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Sample records for c-axis oriented mgb2

  1. In situ Pulsed Laser Deposition of C-Axis Oriented MgB2 Films and Their Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinde, Sanjay; Lakew, Brook; Ogale, S. B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Kale, S. N.; Venkatesan, T.

    2004-01-01

    The recent discovery of an intermetallic superconductor MgB2 has renewed interest in the area of superconductivity not only because of fundamental understanding of superconductivity but also due to its potential applicability in devices such as thermal detectors. Considerable amount of research has been devoted to obtain MgB2 films by an all in situ growth technique. We have grown MgB2 thin films by an all in situ pulsed laser deposition process from pure B and Mg targets. Ultrathin layers of B and Mg were deposited in a multilayer configuration. Hundreds of such Mg-B bilayers with a capping Mg layer on the top were deposited on sapphire substrate. These depositions were done in high vacuum (approx. 10(exp -7) Torr) and at room temperature. After deposition, such a configuration was annealed at high temperature for a short time in a forming gas (4% H2 in Ar). The best films, obtained by this procedure, showed superconducting transition temperature approx. 30 K. These films have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, AC susceptibility-, resistivity- (with and without magnetic field) and 1/f noise-measurements. The physical properties of these films will be presented and discussed.

  2. Chemical solution deposition of the highly c-axis oriented apatite type lanthanum silicate thin films.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shigeo; Takatani, Yasuhiro; Kadoura, Hiroaki; Uyama, Takeshi; Fujita, Satoru; Tani, Toshihiko

    2015-10-28

    Highly c-axis oriented apatite-type lanthanum silicate (LSO) thin films were fabricated by a simple solution coating method. In the solution coating method, LSO thin films are obtained by crystallization of initially deposited amorphous LSO precursor thin films. The degree of orientation was influenced by the precursor morphologies and a dense LSO precursor led to a high c-axis orientation perpendicular to the substrate. The oriented LSO thin films were composed of columnar grains with a single crystal orientation over the entire film thickness. In-plane orientation was not detected, which indicates that the c-axis orientation of the LSO thin films can be attributed to self-orientation.

  3. The study of microcurrent path of highly c-axis-oriented Bi(2223)/Ag tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuping; Xu, Guoyang; Jiang, Liudi; Du, Jiaju; Zhang, Yuheng

    1997-08-01

    The microcurrent path of highly c-axis-oriented Bi(2223)/Ag tapes has been investigated by in-plane (I//ab plane) and out-of-plane (I//c axis) transport measurements. It includes the dependence of transport critical current on temperatures close to T c at different magnetic fields and the resistance transition broadening for applied fields H parallel to c-axis. It is found that the transport measurement results of in-plane and out-of-plane are quite different. We attribute the differences to the different microcurrent path. We think that the microcurrent path of the highly c-axis-oriented Bi(2223)/Ag tape is correlated with the direction of current injection.

  4. Vapor-phase growth of transparent zinc oxide ceramics with c -axis orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Noritake, F.; Yamamoto, N.; Horiguchi, Y. ); Fujitsu, S.; Koumoto, K. ); Yanagida, H. )

    1991-01-01

    Large transparent specimens of polycrystalline zinc oxide with c-axis orientation have been prepared by the vapor transport method. Optical transmittance is 80% to 90% at 800 nm. X-ray diffraction peaks from faces other than (001) are negligible.

  5. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Chistyakov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Highly <0001> c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm-2) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a <0001> preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm-2 improved the <0001> orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm-2 showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  6. Synthesis of c-axis oriented AlN thin films on different substrates: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Iriarte, G.F.

    2010-09-15

    Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering on different substrates. The crystallographic properties of layered film structures consisting of a piezoelectric layer, aluminum nitride (AlN), synthesized on a variety of substrates, have been examined. Aluminum nitride thin films have been deposited by reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering using an aluminum target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The influence of the most critical deposition parameters on the AlN thin film crystallography has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the rocking curve Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the AlN-(0 0 0 2) peak. The relationship between the substrate, the synthesis parameters and the crystallographic orientation of the AlN thin films is discussed. A guide is provided showing how to optimize these conditions to obtain highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on substrates of different nature.

  7. Reduced pressure MOCVD of C-axis oriented BiSrCaCuO thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Norihito; Vigil, J.; Gardiner, R.; Kirlin, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    BiSrCaCuO thin films were deposited on MgO (100) single-crystal substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 500 C and 2 torr using fluorinated beta-diketonate complexes of Sr, Ca, and Cu and triphenylbismuth. An inverted vertical reaction chamber allowed uniform film growth over large areas (7.7 cm diameter). The as-deposited films were amorphous mixtures of oxides and fluorides; a two-step annealing protocol (750 C + 850-870 C) was developed which gives c-axis oriented films of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O(x). The postannealed films showed onsets in the resistive transition of 110 K, and zero resistivity was achieved by 83 K. Critical current densities as high as 11,000 A/sq cm were obtained at 25 K.

  8. Upper Threshold Fields of Dendritic Flux Jumps in Gold-Coated MgB2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Jae Yeap; Lee, Sung-Ik; Olsen, Å. A. F.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Shantsev, D. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Cho, Moo-Hyun

    We measured the magneto-optical images (MOIs) and the magnetic hysteresis (M - H) curves of c-axis-oriented MgB2 thin films to investigate the flux penetration in the form of dendritic avalanches. In order to understand the role of the thermal effects, we prepared Au-coated MgB2 thin films with different thicknesses of gold. While the MOI provides a spatially resolved flux pattern, the M - H curve presents global and average information about the flux noise associated with avalanches. These two types of measurements complement each other. The upper threshold field, above which the flux noise disappears, was determined from the M-H curves while the lower threshold field was determined from both the M - H curves and the MO images. The field range where the flux penetrates via avalanches is found to be smaller for thicker gold layers. These results are important for many superconducting applications.

  9. Highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O₃ thin films on si wafer prepared by fast cooling immediately after sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinya; Hanzawa, Hiroaki; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2014-09-01

    We successfully developed sputter deposition technology to obtain a highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin film on a Si wafer by fast cooling (~-180°C/min) of the substrate after deposition. The c-axis orientation ratio of a fast-cooled film was about 90%, whereas that of a slow-cooled (~-40°C/min) film was only 10%. The c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr0.5, Ti0.5)O3 films showed reasonably large piezoelectric coefficients, e(31,f) = ~-11 C/m(2), with remarkably small dielectric constants, ϵ(r) = ~220. As a result, an excellent figure of merit (FOM) was obtained for piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as a piezoelectric gyroscope. This c-axis orientation technology on Si will extend industrial applications of PZT-based thin films and contribute further to the development of piezoelectric MEMS.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of p-Type SnO Thin Film with High c-Axis Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Liu, Wuguang; Shi, Jingtao; Chen, Zimin; Wang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    p-Type tin monoxide (SnO) thin films with high c-axis preferred orientation have been fabricated on quartz substrate via electron-beam evaporation at 280°C. Subsequently, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was performed in N2 atmosphere at 400°C to 800°C. Their structural, chemical, optical, and electrical properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Hall-effect measurements. The c-axis-oriented films of Sn-rich SnO presented excellent thermal stability up to RTA at 700°C. Both the crystallization and the hole Hall mobility were enhanced with increasing RTA temperature, with Hall mobility of 16 cm2 V-1 s-1 being obtained after RTA at 700°C. It was considered that the presence of defects and low scattering from grain boundaries contributed to this high Hall mobility. RTA annealing temperature above 700°C induced chemical reaction between SnO and the quartz substrate, with a change of the film to amorphous state with Sn4+ formation.

  11. Ice crystal c-axis orientation and mean grain size measurements from the Dome Summit South ice core, Law Dome, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treverrow, Adam; Jun, Li; Jacka, Tim H.

    2016-06-01

    We present measurements of crystal c-axis orientations and mean grain area from the Dome Summit South (DSS) ice core drilled on Law Dome, East Antarctica. All measurements were made on location at the borehole site during drilling operations. The data are from 185 individual thin sections obtained between a depth of 117 m below the surface and the bottom of the DSS core at a depth of 1196 m. The median number of c-axis orientations recorded in each thin section was 100, with values ranging from 5 through to 111 orientations. The data from all 185 thin sections are provided in a single comma-separated value (csv) formatted file which contains the c-axis orientations in polar coordinates, depth information for each core section from which the data were obtained, the mean grain area calculated for each thin section and other data related to the drilling site. The data set is also available as a MATLAB™ structure array. Additionally, the c-axis orientation data from each of the 185 thin sections are summarized graphically in figures containing a Schmidt diagram, histogram of c-axis colatitudes and rose plot of c-axis azimuths. All these data are referenced by doi:10.4225/15/5669050CC1B3B and are available free of charge at https://data.antarctica.gov.au.<

  12. Microstructures and superconducting properties of high performance MgB2 thin films deposited from a high-purity, dense Mg-B target

    PubMed Central

    Li, G.Z.; Susner, M.A.; Bohnenstiehl, S.D.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    High quality, c-axis oriented, MgB2 thin films were successfully grown on 6H-SiC substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with subsequent in situ annealing. To obtain high purity films free from oxygen contamination, a dense Mg-B target was specially made from a high temperature, high pressure reaction of Mg and B to form large-grained (10~50 µm) MgB2. Microstructural analysis via electron microscopy found that the resulting grains of the film were composed of ultrafine columnar grains of 19–30 nm. XRD analysis showed the MgB2 films to be c-axis oriented; the a-axis and c-axis lattice parameters were determined to be 3.073 ± 0.005 Å and 3.528 ± 0.010 Å, respectively. The superconducting critical temperature, Tc,onset, increased monotonically as the annealing temperature was increased, varying from 25.2 K to 33.7 K. The superconducting critical current density as determined from magnetic measurements, Jcm, at 5 K, was 105 A/cm2 at 7.8 T; at 20 K, 105 A/cm2 was reached at 3.1 T. The transport and pinning properties of these films were compared to “powder-in-tube” (PIT) and “internal-infiltration” (AIMI) processed wires. Additionally, examination of the pinning mechanism showed that when scaled to the peak in the pinning curve, the films follow the grain boundary, or surface, pinning mechanism quite well, and are similar to the response seen for C doped PIT and AIMI strands, in contrast to the behavior seen in undoped PIT wires, in which deviations are seen at high b (b = B/Bc2). On the other hand, the magnitude of the pinning force was similar for the thin films and AIMI conductors, unlike the values from connectivity-suppressed PIT strands. PMID:26417117

  13. Microstructures and superconducting properties of high performance MgB2 thin films deposited from a high-purity, dense Mg-B target.

    PubMed

    Li, G Z; Susner, M A; Bohnenstiehl, S D; Sumption, M D; Collings, E W

    2015-12-01

    High quality, c-axis oriented, MgB2 thin films were successfully grown on 6H-SiC substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with subsequent in situ annealing. To obtain high purity films free from oxygen contamination, a dense Mg-B target was specially made from a high temperature, high pressure reaction of Mg and B to form large-grained (10~50 µm) MgB2. Microstructural analysis via electron microscopy found that the resulting grains of the film were composed of ultrafine columnar grains of 19-30 nm. XRD analysis showed the MgB2 films to be c-axis oriented; the a-axis and c-axis lattice parameters were determined to be 3.073 ± 0.005 Å and 3.528 ± 0.010 Å, respectively. The superconducting critical temperature, Tc,onset , increased monotonically as the annealing temperature was increased, varying from 25.2 K to 33.7 K. The superconducting critical current density as determined from magnetic measurements, Jcm , at 5 K, was 10(5) A/cm(2) at 7.8 T; at 20 K, 10(5) A/cm(2) was reached at 3.1 T. The transport and pinning properties of these films were compared to "powder-in-tube" (PIT) and "internal-infiltration" (AIMI) processed wires. Additionally, examination of the pinning mechanism showed that when scaled to the peak in the pinning curve, the films follow the grain boundary, or surface, pinning mechanism quite well, and are similar to the response seen for C doped PIT and AIMI strands, in contrast to the behavior seen in undoped PIT wires, in which deviations are seen at high b (b = B/Bc2 ). On the other hand, the magnitude of the pinning force was similar for the thin films and AIMI conductors, unlike the values from connectivity-suppressed PIT strands.

  14. Growth of thin, c-axis oriented Sr-doped LaP3O9 electrolyte membranes in condensed phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatada, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Kota; Adachi, Yoshinobu; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-08-01

    Proton-conducting Sr-doped LaP3O9 has potential application as electrolytes in intermediate temperature fuel cells, but reduction of the electrical resistance of the electrolyte membranes is necessary for practical applications. In this study, we focused on reducing the resistance by reducing the electrolyte thickness, while maintaining a preferable microstructure for proton conduction (c-axis orientation and absence of the small-crystal layer). Thin, c-axis oriented Sr-doped LaP3O9 membranes were successfully obtained in condensed phosphoric acid solutions by a novel "two-step precipitation method". In this method, Sr-doped LaP3O9 powder was artificially deposited on the surface of the carbon paper supports as seeds, and then columnar crystals were grown "downward" in the solutions. We expect that this method will be utilized to produce LaP3O9 electrolyte membranes with lower electrical resistance.

  15. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  16. The role of the crystal orientation (c-axis) on switching field distribution and the magnetic domain configuration in electrodeposited hcp Co-Pt nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid Arshad, Muhammad; Proenca, Mariana P.; Trafela, Spela; Neu, Volker; Wolff, Ulrike; Stienen, Sven; Vazquez, Manuel; Kobe, Spomenka; Žužek Rožman, Kristina

    2016-05-01

    In this report, Co-Pt nanowires (NWs) were produced via potentiostatic electrodeposition into commonly used commercial ordered-alumina and disordered-polycarbonate membranes with similar pore diameters (≈200 nm). The pore diameter of the membranes and the deposition conditions were chosen such that the Co-Pt NWs fabricated into both membranes had a hexagonal close packed (hcp) crystal structure with a crystallographic texturing of the c-axis in the direction perpendicular to the NWs’ long axis; this effect was more pronounced in the alumina membranes. Due to the local fluctuation in electrodeposition conditions (pore diameter, pore shape), we have found a small variation in the c-axis orientations in the plane perpendicular to the NWs’ long axis. Magnetic characterizations suggested that there is uniaxial anisotropy perpendicular to the Co-Pt NWs’ long axis and the small variation in the orientation of the hcp c-axis plays an important role in the switching-field distribution and the magnetic domain structure of the Co-Pt NWs. First order reversal curves (FORCs) revealed week magnetostatic interactions between Co-Pt NWs, thus suggesting that the different pore alignments are not influencing much the magnetic properties in both membranes. The micromagnetic simulation revealed that the transverse-stripe (TS) and longitudinal stripe (LS) domains are energetically most favorable structures in such NWs. This study accentuates the influence of the crystal orientation (c-axis) of the high-anisotropy materials on their functional magnetic properties and thus is of great importance for the fabrication of nanodevices based on such NWs.

  17. An optimal thermal evaporation synthesis of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires with excellent UV sensing and emission characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Tridib; Achath Mohanan, Ajay; Swamy, Varghese; Guo, Ningqun; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • c-Axis alignment of ZnO nanowires was optimized using self-seeding thermal evaporation method. • Influence of purified air on the morphology and optoelectronic properties were studied. • Nanowires grown under optimal conditions exhibit strong UV emission peak in PL spectrum. • Optimized growth condition establish nanowires of excellent UV sensing characteristics - Abstract: Well-aligned (c-axis oriented) ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates through an optimized self-seeding thermal evaporation method. An open-ended chemical vapor deposition (CVD) setup was used in the experiment, with argon and purified air as reaction gases. Epitaxial growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires was observed for 5 sccm flow rate of purified air, whereas Zn/Zn suboxide layers and multiple polycrystalline layers of ZnO were obtained for absence and excess of purified air, respectively. Ultraviolet (UV) sensing and emission properties of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures were investigated through the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the nanowires under UV (λ = 365 nm) illumination of 8 mW/cm{sup 2} and using photoluminescence spectra. Nanowires grown under optimum flow of air emitted four times higher intensity of 380 nm UV light as well as exhibited 34 times higher UV radiation sensitivity compared to that of other nanostructures synthesized in this study.

  18. c-axis preferential orientation of hydroxyapatite accounts for the high wear resistance of the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jimin; He, Chong; Xia, Biao; Li, Yan; Feng, Qiong; Yin, Qifang; Shi, Xinghua; Feng, Xue; Wang, Hongtao; Yao, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Biological armors such as mollusk shells have long been recognized and studied for their values in inspiring novel designs of engineering materials with higher toughness and strength. However, no material is invincible and biological armors also have their rivals. In this paper, our attention is focused on the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) which is a predator of shelled mollusks like snails and mussels. Nanoscratching test on the enameloid, the outermost layer of the teeth, indicates that the natural occlusal surface (OS) has much higher wear resistance compared to the other sections. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites in the vicinity of OS possess c-axis preferential orientation. The superior wear resistance of black carp teeth is attributed to the c-axis preferential orientation of HAp near the OS since the (001) surface of HAp crystal, which is perpendicular to the c-axis, exhibits much better wear resistance compared to the other surfaces as demonstrated by the molecular dynamics simulation. Our results not only shed light on the origin of the good wear resistance exhibited by the black carp teeth but are of great value to the design of engineering materials with better abrasion resistance. PMID:27001150

  19. c-axis preferential orientation of hydroxyapatite accounts for the high wear resistance of the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jimin; He, Chong; Xia, Biao; Li, Yan; Feng, Qiong; Yin, Qifang; Shi, Xinghua; Feng, Xue; Wang, Hongtao; Yao, Haimin

    2016-03-01

    Biological armors such as mollusk shells have long been recognized and studied for their values in inspiring novel designs of engineering materials with higher toughness and strength. However, no material is invincible and biological armors also have their rivals. In this paper, our attention is focused on the teeth of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) which is a predator of shelled mollusks like snails and mussels. Nanoscratching test on the enameloid, the outermost layer of the teeth, indicates that the natural occlusal surface (OS) has much higher wear resistance compared to the other sections. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites in the vicinity of OS possess c-axis preferential orientation. The superior wear resistance of black carp teeth is attributed to the c-axis preferential orientation of HAp near the OS since the (001) surface of HAp crystal, which is perpendicular to the c-axis, exhibits much better wear resistance compared to the other surfaces as demonstrated by the molecular dynamics simulation. Our results not only shed light on the origin of the good wear resistance exhibited by the black carp teeth but are of great value to the design of engineering materials with better abrasion resistance.

  20. Fast epitaxial growth of a-axis- and c-axis-oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ films on (1 0 0) LaAlO 3 substrate by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    a-axis- and c-axis-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were epitaxially grown on (1 0 0) LaAlO3 substrates by laser chemical vapor deposition. The preferred orientation in the YBCO film changed from the a-axis to the c-axis with increasing laser powers from 77 to 158 W (the deposition temperatures from 951 to 1087 K). The a-axis-oriented YBCO film showed in-plane epitaxial growth of YBCO [0 0 1]//LAO [0 0 1], and the c-axis-oriented YBCO film showed that of YBCO [0 1 0]//LAO [0 0 1]. A c-axis-oriented YBCO film with a high critical temperature of 90 K was prepared at a deposition rate of 90 μm h-1, about 2-1000 times higher than that of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

  1. The role of Al, Ba, and Cd dopant elements in tailoring the properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Dilawar; Butt, M. Z.; Arif, Bilal; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2017-02-01

    Highly c-axis oriented un-doped ZnO and Al-, Ba-, and Cd-doped ZnO thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrate employing sol-gel spin coating method. XRD analysis showed that all thin films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along c-axis. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to study the morphology of thin films. The morphology consists of spherical and non-spherical shape grains. EDX analysis confirms the presence of O, Zn, Al, Ba, and Cd in the relevant thin films. The optical properties of thin films were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer. All thin films possess more than 85% optical transmittance in the visible region. Blue shift in optical band gap Eg has been observed on doping with Al, whereas doping with Ba and Cd resulted in red shift of Eg. Urbach energy Eu of all doped ZnO thin films was found to have excellent correlation with their band gap energy Eg. Moreover, Eg increases while Eu decreases on the increase in crystallite size D. Optical parameters Eg and Eu as well as structural parameters lattice strain and stacking fault probability also show excellent correlation with the B-factor or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibrations of the dopant elements. Electrical conductivity measurement of the thin films was carried out using two-point probe method. The electrical conductivity was found to increase with the increase in crystallite orientation along c-axis.

  2. Influence of the c-axis orientation on the optical properties of thin CdS thin films formed by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushkina, Natalia M.; Ullrich, Bruno; Sakai, Hisashi; Eiju, Tomoaki; Segawa, Yusaburo

    1999-04-01

    Thin (approximately equals 1.5 micrometer) CdS films were prepared on glass by laser ablation using fluences of 2 - 5 Jcm(superscript -2). We demonstrate that such an increase of the laser fluence turns the orientation of the c-axis of the films from perpendicular to parallel with respect to the substrate surface. The influence of this orientation variation on the optical properties of the films is studied by photocurrent, transmission and z-scan measurements. All experiments were carried out at 300 K using monochromatic light or the cw emission of argon and He-Ne lasers at 514.5 and 632.8 nm, respectively. The transmission threshold and the photocurrent maxima are shifted to shorter wavelengths and the transmission edge becomes steeper with increasing the laser fluence. The nonlinear absorption and refraction indices were evaluated for 514.5 nm and 632.8 nm by z-scan technique. It occurred that at 514.5 nm the photo-thermal heating due to effective absorption dominates and, therefore, refractive nonlinearities are not provable. At 632.8 nm, however, the samples are transmissive and refractive nonlinearities are clearly observed. Higher nonlinear coefficients of absorption and refraction were found for samples with parallel c-axis. As far as we are aware, this work represents the first study of the influence of the crystal direction on the photocurrent and z-scan features of oriented thin CdS films.

  3. Energy gap, penetration depth, and surface resistance of MgB2 thin films determined by microwave resonator measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, B. B.; Klein, N.; Kang, W. N.; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sung-Ik; Dahm, T.; Maki, K.

    2002-09-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the microwave surface impedance Zs=Rs+iωμ0λ of two c-axis oriented MgB2 films employing dielectric resonator techniques. The temperature dependence of the magnetic-field penetration depth λ determined by a sapphire dielectric resonator at 17.9 GHz can be well fitted from 5 K close to Tc by the standard BCS integral expression assuming the reduced energy gap Δ(0)/kTc to be as low as 1.13 and 1.03 for the two samples. For the penetration depth at zero temperatures, values of 102 and 107 nm were determined from the fit. Our results clearly indicate the s-wave character of the order parameter. A similar fit of the penetration depth data was obtained with an anisotropic s-wave BCS model. Within this model we had to assume a prolate order parameter, having a large gap value in the c-axis direction and a small gap within the ab plane. This is in contrast to recent fits of the anisotropic s-wave model to upper critical-field data, where an oblate order parameter had to be used, and raises interesting questions about the nature of the superconducting state in MgB2. A rutile dielectric resonator was employed to obtain the temperature dependence of Rs with high accuracy. Below about Tc/2, Rs(T)-Rs(5 K) exhibits an exponential temperature dependence with a reduced energy gap consistent with that determined from the penetration depth data. The Rs value at 4.2 K was found to be as low as 19 μΩ at 7.2 GHz, which is comparable with a high-temperature superconducting copper oxide thin film.

  4. Measurement of c-axis angular orientation in calcite (CaCO3) nanocrystals using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Young, Anthony; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the ability to manipulate the polarization of synchrotron radiation can be exploited to enhance the capabilities of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, to include linear dichroism effects. By acquiring spectra at the same photon energies but different polarizations, and using a photoelectron emission spectromicroscope (PEEM), one can quantitatively determine the angular orientation of micro- and nanocrystals with a spatial resolution down to 10 nm. XANES-PEEM instruments are already present at most synchrotrons, hence these methods are readily available. The methods are demonstrated here on geologic calcite (CaCO3) and used to investigate the prismatic layer of a mollusk shell, Pinctada fucata. These XANES-PEEM data reveal multiply oriented nanocrystals within calcite prisms, previously thought to be monocrystalline. The subdivision into multiply oriented nanocrystals, spread by more than 50°, may explain the excellent mechanical properties of the prismatic layer, known for decades but never explained. PMID:21693647

  5. Low-noise THz MgB2 Josephson mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnane, Daniel; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, Boris S.

    2016-09-01

    The potential applications for high frequency operation of the Josephson effect in MgB2 include THz mixers, direct detectors, and digital circuits. Here we report on MgB2 weak links which exhibit the Josephson behavior up to almost 2 THz and using them for low-noise heterodyne detection of THz radiation. The devices are made from epitaxial film grown in the c-axis direction by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition method. The current in the junctions travels parallel to the surface of the film, thus making possible a large contribution of the quasi-two-dimensional σ-gap in transport across the weak link. These devices are connected to a planar spiral antenna with a dielectric substrate lens to facilitate coupling to free-space radiation for use as a detector. The IcRn product of the junction is 5.25 mV, giving confirmation of a large gap parameter. The sensitivity of the mixer was measured from 0.6 THz to 1.9 THz. At a bath temperature of over 20 K, a mixer noise temperature less than 2000 K (DSB) was measured near 0.6 THz.

  6. Growing c-axis oriented aluminum nitride films by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarala, V.; Ambartsumov, M.; Altakhov, A.; Martens, V.; Shevchenko, M.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method for growing heteroepitaxial oriented AlN films on Si (100) and sapphire (001) substrates at temperatures less than 300 °C was investigated. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and ellipsometry. It has been shown that, ceteris paribus, AlN films grown on sapphire substrates have higher crystallinity than the samples grown on silicon wafers. With duration of plasma exposure of more than 20 s and at a temperature of 300 °C synthesized heteroepitaxial film had refractive index equal to 2.03±0.03. The X-ray diffraction scans feature (002) and (004) reflections at 2Θ equal to 35.7° and 75.9°, which are characteristic of hexagonal polytype of AlN. For the best sample, (002) reflection had full width on the half maximum of 162±11″

  7. Synthesis and characterization of 10 nm thick piezoelectric AlN films with high c-axis orientation for miniaturized nanoelectromechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Usama; Piazza, Gianluca

    2014-06-23

    The scaling of piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is challenged by the synthesis of ultrathin and high quality piezoelectric films on very thin electrodes. We report the synthesis and characterization of the thinnest piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films (10 nm) ever deposited on ultrathin platinum layers (2–5 nm) using reactive sputtering. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and fast Fourier transform analyses confirmed the proper crystal orientation, fine columnar texture, and the continuous lattice structure within individual grains in the deposited AlN nanometer thick films. The average extracted d{sub 31} piezoelectric coefficient for the synthesized films is −1.73 pC/N, which is comparable to the reported values for micron thick and highly c-axis oriented AlN films. The 10 nm AlN films were employed to demonstrate two different types of optimized piezoelectric nanoactuators. The unimorph actuators exhibit vertical displacements as large as 1.1 μm at 0.7 V for 25 μm long and 30 nm thick beams. These results have a great potential to realize miniaturized NEMS relays with extremely low voltage, high frequency resonators, and ultrasensitive sensors.

  8. Intrinsic flux pinning mechanisms in different thickness MgB2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Ni, Z. M.; Guo, X.; Hu, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, Q. R.; Gan, Z. Z.

    2017-03-01

    MgB2 films in four thickness (60 nm, 200nm, 600nm and 1μm) have been fabricated by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique (HPCVD). By measuring the magnetization hysteresis loops and the resistivity, we have obtained the transport and magnetic properties of the four films. After that, the pinning mechanisms in them were discussed. Comparing the pinning behaviors in these ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, it was found that there exist different pinning types in MgB2 films of different thickness. In combination with the study of the surface morphology, cross-section and XRD results, we concluded that MgB2 films had different growth modes in different growth stages. For thin films, films grew along c axis, and grain boundaries acted as surface pinning. While for thick films, films grew along c axis at first, and then changed to a-b axis growth. As a result, the a-b axis grains acted as strong volume pinning.

  9. Superconductivity in MgB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimitsu, Jun; Muranaka, Takahiro

    2003-05-01

    We recently discovered that the intermetallic compound magnesium diboride (MgB2) exhibits the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc=39 K) of all the metallic superconductors. In this paper we report on the basic superconducting characteristics of MgB2 and the current status of the research for the unanswered problem in this superconductivity. Especially, we review the several reports for the superconducting gap (Δ) by the spectroscopic measurements. Moreover we introduce the research into its anisotropic parameter (γ), which is important for the understanding of this superconducting states in this material.

  10. Characterization of off-axis MgB2 epitaxial thin films for planar junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iavarone, M.; Karapetrov, G.; Menzel, A.; Komanicky, V.; You, H.; Kwok, W. K.; Orgiani, P.; Ferrando, V.; Xi, X. X.

    2005-12-01

    Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we perform a full mapping of the quasiparticle density of states of magnesium diboride (MgB2) epitaxial thin films grown on (110) yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition. The films have critical temperatures of 40 K. X-ray measurements show an epitaxial MgB2 growth having the c-axis tilted by 32° with respect to the normal to the substrate, consistent with the atomic force microscopy images of the sample. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy clearly finds that the spectroscopic peak associated to the π gap is reduced on most of the film surface and the feature representative of the σ gap is present, with different intensity, on the majority of the sample's surface, which is consistent with x-ray measurements.

