and little, if any, carbonates. We propose that the modern and ancient terrestrial acid saline environments may be good analogs for possible environments on Mars.

  3. Soil and plant composition in the Noun river catchment basin, Western Cameroon: a contribution to the development of a biogeochemical baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njofang, Clémentine; Matschullat, Jörg; Amougou, Akoa; Tchouankoué, Jean Pierre; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Soils and selected edible plants of the Noun river catchment basin of western Cameroon were sampled to investigate the distribution of trace elements, based on the preliminary idea of unusual anomalies. Analytical techniques for trace elements included ICP-AES, GF-AAS, and ICP-MS. Further soil analyses comprised the mineralogy and contents of the biogenic elements carbon, nitrogen and sulphur (CNS). The trace element concentrations in the soils reflect those of the lithogeochemical background of the pluto-volcanic rocks of the region. This is consistent with the results from the mineralogical analyses and physicochemical parameters such as pH, taken in the field, which also do not suggest any geochemical anomaly. Most trace elements analyzed in the plants showed concentrations that reflect those of the soils (Al, Fe, Ti, and Rb). However, some trace elements were enriched in the plants as compared to the soils, such as Zn, Cu, Cd, Mo (excluding yam), Ni (peanut), Ba (peanut), Sr (peanut, bean), and B. Trace elements such as As, Cr, V, and Se were not bioavailable for all the analyzed plants. Besides, trace elements such as Cu, Zn, Mo, Fe, Al, Ni, B, Ti, Rb, Cs, and Ba were in the range of phytotoxicity and reached or exceeded human food tolerance level (Cu). The plants with seeds showed a higher absorption of trace elements compared to plants with tubercles.

  4. Fractionation of arsenic in soil by a continuous-flow sequential extraction method.

    PubMed

    Shiowatana, J; McLaren, R G; Chanmekha, N; Samphao, A

    2001-01-01

    Batch sequential extraction techniques for fractionating metals or metalloids in soils are time consuming and subject to several potential errors. The development of a continuous-flow sequential extraction method for soil As is described and assessed, having the benefits of simplicity, rapidity, less risk of contamination, and less vulnerability to changes in extraction conditions compared with traditional batch methods. The validated method was used to fractionate soil As using water, NaHCO3, NaOH, and HCl, followed by digestion of the residue with HNO3 and HF acids. The extracts and digests were analyzed for As by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Good recoveries of total soil As (97-115%) were obtained and fractionation data generally comparable with those obtained using conventional batch techniques. Soils from a tin-mining area in Thailand and soils from As-contaminated cattle (Bos taurus) dip sites in Australia were used to test the applicability of the method, and to demonstrate the usefulness of the extractogram obtained. The ability to produce detailed extractograms for As and other elements (Al, Fe, and Ca) enabled an examination of elemental associations in individual fractions. With the exception of As extracted with HCl, the extractograms generally support previous suggestions of the likely forms or associations of As present in the different soil fractions. PMID:11790000

  5. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1).

  6. Formation enthalpies of LaLn'O3 (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) interlanthanide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaofeng; Mielewczyk-Gryn, Aleksandra; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry using 3Na2O·MoO3 at 802 °C was performed for interlanthanide perovskites LaLn'O3 (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and lanthanide oxides (La2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, Tm2O3 and Yb2O3). The enthalpies of formation of these interlanthanide perovskites from binary lanthanide oxides at room temperature (25 °C) were determined to be -8.3±3.4 kJ/mol for LaHoO3, -9.9±3.0 kJ/mol for LaErO3, -10.8±2.7 kJ/mol for LaTmO3 and -12.3±2.9 kJ/mol for LaYbO3. There is a roughly linear relationships between these enthalpy values and the tolerance factor for these and for other LaM3+O3 (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites, confirming that the distortion of the perovskites as results from ionic radius difference of A-site and B-site cations, is the main factor determining the stability of these compounds.

  7. High-resolution mapping of elemental abundances of the lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Evans, Richard

    Many attempts have been made to derive elemental abundances of the lunar surface from mul-tispectral images (cf. e.g. [1]). The gamma ray spectrometer on board the Lunar Prospector spacecraft (LP GRS) provided the first "direct" global measurements of lunar elemental abun-dances including Fe, Th (15 km surface resolution), Ti, K, Sm (60 km), Al, O, Si, Mg, Ca, and U (150 km). In this study we rely on the elemental abundance estimation method intro-duced in [2], which is based on spectral features derived from the Clementine UVVIS+NIR data set and estimates the abundances of Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, Ti, and O by applying a second order polynomial regression model with the corresponding LP GRS abundances as "ground truth". The regarded spectral features are the continuum slope, the FWHM of the ferrous absorption trough near 1000 nm after continuum division, and the absorption wavelengths and relative absorption depths (cf. [2,3] for details). A petrographic analysis is performed based on the abundances of the key elements Al, Fe, and Mg [4]. The relative abundances of the endmem-bers mare basalt, Mg-rich rock, and ferroan anorthosite are estimated using Fe-Mg and Al-Mg diagrams, where the endmember compositions are determined based on the three-endmember plane fitted in Al-Fe-Mg space to the elemental abundances at 150 km resolution obtained with the regression model. The root-mean-square deviation from the three-endmember plane is only 0.3 wt percent. Our petrographic map shows Mg-rich rocks in the Mare Frigoris region, on the edges of large maria, in the South Pole Aitken basin, and in some cryptomaria such as the Schiller-Schickard basin. The presence of Mg-rich rocks in Mare Frigoris explains the Fe and Ti depletion discussed in [5]. Furthermore, our analysis confirms that the basalts of eastern mare Frigoris have an atypically high Al content [6]. The region south of Lichtenberg and around Seleucus and Briggs in northwestern Oceanus Procellarum is characterised by

  8. SPECTROSCOPY UNVEILS THE COMPLEX NATURE OF TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Origlia, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Rich, R. M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Valenti, E.; Beccari, G.

    2011-01-10

    We present the chemical abundance analysis of 33 red giant stars belonging to the complex stellar system Terzan 5. We confirm the discovery of two stellar populations with distinct iron abundances: a relatively metal-poor component with [Fe/H] = -0.25 {+-} 0.07 rms and another component with [Fe/H] = +0.27 {+-} 0.04 rms, exceeding in metallicity any known Galactic globular cluster (GC). The two populations also show different [{alpha}/Fe] abundance ratios. The metal-poor component has an average [{alpha}/Fe] =+0.34 {+-} 0.06 rms, consistent with the canonical scenario for rapid enrichment by core collapse supernovae (SNe). The metal-rich component has [{alpha}/Fe] =+0.03 {+-} 0.04 rms, suggesting that the gas from which it formed was polluted by both type II and type Ia SNe on a longer timescale. Neither of the two populations shows evidence of the [Al/Fe] over [O/Fe] anti-correlation that is typically observed in Galactic GCs. Because these chemical abundance patterns are unique, we propose that Terzan 5 is not a true GC, but a stellar system with a much more complex history of star formation and chemical enrichment.

  9. Investigation of potentially toxic heavy metals in different organic wastes used to fertilize market garden crops.

    PubMed

    Tella, M; Doelsch, E; Letourmy, P; Chataing, S; Cuoq, F; Bravin, M N; Saint Macary, H

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of using organic waste as fertilizer and soil amendment should be assessed together with the environmental impacts due to the possible presence of heavy metals (HMs). This study involved analysing major element and HM contents in raw and size-fractionated organic wastes (17 sewage sludges and composts) from developed and developing countries. The overall HM concentration pattern showed an asymmetric distribution due to the presence of some wastes with extremely high concentrations. HM concentrations were correlated with the size of cities or farms where the wastes had been produced, and HM were differentiated with respect to their origins (geogenic: Cr-Ni; anthropogenic agricultural and urban: Cu-Zn; anthropogenic urban: Cd-Pb). Size fractionation highlighted Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb accumulation in fine size fractions, while Cr and Ni were accumulated in the coarsest. HM associations with major elements revealed inorganic (Al, Fe, etc.) bearing phases for Cr and Ni, and sulfur or phosphorus species for Cd, Cu Pb and Zn. PMID:22975024

  10. New insights into trace element wet deposition in the Himalayas: amounts, seasonal patterns, and implications.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Yulan; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Liu, Bin; Wan, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Our research provides the first complete year-long dataset of wet deposition of trace elements in the high Himalayas based on a total of 42 wet deposition events on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest). Except for typical crustal elements (Al, Fe, and Mn), the concentration level of most trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Pb, Bi, and U) are generally comparable to those preserved in snow pits and ice cores from the nearby East Rongbuk Glacier. Cadmium was the element most affected by anthropogenic emissions. No pronounced seasonal variations are observed for most trace elements despite different transport pathways. In our study, the composition of wet precipitation reflects a regional background condition and is not clearly related to specific source regions. For the trace element record from ice cores and snow pits in the Himalayas, it could be deduced that the pronounced seasonal patterns were caused by the dry deposition of trace elements (aerosols) during their long exposure to the atmosphere after precipitation events. Our findings are of value for the understanding of the trace element deposition mechanisms in the Himalayas. PMID:25205151

  11. Diagenesis Along Fractures in an Eolian Sandstone, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Downs, R.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Sutter, B.; Treiman, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring sedimentary deposits in Gale crater since August 2012. The rover has traversed up section through approx.100 m of sedimentary rocks deposited in fluvial, deltaic, lacustrine, and eolian environments (Bradbury group and overlying Mount Sharp group). The Stimson formation lies unconformable over a lacustrine mudstone at the base of the Mount Sharp group and has been interpreted to be a cross-bedded sandstone of lithified eolian dunes. Mineralogy of the unaltered Stimson sandstone consists of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxenes, and magnetite with minor abundances of hematite, and Ca-sulfates (anhydrite, bassanite). Unaltered sandstone has a composition similar to the average Mars crustal composition. Alteration "halos" occur adjacent to fractures in the Stimson. Fluids passing through these fractures have altered the chemistry and mineralogy of the sandstone. Silicon and S enrichments and depletions in Al, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Ni and Mn suggest aqueous alteration in an open hydrologic system. Mineralogy of the altered Stimson is dominated by Ca-sulfates, Si-rich X-ray amorphous materials along with plagioclase feldspar, magnetite, and pyroxenes, but less abundant in the altered compared to the unaltered Stimson sandstone and lower pyroxene/plagioclase feldspar. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the altered sandstone suggest a complicated history with several (many?) episodes of aqueous alteration under a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., acidic, alkaline).

  12. The Distribution between the Dissolved and the Particulate Forms of 49 Metals across the Tigris River, Baghdad, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Schauer, James Jay; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Abed Al-Raheem, Esam; Satar, Hyder

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of dissolved and particulate forms of 49 elements was investigated along transect of the Tigris River (one of the major rivers of the world) within Baghdad city and in its major tributary (Diyala River) from 11 to 28 July 2011. SF-ICP-MS was used to measure total and filterable elements at 17 locations along the Tigris River transect, two samples from the Diyala River, and in one sample from the confluence of the two rivers. The calculated particulate forms were used to determine the particle-partition coefficients of the metals. No major changes in the elements concentrations down the river transect. Dissolved phases dominated the physical speciation of many metals (e.g., As, Mo, and Pt) in the Tigris River, while Al, Fe, Pb, Th, and Ti were exhibiting high particulate fractions, with a trend of particle partition coefficients of [Ti(40) > Th(35) > Fe(15) > Al(13) > Pb(4.5)] ∗ 106 L/kg. Particulate forms of all metals exhibited high concentrations in the Diyala River, though the partition coefficients were low due to high TSS (~270 mg/L). A comparison of Tigris with the major rivers of the world showed that Tigris quality in Baghdad is comparable to Seine River quality in Paris. PMID:23304083

  13. Processing of the chemical components of estuarine sediment by the lugworm, Arenicola marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Andrew; Bishop, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    The ability of the deposit feeder, Arenicola marina, to process components of oxic estuarine sediment has been examined by comparing the chemical composition of freshly-voided faecal casts and surficial ambient sediment. Analysis of C, H and N, and major metals (Al and Fe) and trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb) was undertaken on the <63 μm fraction of cast-sediment pairs in order to minimise potential effects of grain size variation among samples. In all cases, C, H and N concentrations were lower in biodeposits than in local sediment, and averaged results suggested digestion of between about 15 and 30% of these elements. Nitric acid-extractable metal concentrations in casts and corresponding sediment samples were, in general, analytically indistinguishable. However, after further data normalisation with respect to Al or Fe, casts exhibited slight metal enrichment, presumably because of the weight loss incurred by digestion of (non-metal-bearing) organic matter and the egestion of metals derived from other sources. A protein known to mimic the digestive fluids of A. marina, bovine serum albumin, released between <0.5% (Al, Fe, Mn and Pb) and 15-25% (Cu, Zn and Cd) of acid-soluble metal from both sediment and cast samples. This suggests that, although A. marina is capable of mobilising certain metals in its gut, they tend to re-combine with particles during the formation or egestion of the cast.

  14. Basic properties of the mixed oxides obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrotalcites containing different metallic compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, J.S.; Figueras, F.; Gravelle, M.; Kumbhar, P.; Lopez, J.; Besse, J.P.

    2000-01-25

    Carbonated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Al, Fe, or Cr in a Mg(OH){sub 2} matrix or Al dissolved in hydroxides of Mg, Cu, Ni, Co, or Zn are used as precursors of basic catalysts. Decarbonation is studied by thermal analysis. The average basic strength, evaluated by the decarbonation temperature, is related to the partial charge of oxygen in the LDHs obtained from the Sanderson theory of electronegativity. The enthalpy of adsorption of CO{sub 2} on the resulting mixed oxides is measured by calorimetry. A homogeneous surface is generally observed for CO{sub 2} adsorption, with initial heats of adsorption close to those reported for MgO. The number of sites determined by this method is proportional to the rate constants for {beta}-isophorone isomerization, suggesting that both techniques measure surface properties. The layered structure in which OH{sup {minus}} is the compensating anion can be re-formed by hydration. This process does not appreciably change the adsorption of CO{sub 2}; thus, oxygens and hydroxyls show similar basic strengths in this case.

  15. Effectiveness of a physical barrier for contaminant control in an unconfined coastal plain aquifer: the case study of the former industrial site of Bagnoli (Naples, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; Allocca, Vincenzo; Manna, Ferdinando; Trifuoggi, Marco; Ferrara, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    A vertical engineered barrier (VEB) coupled with a water treatment plant was surveyed in the framework of a vast remedial action at the brownfield site of the former ILVA of Bagnoli steel making facility located in western Naples, Italy. The VEB was put in place to minimize contaminant migration from the brownfield site toward the sea at the shorelines sites of Bagnoli and Coroglio. The efficiency of the VEB was monitored through 12 piezometers, 8 at the Bagnoli shoreline and 4 at the Coroglio shoreline. Concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants were examined in upstream and downstream groundwater relative to the VEB. The mean levels of Al, As, Fe, and Mn largely exceeded the legal limits, 10-15-fold, whereas that of Hg was up to 3-fold the rules. The VEB decreased the outlet concentrations only at certain specific location of the barrier, four times for Al, 6-fold for Hg, and by 20% for Mn with means largely exceeding the rules. At the other sites, the downstream water showed marked increases of the pollutants up to 3-fold. Outstanding levels of the hydrocarbons > 12 were detected in the inlet water with means of some hundred times the limits at both sites. Likewise most of screened inorganic pollutants, the downstream water showed marked increases of the hydrocarbons up to ~113%. The treatment plant was very effective, with removal efficiencies >80% for As, Al, Fe, and Mn. The study evidenced the need to put alternative groundwater remedial actions.

  16. Comparison between the quasi-continuous quadrupole splitting distributions (QSD) for Mössbauer spectra of glauconites and the QSD-profiles simulated on the basis of crystal-chemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainyak, L. G.; Rusakov, V. S.; Sukhorukov, I. A.; Zviagina, B. B.; Chistiakova, N. I.; Drits, V. A.

    2010-03-01

    Structural peculiarities of Fe3+-rich dioctahedral mica, glauconite, such as a wide variety of isomorphous octahedral cation substitutions (Al, Fe3+ Fe2+ Mg) and the occurrence of these cations in cis-sites only, make it possible to consider glauconites as model locally inhomogeneous objects. To fit room and liquid-nitrogen Mössbauer spectra of two glauconite samples of close compositions with unusually low Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios, reconstruction of quadrupole splitting distributions (QSD) in terms of quasi-continuous model-independent approach was applied. Interpretation of the obtained QSDexps became possible owing to application of a crystal-chemical model (CCM) taking account of the effects of the local structural and chemical heterogeneity of layer silicates. The main parameters of the CCM are individual quadrupole splittings, Δi, for Fe3+ Fe2+ in different local cationic arrangements (LCAs) having the occurrence probabilities, wi, provided by two-dimensional simulation of the cation distribution (CD). The agreement between CD reconstructions, the QSDsim profiles simulated on the basis of the CCM parameters and the QSDexps provided, first, the corroboration of the Δipred values for Fe3+; second, the refinement of the Δiref values for Fe2+; and third, revealing the difference in the octahedral cation distributions for the studied glauconites.

  17. An evaluation on different origins of natural organic matters using various anodes by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Ulu, Feride; Barışçı, Sibel; Kobya, Mehmet; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-04-01

    In this investigation, natural organic matters (NOM) of different origins (commercial, terrestrial and natural water) were treated by electrocoagulation (EC) process using aluminum, iron and hybrid electrodes. Electrode type effect on removal efficiency was observed for each NOM (commercial, terrestrial, and natural). The results were presented as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (mg L(-1)) and UV/VIS absorbance (cm(-1)). The specific UV absorbance (SUVA) was determined before and after treatment of water. The lowest effluent concentration was obtained as 5.05 mg L(-1) with hybrid electrode for natural NOM source at its original pH 7.3. In addition, among the metal types, the best UV-abs-254 removal efficiency was obtained as 92.4% with 0.0312 cm(-1) by hybrid electrode at the end of the process. The color removal efficiency of water occurred successfully by Al and hybrid electrodes. Aquatic NOM source was the most resistant to EC treatment with DOC reduction of 71.1%, 59.8%, and 68.6% for Al, Fe and hybrid electrodes, respectively. Zeta potential and floc size of colloids were observed during the process for the determination of destabilization level of natural organic matters in EC process. Fast coagulation or flocculation and incipient instability were formed during electrolysis time for Al and Fe electrode, respectively. SUVA value was reduced to below 2 for three NOM sources studied. The EC process was shown to be a viable for different NOM sources with various metals.

  18. Precipitation of impurities in 9-32-0 grade fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, E.F.; Scheib, R.M.; Greenwell, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    For several years TVA has been studying production of 9-32-0 ammonium polyphosphate suspension produced from ammoniated merchant-grade wet-process orthophosphoric acid. Suspensions containing polyphosphate have an advantage over those that contain only orthophosphate in that they can be stored satisfactorily at much lower temperature. However, the introduction of polyphosphate (pyrophosphate anion) complicates the precipitation of impurities and has yielded inconsistent storage characteristics in 9-32-0 fluid fertilizers. Fluorine also has been shown to affect suspension fertilizer properties. The viscosity of 13-38-0 orthophosphate suspension fertilizers is affected by the atomic ratios F:(Al + Fe + Mg). Addition of fluorine prevents sludges and precipitates in ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer solutions - the proper amount of fluorine is related to the amount of each of the metallic impurities present and also to the fraction of the phosphate present as pyrophosphate. Incorporation of polyphosphate or fluorine or both has been shown to have positive effects on ammoniated wet-process phosphoric acid (WPPA), but they do not report the solubility relationships of the cation impurities (Fe, Al, Mg, and Ca) with respect to the anion constituents (PO/sub 4/, P/sub 2/O/sub 7/, and F). Therefore, a factorial study was developed to determine the solubility relationships of the precipitated metal impurities encountered in 9-32-0 fluid fertilizers. 10 refs., 1 fig., 20 tabs.