  11. A new scaling relation for n-AlN doped superconducting MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2013-09-01

    The scaling behavior of nano-aluminum nitride added polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor is discussed. A series of polycrystalline MgB2 samples with different amounts of nanosized AlN addition are synthesized by solid reaction. All the synthesized pellets are subjected to x-ray diffraction, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to examine their micro-structural features. A marginal decrease in lattice parameters of pure MgB2 with AlN nanoparticles addition is observed. Surface morphology reveals randomly oriented hexagonal MgB2 grains decorated with AlN nanoparticles between the grain boundaries and also scattered on the grain surface. For higher concentration, n-AlN agglomerates are visible. Resistivity data confirm a decrease in superconducting transition temperature (Tc) from 38.5 to 37 K and increase in transition width (ΔTc) with increased loading of n-AlN in MgB2. The critical current density (Jc) of the pellets at 4, 10, 20, and 30 K is evaluated from the magnetization data between ±6 T and is explained well in the framework of collective pinning model. The normalized pinning force density of n-AlN doped MgB2 at various temperatures indicates an excellent scaling with respect to Hn (the field corresponding to which Fp drops to half of its maximum value) as the scaling field. A new scaling expression derived, using the expression of field dependence of Jc proposed by "collective pinning model" in small bundle regime, demonstrates an excellent agreement with the measured normalized pinning force density (viz., Fp/Fpmax vs. hn) of the AlN nanoparticles doped MgB2 superconductors.

  12. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001) by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    SciTech Connect

    Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Maurya, K. K.; Dalai, M. K.; Sharma, Nita D.

    2013-09-15

    Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) were investigated in the range of 500–750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM) value for (0002) reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002) plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  13. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001) by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Maurya, K. K.; Dalai, M. K.; Sharma, Nita D.

    2013-09-01

    Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) were investigated in the range of 500-750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM) value for (0002) reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002) plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  14. Preferentially grown nanostructured MgB2C2: A new material for lightening applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Paviter; Singh, Kulwinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Bikmramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kaur, Manjot; Kumar, Manjeet; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Bala, Rajni; Kumar, Akshay

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured MgB2C2 is a promising candidate as functional material. High Temperature synthesis conditions were the limitations for its exploitation in materials research. Present study deals with the synthesis of specifically oriented nanostructured MgB2C2 at relatively low temperature by solvothermal route. The synthesis conditions are modified to grow these nanostructures in least dense plane (002). Optical properties are explored for the first time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of MgB2C2 phase. Morphological analysis (Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopy) indicated that the synthesized material is in nano range. Photoluminescence study shows that the synthesized material emits light in visible spectrum when excited at 380 nm. The quantum efficiency of synthesized material calculated by De Mello's method is approximately 23% which makes the material efficient enough for lightening applications.

  15. Angle-resolved magnetotransport studies in anisotropic MgB2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Tokunaga, M.; Shi, Z. X.; Takano, Y.; Togano, K.; Kito, H.; Ihara, H.; Tamegai, T.

    2002-04-01

    We report the angle-resolved magnetotransport measurements on MgB2 single crystals that exhibit moderate anisotropy (γ) in upper critical fields with γ=2.6+/-0.1. Unusual ``kink'' features in resistivity are observed, which appear most clearly for field parallel to the c axis. We discuss the origin of the ``kink'' features in relation with the vortex-lattice melting and the recently proposed model of two-gap superconductivity. The influences of anisotropy on superconducting properties including the kink features are also demonstrated.

  16. Influence of the carbon substitution on the critical current density and AC losses in MgB2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszek, M.; Rogacki, K.; Oganisian, K.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2010-12-01

    The DC magnetization and AC complex magnetic susceptibilities were measured for MgB2 single crystals, unsubstituted and carbon substituted with the composition of Mg(B0.94C0.05)2. The measurements were performed in AC and DC magnetic fields oriented parallel to the c-axis of the crystals. From the DC magnetization loops and the AC susceptibility measurements, critical current densities ( J c were derived as a function of temperature and the DC and AC magnetic fields. Results show that the substitution with carbon decreases J c ) at low magnetic fields, opposite to the well known effect of an increase of J c at higher fields. AC magnetic losses were derived from the AC susceptibility data as a function of amplitude and the DC bias magnetic field. The AC losses were determined for temperatures of 0.6 and 0.7 of the transition temperature T c , so close to the boiling points of LH2 and LNe, potential cooling media for magnesium diboride based composites. The results are analyzed and discussed in the context of the critical state model.

  17. Growth of Highly c-axis Oriented and/or Epitaxial Single-Domain b-axis Oriented La5Ca9Cu24O41 Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    crystalline material on the surface of another with similar lattice structure /parameters. Between these two materials exists a quantifiable mismatch...h h 0) peaks, the (0 k 0) reflections of LCCO structure were only observed in the entire scanned range up to 2 =90o. The absence of other...compressive developed along the c-axis, as the Ca atoms are located along the c-axis direction, in between the Cu-O chains and DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  18. Investigation on orientation, epitaxial growth and microstructure of a-axis-, c-axis-, (103)/(110)- and (113)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films prepared on (001), (110) and (111) SrTiO3 single crystal substrates by spray atomizing and coprecipitating laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Zhi liang; Mao, Yangwu; Xu, Yuan Lai

    2015-04-01

    a-axis-, c-axis-, (103)/(110)- and (113)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were pareared by spray atomizing and coprecipitating laser chemical vapor deposition. The surface of the a-axis-oriented YBCO film consisted of rectangular needle-like grains whose in-plane epitaxial growth relationship was YBCO [100] // STO [001] (YBCO [001] // STO [100]), and that of the c-axis-oriented YBCO film consisted of dense flat surface with epitaxial growth relationship of YBCO [001] // STO [001] (YBCO [100] //STO [100]). For the (103)/(110)-oriented and (113)-oriented YBCO film, they showed wedge-shaped and triangle-shaped grains, with corresponding in-plane epitaxial growth relationship of YBCO [110] // STO [110] (YBCO [010] // STO [010]) and YBCO [100] // STO [100] (YBCO [113] // STO [111], respectively.

  19. Al addition effect of bulk MgB 2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Ikeda, H.; Yoshizaki, R.

    2007-10-01

    The properties of transport and magnetization have been investigated for bulk MgB2Alx superconductor with Al addition (x = 0, 0.5, 1 wt%). MgB2 bulk samples sintered at different temperatures at 650-740 °C were prepared in the undoped state. The temperature and applied field dependencies of resistivity and magnetization were measured for the samples. The sample sintered at 690 °C exhibited the highest critical current density (Jc) and the lowest resistivity. This undoped sample was chosen as a criterion sample, and the effect of Al addition on the MgB2 bulk was studied from the transport and magnetization properties in a magnetic field. For MgB2Alx bulk samples sintered at 690 °C, the resistivity increased and Jc decreased as amount of Al was increased.

  20. Magnetic lenses using different MgB2 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Choi, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Teranishi, R.; Giunchi, G.; Figini Albisetti, A.; Kiyoshi, T.

    2012-02-01

    A magnetic lens allows the concentration of magnetic fields using the diamagnetism of superconductors. The important features of the magnetic lens are a tapered inner diameter from which the magnetic flux is extruded and a slit to suppress the circumference current that shields the magnetic flux. This concept was experimentally confirmed through the use of GdBaCuO bulks and a stack of NbTi/Nb/Cu sheets. We refer to this arrangement as a magnetic lens. The Mg-reactive liquid infiltration (Mg-RLI) process developed by Edison SpA is suitable for the production of large and high-density MgB2 bulks. Three MgB2 bulk magnetic lenses, each with a different microstructure, were fabricated following the Mg-RLI process. The properties of the MgB2 magnetic lenses were measured in a cryocooler system as well as in liquid helium. The results confirmed that the MgB2 bulk magnetic lenses could concentrate a magnetic field and that their field concentration properties were greatly affected by the temperature and the external field. In addition, the microstructure of the MgB2 bulk also had an influence on the magnetic properties at different external fields. The results indicated that the MgB2 lens might be utilized as a field amplifier in intermediate fields.

  1. Fermi surface topology and the upper critical field in two-band superconductors: application to MgB2.

    PubMed

    Dahm, T; Schopohl, N

    2003-07-04

    Recent measurements of the anisotropy of the upper critical field B(c2) on MgB2 single crystals have shown a puzzling strong temperature dependence. Here, we present a calculation of the upper critical field based on a detailed modeling of band structure calculations that takes into account both the unusual Fermi surface topology and the two gap nature of the superconducting order parameter. Our results show that the strong temperature dependence of the B(c2) anisotropy can be understood as an interplay of the dominating gap on the sigma band, which possesses a small c-axis component of the Fermi velocity, with the induced superconductivity on the pi-band possessing a large c-axis component of the Fermi velocity. We provide analytic formulas for the anisotropy ratio at T=0 and T=T(c) and quantitatively predict the distortion of the vortex lattice based on our calculations.

  2. Li induced enhancement in c-axis orientation and its effect on structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Dilawar; Butt, M. Z.; Arif, Bilal; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin

    2017-02-01

    Un-doped and Li-doped ZnO thin films with high c-texture have been deposited on glass substrate using sol–gel spin coating method. The effect of Li dopant in concentration range 1–5 at.% on the structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–VIS spectrophotometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and two point probe method, respectively. XRD analysis reveals that all thin films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure and (0 0 2) preferred orientation. X-ray diffraction intensity and crystallite size appertaining to (0 0 2) plane increases with the increase in Li concentration. FESEM micrographs shows that morphology of all thin films consist of spherical and non-spherical shaped grains. Surface roughness of the films decreases on increasing Li dopant concentration. Average transmittance in visible region is 90.6  ±  0.5 % for all Li-doped ZnO thin films. Blue shift, i.e. widening of optical band gap (E g) has been observed on doping with Li. Urbach energy (E u) was found to decrease on Li incorporation. Both E g and E u correlate well with variation in c-texture and crystallite size. The average refractive index of ZnO thin films in the visible region is decreased on doping with Li. Electrical conductivity of ZnO thin films is enhanced on increase in Li dopant concentration. The improvement in electrical conductivity also correlates well with increase in c-texture and crystallite size. FTIR spectra portray characteristic absorption bands centered at 901, 760, 602, and 568 cm‑1 pertaining to metal–oxygen bonds.

  3. Characterization of MgB2 Conductors for Coil Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanoglu, Z.; Arda, L.; Akin, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Tomsic, M.; Hascicek, Y. S.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of the heat treatment conditions on microstructure and the transport critical current density of MgB2 wires, which were fabricated by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) process, have been investigated. Two types of MgB2 conductors, Fe/MgB2 and Cu/MgB2, were studied. It was found that the sheath materials affect the optimum annealing profile of MgB2 conductor. The annealing temperature for Cu/MgB2 conductors was lower than that for the Fe/MgB2 conductors. The critical current density, Jc was measured to be 1.1×105 A/cm2 at 20 K in-self field for Cu/MgB2 conductor of 1.25 mm in diameter. The processing, microstructure and superconducting properties are presented.

  4. MgB2 tunnel junctions with native or thermal oxide barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Gandikota, R.; Kim, J.; Newman, N.; Rowell, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    MgB2 tunnel junctions (MgB2/barrier/MgB2) were fabricated using a native oxide grown on the bottom MgB2 film as the tunnel barrier. Such barriers therefore survive the deposition of the second electrode at 300°C, even over junction areas of ˜1mm2. Studies of such junctions and those of the type MgB2/native or thermal oxide/metal (Pb, Au, or Ag) show that tunnel barriers grown on MgB2 exhibit a wide range of barrier heights and widths.

  5. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    PubMed

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  6. Persistence of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2 in the Presence of Vortex Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rastovski, Catherine; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Gannon, William J; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  7. Epitaxial MgB2 thin films on ZrB2 buffer layers: structural characterization by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, V.; Tarantini, C.; Bellingeri, E.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pallecchi, I.; Marré, D.; Plantevin, O.; Putti, M.; Felici, R.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2004-12-01

    Structural and superconducting properties of magnesium diboride thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on zirconium diboride buffer layers were studied. We demonstrate that the ZrB2 layer is compatible with the MgB2 two step deposition process. Synchrotron radiation measurements, in particular anomalous diffraction measurements, allowed us to separate MgB2 peaks from ZrB2 ones and revealed that both layers have a single in plane orientation with a sharp interface between them. Moreover, the buffer layer avoids oxygen contamination from the sapphire substrate. The critical temperature of this film is near 37.6 K and the upper critical field measured at the Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory up to 20.3 T is comparable with the highest ones reported in literature.

  8. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  9. Attempts at doping indium in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivel, J.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Indium (In) doped MgB2 polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-liquid phase reaction in Ar. After reaction at 800 °C, less than 1 at.% Mg was replaced by In in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its lattice parameters and only a slight decrease of its superconducting transition temperature. For all studied In concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of InMg was evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are decreased in the samples containing In. The flux pinning mechanism can be described by surface pinning in both the doped and undoped samples.

  10. Experimental Investigation of MGB2 Switching with Magnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishmael, S. A.; Leveque, J.; Netter, D.; Meinke, R. B.; Masson, P. J.

    2010-04-01

    Superconducting machines require DC current excitation in the rotor usually achieved using brushless exciters relying on solid state components for current rectification. The use of solid state components limits the amount of current allowable and imposes a large inductance in the rotor. MgB2 allows for "close to" superconducting splicing enabling development of large current rotors where solid state devices could be advantageously replaced by superconducting switches and used with a flux pump excitation system. For certain applications, such as a synchronous condenser, the dynamics of the excitation system is important as well as imposing fast switching and fast recovery. Switches driven by magnetic pulses are expected to exhibit a very limited temperature increase leading to fast recovery and also to contribute to very good system dynamics. This paper covers the experimental investigation of the response of MgB2 conductors subjected to magnetic pulses. The dependence of the resistance vs. J/Jc and operating temperature are discussed.

  11. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantu, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (<10 micrometers) could reduce alternating current (AC) losses that occur due to hysteresis, eddy currents, and coupling losses. The company refined a manufacturing method that incorporates a magnesium-infiltration process and provides a tenfold enhancement in critical current density over wire made by a conventional method involving magnesium-boron powder mixtures. Hyper Tech also improved its wire-drawing capability to fabricate fine multifilament strands. In Phase II, the company developed, manufactured, and tested the wire for superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. Hyper Tech also fabricated MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  12. Dynamic and Structural Studies of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waard, E. R.; Kuhn, S. J.; Rastovski, C.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Leishman, A.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Littrell, K.; Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in the type-II superconductor MgB2 have revealed an unprecedented degree of metastability that is demonstrably not due to vortex pinning, [C. Rastovski et al . , Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. The VL can be driven to the GS through successive application of an AC magnetic field. Here we report on detailed studies of the transition kinetics and structure of the VL domains. Stroboscopic studies of the transition revealed a stretched exponential decrease of the metastable volume fraction as a function of the number of applied AC cycles, with subtle differences depending on whether the AC field is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the DC field used to create the VL. We speculate the slower transition kinetics for the transverse AC field may be due to vortex cutting. Spatial studies include scanning SANS measurements showing the VL domain distribution within the MgB2 single crystal as well as measurements of VL correlation lengths. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award DE-FG02-10ER46783.

  13. Flux motion and isotropic effects in MgB2 near the critical temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, A.; Kiliç, K.; Altinkök, A.

    2012-11-01

    The anisotropic behaviour of polycrystalline MgB2 was studied in details by means of angle dependent magnetovoltage measurements ( V- θ curves) at the temperatures near the critical temperature T c, where θ is the angle between the external magnetic field H and the transport current I. The measurement of V- θ curves was carried out at fixed temperatures below T c for different values of H and I in a range of θ = -20° -200°. Magnetovoltage measurements ( V- H curves) were performed for perpendicular and parallel orientations of H with respect to I, i.e., the V ⊥- H curves for ěc H bot ěc I and V ∥- H curves for ěc Hallel ěc I . The analysis of V- θ curves does not give any agreement with V( θ) sin2( θ) or any modified angular relationship, so that the measured dissipation is nearly independent of the angle between H and I. The isotropic effects observed in MgB2 were discussed in the frame of the continuum approximation, the discrete case and the flux line cutting associated with the double critical state model derived in the literature. Finally, it is concluded that structural disorder induced isotropic effects can explain the isotropic angular dissipation observed in V- θ, I- V and V- H curves.

  14. Upper critical field and anisotropy in carbon alloyed MgB2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ferrando, Valeria; Chen, Jun; Pogrebnyakov, Alexej; Redwing, Joan; Xi, Xiaoxing; Gurevich, Alex; Larbalestier, David; Betts, J. B.; Mielke, C. H.

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the upper critical field and its anisotropy γ of C-alloyed MgB2 thin films grown on (0001) SiC single crystal substrates by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). Different concentrations of C were introduced during the deposition, which increased the residual resistivity systematically but did not affect Tc seriously. The upper critical field was found to increase to above 60 T for H parallel to the ab plane and up to ˜ 40T for H parallel to the c axis with even moderate amounts of C doping. Moreover, we show that Hc2 stays at these levels in a wide range of C doping. The Hc2 anisotropy was found to decrease as the C concentration increases. The Hc2(T) curves for both H ab and H c directions were explained by a theoretical model of dirty limit two band superconductivity, which takes into account different scattering rates in π and σ bands, as well as interband scattering. The differences in the Hc2(T) and γ(T) for different samples can be explained by the differences of the relative scattering rates in each band which make it possible to adjust the π and σ scattering such that Hc2 perpendicular to ab can attain almost 20T at 20K.

  15. Development of a liquid hydrogen transfer pump system with MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Kuga, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Takuro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Uchida, Yushi; Nakamura, Taketsune; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hongo, Motoyuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Wakuda, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhide

    An electric pump composed of an MgB2 motor is combined with superconducting level sensors using thin CuNi-sheathed MgB2 wires to transfer liquid hydrogen. An impeller is attached to the lower end of a rotating shaft on the MgB2 motor and covered with an outer casing to form a centrifugal pump. Then, the MgB2 motor and impeller are placed vertically inside a cryostat with an infill of liquid hydrogen. A glass Dewar vessel is prepared to receive the liquid hydrogen transferred from the cryostat containing the MgB2 motor. The MgB2 sensors are used not only to detect the level of liquid hydrogen but also to control the electric pump on the basis of their pre-estimated calibration curves. By using the assembled pump system, the liquid hydrogen is successfully transferred from the cryostat to the glass Dewar vessel via a transfer tube.

  16. Fast creation of dense MgB2 phase in wires made by IMD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kopera, L.; Kulich, M.

    2016-10-01

    Single-core MgB2 wires have been made by internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) into boron process. Heat treatments were performed at variable periods (4-90 min) for two adjusted temperatures 635 °C and 650 °C, with an overshoot of ≈20 °C after 5 min. Critical currents of differently treated MgB2/Ti/GlidCop wires have been measured and related with the MgB2 layers. The fast creation MgB2 compound has been observed after 8 min annealing at both temperatures and showing the critical current maxima. The less uniform MgB2 containing cracks was created for longer annealing periods (≥10 min), which resulted in lowered critical currents and worsened thermal stability. The fast creation of dense MgB2 allows it to utilize a continual and short heat treatment process for high current density wires made by IMD.

  17. Al-doped MgB2 materials studied using electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateni, Ali; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan; Somer, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Undoped and aluminum (Al) doped magnesium diboride (MgB2) samples were synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state synthesis method. The microscopic defect structures of Al-doped MgB2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. It was found that Mg-vacancies are responsible for defect-induced peculiarities in MgB2. Above a certain level of Al doping, enhanced conductive properties of MgB2 disappear due to filling of vacancies or trapping of Al in Mg-related vacancy sites.

  18. Superconducting MgB2 flowers: growth mechanism and their superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won Kyung; Ranot, Mahipal; Lee, Ji Yeong; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Jae Hak; Oh, Young Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kang, Won Nam

    2016-04-01

    We report for the first time the growth and the systematic study of the growth mechanism for flower-like MgB2 structures fabricated on the substrates for solid-state electronics by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The MgB2 flower has a width of 30 μm and a height of 10 μm. The superconductivity of MgB2 flowers was confirmed by a magnetization measurement, and the transition temperature is 39 K, which is comparable with high-quality bulk samples. The excellent current-carrying capability was demonstrated by MgB2 flowers. To understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of MgB2 flowers a very systematic study was performed by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and atom probe (AP) microscopy. The HRTEM revealed that the seed grain of a MgB2 flower has a [101¯0] direction, and the flower is composed of micro-columnar MgB2 grains having pyramidal tips and which are grown along the (0001) plane. A clear understanding of the growth mechanism for MgB2 flowers could lead to the growth of other low-dimensional MgB2 structures for superconducting electronic devices.

  19. Physical property characterization of bulk MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Vajpayee, A.; Mudgel, M.; Ganesan, V.; Awasthi, A. M.; Bhalla, G. L.; Kishan, H.

    2008-04-01

    We report synthesis, structure/micro-structure, resistivity under magnetic field [ρ(T)H], Raman spectra, thermoelectric power S(T), thermal conductivity κ(T), and magnetization of ambient pressure argon annealed polycrystalline bulk samples of MgB2, processed under identical conditions. The compound crystallizes in hexagonal structure with space group P6/mmm. Transmission electron microscopy ( TEM) reveals electron micrographs showing various types of defect features along with the presence of 3 4 nm thick amorphous layers forming the grain boundaries of otherwise crystalline MgB2. Raman spectra of the compound at room temperature exhibited characteristic phonon peak at 600 cm-1. Superconductivity is observed at 37.2 K by magnetic susceptibility χ(T), resistivity ρ(T), thermoelectric power S(T), and thermal conductivity κ(T) measurements. The power law fitting of ρ(T) give rise to Debye temperature (ΘD) at 1400 K which is found consistent with the theoretical fitting of S(T), exhibiting Θ D of 1410 K and carrier density of 3.81 × 1028/m3. Thermal conductivity κ(T) shows a jump at 38 K, i.e., at Tc, which was missing in some earlier reports. Critical current density (Jc) of up to 105 A/cm2 in 1 2 T (Tesla) fields at temperatures (T) of up to 10 K is seen from magnetization measurements. The irreversibility field, defined as the field related to merging of M(H) loops is found to be 78, 68 and 42 kOe at 4, 10 and 20 K respectively. The superconducting performance parameters viz. irreversibility field (Hirr) and critical current density Jc(H) of the studied MgB2 are improved profoundly with addition of nano-SiC and nano-diamond. The physical property parameters measured for polycrystalline MgB2 are compared with earlier reports and a consolidated insight of various physical properties is presented.

  20. Andreev reflections on a MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswal, D. K.; Sen, Shashwati; Gadkari, S. C.; Singh, Ajay; Gupta, S. K.; Gupta, L. C.; Bajpai, A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2002-07-01

    An Andreev-reflection study of MgB2/Ag planar junctions as a function of temperature and magnetic field is reported. The differential resistance (dV/dI) versus voltage (V) characteristics exhibited a distinct double minimum feature. This, together with a comparison of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory of isotropic superconductor, indicates that data are not consistent with the weak-coupling BCS theory. This is further supported by unusual temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the tunneling characteristics. The results are discussed using various existing theories.

  1. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  2. High Upper Critical Field and Irreversibility Field in MgB2 Coated-Conductor Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    for MgB2 by sputtering on Hastelloy 9 and by electroplating on stainless steel .10 These works have gener- ated Hc2 and Hirr values similar to those of...wires because it is brittle and costly, MgB2 coatings can be made on inexpensive and strong metallic wires such as stainless steel .10,26 Therefore

  3. Magnetic flux noise in MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeraj; Singh, D. P.; Gupta, Ajai K.

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic flux noise in MgB2 polycrystalline sample is measured using a high-TC rf-superconducting quantum interference device in the temperature range of 6-40K. A small magnetic field (˜200mG ) was applied while cooling the sample. The flux noise exhibits 1/fα type of behavior with α ˜1.0-1.3 and shows enhanced noise around 24 and 37K. The flux noise seems to originate from thermally activated vortex hopping. The large magnetic noise at 24K indicates the presence of larger density of pinning sites with energies ˜0.061eV leading to enhanced magnetic fluctuations at temperatures much below TC.

  4. Substitution Effects on MgB2 Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuan; Yi, Lin

    2008-02-01

    With the help of supercell method, the first-principle calculations were performed for the study of doping crystal Mg1-xAlxB2 and Mg(B1-yCy)2. Analyzing the variations of the charge distribution and the partial densities of states, we found that the compounds with doping Al to MgB2 compound and/or replacing boron by carbon exhibit new covalent bond effects and unexpected electronic properties, related to superconductivity. The study of the density of states indicates that superconductivity decreases with the increase of Al fraction and carbon concentration. There exists a transition of superconductor to non-superconductor with the change of Al doping fraction. The substitution of boron by carbon results in the decrease of the transition temperature since the decrease of the electron concentration and the lattice constant. The theoretical predictions agree with experimental observations.

  5. Superconductivity of MgB2: covalent bonds driven metallic.

    PubMed

    An, J M; Pickett, W E

    2001-05-07

    A series of calculations on MgB2 and related isoelectronic systems indicates that the layer of Mg2+ ions lowers the nonbonding B pi ( p(z)) bands relative to the bonding sigma ( sp(x)p(y)) bands compared to graphite, causing sigma-->pi charge transfer and sigma band doping of 0.13 holes/cell. Because of their two dimensionality the sigma bands contribute strongly to the Fermi level density of states. Calculated deformation potentials of gamma point phonons identify the B bond stretching modes as dominating the electron-phonon coupling. Superconductivity driven by sigma band holes is consistent with the report of destruction of superconductivity by doping with Al.

  6. MgB2 superconductors with abnormally improved Jc sintered after autoxidation of milled original powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Huo, Jie; Gao, Zhiming

    2009-12-01

    An autoxidation treatment of short-time milled original powders was introduced for the synthesis of MgB2 superconductors and the critical current density Jc of the sintered MgB2 bulks was measured. It is unusually found that the undoped MgB2 bulks sintered with those autoxided milled original powder exhibit abnormally excellent Jc (above 1×104 A cm-2 even at 3.5 T, 20 K). Combined with the investigation of sintering process, it was found that the autoxidation treatment of the milled powders affects the subsequent sintering process dramatically and finally leads to the formation of MgB2 nanocrystalline with lots of dislocation and self-generated MgO nanoinclusions embedded in them. This unique microstructure brought up a significant improvement of Jc at high fields. Besides, the formation mechanism of this unique microstructure during the sintering process was also discussed in detail. It suggested that the MgO preformed by the reaction between Mg and B2O3 in the interface between Mg particles and B particles might serve as nuclei for the heterogeneous nucleation of the MgB2 phase and finally be included in the MgB2 grains as they grew up. The present method provides possible windows for the development of practical MgB2 superconductors without adopting expensive nanodopants.

  7. Pressure dependence of the c-axis resistivity of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Uher, C.; Hockey, R.L.; Ben-Jacob, E.

    1987-03-15

    The c-axis resistivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been measured from 2 to 300 K under hydrostatic pressures of up to 40 kbar. A resistivity peak near 40 K, typical for this type of graphite at ambient pressure, rapidly diminishes with increasing pressure but does not shift its position with respect to temperature. This observation suggests that the origin of the resistivity peak is not in a strong electron-phonon interaction but is associated with a particular structural matrix of these artificially produced graphites. A model is proposed, based on tunneling between microcrystallites, which accounts for the peculiar temperature and pressure dependence of the resistivity.

  8. Phase transitions in a MgB2 granular BCS superconductor in weak magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyanko, V. V.; Sungurov, M. S.; Sukhareva, T. V.; Finkel', V. A.; Shakhov, Yu. N.

    2017-02-01

    The character of temperature dependences of the electric conductivity of MgB2 granular BCS superconductors at temperatures of 35-45 K in external magnetic fields H ext of up to 2 kOe is studied. An increase in the superconducting transition width Δ T c with an increase in Hext is found. The presence of a system of weak links in MgB2-based granular superconductors is established. On the basis of experimental data, MgB2 granular superconductor is assigned to two-level superconducting systems and the H-T phase diagram is constructed.

  9. Low-temperature Mechanical Properties of Bulk MgB2 Fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, A.; Teshima, H.; Naito, T.; Fujishiro, H.; Kudo, T.; Iwamoto, A.

    Mechanical properties ina MgB2superconducting bulk sample,whose packing ratio is 92%,fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)areevaluated at 77 K through bending tests.The fracture strength at 77 K is higher than at room temperature. From the bending test result at 77 K, the fracture strength of ideal bulk MgB2,whose packing ratio is 100%,is estimated. The fracture strength at very low temperature of the HIP bulk MgB2is also estimated from the bending test results at 77 K and room temperature.

  10. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  11. Superior homogeneity of trapped magnetic field in superconducting MgB2 bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Tomita, M.; Kishio, K.

    2017-03-01

    Homogeneity of trapped magnetic field in radial and circumferential directions of high temperature superconducting bulk magnets, MgB2 (T c ˜38.3 K) and YBa2Cu3O y (T c ˜91.5 K), have been measured. In polycrystalline MgB2 bulks, the circularity of trapped magnetic field in a cylindrical disk is over 97% at 20-32.5 K, while that of YBa2Cu3O y was ˜87% at 77 K. Magnetic field distribution of MgB2 bulk was satisfactorily homogeneous and these measurements suggest MgB2 bulks with highly efficient cryocoolers should be very useful for novel high field permanent magnet applications.

  12. In situ synthesis of superconducting MgB2 fibers within a magnesium matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFouw, John D.; Dunand, David C.