  19. Reconstruction of centennial-scale fluxes of chemical elements in the Australian coastal environment using seagrass archives.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Oscar; Davis, Grace; Lavery, Paul S; Duarte, Carlos M; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Masqué, Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-01-15

    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~100 years ago (AD ~1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~115 cal years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements. PMID:26437357

  20. Searching for GC-like abundance patterns in young massive clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Lardo, C.; Davies, B.; Bastian, N.; Beccari, G.; Larsen, S. S.; Hernandez, S.

    2016-08-01

    Studies during the last decade have revealed that nearly all globular clusters (GCs) host multiple populations (MPs) of stars with a distinctive chemical patterns in light elements. No evidence of such MPs has been found so far in lower mass (<˜ 104 M⊙) open clusters nor in intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) massive (>105 M⊙) clusters in the Local Group. Young massive clusters (YMCs) have masses and densities similar to those expected of young GCs in the early Universe, and their near-infrared spectra are dominated by the light of red super giants (RSGs). The spectra of these stars may be used to determine the cluster's abundances, even though the individual stars cannot be spatially resolved from one another. We carry out a differential analysis between the Al lines of YMC NGC 1705: 1 and field Small Magellanic Cloud RSGs with similar metallicities. We exclude at high confidence extreme [Al/Fe] enhancements similar to those observed in GCs like NGC 2808 or NGC 6752. However, smaller variations cannot be excluded.

  1. Lunar anorthosites: rare-Earth and other elemental abundances.

    PubMed

    Wakita, H; Schmitt, R A

    1970-11-27

    Elemental abundances of major (Ti, Al, Fe, and Ca), minor (Na, Mn, and Cr), and trace elements [14 rare-earth elements (REE), Y, In, Cd, Rb, Cs, Ba, Co, and Sc] in lunar anorthosites separated from Apollo 11 sample 10085 coarse fines have been determined by means of instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The REE distribution pattern of lunar anorthosites, relative to ordinary chondrites, has a positive Eu anomaly. On the assumption that (i) the lunar composition is similar to that of ordinary chondritic meteorites low in total Fe ( approximately 13 percent); (ii) lunar anorthosites are derived from highland cratering events and are representative of the highlands; and (iii) the moon differentiated into olivine, hypersthene, and basaltic and anorthositic phases, and plagioclase crysstallization began after approximately 93 percent solidification, then mass balance calculations yield approximately 30-kilometer and approximately 10-kilometer thicknesses for the lunar highlands for the melting and chemical differentiation of the entire moon and of the upper 200 kilometers, respectively. Corresponding thicknesses of the basaltic basement rocks were approximately 5 kilometers and approximately 2 kilometers, respectively. Alternatively, if the anorthosites of this study are representative of the highlands and the onset of plagioclase crystallization occurred after approximately 50 percent solidification of the initially melted moon, calculations with REE and Ba partition coefficients suggest that the REE and Ba abundances in the primeval moon were similar to those observed in basaltic achondrites.

  2. Trace Element Geochemistry of Martian Iddingsite in the Lafayette Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite contains abundant iddingsite, a fine-grained intergrowth of smectite clay, ferrihydrite, and ionic salt minerals. Both the meteorite and iddingsite formed on Mars. Samples of iddingsite, olivine, and augite pyroxene were extracted from Lafayette and analyzed for trace elements by instrumental neutron activation. Our results are comparable to independent analyses by electron and ion microbeam methods. Abundances of most elements in the iddingsite do not covary significantly. The iddingsite is extremely rich in Hg, which is probably terrestrial contamination. For the elements Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn, the composition of the iddingsite is close to a mixture of approximately 50% Lafayette olivine + approximately 40% Lafayette siliceous glass + approximately 1O% water. Concordant behavior among these elements is not compatible with element fractionations between smectite and water, but the hydrous nature and petrographic setting of the iddingsite clearly suggest an aqueous origin. These inferences are both consistent, however, with deposition of the iddingsite originally as a silicate gel, which then crystallized (neoformed) nearly isochemically. The iddingsite contains significantly more magnesium than implied by the model, which may suggest that the altering solutions were rich in Mg(2+).

  3. Hot Tear Susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe Alloys with Varying Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Lisa; Easton, Mark A.; Taylor, John A.; Grandfield, John F.; Davidson, Cameron J.; Lu, Liming; Couper, Malcolm J.; StJohn, David H.

    2013-12-01

    Hot tear susceptibility in cast Al-0.52Si-0.34Mg- xFe 6060 aluminum alloys was investigated using a hot tearing test apparatus to simulate hot tearing in DC casting. The test apparatus has two cast bars, one that is used to measure the load response and one which is fixed at both ends to restrain thermal contraction so that hot tearing can be observed and rated where it occurred. The iron (Fe) content, ranging from 0.02 to 0.5 wt pct, was seen to have a major influence on the load response during solidification and the tear rating of these alloys. The findings are discussed in terms of Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model sensitivity analysis and related to the effect of Fe content on the morphology and prevalence of the β-Al5FeSi and α-AlFeSi intermetallic phases and their influence on the coherency and coalescence of the microstructure.

  4. Evaluation of the anthropogenic influx of metal and metalloid contaminants into the Moulay Bousselham lagoon, Morocco, using chemometric methods coupled to geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Maanan, Mehdi; Landesman, Catherine; Maanan, Mohamed; Zourarah, Bendahhou; Fattal, Paul; Sahabi, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Superficial and cored sediment samples from the Moulay Bousselham lagoon and sub-watershed were analyzed for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, As, Hg, and Cd. The temporal and spatial distributions of the main contamination sources of heavy metals were identified and described using chemometric and geographic information system (GIS) methods. Sediments from coastal lagoons near urban and agricultural areas are commonly contaminated with heavy metals, and the concentrations found in surface sediments are significantly higher than those from 50-100 years ago. The concentrations of these elements decrease sharply with depth in the sediment column, and the elements are preferentially enriched in the <2-μm-sized fraction of the sediment. The zones of enhanced risk of heavy metals were detected by means of GIS-based geostatistical modeling. According to sediment pollution indices and statistical analysis, heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Hg) that pose a risk have become largely enriched in the lagoon sediments during the recent period of agricultural intensification.

  5. Perrhenate uptake by iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides: an analogue for pertechnetate incorporation in Hanford waste tank sludges.

    PubMed

    Wakoff, Bradley; Nagy, Kathryn L

    2004-03-15

    Perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (99TcO4-), was partitioned during precipitation and aging of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide solids from aqueous simulants of high-level nuclear waste stored at Hanford, WA. Neutralization of acidic metal nitrate solutions (Al/Fe mole ratio 0.25 and 13.5; 40 ppm Re) to a final pH > 13, followed by aging at 90 degrees C for up to 18 weeks, resulted in substantial amounts of reversibly sorbed Re (approximately 1-10 ppm). Irreversibly sorbed Re increased in the Fe-dominated system with aging, reaching a final value of approximately 83 ppb after 168 h, in a mixture of hematite with minor goethite. Irreversibly sorbed Re in the Al-dominated system generally decreased with time to approximately 30 ppb after 18 weeks in solids dominated by boehmite. Increasing the total amount of Re to 1000 ppm increased the extent of irreversible sorption. The presence of 100 ppm Si prevented transformation of and irreversible Re uptake by ferrihydrite in Fe-dominated systems. In Al-dominated systems, 200 ppm Ni prevented hematite formation but did not affect perrhenate uptake. Results suggest that 5% of the 99Tc inventory in the Hanford waste tanks may be associated with the sludges, and approximately 0.5% incorporated into the solids under oxidizing conditions. PMID:15074687

  6. Laser plasma plume structure and dynamics in the ambient air: The early stage of expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Lavisse, L.; Hallo, L.; Oltra, R.

    2011-05-15

    Laser ablation plasma plume expanding into the ambient atmosphere may be an efficient way to produce nanoparticles. From that reason it would be interesting to study the properties of these laser induced plasmas formed under conditions that are known to be favorable for nanoparticles production. In general, plume behavior can be described as a two-stage process: a 'violent' plume expansion due to the absorption of the laser beam energy (during the laser pulse) followed by a fast adiabatic expansion in the ambient gas (after the end of the laser pulse). Plasma plume may last a few microseconds and may have densities 10{sup -6} times lower than the solid densities at temperatures close to the ambient temperature. Expansion of the plasma plume induced by the impact of a nanosecond laser beam ({lambda} 1064 nm) on the surface of metallic samples in the open air has been investigated by means of fast photography. Spatio-temporal evolution of the plume at the early stage of its expansion (first 330 ns) has been recorded. Structure and dynamics of the plasma plume have been investigated and compared to numerical simulations obtained with a hydro-code, as well as some scaling laws. In addition, measurements using different sample materials (Al, Fe, and Ti) have been performed in order to analyze the influence of target material on plume expansion.

  7. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCES OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M71 (NGC 6838)

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Vesperini, E.; Johnson, C. I. E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-02-10

    Aluminum is the heaviest light element displaying large star-to-star variations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This element may provide additional insight into the origin of the multiple populations, now known to be common place in GCs, and also the nature of the first-generation stars responsible for a cluster's chemical inhomogeneities. In a previous analysis, we found that unlike more metal-poor GCs, 47 Tuc did not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation, which motivates a careful study of the similar metallicity but less massive GC M71. We present chemical abundances of O, Na, Al, and Fe for 33 giants in M71 using spectra obtained with the WIYN-Hydra spectrograph. Our spectroscopic analysis finds that similar to 47 Tuc and in contrast with more metal-poor GCs, M71 stars do not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation and span a relatively narrow range in [Al/Fe], which are characteristics that GC formation models must reproduce.

  8. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Pabst, H.; Mnyonga, J.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and belowground processes. The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon (C) and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter in three natural (lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests), two sustainably used (homegardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Leaves, branches and remaining residues were separated and analyzed for C and nutrient contents. The annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall seasonality, exhibiting a large peak towards the end of the dry season (August-October). This peak decreased at higher elevations with decreasing rainfall seasonality. Macronutrients (N, P, K) in leaf litter increased at mid elevation (2100 m a.s.l.) and with land-use intensity. Carbon content and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Na) however, were unaffected or decreased with land-use intensity. On the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, the annual pattern of litterfall depends on seasonal climatic conditions. While leaf litterfall decreased with elevation, total annual input was independent of climate. Compared to natural forests, the nutrient cycles in agroforestry ecosystems were accelerated by fertilization and the associated changes in dominant tree species.

  9. Analysis of siliceous materials and coal by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with fusion for sample decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Lam, L; Luk, S F

    2000-04-28

    The oxalic acid-lithium carbonate-lithium tetraborate (1:1:1) fusion agent proposed previously for cement analysis is applied to determine the composition of various siliceous samples including granite, clay, flyash, sand and silica fume. For samples with silica content higher than 70%, the sample size had to be reduced from 0.10 to 0.01 g and a recovery factor was needed in silica determination to account for the precipitation of silica during acid dissolution. Attempt has also been made to determine the major metallic elements in coal by fusion directly without the ashing procedure, and the results obtained were good. Further, the ash content of coal was proposed to be determined by establishing a relation between the ash content and the sum of the concentrations of four major oxides (i.e. the oxides of Si, Al, Fe and Ca), and the proposed method is accurate and is time saving compared with that determined by direct ashing at 800 degrees C.

  10. Tensile properties of as-cast iron-aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.: McKamey, C.G.; Maziasz, P.J.; Sikka, V.K.

    1993-07-01

    Room-temperature tensile properties of as-cast Fe{sub 3}Al, Fe{sub 3}Al with chromium, and Fe{sub 3}Al-based FA-129 alloy are investigated. Tensile properties were obtained in the as-cast condition and after homogenization at 700, 900, and 1200{degrees}C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize ordered phases, and optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the microstructure and fracture morphology. The results indicate that the low ductility of as-cast Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys may be related to the relatively large grain size in the cast condition, the low dislocation density in as-cast samples, and the presence of the D0{sub 3} ordered phase. Homogenized samples of FA-129 alloy exhibited almost twice the ductility of the as-cast condition. Microstructural characterization of the homogenized samples and comparison of the as-cast and homogenized microstructures may provide a clue to the poor ductility in the as-cast state.

  11. ToF-SIMS applied to historical archaeology in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodhi, R. N. S.; Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.

    2006-07-01

    The actual route Hannibal followed during the invasion of Italia in the Second Punic War is one of the major questions of antiquity, one that historians/archaeologists have long studied. There are six possible passes Hannibal could have used and one of the many bits of evidence in the ancient literature that might help answer this question is the location of fired rock, the result of a conflagration Hannibal is reputed to have employed to reduce the size of boulders in a two-tier blocking rockslide on the lee side (e.g. Italian) some distance down from the high col. The only route with fired rock along the roadway leading to the Po River Valley or the Dora Riparia is below the Col du Clapier, one of the possible northern routes. ToF-SIMS investigation of the 100-μm thick burned crust in hornblende schist interlaced with veins of quartz-feldspathic minerals yields various elements C, Mg, Na, Ca, Si, Ti, P, Al, Fe and their associated fragments. Hydrocarbon fragments are thought to be products of combustion whereas Ca and Na along with Mg-Fe silicates are derived from the country rock. Aeolian components along with clay minerals settled onto rock surfaces following firing. While the SIMS data clearly would not provide an age for the burnt rock, compositional evidence of the conflagration may relate to Hannibal's actual route.

  12. Chemical speciation of trace metals emitted from Indonesian peat fires for health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Pradani, Maharani; Lestari, Puji; Joshi, Umid Man; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-03-01

    Regional smoke-induced haze in Southeast Asia, caused by uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Indonesia, is of major environmental and health concern. In this study, we estimated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk due to exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) as emitted from peat fires at Kalimantan, Indonesia. For the health risk analysis, chemical speciation (exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions) of 12 trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) in PM2.5 was studied. Results indicate that Al, Fe and Ti together accounted for a major fraction of total metal concentrations (~ 83%) in PM2.5 emissions in the immediate vicinity of peat fires. Chemical speciation reveals that a major proportion of most of the metals, with the exception of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cd, was present in the residual fraction. The exchangeable fraction of metals, which represents their bioavailability, could play a major role in inducing human health effects of PM2.5. This fraction contained carcinogenic metals such as Cd (39.2 ng m- 3) and Ni (249.3 ng m- 3) that exceeded their WHO guideline values by several factors. Health risk estimates suggest that exposure to PM2.5 emissions in the vicinity of peat fires poses serious health threats.

  13. Evaluating the Metal Tolerance Capacity of Microbial Communities Isolated from Alberta Oil Sands Process Water.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mathew L; Demeter, Marc A; Lemire, Joe A; Turner, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in the intensified use of water resources. For example, open pit bitumen extraction by Canada's oil sands operations uses an estimated volume of three barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. The waste tailings-oil sands process water (OSPW)-are stored in holding ponds, and present an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous OSPW microbial communities have an enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we tested the capacity of planktonic and biofilm populations from OSPW to withstand metal ion challenges, using Cupriavidus metallidurans, a known metal-resistant organism, for comparison. The toxicity of the metals toward biofilm and planktonic bacterial populations was determined by measuring the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) and planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the MBEC ™ assay. We observed that the OSPW community and C. metallidurans had similar tolerances to 22 different metals. While thiophillic elements (Te, Ag, Cd, Ni) were found to be most toxic, the OSPW consortia demonstrated higher tolerance to metals reported in tailings ponds (Al, Fe, Mo, Pb). Metal toxicity correlated with a number of physicochemical characteristics of the metals. Parameters reflecting metal-ligand affinities showed fewer and weaker correlations for the community compared to C. metallidurans, suggesting that the OSPW consortia may have developed tolerance mechanisms toward metals present in their environment. PMID:26849649

  14. CO{sub 2} laser light scattering by bare soils for emissivity measurements: Absolute calibration and correlation with backscattering and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Kologo, N.; Stoll, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    Measurements of the scattering cross section of a number of bare soils have been made with CO{sub 2} laser illumination at 10.59 {micro}m. The primary focus was on absolute calibration of the measurements. First, comparison of emissivity values resulting from the application of Kirchhoff`s relation after angular integration of the bidirectional measurements, with emissivity values obtained from the analysis of the emitted radiation show excellent agreement to within less than 0.3%. Second, it was found that a simple formula holds for a relationship between the emissivity and co- and cross-polarized backscattering cross section at an angle of 30{degree}. Third, a clear correlation was observed between emissivity and composition (in this case % Al + Fe oxides; % SiO{sub 2}) for a homogeneous series of samples from the same area in Niger. These results emphasize the importance of calibrated experimental data. The implications of the research give evidence of the advantage of obtaining emissivity from remote reflectivity measurements and possibly only backscattering measurements, and remotely estimating mineral composition.

  15. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  16. Investigation of spatial and temporal metal atmospheric deposition in France through lichen and moss bioaccumulation over one century.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Claustres, A; Probst, A

    2015-10-01

    Lichens and mosses were used as biomonitors to assess the atmospheric deposition of metals in forested ecosystems in various regions of France. The concentrations of 17 metals/metalloids (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) indicated overall low atmospheric contamination in these forested environments, but a regionalism emerged from local contributions (anthropogenic activities, as well as local lithology). Taking into account the geochemical background and comparing to Italian data, the elements from both natural and anthropogenic activities, such as Cd, Pb, or Zn, did not show any obvious anomalies. However, elements mainly originating from lithogenic dust (e.g., Al, Fe, Ti) were more prevalent in sparse forests and in the Southern regions of France, whereas samples from dense forests showed an accumulation of elements from biological recycling (Mn and Zn). The combination of enrichment factors and Pb isotope ratios between current and herbarium samples indicated the historical evolution of metal atmospheric contamination: the high contribution of coal combustion beginning 150 years ago decreased at the end of the 20th century, and the influence of car traffic during the latter observed period decreased in the last few decades. In the South of France, obvious local influences were well preserved during the last century.

  17. Atmospheric dry deposition of mineral dust to the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea: rate and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen; Khashashneh, Safaa

    2015-03-15

    Atmospheric dry deposition to the Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) is particularly a significant source of trace elements. Amid desert regions, the Gulf receives high fluxes of mineral dust with an average rate of 34.68 g/m(2)/year measured in 2012. Patterns of dry deposition showed seasonal fluxes with highest rates observed in summer and lowest in winter. The observed variations were attributed to wind direction, timing of deposition and sources of dust. The average dry fluxes of Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were 551, 440, 10.29, 1.42, 0.04, 0.68, 1.42 and 4.02 mg/m(2)/year, respectively. While the dry deposition fluxes were enriched in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn indicating their dominant anthropogenic sources, they appeared to be less influenced compared to the neighboring Mediterranean area and other industrial countries, but were similar to or slightly higher than those in remote areas. The enrichment values for Fe and Mn were low, consistent with their crustal origin. The fluxes of all elements suggested the impacts of both crustal (due to climate change) and anthropogenic sources became stronger in this region. The Sahara dust was probably a minor contributor to dry deposition in the GoA.

  18. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus.

  19. Time-resolved shock compression of porous rutile: Wave dispersion in porous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.U.; Graham, R.A.; Holman, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    Rutile (TiO{sub 2}) samples at 60% of solid density have been shock-loaded from 0.21 to 6.1 GPa with sample thickness of 4 mm and studied with the PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress-rate gauge. The technique uses a copper capsule to contain the sample which has PVDF gauge packages in direct contact with front and rear surfaces. A precise measure is made of the compressive stress wave velocity through the sample, as well as the input and propagated shock stress. Initial density is known from sample preparation, and the amount of shock-compression is calculated from the measurement of shock velocity and input stress. Shock states and re-shock states are measured. Observed data are consistent with previously published high pressure data. It is observed that rutile has a ``crush strength`` near 6 GPa. Propagated stress-pulse rise times vary from 234 to 916 nsec. Propagated stress-pulse rise times of shock-compressed HMX, 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3Ni + Al, and 5Ti + 3Si are presented.

  20. Time-resolved shock compression of porous rutile: Wave dispersion in porous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.U.; Graham, R.A.; Holman, G.T. )

    1994-07-10

    Rutile (TiO[sub 2]) samples at 60% of solid density have been shock-loaded from 0.21 to 6.1 GPa with sample thickness of 4 mm and studied with the PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress-rate gauge. The technique uses a copper capsule to contain the sample which has PVDF gauge packages in direct contact with the front and rear surfaces. A precise measure is made of the compressive stress wave velocity through the sample, as well as the input and propagated shock stress. The initial density is known from the sample preparation process, and the amount of shock-compression is calculated from the measurement of shock velocity and input stress. Shock states and re-shock states are measured. The observed data are consistent with previously published high pressure data. It is observed that rutile has a crush strength'' near 6 GPa. Propagated stress-pulse rise times vary from 234 to 916 nsec. Propagated stress-pulse rise times of shock-compressed HMX, 2Al+Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], 3Ni+Al, and 5Ti+3Si are presented. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics

  1. Analysis of archaeological samples and local clays using ICP-AES, TG-DTG and FTIR techniques.

    PubMed

    Paama, L; Pitkãnen, I; Perämäki, P

    2000-02-01

    The spectrochemical and thermal analysis of different archaeological samples as bricks, terra-cotta and local clays were carried out. The concentration of major and minor elements of samples was determined by sequential inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The method was tested by determining Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ti, Na and K in the standard solutions and reference material GXR-4. The precision of the determination (relative standard deviation) ranged from 0.4 to 1.54%. The clay minerals are the main materials for the production of bricks and terra-cotta figures. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential (TG-DTG) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) methods can be used for the study of characteristic reactions, associated with the course of the heating. The TG-DTG curves were obtained in the temperature range 25-900 degrees C, and the dynamic experiment was carried out in the air and nitrogen atmosphere. The infrared evolved gas analysis was performed using FTIR in the dynamic nitrogen atmosphere.

  2. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  3. Geochemical and Mineralogical Analyses of Palagonitic Tuffs and Altered Rinds of Pillow Lavas on Iceland and Applications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice; Schiffman, P.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Samples of altered pillow lavas and hyalotuffs were collected from a volcanic Tuya and hyaloclastite ridge in western Iceland. Altered basaltic material from regions such as Hloudufell Tuya and Thorolfsfell Ridge may be similar to the surface fines on Mars, which are thought to contain altered basaltic components as well. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses have been performed on the Icelandic samples in order to characterize the properties that distinguish palagonitization from other forms of low temperature alteration in this environment. Major elements were measured using an electron microprobe and mineralogy was determined through X-ray diffraction and visible- infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The primary focus in this study was on the less than 2 microns size fractions of the Hloudufell altered pillow and Thorolfsfell palagonitic tuff samples. The palagonitic tuff contained more crystalline clay minerals and has a higher Al/Fe ratio. The altered pillow lava contained higher abundances of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides. The extended visible region spectra of the less than 2 microns fractions of both Icelandic samples are similar to bright Martian soils measured by Pathfinder.

  4. Springtime peaks of trace metals in Antarctic snow.

    PubMed Central

    Ikegawa, M; Kimura, M; Honda, K; Makita, K; Fujii, Y; Itokawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    Drifting snow samples were collected at Asuka Station (71 degrees 32'S, 24 degrees 08'E, 930 m above sea level) over a period from July to December 1991; 36 elements (including Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Pb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Th) in snow were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) by direct sample introduction. Concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, and SO(4)2- in the snow were also determined by ion chromatography. In late September to early October, there was a pronounced peak concentration of most of the elements together with non-sea salt sulfate. Enrichment factor analyses suggest that Na, Mg, Ca, K, and Sr are of marine origin and Al, Fe, Mn, Rb, Cr, Ni, Ga, V, and all the rare earth elements are of crustal origins. Volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 1991) and Mt. Hudson (August 1991) could be the reason for the precipitation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se together with non-sea salt sulfates in the austral spring at Asuka Station. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9288501

  5. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  6. Crystallization control for remediation of an FetO-rich CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO EAF waste slag.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Suk; Sohn, Il

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the crystallization behavior of synthesized FetO-rich electric arc furnace (EAF) waste slags with a basicity range of 0.7 to 1.08 was investigated. Crystal growth in the melts was observed in situ using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and a delayed crystallization for higher-basicity samples was observed in the continuous cooling transformation and time temperature transformation diagrams. This result is likely due to the polymerization of the melt structure as a result of the increased number of network-forming FeO4 and AlO4 units, as suggested by Raman analysis. The complex incorporation of Al and Fe ions in the form of AlO4 and FeO4 tetrahedral units dominant in the melt structure at a higher basicity constrained the precipitation of a magnetic, nonstoichiometric, and Fe-rich MgAlFeO4 primary phase. The growth of this spinel phase caused a clear compositional separation from amorphous phase during isothermal cooling at 1473 K leading to a clear separation between the primary and amorphous phases, allowing an efficient magnetic separation of Fe compounds from the slag for effective remediation and recycling of synthesized EAF waste slags for use in higher value-added ordinary Portland cement. PMID:24410350

  7. Distribution of iron&titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T. H.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Elphic, R. C.; Gasnault, O. M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K. R.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. {approx}140 g/cm{sup 2} for inelastic scattering and {approx}50 g/cm{sup 2} for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods [e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)], which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  8. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus. PMID:26739952

  9. The importance of mycological studies for soil quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhova, V. A.

    2007-05-01

    Published and original data obtained in the course of long-term studies of mycobiota of several soil types in regions with different pollution levels and composition of the pollutants (Tver, Moscow, and Samara oblasts; West Siberia; and the Komi Republic) are analyzed. The expediency of using mycological characteristics for soil quality control and estimation of the toxic impact on the environment is discussed. The most pollutant-sensitive mycological characteristics were determined for the following soils: oligotrophic peat gley, eutrophic peat, whitish podzolic, Al-Fe-humus podzol, soddy pale podzolic, soddy-podzolic, and brown forest soils. These are (a) the structure of the fungal biomass, (b) the taxonomic diversity of the fungi, and (c) the percentage of melanized forms of micromycetes. At the same time, the total number of fungi (in colony-forming units) and the indices of the richness of individual species and genera proved to be poorly informative for assessing the ecological status of the soils. Criteria for the choice of mycobiotic parameters suitable for scaling the soil ecological quality are suggested.

  10. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.

    PubMed

    Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Połowniak, M; Kozik, V

    2012-11-15

    Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the μg/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

  11. THREE DISCRETE GROUPS WITH HOMOGENEOUS CHEMISTRY ALONG THE RED GIANT BRANCH IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.

    2014-11-10

    We present the homogeneous reanalysis of Mg and Al abundances from high resolution UVES/FLAMES spectra for 31 red giants in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We found a well defined Mg-Al anticorrelation reaching a regime of subsolar Mg abundance ratios, with a spread of about 1.4 dex in [Al/Fe]. The main result from the improved statistics of our sample is that the distribution of stars is not continuous along the anticorrelation because they are neatly clustered into three distinct clumps, each with different chemical compositions. One group (P) shows a primordial composition of field stars of similar metallicity, and the other two (I and E) have increasing abundances of Al and decreasing abundances of Mg. The fraction of stars we found in the three components (P: 68%, I: 19%, E: 13%) is in excellent agreement with the ratios computed for the three distinct main sequences in NGC 2808: for the first time there is a clear correspondence between discrete photometric sequences of dwarfs and distinct groups of giants with homogeneous chemistry. The composition of the I group cannot be reproduced by mixing of matter with extreme processing in hot H-burning and gas with pristine, unprocessed composition, as also found in the recent analysis of three discrete groups in NGC 6752. This finding suggests that different classes of polluters were probably at work in NGC 2808 as well.

  12. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Pabst, H.; Mnyonga, J.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and below-ground processes. The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon (C) and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter in three natural (lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests), two sustainably used (homegardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystems was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Leaves, branches and remaining residues were separated and analyzed for C and nutrient contents. The annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall seasonality, exhibiting a large peak towards the end of the dry season (August-October). This peak decreased at higher elevations with decreasing rainfall seasonality. Macronutrients (N, P, K) in leaf litter increased at mid elevation (2100 m a.s.l.) and with land-use intensity. Carbon content and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Na) however, were unaffected or decreased with land-use intensity. While leaf litterfall decreased with elevation, total annual input was independent of climate. Compared to natural forests, the nutrient cycles in agroforestry ecosystems were accelerated by fertilization and the associated changes in dominant tree species.

  13. Reconstruction of centennial-scale fluxes of chemical elements in the Australian coastal environment using seagrass archives.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Oscar; Davis, Grace; Lavery, Paul S; Duarte, Carlos M; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Masqué, Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-01-15

    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~100 years ago (AD ~1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~115 cal years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements.

  14. Dolomites petrography and geochemistry of the Chuping Formation, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Noorhashima Binti; Ali, Che Aziz; Mohamed, Kamal Roslan

    2013-11-01

    Detailed petrographic and geochemical studies had been done to 89 samples from the Chuping Formation collected at Bukit Tengku Lembu area. The aim of this paper is to document the nature of dolomitization and its petrographical characteristics. Two types of dolomites have been recognized; stratified dolomites and non-stratified dolomites. Non-stratified dolomites can be further divided into complete-replacing dolomites, individual-scattered dolomites and selective-replacing dolomites. The geochemical data from X-ray Fluorescence analysis detected low concentrations of trace elements which includes Al, Fe, K, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr and Ti, with a high Ca/Mg ratio ranging from1.681 mol to as high as 106.942 mol. This big fluctuation in values indicates a variation of fluids that are involved in the diagenetic processes. Individual-scattered dolomites have perfect rhombus shape with no evidence of being affected by compaction and pressure indicating a shallow burial setting. Meanwhile presence of perfect saddle dolomites with replacive nature and no signs of being affected by compaction, also suggested late burial settings, in which compaction ceased. High Ca/Mg ratios may also suggest some dedolomitization effects.

  15. The role of nano-perovskite in the negligible thorium release in seawater from Greek bauxite residue (red mud)

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsos, Platon N.; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi; Kuzmin, Alexei; Lagos, Markus; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Xanthos, Stelios; Pontikes, Yiannis; Angelopoulos, George N.; Zarkadas, Charalampos; Komelkov, Aleksandr; Tzamos, Evangelos; Filippidis, Anestis

    2016-01-01

    We present new data about the chemical and structural characteristics of bauxite residue (BR) from Greek Al industry, using a combination of microscopic, analytical, and spectroscopic techniques. SEM-EDS indicated a homogeneous dominant “Al-Fe-Ca-Ti-Si-Na-Cr matrix”, appearing at the microscale. The bulk chemical analyses showed considerable levels of Th (111 μg g−1), along with minor U (15 μg g−1), which are responsible for radioactivity (355 and 133 Bq kg−1 for 232Th and 238U, respectively) with a total dose rate of 295 nGy h−1. Leaching experiments, in conjunction with SF-ICP-MS, using Mediterranean seawater from Greece, indicated significant release of V, depending on S/L ratio, and negligible release of Th at least after 12 months leaching. STEM-EDS/EELS & HR-STEM-HAADF study of the leached BR at the nanoscale revealed that the significant immobility of Th4+ is due to its incorporation into an insoluble perovskite-type phase with major composition of Ca0.8Na0.2TiO3 and crystallites observed in nanoscale. The Th LIII-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Th4+ ions, which are hosted in this novel nano-perovskite of BR, occupy Ca2+ sites, rather than Ti4+ sites. That is most likely the reason of no Th release in Mediterranean seawater. PMID:26899139

  16. Distribution and baseline values of trace elements in the sediment of Var River catchment, Southeast France.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Michèl, Hervé; Funel, Geneviève Barci; Féraud, Gilbert

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the determination of trace element (TE)-Li, As, Co, Cs, Cu, Pb, U, and Zn-and major element (ME)-Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Na, and K-concentrations in 18 riverbed sediments and a sediment core from the Var River catchment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with those of a reference sediment core, and the contribution of clay and organic carbon contents in the distribution of TE and ME in the sediment samples was investigated. The mean concentrations of the ME were comparable in both core and riverbed samples and were within the natural averages. In the case of TE, the concentrations were lower in riverbed sediment samples than those found in the sediment core. High mean concentration of As was observed (7.6 μg g(-1)) in both core and riverbed sediments, relatively higher than the worldwide reported values. The obtained data indicated that the natural high level of arsenic might be originated from the parent rocks, especially metamorphic rocks surrounding granites and from Permian sediments. Statistical approach, viz., Pearson correlation matrix, was applied to better understand the correlation among TE in both riverbed and sediment core samples. No significant metallic contamination was detected in the low Var valley despite of the localization of several industrial facilities. Therefore, results confirm that the concentrations of the TE obtained in the riverbed sediments could be considered as a baseline guide for future pollution monitoring program.

  17. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2010-07-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009

  18. Determination of atmospheric heavy metals using two lichen species in Katni and Rewa cities, India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, G K; Mohabe, S; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Katni and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh, state in central India. The Pyxine cocoes and Phaeophyscia hispidula, two epiphytic foliose lichen were used as bioindicators in the present study and seven metals (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analyzed in naturally growing thallus. The concentrations of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Al, Cd, Cr and Zn were reported from the lichen samples from Rewa city which was 561.8 +/- 2.4, 6.8 +/- 0.8, 35.2 +/- 1.4, 214.6 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. Whereas As, Fe and Pb were reported maximum in the lichen samples collected from Katni city areas with 33.4 +/- 0.05, 689.4 +/- 2.6, 13.3 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. However the accumulation of Cd and Pb from both the cities are more or less similar in concentration. The selectivity sequence of metals were Fe>Al>Zn>As>Cr>Pb>Cd in Katni city, and Al>Fe>Zn>Cr>As>Pb>Cd in Rewa city. The findings of this study indicates that extent of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of the two cities which may lead to adverse health affects. PMID:21882655

  19. Preparation and characterization of porous granular ceramic containing dispersed aluminum and iron oxides as adsorbents for fluoride removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Zhu, Dirui; Yang, Yingnan; Sugiura, Norio

    2011-02-15

    Porous granular ceramic adsorbents containing dispersed aluminum and iron oxides were synthesized by impregnating with salt solutions followed by precipitation at 600°C. In the present work detailed studies were carried out to investigate the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH and co-existing anions. Characterization studies on the adsorbent by SEM, XRD, EDS, and BET analysis were carried out to clarify the adsorption mechanism. The adsorbents were sphere in shape, 2-3mm in particle size, highly porous and showed specific surface area of 50.69 sq m/g. The fluoride adsorption capacity of prepared adsorbent was 1.79 mg/g, and the maximum fluoride removal was obtained at pH 6. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were found to represent the measured adsorption data well. The experimental data were well explained with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Results from this study demonstrated potential utility of Al/Fe dispersed in porous granular ceramics that could be developed into a viable technology for fluoride removal from aqueous solution.

  20. Microstructures and tensile properties of as-cast iron-aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; McKamey, C.G.; Maziasz, P.J.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-09-01

    Room-temperature tensile properties of as-cast Fe{sub 3}Al, Fe{sub 3}Al with chromium, and Fe{sub 3}Al-based FA-129 alloy have been investigated. Tensile properties have been obtained in air in the as-cast condition for all three alloys. Samples of FA-129 alloy have also been tested in oxygen and water vapor environments, and after homogenization at 700, 900, and 1200C. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize ordered phases and optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the microstructure and fracture morphology. Tensile properties in the as-cast condition exhibited an environmental effect; tensile ductilities in an oxygen atmosphere were greater than those obtained in laboratory air. Homogenized samples of FA-129 alloy exhibited almost twice the ductility of the as-cast condition. Results indicate that the low ductility of as-cast Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys may be related to the relatively large grain size in the as-cast condition and the presence of the DO{sub 3} ordered phase. Microstructural characterization of the homogenized samples and comparison of the as-cast and homogenized microstructures may provide a clue to the poor ductility in the as-cast condition.

  1. Evidence for enhanced bioavailability of trace elements in the marine ecosystem of Deception Island, a volcano in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Deheyn, Dimitri D; Gendreau, Philippe; Baldwin, Roberta J; Latz, Michael I

    2005-07-01

    This study assessed whether trace elements present at Deception Island, an active submarine volcano in the Antarctic Peninsula, show enhanced biological availability to the local marine community. Using a weak acid extraction method to dissolve organic material and leach associated but not constitutive trace elements of sediments, fifteen elements were measured from seafloor sediment, seawater particulates, and tissues of benthic (bivalves, brittlestars, sea urchins) and pelagic (demersal and pelagic fishes, krill) organisms collected in the flooded caldera. The highest element concentrations were associated with seafloor sediment, the lowest with seawater particulates and organism tissues. In the case of Ag and Se, concentrations were highest in organism tissue, indicating contamination through the food chain and biomagnification of those elements. The elements Al, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ti, and to a lesser extent Zn, were the most concentrated of the trace elements for all sample types. This indicates that the whole ecosystem of Deception Island is contaminated with trace elements from local geothermal activity, which is also reflected in the pattern of element contamination in organisms. Accordingly, element concentrations were higher in organisms collected at Deception Island compared to those from the neighboring non-active volcanic King George Island, suggesting that volcanic activity enhances bioavailability of trace elements to marine organisms. Trace element concentrations were highest in digestive tissue of organisms, suggesting that elements at Deception Island are incorporated into the marine food web mainly through a dietary route.