    2003-07-01

    Composite wires, consisting of several hundred continuous MgB2 fibers embedded within an Mg matrix, are produced by a casting method, whereby liquid Mg is pressure infiltrated into a preform of aligned B fibers which are subsequently reacted in situ to form MgB2 fibers. Despite defects in the form of small, unreacted B islands and radial cracks from volume expansion, the MgB2 fibers exhibit superconducting properties (Tc=39 K and Jc=360 kA/cm2 at 5 K) comparable to the best results published for bulk MgB2. The fibers are cylindrical and straight, allowing high packing densities within a mechanically tough, thermally dissipating, electrically conductive Mg matrix. The process is scalable to continuous lengths of superconducting Mg/MgB2 wires.

  13. Superconducting characteristics of short MgB2 wires of long level sensor for liquid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Inoue, Y.; Maekawa, K.; Matsuno, Y.; Fujikawa, S.; Kumakura, H.

    2015-12-01

    To establish the worldwide storage and marine transport of hydrogen, it is important to develop a high-precision and long level sensor, such as a superconducting magnesium diboride (MgB2) level sensor for large liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks on board ships. Three 1.7- m-long MgB2 wires were fabricated by an in situ method, and the superconducting characteristics of twenty-four 20-mm-long MgB2 wires on the 1.7-m-long wires were studied. In addition, the static level-detecting characteristics of five 500-mm-long MgB2 level sensors were evaluated under atmospheric pressure.

  14. Ex situ MgB2 barrier behavior of monofilament in situ MgB2 wires with Glidcop® sheath material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kario, A.; Morawski, A.; Häßler, W.; Nenkov, K.; Schubert, M.; Herrmann, M.; Ringsdorf, B.; Schlachter, S. I.; Goldacker, W.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.

    2010-11-01

    Cost-effective MgB2 wires are highly sought after to replace the widely used NbTi conductors in superconducting magnets, e.g. for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One method of choice for lowering conductor costs is to use a less expensive barrier and sheath material. From this point of view copper is a good candidate for the sheath, and additionally has other advantageous properties, e.g. the best electrical and thermal conductivity at operating temperature. One major disadvantage of copper is its high chemical reactivity. This material reacts fast with magnesium and forms Mg-Cu alloys, removing the starting element necessary for MgB2 formation. To prevent this reaction, a special coaxial architecture was applied using ex situ MgB2 powder as a chemical barrier between the copper sheath and the in situ MgB2 powder core. The Glidcop® (dispersed strengthened copper) sheathed MgB2 wires with an ex situ barrier have been fabricated by the conventional powder in tube (PIT) method. Besides avoiding the reaction of Mg and Cu, the barrier also contributes to the superconducting core fraction and increases the filling factor up to 50%. The Glidcop® sheathed wires with an ex situ MgB2 commercial powder used as a barrier have been successfully drawn to a diameter of 1.2 mm and then a pressure-assisted heat treatment was applied. For our case of specified in situ and ex situ powders the pressure-assisted preparation of at least 0.15 GPa was found to be important for the densification of the ex situ barrier.

  15. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  16. High critical currents in iron-clad superconducting MgB2 wires.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Mavoori, H; Bower, C; van Dover, R B

    2001-05-31

    Technically useful bulk superconductors must have high transport critical current densities, Jc, at operating temperatures. They also require a normal metal cladding to provide parallel electrical conduction, thermal stabilization, and mechanical protection of the generally brittle superconductor cores. The recent discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in magnesium diboride (MgB2) presents a new possibility for significant bulk applications, but many critical issues relevant for practical wires remain unresolved. In particular, MgB2 is mechanically hard and brittle and therefore not amenable to drawing into the desired fine-wire geometry. Even the synthesis of moderately dense, bulk MgB2 attaining 39 K superconductivity is a challenge because of the volatility and reactivity of magnesium. Here we report the successful fabrication of dense, metal-clad superconducting MgB2 wires, and demonstrate a transport Jc in excess of 85,000 A cm-2 at 4.2 K. Our iron-clad fabrication technique takes place at ambient pressure, yet produces dense MgB2 with little loss of stoichiometry. While searching for a suitable cladding material, we found that other materials dramatically reduced the critical current, showing that although MgB2 itself does not show the 'weak-link' effect characteristic of the high-Tc superconductors, contamination does result in weak-link-like behaviour.

  17. Application of superconducting magnesium diboride (MGB2) in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Teng

    The superconductivity in magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered in 2001. As a BCS superconductor, MgB2 has a record-high Tc of 39 K, high Jc of > 107 A/cm2 and no weak link behavior across the grain boundary. All these superior properties endorsed that MgB2 would have great potential in both power applications and electronic devices. In the past 15 years, MgB2 based power cables, microwave devices, and commercial MRI machines emerged and the next frontier are superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. SRF cavities are one of the leading accelerator technologies. In SRF cavities, applied microwave power generates electrical fields that accelerate particle beams. Compared with other accelerator techniques, SRF cavity accelerators feature low loss, high acceleration gradients and the ability to accelerate continuous particle beams. However, current SRF cavities are made from high-purity bulk niobium and work at 2 K in superfluid helium. The construction and operational cost of SRF cavity accelerators are very expensive. The demand for SRF cavity accelerators has been growing rapidly in the past decade. Therefore, a lot of effort has been devoted to the enhancement of the performance and the reduction of cost of SRF cavities. In 2010, an acceleration gradient of over 50 MV/m has been reported for a Nb-based SRF cavity. The magnetic field at the inner surface of such a cavity is ~ 1700 Oe, which is close to the thermodynamic critical field of Nb. Therefore, new materials and technologies are required to raise the acceleration gradient of future SRF cavity accelerators. Among all the proposed approaches, using MgB2 thin films to coat the inner surface of SRF cavities is one of the promising tactics with the potential to raise both the acceleration gradient and the operation temperature of SRF cavity accelerators. In this work, I present my study on MgB2 thin films for their application in SRF cavities. C-epitaxial MgB2 thin films grown on SiC(0001) substrates showed Tc > 41 K and Jc > 107 A/cm2, which is superior to bulk MgB2 samples. Polycrystalline MgB2 thin films grown on metal substrates showed similar Tc and Jc compared with bulk samples, indicating MgB2 is suitable for coating a metal cavity. Large c-pitaxial MgB2 thin films were grown on 2-inch diameter c-sapphire wafers, showing our technique is capable of depositing large area samples. The lower critical field (Hc1) of MgB2 thin films was measured as well as it is know that bulk MgB2 has a small Hc1 and would suffer from vortex penetration at low magnetic fields. The penetrating magnetic vortices would result in loss in an applied RF field. However, due to the geometry barrier, thin film MgB2 would have a higher Hc1 than the bulk material. In my experiments, the Hc1 of MgB2 thin films increased with decreasing film thickness. At 5 K, a 100 nm epitaxial MgB2 thin film showed enhanced Hc1 ~ 1880 Oe, which is higher than Hc1 of Nb at 2 K. This showed that MgB2 coated SRF cavities have the potential to work at higher magnetic fields and higher temperature. Because the magnetic field distribution in the thin film Hc1 measurement is different from the magnetic field in a real SRF cavity, a few Nb ellipsoids were machined and coated with MgB2. The ellipsoid only has a magnetic field outside its surface and can serve as an inverse SRF cavity in the vortex penetration measurement. In the experiments, vortices penetrate into the bulk Nb ellipsoid at a magnetic field 400 Oe lower than the vortex penetration field of MgB2 coated Nb ellipsoids. This result confirmed our prediction that MgB2 coated SRF cavities could work at higher magnetic fields, thus producing higher acceleration gradients. In the last part of this thesis, I discussed how I used the dielectric resonator technique to measure the surface resistance (Rs) and Tc of MgB2 thin films. While the sensitivity of this technique was not high enough to lead to reliable Rs values, it can still serve for the determination of Tc for large area samples that are too bulky for other measurement systems.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: The widely variable resistivity of MgB2 samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, John M.

    2003-06-01

    In this brief review, I consider a rather mundane property of MgB2, namely its resistivity as a function of temperature. It turns out that a comparison of resistivity data for a wide variety of samples, from single crystals to films, wires and polycrystalline bulk, is surprisingly informative. The majority of samples of MgB2 exhibit resistivities that are much higher than the low values that are seen in a relatively small number of single crystals, bulk samples and films. In many cases, the resistivity is increased over the single crystal values by orders of magnitude. Even at these high values, there is often still a metallic temperature dependence of the resistivity, and surprisingly, Tc is often at or near the bulk value of 39 K. The resistivity increase has been ascribed to a reduction in the effective current-carrying cross-sectional area of the sample. If this loss of cross-sectional area is the dominant factor contributing to the increase in resistivity of MgB2 samples, then the critical current density must be decreased by the same loss in the effective area. Comparisons of the MgB2 resistivity with the properties of disordered 'cluster compound' superconductors, of HTS materials and of granular Al (heavily contaminated with oxygen), show similarities between the MgB2 behaviour and the results of the HTS and Al studies. I discuss various effects that might contribute to the reduction in effective sample area in MgB2 samples, to the increase in resistivity and to a reduction in Jc. I speculate that a Josephson junction model of the grain boundaries in MgB2 might apply to samples with extremely high resistivities. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the two-band nature of MgB2 can result in an unusual behaviour of its resistivity and Tc as the material changes from the 'clean' to 'dirty' limits. I conclude that measurements of both the resistivity and the transport critical current density in a wide variety of bulk and film samples would be very useful, as would a study of the resistivity and Jc changes as a function of irradiation damage in MgB2 bulk and films of initially low resistivity.

  19. The phase analysis of spark plasma sintered MgB2 after ball milling.

    PubMed

    Kang, Deuk-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Woong; Kim, Cheol-Jin; Ahn, In-Shup

    2010-01-01

    Mg and amorphous B powders below 10 and 3 micro meter were used as raw materials, and mixed by planetary-mill for 9 hours at argon atmosphere. MgB2 bulk was fabricated at the various temperatures by Spark Plasma Sintering. In the sintering process, mixed powders were sintered in graphite mold, at the pressure of 55 Mpa. The fabricated MgB2 samples were evaluated with XRD, EDS, FE-SEM, PPMS. MgB2, MgO and Fe phases were observed from XRD result. In the results, MgO and Fe were impurity which may affect superconducting properties of MgB2 samples, and it's distribution could be confirmed from EDS mapping result. In order to confirm the formation of MgB2 phase, DTA was used as heating rate of 10 degrees C/min at Ar atmosphere from room temperature to 1200 degrees C. In the PPMS result, the Tc (critical temperature) was about 21 K, and the density of spark plasma sintered samples increased to 1.87 g/cm3 by increasing sintering temperature.

  20. Low-temperature synthesis of MgB2 via powder metallurgy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2016-12-01

    Ball-milled Mg/B2O3 powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed magnesium and boron oxide grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Boron oxide is reduced by Mg and MgO thus formed reacts with the remaining B2O3 to produce Mg3(BO3)2 during ball milling for 30 min. Both B2O3 and Mg3(BO3)2 react with Mg to produce MgB2 upon further ball milling. An annealing treatment can be employed when ball milling is performed for less than 1 h as thermal exposure of the ball-milled Mg/B2O3 powder blends also leads to the formation of MgB2. The above reactions take place between 500 and 700 °C when the Mg/B2O3 powder blend is ball milled for 30 min, and between 450 and 550 °C, after ball milling for 1 h. This is a very attractive route owing to processing temperatures where the volatility of Mg is no longer a problem.

  1. Effects of Metal Powder Addition in Ni-Sheathed PIT MgB2 Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Yamada, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Kumakura, H.; Iwamoto, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-06-01

    The effect of different metal powder additions on the transport current and stress/strain performance of ex-situ processed MgB2 tapes with Ni sheath has been studied. The metal powder added to the core exhibits elongated morphology after the fabrication. The addition of low melting point metal powder, e.g. In and Sn, produces an appreciable increase in the Jc of MgB2 core. An addition of 10 vol% In enhances Jc by a factor of 6 to 7 after the combination of rolling and annealing at 200 °C, up to the order of 105 A/cm2 at 0.5 T and 4.2 K. An addition of 10 vol% Sn enhances Jc by a factor of ˜ 3. The In and Sn additions also appreciably increase the n-value of the current-voltage transition. Both In and Sn metals infiltrate into gaps between MgB2 grains, improving the linkage of the grains. Current may transfer through the impregnated metal by the proximity effect. Furthermore, the metal powder addition appreciably improves the strain tolerance in MgB2 tapes. The low melting point metal powder addition is a relatively simple and easy approach to yield better transport current and stress/strain performance in ex-situ MgB2 tapes.

  2. Critical current density and grain connectivity of Bi-2223 added MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2014-04-01

    Polycrystalline MgB2 with addition of 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt. % of Bi-2223(Bi1.8Pb0.26Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x) powder has been synthesized by solid reaction process. The effect of Bi-2223 addition on current transport and superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor is discussed. Four probe DC resistivity measurement shows that low level of Bi-2223 addition hardly affects the superconducting transition temperature, Tc of MgB2. The modified Bloch- Gruneisen (B-G) analysis of normal state resistivity data reveals a decrease in intergrain connectivity and increase in intragrain connectivity of MgB2 by Bi-2223 addition. The critical current density of present set of samples is estimated from M- H hysteresis loop in the light of Bean's model. MgB2 added with 1 wt. % of Bi- 2223 added gives the best performance (˜ 2 times enhancement in Jc) amongst the studied samples.

  3. Copper sheath MgB 2 wires fabricated by an in situ PIT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, S.; Machi, T.; Murakami, M.; Koshizuka, N.; Mochizuki, K.; Ishikawa, I.; Shibata, N.

    2004-10-01

    We investigated the applicability of Cu as sheath materials for MgB 2 wires prepared by in situ PIT (powder-in-tube) method in comparison with stainless steal. Since the critical current density of MgB 2 increases with TiH 2 doping, we prepared TiH 2 doped MgB 2 Cu sheath wires 40 m in length and ∅ 1.0 mm or 0.5 × 1.0 mm 2 in cross section by rotary swaging, drawing, and two-axial rolling under cold working. We then annealed the samples at 600-850 °C for 1-2 h in Ar gas atmosphere. The critical current of TiH 2 (6%) doped MgB 2/Cu short sample annealed at 650 °C reached 208 A ( Jc=230 kA/cm 2) at 4.2 K and self-field. We also fabricated several coils using these wires. The Ic value was ∼100 A at 4.2 K for a coil prepared with use of a 5 m length wire. These results suggest that it is possible to fabricate Cu sheathed MgB 2 wires with good performance by using the in situ PIT method.

  4. Evaluations of MgB2 Coatings on 2'' Copper Discs for Superconducting Radio Frequency Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanage, Wenura; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Banjade, Huta; Eremeev, Grigory; Welander, Paul; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Kustom, Robert; Wolak, Matthäus; Nassiri, Alireza; Xi, Xiaoxing

    We propose that coating the inner walls of copper RF cavities with superconducting MgB2 (Tc = 39 K) can result in a viable alternative to the already established niobium-based SRF technology. This approach improves the thermal conductivity, allows for operation at higher temperatures, and reduces the need for large helium refrigeration, thereby resulting in lower operational costs. For our studies, we grew MgB2 films via hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) on 2'' Cu substrates. Since Mg and Cu readily form an alloy at higher temperatures, the HPCVD setup was modified in order to achieve lower deposition temperatures, minimize alloy formation, and provide high quality MgB2 films. This method yielded MgB2 coatings on 2'' Cu discs with transition temperatures around 38 K. The samples were characterized with regards to their RF attributes and showed similar performance in comparison to Nb reference samples. The presented results show that MgB2 coated copper can be a suitable alternative for use in SRF cavities.

  5. Experimental study of the AC magnetization loss in MgB2 superconducting wires at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Ján; Šouc, Ján; Kováč, Pavol

    2012-05-01

    The temperature and external AC magnetic field dependence of AC magnetization losses of MgB2 wires were studied. Temperature was varied from 18 K to 40 K and external magnetic field of frequencies 72 Hz and 144 Hz from 8 mT to 70 mT with orientation perpendicular to the wire axis. To clarify the influence of the wire construction on AC loss, single and six filament untwisted samples of length ∼50 mm were examined. For this purpose unique experimental apparatus created by the combination of original calibration-free measuring system designed for ac magnetization loss measurement and non-magnetic vacuum vessel with two-stage cryocooler for sample cooling was used. It was found, that for monofilament sample hysteretic AC losses was dominated in comparison to untwisted six-filaments sample, where coupling losses confirmed by frequency dependence were dominated.

  6. Fabrication of superconducting nanowires from ultrathin MgB2 films via focused ion beam milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Da; Liu, Zheng-Hao; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Ping; Feng, Qing-Rong; Wang, Yue; Gan, Zi-Zhao

    2015-02-01

    High quality superconducting nanowires were fabricated from ultrathin MgB2 films by a focused ion beam milling technique. The precursor MgB2 films in 10 nm thick were grown on MgO substrates by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition method. The nanowires, in widths of about 300-600 nm and lengths of 1 or 10 μm, showed high superconducting critical temperatures (Tc's) above 34 K and narrow superconducting transition widths (ΔTc's) of 1-3 K. The superconducting critical current density Jc of the nanowires was above 5 × 107 A/cm2 at 20 K. The high Tc, narrow ΔTc, and high Jc of the nanowires offered the possibility of making MgB2-based nano-devices such as hot-electron bolometers and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with high operating temperatures at 15-20 K.

  7. Three-dimensional MgB2-type superconductivity in hole-doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Boeri, Lilia; Kortus, Jens; Andersen, O K

    2004-12-03

    We substantiate by numerical and analytical calculations that the recently discovered superconductivity below 4 K in 3% boron-doped diamond is caused by electron-phonon coupling of the same type as in MgB2, albeit in three dimensions. Holes at the top of the zone-centered, degenerate sigma-bonding valence-band couple strongly to the optical bond-stretching modes. The increase from two to three dimensions reduces the mode softening crucial for T(c) reaching 40 K in MgB2. Even if diamond had the same bare coupling constant as MgB2, which could be achieved with 10% doping, T(c) would be only 25 K. Superconductivity above 1 K in Si (Ge) requires hole doping beyond 5% (10%).

  8. Fabrication and superconducting properties of MgB2 composite wiresby the PIT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Pradhan, A. K.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, P. X.; Liu, X. H.; Ji, P.; Du, S. J.; Liu, C. F.; Wu, Y.; Koshizuka, N.

    2002-01-01

    Dense MgB2/Cu wires with Ta as a buffer layer were successfully fabricated by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy. Magnetization measurements were carried out by using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer at magnetic fields up to 7 T from 5 K to 35 K. The transition temperature of the MgB2 wire is around 38.4 K and the irreversibility field is 6.6 T at 5 K. The critical current density as high as 105 A cm-2 (5 K, self-field) and 104 A cm-2 (20 K, 1 T) has been obtained. The results suggest that the powder-in-tube (PIT) process is promising in preparing high-quality MgB2 wires.

  9. Superconductivity of MgB 2 with embedded multiwall carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yeoh, W. K.; Xu, X.; Dou, S. X.; Munroe, P.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.

    2006-11-01

    We studied the effects of MgB2 with embedded multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the crystallinity, lattice parameters, critical current density (Jc), upper critical field (Hc2), irreversibility field (Hirr), and microstructure of MgB2. Fe sheathed un-doped and MWCNT doped MgB2 wires were fabricated by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method and sintered at the high sintering temperatures of 900 °C. We observed that for the MWCNT doped sample high temperature sintering resulted in depressed crystallinity, shrinkage of the a-lattice parameter, higher Jc up to 12 T, and lower critical temperature (Tc) values. Specifically, MWCNT doped samples sintered at 900 °C exhibited excellent Jc, ∼104 A cm-2 up to 9 T at 4.2 K. This can be explained by lattice distortion and poor crystallinity due to carbon (C) substitution from the MWCNT.

  10. Suppression of superconductivity in epitaxial MgB2 ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Yue; Wang, Da; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zheng-Hao; Feng, Qing-Rong; Gan, Zi-Zhao

    2013-07-01

    MgB2 ultrathin films have potential to make sensitive superconducting devices such as superconducting single-photon detectors working at relatively high temperatures. We have grown epitaxial MgB2 films in thicknesses ranging from about 40 nm to 6 nm by using the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition method and performed electrical transport measurements to study the thickness dependence of the superconducting critical temperature Tc. With reducing film thickness d, although a weak depression of the Tc has been observed, which could be attributed to an increase of disorder (interband impurity scattering) in the film, the Tc retains close to the bulk value of MgB2 (39 K), being about 35 K in the film of 6 nm thick. We show that this result, beneficial to the application of MgB2 ultrathin films and in accordance with recent theoretical calculations, is in contrast to previous findings in MgB2 films prepared by other methods such as co-evaporation and molecular-beam epitaxy, where a severe Tc suppression has been observed with Tc about one third of the bulk value in films of ˜5 nm thick. We discuss this apparent discrepancy in experiments and suggest that, towards the ultrathin limit, the different degrees of Tc suppression displayed in currently obtained MgB2 films by various techniques may arise from the different levels of disorder present in the film or different extents of proximity effect at the film surface or film-substrate interface.

  11. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Superconducting Nanocrystalline MgB 2

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Jun; Xiao, Zhili; Lin, Qiyin; ...

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) is considered a promising material for practical application in superconducting devices, with a transition temperature near 40 K. In the present paper, nanocrystalline MgB 2 with an average particle size of approximately 70 nm is synthesized by reacting LiBH 4 with MgH 2 at temperatures as low as 450 ° C. This synthesis approach successfully bypasses the usage of either elemental boron or toxic diborane gas. The superconductivity of the nanostructures is confirmed by magnetization measurements, showing a superconducting critical temperature of 38.7 K.

  12. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting microbridges by focused ion beam direct milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuena; Li, Yanli; Xu, Zhuang; Kong, Xiangdong; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    MgB2 superconducting microbridges were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) direct milling on MgB2 films. The surface topography of the microbridges were observed using SEM and AFM and the superconductivity was measured in this paper. Lots of cracks and holes were found near the milled area. And the superconducting transition temperature was decreased a lot and the bridges prepared were not superconducting due to ion damage after milled with large dose. Through these works, we explored the effect regular of FIB milling and experimental parameters on the performance of microbridges.

  13. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Lang, Andrew C.; Taheri, Mitra; Cunnane, Dan; Karasik, Boris. S.; Xi, X. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  14. Transport behavior and critical current densities in MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Feng, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Koshizuka, N.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, P. X.; Liu, X. H.; Ji, P.; Du, S. J.; Liu, C. F.

    2001-09-01

    We report on the transport and magnetization properties of MgB2 wires fabricated by a powder-in-tube (PIT) technique. Temperature and magnetic-field-dependent resistivity displays a high conductivity and upper critical field Hc2 generally observed in dense samples. The electronic mass anisotropy γ≈1.3±0.15 predicts some texturing in the wire. Our data on transition temperature TC, Hc2, and both magnetic and transport critical current density Jc indicate that MgB2 can be manufactured in a wire form using a PIT technique and required engineering Jc can be achieved on further optimization.

  15. Effect of heat-treatment temperatures on density and porosity in MgB 2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Yan, G.; Du, S. J.; Xi, W.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.

    2003-04-01

    The density, porosity, and microstructures of MgB 2 samples are very important factors for transition critical current density. The effect of heat-treatment temperatures on density and porosity in MgB 2 superconductors has been investigated. The open porosity increases with increasing heat-treatment temperatures, but close porosity decreases. The calculated theory densities from the lattice parameters of the measured samples are 2.6-2.63 g/cm 3. The average measured total porosity (including open and close porosity) is about 50%.

  16. Preparation and properties of amorphous MgB2/MgO superstructures: Model disordered superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemons, W.; Steiner, M. A.; Koster, G.; Blank, D. H. A.; Beasley, M. R.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a unique method for fabricating MgB2/MgO multilayers and demonstrate the potential for using them as a new model for disordered superconductors. In this approach, we control the annealing of the MgB2 to yield an interesting new class of disordered (amorphous) superconductors with relatively high transition temperatures. The multilayers appear to exhibit quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity with controlled anisotropy. We discuss the properties of the multilayers as the thickness of the components of the bilayers vary.

  17. Tunneling spectroscopy and magnetization measurements of the superconducting properties of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharoni, Amos; Felner, Israel; Millo, Oded

    2001-06-01

    Cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy and magnetization measurements were used to study the superconducting properties of MgB2. The magnetization measurements show a sharp superconductor transition at Tc=39 K, in agreement with previous works. The tunneling spectra exhibit BCS-like gap structures, with gap parameters in the range of 5 to 7 meV, yielding a ratio of 2Δ/kBTc~3-4. This suggests that MgB2 is a conventional BCS s-wave superconductor, either in the weak-coupling or in the ``intermediate-coupling'' regime.

  18. Preparation of variable-thickness MgB 2 thin film bridges by AFM nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregor, M.; Plecenik, A.; Plecenik, T.; Tomasek, M.; Kus, P.; Micunek, R.; Stefecka, M.; Zahoran, M.; Grancic, B.; Kubinec, M.; Gasparik, V.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on preparation of superconducting MgB2 thin films and variable-thickness MgB2 thin film bridges using the Atomic Force Microscope nanolithographic technique. Microstructures and their following variable-thickness bridges were prepared on nonsuperconducting MgB thin films. Final structures were annealed in argon atmosphere at temperature 680 °C and exhibit transition to the superconducting state Tcon = 33 K and zero critical temperature Tc0 = 30.5 K. Critical current density jc (4.2 K) measured on the bridge was higher than 106 A/cm2.

  19. An innovative technique to synthesize C-doped MgB2 by using chitosan as the carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovone, G.; Vignolo, M.; Bernini, C.; Kawale, S.; Siri, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    Here, we report a new technique to synthesize carbon-doped MgB2 powder. Chitosan was innovatively used as the carbon source during the synthesis of boron from boron oxide. This allowed the introduction of local defects, which later on served as pinning centers in MgB2, in the boron lattice itself, avoiding the traditional and time consuming ways of ex situ MgB2 doping (e.g. ball milling). Two volume percentages of C-doping have been tried and its effect on the superconducting properties, evaluated by magnetic and transport measurements, are discussed here. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed nano-metric grains’ distribution in the boron and MgB2 powder. Mono-filamentary MgB2 wires have been fabricated by an ex situ powder-in-tube technique by using the thus prepared carbon-doped MgB2 and pure MgB2 powders. Transport property measurements on these wires were made and compared with MgB2 wire produced using commercial boron.

  20. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, A. B.; Subhedar, K. M.; Hyam, R. S.; Talaptra, A.; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Pawar, S. H.

    2005-06-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods.

  1. Flux jump behaviors and mechanism of FeTi doped MgB2 at 5 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. B.; Kim, G. C.; Kim, Y. C.; Ahmad, D.

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the flux jump behaviors of Fe-doped MgB2 according to content of FeTi particles at 5 K, at which flux jump has been shown to be more frequent. The samples were synthesized in a stainless steel tube with Mg, B and FeTi particles. The motives of flux jump in MgB2 superconductors are over-moving fluxes around the defects and the low heat capacity of MgB2. MgB2 was doped with FeTi particles to overcome these vulnerable points of MgB2. The flux jump of MgB2 decreased with increasing content of doped FeTi particles. On the other hand, excessive doping of FeTi resulted in a decrease of diamagnetic properties and the flux pinning effects together. It is concluded that FeTi particles in MgB2 do not block the flux jump itself, but the propagation of flux jump of MgB2.

  2. Concurrent doping effect of Ti and nano-diamond on flux pinning of MgB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ke, C.; Cheng, C. H.; Feng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Munroe, P.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-diamond and titanium concurrently doped MgB2 nanocomposites have been prepared by solid state reaction method. The effects of carbon and Ti concurrent doping on Jc-H behavior and pinning force scaling features of MgB2 have been investigated. Although Tc was slightly depressed, Jc of MgB2 have been significantly improved by the nano-diamond doping, especially in the high field region. In the mean time, the Jc value in low field region is sustained though concurrent Ti doping. Microstructure analysis reveals that when nano-diamond was concurrently doped with titanium in MgB2, a unique nanocomposite in which TiB2 forms a thin layer surrounding MgB2 grains whereas nano-diamond particles were wrapped inside the MgB2 grains. Besides, nano-diamond doping results in a high density stress field in the MgB2 samples, which may take responsibility for the Δκ pinning behavior in the carbon-doped MgB2 system.

  3. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB 2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E. W.

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  4. Effect of deformation with Bridgman anvils on the structure, hardness, and critical current of a massive MgB2-based sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akshentsev, Yu. N.; Degtyarev, M. V.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Krinitsina, T. P.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Blinova, Yu. V.; Sudareva, S. V.; Romanov, E. P.

    2015-05-01

    The structure and properties of synthesized massive MgB2-based samples subjected to deformation with Bridgman anvils have been studied. Deformation results in the formation of fine-grained structure of the MgB2 phase, enhancement of interconnection of grains, complete disappearance of friable MgB2-phase areas, and abrupt increase in the microhardness.

  5. A Superconducting Joint Technique for MgB2 Round Wires

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Weijun; Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to superconductively splice multifilament MgB2 wires. To date the technique has achieved joints capable of carrying a superconducting current of 200 A at 10 K in self field. Joints details, as well as testing methods and results are presented here. PMID:20671806

  6. The doping effect of multiwall carbon nanotube on MgB2/Fe superconductor wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yeoh, W. K.; Qin, M. J.; Xu, X.; Dou, S. X.