  2. Evaluating the Metal Tolerance Capacity of Microbial Communities Isolated from Alberta Oil Sands Process Water

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Mathew L.; Demeter, Marc A.; Lemire, Joe A.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in the intensified use of water resources. For example, open pit bitumen extraction by Canada’s oil sands operations uses an estimated volume of three barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. The waste tailings–oil sands process water (OSPW)–are stored in holding ponds, and present an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous OSPW microbial communities have an enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we tested the capacity of planktonic and biofilm populations from OSPW to withstand metal ion challenges, using Cupriavidus metallidurans, a known metal-resistant organism, for comparison. The toxicity of the metals toward biofilm and planktonic bacterial populations was determined by measuring the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) and planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the MBEC ™ assay. We observed that the OSPW community and C. metallidurans had similar tolerances to 22 different metals. While thiophillic elements (Te, Ag, Cd, Ni) were found to be most toxic, the OSPW consortia demonstrated higher tolerance to metals reported in tailings ponds (Al, Fe, Mo, Pb). Metal toxicity correlated with a number of physicochemical characteristics of the metals. Parameters reflecting metal-ligand affinities showed fewer and weaker correlations for the community compared to C. metallidurans, suggesting that the OSPW consortia may have developed tolerance mechanisms toward metals present in their environment. PMID:26849649

  3. Valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae via pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Zunino, Josefina; Piccolo, María C; Volpe, María A

    2016-09-01

    The valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae through pyrolysis for obtaining bio-oils is studied in this work. The reaction is carried out at 400°C, at high contact time. The bio-oil has a practical yield of 35% and is rich in phytol. Besides, it is simpler than the corresponding to lignocellulosic biomass due to the absence of phenolic compounds. This property leads to a bio-oil relatively stable to storage. In addition, heterogeneous catalysts (Al-Fe/MCM-41, SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15), in contact with algae during pyrolysis, are analyzed. The general trend is that the catalysts decrease the concentration of fatty alcohols and other high molecular weight products, since their mild acidity sites promote degradation reactions. Thus, the amount of light products increases upon the use of the catalysts. Particularly, acetol concentration in the bio-oils obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis with SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15 is notably high.

  4. Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography for SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, John; Oakham, Gerald; Bryman, Douglas; Cousins, Thomas; Noeel, Scott; Gallant, Grant; Jason, Andrew; Jonkmans, Guy; Stocki, Trevor J.; Waller, David

    2009-12-02

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) project has recently started investigating the detection of illicit Special Nuclear Material in cargo using cosmic ray muon tomography and complementary neutron detectors. We are currently performing simulation studies to help with the design of small scale prototypes. Based on the prototype tests and refined simulations, we will determine whether the muon tracking system for the full scale prototype will be based on drift chambers or extruded scintillator trackers. An analysis of the operations of the Port of Montreal has determined how long muon scan times should take if all or a subset of the cargo is to be screened. As long as the throughput of the muon system(s) is equal to the rate at which containers are unloaded from ships, the impact on port operations would not be great if a muon scanning stage were required for all cargo. We also show preliminary simulation results indicating that excellent separation between Al, Fe and Pb is possible under ideal conditions. The discrimination power is reduced but still significant when realistic momentum resolution measurements are considered.

  5. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-10-01

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as “ship effect” neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  6. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Suchmore » cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.« less

  7. Recent sedimentary history of organic matter and nutrient accumulation in the Ohuira Lagoon, northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Frignani, Mauro; Tesi, Tommaso; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2007-08-01

    (210)Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates, as well as a suite of geochemical proxies (Al, Fe, delta(13)C, delta(15)N), were used to assess the time-dependent variations of C, N, and P fluxes recorded in two sediment cores collected at Ohuira Lagoon, in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during the last 100 years. Sedimentary C, N, and P concentrations increased with time and were related to land clearing, water impoundment, and agriculture practices, such as fertilization. C:N:P ratios and delta(13)C suggested an estuarine system that is responsive to increased C loading from a N-limited phytoplankton community, whereas delta(15)N values showed the transition between an estuarine-terrestrial to an estuarine-more marine environment, as a consequence of the declining freshwater supply into the estuary due to the channeling and impoundment of El Fuerte River between 1900 and 1956. The recent increases in nutrient fluxes (2- to 9-fold the pre-anthropogenic fluxes of C and N, and 2 to 13 times for P) taking place in the mainland from the 1940s, were related to the expansion of the intensive agriculture fields and to the more recent development of shrimp farming activities.

  8. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explainmore » that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.« less

  9. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2014-02-18

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  10. Spectroscopic and statistical approach of archaeological artifacts recently excavated from Tamilnadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, D.; Velraj, G.

    2015-10-01

    The ancient materials characterization will bring back the more evidence of the ancient people life styles. In this study, the archaeological pottery shards recently excavated from Kodumanal, Erode District in Tamilnadu, South India were investigated. The experimental results enlighten us to the elemental and the mineral composition of the pottery shards. The FT-IR technique tells that the mineralogy and the firing temperature of the samples are less than 800 °C, in the oxidizing/reducing atmosphere and the XRD was used as a complementary technique for the mineralogy. A thorough scientific study of SEM-EDS with the help of statistical approach done to find the provenance of the selected pot shards has not yet been performed. EDS and XRF results revealed that the investigated samples have the elements O, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Ti, K and Na are in different compositions. For establishing the provenance (same or different origin) of pottery samples, Al and Si concentration ratio as well as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used and the results are correlated.

  11. Cubic titanium trialuminide thermal spray coatings—A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, D.; Austin, M.; Laitila, E.; Mikkola, D.

    2001-03-01

    The recently discovered Cr-stabilized cubic titanium trialuminides of the form (Al,Cr)3Ti exhibit excellent oxidation resistance up to 1200 °C and have formed the basis for development of a new family of protective coatings. These intermetallic compounds can be fabricated into powders and thermal spray coatings much the same as traditional metal alloys. Cubic trialuminide coatings have physical properties that are compatible with a variety of common engineering materials, including alloys based on Ti, TiAl, Fe, Ni, and Al. Typically, the coatings will impart sufficient protection to permit an increase in the service temperature of a substrate alloy by 150 °C, or more. The purpose here is to summarize the development of these new thermal spray coatings, including properties and microstructures, as well as performance of the coating on various substrates. A brief comparison is made between the deposition processes used to date, which include low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS), air plasma spray (APS), and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition. Recent successes in modifying the coatings to a composite form by incorporating a very fine dispersion of nanoscale carbide particles are also discussed.

  12. Characterization of the composition of dust fallout and identification of dust sources in arid and semiarid North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia; Qian, Guangqiang; Luo, Wanyin

    2009-11-01

    A source analysis to characterize the composition of dust fallout in arid and semiarid North China, an important source area of dust for East Asia, was performed. Monthly samples were obtained from April 2001 to March 2002 at 29 sites in sandy and gobi deserts, steppes, and loess areas, and the following elements were analyzed: Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, As, La, Na, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Ti, and V. Although the dust compositions differed, it was difficult to determine the potential dust source areas based solely on the elemental fingerprints of the dust. Principal components analysis showed that at most sites Sm, Sc, La, Ce, Eu, and Th were most strongly correlated ( r > 0.7) with other elements, whereas crustal elements such as Al, Fe, and Ti were only strongly correlated with the other elements at a few sites. Of the 26 elements that we analyzed, maybe only Sb was representative of anthropogenic pollution, but pollutant sources were unclear because at most sites, in different months, the crustal-derived elements and those derived from anthropogenic pollutants always appeared synchronously, creating difficulties and high uncertainties in source identification.

  13. Characterization of low power research reactor neutrons for the validation of k(0)-INAA standardization based on k(0)-IAEA software.

    PubMed

    Baidoo, I K; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Dampare, S B; Sogbadji, R B M; Poku, L O

    2013-09-01

    Channel Bsite2 of Ghana research reactor-1 has been characterized for k0-INAA application. Cadmium ratio and bare multi-monitor were used to determine flux parameters using 0.1%Au-Al, Fe, and Zr wire as flux monitors. The parameters determined were 18.36±1.91, 0.0479±0.012, 5.12×10(11)±0.42×10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1), 2.74×10(10)±0.14×10(10) ncm(-2)s(-1), 7.73×10(10)±0.16×10(10) ncm(-2)s(-1) and 16.75±1.58, -0.034±0.0028, 4.28×10(11)±1.71×10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1), 2.55×10(10)±0.15×10(10) ncm(-2)s(-1) respectively for thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio, alpha, thermal neutron, epithermal neutron and fast neutron flux using cadmium ratio and multi-monitor method accordingly. The k0-INAA performance assessment based on z-score distributions showed most results within |z|<2.

  14. Bioavailability assessment of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds.

    PubMed

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Bioavailability of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds has been assessed by using an in vitro dialyzability approach. The samples studied included walnuts, Brazil nuts, Macadamia nuts, pecans, hazelnuts, chestnuts, cashews, peanuts, pistachios and seeds (almond, pine, pumpkin and sunflower). Metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in dialyzates and also in samples after a microwave assisted acid digestion pre-treatment. Low dialyzability percentages were found for Al, Fe and Hg; moderate percentages were found for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl and Zn; and high dialyzability ratios were found for As, Cr and Ni. The highest dialyzability percentages were found in raw chestnuts and raw hazelnuts. Metal dialyzability was found to be negatively affected by fat content. Positive correlation was found between carbohydrate content and metal dialyzability ratios. Protein and dietary fibre content did not influence metal bioavailability. Predicted dialyzability for some metals based on fat and protein content could also be established.

  15. Colloid formation and metal transport through two mixing zones affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Stream discharges and concentrations of dissolved and colloidal metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), SO4, and dissolved silica were measured to identify chemical transformations and determine mass transports through two mixing zones in the Animas River that receive the inflows from Cement and Mineral Creeks. The creeks were the dominant sources of Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb, whereas the upstream Animas River supplied about half of the Zn. With the exception of Fe, which was present in dissolved and colloidal forms, the metals were dissolved in the acidic, high-SO4 waters of Cement Creek (pH 3.8). Mixing of Cement Creek with the Animas River increased pH to near-neutral values and transformed Al and some additional Fe into colloids which also contained Cu and Pb. Aluminium and Fe colloids had already formed in the mildly acidic conditions in Mineral Creek (pH 6.6) upstream of the confluence with the Animas River. Colloidal Fe continued to form downstream of both mixing zones. The Fe- and Al-rich colloids were important for transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn, which appeared to have sorbed to them. Partitioning of Zn between dissolved and colloidal phases was dependent on pH and colloid concentration. Mass balances showed conservative transports for Ca, Mg, Mn, SO4, and dissolved silica through the two mixing zones and small losses (< 10%) of colloidal Al, Fe and Zn from the water column.

  16. Evaluation of the healing activity of therapeutic clay in rat skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Dário, Giordana Maciel; da Silva, Geovana Gomes; Gonçalves, Davi Ludvig; Silveira, Paulo; Junior, Adilson Teixeira; Angioletto, Elidio; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2014-10-01

    The use of clays for therapeutic practice is widespread in almost all regions of the world. In this study the physicochemical and microbiological healing characteristics of a clay from Ocara, Brazil, popularly used for therapeutic uses, were analyzed. The presence of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Si was observed, which initially indicated that the clay had potential for therapeutic use. The average particle size of the clay (26.3 μm) can induce the microcirculation of the skin and the XRD analysis shows that the clay is formed by kaolinite and illite, a swelling clay. During the microbiological evaluation there was the need to sterilize the clay for later incorporation into the pharmaceutical formula. The accelerated stability test at 50°C for 3 months has showed that the pharmaceutical formula remained stable with a shelf life of two years. After the stability test the wound-healing capacity of the formulation in rats was evaluated. It was observed that the treatment made with the formulation containing the Ocara clay showed the best results since the formula allowed greater formation of collagen fibers and consequent regeneration of the deep dermis after seven days of treatment and reepithelialization and continuous formation of granulation tissue at the 14th day.

  17. Beyond solutes - Mobile matter and its role for the properties, processes and functions of natural porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsche, Kai U.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation will focus on the vastly neglected but rather fascinating aspects of mobile colloidal and particulate materials in natural porous media. The substance spectra of mobile matter in soils, sediments and aquifers will be introduced. Besides clay minerals, carbonates and the oxides and hydroxides of Si, Al, Fe and Mn, these materials comprise in particular organic and biotic material of diverse provenience. Of particular importance are the neo-formations of nanoparticles in the presence of organic matter by means of heterogenic nucleation and growth. Beside the adsorption of mobile organic matter to mineral surfaces, it is this is process that results in the production of organo-mineral phases that differ dramatic in their properties from the pure minerals. Release and formation processes and their role for solute transport will be discussed. The manifold reactions and interactions within and in between the involved immobile and mobile solid, liquid and "biotic" phases are highlighted. Special consideration is given to the interdependence of mobile matter, fluids, physical structure, fluid properties and transport. Among others, this comprises the interplay of mobile matter and aggregation, surface inversion, and fluid properties. Based on lab and field experimental evidence and theoretical concepts, the "solutes and solution" approach will be challenged and the need to theoretically and experimentally step beyond will be justified.

  18. A combined recovery process of metals in spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Wang, Zefeng; Chen, Yao; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2009-11-01

    This work proposes a new process of recovering Co from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by a combination of crushing, ultrasonic washing, acid leaching and precipitation, in which ultrasonic washing was used for the first time as an alternative process to improve the recovery efficiency of Co and reduce energy consumption and pollution. Spent LIBs were crushed with a 12 mm aperture screen, and the undersize products were put into an ultrasonic washing container to separate electrode materials from their support substrate. The washed materials were filtered through a 2mm aperture screen to get underflow products, namely recovered electrodes. Ninety two percent of the Co was transferred to the recovered electrodes where Co accounted for 28% of the mass and impurities, including Al, Fe, and Cu, accounted for 2%. The valuable materials left in 2-12 mm products, including Cu, Al, and Fe, were presented as thin sheets, and could be easily separated. The recovered electrodes were leached with 4.0M HCl for 2.0 h, at 80 degrees C, along with concurrent agitation. Ninety seven percent of the Li and 99% of the Co in recovered electrodes could be dissolved. The impurities could be removed at pH 4.5-6.0 with little loss of Co by chemical precipitation. This process is feasible for recycling spent LIBs in scale-up.

  19. Mapping of rare earth elements in nuclear waste glass-ceramic using micro laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Motto-Ros, V.; Panczer, G.; De Ligny, D.; Yu, J.; Benoit, J. M.; Dussossoy, J. L.; Peuget, S.

    2013-09-01

    A micro-LIBS system was set up based on a quadruple Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm coupled with a microscope. Elemental mapping was performed on a Mo-rich glass-ceramic sample containing CaMoO4 crystallites hundreds of microns in length and about 25 μm in section diameter. The topography of single-shot laser-induced craters was characterized using an atomic force microscope (AFM), which revealed a crater size less than 7 μm. Mappings of Mo, Ca, Sr, Al, Fe, Zr and rare earth elements such as Eu, Nd, Pr and La were undertaken. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was conducted to validate the micro-LIBS analysis. Principal components analysis calculation was used to investigate the correlation of elements in the two phases of glass-ceramic. Correlation between Ca, Sr, rare earth elements and Mo indicates their preferential incorporation into the calcium molybdate crystalline phase. Anti-correlation between Fe, Zr, Al and Mo revealed their affinity to the glass phase.

  20. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Red Wine Samples Using the Union College Pelletron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott

    2010-11-01

    A 1-megavolt tandem electrostatic Pelletron particle accelerator housed at Union College was used to measure the elemental composition and concentration of homemade Cabernet and Merlot red wine samples. A beam of 1.8-MeV protons directed at an approximately 12-μm thin Mylar substrate onto which 8-μL of concentrated red wine was dried caused inner shell electrons to be ejected from the target nuclei and these vacancies are filled through electronic transitions of higher orbital electrons accompanied by the production of an x-ray photon characteristic of the elemental composition of the target. This is the PIXE Method. Data on the intensity versus energy of the x-rays were collected using an Amptek silicon drift detector and were analyzed to determine the elemental composition and the samples were found to contain P, S, K, Cl, Ca, Sc, Mn, Al, Fe, & Co. Elemental concentrations were determined using the analysis package GUPIX. It is hypothesized that the cobalt seen is a direct result of the uptake by the grapes and as a product of the fermentation process a complex of vitamin B12 is produced.

  1. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences.

  2. [Distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles of the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    PubMed

    Xin, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Shao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-04-01

    The distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles were investigated in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao estuaries and the coastal area of eastern Hainan in July 2008. The concentrations of metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES after microwave digestion. Multivariate statistical methods (e. g. correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to discuss the major factors controlling the variability of heavy metal concentrations and the pollution status in those areas. There was an obvious variability in particulate metal concentrations from upstream to estuary of both rivers. The concentrations first increased with increasing salinity and then decreased with further increase of the salinity; the concentrations were slightly higher at the coastal area in the east. The variability of particulate metal concentrations reduced significantly after the normalization by Al, indicating the effects of grain size. Enrichment factor calculation results showed that there was heavy metal pollution (especially Cu, Ni) in the Wenchang/Wenjiao River and estuary, while the situation in Wanquan River remained at pristine level. Concentrations of particulate metals in the study area were mainly controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as contamination from the discharge of waste water and biological activity.

  3. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    PubMed

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pH<4 is needed to prevent precipitation of Al and Fe phases. Therefore, a speciation method with a low pH eluent that matches the natural sample pH of acid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in <10 min with a LOQ of 0.2 μg L(-1) using (78)Se for detection. Applying this speciation analysis to study acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments.

  4. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  5. A NEW ABUNDANCE SCALE FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 Tuc

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew E-mail: andy@ociw.edu

    2008-04-15

    We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe in eight red giants and one turnoff star in the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tuc, based on spectroscopy with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle high-resolution spectrograph on the Magellan 6.5 m Clay telescope. A robust line by a line differential abundance analysis technique, relative to the K-giant Arcturus, was used to reduce systematic errors from atmospheric and atomic parameters. Our derived mean LTE [Fe/H] of -0.76 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.04 dex (random and systematic error, respectively) is more metal poor by about 0.1 dex than recent literature results. The chemical element ratios in this nearby globular cluster most closely resemble those of the Galactic bulge, although there is a non-negligible overlap with the composition of thick-disk stars. We find that the [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] ratios coincide with the upper boundary of the trends seen in the bulge and thick disk. There is only a small intrinsic scatter in the majority of the abundance ratios, indicating that 47 Tuc is mostly a rather chemically homogeneous system.

  6. Colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents: Characterization and role in metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Al-Gorani Szigeti, Zsofia; Dubascoux, Stephane; Lespes, Gaetane; Traber, Jacqueline; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plants was characterized and examined with respect to its role in metal distribution by using tangential flow ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and UV detectors, and an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) multidetection platform. Results revealed that a humic-like fraction of low aromaticity with an average molar mass ranging from 1600 to 2600Da was the main colloidal component. High molar mass fractions (HMM), with molar mass ranges between 20 and 200kDa, were present in lower proportions. Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn were found mainly in the dissolved phase (<0.45microm) and their distribution between colloidal and truly dissolved fractions was strongly influenced by the distribution of dissolved organic carbon. AFlFFF coupled to ICP-MS showed that Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn associate to the low molar mass fraction of the colloidal pool, whereas Al, Fe and Pb were equally bound to low and high molar mass fractions. PMID:19836819

  7. Distribution, microfabric, and geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks in central orogenic belt, China: implications for a hydrothermal sedimentation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Gao, Le; Yang, Zhijun; Zhou, Yongzhang; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch

    2014-01-01

    Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB) of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian--Ordovician, and Carboniferous--Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08-95.30%), Ba (42.45-503.0 ppm), and ΣREE (3.28-19.75 ppm) suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn), Sc/Th, (La/Yb) N, and (La/Ce) N ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  8. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1). PMID:27021697

  9. Diphonix{trademark} Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The recently developed Diphonix{trademark} resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions.

  10. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  11. The role of nano-perovskite in the negligible thorium release in seawater from Greek bauxite residue (red mud).

    PubMed

    Gamaletsos, Platon N; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi; Kuzmin, Alexei; Lagos, Markus; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Xanthos, Stelios; Pontikes, Yiannis; Angelopoulos, George N; Zarkadas, Charalampos; Komelkov, Aleksandr; Tzamos, Evangelos; Filippidis, Anestis

    2016-01-01

    We present new data about the chemical and structural characteristics of bauxite residue (BR) from Greek Al industry, using a combination of microscopic, analytical, and spectroscopic techniques. SEM-EDS indicated a homogeneous dominant "Al-Fe-Ca-Ti-Si-Na-Cr matrix", appearing at the microscale. The bulk chemical analyses showed considerable levels of Th (111 μg g(-1)), along with minor U (15 μg g(-1)), which are responsible for radioactivity (355 and 133 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively) with a total dose rate of 295 nGy h(-1). Leaching experiments, in conjunction with SF-ICP-MS, using Mediterranean seawater from Greece, indicated significant release of V, depending on S/L ratio, and negligible release of Th at least after 12 months leaching. STEM-EDS/EELS &HR-STEM-HAADF study of the leached BR at the nanoscale revealed that the significant immobility of Th(4+) is due to its incorporation into an insoluble perovskite-type phase with major composition of Ca(0.8)Na(0.2)TiO3 and crystallites observed in nanoscale. The Th L(III)-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Th(4+) ions, which are hosted in this novel nano-perovskite of BR, occupy Ca(2+) sites, rather than Ti(4+) sites. That is most likely the reason of no Th release in Mediterranean seawater. PMID:26899139

  12. Tritium permeation barrier-aluminized coating prepared by Al-plating and subsequent oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guikai, Zhang; Ju, Li; Chang'an, Chen; Sanping, Dou; Guoping, Ling

    2011-10-01

    Aluminum rich coatings forming Al 2O 3 on surface are widely applied as tritium permeation barrier (TPB) on structural materials in fusion reactor. In this work, we proposed a new three-step method for preparing such aluminum rich coating on HR-2 steel: ambient temperature melts salt electroplating followed by heat treating and artificial oxidation at 700 °C. Al deposition from AlCl 3/EMIC was performed with a deposition rate of 15 μm/h. After heat treated for 2 h, the aluminized coating appeared homogeneous, with thickness of 11-13 μm and free of visible porosity, and exhibited a three-layer structure. After oxidized in 10 -2 Pa O 2 for 80 h, the finally fabricated coating showed a double-layered structure consisting of an outer γ-A1 2O 3 layer with thickness of 0.1 μm and inner (Fe,Cr,Mn,Ni)Al/(Fe,Cr,Mn,Ni) 3Al layer of 32 μm thickness, without any visible defects. The deuterium permeation rate through the coated HR-2 steel was reduced by 2-3 orders of magnitude at 600-727 °C.

  13. Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fazza, Elizete Vieira

    2008-12-01

    The city of Limeira is located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 μg L - 1 and in sediment samples 0.03 μg g - 1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  15. Reference Materials for Reactor Neutron Fluence Rate and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.

    2003-06-01

    Certified reference materials are distributed by the European Commission through the BCR® programme (over 500 CRMs) including a series of activation and fission monitor materials originally proposed by the Euratom Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry. The current range (18 CRMs) includes materials to cover the complete energy spectrum, and suitable for different irradiation times. Fission monitors are 238UO2 or 237NpO2 in the form of microspheres. Activation monitors are high purity metals (Ni, Cu, Al, Fe, Nb, Rh, or Ti), certified for interfering trace impurities, or dilute aluminium-based alloys. Reference materials newly certified are IRMM-530R A1-0.1%Au, replacing the exhausted IRMM-530 material, used as comparator for k0- standardisation, and three new Al-Co alloys (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%Co). Others in the process of certification are A1-0.1%Ag and A1-2%Sc for thermal and epithermal fluence rate measurements and two uranium-doped glass materials intended for dosimetry by the fission-track technique. Various alloy compositions have been prepared for use as melt-wire temperature monitors with melting points ranging from 198 to 327ºC.

  16. Distribution, microfabric, and geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks in central orogenic belt, China: implications for a hydrothermal sedimentation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Gao, Le; Yang, Zhijun; Zhou, Yongzhang; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch

    2014-01-01

    Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB) of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian--Ordovician, and Carboniferous--Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08-95.30%), Ba (42.45-503.0 ppm), and ΣREE (3.28-19.75 ppm) suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn), Sc/Th, (La/Yb) N, and (La/Ce) N ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics. PMID:25140349

  17. Trace metals in sediments of a Mediterranean estuary affected by human activities (Acheloos river estuary, Greece).

    PubMed

    Dassenakis, M; Degaita, A; Scoullos, M

    1995-05-19

    Trace metals were studied in the sediments of the ecologically, economically and scientifically important estuary of the Acheloos river, in western Greece. Human activities (dams, agriculture, traffic, etc.) influence the estuarine system of Acheloos and in combination with the hydrological, mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the estuary affect the chemical behaviour and the distribution patterns of trace metals in its sediments. The large scale disturbance of the system is imminent in the near future as it is planned to divert approximately 50% of the river water. A study of the distribution patterns of trace metals revealed that in the estuary there are zones with different metal levels. The concentrations of most metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn) are elevated in three of these zones (upstream, sill, seawards). A different behaviour was observed for Mn due to its association with carbonates that were observed in significant concentrations throughout the estuarine zone. A sequential extraction procedure, applied to the sediments, indicated low percentages of easily exchangeable metals, increased mobility of Cu and Zn and increased association of Ni, Cr and Fe with the aluminosilicate lattice. Although the river is not considered to be heavily polluted, some metals have shown an enrichment in the surface sediments as a result of general anthropogenic activities not derived from point sources.

  18. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  19. A New Modal Analysis Method to put Constraints on the Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites and Estimate the Unaltered CR Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gounelle, M.; Schwandt, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of the major interest since they contain one of the most primitive organic matters. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needed to be assessed. That was done in the present study by comparing the mineralogy of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2, Renazzo. Their modal analyses were achieved thanks to a new method, based on X-ray elemental maps acquired on electron microprobe, and on IDL image treatment. It allowed the collection of new data on the composition of Renazzo and confirmed the classification of GRO 95577 as a CR1. New alteration products for CRs, vermiculite and clinochlore, were observed. The homogeneity of the Fe-poor clays in the CR1 and the distinctive matrix composition in the two chondrites suggest a wide-range of aqueous alteration on CRs. The preservation of the outlines of the chondrules in GRO 95577 and the elemental transfers of Al, Fe and Ca throughout the chondrule and of Fe and S from the matrix to the chondrule favor the idea of an asteroidal location of the aqueous alteration. From their mineralogical descriptions and modal abundances, the element repartitions in Renazzo and GRO 95577 were computed. It indicates a possible relationship between these two chondrites via an isochemical alteration process. Knowing the chemical reactions that occurred during the alteration, it was thus possible to decipher the mineralogical modal abundances in the unaltered CR body.

  20. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of newer dolerite dyke around Keonjhar, Orissa: Implication for hydrothermal activity in subduction zone setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Piyali; Ray, Arijit; Pramanik, Sayantani

    2014-06-01

    The newer dolerite dykes around Keonjhar within the Singbhum Granite occur in NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends. The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole (tremolite-actinolite) from clinopyroxene, which are all considered products of hydrothermal alterations. This alteration involves addition and subtraction of certain elements. Graphical analyses with Alteration index and elemental abundances show that elements like Rb, Ba, Th, La and K have been added during the alteration process, whereas elements like Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Si, Al, Fe, Mg and Ca have been removed. It is observed that in spite of such chemical alteration, correlation between major and trace elements, characteristic of petrogenetic process, is still preserved. This might reflect systematic Alteration (addition or subtraction) of elements without disturbing the original element to element correlation. It has also been established by earlier workers that the evolution of newer dolerite had occurred in an arc-back arc setting which may also be true for newer dolerites of the present study. This is evident from plots of pyroxene composition and whole rock composition of newer dolerite samples in different tectonic discrimination diagrams using immobile elements. The newer dolerite dykes of the Keonjhar area may thus be considered to represent an example of hydrothermal activity on mafic rocks in an arc setting.

  1. Identification of potential sources and source regions of fine ambient particles measured at Gosan background site in Korea using advanced hybrid receptor model combined with positive matrix factorization - article no. D22217

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.S.; Moon, K.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    2006-11-15

    The size- and time-resolved measurement of particulate trace elements was made using an eight-stage Davis Rotating Unit for Monitoring sampler and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence system from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in east Asia. A sa result, continuous 3-hour average concentrations were obtained for 19 elements including S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, and Br. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the size-resolved aerosol data sets in order to identify the possible sources and to estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass in each size range. Twelve sources were then resolved in the fine size range ( 0.07 to 1.15 {mu}m), including continental aerosol, biomass burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil-fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcanic emission. A newly developed hybrid receptor model, concentration, retention time, and source emission weighted trajectory (CRSWT) was then applied to the source intensities derived from the PMF analysis by incorporating meteorological and source inventory information of the study region in order to suggest the regional information of long-range transported fine aerosol sources. The CRSWT model was able to resolve highly potential source areas and pathways for the fine ambient aerosol at the Gosan background site.

  2. Efficient stabilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae external invertase by immobilisation on modified beidellite nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Andjelković, Uroš; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra; Jović-Jovičić, Nataša; Banković, Predrag; Bajt, Teja; Mojović, Zorica; Vujčić, Zoran; Jovanović, Dušan

    2015-02-01

    The external invertase isoform 1 (EINV1) was immobilised on eight differently modified beidellite nanoclays. Modifications were composed of organo-modification with different amounts of surfactant - hexadecyl trimethylammonium cation (HDTMA), pillaring with Al/Fe containing polyhydroxy cations and acid modification of Na-enriched and pillared clays. The modified nanoclays were characterised by XRD, N2-physisorption, SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amount of bound enzyme activity was significantly influenced by the modification of beidellite ranging from 50 to remarkable 2200U/g. Biochemical characterization was performed for five modified nanoclays showing the highest enzyme activity after invertase immobilisation. The investigation demonstrated that after immobilisation the structure and the catalytic properties of invertase were preserved, while Km values were slightly increased from 26 to 37mM. immobilisation significantly improved thermal and storage stability of EINV1. Results indicate that beidellite nanoclays obtained by low cost modifications can be applied as a suitable support for the immobilisation of invertase. The immobilizate can be efficiently engaged in sucrose hydrolysis in batch reactor. PMID:25172709

  3. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  4. Fossil Microorganisms and Formation of Early Precambrian Weathering Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozanov, A. Yu; Astafieva, M. M.; Vrevsky, A. B.; Alfimova, N. A.; Matrenichev, V. A.; Hoover, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Weathering crusts are the only reliable evidences of the existence of continental conditions. Often they are the only source of information about exogenous processes and subsequently about conditions under which the development of the biosphere occurred. A complex of diverse fossil microorganisms was discovered as a result of Scanning Electron Microscope investigations. The chemical composition of the discovered fossils is identical to that of the host rocks and is represented by Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg. Probably, the microorganisms fixed in rocks played the role of catalyst. The decomposition of minerals comprising the rocks and their transformation into clayey (argillaceous) minerals, most likely occurred under the influence of microorganisms. And may be unique weathering crusts of Early Precambrian were formed due to interaction between specific composition of microorganism assemblage and conditions of hypergene transformations. So it is possible to speak about colonization of land by microbes already at that time and about existence of single raw from weathering crusts (Primitive soils) to real soils.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  6. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM LOW GRADE URANIUM BEARING ORES

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, H.B.; Pesold, W.F.; Hirshon, J.M.

    1959-06-01

    Recovery of U, Fe, and Al from Chattanooga shale is described. Ground shale (-4 to +325 mesh) is roasted to remove organic and volatile matter. The heated shale is then reacted with a chlorinating agent (CCl/sub 4/, COCl/sub 2/, Cl, and SCl) at 600 to 1000 C. The metal chloride vapor is separated from entrained solids and then contacted with a liquid alkali metal chloride which removes U. The U is reeovered by cooling and dissolving the bath followed by acidification and solvent extraction. A condensed phase of Al, Fe, and K chlorides is treated to separate Al as alumina by passing through a Fe/sub 2/O/ sub 3/ bed. The remaining FeCl/sub 3/ is oxidized by O/sub 2/ at 1000 C to form Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Cl/sub 2/. Alternatively, vapor from the U separation step may be passed to a liquid KCl bath at 500 to 650 C. The resulting mixture is oxidized to form Cl/sub 2/ and Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The Al and Fe are separated by reaction with NaOH at high temperatures and pressures. (T.R.H.)

  7. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral analcime - Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O - A natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.; Romano, Antônio Wilson; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the mineral analcime using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. The mineral analcime Na2(Al4SiO4O12)·2H2O is a crystalline sodium silicate. Chemical analysis shows the mineral contains a range of elements including Na, Al, Fe2+ and Si. The mineral is characterized by intense Raman bands observed at 1052, 1096 and 1125 cm-1. The infrared bands are broad; nevertheless bands may be resolved at 1006 and 1119 cm-1. These bands are assigned to SiO stretching vibrational modes. Intense Raman band at 484 cm-1 is attributed to OSiO bending modes. Raman bands observed at 2501, 3542, 3558 and 3600 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. Low intensity infrared bands are noted at 3373, 3529 and 3608 cm-1. The observation of multiple water bands indicate that water is involved in the structure of analcime with differing hydrogen bond strengths. This concept is supported by the number of bands in the water bending region. Vibrational spectroscopy assists with the characterization of the mineral analcime.

  8. Soluble metal pool as affected by soil addition with organic inputs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Maria Dolores

    2013-04-01

    The potential impact of diverse inputs of organic matter (hay, maize straw, and peat) on the mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was examined at laboratory scale for three soils with contrasting properties and for two moisture regimes: field capacity and saturated conditions. Soil solution was characterized for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic carbon, and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI. For field capacity conditions, metal mobility increased (Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd) for all soils and treatments compared with controls and was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with dissolved organic matter (r=0.540). Solubilization of organic matter was mostly driven by Al mobilization (r=0.580, p<0.05) and variations in solution pH. The bioavailable pool of metals, estimated as free ion activities, decreased with the increasing occurrence of metal-organic matter complexes, which was accompanied by an increase in solution of highly aromatic organic matter. Soil saturation generally decreased metal mobility and the ratio of metal-organo matter complexes in solution. Consistently, such effects were accompanied by a decrease in the solubilization of organic matter and lower mobilization of Al, Fe, and Mn.

  9. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2014-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  10. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  11. Solder Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1999-02-22

    There are two sources of contamination in solder alloys. The first source is trace elements from the primary metals used in the as-manufactured product, be that product in ingot, wire, or powder form. Their levels in the primary metal are determined by the refining process. While some of these trace elements are naturally occurring materials, additional contamination can result from the refining and/or forming processes. Sources include: furnace pot liners, debris on the cutting edges of shears, rolling mill rollers, etc. The types and levels of contaminants per solder alloy are set by recognized industrial, federal, military, and international specifications. For example, the 63Sn-37Pb solder purchased to the ASTM B 32 standard can have maximum levels of contamination for the following metals: 0.08(wt.)%Cu, 0.001 %Cd, 0.005%Al, 0.25%Bi, 0.03%As, 0.02%Fe, and 0.005 %Zn. A second cause of contamination in solders, and solder baths in particular, is their actual use in soldering operations. Each time a workpiece is introduced into the bath, some dissolution of the joint base metal(s), protective or solderable coatings, and fixture metal takes place which adds to contamination levels in the solder. The potential impurities include Cu; Ni; Au or other noble metals used as protective finishes and Al; Fe; and Zn to name a few. Even dissolution of the pot wall or liner is a source of impurities, typically Fe.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of humic acids using Al and Fe co-doped TiO2 nanotubes under UV/ozonation for drinking water purification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rongfang; Zhou, Beihai; Hua, Duo; Shi, Chunhong

    2013-11-15

    O3/UV/TiO2 was used to effectively decompose humic acids (HAs) in drinking water. To obtain a large specific surface area and low band gap energy, Al and Fe co-doped TiO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The effect of the optimal co-doped TiO2 nanotubes catalyst on the HAs removal efficiency through O3/UV/co-doped TiO2 process was investigated. The highest HAs removal efficiency (79.4%) that exhibited a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.172 min(-1) was achieved, in the presence of 550 °C calcined 1.0% co-doped TiO2 nanotubes with an Al:Fe ratio of 0.25:0.75. The effects of calcination temperature and doping concentration on anatase phase weight fractions, average crystallite sizes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, catalyst band gap energy, and catalyst photocatalytic activity were also discussed. The inorganic anions also affected the catalyst photocatalytic ability. In a neutral solution, SO4(2-) slightly promoted HAs removal. However, HCO3(-) was found to significantly inhibit the catalyst activity, whereas Cl(-) had negligible effect on photocatalytic ability.

  13. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  14. Spatiotemporal variability in stream chemistry in a high-elevation catchment affected by mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Drever, James I.

    2001-10-01

    This study examined solute dynamics on both spatial and temporal (seasonal, 24 h) scales in a high-elevation stream affected by drainage from abandoned metal mines. Peru Creek is located along the Continental Divide in the US Rocky Mountains, and the hydrologic cycle is dominated by melting of snow. Spatially, tributary inflows produced order-of-magnitude concentration changes along Peru Creek; these were due to dilution and concentration, and also to precipitation of solids. Seasonally, the concentration of most solutes increased as snowmelt diminished. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu and Zn, at times affected by instream processes, increased the most, by factors of 2.1-12.8. Ca, Mg, and SO 42-, which approximated conservative behavior, increased by factors of 1.7-2.2. Si, Na and K, which were unaffected by mine drainage, increased less, by factors of 1.1-1.6. Concentrations of NO 3- decreased slightly during the snowmelt season. Hydrologic, photochemical and biological processes were active on the 24 h timescale and produced daily concentration variations of up to 40%. Accurate predictions of solute concentrations, which rely on knowledge of processes that produce natural cycling, are crucial in developing models of toxicity and pollutant loading.

  15. [Utilizing the wastewater treatment plant sludge for the production of eco-cement].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Shao-Qi; Zhou, De-Jun; Wu, Yan-Yu

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect on cement property by using of municipal sewage as additive in the process of clinker burning. Based on the standard sample P. 042. 5 from cement plant, the properties of eco-cement samples adding municipal sewage to unit raw material by 0%, 0.50%, 1.00%, 1.50%, 2.00%, 2.50% respectively and the standard sample from the cement plant were compared. According to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, microstructure, the particles size determination material change, the setting time, specific surface area, leaching toxicity and strength of cement mortar of the cement, respectively, it showed that the strength of the productions were similar to the P. 042.5 standard sample. The metal ion concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Mn and Ti in clinkers and raw material decreased, the initial and setting time increased, as well as the strength of the paste within the curing time of 3 days decreased with the increase of municipal sewage ratio. However, after the curing of 7 days, the strength was similar to non-sludge-mortar or even higher.