    2006-07-01

    We evaluated the doping effect of two types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different aspect ratios on MgB2/Fe monofilament wires. Relationships between microstructure, magnetic critical current density (Jc), critical temperature (Tc), upper critical field (Hc2), and irreversibility field (Hirr) for pure and CNT doped wires were systematically studied for sintering temperature from 650to1000°C. As the sintering temperature increased, Tc for short CNT doped sample slightly decreased, while Tc for long CNT doped sample increased. This indicates better reactivity between MgB2 and short CNT due to its small aspect ratio, and substitution of carbon (C) from short CNT for boron (B) occurs. In addition, short CNT doped samples sintered at high temperatures of 900 and 1000°C exhibited excellent Jc, and this value was approximately 104A /cm2 in fields up to 8T at 5K. This suggests that short CNT is a promising carbon source for MgB2 superconductor with excellent Jc. In particular, inclusion of nanosized MgO particles and substitution of C into the MgB2 lattice could result in strong flux pinning centers.

  7. Coexistence of covalent and metallic bonding in the boron intercalation superconductor MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Schilfgaarde, M. Van; Antropov, V. P.

    2001-09-01

    Chemical bonding and electronic structure of MgB2, a boron-based newly discovered superconductor, is studied using self-consistent band-structure techniques. Analysis of the transformation of the band structure for the hypothetical series of graphite-primitive graphite-primitive graphitelike boron-intercalated boron, shows that the band structure of MgB2 is graphitelike, with π bands falling deeper than in ordinary graphite. These bands possess a typically delocalized and metallic, as opposed to covalent, character. The in-plane σ bands retain their two-dimensional (2D) covalent character, but exhibit a metallic hole-type conductivity. The coexistence of 2D covalent in-plane and three-dimensional (3D) metallic-type interlayer conducting bands is a peculiar feature of MgB2. We analyze the 2D and 3D features of the band structure of MgB2 and related compounds, and their contributions to conductivity.

  8. Temperature dependence of superconducting gap and penetration depth for MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Seniye; Ozbas, Omer

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated both the temperature dependence of magnetic penetration depth and superconducting energy gap for magnesium diboride (MgB2) by considering several models such as Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS), two fluids and two band Eliashberg model. These models are compared with each others and available literature results. Several studies reported that MgB2 has two different superconducting gaps. That is, the multi-band superconductor MgB2 exhibits two dimensional (2D) σ-band and three-dimensional (3D) π-band superconductivity and have the remarkably high critical temperature (Tc= 39K) all of the metallic superconductors. So, recently it has attracted great attention. The superconductivity in MgB2 has been analyzed by using two band Eliashberg model. We also have calculated the temperature dependence of the superconducting gaps (Δσ and Δπ) and compared them with the available experimental data and the other theoretical predictions.

  9. Rational design of MgB2 conductors toward practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Motaman, Ashkan; Barua, Shaon; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Kim, Jung Ho

    2014-09-01

    We report the research progress that has been made on developing rational MgB2 superconducting conductors toward practical applications. Owing to the poor performance of the critical current density (Jc) of bare MgB2, various techniques have been developed to overcome this obstacle. Among these, chemical doping has proved to be the most effective way to enhance the superconducting properties, such as Jc and the irreversibility field (Birr). More than a hundred different forms of dopants have been investigated over the past 13 years. Among these, the most effective dopants have been identified to be silicon carbide, carbon, and malic acid. The best results, Birr of 22 T and Jc of 40,000 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T, have been reported for malic acid treated MgB2 conductors, which have matched the benchmark performance of commercial low temperature superconductor wire such as Nb-Ti. This work will review and discuss the progress on MgB2 conductor development over the past few years at the University of Wollongong and Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  10. Thickness dependence of Jc (0) in MgB2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-06-01

    MgB2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 μm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the Tc and the Jc of MgB2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, Tc elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while Jc (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum Jc (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 108 A cm-2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB2 films.

  11. Point pinning centers in SiC doped MgB2 wires after HIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Zaleski, A.; Morawski, A.; Cetner, T.; Thong, C. J.; Rindfleisch, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    In this study we show that dominant point pinning mechanisms in SiC doped MgB2 wires can be obtained by annealing in high isostatic pressure. The results indicate that the point pinning centers increase the critical current density in medium and high magnetic fields, but not at low magnetic fields. In addition, our study shows that dominant pinning mechanism changes from point to surface type with increase of magnetic fields. An MgB2 wire heat treated in a high pressure of 1.4 GPa shows a high critical current density of 100 A mm-2 in 13 T at 4.2 K. Scanning electron microscope studies show that high isostatic pressure increases the density of the MgB2 material, eliminates voids, allows for small Si precipitates and homogeneous distribution of Si precipitates. Transport measurements E - B and E - I show that the MgB2 wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research did not heat up after transition into a normal state. This is important for applications in coils.

  12. High-performance dense MgB2 superconducting wire fabricated from mechanically milled powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Motomune; Suzuki, Takaaki; Tanaka, Hideki; Okishiro, Kenji; Okamoto, Kazutaka; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the relatively high critical temperature and the low manufacturing cost, MgB2 superconducting wires are promising for liquid helium-free superconducting applications. Today, commercially available MgB2 wires are manufactured by either an in situ or ex situ powder-in-tube process, the in situ process being more effective to obtain high critical current density. In in situ-processed wires, however, the critical current density is seriously suppressed by the high porosity of MgB2 filaments. To resolve this problem, we propose an innovative method of using precursor powder prepared by mechanical milling of magnesium, boron, and coronene powders. This precursor powder has a metal–matrix–composite structure, in which boron particles are dispersed in a magnesium matrix. The plastic deformation of the precursor powder through wire processing leads to compact packing, and a dense MgB2 filament is generated after heat treatment. As a result, the limitation of critical current density that occurs for the typical in situ process is overcome, and the practical critical current density of 103 A mm‑2 is obtained at 10 K and 6.1 T, at 15 K and 4.8 T, and at 20 K and 3.3 T.

  13. Strongly connected ex situ MgB2 polycrystalline bulks fabricated by solid-state self-sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ogino, Hiraku; Kishio, Kohji

    2012-11-01

    The transport current carrying capacity of ex situ processed MgB2 is expected to be greatly enhanced if a strong intergrain connectivity can be realized. Although percolation theory predicts that ex situ MgB2 samples should have a high connectivity of over 30% due to their high bulk density (P ≈ 75%), the reported connectivities of ex situ MgB2 bulks and wires are generally less than 10%. This is presumably because ex situ MgB2 has a much weaker intergrain connectivity than in situ MgB2. It is well known that heat treatment after cold working of ex situ MgB2 improves the connectivity and the critical current density. However, it is currently unclear whether such heat treatment induces self-sintering that results in the formation of necks, the elimination of pores, and an increase in contact area. In the present study, we investigated the microstructure, normal-state electrical connectivity, and critical current density of ex situ MgB2 polycrystalline bulks prepared by systematically varying the sintering conditions under low pressure. Samples heated at a high temperature of ˜900 °C for a long period showed an increased packing factor, a larger intergrain contact area, and a significantly enhanced electrical connectivity, all of which indicate solid-state self-sintering of MgB2. Sintered ex situ MgB2 bulks from a laboratory-made ball-milled powder exhibited a greatly enhanced connectivity of 28%, which is the highest connectivity of pressureless ex situ MgB2 bulks, wires, and tapes. Surprisingly, grain growth did not occur during long-duration (˜100 h) sintering in the sintered ex situ MgB2 bulks. This is in marked contrast to in situ processed MgB2 samples, for which significant grain growth occurred during heat treatment at ˜900 °C, producing grains that are several tens of times larger than the initial boron grains. Consequently, the critical current density as a function of the external magnetic field at 20 K progressively improved with sintering due to the relatively small grain size and good intergrain connectivity. We thus conclude that solid-state self-sintering is an effective approach for producing strongly connected, dense ex situ MgB2 polycrystals without grain growth.

  14. Effect of Non-substitutional Hole Doping on the Tc of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Danhao; Adu, Kofi; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Hess, Dustin; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    We report, for the first time, an increase in the superconducting critical temperature, TC of MgB2 by a nonsubstitutional hole-doping of the MgB2 structure using minute, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) inclusions. We varied the SWCNT concentration from 0.05wt% to 5wt% and investigated the temperature-dependent resistivity and TEP from 5K to 300K. We used micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction to analyze the interfacial interactions between the SWCNTs and the MgB2 grains. We obtained an increase in TC from 33.0 to 37.8K (ΔT = 4.8K) which is attributed to charge transfer from the MgB2 structure to the SWCNT structure. The charge transfer phenomenon is confirmed by micro-Raman analysis of the phonon states of the SWCNT tangential band frequency in the composites. We determined the charge transfer per carbon atom to be 0.0023/C, 0.0018/C and 0.0008/C for 0.05wt%, 0.5wt% and 5wt% SWCNT inclusions, respectively, taking into account the contributions from the softening of the lattice constant and the nonadiabatic (dynamic) effects at the Fermi level. This report provides an experimental, alternative pathway to hole-doping of MgB2 without appealing to chemical substitution. This Work is Supported by Penn State Altoona Undergraduate Research Sponsored Program and Penn State Materials Research Institute, University Park.

  15. Fabrication and radio frequency test of large-area MgB2 films on niobium substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhimao; Guo, Xin; Welander, Paul B.; Yang, Can; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Feng, Qingrong; Liu, Kexin

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a promising candidate material for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities because of its higher transition temperature and critical field compared with niobium. To meet the demand of RF test devices, the fabrication of large-area MgB2 films on metal substrates is needed. In this work, high quality MgB2 films with 50 mm diameter were fabricated on niobium by using an improved HPCVD system at Peking University, and RF tests were carried out at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The transition temperature is approximately 39.6 K and the RF surface resistance is about 120 μΩ at 4 K and 11.4 GHz. The fabrication processes, surface morphology, DC superconducting properties and RF tests of these large-area MgB2 films are presented.

  16. Elimination of bubbles and improvement of the superconducting properties in MgB2 films annealed using electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhuang; Kong, Xiangdong; Han, Li; Pang, Hua; Wu, Yue; Gao, Zhaoshun; Li, Xiaona

    2017-03-01

    MgB2 superconducting films can be readily obtained using the electron-beam annealing method. However, many bubbles existing in the film severely damage the surface morphology, which is known as the deleterious current-limiting mechanism. Based on morphology images and energy-dispersive spectroscopy spectra, we found that, during the annealing process, solid Mg-rich layers evaporate to form Mg vapour in the precursor film, resulting in bubbles in the film. By reducing the cycle thickness of the precursor film, we obtained MgB2 films with better properties. The root-mean-square surface roughness was 2.7 nm over a 10 × 10 μm area for a 100 nm-thick film, and the critical current density at 20 K was increased to 3.8 × 106 A cm‑2. These MgB2 films are suitable for fabricating MgB2 superconducting devices.

  17. High trapped fields in bulk MgB2 prepared by hot-pressing of ball-milled precursor powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, G.; Häßler, W.; Nenkov, K.; Scheiter, J.; Perner, O.; Handstein, A.; Kanai, T.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bulk superconducting MgB2 samples, 20 mm in diameter, were prepared by hot-pressing of ball-milled Mg and B powders using fine-grained boron powders. High maximum trapped fields of B0 = 5.4 T were obtained at 12 K in one of the investigated trapped field magnets (height 8 mm) at the centre of the bulk surface. Investigating the temperature dependence of the trapped field for short MgB2 samples (height ≤1.6 mm), trapped fields of up to B0 = 3.2 T at 15 K were achieved. These high trapped fields are related to extremely high critical current densities of up to 106 A cm-2 at 15 K, indicating strong pinning due to nanocrystalline MgB2 grains. Expected trapped field data for long trapped field magnets prepared from the available MgB2 material are estimated.

  18. Relaxation and pinning in spark-plasma sintered MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirsa, M.; Rames, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.

    2016-02-01

    The model of thermally activated relaxation developed and successfully tested on high-T c superconductors (Jirsa et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 70 0245251) was applied to magnetic data of a bulk spark-plasma sintered MgB2 sample to elucidate its magnetic relaxation behavior. MgB2 and the related borides form a superconductor class lying between classical and high-T c superconductors. In accord with this classification, the relaxation phenomena were found to be about ten times weaker than in cuprates. Vortex pinning analyzed in terms of the field dependence of the pinning force density indicates a combined pinning by normal point-like defects and by grain surfaces. An additional mode of pinning at rather high magnetic fields (of still unknown origin) was observed.

  19. Effects of glucose doping on the MgB2 superconductors using cheap crystalline boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parakkandy, Jafar Meethale; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Shah, M. Shahabuddin; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Qaid, Salem A. S.; Madhar, Niyaz Ahmad; Ramay, Shahid M.; Shar, Muhammad Ali

    2015-12-01

    We report the effect of glucose (C6H12O6) doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductor fabricated by dry mixing using planetary ball milling. Herein, as-prepared bulk polycrystalline Mg (B1-xCx) 2 samples with different doping levels (x = 0, 2, 4, and 6 at. %) were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and resistivity measurements, and microstructure analysis. When carbon doped, the reduction in critical transition temperature and shrinkage in a-lattice were obviously observed. This resulted in structural distortion of the MgB2 lattice, and thereby, enhanced an impurity scattering. In addition to these, upper critical field and high-field critical current densities were also enhanced. On the other hand, both pinning force and low-field critical current density are decreased. The high field enhancement and low field degradation are due to increase in impurity scattering and decrease in pinning force respectively.

  20. Critical current densities and irreversibility fields of MgB 2 bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumakura, H.; Takano, Y.; Fujii, H.; Togano, K.; Kito, H.; Ihara, H.

    2001-11-01

    We prepared two MgB 2 bulks by applying conventional sintering and high-pressure sintering methods, and compared the current carrying properties. Jc obtained by the resistive method was larger than that obtained by the magnetic method. Jc- B curves obtained by the resistive method showed no history effect. These results indicate that most of the superconducting currents flowing in the MgB 2 bulks were intergrain (transport) currents and intragrain currents were negligibly small. The high-pressure sintered sample with smaller grain size showed smaller field dependence of Jc and higher Birr than the conventionally sintered sample with larger grain size. This behavior can be explained by the grain boundary flux pinning.

  1. Improved chemical stability of Ti-doped MgB2 in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Cheng, C. H.; Machi, T.; Koshizuka, N.; Murakami, M.

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the degradation of critical current density (Jc) and irreversibility field (Hirr) of pure and Ti-doped MgB2 bulks by exposing the samples to water for a total of 10, 48, 100, and 124 h. We found that both Jc and Hirr of the samples were degraded by exposure to water, in various degrees depending on the doping level. In the same exposure duration, the Ti-doped samples exhibited a less sensitivity to water, which was confirmed by the less degradation of Jc and Hirr. Our results demonstrate that Ti doping is not only effective in improving the superconducting properties of MgB2 but also in enhancing its chemical stability against water.

  2. Anomalous flux flow resistivity in the two-gap superconductor MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, A.; Matsumoto, M.; Izawa, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S.

    2003-08-01

    The flux flow resistivity ρf associated with purely viscous motion of vortices in high-quality MgB2 was measured by microwave surface impedance. Flux flow resistivity exhibits unusual field dependence with strong enhancement at low field, which is markedly different to conventional s-wave superconductors. A crossover field which separates two distinct flux flow regimes having different ρf slopes was clearly observed in H‖ab plane. The unusual H dependence indicates that two very differently sized superconducting gaps in MgB2 manifest in the vortex dynamics and almost equally contribute to energy dissipation. The carrier scattering rate in two different bands is also discussed with the present results, compared to heat-capacity and thermal-conductivity results.

  3. Retention of two-band superconductivity in highly carbon-doped MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Gray, K. E.; Hinks, D. G.; Zasadzinski, J. F.; Avdeev, M.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Burley, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    Tunneling data on MgB1.8C0.2 show a reduction in the energy gap of the π bands by nearly a factor of 2 from undoped MgB2 that is consistent with the Tc reduction, but inconsistent with the expectations of the dirty limit. Dirty-limit theory for undoped MgB2 predicts a single gap about three times larger than measured and a reduced Tc comparable to that measured. Our heavily doped samples exhibit a uniform dispersion of C suggestive of significantly enhanced scattering, and we conclude that the retention of two-band superconductivity in these samples is caused by a selective suppression of interband scattering.

  4. Saturation and intrinsic dynamics of fluxons in NbTi and MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, R. V.; Newman, N.; Gandikota, R.; Singh, R. K.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2007-03-01

    The authors measured the remanent magnetization of superconducting NbTi and MgB2 as a function of time after removing an applied field. At similar reduced temperatures, the density of magnetic flux quanta (fluxons) is found to relax faster in NbTi than in MgB2. Nearer the transition, the relaxation rate in both materials exhibits a saturation that is independent of the initially applied field. This saturation occurs when the distance between fluxons is comparable to the London penetration depth. The temperature dependence of the saturation and time dependence of the relaxation can be characterized by the Anderson-Kim model [Rev. Mod. Phys. 36, 39 (1964)] for fluxon dynamics.

  5. Disorder induced evolution of two energy gaps in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Jihn

    2007-03-01

    We study disorder effect on MgB2 superconductivity using the two band model by Suhl, Matthias, and Walker. We stress the importance of the Cooper pair size effect in the response of the BCS superconductor to the perturbation: the bounded Cooper pairs see the impurities within the range of the coherence length. This effect will undermine the initial decrease of the Tc and the big energy gap due to disorder, until the resistance ratio reaches about ˜3. For the resistance ratio less than 3, weak localization starts to decouple electrons and phonons, leading to the significant decrease of both the Tc and the big gap. In particular, we trace the evolution of two energy gaps of MgB2 as a function of disorder. Estimating the inter-band scattering rate from the experimental data, we compare our calculations with experiments. We also calculate the transition temperature, Tc as a function of the resistance ratio.

  6. AC losses of single-core MgB2 wires with different metallic sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, J.; Šouc, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.

    2015-12-01

    AC losses of single-core MgB2 superconductors with different metallic sheaths (Cu, GlidCop, stainless steel and Monel) have been measured and analyzed. These wires were exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies 72 and 144 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.1 T at temperatures ranged from 18 to 40 K. The obtained results have shown that applied metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. In the case of GlidCop and Stainless Steel a negligible small effect of metallic sheath was observed. Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. In the case of Monel sheath, the hysteresis loss of magnetic sheath is dominated and AC loss of MgB2 core is practically not visible.

  7. Strong interaction between electrons and collective excitations in the multiband superconductor MgB2

    DOE PAGES

    Mou, Daixiang; Jiang, Rui; Taufour, Valentin; ...

    2015-04-08

    We use a tunable laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of the prototypical multiband BCS superconductor MgB2. Our data reveal a strong renormalization of the dispersion (kink) at ~65meV, which is caused by the coupling of electrons to the E2g phonon mode. In contrast to cuprates, the 65 meV kink in MgB2 does not change significantly across Tc. More interestingly, we observe strong coupling to a second, lower energy collective mode at a binding energy of 10 meV. As a result, this excitation vanishes above Tc and is likely a signature of the elusive Leggett mode.

  8. Feasibility study of a MgB2 superconducting magnetic cloak

    DOE PAGES

    Giunchi, Giovanni; Turrioni, Daniele; Kashikhin, Vladimir; ...

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic shielding capability of bulk MgB2 hollow cylinders can be fruitfully combined with an external paramagnetic sheath, to tailor the shape of the external magnetic flux lines. By appropriate selection of the external sheath permeability and thickness, it is possible to leave the magnetic flux lines unaltered by the shield (cloaking effect). Preliminary measurements have been performed at 4.2 K on shielding capability of bulk cylinders, which are subjected to axial and transversal magnetic fields up to 5 T. Furthermore, the cloaking conditions have been modeled to find the optimized thickness to realize the cloaking effect. The MgB2 materialmore » of the superconducting shield is also optimized to avoid low-temperature flux jumps, without losing its shielding capability.« less

  9. Ship Propulsion Motor Employing Bi-2223 and MgB2 Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsi, Swarn

    Compact and light weight direct-drive machines in large rating are desired as ship propulsion motors, and as generators for off-shore wind farm applications. A key goal for such machines is to be shipped to the site as fully assembled units. In order to achieve this goal, it is essential to construct both rotor and stator windings also using high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. Two commercially available HTS conductors are Bi-2223 (Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O) HTS with a critical temperature of about 110 K, and Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) with a critical temperature of about 40 K. The MgB2, available in small diameter wires, is suitable for manufacturing stator coils operating in high AC magnetic field environment. This chapter presents a concept design for a 40 MW, 120-RPM ship propulsion motor employing Bi-2223 for field winding and MgB2 for stator winding. Ambient temperature magnetic iron is employed on the rotor and the stator. The field winding consists of race track shaped Bi-2223 coils operating at 35 K. The stator winding, made up of MgB2 race track coils, operates at 20 K. Available off-the-shelf cryo-coolers are used for cooling all coils. The concept 40 MW motor is expected to be about 3 m in diameter, 2.3 m in axial length, and weigh around 80,000 kg. The design approach discussed here could also be used for designing large rating generators for wind farm applications.

  10. A MgB2 12.5 kVA superconductor transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hascicek, Y. S.; Akin, Y.; Baldwin, T. W.; Rindfleisch, M. M.; Yue, J.; Sumption, M. D.; Tomsic, M.

    2009-06-01

    A 12.5 kVA, MgB2 superconductor transformer was designed as five alternating stacked coils between the primary and the secondary windings. Hyper Tech Research Inc. (Hyper Tech) manufactured multifilament MgB2 superconductor wire by using a patented process called the continuous tube filling and forming (CTFF) process. The CTFF MgB2 conductor was insulated with yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using the chemical solution coating process. An all-copper former was designed and fabricated with an OD of 71 mm, ID of 42 mm and heights of 12 mm and 8 mm for primary and secondary coils, respectively. Two primary and three secondary coils were fabricated using the sol-gel insulated MgB2 wire using the W&R coil technology. One of the primary coils was tested at 4.2 K which showed better than 250 A engineering critical current. These five coils were then stacked as in the design in alternating fashion and connected and instrumented for testing. The transformer was cooled in He gas first then in liquid helium. The tests showed that the individual coils, the primary and the secondary windings performed better than the design currents. Also the open-circuit tests of the transformer showed that 1:1 transfer was achieved. This article was originally submitted for the special issue 'Selected papers from the International Conference on Superconductivity and Magnetism (ICSM2008) (Side, Turkey, 25-29 August 2008)', Superconductor Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 3.

  11. Vortex core shrinkage in a two gap superconductor: Application to MgB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graser, S.; Gumann, A.; Dahm, T.; Schopohl, N.

    2007-09-01

    As a model for the vortex core in MgB2 we study a two band model with a clean σ band and a dirty π band. We present calculations of the vortex core size in both bands as a function of temperature and show that there exists a Kramer-Pesch effect in both bands even though only one of the bands is in the clean limit. We present calculations for different π band diffusivities and coherence lengths.

  12. Recent developments in melt processed Gd-123 and MgB2 materials at RTRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Suzuki, K.; Tomita, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we will report on the current status, recent developments in GdBa2Cu3Oy "Gd-123" and MgB2 material processing, characterization, and applications at the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI). Batch-processing of Gd-123 bulk material grown in air was performed using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. In this way, we are able to fabricate materials with good quality, and uniform performance. We examined the technology of the uniform performance of the large 45 mm diameter, single grain Gd-123 bulks for use in application of NMR. For this purpose, four 5 mm thick pieces are cut vertically from a single grain Gd-123 material and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a scanning hall sensor. We found that all four pieces are single domain and exhibit a quite uniform field distribution. Furthermore, the batch-processed bulk materials are used for the construction of a chilled Maglev vehicle. On the other hand, to optimize the trapped field performance of bulk MgB2 material, several samples were prepared by solid state reaction at different temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results indicated that single phase and homogenous MgB2 bulks are produced when sintering them around 775 °C. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an uniform grain size results by controlling the processing temperature. So, higher trapped fields can be achieved in sintered MgB2 material.

  13. Magnetic relaxation and lower critical field in MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y, Feng; G, Yan; Y, Zhao; Pradhan, A. K.; F, Liu C.; X, Zhang P.; L, Zhou

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic relaxation behaviour, critical current density Jc and lower critical field Hc1 have been investigated in MgB2/Ta/Cu wires. It is found that Jc and Hc1 decrease linearly with temperature in the whole temperature region below Tc. The relaxation rate is very small and has a weak temperature dependence compared to high-Tc superconductors. Also, the pinning potential is much larger and the temperature and field dependences of the pinning potential are briefly discussed.

  14. Metallurgical phases and their magnetism at the interface of nanoscale MgB2/Fe layered structures.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, B; Keune, W; Kuncser, V; Becker, H-W; Röhlsberger, R

    2011-11-30

    We report on the characterization of metallurgical phases and their magnetism at the interfaces of nanoscale MgB(2)/Fe layered structures. MgB(2)/(57)Fe multilayers with varying layer thicknesses were prepared by vacuum deposition and investigated, before and after annealing by electrical resistance measurements, x-ray diffraction and (57)Fe conversion-electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) down to 5 K. Interfacial Fe-B phases, such as Fe(2)B, were identified by CEMS. A superparamagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition is observed with increasing (57)Fe film thickness. Ultrahigh vacuum annealing at 500 °C of the multilayers leads to strong diffusion of Fe atoms into the boundary regions of the MgB(2) layers. MgB(2) in the as-grown multilayers is non-superconducting. Structural disorder and the effect of Fe interdiffusion contribute to the suppression of superconductivity in the MgB(2) films of all the as-grown multilayers and the thinner annealed multilayers. However, an annealed MgB(2)/(57)Fe/MgB(2) trilayer with thicker (500 Å) MgB(2) layers is observed to be superconducting with an onset temperature of 25 K. At 5 K, the annealed trilayer can be conceived as being strongly chemically modulated, consisting of two partially Fe-doped superconducting MgB(2) layers separated by an interdiffused weakly magnetic Fe-B interlayer, which is characterized by a low hyperfine magnetic field B(hf) of ∼11 T. This chemically modulated layer structure of the trilayer after annealing was verified by Rutherford backscattering.

  15. Metallurgical phases and their magnetism at the interface of nanoscale MgB2/Fe layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B.; Keune, W.; Kuncser, V.; Becker, H.-W.; Röhlsberger, R.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the characterization of metallurgical phases and their magnetism at the interfaces of nanoscale MgB2/Fe layered structures. MgB2/57Fe multilayers with varying layer thicknesses were prepared by vacuum deposition and investigated, before and after annealing by electrical resistance measurements, x-ray diffraction and 57Fe conversion-electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) down to 5 K. Interfacial Fe-B phases, such as Fe2B, were identified by CEMS. A superparamagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition is observed with increasing 57Fe film thickness. Ultrahigh vacuum annealing at 500 °C of the multilayers leads to strong diffusion of Fe atoms into the boundary regions of the MgB2 layers. MgB2 in the as-grown multilayers is non-superconducting. Structural disorder and the effect of Fe interdiffusion contribute to the suppression of superconductivity in the MgB2 films of all the as-grown multilayers and the thinner annealed multilayers. However, an annealed MgB2/57Fe/MgB2 trilayer with thicker (500 Å) MgB2 layers is observed to be superconducting with an onset temperature of 25 K. At 5 K, the annealed trilayer can be conceived as being strongly chemically modulated, consisting of two partially Fe-doped superconducting MgB2 layers separated by an interdiffused weakly magnetic Fe-B interlayer, which is characterized by a low hyperfine magnetic field Bhf of ˜11 T. This chemically modulated layer structure of the trilayer after annealing was verified by Rutherford backscattering.

  16. Flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks during pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Naito, T.; Ainslie, M. D.; Giunchi, G.

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of a high-J c MgB2 bulk disk has been investigated at 20 K, in which flux jumps frequently occur for high pulsed fields. Using a numerical simulation of the PFM procedure, we estimated the time dependence of the local magnetic field and temperature during PFM. We analyzed the electromagnetic and thermal instability of the high-J c MgB2 bulk to avoid flux jumps using the time dependence of the critical thickness, d c(t), which shows the upper safety thickness to stabilize the superconductor magnetically, and the minimum propagation zone length, l m(t), to obtain dynamical stability. The values of d c(t) and l m(t) change along the thermally-stabilized direction with increasing temperature below the critical temperature, T c. However, the flux jump can be qualitatively understood by the local temperature, T(t), which exceeds T c in the bulk. Finally, possible solutions to avoid flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks are discussed.

  17. Influence of nanocrystalline boron precursor powder on superconductivity in MgB2 bulk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Lu, Cheng; Zhou, Sihai; Joo, Jinho

    2009-12-01

    In this report, high-purity nanocrystalline boron powders processed by ball-milling were used as the precursor powders to fabricate MgB2 superconductor. The transport properties and the critical current density in the samples made from ball-milled boron powders and as-supplied boron powders were investigated. It was found that the ball-milled boron powders led to a significant enhancement of the critical current density in MgB2 sintered at 650 degrees C. The reason can be attributed to the small MgB2 grain size caused by the ball-milled boron precursor powders. The resistivity of the samples made from the ball-milled boron powder was lower than that of the sample from as-supplied boron powder. As the sintering temperature increased, both resistivity and upper critical field decreased in the samples using the ball-milled boron powders as a precursor. Poor connectivity and large strain are responsible for the high resistivity.

  18. Effect of fabrication route on density and connectivity of MgB2 filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljamaa, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Štrbík, V.; Dobročka, E.