  16. Mechanical behavior and phase stability of NiAl-based shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.P.; Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; Kunsmann, H.; King, T.; Kao, M.

    1993-12-31

    NiAl-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) can be made ductile by alloying with 100--300 wppm B and 14--20 at.% Fe. The addition of Fe has the undesirable effect that it lowers the temperature (A{sub p}) of the martensite {yields} austenite phase transformation. Fortunately, however, A can be raised by lowering the ``equivalent`` amount of Al in the alloy. In this way a high A{sub p} temperature of {approximately}190 C has been obtained without sacrificing ductility. Furthermore, a recoverable strain of 0.7% has been obtained in a Ni-Al-Fe alloy with A{sub p} temperature of {approximately}140 C. Iron additions do not suppress the aging-induced embrittlement that occurs in NiAl alloys at 300--500 C as a result of Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 3} precipitation. Manganese additions (up to 10 at.%) have the effect of lowering A{sub p}, degrading hot workability, and decreasing room-temperature ductility.

  17. Contamination of port zone sediments by metals from Large Marine Ecosystems of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buruaem, Lucas M; Hortellani, Marcos A; Sarkis, Jorge E; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Abessa, Denis M S

    2012-03-01

    Sediment contamination by metals poses risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic to dredging operations. In Brazil, there are differences in sedimentology along the Large Marine Ecosystems in relation to the metal distributions. We aimed to assess the extent of Al, Fe, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination in sediments from port zones in northeast (Mucuripe and Pecém) and southeast (Santos) Brazil through geochemical analyses and sediment quality ratings. The metal concentrations found in these port zones were higher than those observed in the continental shelf or the background values in both regions. In the northeast, metals were associated with carbonate, while in Santos, they were associated with mud. Geochemical analyses showed enrichments in Hg, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, and a simple application of international sediment quality guidelines failed to predict their impacts, whereas the use of site-specific values that were derived by geochemical and ecotoxicological approaches seemed to be more appropriate in the management of the dredged sediments. PMID:22306311

  18. Thermodynamics of Minerals Stable Near the Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2003-02-01

    OAK B262 Research & Education Activities We are working on developing calorimetric techniques for sulfide minerals. We have completed calorimetric studies of (Na, K, H3O) jarosites, of Na and K jarosite -alunite solid solutions, and of Cr6+ - containing jarosites. We are now working on phases containing As and Pb. These studies are important to issues of heavy metal pollution in the environment. A number of postdocs, graduate students, and undergrads have participated in the research. We have active collaboration with Dirk Baron, faculty at California State University, Bakersfield. In a collaboration with Peter Burns, Notre Dame University, we are working on thermochemistry of U6+ minerals. Navrotsky has participated in a number of national workshops that are helping to define the interfaces between nanotechnology and earth/environmental science. Major Findings Our first finding on uranyl minerals shows that studtite, a phase containing structural peroxide ion, is thermodynamically unstable in the absence of a source of aqueous peroxide ion but is thermodynamically stable in contact with a solution containing peroxide concentrations expected for the radiolysis of water in contact with spent nuclear fuel. This work is in press in Science. We have a consistent thermodynamic data set for the (Na, K, H3O) (Al, Fe) jarosite, alunite minerals and for Cr6+ substituting for S6+ in jarosite. The latter phases represent one of the few solid sinks for trapping toxic Cr6+ in groundwater. Contributions within Discipline Better understanding of thermodynamic driving for and constraints on geochemical and environmental processes.

  19. Interfacial Characterization of Dissimilar Joints Between Al/Mg/Al-Trilayered Clad Sheet to High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macwan, A.; Jiang, X. Q.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are increasingly used in the automotive and aerospace sectors to reduce vehicle weight. Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets are deemed as a promising alternative to improve the corrosion resistance and formability of Mg alloys. The structural application of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets inevitably involves welding and joining in the multi-material vehicle body manufacturing. This study aimed to characterize the bonding interface microstructure of the Al/Mg/Al-clad sheet to high-strength low-alloy steel with and without Zn coating using ultrasonic spot welding at different levels of welding energy. It was observed that the presence of Zn coating improved the bonding at the interface due to the formation of Al-Zn eutectic structure via enhanced diffusion. At a higher level of welding energy, characteristic flow patterns of Zn into Al-clad layer were observed with an extensive penetration mainly along some high angle grain boundaries. The dissimilar joints without Zn coating made at a high welding energy of 800 J failed partially from the Al/Fe weld interface and partially from the Al/Mg clad interface, while the joints with Zn coating failed from the Al/Mg clad interface due to the presence of brittle Al12Mg17 phase.

  20. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of Aluminum to High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel: Microstructure, Tensile and Fatigue Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, V. K.; Bhole, S. D.; Chen, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    The structural applications of lightweight aluminum alloys inevitably involve dissimilar welding with steels and the related durability issues. This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change, lap shear tensile load, and fatigue resistance of dissimilar ultrasonic spot-welded joints of aluminum-to-galvanized high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel. Two non-uniform layers were identified in between Al and HSLA steel via SEM/EDS and XRD. One was an Al-Zn eutectic layer and the other was a thin (<2 μm) layer of intermetallic compound (IMC) of Al and Fe in the nugget zone. The lap shear tensile testing gave a maximum load of 3.7 kN and the sample failed initially in between the Al-Zn eutectic film and Al-Fe IMC, and afterward from the region containing Al on both matching fracture surfaces. The fatigue test results showed a fatigue limit of about 0.5 kN (at 1 × 107 cycles). The maximum cyclic stress at which transition of the fatigue fracture from transverse through-thickness crack growth mode to the interfacial failure mode occurs increases with increasing energy input.

  1. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff.

  2. A field study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs are emerging as practical strategies to improve the environmental quality of cities. However, the impact of green roofs on the storm water quality remains a topic of concern to city planners and environmental policy makers. This study investigated whether green roofs act as a source or a sink of various metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Li and Co), inorganic anions (NO3-, NO2-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cl-, F- and Br-) and cation (NH4+). A series of green roof assemblies were constructed. Four different real rain events and several artificial rain events were considered for the study. Results showed that concentrations of most of the chemical components in runoff were highest during the beginning of rain events and subsided in the subsequent rain events. Some of the important components present in the runoff include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Fe, Al, Cu, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). However, the concentration of these chemical components in the roof runoff strongly depends on the nature of substrates used in the green roof and the volume of rain. Based on the USEPA standards for freshwater quality, we conclude that the green roof used in this study is reasonably effective except that the runoff contains significant amounts of NO3- and PO4(3-).

  3. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos θ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos θ values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  4. Structural materials: understanding atomic scale microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, E A; Miller, Michael K; Blavette, D; Ringer, S. P.; Sudbrack, C; Smith, G.D.W.

    2009-01-01

    With the ability to locate and identify atoms in three dimensions, atom-probe tomography (APT) has revolutionized our understanding of structure-property relationships in materials used for structural applications. The atomic-scale details of clusters, second phases, and microstructural defects that control alloy properties have been investigated, providing an unprecedented level of detail on the origins of aging behavior, strength, creep, fracture toughness, corrosion, and irradiation resistance. Moreover, atomic-scale microscopy combined with atomistic simulation and theoretical modeling of material behavior can guide new alloy design. In this article, selected examples highlight how APT has led to a deeper understanding of materials structures and therefore properties, starting with the phase transformations controlling the aging and strengthening behavior of complex Al-, Fe-, and Ni-based alloys systems. The chemistry of interfaces and structural defects that play a crucial role in high-temperature strengthening, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also discussed, with particular reference to Zr- and Al-alloys and FeAl intermetallics.

  5. The role of nano-perovskite in the negligible thorium release in seawater from Greek bauxite residue (red mud).

    PubMed

    Gamaletsos, Platon N; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi; Kuzmin, Alexei; Lagos, Markus; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Xanthos, Stelios; Pontikes, Yiannis; Angelopoulos, George N; Zarkadas, Charalampos; Komelkov, Aleksandr; Tzamos, Evangelos; Filippidis, Anestis

    2016-01-01

    We present new data about the chemical and structural characteristics of bauxite residue (BR) from Greek Al industry, using a combination of microscopic, analytical, and spectroscopic techniques. SEM-EDS indicated a homogeneous dominant "Al-Fe-Ca-Ti-Si-Na-Cr matrix", appearing at the microscale. The bulk chemical analyses showed considerable levels of Th (111 μg g(-1)), along with minor U (15 μg g(-1)), which are responsible for radioactivity (355 and 133 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively) with a total dose rate of 295 nGy h(-1). Leaching experiments, in conjunction with SF-ICP-MS, using Mediterranean seawater from Greece, indicated significant release of V, depending on S/L ratio, and negligible release of Th at least after 12 months leaching. STEM-EDS/EELS &HR-STEM-HAADF study of the leached BR at the nanoscale revealed that the significant immobility of Th(4+) is due to its incorporation into an insoluble perovskite-type phase with major composition of Ca(0.8)Na(0.2)TiO3 and crystallites observed in nanoscale. The Th L(III)-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Th(4+) ions, which are hosted in this novel nano-perovskite of BR, occupy Ca(2+) sites, rather than Ti(4+) sites. That is most likely the reason of no Th release in Mediterranean seawater.

  6. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  7. Groundwater or floodwater? Assessing the pathways of metal exports from a coastal acid sulfate soil catchment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; de Weys, Jason; Eyre, Bradley D

    2011-11-15

    Daily observations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and manganese in an estuary downstream of a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) catchment provided insights into how floods and submarine groundwater discharge drive wetland metal exports. Extremely high Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations (up to 40, 374, and 8 mg L(-1), respectively) were found in shallow acidic groundwaters from the Tuckean Swamp, Australia. Significant correlations between radon (a natural groundwater tracer) and metals in surface waters revealed that metal loads were driven primarily by groundwater discharge. Dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al loads during a 16-day flood triggered by a 213 mm rain event were respectively 80, 35, and 14% of the total surface water exports during the four months of observations. Counter clockwise hysteresis was observed for Fe and Mn in surface waters during the flood due to delayed groundwater inputs. Groundwater-derived Fe fluxes into artificial drains were 1 order of magnitude higher than total surface water exports, which is consistent with the known accumulation of monosulfidic black ooze within the wetland drains. Upscaling the Tuckean catchment export estimates yielded dissolved Fe fluxes from global acid sulfate soil catchments on the same order of magnitude of global river inputs into estuaries.

  8. Erosive wear of selected materials for fossil energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    A number of materials have been evaluated to determine their erosion resistance for fossil energy applications. This is part of a larger program to study wear and corrosion at Albany Research Center. This paper will present the results for some of these materials, including FeAl, FeAl cermets, WC-Co cemented carbides, Si3N4-MoSi2, Si3N4, Stellite 6B, white cast irons and 440C steel. Trends in erosion rates due to material properties and erosive conditions will be presented. FeAl cermets performed well compared to the WC-Co cemented carbides. The interparticle spacing of the WC-Co cemented carbides correlated with the erosion rate. The erosion rate of the WC-Co cemented carbides decreased as the interparticle spacing decreased. It is important to realize that erosion resistance is not an intrinsic material property, but is a system response. A change in the wear environment can significantly alter the relative rankings of materials with respect to their wear rate. For example, at relatively low velocities, the carbides in the white cast irons are more erosion resistant than the matrix, while at higher velocities the matrix is more erosion resistant.

  9. Geochemical modeling of reactions and partitioning of trace metals and radionuclides during titration of contaminated acidic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sorption of uranium and technetium onto aluminum and iron hydroxides during titration of a contaminated groundwater using both Na hydroxide and carbonate as titrants. The contaminated groundwater has a low pH of 3.8 and high concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, trace metals such as Ni and Co, and radionuclides such as U and Tc. During titration, most Al and Fe were precipitated out at pH above ~4.5. U as well as Tc was found to be removed from aqueous phase at pH below ~5.5, but to some extent released at higher pH values. An earlier geochemical equilibrium reaction path model that considered aqueous complexation and precipitation/dissolution reactions predicted mineral precipitation and adequately described concentration variations of Al, Fe and some other metal cations, but failed to predict sulfate, U and Tc concentrations during titration. Previous studies have shown that Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxides strongly sorb dissolved sulfate, U and Tc species. Therefore, an anion exchange model was developed for the sorption of sulfate, U and Tc onto Al and Fe hydroxides. With the additional consideration of the anion exchange reactions, concentration profiles of sulfate, U and Tc were more accurately predicted. Results of this study indicate that consideration of complex reactions such as sorption/desorption on mixed mineral phases, in addition to hydrolysis and precipitation, could improve the prediction of various contaminants during pre- and post-groundwater treatment practices.

  10. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  11. Trace metals geochemistry of Bengkulu river and estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, M. Lutfi; Darti, Puspa; Alwi, Wiwit; Swistoro, Eko; Sundaryono, Agus; Ruyani, Aceng

    2015-09-01

    Unique feature of Indonesian archipelago in addition to its location that settled between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean has made Indonesian seas as important parts of the world ocean system. In contrast, research on Indonesian seas including its marine geochemistry is scarce. Research findings have proven that Indonesian seas and its characteristics, such as Indonesian throughflow, are important in the seawater thermohaline circulation that affect world's global climate. The transports of mass and heat from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean are crucial for the oceanic circulation and sea surface temperatures. It is only until recently known that water masses movement could be traced using chemical elements such as Zr and Hf. In modern ocean, sources of these chemicals are mostly from continents. Chemicals had been brought to the oceans through river, estuary, coastal and eventually open seawater. We have analyzed selected important trace metals of Bengkulu river and estuary starting from upper stream of Bengkulu River to coastal seawater of the Indian Ocean. Concentrations of trace metals in the sample were determined by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Dissolved and labile particulate concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, V, Sr and Zn are reported in this study.

  12. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

  13. The effect of trivalent cations on the performance of Mg-M-CO(3) layered double hydroxides for high-temperature CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Tay, Hui Huang; Ng, Desmond Jia Wei; Chen, Luwei; Liu, Yan; Chang, Jie; Zhong, Ziyi; Luo, Jizhong; Borgna, Armando

    2010-08-23

    The effect of trivalent cations on the performance of Mg-M-CO(3) (M=Al, Fe, Ga, Mn) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for high-temperature CO(2) capture is systematically investigated for the first time. We demonstrate that the M(3+) determines the structure evolution of LDH derivatives under thermal treatment, and finally influences the CO(2) capture capacity. Very different calcination temperatures are required for the different LDHs to obtain their maximum CO(2) capture capacities. To have a clear understanding of the reason behind these big differences the physicochemical properties, thermal stability, and memory effect of the LDHs were investigated. Both the thermal stability and the memory effect of LDHs are greatly influenced by the type of trivalent cation. The CO(2) capture capacities were also evaluated under various conditions. Another important finding of this work is that the quasi-amorphous phase obtained by thermal treatment at the lowest possible temperature gives the highest CO(2) capture capacity.

  14. Deposition of 137Cs in Rokkasho, Japan and its relation to Asian dust.

    PubMed

    Akata, Naofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kawabata, Hitoshi; Chikuchi, Yuki; Sato, Tadahiro; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kondo, Kunio; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Biweekly atmospheric depositions of (137)Cs were measured in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan from March 2000 to March 2006 to study recent (137)Cs deposition. Although the deposition level was generally lower than the detectable limit, deposition samples collected in spring occasionally had measurable levels of (137)Cs. The annual (137)Cs deposition from 2001 to 2005 was 0.04-0.69 Bq m(-2) with a mean value of 0.27 Bq m(-2). Depositions of insoluble Al, Fe and Ti were strongly correlated with the (137)Cs deposition, suggesting that suspension of soil particles was the main source of the recent (137)Cs deposition. Asian dust events were coincident with some of the significant (137)Cs depositions in spring. It was found that the ratios of (137)Cs/Al and Fe/Al could be used as indices for discriminating Asian dust from suspension of the local surface soil. Backward trajectory analysis suggested southern Mongolian and northeastern China regions as sources of the significant (137)Cs depositions.

  15. Layered double hydroxides as efficient photocatalysts for visible-light degradation of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Xia, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Feng-Xian; Ni, Zhe-Ming; Xue, Ji-Long; Qian, Ping-Ping

    2013-09-01

    A series of Zn/M-NO3-LDHs (M=Al, Fe, Ti, and Fe/Ti) have been synthesized by two different methods, and their activities for visible-light photocatalytic degradation on Rhodamine B (RB) were tested. Solids were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, and ICP characterization, confirming the formation of pure LDH phase with good crystal structure. It was observed that the band gap of these nitrate LDH materials was following this order: Zn/Fe-NO3-LDHs (2.55 eV)>Zn/Fe/Ti-NO3-LDHs (2.88 eV)>Zn/Ti-NO3-LDHs (3.0 3eV)>Zn/Al-NO3-LDHs (3.23 eV); however, the degradation performance of RB by four materials followed the order: Zn/Ti-NO3-LDHs (98%)>Zn/Al-NO3-LDHs (96%)>Zn/Fe/Ti-NO3-LDHs (88%)>Zn/Fe-NO3-LDHs (72%). In addition, a possible mechanism for photocatalytic degradation on RB has also been presumed. Moreover, after three regeneration cycles, the percentage of RB degradation rate was still close to 90%.

  16. Microstructure and Properties of Lap Joint Between Aluminum Alloy and Galvanized Steel by CMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Song; Chen, Su; Dong, Honggang; Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Guo, Xin; Wang, Guoqiang

    2016-05-01

    Lap joining of 1-mm-thick Novelist AC 170 PX aluminum alloy to 1.2-mm-thick ST06 Z galvanized steel sheets for automotive applications was conducted by cold metal transfer advanced welding process with ER4043 and ER4047 filler wires. Under the optimized welding parameters with ER4043 filler wire, the tensile shear strength of joint was 189 MPa, reaching 89% of the aluminum alloy base metal. Microstructure and elemental distribution were characterized by optical metalloscope and electron probe microanalysis. The lap joints with ER4043 filler wire had smaller wetting angle and longer bonded line length with better wettability than with ER4047 filler wire during welding with same parameters. The needle-like Al-Fe-Si intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were spalled into the weld and brought negative effect to the tensile strength of joints. With increasing welding current, the needle-like IMCs grew longer and spread further into the weld, which would deteriorate the tensile shear strength.

  17. A comparative study of zone axis pattern maps from decagonal phases with varying periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganathan, S. . Dept of Materials Science and Metallurgy Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore . Dept. of Metallurgy); Singh, A. . Dept. of Metallurgy); Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Weatherly, G.C. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1994-02-01

    The discovery in 1985 of the decagonal phase with periodicity in one direction and quasiperiodicity in the other two directions has excited considerable interest. This was followed by the observation that the periodicity perpendicular to the quasiperiodicity plane can assume multiple values on n = [1,2,3,4]x0.4 nm. The mapping of reciprocal spaces of these phases, labelled t[sub 2n], by electron diffraction is important in the context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] [Al-Co], T[sub 6][Al-Mn] and T[sub 8] [Al-Fe], [Al-Pd], the recent complete determination of zone axis pattern maps [ZAPM] and Kikuchi maps of T[sub 6] [Al-Mn] with 1.24 nm periodicity and T[sub 4][Al-Cu-Co-Si] with 0.8 nm periodicity is a tour de force by Kelton and his co-workers. These papers coupled with the complete mapping of the HOLZ line and Kikuchi line patterns of the T[sub 2][Al-Co-Ni] with 0.4 nm periodicity permit the authors to put in perspective the ZAPM of all the four decagonal phases and in addition predict patterns for the T[sub 8] phase for which a complete experimental determination is still lacking.