    2010-06-01

    Series of samples was manufactured to test the effect of fabrication route on the density of the polycrystalline core, the connectivity between MgB2 grains and also the critical current density of undoped MgB2 conductors. All the samples had titanium sheaths and were manufactured using the Powder-in-Tube method. The Ti tubes were filled with either in situ, ex situ, or 60%-40% mixture of in situ and ex situ powders. After powder packing, the samples went through different deformation steps such as rotary swaging, two-axial rolling, pressing, cold isostatic pressing, or some combination of these, to form monofilamentary tapes. The core density was qualitatively estimated by measuring the Vickers microhardness from several locations of the ceramic filament. The changes in connectivity, or effective cross-section, were evaluated by performing resistivity measurements on the MgB2 cores after removal of the metallic sheath. The Jc characteristics were measured at 4.2 K and at variable external magnetic flux densities.

  19. Investigation on the levitation force behaviour of malic acid added bulk MgB2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaskan, B.; Taylan Koparan, E.; Celik, S.; Ozturk, K.; Yanmaz, E.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of malic acid addition (from 0 to 15 wt% of the total MgB2) on the levitation force properties of bulk MgB2 have been investigated. All samples were prepared from magnesium powder, amorphous boron powder, malic acid (C4H6O5) and toluene (C7H8) by using two-step solid state reaction method. Vertical and lateral levitation force measurements that are under both zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes were carried out at different temperatures of 24, 28 and 32 K for samples with various adding level. It was found that the reasonable malic acid adding has a positive impact on the levitation properties. At 24 K and 28 K, the 4 wt% and 6 wt% malic acid added samples exhibits a higher levitation force than pure sample. In the case of the optimally additive 4 wt% sample, the maximum levitation force corresponds to 18.60 N, whereas the pure sample shows 16.95 N at 24 K for ZFC regime. In this study the enhancing effect of malic acid adding on the levitation force properties of MgB2 has been first time investigated and reported.

  20. Superior high-field current density in slightly Mg-deficient MgB2 tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. H.; Nakane, T.; Kumakura, H.

    2005-12-01

    A series of Fe-clad MgxB2 tapes with x varying from 0.5 to 1.2 was prepared by the in situ powder-in-tube method. Slightly Mg-deficient samples showed higher Jc in high magnetic fields, whereas samples with stoichiometric Mg or a slight excess of Mg exhibited better Jc in the low-field region. The sample with x =0.9 showed the best Jc in the applied magnetic field. The MgB2 core was porous in Mg-deficient tapes but with smaller grain sizes than the samples with a slight Mg excess due to insufficient grain growth. Some fine nanometer size grains were also observed in the B-rich samples. The enhanced grain boundary pinning due to the smaller grain size may explain the superior high-field Jc property of the slightly Mg-deficient MgB2 tapes. Our results indicate that preparing MgB2 samples with a slight excess of Mg may not be advantageous when developing devices for high-field applications.

  1. Superconducting properties of adipic-acid-doped bulk MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajpayee, Arpita; Awana, V. P. S.; Bhalla, G. L.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.; Kishan, H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the effect of adipic acid (C6H10O4) doping on lattice parameters, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc), current density (Jc) and irreversibility field (Hirr) for an MgB2 superconductor. Actual carbon (C) substitution level for boron (B) is estimated to be from 0.40 at.% to 2.95 at.% for different doping levels. A reduction in Tc from 38.43 to 34.93 K and in lattice parameter a from 3.084(3) Å to 3.075(6) Å is observed for the 10 wt% C6H10O4 doped sample in comparison to pristine MgB2. This is an indication of C substitution at boron sites, with the C coming from the decomposition of C6H10O4 at the time of reaction. Interestingly the doped samples have resulted in significant enhancement of Jc and Hirr. All the doped samples exhibit the Jc value of the order of 104 A cm-2 at 5 K and 8 T, which is higher by an order of magnitude as compared to the undoped sample. This result indicates that C6H10O4 is a promising material for MgB2 for obtaining the excellent Jc values under higher magnetic fields.

  2. Solid cryogen: a cooling system for future MgB2 MRI magnet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Maeda, Minoru; Tomsic, Mike; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-03-02

    An efficient cooling system and the superconducting magnet are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Herein, we report a solid nitrogen (SN2) cooling system as a valuable cryogenic feature, which is targeted for easy usability and stable operation under unreliable power source conditions, in conjunction with a magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting magnet. The rationally designed MgB2/SN2 cooling system was first considered by conducting a finite element analysis simulation, and then a demonstrator coil was empirically tested under the same conditions. In the SN2 cooling system design, a wide temperature distribution on the SN2 chamber was observed due to the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel components. To overcome this temperature distribution, a copper flange was introduced to enhance the temperature uniformity of the SN2 chamber. In the coil testing, an operating current as high as 200 A was applied at 28 K (below the critical current) without any operating or thermal issues. This work was performed to further the development of SN2 cooled MgB2 superconducting coils for MRI applications.

  3. The size effect on the magnetic levitation force of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaskan, B.; Koparan, E. T.; Güner, S. B.; Celik, S.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the size effect on the magnetic levitation performance of disk-shaped MgB2 bulk superconductors and permanent magnets was investigated. MgB2 samples with varying diameters of 13 mm, 15 mm and 18 mm, each of which were 2 g in mass, were prepared by two-step solid state reaction method. Vertical levitation force measurements under both zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes were carried out at different temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K. It was determined that the levitation force of the MgB2 strongly depends on both the diameters of the sample and the permanent magnet. In ZFC regime, the maximum levitation force value for the permanent magnet and the sample 18 mm in diameters reached to the 8.41 N at 20 K. In addition, in FC regime, attractive and repulsive force increased with increasing diameters of the sample and the permanent magnet. In that, the sample with 18 mm in diameter showed the highest attractive force value -3.46 N at 20 K and FC regime. The results obtained in this study are very useful in magnetic levitation devices as there is no detailed study on the size of superconductors and permanent magnets.

  4. Fabrication of superconducting MgB2 nanostructures by an electron beam lithography-based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portesi, C.; Borini, S.; Amato, G.; Monticone, E.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of magnesium diboride nanowires realized by an electron beam lithography (EBL)-based method. For fabricating MgB2 thin films, an all in situ technique has been used, based on the coevaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater, respectively. Since the high temperatures required for the fabrication of good quality MgB2 thin films do not allow the nanostructuring approach based on the lift-off technique, we structured the samples combining EBL, optical lithography, and Ar milling. In this way, reproducible nanowires 1 μm long have been obtained. To illustrate the impact of the MgB2 film processing on its superconducting properties, we measured the temperature dependence of the resistance on a nanowire and compared it to the original magnesium diboride film. The electrical properties of the films are not degraded as a consequence of the nanostructuring process, so that superconducting nanodevices may be obtained by this method.

  5. Magnetization AC losses in MgB2 wires made by IMD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, J.; Šouc, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization AC losses of MgB2 superconductors with one and four filaments made by an internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) into boron process were measured and analyzed. For AC loss measurement a system based on a calibration-free method was used. Short samples of MgB2 wires were exposed to an external magnetic field with amplitudes up to 0.07 T, frequencies up to 1200 Hz, and a temperature range between 15 K and 40 K. A strong effect of eddy current losses was found in single-core wire containing pure copper sheath, which was proved by the same wire measurement after Cu etching. The impact of coupling current losses in non-twisted four-filament wire and the decoupling effect after twisting were observed. Coupling current losses in a low-frequency region were effectively reduced in agreement with theoretical assumption. The degradation of transport currents due to torsion stress by twisting was taken into account and the normalized AC losses of MgB2 wires made by IMD and powder-in-tube processes were compared. It appears that the IMD process is more perspective for AC applications due to much higher current densities and smaller degradation of current-carrying capability by twisting.

  6. Solid cryogen: a cooling system for future MgB2 MRI magnet

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Maeda, Minoru; Tomsic, Mike; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-01-01

    An efficient cooling system and the superconducting magnet are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Herein, we report a solid nitrogen (SN2) cooling system as a valuable cryogenic feature, which is targeted for easy usability and stable operation under unreliable power source conditions, in conjunction with a magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting magnet. The rationally designed MgB2/SN2 cooling system was first considered by conducting a finite element analysis simulation, and then a demonstrator coil was empirically tested under the same conditions. In the SN2 cooling system design, a wide temperature distribution on the SN2 chamber was observed due to the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel components. To overcome this temperature distribution, a copper flange was introduced to enhance the temperature uniformity of the SN2 chamber. In the coil testing, an operating current as high as 200 A was applied at 28 K (below the critical current) without any operating or thermal issues. This work was performed to further the development of SN2 cooled MgB2 superconducting coils for MRI applications. PMID:28251984

  7. Solid cryogen: a cooling system for future MgB2 MRI magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Maeda, Minoru; Tomsic, Mike; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-03-01

    An efficient cooling system and the superconducting magnet are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Herein, we report a solid nitrogen (SN2) cooling system as a valuable cryogenic feature, which is targeted for easy usability and stable operation under unreliable power source conditions, in conjunction with a magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting magnet. The rationally designed MgB2/SN2 cooling system was first considered by conducting a finite element analysis simulation, and then a demonstrator coil was empirically tested under the same conditions. In the SN2 cooling system design, a wide temperature distribution on the SN2 chamber was observed due to the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel components. To overcome this temperature distribution, a copper flange was introduced to enhance the temperature uniformity of the SN2 chamber. In the coil testing, an operating current as high as 200 A was applied at 28 K (below the critical current) without any operating or thermal issues. This work was performed to further the development of SN2 cooled MgB2 superconducting coils for MRI applications.

  8. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.

    2010-01-01

    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  9. MgB2 -based negative refraction index metamaterial at visible frequencies: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussow, Adil-Gerai; Akyurtlu, Alkim; Semichaevsky, Andrey; Angkawisittpan, Niwat

    2007-11-01

    The presented metamaterial consists of the matrix (magnesium diboride MgB2 in a normal state, at room temperature) with randomly (or regularly) embedded spherical nanoparticles of a polaritonic crystal, SiC. The calculations demonstrate explicitly that the metamaterial exhibits negative refraction index behavior with low losses for a scattered wave. The result stands for both random and regular distributions of SiC nanoparticles inside the MgB2 matrix. This favorable situation stems from the Drude-like behavior of both the low-energy, p2(ωp2≈1.9eV) , and the high-energy, p1(ωp1≈6.3eV) , plasmon modes of MgB2 with plasmon losses, γ⩽0.25eV . The effective medium parameters were calculated in the framework of the extended theories of Maxwell-Garnett [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 203, 385 (1904)] and Lewin [Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 94, 65 (1947)], and the obtained results are validated via ab initio finite difference time domain simulations.

  10. Critical currents of Rutherford MgB2 cables compacted by two-axial rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopera, L.; Kováč, P.; Kulich, M.; Melišek, T.; Rindfleisch, M.; Yue, J.; Hušek, I.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of Rutherford cables made of two strand layers of commercial MgB2 wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. have been made. Flat rectangular cables consisting of 12 single-core MgB2/Nb/Cu10Ni, or 6-filaments MgB2/Nb/Cu strands, both of diameter 390 mewm, were assembled using a back-twist cabling machine with transposition length of 20 mm. In order to analyze impact of the cable compaction on critical currents, cables were two-axially rolled, each by a single step reduction of 3.5%-29.7% to thickness range of 0.775-0.62 mm. It was found that by increasing the packing factor (PF) of cable above 0.79, the critical current begins to increase. It is improved nearly two times up to the PF limit 0.89. Compaction over the PF limit introduced cable degradation and decrease of critical current. Bending tests applied to cables showed that critical current degradation starts below the bending diameter 120 mm for 6-filaments Cu sheath and 70 mm for single-core Cu10Ni sheath cable. Tensile tests showed similar irreversible strain values for the both types of cables. Rutherford cables assembled of single-core strands are promising for low field (2.7-4 T) applications where low bending diameters are required.

  11. The influence of HIP on the homogeneity, Jc, Birr, Tc and Fp in MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Morawski, A.; Zaleski, A.; Kurnatowska, M.; Cetner, T.; Gajda, G.; Presz, A.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Unreacted MgB2 wires were made at Hyper Tech Research, USA by a continuous tube forming and filling method using mixtures of Mg and B with and without SiC powder additions. All of the wires underwent hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment at the Institute of High Pressure. The first part of the wire was annealed at a pressure of 1 GPa, and the second part was annealed at 0.1 MPa. In this work, we show the influence of high pressure on critical current density (Jc), pinning force (Fp), critical temperature (Tc), irreversible magnetic fields (Birr) and the Fp scaling and microstructure of MgB2 wires. The results obtained indicate that after annealing at high pressure, the MgB2 wires show increases of Jc and Fp in high magnetic fields (8 T-12 T); in SiC doped MgB2 wires, Fpmax shifts to higher magnetic fields. We also compared the Jc of the doped and undoped MgB2 wires (without HIP and with HIP). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that HIP increases the density of MgB2 material and improves its uniformity.

  12. Temperature effect on microstructure and electromagnetic performance of polycarbosilane and sugar-doped MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, A. V.; Horvat, J.; Shcherbakova, O. V.; Novosel, N.; Babić, E.; Dou, S. X.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of processing temperature on structural and superconducting properties of 10 wt.% sugar- and 10 wt.% PCS-doped MgB2 wires is systematically investigated. It is demonstrated that these dopants significantly enhance the electromagnetic performance of Fe-clad MgB2 superconductor and increase its potential for practical application. The enhancement of in-field critical current density (Jc(Ba)) and upper critical field (Bc2) is due to formation of a large amount of lattice defects caused by impurities and C substitution into the MgB2 crystal lattice. High temperature sintering of sugar-doped sample results in as high Bc2 value as 37 T (at 5 K), which correlates with higher level of C substitution into MgB2 crystal lattice in this sample. In contrast, for PCS doped MgB2 wire higher Bc2 value (32 T at 5 K) is observed at lower sintering temperatures. In spite of the fact that the level of C in the crystal lattice and Bc2 value are higher in the sugar doped MgB2 sample, this sample has lower Jc(Ba) when compared to the sample with PCS addition. We speculate that it is due to a higher level of MgO impurities in the sugar doped sample (18.6 wt.% compared to 9.15 wt.% in the PCS doped sample), which results in the dissipation of supercurrent flowing through this sample.

  13. Observation of Well-ordered Metastable Vortex Lattice Phases in Superconducting MgB2 Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Pinaki; Rastovski, Catherine; O'Brien, Timothy; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The vortex lattice (VL) symmetry and orientation in clean type-II superconductors depends sensitively on the host material anisotropy, vortex density and temperature, frequently leading to rich phase diagrams. Typically, a well-ordered VL is taken to imply a ground-state configuration for the vortex-vortex interaction. Using neutron scattering we studied the VL in MgB2 for a number of field-temperature histories, discovering an unprecedented degree of metastability in connection with a known, second-order rotation transition. This allows, for the first time, structural studies of a well-ordered, nonequilibrium VL. While the mechanism responsible for the longevity of the metastable states is not resolved, we speculate it is due to a jamming of VL domains, preventing a rotation to the ground-state orientation.

  14. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  15. The Levitation Characteristics of MGB2 Plates on Tracks of Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, E.; Bassani, E.; Giunchi, G.

    2010-04-01

    The bulk MgB2 can be manufactured in large plates by an innovative process: the reactive liquid Mg infiltration (Mg-RLI). According to this process it is possible to produce, even at lab scale, plates of 10÷20 cm in lateral dimensions. The superconducting material resulting is very dense and, even if it is in polycrystalline form, it levitates with respect to Permanent Magnets (PM), like the textured YBCO samples, up to 35 K. In order to control the levitation forces and stiffnesses of an MgB2 plate (10×10×1 cm3) moving with respect to a track of PM's (NdFeB bars arranged in 4 lines according to an Halbach disposition and separated by Iron flux concentrators), we have used an instrumented Cryogenic Levitation Apparatus (CLA). We have studied different kind of movements of the PM's track with respect to the MgB2 plate. First, we consider the vertical movement, assumed z direction, which describes the properly levitation characteristics. Secondly, we consider two kinds of lateral movements of the track, assumed x direction, with the long size of the magnets either perpendicular or parallel to the movement direction. The resulting configurations simulate the main movements that a superconducting levitating vehicle will do in a real track, either of axial or of guidance type. The levitation axial forces, measured in Field Cooling or Zero Field Cooling conditions, indicate that at the distance between superconducting plate and PM's of 4 mm it is possible to have an overall levitating pressure of 7 N/cm2.

  16. Properties of hydrostatically extruded in situ MgB2 wires doped with SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachla, W.; Morawski, A.; Kovác, P.; Husek, I.; Mazur, A.; Lada, T.; Diduszko, R.; Melisek, T.; Strbík, V.; Kulczyk, M.

    2006-01-01

    In situ nano-SiC doped MgB2 wires were fabricated from MgH2 and B powders. Hydrostatic extrusion, followed by rotary swaging and two-axial rolling, were applied as the forming processes. The critical current Jc of MgB2 wires, made from MgH2 and B powders, was significantly improved by nano-SiC doping. Nano-SiC doping substantially increased the upper critical (irreversibility) field Bc 2 above 20 T. The maximum Jc values were measured for samples having 6 at.% SiC in low field and for those having 12 at.% SiC in high field, above 10 T. During the final sintering at 670 °C, the SiC decomposed and formed an Si-rich layer at the inner circumference of the Fe sheath. The composition of the core of SiC doped wires is more inhomogeneous in comparison to undoped ones, with MgO, Mg2Si and probably Mg2SiO4 as the major segregated phases. Strong segregation of Si within the MgB2 core was also observed. The highest Tc-mid = 39.3 K was measured for undoped wire. For the optimal SiC doping amount ~6 at.%, at high field, there was no difference in Jc between hydrostatically extruded and hydrostatically extruded plus two-axially rolled wire. This can be attributed to the beneficial effect of hydrostatic extrusion, which causes higher density of the core in comparison to traditional deformation processes.

  17. Strong-coupling s-wave Superconductor MgB2 : ^11B NMR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Ishida, Kenji; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Muranaka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Norimasa; Takagiwa, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Jun

    2002-03-01

    We report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results on the recently discovered superconductor MgB_2. This binary compound exhibits a remarkably high superconducting (SC) transition temperature, Tc of ~40K, and thus attracts a great deal of attention. Numerous theoretical and experimental approaches have been performed in order to investigate SC characteristics in this compound. We have investigated a SC gap structure of MgB2 through the measurement of ^11B nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time, T_1. ^11(1/T_1T) is independent of the temperature (T) in the normal state, and decreases exponentially in the SC state, accompanied with a tiny coherence peak just below T_c. The T dependence of 1/T_1T in the SC state can be accounted for by an s-wave SC model with a large gap size of 2Δ /k_BTc ~ 5 which suggests to be in a strong-coupling regime. We carried out the measurement in Al-doped Mg_1-xAl_xB_2. 1/T1 in the SC state revealed that the size in SC gap is not changed by substituting Al for Mg. The reduction in Tc is shown to be due to the decrease of N(E_F). According to the McMillan equation, the experimental relation between Tc and the relative change in N(E_F) allowed us to estimate a characteristic phonon frequency ω ~ 700K and an electron-phonon coupling constant λ ~ 0.87. These results suggest that the high-Tc superconductivity in MgB2 is mediated by the strong electron-phonon coupling with high-frequency phonons.

  18. Thermal Transport of MgB2 Superconductors:. Interplay Between Electron and Lattice-Impurity Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Nagar, M.; Choudhary, K. K.

    We use the Kubo model to calculate the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity (κph) in MgB2 superconductors. The theory is formulated when heat transfer is limited by the scattering of phonons from defects, grain boundaries, charge carriers, and phonons. The lattice thermal conductivity in normal state of MgB2 superconductors dominates and is an artifact of strong phonon-impurity and -phonon scattering mechanism. Later on, the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity (κe) is calculated within relaxation time approximation for π and σ band carriers with s wave symmetry. Such an estimate sets an upper bound on κe and is about 30% of the total heat transfer at room temperature. The validity of the Wiedemann Franz law is also examined and an enhanced Lorenz number is obtained. Both these channels for heat transfer are clubbed and κtot develops a broad peak at about 120 K, before falling off at higher temperatures weakly. The anomalies reported are well-accounted in terms of the scattering mechanism by phonon and electron with impurities. It is shown that the behavior of the thermal conductivity is determined by competition among the several operating scattering mechanisms for the heat carriers and a balance between electron and lattice contributions. The contribution of carriers toward κ is substantial and is due to the fact that the carriers are condensed and do not carry entropy. We include comparisons with other theoretical calculations on κe and available experimental data. The numerical analysis of heat transfer in the metallic phase of MgB2 shows similar results as those revealed from experiments.

  19. Second-phase segregation and micro strain/lattice parameter dependent transition temperature in polycrystalline MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qi; Liu, Yongchang; Guo, Qianying; Ma, Zongqing; Li, Huijun

    2016-10-01

    Un-doped, metal-doped, and carbon-doped MgB2 samples were prepared by furnace cooling and quenching to investigate the second phase behavior and the resultant critical current density J c performance under different heat treatment processes, which is infrequently mentioned, and to explore the strain/lattice parameter dependence of the superconducting transition temperature. To release the residual stress, quenching induced second-phase segregation in these MgB2 samples shows a negative effect on the J c. Nevertheless, the dislocations and the lattice distortion assisted the enhancement of the high-field J c in the un-doped and metal-doped MgB2 samples, which indicated that quenching could be technically applied for the fabrication of metal-sheathed MgB2 wires and tapes to obtain excellent J c. After evaluating the micro strain and the lattice parameters’ (c and a for hexagonal lattice) variation, a dome was observed in the illustration of the strain/lattice parameter c/a dependence of T c, which differed from the reported linear relation in previous work. This suggests that the c/a ratio and the strain may be the predominant parameters for scaling of the superconducting dome width in the superconducting phase diagram of MgB2.

  20. Estimation of critical current density and grain connectivity in superconducting MgB 2 bulk using Campbell’s method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, B.; Morita, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, C.; Himeki, K.; Otabe, E. S.; Kiuchi, M.; Matsushita, T.

    2008-09-01

    Many recent reports on the critical current density ( Jc) in superconducting MgB 2 bulks indicated that improving the grain connectivity is important, since the obtained Jc values were generally much lower than those in other metallic superconductors and it was ascribed to the poor connectivity between grains in polycrystalline MgB 2. In this study, we focused on the estimation of the global critical current density, super-current path, grain connectivity and their relationships with the faults volume fraction in the MgB 2 bulks prepared by a modified PIT (powder in tube) method. Campbell’s method was applied for the purpose of obtaining the penetrating AC flux profile and the characteristic of AC magnetic field vs. penetration depth from the sample’s surface. A computer simulation on the penetrating AC flux profile in MgB 2 bulks with randomly distributed voids, oxidized grains and other faults was also carried out. Jc obtained by Campbell’s method turned out to be smaller than that obtained from the SQUID measurement, implying that the global super-current was reduced by the existence of various faults and the lack of the electrical connectivity. It was verified that the relationship between the global critical current characteristics and the faults contained in MgB 2 samples can be quantitatively clarified by comparing the simulated critical current densities and other factors with the experimental results.

  1. Negligible effect of grain boundaries on the supercurrent density in polycrystalline MgB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kijoon H. P.; Kang, W. N.; Kim, Mun-Seog; Jung, C. U.; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Choi, Eun-Mi; Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2002-04-01

    We used dc magnetization and transport measurement to estimate the superconducting critical current densities ( Jc) of polycrystalline MgB 2 sintered under high temperature and high pressure. We measured the current-voltage ( I-V) characteristics and found the existence of a vortex-glass phase in the field-temperature ( H-T) plane. This is notable in that the vortex-glass phase can be observed even in a polycrystalline specimen, which suggests that the supercurrent is not sensitive to the grain boundaries. Moreover, the transport (intergrain) Jc seems to be comparable to a magnetic (intragrain) Jc.

  2. Isotope effect on electron-phonon interaction in the multiband superconductor MgB2

    DOE PAGES

    Mou, Daixiang; Manni, Soham; Taufour, Valentin; ...

    2016-04-07

    We investigate the effect of isotope substitution on the electron-phonon interaction in the multiband superconductor MgB2 using tunable laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The kink structure around 70 meV in the σ band, which is caused by electron coupling to the E2g phonon mode, is shifted to higher binding energy by ~3.5 meV in Mg10B2 and the shift is not affected by superconducting transition. Furthermore, these results serve as the benchmark for investigations of isotope effects in known, unconventional superconductors and newly discovered superconductors where the origin of pairing is unknown.

  3. Development of hot-electron THz bolometric mixers using MgB2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnane, Daniel; Kawamura, Jonathan; Karasik, Boris S.; Wolak, Matthaeus A.; Xi, X. X.

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz high-resolution spectroscopy of interstellar molecular clouds greatly relies on hot-electron superconducting bolometric (HEB) mixers. Current state-of-the-art receivers use mixer devices made from ultrathin (~ 3-5 nm) films of NbN with critical temperature ~ 9-11 K. Such mixers have been deployed on a number of groundbased, suborbital, and orbital platforms including the HIFI instrument on the Hershel Space Observatory. Despite its good sensitivity and well-established fabrication process, the NbN HEB mixer suffers from the narrow intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth ~ 2-3 GHz and is limited to operation at liquid Helium temperature. As the heterodyne receivers are now trending towards "high THz" frequencies, the need in a larger IF bandwidth becomes more pressing since the same velocity resolution for a Doppler shifted line at 5 THz requires a 5-times greater IF bandwidth than at 1 THz. Our work is focusing on the realization of practical HEB mixers using ultrathin (10-20 nm) MgB2 films. They are prepared using a Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) process yielding ultrathin films with critical temperature ~ 37-39 K. The expectation is that the combination of small thickness, high acoustic phonon transparency at the interface with the substrate, and very short electron-phonon relaxation time may lead to IF bandwidth ~ 10 GHz or even higher. SiC continues to be the most favorable substrate for MgB2 growth and as a result, a study has been conducted on the transparency of SiC at THz frequencies. FTIR measurements show that semi-insulating SiC substrates are at least as transparent as Si up to 2.5 THz. Currently films are passivated using a thin (10 nm) SiO2 layer which is deposited ex-situ via RF magnetron sputtering. Micron-sized spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers have been fabricated using MgB2 films as thin as 10 nm. Fabrication was done using contact UV lithography and Ar Ion milling, with E-beam evaporated Au films deposited for the antenna. Measurements have been carried out on these devices in the DC, Microwave, and THz regimes. The devices are capable of mixing signals above 20 K indicating that operation may be possible using a cryogen-free cooling system. We will report the results of all measurements taken to indicate the local oscillator power requirements and the IF bandwidth of MgB2 HEB mixers.

  4. Micro-SQUIDs based on MgB2 nano-bridges for NEMS readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, L.; Li, T.; Portesi, C.; Taralli, E.; Acharya, N.; Chen, K.; Rajteri, M.; Cox, D.; Monticone, E.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.

    2016-10-01

    We show the results obtained from the fabrication and characterisation of MgB2 loops with two nano-bridges as superconducting weak links. These ring structures are made to operate as superconducting quantum interference devices and are investigated as readout system for cryogenics NEMS resonators. The nano-constrictions are fabricated by EBL and ion beam milling. The SQUIDs are characterised at different temperatures and measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The devices show high critical current densities and voltage modulations under applied magnetic field, close to the critical temperatures.

  5. Band Structure Simulations of the Photoinduced Changes in the MgB2:Cr Films

    PubMed Central

    Kityk, Iwan V.; Fedorchuk, Anatolii O.; Ozga, Katarzyna; AlZayed, Nasser S.

    2015-01-01

    An approach for description of the photoinduced nonlinear optical effects in the superconducting MgB2:Cr2O3 nanocrystalline film is proposed. It includes the molecular dynamics step-by-step optimization of the two separate crystalline phases. The principal role for the photoinduced nonlinear optical properties plays nanointerface between the two phases. The first modified layers possess a form of slightly modified perfect crystalline structure. The next layer is added to the perfect crystalline structure and the iteration procedure is repeated for the next layer. The total energy here is considered as a varied parameter. To avoid potential jumps on the borders we have carried out additional derivative procedure.

  6. Enhanced critical fields and superconducting properties of pre-doped B powder-type MgB2 strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susner, M. A.; Yang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Tomsic, M. J.; Marzik, J. V.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional doping methods that directly add C or a C-bearing species to Mg + B powder have the disadvantage of adding C inhomogeneously, yielding either under-reacted regions or, in some cases, secondary phases which may be either beneficial or detrimental. Alternatively, pre-doped B powder provides a more homogeneous distribution of the C dopant in MgB2. In this work, powders containing varying amounts of C were used to produce in situ MgB2 strands which showed high values of Bc2, Birr and transport Jc (104 A cm - 2 at 13.3 T). Compared to SiC-added and malic-acid-treated strands the pre-doped MgB2 showed high values of Birr primarily due to more efficient C substitution into the B sublattice and a concomitant increase in transport Jc.

  7. The microstructures and superconducting properties of MgB 2 bulks prepared by a high-energy milling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. F.; Lu, Y. F.; Li, J. S.; Chen, S. K.; Yan, G.; Pu, M. H.; Li, C. S.; Zhang, P. X.

    2007-12-01

    We succeeded in the synthesis of high-Jc MgB2 bulks via high energy ball-milling of elemental Mg and B powder at ambient temperatures. The mixed powder was ball-milled for 1-10 h and the completed reaction was achieved by subsequent annealing. The correlations among synthesis parameters, microstructures and superconducting properties in MgB2 bulks were investigated. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and the magnetization properties were examined by a superconducting quantum interfere device magnetometer. The highest Jc, approximately 2.3 × 105 A/cm2 (15 K, 3 T), was obtained for samples milled for 5 h and sintered at 750 °C for 1 h. It is even comparable with SiC-doped MgB2 bulks made by Dou's group, which had exhibited the strongest reported flux pinning and the highest Jc in high field to date.