  18. Distribution and speciation of metals in surface sediments of Taranto [corrected] gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Dell'Atti, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella; Maci, Antonella; Petronio, Bianca Maria

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of metals (Al, Fe, Ti, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb) were determined in surface sediments from Taranto gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) in order to assess the distribution and the bioavailability of metals. Total metal content and speciation of Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined. Sediment cores were also sampled in some stations of particular interest. The analytical results show that metals distribution does not show significant variations in relation to depth. Metal distribution in the Taranto gulf is mainly influenced by industrial wastes from Taranto town, by rivers of the Basilicata region and by prevailing anticlockwise marine currents. These factors cause an accumulation of metals in the sediments near to the coasts of Calabria. The statistical analysis, effected by HCA and PCA methods, can be considered a good starting point in order to classify sediment samples and to locate accumulation areas. Metal speciation shows that Fe, Ni and Zn are present in sediments mainly as sulphides, Mn is present principally in an ion-exchange form or bound to carbonate, while Cu and Pb are mainly present in the fraction bounds to humic acids.

  19. Characteristics of the ablation plume induced on glasses for analysis purposes with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Sokolova, Ekaterina B.; Zheng, Ronger; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Yanping; Yu, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for elemental analyses of transparent dielectric materials such as glasses or crystals for more than ten years. The induced plasma is however much less studied compared to that induced on the surface of a metal. The purpose of this work is therefore to characterize the plasma induced on the surface of a glass sample for analytical purpose as a function of the ablation laser wavelength, infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV), and the ambient gas, air or argon. The surface damage of the samples was also observed for ablation with IR or UV laser pulse when the sample was a float glass or a frosted one. Optimized ablation fluence was then determined. The morphology of the plasma was observed with time-resolved spectroscopic imaging, while the profiles of the electron density and temperature were extracted from time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The analytical performance of the plasmas was then studied in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio for several emission lines from some minor elements, Al, Fe, contained in glasses, and of the behavior of self-absorption for another minor element, Ca, in the different ablation conditions.

  20. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  1. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy). The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  2. A comparative study of the abrasive wear behavior of MoSi[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E. . Albany Research Center)

    1995-03-01

    This study is a preliminary assessment of the abrasive wear behavior of monolithic MoSi[sub 2]. Comparisons with the wear behavior of other advanced materials, such as refractory metals, intermetallic compounds (i.e., TiAl, Fe[sub 3]Al), and ceramics (i.e., Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], ZrO[sub 2], and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]), are made. In general, the wear behavior of MoSi[sub 2] is similar to oxide ceramics, due in large part to the high relative hardness of the compound. However, as with most brittle materials, as the hardness of the abrasive increases relative to the hardness of the wearing material (i.e., MoSi[sub 2] abraded on garnet at 13 GPa versus abrasion on SiC at 24 GPa), volume wear increases; and the dominant wear mechanism changes, from one of primarily edge fracture to one combining micro-cutting with significant micro-fracture and grain pull-out.

  3. [Chemical Characteristics of Atmospheric Wet Deposition in Winter and Its Forestry Canopy Interception Mechanism in Red Soil Hilly Area].

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhuo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Yu, Gui-rui

    2015-12-01

    In order to disclose the interception mechanism of forestry canopy to atmospheric wet deposition, the concentrations of nutrients (C, N, P, S) and trace elements (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn) in wet deposition and through fall in winter were monitored in Subtropical Qiananzhou basin. The results showed that the wet deposition in this area was mainly acid deposition, the pH of which ranged from 3.49 to 7.0. The major components of wet deposition were nitrate (NO₃⁻) and sulfate ions (SO₄²⁻), the monthly average deposition fluxes of which were 4.68 kg · hm⁻² and 0.36 kg · hm⁻², and trace elements (Zn, K, Ca) with monthly average deposition fluxes of 1.72, 0.56 and 0.36 kg · hm⁻², respectively. Non-metallic nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) , dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), total phosphorus (TP), Ca, Mg and Mn were easy to leach, the dilution rate could reach up to 64.69%, 206.75%, 301.38%, 137.94%, 405.25% and 1226.60%, respectively. Moreover, the Zn and sulfate ion (SO₄²⁻) could be well absorbed by forests canopy, the absorption proportions of which were 73.50% and 12.51%, respectively.

  4. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic GenM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  5. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  6. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons. PMID:26886427

  7. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  8. Intrinsic Properties of Fe-Substituted L1(0) Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P; Kumar, P; Kashyap, A; Lucis, MJ; Shield, JE; Mubarok, A; Goldstein, JI; Constantinides, S; Barmak, K; Lewis, LH; Sellmyer, DJ; Skomski, R

    2013-10-01

    First-principle supercell calculations are used to determine how 3d elemental additions, especially Fe additions, modify the magnetization, exchange and anisotropy of L1(0)-ordered ferromagnets. Calculations are performed using the VASP code and partially involve configurational averaging over site disorder. Three isostructural systems are investigated: Fe-Co-Pt, Mn-Al-Fe, and transition metal-doped Fe-Ni. In all three systems the iron strongly influences the magnetic properties of these compounds, but the specific effect depends on the host. In CoPt(Fe) iron enhances the magnetization, with subtle changes in the magnetic moments that depend on the distribution of the Fe and Co atoms. The addition of Fe to MnAl is detrimental to the magnetization, because it creates antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, but it enhances the magnetic anisotropy. The replacement of 50% of Mn by Fe in MnFeAl2 enhances the anisotropy from 1.77 to 2.5 MJ/m(3). Further, the substitution of light 3d elements such as Ti, V, Cr into L1(0)-ordered FeNi is shown to substantially reduce the magnetization.

  9. Ion beam studies of hydrogen in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Wampler, W.R.; Besenbacher, F.; Robinson, S.L.; Moody, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Methods based on ion implantation and nuclear reaction analysis were used to investigate the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in metals. The binding enthalpy of deuterium (D) at irradiation effects, He bubbles, D/sub 2/ bubbles, and metal-oxide interfaces was measured for Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pd, austenitic stainless steel, Inconel, and amorphous Fe/sub 40/Ni/sub 40/P/sub 14/B/sub 6/. The binding enthalpies determined for the pure metals are in excellent agreement with mechanistic calculations based on effective-medium theory and other information. Surface-limited release of D from Fe, stainless steel, and Inconel was measured as a function of temperature and the state of surface oxidation. The release rate was accurately proportional to the square of the D concentration in solution, permitting the results to be expressed in terms of a surface recombination coefficient. This quantity was up to four orders of magnitude greater for an ion-sputtered surface than for a surface with electropolish oxide. The diffusion coefficient and solid solubility of tritium in stainless steel were measured for the first time at the ice point, thereby extending downward by three orders of magnitude the diffusivities available from conventional permeation experiments. Deuterium concentration profiles resulting from electrochemical charging of Incoloy 903 were measured as a function of charging current, thereby providing a direct, systematic calibration of such charging in an austenitic material where conventional permeation measurements are precluded by the small hydrogen diffusion rate.

  10. Geochemical behaviour of PM10 aerosol constituents under the influence of succeeding anticyclonic/cyclonic situations: case of Sfax City, southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Moez; Chabbi, Iness; Dammak, Rim; Amdouni, Ridha; Medhioub, Khaled; Azri, Chafai

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the geochemical behaviour of PM10 aerosol constituents (Cl, Na, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Zn, S) at Sfax City (Tunisia) under succeeding meteorological conditions, including short-lived anticyclonic, cyclonic and prolonged anticyclonic situations. The results revealed daily total concentrations fluctuating between 4.07 and 88.51 μg/m(3). The highest level recorded was noted to occur under the effect of the short-lived anticyclonic situation characterized by low wind speeds. It was 1.5 times higher than those recorded during cyclonic and long-lived anticyclonic situations characterized by moderate to high wind speeds. During the cyclonic situation, the marked increase of (Na and Cl) concentrations is associated with relatively high sea wind speeds (6 to 9 m/s), which are in turn responsible for a slight increase of crustal elements such as Al, Ca, Si, Fe and Mg, by the entrainment in the air of dust from roads and undeveloped areas. During the two anticyclonic situations, the simultaneous increase (due to communal transport) of crustal (Ca, Si, Al, Fe, Mg) and man-made (Mn, S, Pb, Zn) elements was noted to be associated with the dominance of terrigenious wind flows with speeds varying between 1.5 and 4 m/s. However, the significant contribution rates observed for Cl under the prevalence of such winds as compared to other crustal elements such as Fe suggested the influence of the sebkhas of Southern Tunisia.

  11. Reassessing the management of groundwater use from sandy aquifers: acidification and base cation depletion exacerbated by drought and groundwater withdrawal on the Gnangara Mound, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S.; Cook, T.

    2009-05-01

    The combined effects of low rainfall, groundwater withdrawal in excess of 300 GL/year and reduced recharge in areas covered by pine plantations has caused the water table in a sandy unconfined aquifer on the Gnangara Mound in Western Australia to drop by up to 5 m and aquifer storage to decline by about 500 GL over the last 20 years. Groundwater has become acidic in areas of high drawdown, with pH values typically being less than 5.0 at the water table, and elevated concentrations of SO4 2-, Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb. Trends of increasing acidity and base cation concentrations in deep water supply wells in the Mirrabooka wellfield indicate that about 0.7 keq/ha/year of base cations are being leached from soil within cones of depression of pumping wells. These results indicate that the assessment of the sustainable yields of aquifers under conditions of low rainfall needs to consider geochemical interactions between groundwater, aquifer sediments, soils and vegetation, and not be just based on aquifer hydraulics and water-balance changes.

  12. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  13. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Gao, Le; Yang, Zhijun; Zhou, Yongzhang; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB) of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%), Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm), and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm) suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn), Sc/Th, (La/Yb)N, and (La/Ce)N ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics. PMID:25140349

  14. A model for calculating the threshold for shock initiation of pyrotechnics and explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A model is proposed for predicting the shock pressure P and pulse pulse width ..pi.. required to ignite porous reactive mixtures. Essentially, the shock wave collapses the voids, forming high-temperature hot spots that ignite the mixture. The pore temperature is determined by numerical solution of the equations of motion, viscoplastic heating, and heat conduction. The pore radius is determined as a function of the pore size, viscosity, yield stress, and pressure. Temperature-dependent material properties and melting are considered. Ignition occurs when the surface temperature of the pore reaches the critical hot-spot temperature for thermal runaway. Data from flyer-plate impact experiments were analyzed and the pressure pulse at the ignition threshold was determined for 2Al/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (thermite) and the high explosives TATB, PBX 9404, and PETN. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was performed on the samples and the pore size distribution determined. Theoretical and numerical predictions of the ignition threshold are compared with experiment. Results show that P/sup 2/..pi.. appears to be an initiation property of the material.

  15. Nutrient concentrations in coarse and fine woody debris of Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest harvesting practices, specifically harvesting woody biomass as a source of bioenergy feedstock, may remove more woody debris from a site than conventional harvesting. Woody debris, particularly smaller diameter woody debris, plays a key role in maintaining ecosystem nutrient stores following disturbance. Understanding nutrient concentrations within woody debris is necessary for assessing the long-term nutrient balance consequences of altered woody debris retention, particularly in forests slated for use as bioenergy feedstocks. Nutrient concentrations in downed woody debris of various sizes, decay classes, and species were characterized within one such forest type, Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Nutrient concentrations differed significantly between size and decay classes and generally increased as decay progressed. Fine woody debris (≤ 7.5 cm diameter) had higher nutrient concentrations than coarse woody debris (> 7.5 cm diameter) for all nutrients examined except Na and Mn, and nutrient concentrations varied among species. Concentrations of N, Mn, Al, Fe, and Zn in coarse woody debris increased between one and three orders of magnitude, while K decreased by an order of magnitude with progressing decay. The variations in nutrient concentrations observed here underscore the complexity of woody debris nutrient stores in forested ecosystems and suggest that retaining fine woody debris at harvest may provide a potentially important source of nutrients following intensive removals of bioenergy feedstocks.

  16. Thermal plasma applications in materials and metallurgical processing; Proceedings of the International Symposium, TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Mar. 1-5, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    El-kaddah, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following an overview of thermal plasma applications in metallurgy, papers are presented which are grouped under topics dealing with fundamentals and modeling, plasma melting and refining, plasma synthesis of materials, and plasma spraying and consolidation. Attention is given to the influence of the arc fluctuations on the temperature measurements in dc plasma jets, measurements of two-dimensional electron densities, a model of an argon plasma torch discharging into nitrogen, nonequilibrium plasma processing of ores, and the reaction of nitrogen with liquid steel in a plasma induction reactor. Consideration is also given to the synthesis of ceramic carbide powders in a nontransferred arc thermal plasma reactor, materials processing using induction plasma technology, and low-pressure plasma spraying of Al-Fe-Ce sheet materials. Other papers are on a titanium aluminide foil made from plasma sprayed preform, large area deposition of YBaCuO films by plasma flash evaporation, and a mathematical model of the spheroidization of porous agglomerate particles in thermal plasma torches.

  17. Evaluating the Metal Tolerance Capacity of Microbial Communities Isolated from Alberta Oil Sands Process Water.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mathew L; Demeter, Marc A; Lemire, Joe A; Turner, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in the intensified use of water resources. For example, open pit bitumen extraction by Canada's oil sands operations uses an estimated volume of three barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. The waste tailings-oil sands process water (OSPW)-are stored in holding ponds, and present an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous OSPW microbial communities have an enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we tested the capacity of planktonic and biofilm populations from OSPW to withstand metal ion challenges, using Cupriavidus metallidurans, a known metal-resistant organism, for comparison. The toxicity of the metals toward biofilm and planktonic bacterial populations was determined by measuring the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) and planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the MBEC ™ assay. We observed that the OSPW community and C. metallidurans had similar tolerances to 22 different metals. While thiophillic elements (Te, Ag, Cd, Ni) were found to be most toxic, the OSPW consortia demonstrated higher tolerance to metals reported in tailings ponds (Al, Fe, Mo, Pb). Metal toxicity correlated with a number of physicochemical characteristics of the metals. Parameters reflecting metal-ligand affinities showed fewer and weaker correlations for the community compared to C. metallidurans, suggesting that the OSPW consortia may have developed tolerance mechanisms toward metals present in their environment.

  18. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    SciTech Connect

    Dahing, Lahasen Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

    2014-09-03

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} and 15×15×15 cm{sup 3} were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  19. Normal and Outlying Populations of the Milky Way Stellar Halo at [Fe/H] <-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; Thompson, Ian; McWilliam, Andrew; Shectman, Stephen; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz; Kirby, Evan

    2013-11-01

    From detailed abundance analysis of >100 Hamburg/ESO candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars we find 45 with [Fe/H] < -3.0 dex. We identify a heretofore unidentified group: Ca-deficient stars with sub-solar [Ca/Fe] ratios and the lowest neutron-capture abundances; the Ca-deficient group comprises ~10% of the sample, excluding Carbon stars. Our radial velocity distribution shows that the carbon-enhanced stars with no s-process enhancements, CEMP-no, and which do not show C2 bands are not preferentially binary systems. Ignoring Carbon stars, approximately 15% of our sample are strong (>=5σ) outliers in one or more elements between Mg and Ni; this rises to ~19% if very strong (>=10σ) outliers for Sr and Ba are included. Examples include: HE0305-0554 with the lowest [Ba/H] known; HE1012-1540 and HE2323-0256, two (non-velocity variable) C-rich stars with very strong [Mg,Al/Fe] enhancements; and HE1226-1149, an extremely r-process rich star. Based in part on observations obtained in part at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Investigation of potentially toxic heavy metals in different organic wastes used to fertilize market garden crops.

    PubMed

    Tella, M; Doelsch, E; Letourmy, P; Chataing, S; Cuoq, F; Bravin, M N; Saint Macary, H

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of using organic waste as fertilizer and soil amendment should be assessed together with the environmental impacts due to the possible presence of heavy metals (HMs). This study involved analysing major element and HM contents in raw and size-fractionated organic wastes (17 sewage sludges and composts) from developed and developing countries. The overall HM concentration pattern showed an asymmetric distribution due to the presence of some wastes with extremely high concentrations. HM concentrations were correlated with the size of cities or farms where the wastes had been produced, and HM were differentiated with respect to their origins (geogenic: Cr-Ni; anthropogenic agricultural and urban: Cu-Zn; anthropogenic urban: Cd-Pb). Size fractionation highlighted Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb accumulation in fine size fractions, while Cr and Ni were accumulated in the coarsest. HM associations with major elements revealed inorganic (Al, Fe, etc.) bearing phases for Cr and Ni, and sulfur or phosphorus species for Cd, Cu Pb and Zn.

  1. Mass Spectra of Individual Aerosol Particles Acquired During Intercepts of a Space Shuttle Exhaust Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.; Thomson, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    The WB-57 aircraft accomplished fourteen distinct stratospheric intercepts of the exhaust plume from a space shuttle during ACCENT 2000. Liftoff of the shuttle Atlantis for STS-106 occurred at 8:46 am local (12:46 UTC) with intercepts occurring from 5 to 90 minutes afterward. The Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument, mounted in the nose of the aircraft, was used to acquire individual mass spectra of over 2500 particles during these intercepts. The majority of positive mass spectra indicate the presence of the metals Al, Fe, Zn, Ga, and V, all components found in the solid rocket fuel. Organic material, presumably from binding and curing agents, was also present. Negative mass spectra showed Cl from the oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, as well as water. Rare exotic particles, for example those containing Ti and Ag and possibly formed during engine or seal ablation, were also detected. Particles originating from shuttle exhaust but also containing significant sulfuric acid were common toward the outer edge of the plume, especially during late encounters, suggesting that deposition or aerosol collision had occurred.

  2. Analytical laboratory comparison of major and minor constituents in an active crater lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, B.; Fazlullin, S. M.; Delmelle, P.

    2000-04-01

    The crater lake water from Maly Semiachik volcano in Kamchatka was used for the international analytical laboratory comparison of major and minor elements, and hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen isotope data. Eight institutions participated in this program, giving analytical results of 9 major and 20 minor elements mainly by using ICP-AES for cations and IC for anions. Among the major elements, Na, Mg and Si showed coefficients of variation (CV) of 10% or more, whereas B, Al, Fe, Mn had coefficients less than 7%. The CV% of the minor elements Co, Cu, P, Cr, Pb was much greater (>30%) while the V analyses agreed well (<10%). Ti, Sr, Zn, and F were intermediate (between 10 and 20 CV%). The errors observed for these constituents are inherent to the methods applied: large dilutions and spectrometric interferences. Even the major anions such as Cl (>2000 ppm) and SO 4 (>5000 ppm) gave considerable ranges (5.1 and 8.8 CV%, respectively) as did the obtained pH values (22 CV%). The measured δ18O of the water samples and δ34S of sulfate are in excellent agreement but the δD values had CV% of 8. Technical recommendations are presented to improve the analytical results for these elements with significant deviations from the mean values.

  3. Spectroscopic and statistical approach of archaeological artifacts recently excavated from Tamilnadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Seetha, D; Velraj, G

    2015-01-01

    The ancient materials characterization will bring back the more evidence of the ancient people life styles. In this study, the archaeological pottery shards recently excavated from Kodumanal, Erode District in Tamilnadu, South India were investigated. The experimental results enlighten us to the elemental and the mineral composition of the pottery shards. The FT-IR technique tells that the mineralogy and the firing temperature of the samples are less than 800 °C, in the oxidizing/reducing atmosphere and the XRD was used as a complementary technique for the mineralogy. A thorough scientific study of SEM-EDS with the help of statistical approach done to find the provenance of the selected pot shards has not yet been performed. EDS and XRF results revealed that the investigated samples have the elements O, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Ti, K and Na are in different compositions. For establishing the provenance (same or different origin) of pottery samples, Al and Si concentration ratio as well as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used and the results are correlated.

  4. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  5. Investigation of Freeze-Linings in Copper-Containing Slag Systems: Part I. Preliminary Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2013-06-01

    Slag freeze-linings are increasingly used in industrial pyrometallurgical processes to insure that furnace integrity is maintained in aggressive high-temperature environments. Most previous studies of freeze-linings have analyzed the formation of slag deposits based solely on heat-transfer models. The focus of the present research is to determine the impact of slag chemistry and local process conditions on the microstructures, thickness, stability, and heat-transfer characteristics of the frozen deposit at steady-state conditions. The formation of the freeze-linings is studied under controlled laboratory conditions using an air-cooled "cold-finger" technique for Cu-Fe-Si-Al-O slag at equilibrium with metallic copper relevant to the industrial copper smelting processes. The phase assemblages and microstructures of the deposits formed in the cold-finger experiments differ significantly from those expected from phase equilibrium considerations. The freeze-lining deposits have been found, in general, to consist of several layers. Starting from the cold finger, these layers consist of glass; glass with microcrystalline precipitates; closed crystalline layer; and open crystalline layer. Even at steady-state conditions, there was no primary phase sealing layer of delafossite [Cu2O · (Al, Fe)2O3] present at the deposit/liquid interface—these observations differ markedly from those expected from phase equilibrium considerations. The findings have significant practical implications, and potential for the improved design and operation of industrial metallurgical furnaces.

  6. Analysis of colloidal phases in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, H.; Wiesner, M.R.; Bottero, J.Y.

    1999-03-15

    The composition and morphology of colloidal materials entering an urban waterway (Brays Bayou, Houston, USA) during a storm event was investigated. Analyses of organic carbon, Si, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Ba were performed on the fraction of materials passing through a 0.45 {micro}m filter. This fraction, traditionally defined as dissolved, was further fractionated by ultracentrifugation into colloidal and dissolved fractions. Colloids, operationally defined by this procedure, accounted for 17% of the carbon, 32% of the silica, 79% of the Al, 85% of the Fe, 52% of the Cr, 43% of the Mn, and 29% of the Zn present in filtrates when averaged over the storm event. However, the composition of colloidal material was observed to change over time. For example, colloids were predominantly composed of silica during periods of dry weather flow and at the maximum of the stormwater flow, while carbon dominated the colloidal fraction at the beginning and declining stages of the storm event. These changes in colloidal composition were accompanied by changes in colloidal morphologies, varying from organic aggregates to diffuse gel-like structures rich in Si, Al, and Fe. The colloidal phase largely determined the variability of elements in the 0.45 {micro}m filtrate.

  7. Source and fate of inorganic solutes in the Gibbon River, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. II. Trace element chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Susong, David D.; Ball, James W.; Taylor, Howard E.

    The Gibbon River in Yellowstone National Park receives inflows from several geothermal areas, and consequently the concentrations of many trace elements are elevated compared to rivers in non-geothermal watersheds. Water samples and discharge measurements were obtained from the Gibbon River and its major tributaries near Norris Geyser Basin under the low-flow conditions of September 2006 allowing for the identification of solute sources and their downstream fate. Norris Geyser Basin, and in particular Tantalus Creek, is the largest source of many trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Cs, Hg, Li, Sb, Tl, W, and REEs) to the Gibbon River. The Chocolate Pots area is a major source of Fe and Mn, and the lower Gibbon River near Terrace Spring is the major source of Be and Mo. Some of the elevated trace elements are aquatic health concerns (As, Sb, and Hg) and knowing their fate is important. Most solutes in the Gibbon River, including As and Sb, behave conservatively or are minimally attenuated over 29 km of fluvial transport. Some small attenuation of Al, Fe, Hg, and REEs occurs but primarily there is a transformation from the dissolved state to suspended particles, with most of these elements still being transported to the Madison River. Dissolved Hg and REEs loads decrease where the particulate Fe increases, suggesting sorption onto suspended particulate material. Attenuation from the water column is substantial for Mn, with little formation of Mn as suspended particulates.

  8. Investigation of structural, morphological, luminescent and thermal properties of combusted aluminium-based iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shinde, S.S.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2010-12-15

    Nanocomposites of aluminium integrated hematite {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are synthesized by combustion route using aqueous solutions of AR grade ferric trichloride and aluminium nitrate as precursors. The influence of aluminium incorporation on to the morphology, XPS, photoluminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The FESEM and AFM micrographs depict that the samples are compact and have homogeneously distributed grains of varying sizes ({approx}20-60 nm). Chemical composition and valence states of constituent elements in hematite are analyzed by XPS. In room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study, we observed strong violet emission around 436 nm without any deep-level emission and a small PL FWHM indicating that the concentrations of defects are responsible for deep-level emissions. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant. We studied interparticle interactions using complex impedance spectroscopy. We report a new potential candidate for its possible applications in optoelectronics and magnetic devices. -- Graphical abstract: Frequency and temperature dependent interparticle interactions like grains, grain boundary effects using complex impedance spectroscopy of pure and 10 at% Al:Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied. Display Omitted

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy of ferruginous smectite and nontronite.

    PubMed

    Frost, R L; Kloprogge, J T

    2000-10-01

    A comparison is made between the Raman and infrared spectra of ferruginous smectite and a nontronite using both absorption and emission techniques. Raman spectra show hydroxyl stretching bands at 3572, 3434, 3362, 3220 and 3102 cm(-1). The infrared emission spectra of the hydroxyl stretching region are significantly different to the absorption spectrum. These differences are attributed to the loss of water, absent in the emission spectrum, the reduction of the samples in the spectrometer and possible phase changes. Dehydroxylation of the two minerals may be followed by the loss of intensity of the hydroxyl stretching and hydroxyl deformation frequencies. Hydroxyl deformation modes are observed at 873 and 801 cm(-1) for the ferruginous smectite, and at 776 and 792 cm(-1) for the nontronite. Raman hydroxyl deformation vibrations are found at 879 cm(-1). Other Raman bands are observed at 1092 and 1032 cm(-1), assigned to the SiO stretching vibrations, at 675 and 587 cm(-1), assigned to the hydroxyl translation vibrations, at 487 and 450 cm(-1), attributed to OSiO bending type vibrations, and at 363, 287 and 239 cm(-1). The differences in the molecular structure of the two minerals are attributed to the Al/Fe ratio in the minerals. PMID:11058063

  10. Impurity transport in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, T.

    1983-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental efforts directed towards gaining an understanding of impurity behavior in Tokamaks are reviewed. In the Alcator Tokamak experiments, a laser blow-off technique was used to introduce trace amounts of impurities into ohmically heated plasmas. After a series of experiments in which they injected Si, Al, Fe, Mo impurities, an equation representing empirical impurity confinement time was derived. The scaling of this equation was compared with the results of impurity injection experiments on other Tokamaks, FT-I, PDX, TFR, ISX-B. Impurity confinement times in all these cases agree remarkably well, except for the TFR confinement times, which were about a factor of two larger than predicted. In the presence of intense neutral beam injection impurity ions behave differently. Specifically, in the ISX-B experiments, a marked accumulation of impurity ions toward the center of the plasma was observed in the case of counter neutral beam injection. This was interpreted semi-quantitatively by the neoclassical effect of the rotation of the plasma driven by the neutral beam.

  11. Nutritional characteristics of the leaves of native plants growing in adverse soils of humid tropical lowlands.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ishizawa, Tetsuya; Nilnond, Chairatna; Nuyim, Tanit; Shinano, Takuro; Urayama, Masaru; Tuah, Sehat Jaya

    2003-01-01

    Acid sulfate, peat, sandy podzolic, and saline soils are widely distributed in the lowlands of Thailand and Malaysia. The nutrient concentrations in the leaves of plants grown in these type of soils were studied with the aim of developing a nutritional strategy for adapting to such problem soils. In sago and oil palms that were well-adapted to peat soil, the N, P, and K concentrations were the same in the mature leaves, while the Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe concentrations were higher in the mature leaves of the oil palm than of the sago palm. Melastoma malabathricum and Melaleuca cajuputi plants that were well-adapted to low pH soils, peat. and acid sulfate soils were also studied. It was observed that a high amount of Al accumulated in the M. marabathricum leaves, while Al did not accumulate in M. cajuputi leaves. M. cajuputi plants accumulated large amounts of Na in their leaves or stems regardless of the exchangeable Na concentration in the soil, while M. malabathricum that was growing in saline-affected soils excluded Na. Positive relationships between macronutrients were recognized between P and N, between K and N, and between P and K. Al showed antagonistic relationships with P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Na. Na also showed antagonistic relationships with P, K, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al. Fe showed weak antagonistic relationships with Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al.

  12. Localized Corrosion Behavior of Al-Si-Mg Alloys Used for Fabrication of Aluminum Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech-Canul, M. A.; Giridharagopal, R.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; Coral-Escobar, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between microstructure and localized corrosion behavior in neutral aerated chloride solutions was investigated with SEM/EDAX, conventional electrochemical techniques, and with scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) for two custom-made alloys with Si/Mg molar ratios of 0.12 and 0.49. In this order, Al3Fe, Al3Mg2, and Mg2Si intermetallics were identified in the first alloy and Al(FeMn)Si and Mg2Si particles in the second one. Anodic polarization curves and corrosion morphology showed that the alloy with higher Si/Mg molar ratio exhibited a better corrosion performance and evidence was shown that it had a more corrosion-resistant passive film. The corrosion process for both alloys in aerated 0.1 M NaCl solutions was localized around the Fe-rich intermetallics. They acted as local cathodes and produced dissolution of the aluminum matrix surrounding such particles. Mg2Si and Al3Mg2 exhibited anodic behavior. SKPFM was successfully used to map the Volta potential distribution of main intermetallics. The localized corrosion behavior was correlated with a large Volta potential difference between the Fe-rich intermetallics and the matrix. After immersion in the chloride solution, such Volta potential difference decreased.

  13. Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organic and Inorganic Speciation of Trace Metals.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-02-16

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing acidification of the oceans. This results in changes to the concentrations of key chemical species such as hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate ions. These changes will affect the distribution of different forms of trace metals. Using IPCC data for pCO2 and pH under four future emissions scenarios (to the year 2100) we use a chemical speciation model to predict changes in the distribution of organic and inorganic forms of trace metals. Under a scenario where emissions peak after the year 2100, predicted free ion Al, Fe, Cu, and Pb concentrations increase by factors of up to approximately 21, 2.4, 1.5, and 2.0 respectively. Concentrations of organically complexed metal typically have a lower sensitivity to ocean acidification induced changes. Concentrations of organically complexed Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cd fall by up to 10%, while those of organically complexed Fe, Co, and Ni rise by up to 14%. Although modest, these changes may have significance for the biological availability of metals given the close adaptation of marine microorganisms to their environment.

  14. The role of nano-perovskite in the negligible thorium release in seawater from Greek bauxite residue (red mud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaletsos, Platon N.; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi; Kuzmin, Alexei; Lagos, Markus; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Xanthos, Stelios; Pontikes, Yiannis; Angelopoulos, George N.; Zarkadas, Charalampos; Komelkov, Aleksandr; Tzamos, Evangelos; Filippidis, Anestis

    2016-02-01

    We present new data about the chemical and structural characteristics of bauxite residue (BR) from Greek Al industry, using a combination of microscopic, analytical, and spectroscopic techniques. SEM-EDS indicated a homogeneous dominant “Al-Fe-Ca-Ti-Si-Na-Cr matrix”, appearing at the microscale. The bulk chemical analyses showed considerable levels of Th (111 μg g‑1), along with minor U (15 μg g‑1), which are responsible for radioactivity (355 and 133 Bq kg‑1 for 232Th and 238U, respectively) with a total dose rate of 295 nGy h‑1. Leaching experiments, in conjunction with SF-ICP-MS, using Mediterranean seawater from Greece, indicated significant release of V, depending on S/L ratio, and negligible release of Th at least after 12 months leaching. STEM-EDS/EELS & HR-STEM-HAADF study of the leached BR at the nanoscale revealed that the significant immobility of Th4+ is due to its incorporation into an insoluble perovskite-type phase with major composition of Ca0.8Na0.2TiO3 and crystallites observed in nanoscale. The Th LIII-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Th4+ ions, which are hosted in this novel nano-perovskite of BR, occupy Ca2+ sites, rather than Ti4+ sites. That is most likely the reason of no Th release in Mediterranean seawater.

  15. Textural relationship and compositions of ilmenite-corundum exsolutions in rutile from kimberlitic kyanite eclogite xenoliths: microstructural evidence using EBSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Schertl, H.; Neuser, R. D.; Lavrentiev, Y. G.; Logvinova, A. M.; Usova, L. V.

    2007-12-01

    Rutile is one of the most common accessory minerals in high pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks of crustal and mantle origin. Among those rocks eclogites are very abundant in metamorphic belts and as xenoliths in kimberlite pipes. Some of these xenoliths contain coesite or diamond. Eclogite xenolith rutiles contain high abundance of minor elements reaching up to 0.8 wt.% Al2O3, 2.5 wt.% Fe2O3, 1.4 wt.% Nb2O5, 0.45 wt.% ZrO2 and are mostly heterogeneous with widely varying Al, Fe and Mg contents. These heterogeneities are caused by the presence of closely associated sigmoidal oriented lamellae of ilmenite and corundum which have been detected for the first time in rutile from Roberts Victor mine eclogite xenolith (Sobolev, Yefimova, 2000, Intern. Geol. Rev., v. 42, p. 758-767). We report here on the wide occurrence of such lamellae in rutiles both from diamondiferous kyanite eclogites of Udachnaya mine, Siberia and more samples from Roberts Victor mine confirmed by EMPA. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements on two rutile grains from Roberts Victor mine kyanite eclogite confirm the presence of ilmenite plus corundum exsolutions. We found evidence for respective different crystallographic orientations related to the surrounded rutile host which will be demonstrated in detail in the present study.

  16. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Torsten W.; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Black pine (Pinus nigra) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected following an altitudinal/climatic transect from 1900 to 900 m asl. The average remaining mass after two years of decomposition amounted to 54% (beech) and 50% (pine). Net release of N, P, Na, Al, Fe and Mn was higher in pine than in beech litter due to high immobilization (retention) rates of beech litter. However, pine litter retained more Ca than beech litter. Altitude retarded decay (mass loss and associated C release) in beech litter during the first year only but had a longer lasting effect on decaying pine litter. Altitude comprises a suite of highly auto-correlated characteristics (climate, vegetation, litter, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, snow cover) that influence litter decomposition. Hence, decay and nutrient release of incubated litter is difficult to predict by altitude, except during the early stage of decomposition, which seemed to be controlled by climate. Reciprocal litter transplant along the elevation gradient yielded even relatively higher decay of pine litter on beech forest sites after a two-year adaptation period of the microbial community. PMID:26240437

  17. Synthesising acid mine drainage to maintain and exploit indigenous mining micro-algae and microbial assemblies for biotreatment investigations.

    PubMed

    Orandi, Sanaz; Lewis, David M

    2013-02-01

    The stringent regulations for discharging acid mine drainage (AMD) has led to increased attention on traditional or emerging treatment technologies to establish efficient and sustainable management for mine effluents. To assess new technologies, laboratory investigations on AMD treatment are necessary requiring a consistent supply of AMD with a stable composition, thus limiting environmental variability and uncertainty during controlled experiments. Additionally, biotreatment systems using live cells, particularly micro-algae, require appropriate nutrient availability. Synthetic AMD (Syn-AMD) meets these requirements. However, to date, most of the reported Syn-AMDs are composed of only a few selected heavy metals without considering the complexity of actual AMD. In this study, AMD was synthesised based on the typical AMD characteristics from a copper mine where biotreatment is being considered using indigenous AMD algal-microbes. Major cations (Ca, Na, Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn and Ni), trace metals (Al, Fe, Ag, Na, Co, Mo, Pb and Cr), essential nutrients (N, P and C) and high SO(4) were incorporated into the Syn-AMD. This paper presents the preparation of chemically complex Syn-AMD and the challenges associated with combining metal salts of varying solubility that is not restricted to one particular mine site. The general approach reported and the particular reagents used can produce alternative Syn-AMD with varying compositions. The successful growth of indigenous AMD algal-microbes in the Syn-AMD demonstrated its applicability as appropriate generic media for cultivation and maintenance of mining microorganisms for future biotreatment studies.

  18. Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs).

    PubMed

    do Carmo R Peralba, Maria; Pozebon, Dirce; dos Santos, João H Z; Maia, Sandra M; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Cioccari, Giovani; Barrionuevo, Simone

    2010-08-01

    The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during approximately 33 months. For the metals Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, V, and Zn, no significant variation was observed after drilling activities in most of the stations. However, an increase was found in Ba concentration--due to the drilling activity--without return to the levels found 22 months after drilling. High Ba contents was already detected prior to well drilling, probably due to drilling activities in other wells nearby. Hydrocarbon contents also suggest previous anthropogenic activities. Aliphatic hydrocarbon contents were in the range usually reported in other drilling sites. The same behavior was observed in the case of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, the n-alkane concentration increased sharply after drilling, returning almost to predrilling levels 22 months after drilling activities.

  19. A case study on trace metals in surface sediments and dissolved inorganic nutrients in surface water of Olüdeniz Lagoon-Mediterranean, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Semra G; Tugrul, Suleyman; Topal, Tansel

    2007-01-01

    Hydro-chemical parameters (salinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, silicate and phosphate) in seawater and major trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, V, Zn, Pb, Cu) in sediments were evaluated for the assessment of quality of seawater and sediments in very small lagoon in Mediterranean, Olüdeniz. Enrichment factors for metals in sediment were in the range of 1.62-8.09, comparable to crustal rock composition. For metals, comparison with literature data revealed relatively low metal concentrations for Olüdeniz sediments. Correlation analyses on the sediment metal data showed strong correlation in between Cr, Fe and Zn. Surface water salinity slightly decreases within the lagoon, indicating that limited fresh waters inflow to the lagoon. In October, the lagoon waters contained very low phosphate concentrations but measurable values of nitrate and silicate, yielding high NO(3)(-)/PO(4)(3-) ratios (90). Very low Chlorophyll-a (biomass indicator) concentrations measured in the lagoon suggest the phosphorus limitation of primary productivity.

  20. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.