  8. Cabling of Thin MgB2 Strands for High-Current Conductors with Reduced AC Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, S. I.; Braun, U.; Drechsler, A.; Goldacker, W.; Holúbek, T.; Kling, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-04-01

    Since the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 many efforts have been undertaken to improve the current carrying capacity of mono- or multifilament MgB2 conductors. However, even though MgB2 conductors can be produced in geometries which easily allow twisting or cabling, the reduction of ac losses has often played a minor role, even though many technical superconductor applications like transformers, rotating machinery, and ramped magnets require conductors with low AC losses. In this paper we present short cables together with measured AC-losses applying a simple cabling technique. Coupling losses of the cables with strands having a single component stainless steel (SS) sheath are negligible. The lower apparent measured losses of cables with Nb/Cu/SS sheaths may be explained by magnetic shielding of the Nb layer and by a systematic problem of the magnetization method for samples containing diamagnetic and ferromagnetic components.

  9. Vortex Lattice Metastability and Power Law Dynamics in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastovski, Catherine; Kuhn, S. J.; Smith, K.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Gannon, W. J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2014-03-01

    Previous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) of MgB2 with H ∥ c found a triangular VL which undergoes a field-driven 30° reorientation transition, forming three distinct ground state phases. A high degree of metastability exists between the VL phases of MgB2 that cannot be attributed to vortex pinning and may be a result of the jamming of VL domains [C. Rastovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. To further investigate the effect of vortex motion on the metastable to ground state VL transition, we applied a small AC magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to the vortices to ``shake'' the lattice. The metastable VL volume fraction decreased with a two-step power law dependence on the number of applied AC cycles. The slow and then fast power law decay of the metastable state may indicate first nucleation and then growth of ground state VL domains. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-FG02-10ER46783.

  10. Trapped Magnetic Field Properties of MgB2 Bulks Doped with Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Takafumi; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki

    We have studied the trapped magnetic field properties on doped MgB2 bulk with Ti (nominal content was Mg:Ti =0.9:0.1 and 0.8:0.2). The trapped magnetic field, BT, was enhanced by approximately 1.3 times from 2.6 T of the pristine bulk to 3.5 T of the Ti-doped bulks at 15 K. The extrapolated BT(T) curve reached 5 T below 4.2 K, indicating that 5 T class bulk magnet can be realized using MgB2 with Ti-doping. The critical current density, Jc, under the magnetic field was also enhanced by Ti-doping, therefore, an irreversibility field, Birr, of the Ti-doped bulks exceeded 5 T at 20 K. Ti and TiB2 impurities confirmed by the pow- der X-ray diffraction acted as the pinning centers and resulted in the enhancement of the trapped field and the critical current density.

  11. Thermal study of a cryogen-less MgB2 cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbauer, J. P.; Nassiri, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent efforts towards production of high-quality magnesium diboride (MgB2) coatings have raised the possibility of producing usable accelerating cavities. Work continues to reliably produce films of sufficient quality over the large, complex surface area of an accelerating cavity, but this technology would open many interesting technical opportunities. One of these is to replace the traditionally required liquid helium cryogenic systems with a dry system based on cryocoolers. This is made possible by the much higher Tc of MgB2, allowing operation closer to 30 K where cryocooler efficiency becomes competitive with alternative systems. This removes the need for pressure vessels in the cryomodule as well as internal distribution systems, greatly simplifying cryomodule design and fabrication. The lack of uniform cooling over the cavity surface, however, complicates behavior by coupling RF losses, heat leak, and cooling design in a way not seen in traditional SRF cavities. In this paper, these complexities are explored, including realistic cryocooler performance, temperature dependant RF losses, and standard thermal management challenges.

  12. High transport critical current density in Cu-clad multifilament MgB2 tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Du, S. J.; Yan, G.; Fu, B. Q.; Feng, Y.; Ji, P.; Wang, J. R.; Liu, X. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.; Cao, L. Z.; Ruan, K. Q.; Wang, C. Y.; Li, X. G.; Zhou, G. E.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2002-05-01

    Cu-clad multifilament MgB2 tapes with Ta or NbZr buffer have been fabricated by using a powder-in-tube (PIT). Mg+2B mixture powder was used as the central conductor core in single filament with Cu sheath and Ta or NbZr buffer wall. The composite tapes with 18 filaments were heat-treated in pure Ar atmosphere at 600-1000 °C for 1-10 h, and reacted in-situ to form MgB2. The phase composition and microstructure in the samples were examined by using X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Transport critical current was measured by a standard four-probe technique at different magnetic fields and temperatures. The sample with 18 filaments and NbZr buffer shows a high transport critical current density of 8×104 A/cm2 (10 K, 0 T) and 1.36×104 A/cm2 (10 K, 1 T).

  13. High critical current density and enhanced irreversibility field in superconducting MgB2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, C. B.; Lee, M. K.; Choi, J. H.; Belenky, L. J.; Song, X.; Cooley, L. D.; Naus, M. T.; Patnaik, S.; Jiang, J.; Rikel, M.; Polyanskii, A.; Gurevich, A.; Cai, X. Y.; Bu, S. D.; Babcock, S. E.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Rogado, N.; Regan, K. A.; Hayward, M. A.; He, T.; Slusky, J. S.; Inumaru, K.; Haas, M. K.; Cava, R. J.

    2001-05-01

    The discovery of superconductivity at 39K in magnesium diboride offers the possibility of a new class of low-cost, high-performance superconducting materials for magnets and electronic applications. This compound has twice the transition temperature of Nb3Sn and four times that of Nb-Ti alloy, and the vital prerequisite of strongly linked current flow has already been demonstrated. One possible drawback, however, is that the magnetic field at which superconductivity is destroyed is modest. Furthermore, the field which limits the range of practical applications-the irreversibility field H*(T)-is approximately 7T at liquid helium temperature (4.2K), significantly lower than about 10T for Nb-Ti (ref. 6) and ~20T for Nb3Sn (ref. 7). Here we show that MgB2 thin films that are alloyed with oxygen can exhibit a much steeper temperature dependence of H*(T) than is observed in bulk materials, yielding an H* value at 4.2K greater than 14T. In addition, very high critical current densities at 4.2K are achieved: 1MAcm-2 at 1T and 105Acm-2 at 10T. These results demonstrate that MgB2 has potential for high-field superconducting applications.

  14. Strongly linked current flow in polycrystalline forms of the superconductor MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbalestier, D. C.; Cooley, L. D.; Rikel, M. O.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Jiang, J.; Patnaik, S.; Cai, X. Y.; Feldmann, D. M.; Gurevich, A.; Squitieri, A. A.; Naus, M. T.; Eom, C. B.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Cava, R. J.; Regan, K. A.; Rogado, N.; Hayward, M. A.; He, T.; Slusky, J. S.; Khalifah, P.; Inumaru, K.; Haas, M.

    2001-03-01

    The discovery of superconductivity at 39K in magnesium diboride, MgB2, raises many issues, a critical one being whether this material resembles a high-temperature copper oxide superconductor or a low-temperature metallic superconductor in terms of its behaviour in strong magnetic fields. Although the copper oxides exhibit very high transition temperatures, their in-field performance is compromized by their large anisotropy, the result of which is to restrict high bulk current densities to a region much less than the full magnetic-field-temperature (H-T) space over which superconductivity is found. Moreover, the weak coupling across grain boundaries makes transport current densities in untextured polycrystalline samples low and strongly sensitive to magnetic field. Here we report that, despite the multiphase, untextured, microscale, subdivided nature of our MgB2 samples, supercurrents flow throughout the material without exhibiting strong sensitivity to weak magnetic fields. Our combined magnetization, magneto-optical, microscopy and X-ray investigations show that the supercurrent density is mostly determined by flux pinning, rather than by the grain boundary connectivity. Our results therefore suggest that this new superconductor class is not compromized by weak-link problems, a conclusion of significance for practical applications if higher temperature analogues of this compound can be discovered.

  15. Continuous- and batch-processed MgB 2/Fe strands--transport and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, E. W.; Lee, E.; Sumption, M. D.; Tomsic, M.; Wang, X. L.; Soltanian, S.; Dou, S. X.

    2003-04-01

    The tube filling/forming powder-in-tube (PIT) technique was employed at Hyper Tech Research for the continuous processing of MgB 2/Fe composite strand. Demonstration lengths of up to 70 m of 1.2 mm diameter precursor strand--an Fe-clad Mg + B elemental powder mixture--have so far been produced. Short samples of this strand, heat treated for 3-30 min/800-950 °C, have yielded transport critical current densities ( Jc) of 2-3×10 4 A/cm 2 at 4 K/4 T, 4×10 4 A/cm 2 at 4 K/2 T, and at 4 K in self field an extrapolated Jc of at least 2×10 5 A/cm 2. Batch-processed PIT MgB 2/Fe strands and tapes were made at the University of Wollongong’s Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials. These were the focus of magnetization- and magnetic-shielding studies. Depending on the thickness of the Fe sheath, the superconducting core could be completely shielded at low fields (e.g. below 2 kOe). Taking this into account, the magnetic Jc is extracted, and found to be comparable to the extrapolated transport value.

  16. MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 107 A cm-2. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm2. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB2 thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  17. Numerical modeling of MgB2 conductors for high power AC transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, F.; Chervyakov, A.; Zermeno, V.; Marian, A.; Grasso, G.; Goldacker, W.; Rubbia, C.

    2014-09-01

    Cables made of MgB2 superconductors are currently explored as a viable solution for transporting high electrical power in the AC regime. In order to be competitive against the DC solution, the cables need to have an acceptable level of AC losses. In this contribution, we discuss the main aspects relevant for designing a cable with a sufficiently low AC loss level. To this end, we perform finite-element-method (FEM) simulations to determine the current and field distributions and calculate the AC losses of such cable configuration. For current capacities of 2-5 kA (peak), power cables are assembled from a relatively small number of MgB2 strands. The performance of such cables strongly depends on the current and field distributions, which are in turn influenced by the number and the arrangement of the superconducting components and also by the magnetic properties of supporting materials. Numerical simulations can help to test different cable configurations and provide important insights for optimizing the cable's design. The numerical model includes the field dependence of the superconductor's critical current density Jc(B) as well as the non-linear properties of magnetic materials.

  18. Phase Formation and Superconductivity of Fe-TUBE Encapsulated and Vacuum-Annealed MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. P.; Awana, V. P. S.; Shahabuddin, Md.; Husain, M.; Saxena, R. B.; Nigam, Rashmi; Ansari, M. A.; Gupta, Anurag; Narayan, Himanshu; Halder, S. K.; Kishan, H.

    We report optimization of the synthesis parameters viz. heating temperature (TH), and hold time (thold) for vacuum-annealed (10-5 Torr) and LN2 (liquid nitrogen) quenched MgB2 compound. These are single-phase compounds crystallizing in the hexagonal structure (space group P6/mmm) at room temperature. Our XRD results indicated that for phase-pure MgB2, the TH for 10-5 Torr annealed and LN2-quenched samples is 750°C. The right stoichiometry i.e., MgB2 of the compound corresponding to 10-5 Torr and TH of 750°C is found for the hold time (thold) of 2.30 hours. With varying thold from 1-4 hours at fixed TH (750°C) and vacuum (10-5 Torr), the c-lattice parameter decreases first and later increases with thold (hours) before a near saturation, while the a-lattice parameter first increases and later decreases beyond a thold of 2.30 hours. The c/a ratio versus thold plot showed an inverted bell-shaped curve, touching the lowest value of 1.141, which is the reported value for perfect stoichiometry of MgB2. The optimized stoichimetric MgB2 compound exhibited superconductivity at 39.2 K with a transition width of 0.6 K. In conclusion, the synthesis parameters for phase pure stoichimetric vacuum-annealed MgB2 compound are optimized and are compared with widely-reported Ta tube encapsulated samples.

  19. Effect of cold high pressure deformation on the properties of ex situ MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulich, M.; Flükiger, R. L.; Senatore, C.; Tropeano, M.; Piccardo, R.

    2013-10-01

    A substantially different behaviour was observed between MgB2 wires produced either by in situ or ex situ processing after applying the recently developed technique of cold high pressure densification (or CHPD). In contrast to in situ wires, where densification at 1.5 GPa on binary and ternary alloyed in situ MgB2 wires causes an enhancement of mass density and a strong enhancement of Jc, ex situ wires up to 2 GPa show only a negligible enhancement of the MgB2 mass density, while a considerable enhancement of Jc is still observed. In both cases, this reflects an enhancement of grain connectivity, however in ex situ wires, the enhancement of Jc is connected to the partial disruption of the oxide layer around each MgB2 powder particle, in contrast to the enhancement of Jc in situ wires, which is correlated to a smaller void fraction and a larger contact area between neighbouring grains. It is well known that Jc of ex situ wires decreases after longer exposition times when exposed to air prior to annealing; after several months Jc falls to values ≤50% of the original value. After cold pressing, we have found that Jc of the same wire exceeded the original values, even after exposing the unreacted wire for >1 year to air. A lower electrical resistivity is measured on pressed ex situ MgB2 wires, which confirms the improvement of grain connectivity due to the breakage of the oxide layers. Thus, the application of high pressure at room temperature allows us to recover the values of Jc for ex situ wires even after they have been degraded either by low quality MgB2 precursors or by prolonged ageing of the already formed wire prior to the final heat treatment. The limits of the Jc enhancement in ex situ wires are discussed.

  20. Effects of Bi-2212 addition on the levitation force properties of bulk MgB2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Guner, S. B.; Celik, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the effects of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+κ (Bi-2212) adding on the levitation force and magnetic properties of bulk MgB2 obtained by hot press method. The amount of Bi-2212 was varied between 0 and 10 wt% (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 wt%) of the total MgB2. Moreover, we present MgB2 bulk samples fabricated by using different production methods including hot pressing method to our knowledge. All samples were prepared by using elemental magnesium (Mg) powder, amorphous nano-boron (B) powder and Bi-2212 powder which are produced by hot press method. As a result of hot press process, compact pellet samples were manufactured. The vertical and lateral levitation force measurements were executed at the temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K under zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes for samples with various adding levels. At 24 K and 28 K under ZFC regime, the 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample exhibits a higher vertical levitation force than the pure sample. Bi-2212 added MgB2 samples compared to the pure sample have lower attractive force values in FC regime. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J c was calculated from the M-H loops for Bi-2212 added MgB2 samples. The 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample has the best levitation and critical current density performance compared to other samples. The critical temperature ( T c ) has slightly dropped from 37.8 K for the pure MgB2 sample to 36.7 K for the 10 wt% of Bi-2212 added sample. The transition temperature slightly decreases when Bi-2212 adding level is increased.

  1. Sugar as an optimal carbon source for the enhanced performance of MgB2 superconductors at high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, O. V.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, J. L.; Shcherbakov, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Wexler, D.; Babić, E.; Jerčinović, M.; Husnjak, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an extended study of the effect of sugar doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. High values of the upper critical field (Bc2) of 36 T and the irreversibility field (Birr) of 27 T have been estimated at the temperature of 5 K in a bulk MgB2 sample with the addition of 10 wt% of sugar. The critical current density (Jc(Ba)) of sugar-doped samples has been significantly improved in the high field region. The value of transport Jc has reached as high as 108 A m-2 at 10 T and 5 K for Fe-sheathed sugar-doped MgB2 wire. The analysis of the pinning mechanism in the samples investigated indicated that dominant vortex pinning occurs on the surface type of pinning defects, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults etc, for both pure and doped MgB2. In sugar-doped samples, pinning is governed by numerous crystal lattice defects, which appear in MgB2 grains as a result of crystal lattice distortion caused by carbon substitution for boron and nano-inclusions. The drastically improved superconducting properties of sugar-doped samples are also attributed to the highly homogeneous distribution and enhanced reactivity of this dopant with host Mg and B powders. The results of this work suggest that sugar is the optimal source of carbon for doping MgB2 superconductor, especially for application at high magnetic fields.

  2. Design, manufacturing and tests of first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils for offshore wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Pujana, A.; Merino, J. M.; Iturbe, R.; Apiñaniz, S.; Nardelli, D.; Marino, I.

    2014-05-01

    Although renewable sector has started to take advantage of the offshore wind energy recently, the development is very intense. Turbines reliability, size, and cost are key aspects for the wind industry, especially in marine locations. A superconducting generator will allow a significant reduction in terms of weight and size, but cost and reliability are two aspects to deal with. MgB2 wire is presented as one promising option to be used in superconducting coils for wind generators. This work shows the experimental results in first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils, designed according to specific requirements of TECNALIA's wind generator concept.

  3. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis for High Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mohit Bhatia; Peter McIntyre

    2009-11-02

    Accelerator Technology Corp. (ATC) has successfully completed its Phase 1 effort to devel-op rf plasma torch synthesis of MgB2 superconducting powder. The overall objective is to de-velop a way to introduce homogeneous alloying of C and SiC impurities into phase-pure MgB2. Several groups have attained remarkable benefits from such alloying in raising the upper critical field Hc2 from ~14 T to ~30 T (bulk) and ~50 T (thin films). But no one has succeeded in pro-ducing that benefit homogeneously, so that current transport in a practical powder-in-tube (PIT) conductor is largely the same as without the alloying. ATC has conceived the possibility of attaining such homogeneity by passing aerosol suspen-sions of reactant powders through an rf plasma torch, with each reactant transported on a stream-line that heats it to an optimum temperature for the synthesis reaction. This procedure would uniquely access non-equilibrium kinetics for the synthesis reaction, and would provide the possi-bility to separately control the temperature and stoichiometry of each reactant as it enters the mixing region where synthesis occurs. It also facilitates the introduction of seed particles (e.g. nanoscale SiC) to dramatically enhance the rate of the synthesis reaction compared to gas-phase synthesis in rf plasma reported by Canfield and others. During the Phase 1 effort ATC commissioned its 60 kW 5 MHz rf source for a manufactur-ing-scale rf plasma torch. This effort required repair of numerous elements, integration of cooling and input circuits, and tuning of the load characteristics. The effort was successful, and the source has now been tested to ~full power. Also in the Phase 1 effort we encountered a subsidiary but very important problem: the world is running out of the only present supply of phase-pure amorphous boron. The starting boron powder must be in the amorphous phase in order for the synthesis reaction to produce phase-pure MgB2. Even small contamination with crystalline boron results in the formation of parasitic phases such as MgB4, MgB7, etc. Such parasitic phases are a primary element of the connectivity problem, in which even though a sample powder may contain grains of high-quality MgB2, adjacent grains are surrounded by intergrowths of parasitic phases so that current trans-port is badly degraded. The best results to date have been obtained using boron powder produced long ago for a rocket propellant development project. The synthesis process was complex and is now largely lost, and the manufacturing equipment has long since been scrapped. The last batch of the powder has been used during recent years to support MgB2 R&D at several labs, but supplies are dwindling. ATC has identified a first application of its plasma torch to synthesize phase-pure amorphous boron flake using a rapid-quench splat technique. Inexpensive technical-grade boron would be purified of contaminants, then dispersed as an aerosol in inert gas and passed through the plasma torch to melt it into a spray. The spray would be splat-condensed on a rotating drum to form pure amorphous flake. The process would begin with technical-grade boron powder, having good stoichiometric purity, nanoscale particles, but significant contamination of MgO and crystalline boron. We used wet chemistry to remove B2O3 completely and reduced the MgO impurity, and analyzed the particle size distribution using a Coulter counter and the phase composition using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The next step will be to build an rf plasma torch with a recirculating single-component aerosol feed and the cooled splat drum and collector, and undertake process devel-opment for amorphous boron powder. This revised goal has two benefits. First, it is an easier technology than our ultimate goal of a multi-component laminar flow torch. We have been counseled by those experienced in plasma torch technology that our ultimate goal will require a torch that should be feasible but has never been attempted. It may require an extended period of R&D for both the torch itself and the gas dynamics in the reaction region. Second, this simpler single-component process will yield a product powder that is important today for the many groups undertaking powder-metallurgy routes to MgB2. The above success and learning curve has brought us to a significant shift of strategy from what was originally set out in the Phase 1 plan. But this shift has brought us to within sight of a powder product that will itself be an enabling boost for the community of MgB2 developers.

  4. Analysis of the levitation force of pure and starch/polystyrene/MWCNT added bulk MgB2 superconductors using frozen image model under zero field cooling condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of superconducting levitation force between permanent magnet and polycrystalline samples of pure and MgB2 added with starch, polystyrene (PS) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been performed under zero field cooling (ZFC) condition at 20 K in both descending and ascending modes. For this, the bulk pellets were synthesized by conventional solid state sintering technique. The XRD data indicate well developed MgB2 phase. However, a decrease in lattice parameter 'a = b' have been observed for doped MgB2 samples. Superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 also decreases with starch/PS/MWCNT addition. Unlike MWCNT, the addition of starch/polystyrene is found to enhance the levitation force of MgB2 superconductor. The levitation force between PM and investigated pellets in ZFC condition is explained well in terms of the updated version of modified frozen image model and the magnetic moment originated due to vertical motion of the superconductors have been estimated. It may be noted that except for MWCNT, addition of starch/PS in MgB2 improves the magnetic moment generated by vertical movement of pure MgB2. However, this improvement is more pronounced for 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2, which indicates more flux trapping and hence better levitation properties in 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2. The vertical stiffness estimated for pure and starch/PS/MWCNT doped MgB2 samples indicate that the levitation force are more sensitive in the region close to the PM.

  5. Influence of nano-Cu additive on MgB2 phase formation, processing temperature, and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Rahul, S.; Devadas, K. M.; Thomas, Syju; Pradhan, S.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2011-02-01

    Pure and nano-Cu doped MgB2/Fe superconducting wires were prepared by in situ powder-in-tube method at different temperatures (550-675 °C). The phase formation, microstructure, and transport critical current density of the wires were investigated as a function of the heat-treatment temperature. A small amount of nano-Cu addition (2.5 wt %) was found to dramatically decrease the reaction temperature of magnesium and boron, forming MgB2 without any degradation in the transport critical current. From x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, it was found that the added Cu form a reacted phase Mg2Cu with Mg which melts at around 550 °C. This liquid phase helps the formation of MgB2 at a significant lower temperature with improved grain connectivity, grain size, and density. All Cu doped samples heat treated in the range of 550-650 °C exhibited a transport JC quite comparable to that of the pure sample processed at 650 °C, which shows that high quality MgB2 conductors can be produced even at 550 °C with minor Cu doping.

  6. Demonstration of a Conduction Cooled React and Wind MgB2 Coil Segment for MRI Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kovacs, C; Rindfleisch, M; Yue, J; Doll, D; Tomsic, M; Sumption, M D; Collings, E W

    2016-06-01

    This study is a contribution to the development of technology for an MgB2-based, cryogen-free, superconducting magnet for an MRI system. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate that a react and wind coil can be made using high performance in-situ route MgB2 conductor, and that the conductor could be operated in conduction mode with low levels of temperature gradient. In this work, an MgB2 conductor was used for the winding of a sub-size, MRI-like coil segment. The MgB2 coil was wound on a 457 mm ID 101 OFE copper former using a react-and-wind approach. The total length of conductor used was 330 m. The coil was epoxy impregnated and then instrumented for low temperature testing. After the initial cool down (conduction cooling) the coil Ic was measured as a function of temperature (15-30 K), and an Ic of 200 A at 15 K was measured.

  7. Demonstration of a Conduction Cooled React and Wind MgB2 Coil Segment for MRI Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. S.; Kovacs, C.; Rindfleisch, M.; Yue, J.; Doll, D.; Tomsic, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the development of technology for an MgB2-based, cryogen-free, superconducting magnet for an MRI system. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate that a react and wind coil can be made using high performance in-situ route MgB2 conductor, and that the conductor could be operated in conduction mode with low levels of temperature gradient. In this work, an MgB2 conductor was used for the winding of a sub-size, MRI-like coil segment. The MgB2 coil was wound on a 457 mm ID 101 OFE copper former using a react-and-wind approach. The total length of conductor used was 330 m. The coil was epoxy impregnated and then instrumented for low temperature testing. After the initial cool down (conduction cooling) the coil Ic was measured as a function of temperature (15-30 K), and an Ic of 200 A at 15 K was measured. PMID:27857508

  8. Further progresses in the development of large MgB2 Superconducting Coils for the Ignitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Grasso, G.; Coppi, B.

    2013-10-01

    Intermediate temperature superconducting cables have been adopted for the fabrication of the largest poloidal field coils of the Ignitor experiment. This is an important step toward achieving better duty cycles in Ignitor-like machines with innovative magnet technologies compared to traditional superconductors. The commercially available MgB2 strands manufactured by Columbus Superconductors can achieve the target specifications for the considered coils, about 5 meters of outer diameter and maximum field on the conductor below 5 T. These cables are also compatible with the Ignitor cryogenic system, which is designed to cool the machine at about 30 K, although MgB2 may use colder gas at 10 K. The preliminary cable design includes about 300 MgB2 multifilamentary strands of 1 mm in diameter and a copper tube for the He-gas flow in the center. Recently we have succeeded in the development of MgB2 strands with a further improvement in design and electrical properties for cable application. Reaching of a higher critical current density and better current sharing properties between the different strands is allowed by the newest design. The implementation of this progress in wire performance and its impact on the coil design will be discussed. US DOE partly sponsored.

  9. Broadband MgB2 Hot-Electron Bolometer THz Mixers Operating up to 20 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Evgenii; Cherednichenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    We discuss performance of submicron size hot-electron bolometer mixers made from thin MgB2 superconducting films. With a superconducting transition temperature of ∼30 K, such terahertz (THz) mixers can operate with high sensitivity at temperatures up to 20 K. Due to very small dimensions local oscillator power requirements are rather low. In the intermediate frequency band of 1-3 GHz, the double sideband receiver noise temperature is 1600 K at 10 K operation temperature, 2000 K at 15 K, 2500-3000 K at 20 K. The gain bandwidth of such devices is 6 GHz and the noise bandwidth is estimated to be 6-8 GHz.

  10. Superconductivity in MgPtSi: An orthorhombic variant of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Kazutaka; Fujimura, Kazunori; Onari, Seiichiro; Ota, Hiromi; Nohara, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    A ternary compound, MgPtSi, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. An examination of the compound by powder x-ray diffraction revealed that it crystallizes in the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure with the P n m a space group. The structure comprises alternately stacked layers of Mg and PtSi honeycomb network, which is reminiscent of MgB2, and the buckling of the honeycomb network causes orthorhombic distortion. Electrical and magnetic studies revealed that MgPtSi exhibited superconductivity with a transition temperature of 2.5 K. However, its isostructural compounds, namely, MgRhSi and MgIrSi, were not found to exhibit superconductivity.

  11. Thermal conductivity in large residual resistance ratio MgB2 wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A. L.; Tritt, T. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Liebenberg, D. H.

    2003-05-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity in MgB2 wires, with Tc=39.5 K, in both the superconducting and normal state regimes between 10-70 K. As expected, the thermal conductivity is increased for this sample, which has a residual resistance ratio (RRR) of about 32, as compared with earlier measurements on bulk samples with much lower RRR values. Over the measured temperature range, this more metallic material exhibits a temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in the superconducting state that is different from that in previous reports and can be ascribed primarily to defect scattering. Unusual results are presented for the magnetic field dependence of the thermal conductivity around Tc for fields up to 9 T.

  12. Stoichiometry dependence of superconductivity and microstructure in mechanically alloyed MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, O.; Eckert, J.; Häßler, W.; Fischer, C.; Acker, J.; Gemming, T.; Fuchs, G.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.

    2005-03-01

    The correlations among stoichiometry variation, preparation route, and microstructure as well as superconducting properties were investigated in MgB2 bulk samples. We demonstrate that the different initial weight ratios of Mg and B between Mg0.9B2 and Mg1.1B2 are only slightly shifted towards Mg depletion during the mechanical alloying preparation at room temperature followed by a short annealing step. The samples with Mg surplus show the highest critical temperature Tc˜36K, highest critical current density Jc˜1.5×106A/cm2 at 7.5 K in self-field, and a homogeneous microstructure. In contrast, the Mg-depleted samples exhibit a rather porous and multiphase microstructure with a broad grain size distribution. A direct correlation of stoichiometry variation and superconducting properties was not found, but rather a strong influence of the Mg content on lattice strain and grain connectivity.

  13. Surface superconductivity of dirty two-band superconductors: applications to MgB2.

    PubMed

    Gorokhov, Denis A

    2005-02-25

    The minimal magnetic field H(c2) destroying superconductivity in the bulk of a superconductor is smaller than the magnetic field H(c3) needed to destroy surface superconductivity if the surface of a superconductor coincides with one of the crystallographic planes and is parallel to the external magnetic field. While for a dirty single-band superconductor the ratio of H(c3) to H(c2) is a universal temperature-independent constant 1.6946, for dirty two-band superconductors this is not the case. I show that in the latter case the interaction of the two bands leads to a novel scenario with the ratio H(c3)/H(c2) varying with temperature and taking values larger and smaller than 1.6946. The results are applied to MgB(2) and compared with recent experiments (A. Rydh, cond-mat/0307445).

  14. Structural and AC loss study for pure and doped MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansdah, J. S.; Sarun, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting polycrystalline bulk MgB2 samples doped with n-C, n-Y2O3 and n-Ho2O3 were prepared by powder-in-sealed (PIST) method. XRD measurement shows the influence of dopants on phase and lattice parameters of samples. The ac susceptibility measurement reveals ac loss and activation energy of the samples. Nano-C doped sample shows less ac loss in all frequency (208 Hz - 999 Hz) among the doped samples; whereas n-Ho2O3 doped sample shows highest ac loss. The activation energy is high for rare earth (n-Y2O3 and n-Ho2O3) doped samples as compare to n-C doped samples which reveals the enhancement in flux-pinning properties of these materials.

  15. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Offringa, W.; Bergen, A.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Dhallé, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Nijhuis, A.

    2013-02-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage-current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and magnetization measurements at 4.2 K. With the aid of finite element method simulations, the filament-to-matrix contact resistance and effective transverse resistivity are derived from direct intra-wire resistance measurements. The effective transverse resistivity values are in good agreement with those analytically derived from the AC coupling loss measurements. Surprisingly, very high values of filament-to-matrix contact resistivity are found, being 2 or 3 orders higher than commonly found for NbTi or Nb3Sn wires.

  16. AC losses and transverse resistivity in filamentary MgB 2 tape with Ti barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polák, M.; Demenčík, E.; Hušek, I.; Kopera, L.; Kováč, P.; Mozola, P.; Takács, S.

    2011-07-01

    We measured and analyzed AC losses of MgB 2 tape with 19 filaments surrounded by Ti barriers and embedded in copper stabilization, exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies from 30 mHz up to 1.4 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.8 T at 4.2 K. Using the measured frequency dependence of the total AC losses we determined the contribution of hysteresis and coupling losses. The transverse resistivity determined from the coupling losses is considerably higher than that corresponding to the resistivity of copper stabilization before the tape processing due to diffusion of Ti. From the measured penetration field critical current densities were determined using results of theories for circular as well as rectangular filaments.

  17. Physical property characterization of Fe-tube encapsulated and vacuum annealed bulk MgB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Rawat, Rajeev; Gupta, Anurag; Isobe, M.; Singh, K. P.; Vajpayee, Arpita; Kishan, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Narlikar, A. V.

    2006-08-01

    We report the phase formation, and present a detailed study of magnetization and resistivity under magnetic field of MgB 2 polycrystalline bulk samples prepared by the Fe-tube encapsulated and vacuum (10 -5 Torr) annealed (750 ∘C) route. Zero-field-cooled magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements exhibited a sharp transition to the superconducting state with a sizeable diamagnetic signal at 39 K (Tc). The measured magnetization loops of the samples, despite the presence of flux jumps, exhibited a stable current density (Jc) of around 2.4×10 5 A/cm 2 in up to 2 T (Tesla) field and at temperatures (T) up to 10 K. The upper critical field is estimated from resistivity measurements in various fields and shows a typical value of 8 T at 21 K. Further, χ measurements at an applied field of 0.1 T reveal a paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) that is briefly discussed.

  18. Effect of La doping on microstructure and critical current density of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Chandra; Giri, Rajiv; Tiwari, R. S.; Rana, D. S.; Malik, S. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2005-09-01

    In the present study, La-doped MgB2 superconductors with different doping levels (Mg1-xLaxB2; x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction route at ambient pressure. Effects of La doping have been investigated in relation to microstructural characteristics and superconducting properties, particularly intragrain critical current density (Jc). The microstructural characteristics of the as-synthesized Mg(La)B2 compounds were studied employing the transmission electron microscopic (TEM) technique. The TEM investigations reveal inclusion of LaB6 nanoparticles within the MgB2 grains, which provide effective flux pinning centres. The evaluation of intragrain Jc through magnetic measurements on the fine powdered version of the as-synthesized samples reveal that Jc values of the samples change significantly with the doping level. The optimum result on Jc is obtained for Mg0.97La0.03B2 at 5 K Jc reaches ~1.4 × 107 A cm-2 in self-field, ~2.1 × 106 A cm-2 at 1 T, ~2.5 × 105 A cm-2 at 2.5 T and ~1.8 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.5 T. The highest value of intragrain Jc in the Mg0.97La0.03B2 superconductor has been attributed to the inclusion of LaB6 nanoparticles, which are capable of providing effective flux pinning centres.

  19. Electrical resistivity, Debye temperature, and connectivity in heavily doped bulk MgB2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susner, M. A.; Bhatia, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2009-05-01

    The measured transport critical current densities, Jc, of MgB2 superconductors fall short of their intrinsic Jcs on account of the grain boundary blockage, sausaging, and porosity seen in most powder-processed wire samples. Hence, it becomes important to understand and to be able to measure the degree of what can be referred to as "connectivity" in order to be able to assess the highest attainable Jc in a given class of samples. In this paper connectivity is determined with the aid of normal state resistivity in an extension of the model originally proposed by Rowell. The normal-state resistivity temperature dependence is fitted to a standard Bloch-Grüneisen (B-G) equation in the range 50-300 K. Such an approach leads not only to a connectivity parameter but also to other useful data: the actual intragrain residual resistivity (indirectly related to the upper critical field) and a resistively determined Debye temperature, θR. The latter quantity, coupled to the transition temperature, Tc, provides a measure (by way of the McMillan formula) of the electron-phonon coupling constant, usually designated λ. The B-G-based connectivity model was applied to our own experimental data on binary and heavily doped MgB2 samples as well as published resistivity data. To complete the study, low temperature specific heat measurements, performed on binary and doped bulk samples provided calorimetrically determined Debye temperatures, θD, for comparison to the resistively determined values and excellent agreement was found. Calorimetric measurements also probed the homogeneity of the doped samples in terms of the roundness of the electronic specific heat jump near Tc.

  20. Fabrication of MgB 2 nanobridge dc SQUIDs by focused ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Hak; Lee, Soon-Gul; Kyung Seong, Won; Nam Kang, Won

    2010-12-01

    We have studied fabrication of MgB2 intragrain nanobridge dc SQUIDs by a focused ion beam (FIB) patterning technique. Not only the nanobridges as Josephson elements but the SQUID loop was patterned by FIB. The beam voltage was 30 kV and the beam current was 0.9 nA for the SQUID loop and 1.5 pA for the nanobridges. Each bridge had a nominal width and length of about 100 nm and a thickness of 650 nm. The SQUID loop had a 3 μm × 3 μm hole with a 2 μm average linewidth. The zero-field superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of the SQUID was 37 K. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the SQUID showed large excess currents at all temperatures with a small portion of a resistively-shunted-junction (RSJ) component which increases as temperature approaches Tc. At low temperatures, the I-V curves exhibit a large heating effect with a second transition step, which is believed to be due to the transition of a grain boundary near the nanobridge. The SQUID showed well-behaving modulation properties at all temperatures with a modulation depth of more than 30 μV at 33.5 K and 110 μV at 15 K. These results together with our previous results on the intergrain nanobridge dc SQUID suggest that fabrication of dc SQUIDs based on FIB-patterned MgB2 nanobridges is highly tolerant of fabrication conditions.

  1. Experimental studies of the quench behaviour of MgB2 superconducting wires for fault current limiter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lin; Majoros, M.; Campbell, A. M.; Coombs, T.; Astill, D.; Harrison, S.; Husband, M.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.

    2007-07-01

    Various MgB2 wires with different sheath materials provided by Hyper Tech Research Inc., have been tested in the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) desktop tester at 24-26 K in a self-field. Samples 1 and 2 are similarly fabricated monofilamentary MgB2 wires with a sheath of CuNi, except that sample 2 is doped with SiC and Mg addition. Sample 3 is a CuNi sheathed multifilamentary wire with Cu stabilization and Mg addition. All the samples with Nb barriers have the same diameter of 0.83 mm and superconducting fractions ranging from 15% to 27% of the total cross section. They were heat-treated at temperatures of 700 °C for a hold time of 20-40 min. Current limiting properties of MgB2 wires subjected to pulse overcurrents have been experimentally investigated in an AC environment in the self-field at 50 Hz. The quench currents extracted from the pulse measurements were in a range of 200-328 A for different samples, corresponding to an average engineering critical current density (Je) of around 4.8 × 104 A cm-2 at 25 K in the self-field, based on the 1 µV cm-1 criterion. This work is intended to compare the quench behaviour in the Nb-barrier monofilamentary and multifilamentary MgB2 wires with CuNi and Cu/CuNi sheaths. The experimental results can be applied to the design of fault current limiter applications based on MgB2 wires. This work is supported by Rolls-Royce plc and the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

  2. The synthesis of lamellar nano MgB2 grains with nanoimpurities, flux pinning centers and their significantly improved critical current density.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Cai, Qi

    2012-03-21

    MgB(2) superconductors with unique microstructures were rapidly fabricated at low temperatures, and exhibited significantly improved critical current density (J(c)). According to the microstructure observations, the prepared samples consisted of lamellar nano MgB(2) grains with many embedded nanoimpurities (about 10 nm). The formation of these lamellar nano MgB(2) grains is associated with the presence of a local Mg-Cu liquid at sintering temperatures as low as 575 °C. The ball milling treatment of the original powders also plays a positive role in the growth of lamellar grains. Based on an analysis of the relationship between resistivity and temperature, the lamellar nano MgB(2) grains in the prepared sample possess better grain connectivity than the typical morphology of MgB(2) samples prepared by traditional high-temperature sintering. Furthermore, the presence of many nano MgB(2) grain boundaries and nano impurities in the prepared sample can obviously increase the flux pinning centers in accordance with the analysis of flux pinning behavior. Both factors mentioned above contribute to the significant improvement in J(c) from low field to relative high field. The method developed in the present work is an effective and low-cost way to further enhance J(c) in MgB(2) superconductors across a wide range of applied magnetic fields without using expensive nanometer-sized dopants.

  3. Estimation of π and σ band contributions in the normal state electrical conductivity of (Bi, Pb)-2223 added MgB2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the normal state electrical resistivity of polycrystalline MgB2 added with 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt. % of (Bi, Pb)-2223 (Bi1.8Pb0.26Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x) superconducting powder have been investigated in the light of two band approach based on π and σ bands of MgB2 superconductor. The scattering rates (γσ, γπ) and residual resistivity (ρ0σ,ρ0π) of each band are estimated for the investigated samples. Our observation for pure MgB2 shows much higher scattering rate in π bands, as compared to σ bands and hence indicates 'dirty' nature of the samples. However, the addition of 2223 in MgB2 is found to enhance the scattering rate in both bands, but the enhancement is more pronounced in π bands as compared to σ bands. Contribution of each individual band towards the total electrical conductivity of 2223 added MgB2 pellets are separated. Our analysis confirms that σ band contribution shows a small increase with 2223 addition and reaches nearly 89% for 5 wt. % 2223 added MgB2 polycrystalline pellets. The electron-phonon coupling constant (λ) of pure and 2223 added MgB2 pellets calculated using Mc-Millan expression is found to be nearly invariant with 2223 addition.

  4. Microstructure and superconducting properties of nanocarbon-doped internal Mg diffusion-processed MgB2 wires fabricated using different boron powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Da; Wang, Dongliang; Li, Chen; Yuan, Pusheng; Zhang, Xianping; Yao, Chao; Dong, Chiheng; Huang, He; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    MgB2/Nb/Monel monofilament wires were fabricated using four different boron powders by an internal Mg diffusion (IMD) process. The microstructure, morphology and the critical current density (J c) of the used boron powders and the formative MgB2 layers were analyzed and compared. It was found that the purity and particle size of the boron powder influence the superconducting properties of MgB2 wires; further that the optimized heat-treatment condition also depends on the quality of the boron powder. The highest J c was obtained in the MgB2 layer made using amorphous boron (AB) powder, although a certain amount of voids existed in the superconducting layer. The IMD-processed MgB2 layer fabricated using high-purity boron (HB) powder had also a high J c compared with the powder-in-tube (PIT) process and a few unreacted boron particles remained in it. MgB2 wire fabricated using low-purity boron (LB) powder had a high cost-performance ratio compared with the others, which is expected to allow the fabrication of large-scale and low-cost superconducting wires for practical application. However, the enhancement of the J c was not found in the MgB2 layer manufactured using the ball-milled LB (MLB) powder as expected due to the increased percentage of impurity.

  5. The effect of geometry of composite MgB 2/stainless-steel (SS) wires fabricated by PIT process on the superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, C.; Joo, J. H.; Choi, S. J.; Ko, R. K.; Ha, H. S.; Ha, D. W.; Oh, S. S.

    2004-08-01

    Single-, multi-, and two kinds of coaxial-filament composite MgB 2/SS-SS (stainless steel for both outer and inner tubes) and MgB 2/SS-Cu (stainless steel for outer tube and copper for inner tube) wires were successfully fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process with swaging only. The effect of the geometries of the MgB 2 PIT wires has been studied comparatively. The isothermal magnetizations M( H) for both the sintered and the as-rolled single-, multi-, and coaxial-filament MgB 2 wires were measured at temperatures between 5 and 50 K in fields up to 5 T. The critical current density was estimated by the M( H) data using Bean model. The coaxial-filament composite MgB 2 wires showed much better Jc than both the single- and the multi-filament composite ones. The results of this study show that the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 PIT wires/tapes can improve by employing better geometries such as the coaxial-filament composite MgB 2/SS-SS wires.

  6. High critical current density and improved flux pinning in bulk MgB2 synthesized by Ag addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Chandra; Giri, Rajiv; Tiwari, R. S.; Srivastava, O. N.; Malik, S. K.

    2007-02-01

    In the present investigation, we report a systematic study of Ag admixing in MgB2 prepared by solid-state reaction at ambient pressure. All the samples in the present investigation have been subjected to structural/ microstructural characterization employing x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The magnetization measurements were performed by physical property measurement system. The TEM investigations reveal the formation of MgAg nanoparticles in Ag admixed samples. These nanoparticles may enhance critical current density due to their size (˜5-20nm ) which is compatible with the coherence length of MgB2 (˜5-6nm ). In order to study the flux pinning effect of Ag admixing in MgB2, the evaluation of intragrain critical current density (Jc) has been carried out through magnetic measurements on the fine powdered version of the as synthesized samples. The optimum result on intragrain Jc is obtained for 10at.% Ag admixed sample at 5K. This corresponds to ˜9.23×107A /cm2 in self-field, ˜5.82×107A/cm2 at 1T, ˜4.24×106A/cm2 at 3.6T, and ˜1.52×105A/cm2 at 5T. However, intragrain Jc values for MgB2 sample without Ag admixing are ˜2.59×106, ˜1.09×106, ˜4.53×104, and 2.91×103A /cm2 at 5K in self-field, 1T, 3.6T, and 5T, respectively. The high value of intragrain Jc for Ag admixed MgB2 superconductor has been attributed to the inclusion of MgAg nanoparticles into the crystal matrix of MgB2, which are capable of providing effective flux pinning centers. A feasible correlation between microstructural features and superconducting properties has been put forward.

  7. Enhancement of Jc in MgB2 thin films on Si substrate with pinning centers introduced by deposition in O2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruta, M.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Kajita, R.; Yonekura, K.; Sueyoshi, T.; Doi, T.; Kitaguchi, H.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2007-10-01

    As-grown MgB2 thin films on Si substrates with high Jc under magnetic fields were prepared by electron-beam evaporation. The value of Jc has been enhanced by the deposition of MgB2 thin film in an O2 atmosphere. The MgB2 thin film deposited in the O2 atmosphere (O2-doped film) has exhibited considerably higher Jc in magnetic fields among MgB2 thin films reported before. It has been found that the high Jc of the O2-doped film is attributable to the flux pinning with grain boundaries strengthened by an introduction of MgO along grain boundaries. In a high magnetic field, a peculiar behavior of E-J characteristics where E-J curves vary in two stages was observed. This behavior also originates from the flux pinning with strengthened grain boundaries.

  8. Effect of Dy2O3 doping on phase formation and properties of MgB2 wires made by the modified internal magnesium diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, B.; Rosová, A.; Kováč, P.; Reissner, M.; Dobročka, E.

    2017-02-01

    A series of single-core MgB2 wires was produced by the modified internal magnesium diffusion process, starting with a Mg tube filled with carbon predoped boron powder, which resulted in an extractable MgB2 core allowing thorough investigation of superconducting properties. Carbon contained in the boron powder enhances critical current density (J c), however, it also reduces the reactivity of boron and thus acts as a MgB2 growth inhibitor. In order to compensate this negative effect, Dy2O3 nanopowder was added into boron powder and the composites were subjected to heat-treatment at increased temperature for a longer time. By this approach, the reactivity of carbon predoped boron was substantially improved, yielding wires with an increased amount of MgB2 of high phase purity with enhanced J c.

  9. Low noise terahertz MgB2 hot-electron bolometer mixers with an 11 GHz bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, E.; Cherednichenko, S.

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) hot-electron bolometer mixers reach a unique combination of low noise, wide noise bandwidth, and high operation temperature when 6 nm thick superconducting MgB2 films are used. We obtained a noise bandwidth of 11 GHz with a minimum receiver noise temperature of 930 K with a 1.63 THz Local Oscillator (LO), and a 5 K operation temperature. At 15 K and 20 K, the noise temperature is 1100 K and 1600 K, respectively. From 0.69 THz to 1.63 THz, the receiver noise increases by only 12%. Device current-voltage characteristics are identical when pumped with LOs from 0.69 THz up to 2.56 THz, and match well with IVs at elevated temperatures. Therefore, the effect of the THz waves on the mixer is totally thermal, due to absorption in the π conduction band of MgB2.

  10. Enhancement of critical current of SiC and malic acid codoped MgB2/Fe wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. X.; Chen, R. H.; Xu, X.; Hu, Y. M.; Zhu, M. Y.; Li, Y.; Dou, S. X.

    2015-09-01

    The influences of microstructure, connectivity, and disorder on the critical current density, Jc, are discussed to clarify the different mechanisms of Jc(H) in different magnetic field ranges for in situ and combined in situ/ex situ MgB2/Fe wires with nano SiC and malic acid codoping. Sintering temperature plays a very important role in the electromagnetic properties at different temperatures and under various magnetic fields. Connectivity, upper critical field, Hc2, and irreversibility field, Hirr, are studied to demonstrate the mechanism of Jc dependence on magnetic field. The combined in situ/ex situ process is proved to be a promising technique for fabrication of practical MgB2 wires.

  11. Correlation between critical current density and n-value in MgB 2/Nb/Monel superconductor wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Dou, S. X.; Matsumoto, A.; Choi, S.; Kiyoshi, T.; Kumakura, H.

    2010-11-01

    Field and temperature dependences of critical current density (Jc) and n-value were evaluated from un-doped and carbon doped MgB2 wires, supplied by the Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In order to explore the possibility of persistent current mode, the variation of n-values for the different MgB2 conductors was studied in more detail. It was observed that the n-value decreased gradually with an increasing magnetic field and operating temperature. From the power-law relationship between the Jc and the n-value, n ∝ Jcm, we found that there was a strong relationship, m = 0.371, for both wires at 4.2 and 20 K. On the basis of our experiments, a larger Jc led to a higher n-value, whether there was doping or not.

  12. Investigation on the AC loss characteristics of MgB 2 wires by using a conduction cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H. B.; Li, Z.; Ryu, K.

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we have experimentally investigated the AC loss characteristics of MgB2 wires with matrix of Fe and Cu by using a conduction cooling device. We fabricated the conduction cooling device to cool MgB2 wires down to 4 K. We also developed our unique test method, which is called AC pulse technique, to evaluate their AC loss characteristics within few hundred milliseconds. The test results show that the AC loss of the Fe/MgB2 wire is mainly generated in the ferromagnetic Fe matrix. Its AC loss is ten times larger than that of the Cu/MgB2 wire. In this paper, the evaluation technique of AC loss by using the conduction cooling device is described and the test results are discussed.

  13. Sintering time dependence of iron diffusion in MgB2 and its effect on superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulgen, Asaf Tolga; Belenli, Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of the iron diffusion on the crystal structure and superconducting properties of pelletised magnesium diboride (MgB2) bulk samples employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), critical transition temperature, and room temperature resistivity measurements. The Fe diffusion into MgB2 bulk pellets upon sintering at 900°C has been studied for sintering time durations of 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 hours. We have carried out XRD and room temperature resistivity determinations along the depth starting from iron coated surface by successive removal of thin layers from the surface mechanically. Sintering time dependence of the Fe diffusion coefficients has been calculated from depth profiles of lattice parameter c and room temperature resistivity values. It has been found that the Fe diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing sintering time.

  14. Electromagnetic properties and microstructures of in situ MgB2 wires made from three types of boron powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Motomune; Kotaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Iwane, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Hideki; Okishiro, Kenji; Okamoto, Kazutaka; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    In powder-in-tube processed MgB2 wires, the choice of boron powder as a starting material crucially affects their performance. In this paper, we prepared in situ MgB2 wires from three types of boron powders in various heat-treatment conditions and investigated their electromagnetic properties and microstructures. Their critical current density, J c, varied over a wide range from sample to sample. The difference in J c is understood to be caused by the effect of changes in the electrical connectivity, K, and intrinsic residual resistivity, ρ 0. Here, K represents the effective cross-sectional area for current, and ρ 0 reflects the degree of the charge carrier scattering caused by lattice defects. It was found that the use of boron powder with a large specific surface area leads to a large degree of lattice defects in MgB2 grains and enhances ρ 0, resulting in improving J c. The boron powder produced by thermal decomposition of B2H6 has a large specific surface area. Hence, this boron powder is the most suitable as a starting material for MgB2. Meanwhile, dry pulverization of low-cost boron powder, which is largely produced by active-metal reduction of B2O3, is also effective to increase its specific surface area without introducing impurities, resulting in the enhancement of J c in the entire magnetic field region. This finding broadens the choice of boron powder and contributes to realizing superconducting applications with excellent balance between performance and cost.

  15. Structure and stability of superconducting core of single-core MgB2/Cu,Nb tube composite with a high critical current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinitsina, T. P.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Blinova, Yu. V.; Rakov, D. N.; Belotelova, Yu. N.; Sudareva, S. V.; Degtyarev, M. V.; Romanov, E. P.

    2014-06-01

    The core of a single-core MgB2/Cu,Nb composite, which has been prepared by the ex-situ technique and exhibits a high critical current equal to 427 A (at 0 T and 4.2 K, j c ≥ 105 A/cm2), has been studied using various structural methods. Two kinds of MgB2 crystals were observed; those of the first kind is large, highly dense crystals characterized by a low oxygen content (2-8 at %) and the others are fine, weakly coupled crystallites characterized by high oxygen content (4-21 at %). To perform a comparative analysis of the structures, we have also studied an MgB2 bulk sample synthesized at 1000°C. It was found that two phases with the same lattice are formed; they differ in the magnesium and boron contents (within the homogeneity range), impurity oxygen content and microstructure as well but differ slightly in the lattice parameters. The two-phase state of MgB2 bulk sample is due to the mechanism of its formation, which includes the melting of magnesium, the dissolution of solid boron in it, and the crystallization of MgB2 from the melt with the formation of dendrite-like structure characterized by corresponding redistribution of components and impurities. To a certain degree, the two-phase structure of MgB2 bulk sample is inherited by the MgB2/Cu,Nd composite prepared by ex-situ technique (annealing of composite at 700°C). It was shown that oxygen in the MgB2 compound is the destabilizing factor and leads to the transformation of the superconductor into MgO.

  16. MgB2UltrathinFilms Fabricated by Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition and Subsequent Ion Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthaeus; Tan, Teng; Cunnane, Daniel; Karasik, Boris; Xi, Xiaoxing

    Hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers are a great tool for measuring high-resolution spectroscopy at Terahertz frequencies. MgB2offers a higher critical temperature (39 K) compared to commonly used Nb and NbN and boasts a shorter intrinsic electron-phonon relaxation time, giving rise to a broader intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth. We have fabricated high quality ultrathin MgB2films using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) and employing ion milling to achieve thickness down to 2 nm. The thinnest achieved films show high Tc of 28 K with residual resistivity below 28 µ Ωcm and high critical current Jcof 1x106 A/cm2at 20 K. As a result of the employed low angle ion milling process, the films remain well connected even after being thinned down since the initial thick films offer a better connectivity than as-grown thin films. The established process offers a way to realize MgB2 based HEB mixers of extremely low thickness and therefore small local oscillator power requirements and increased IF bandwidth.

  17. Calorimetric AC loss measurement of MgB2 superconducting tape in an alternating transport current and direct magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2012-11-01

    Applications of MgB2 superconductors in electrical engineering have been widely reported, and various studies have been made to define their alternating current (AC) losses. However, studies on the transport losses with an applied transverse DC magnetic field have not been conducted, even though this is one of the favored conditions in applications of practical MgB2 tapes. Methods and techniques used to characterize and measure these losses have so far been grouped into ‘electrical’ and ‘calorimetric’ approaches with external conditions set to resemble the application conditions. In this paper, we present a new approach to mounting the sample and employ the calorimetric method to accurately determine the losses in the concurrent application of AC transport current and DC magnetic fields that are likely to be experienced in practical devices such as generators and motors. This technique provides great simplification compared to the pickup coil and lock-in amplifier methods and is applied to a long length (˜10 cm) superconducting tape. The AC loss data at 20 and 30 K will be presented in an applied transport current of 50 Hz under external DC magnetic fields. The results are found to be higher than the theoretical predictions because of the metallic fraction of the tape that contributes quite significantly to the total losses. The data, however, will allow minimization of losses in practical MgB2 coils and will be used in the verification of numerical coil models.

  18. AC losses in high pressure synthesized MgB2 bulk rings measured by a transformer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, V.; Sokolovsky, V.; Prikhna, T.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.

    2013-03-01

    Recently developed manufacturing technologies use high pressure and various doping additions to prepare bulk MgB2-based materials with a high critical current density measured by the magnetization method. We use a contactless transformer method, which is based on studying the superconductor response to an induced transport current, to measure AC losses in bulk MgB2 rings synthesized under high pressure. The obtained dependence of the losses on the primary current (applied magnetic field) is fitted by a power law with an exponent of ˜2.1 instead of the cubic dependence predicted by Bean’s model and power law electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics with a large exponent. An unusually strong dependence of the AC losses on the frequency is also observed. It is shown that the E-J characteristic of bulk MgB2 is well fitted by the dependence used in the extended critical state model based on account of the viscous vortex motion in the flux flow regime. Numerical simulation using this E-J characteristic gives current and frequency AC loss dependences that agree well with the experimental results.

  19. Experimental study of magnetization AC loss in MgB2 wires and cables with non-magnetic sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Ján; Šouc, Ján; Kováč, Pavol; Hušek, Imrich; Gömöry, Fedor

    2013-12-01

    The influence of MgB2 wires design on the magnetization AC loss was studied. AC loss in external AC magnetic field perpendicular to the wire axis was measured in the temperature range from 18 K up to 40 K and at the frequencies of 72 Hz and 144 Hz, respectively. For this purpose the experimental apparatus combining magnetization measurement system and non-magnetic vacuum vessel with two-stage crycooler for sample cooling has been used. To clarify the influence of wire architecture on the AC loss in non-magnetic GlidCop sheathed MgB2 composites experiments on a single-core, 30-filament un-twisted and also twisted samples were performed. MgB2 cables containing 7 mono-core strands and 30 filament strands were also measured. While in the cable containing single core strands the hysteresis loss was dominant, in the un-twisted wire and the cable with un-twisted filaments the coupling loss prevailed. The effect of decoupling was observed in all twisted filamentary wires. The obtained results show that in 7 strands cable the AC loss of strands is crucial to the overall AC loss of a cable.

  20. Superconducting tunnel junctions on MgB2 using MgO and CaF2 as a barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoda, Masahito; Aibara, Masato; Mede, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Motoyuki; Naito, Michio

    2016-11-01

    We report the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junctions, both of superconductor-insulator-normal metal (SIN) and superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS), on MgB2 using MgO and CaF2 as a barrier. The SIN junctions fabricated using an MgO barrier showed excellent quasi-particle characteristics, including a large superconducting gap (Δ) of 2.5-3 meV and a low zero-bias conductance. We have also fabricated SIS junctions with an MgO barrier, but the quasi-particle characteristics of the SIS junctions are not as good as those of the SIN junctions, namely a reduced superconducting gap and a high zero-bias conductance. It appears that top MgB2 electrodes do not grow well on an MgO barrier, which is also suggested from in-situ RHEED observation. The SIN junctions fabricated using a CaF2 barrier showed less sharp quasi-particle characteristics than using an MgO barrier. However, the SIS junctions using a CaF2 barrier showed a fairly large IcRN value at 4.2 K over 1 mV and also exhibited finite Josephson current up to almost the film's Tc (∼30 K). The RHEED observation revealed that top MgB2 electrodes grow well on a CaF2 barrier.

  1. Transport critical current density of Fe sheath MgB 2 tapes sintered at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, K. Q.; Li, H. L.; Yu, Y.; Wang, C. Y.; Cao, L. Z.; Liu, C. F.; Du, S. J.; Yan, G.; Feng, Y.; Wu, X.; Wang, J. R.; Liu, X. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.

    2003-04-01

    Fe sheath MgB 2 tapes sintered at 650, 750, 850 and 950 °C, respectively, for 2 h in a high purity argon gas were prepared using the powder-in-tube method. Transport critical current densities of tapes were measured in the fields up to 10 T from 4 to 30 K. Both tapes sintered at 850 and 950 °C completely lost the capacity of carrying superconducting current over the temperature range from 4 to 30 K. Compared to a tape sintered at 650 °C, an improvement in the in-field critical current density Jc and irreversibility field μ0H*( T) was observed in a tape sintered at 750 °C. At 20 K, the Jc value was ∼1.32×10 5 A/cm 2 in self-field and the μ0H* value 4.2 T for the tape sintered at 750 °C, whereas the Jc in self-field and μ0H* values were ∼5.9×10 4 A/cm 2 and 2.8 T for that sintered at 650 °C.

  2. Electric transport measurements on bulk, polycrystalline MgB2 samples prepared at various reaction temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Murakami, M.; Hartmann, U.

    2016-03-01

    A series of disk-shaped, bulk MgB2 superconductors (sample diameter up to 4 cm) was prepared in order to improve the performance for superconducting super-magnets. Several samples were fabricated using a solid state reaction in pure Ar atmosphere from 750 to 950oC in order to determine the optimum processing parameters to obtain the highest critical current density as well as large trapped field values. Additional samples were prepared with added silver (up to 10 wt.-%) to the Mg and B powder. Magneto-resistance data and I/V-characteristics were recorded using an Oxford Instruments Teslatron system. From Arrhenius plots, we determine the TAFF pinning potential, U 0. The I/V-characteristics yield detailed information on the current flow through the polycrystalline samples. The current flow is influenced by the presence of pores in the samples. Our analysis of the achieved critical currents together with a thorough microstructure investigation reveals that the samples prepared at temperatures between 775°C and 805°C exhibit the smallest grains and the best connectivity between them, while the samples fabricated at higher reaction temperatures show a reduced connectivity and lower pinning potential. Doping the samples with silver leads to a considerable increase of the pinning potential and hence, the critical current densities.

  3. Selected properties of GlidCop® sheathed MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Melišek, T.; Kopera, L.; Kováč, J.; Hušek, I.

    2012-09-01

    GlidCop® sheathed MgB2 wires containing 1-30 filaments have been manufactured by a powder-in-tube process. Two materials (Nb or Ti) have been used for barriers protecting the filaments against the diffusion of copper. Different deformations (drawing, rolling, rotary swaging and isostatic pressing) have been applied to the 30-filament wires prior to the final heat treatment. Critical current densities, Jc, were measured at low external magnetic fields including the self-field and at temperatures from 4.2 to 20 K by a short pulse currents. This allows a detailed pinning force analysis to be made, which has not been done up to now from the transport current data. The resistance of 1-30 filament wires against axial tensile stress has also been examined at 4.2 K. It was found that filament density influences not only the transport Jc but also the resistance to tension stress. While an increased filament density improves Jc the opposite effect has been found for resistance to axial tension. AC losses measured by a calibration-free technique of non-twisted wires have shown the dominant effect of the filament architecture and critical current densities.

  4. Carbon doping of MgB 2 by toluene and malic-acid-in-toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Susner, M. A.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E. W.; Sumption, M. D.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Boone, R.

    2011-02-01

    The decomposition of malic acid (C 4H 6O 5) in the presence of Mg and B was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) which revealed that malic acid reacted with Mg but not B. Also, the addition of toluene (C 7H 8) to dissolve malic acid followed by subsequent drying resulted in no reaction with Mg, indicating that the malic acid had decomposed during the dissolution/drying stage. The total carbon contributed by toluene versus a toluene/5 wt.% malic acid mixture was measured using a LECO CS600 carbon analyzer. The toluene sample contained ∼0.4 wt.% C while the toluene/malic acid mixture had ∼1.5 wt.% C, demonstrating that the toluene contributed a significant amount of carbon to the final product. Resistivity measurements on powder-in-tube MgB 2 monofilamentary wires established that the toluene/malic acid doped sample had the highest B c2. However, the toluene-only sample had the highest transport J c over most of the magnetic field range (0-9 T), equaled only by that of toluene/malic-acid sample in fields above 9 T.

  5. Plasma synthesized doped B powders for MgB 2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzik, J. V.; Suplinskas, R. J.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Canfield, P. C.; Finnemore, D. K.; Rindfleisch, M.; Margolies, J.; Hannahs, S. T.

    2005-07-01

    Gas phase plasma synthesis methods have been used to prepare nano-scale particles of C doped boron powder that are well suited for powder-in-tube (PIT) fabrication of superconducting wire. Mixtures of H2, BCl3, and CH4 gas are injected into an induction plasma where doped boron powder is formed and collected on a stainless steel screen. The particles typically are ∼20 nm in size and collect into lacy agglomerates in the 1-50 μm size range. Pressed pellets of these powders heated in a Mg atmosphere are transformed to the MgB2 phase at temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 1200 °C. Critical current densities, Jc, at 5 K run from about 106 A/cm2 at self-field to 4 × 104 A/cm2 at 7 T. At 20 K, Jc ranges from 5 × 105 A/cm2 at self-field to about 104 A/cm2 at 3 T. Samples of pure B powder and B with 7.4%C powder were prepared as PIT wires having a combination Fe inner jacket and a cupro-nickel outer jacket. These PIT Jc values are lower than, but comparable to the pressed pellet values. The PIT samples can be reacted in times on the order of 10 min and still exhibit greater than 105 A/cm2 at 5 K and 2 T.

  6. Avalanche of flux jumps in polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felner, I.; Awana, V. P. S.; Mudgel, Monika; Kishan, H.

    2007-05-01

    Dc magnetization studies were carried out on a polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor, which was synthesized at 750°C in Fe tube encapsulation under a vacuum of 10-5Torr. Zero resistances at H =0 and 8T are obtained at 38 and 22K, respectively. The material possesses a sharp diamagnetic transition in the zero-field-cooled branch, whereas the field-cooled branch exhibits the paramagnetic-Meissner-effect-like phenomenon below Tc, indicating strong pinning in this compound. The critical current density at 20K and 2T, estimated by the Bean model is higher than 105A/cm2. Due to the strong pinning, we observed the presence of flux avalanches below H =2T at temperatures below 20K. The magnetization M(H ) grows (as usual) slowly with H and falls sharply to near zero moment value, and further grows again in a common way. The flux avalanches were seen quite symmetric in both increasing/decreasing the field in all four quadrants of the M(H ) loops. The dynamics behavior of sinusoidal-like symmetric reproducible flux avalanches is discussed.

  7. Superconducting screening on different length scales in high-quality bulk MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, J.; Soltanian, S.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, X. L.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality bulk MgB2 exhibits a structure of voids and agglomeration of crystals on different length scales. Because of this, the superconducting currents percolate between the voids in the ensuing structure. Magnetic measurements reveal that the superconducting currents circulate on at least three different length scales, of ˜1μm, ˜10μm, and whole of the sample (˜millimeter). Each of these screenings contributes to the measured irreversible magnetic moment (Δm ). The analysis of the field dependence of Δm for samples of subsequently decreasing size showed that the critical current obtained using the simple critical state model is erroneous. This leads to the artifact of the sample size-dependent critical current density Jc and irreversibility field. Our data analysis enables the separation of the contribution of each of the screening currents to Δm. The field dependence of each of the currents follows a stretched exponential form. The currents flowing around whole of the sample give a dominant contribution to Δm in the intermediate fields (1T

  8. Microscopic Study of Dendritic Avalanches in MgB2 Thin Films of Various Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Yeap; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Hu-Jong; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kang, Won-Nam; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2010-04-01

    To understand the features of a dendritic avalanche, we prepared the eight sets of MgB2 thin films with rectangular shapes of 3 mm [length L] × w [width], where w = 0.2 to 1.6 mm; the samples were in the long-length limit of w < L. Magneto-optical images (MOIs) of the first few dendrite patterns, which were distributed sparsely, were taken at applied fields below 35 mT at a temperature of 4 K. The key features of the present measurements are as follows: (1) the number of branches and the area of the dendrites increase with increasing w; (2) the change in the flux density (CFD) from before to after the jump at the edge of the samples increased with increasing w; (3) the applied magnetic flux density of the first few appearances of dendrites decreased with increasing of the w; (4) the real initial penetration flux density at the sample’s edge was about 20 mT, regardless of w; (5) the critical current densities obtained from the MOI were almost the same for all samples, which implies that Bean’s critical model works quite well.

  9. AC losses in monofilamentary MgB2 round wire carrying alternating transport currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, K.; Kawano, T.; Osaka, R.; Nakamura, T.; Sugano, M.; Takahashi, M.; Wakuda, T.

    2010-04-01

    AC losses in a monofilamentary MgB2 round wire with niobium and copper metal sheaths and carrying alternating transport currents are evaluated at several temperatures and frequencies. First, the transport current losses are observed electrically using a lock-in amplifier. Experimental results show that the AC losses decrease with an increase in the temperature if the amplitude of the transport current normalized by the corresponding critical current is maintained constant. On the other hand, the AC losses increase slightly with the frequency. Next, the AC losses are calculated numerically by a finite difference method. The numerical results for the superconductor filament show a good agreement with the results of the conventional theoretical expression formulated using the Bean model over a wide range of current amplitudes. It is also found that the AC losses in the niobium sheath are negligible whereas those in the copper sheath are comparable with those in the superconductor. On the basis of the numerical calculations, an expression is analytically derived for estimating the eddy current loss occurring in a metal sheath. The derived expression well reproduces the AC loss properties of both the copper and niobium sheaths.

  10. Preparation of SiC doped In-Situ MgB2 mono- and 7-filamentary wires by continuous tube forming and filling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Suo, H. L.; Zhang, Z. L.; Gao, T. Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, M. L.; Flükiger, R.

    2008-02-01

    Long lengths of in-situ SiC doped MgB2/Fe mono- filamentary wires with high critical current densities and 7- filamentary MgB2/Nb/Cu/Fe wires with better thermal stability have been fabricated by either continuous tube forming & filling (CTFF) technique or combining both powder in tube (PIT) and CTFF process, respectively. Particular efforts were made in view of the optimization of the manufacturing and annealing processes of the wires. The as obtained wires were sintered under a vacuum furnace at different sintering temperatures and the optimized sintering of the MgB2 wires were investigated by the analysis of optical microscope, XRD, SEM, and the transport Jc measurements. The Jc value in a 8 at.% SiC doped MgB2/Fe mono- filamentary wire is more than 104A/cm2 at 4.2 K and a field of 11 T. While in doped 7- filamentary wire, the similar Jc value (104A/cm2) is obtained at 4.2 K and a field of 7.5 T. Moreover, the n factors are determined to be 33 and 10 at 11 T in the mono- and 7- filamentary MgB2wires with SiC doping, respectively, indicating the possibility to use the as fabricated MgB2 wires in the persistent mode for fields from 0.5 T to 10 T at 4.2 K.

  11. Intrawire resistance, AC loss and strain dependence of critical current in MgB2 wires with and without cold high-pressure densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Gao, P.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Dhallé, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Kulich, M.; Senatore, C.; Nijhuis, A.

    2014-07-01

    The intrawire resistance and alternating current (AC) loss of two MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. Relatively high values of filament-to-matrix contact resistivity are found in the MgB2 wires; the values are two or three orders higher than those commonly found in NbTi or Nb3Sn wires. Considering the high porosity of the MgB2 filaments, cold high-pressure densification has been applied on the two MgB2 wires to investigate its impact on intrawire resistance and AC loss. The intrawire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage-current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is measured by vibrating sample magnetometer measurements at 4.2 K. In addition to the intrawire resistance measurements, the critical current of MgB2 wires before and after densification is measured with a U-shaped bending spring at 4.2 K as function of axial strain. The critical current in densified MgB2 wires is found to be higher than that in the same wire without densification; it is also less sensitive to the applied axial strain.

  12. Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Michinaka; Ballarino, Amalia; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2016-02-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young’s moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young’s modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb-Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young’s moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76-97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  13. AC susceptibility analysis on MgB2 bulk and Ti-sheathed wire superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiçek, Özlem; Yetiş, Hakan; Gencer, Ali

    2014-09-01

    We report a comparative study for bulk MgB2 superconductors and monofilamentary Ti/MgB2 wires as functions of the boron powder purity, average particle size of magnesium, and applied pressure. The structural and magnetic characterizations of the bulk samples were performed by means of XRD and AC susceptibility measurements, respectively. We found that the applied pressure did not cause any significant change on the onset transition temperature Tc,onset and transition width. This is also confirmed by the calculation of the lattice parameters. On the other hand, Tc,onset values were measured as 37.3 K, 38.0 K, and 38.6 K for the samples prepared from the precursor boron powders with purities of 95.2%, ⩾95%, and >98%, respectively. However Mg-particle size (Mg1: AlfaAesar Mg powder, avg. par. size: -325 mesh, purity: 99.8%; Mg2: SigmaAldrich Mg powder, avg. par. size: 20-230 mesh, purity: 98%) did not affect the Tc,onset but increasing the Mg particle size caused a significant broadening at the superconducting transition width for all precursor boron powder purity levels. Magnetization measurements showed that the critical current density of Ti/MgB2 wire prepared from AlfaAesar Mg powder (avg. par. size: -325 mesh) and Aldrich B powder (amorphous, purity ⩾ 95%) is greater than that of prepared by SigmaAldrich Mg powder (avg. par. size: 20-230 mesh) and Pavezyum B powder (amorphous, avg. par. size: 0,3 μm (max), purity > 98%) as 2.6 × 105 A/cm2 and 1.4 × 105 A/cm2 at T = 10 K and μ0H = 0.5 T, respectively. In addition, SigmaAldrich Mg and Pavezyum B wire sample has a lower pinning force, Fp, value at each temperature.

  14. Phonon mean free path of graphite along the c-axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Weiyu; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-02-24

    Phonon transport in the c-axis direction of graphite thin films has been studied using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results show that the c-axis thermal conductivities for films of thickness ranging from 20 to 500 atomic layers are significantly lower than the bulk value. Based on the MD data, a method is developed to construct the c-axis thermal conductivity as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path (MFP), from which we show that phonons with MFPs from 2 to 2000 nm contribute ∼80% of the graphite c-axis thermal conductivity at room temperature, and phonons with MFPs larger than 100 nm contribute over 40% to the c-axis thermal conductivity. These findings indicate that the commonly believed value of just a few nanometers from the simple kinetic theory drastically underestimates the c-axis phonon MFP of graphite.

  15. Effect of field cooling heights on the levitation force of pure and starch/polystyrene/MWCNT added bulk MgB2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    A series of MgB2 pellets with and without addition of carbon from different sources (viz. starch, polystyrene and carbon nanotubes) have been synthesized by solid state reaction under argon atmosphere. XRD analysis indicates a decrease in lattice parameters of MgB2 with addition of starch, polystyrene (PS) and MWCNT and confirms substitution of carbon in boron sites. The presence of nanosized carbon inclusions between the grain boundaries in the present set of samples is evident in TEM photographs. Resistivity data confirms a decrease in superconducting transition temperature (Tc0) for MgB2 doped with starch/PS/MWCNT. The effect of different field cooling heights (HIFC) at 20 K on maximum levitation force (FMLF) and maximum attractive force (FMAF) of pure MgB2 and MgB2 doped with starch/PS/MWCNT have been investigated. Except for MWCNT, doping of starch and PS in MgB2 is found to improve FMLF and FMAF and the best result is obtained for MgB2 doped with 1 wt.% PS. Levitation force measured as a function of decreasing initial field cooling height indicates exponential dependence of both maximum levitation force (FMLF) and maximum attractive force (FMAF). However, the gap distance between PM and the sample (H0AF and HMAF) corresponding to maximum attractive force (FMAF) and zero attractive force (F0AF) varies linearly and their difference remains constant. This constancy in (HMAF - H0AF) is understood in terms of constant reduction rate of magnetic flux density between H0AF and HMAF.

  16. Influence of Metal Diboride and Dy2O3 Additions on Microstructure and Properties of MgB2 Fabricated at High Temperatures and under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    High temperatures and under pressure (HTP) processing has been used to study the effects of chemical doping in MgB2. ZrB2, TiB2 and NbB2 were selected as additives since, like MgB2, they have an AlB2-type structure and similar lattice parameters. Dy2O3 was selected as it has been reported to generate nanoscale, secondary intragrain phases in MgB2. While C is known to enter the B-sublattice readily, attempts to dope Zr and other elements onto the Mg site have been less successful due to slow bulk diffusion, low solubility in MgB2, or both. We have used high-temperature, solid-state sintering (1500 °C), as well as excursions through the peritectic temperature (up to 1700 °C), to investigate both of these limitations. Bulk MgB2 samples doped with MB2 (M = Zr, Ti and Nb) and Dy2O3 additions were synthesized and then characterized. Lattice distortion and high densities of crystal defects were observed in the MgB2 grains around nano-sized MB2 inclusions, this highly defected band contributed to a large increase in Bc2 but was not large enough to increase the irreversibility field. In contrast, distributed intragrain precipitates were formed by Dy2O3 additions which did not change the lattice parameters, Tc, Tc distribution or Bc2 of MgB2, but modified the flux pinning. PMID:27406904

  17. Peculiarities of high-pressure and hot-pressing manufacture of MgB2-based blocks with high critical currents for electrical machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhna, T. A.; Gawalek, W.; Savchuk, Ya M.; Sergienko, N. V.; Moshchil, V. E.; Wendt, M.; Habisreuther, T.; Dub, S. N.; Melnikov, V. S.; Kozyrev, A. V.; Schmidt, Ch; Dellith, J.; Litzkendorf, D.; Nagorny, P. A.; Dittrich, U.; Sverdun, V. B.; Kovalev, L. K.; Penkin, V. T.; Goldacker, W.; Rozenberg, O. A.; Noudem, J.

    2008-02-01

    Structure and properties of MgB2-based materials in the form of cylinders, rings, quadratic and rectangular blocks manufactured using high-pressure (2 GPa), hot-pressing (30 MPa), hot isostatic pressing (0.1 GPa), and atmospheric pressure (with predensification by broaching) from different types of B and MgB2 are considered. The blocks have been synthesized from Mg and B or sintered from MgB2 at 800 - 1100 °C (with and without additions of Ti or Ta). The inclusions of higher borides (with stoichiometry near MgB12 in the high pressure-manufactured magnesium diboride or near MgB7 in the hot-pressing-synthesized material) can effect critical current density: higher amount and finer dispersion of the above inclusions are observed in the materials with higher critical currents. Samples synthesized (at 4 GPa) from the MgB12 stoichiometric mixture of Mg and B that, according to the SEM microprobe analysis, contained MgB12 (more than 50 %) and MgO phases and, according to X-ray analysis, along with the above phases some amount of MgB2 demonstrated superconducting behavior. From high-pressure synthesized MgB2 blocks the first reluctance-type superconductive electromotor (1,3 kW) has been constructed and successfully tested.

  18. A defect detection method for MgB2 superconducting and iron-based Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Morawski, A.; Zaleski, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Cetner, T.

    2016-04-01

    In this article, a method allowing for the detection of damage in iron-based superconducting bulks and MgB2 wires is presented. MgB2 wires were made of in situ material with ex situ MgB2 barrier. The iron superconductor studied was Ba(Fe,Co)2As2. This material was surrounded by Nb barrier and placed inside an iron tube. All samples were annealed in the isostatic pressure of 1 GPa. Transport measurements were made using a four-contact probe. The transition of Nb and ex situ MgB2 barrier from superconducting into resistive state (first transition) was observed at a temperature range from 5 K to 10 K and can be attributed to damage in either the Nb or ex situ MgB2 barrier in these samples. For samples with a damaged barrier, it was not possible to determine the critical current density of the wires. The analysis indicates that annealing at 1 GPa leads to the Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 material with critical temperatures of 27 K and 21.5 K at upper critical flux density (Bc2) of 14 T.

  19. A multiscale and multiphysics model of strain development in a 1.5 T MRI magnet designed with 36 filament composite MgB2 superconducting wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Abdullah Al; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Yao, Zhen; Tomsic, Michael; Doll, David; Akkus, Ozan; Martens, Michael

    2016-05-01

    High temperature superconductors such as MgB2 focus on conduction cooling of electromagnets that eliminates the use of liquid helium. With the recent advances in the strain sustainability of MgB2, a full body 1.5 T conduction cooled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet shows promise. In this article, a 36 filament MgB2 superconducting wire is considered for a 1.5 T full-body MRI system and is analyzed in terms of strain development. In order to facilitate analysis, this composite wire is homogenized and the orthotropic wire material properties are employed to solve for strain development using a 2D-axisymmetric finite element analysis (FEA) model of the entire set of MRI magnet. The entire multiscale multiphysics analysis is considered from the wire to the magnet bundles addressing winding, cooling and electromagnetic excitation. The FEA solution is verified with proven analytical equations and acceptable agreement is reported. The results show a maximum mechanical strain development of 0.06% that is within the failure criteria of -0.6% to 0.4% (-0.3% to 0.2% for design) for the 36 filament MgB2 wire. Therefore, the study indicates the safe operation of the conduction cooled MgB2 based MRI magnet as far as strain development is concerned.

  20. Time-Resolved Photoexcitation of the Superconducting Two-Gap State in MgB2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Khafizov, M.; Satrapinsky, L.; Kúš, P.; Plecenik, A.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2003-11-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe studies show that carrier dynamics in MgB2 films is governed by the sub-ps electron-phonon (e-ph) relaxation present at all temperatures, the few-ps e-ph process well pronounced below 70K, and the sub-ns superconducting relaxation below Tc. The amplitude of the superconducting component versus temperature follows the superposition of the isotropic dirty gap and the three-dimensional π gap dependences, closing at two different Tc values. The time constant of the few-ps relaxation exhibits a double divergence at temperatures corresponding to the Tc's of the two gaps.

  1. Effect of carbon substitution on low magnetic field AC losses in MgB 2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszek, M.; Rogacki, K.; Karpiński, J.

    2011-11-01

    The DC magnetization and AC magnetic susceptibilities were measured for MgB2 single crystals, unsubstituted and carbon substituted with the composition of Mg(B0.94C0.06)2. AC magnetic losses were derived from the AC susceptibility data as a function of the AC amplitude and the DC bias magnetic field. From the DC magnetization loops critical current densities were derived as a function of temperature and DC field. Results show that the substitution with carbon decreases critical current densities at low external magnetic fields, in contrast to the well known effect of an increase of the critical current densities at higher magnetic fields.

  2. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  3. The influence of heating rate on superconducting characteristics of MgB2 obtained by spark plasma sintering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldica, G.; Burdusel, M.; Popa, S.; Enculescu, M.; Pasuk, I.; Badica, P.

    2015-12-01

    Superconducting bulks of MgB2 were obtained by the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. Different heating rates of 20, 100, 235, 355, and 475 °C/min were used. Samples have high density, above 95%. The onset critical temperature Tc, is about 38.8 K. There is an optimum heating rate of ∼100 °C/min to maximize the critical current density Jc0, the irreversibility field Hirr, the product (Jc0 x μ0Hirr), and to partially avoid formation of undesirable flux jumps at low temperatures. Significant microstructure differences were revealed for samples processed with low and high heating rates in respect to grain boundaries.

  4. Reactive spark plasma sintering of MgB2 in nitrogen atmosphere for the enhancement of the high-field critical current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badica, P.; Burdusel, M.; Popa, S.; Pasuk, I.; Ivan, I.; Borodianska, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Kuncser, A.; Ionescu, A. M.; Miu, L.; Aldica, G.

    2016-10-01

    High density bulks (97%-99%) of MgB2 were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) in nitrogen (N2) atmosphere for different heating rates (10, 20 and 100 °C min-1) and compared with reference samples processed in vacuum and Ar. N2 reacts with MgB2 and forms MgB9N along the MgB2 grain boundaries. The high-field critical current density is enhanced for the sample processed in N2 with a heating rate of 100 °C min-1. At 2-35 K, this sample shows the strongest contribution of the grain boundary pinning (GBP). All samples are in the point pinning (PP) limit and by increasing temperature the GBP contribution decreases.

  5. Electrical and structural properties of MgB2 films prepared by sequential deposition of B and Mg on the NbN-buffered Si(100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromik, Š.; Gaži, Š.; Štrbík, V.; Španková, M.; Vávra, I.; Beňačka, Š.; van der Beek, C. J.; Gierlowski, P.

    2004-10-01

    We introduce a simple method of a MgB2 film preparation using a sequential electron-beam evaporation of B-Mg bilayer (followed by in-situ annealing) on the NbN-buffered Si(100) substrate. The transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm a growth of homogeneous nanogranular MgB2 films without the presence of crystalline MgO. A sensitive measurement of temperature dependence of microwave losses shows a presence of intergranular weak links close to the superconducting transition only. The MgB2 films obtained, about 200-nm thick, exhibit a maximum zero resistance critical temperature of 36K and a critical current density of 3×107A /cm2 at 13.2K.

  6. Proposal of new structure of MgB 2 wires with low AC loss for stator windings of fully superconducting motors located in iron core slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, K.; Osaka, R.; Kuga, H.; Nakamura, T.; Wakuda, T.

    2011-11-01

    The new structure of MgB2 monofilamentary wires for stator windings of fully superconducting motors is proposed to reduce their AC losses in iron core slots for the application of an alternating transport current. In order to validate the proposed structure of wire for loss reduction, numerical calculations are carried out by means of a finite element method using edge elements formulated with a self-field due to currents induced in an analysis region. It is assumed that the voltage-current characteristics of the MgB2 superconductor are given by Bean's critical state model, in which the critical current density is independent of the local magnetic field. The influences of wire structures on the AC losses are discussed quantitatively toward the optimum design of stator windings in fully superconducting motors with the MgB2 wires.

  7. Limiting factors of normal-state conductivity in superconducting MgB2: an application of mean-field theory for a site percolation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji; Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-07-01

    Normal-state conductivity in polycrystalline MgB2 bulk samples having a systematically varied packing factor was studied. The packing factor dependence of phonon term resistivity Δρ(T) = ρ(T)-ρ0 was found to be well explained by the three-dimensional site percolation model. The low packing density of the samples and the wet impurity phases at grain boundaries are suggested to be the main causes of poor electrical connectivity in MgB2. Our model enables quantitative evaluations of the intrinsic resistivity inside the grains, the fraction of the active grains that can carry current and the anisotropy of the grains in polycrystalline samples. The model predicts that the anomaly suppressed connectivity in rather weak-link-free MgB2 can be understood under a scenario of a percolation problem.

  8. Electron Spin Resonance of MgB2 : test of the Elliott relation in the normal state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, R. P. S. M.; Elsen, M.; Monod, P.; Cava, R. J.

    2003-03-01

    The Elliott relation states that, for the conduction electrons in a normal metal, the ratio of the thermal spin relaxation rate to the thermal ordinary collision rate is equal to the square of their g shift: (g - 2.0023)^2. This is well verified for simple metals and originates from the presence of the intrinsic spin orbit potential of the metal. For conduction electrons, the spin lifetime is measured as the inverse of the spin resonance linewidth. By careful measurement of the temperature dependance of the linewidth of the conduction electron spin resonance of MgB2 fine powder between 50 K and 600 K at 9.5 GHz and simultaneoous determination of the position of the line center to better than 1% of the linewidth, we tested the validity of the Elliott relation. An original feature occurs in the case of MgB2 where the linewidth of the spin resonance no longer increases above about 300 K in contrast to the resistivity. This apparent paradox is lifted, within experimental error, by the simultaneous temperature dependance of the g factor observed to vary from 2.0010 10-4 at 150 K to 2.0020 10-4 at 600 K. This decrase of the g shift with increase of temperature could be related to the onset of a thermal mixing of the different Fermi surface sheets.

  9. Transport critical current of MgB2 wires: pulsed current of varying rate compared to direct current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of transport critical current (Ic) for MgB2 wires and tapes has been investigated with two different techniques, the conventional four-probe arrangement with direct current (DC) power source, and a tailored triangle pulse at different rates of current change. The DC method has been widely used and practiced by various groups, but suffers from inevitable heating effects when high currents are used at low magnetic fields. The pulsed current method has no heating effects, but the critical current can depend on the rate of the current change (dI/dt) in the pulse. Our pulsed current measurements with varying dI/dt show that the same values of Ic are obtained as with the DC method, but without the artifacts of heating. Our method is particularly useful at low field regions which are often inaccessible by DC methods. We also performed a finite element method (FEM) analysis to obtain the time dependent heat distribution in MgB2 due to the electric potential produced at the current contacts to the superconducting sample and its gradient around the contacts. This gradient is defined as the current transfer length (CTL) of the samples and leads to Joule heating of the wire near the contacts. The FEM results provide further evidence of the limitation of the DC method in obtaining high transport critical current.

  10. Effect of Mg/B ratio on the superconductivity of MgB2 bulk with SiC addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Dou, S. X.; Lu, C.; Zhou, S. H.; Li, W. X.

    2010-03-01

    To improve the self-field critical current density (Jc) and critical temperature (Tc) in SiC-doped MgB2 , optimization of the nominal Mg/B mixing ratio has been performed. The effects of the nominal Mg/B mixing ratio (x:2) on the superconductivity, Raman spectra, current transport properties, and flux pinning mechanisms in MgB2 with 10 wt.% SiC doping were investigated systematically, with x varied from 1 to 1.2. It has been found that the sample with the Mg/B ratio of 1.15:2 exhibited the best Jc performance for all fields (0-8.5 T), and its Tc was also enhanced. The optimized Mg/B ratio diminished the interband scattering caused by Mg or B vacancies, and in turn, increased Tc . The connectivity and disorder were increased in the Mg1.15B2 sample. Both of these were responsible for the improved Jc under all the fields examined.

  11. Effect of two bands on critical fields in MgB2 thin films with various resistivity values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, V.; Manfrinetti, P.; Marré, D.; Putti, M.; Sheikin, I.; Tarantini, C.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2003-09-01

    Upper critical fields of four MgB2 thin films were measured up to 28 T at Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The films were grown by pulsed laser deposition and showed critical temperatures ranging between 29.5 and 38.8 K and resistivities at 40 K varying from 5 to 50 μΩ cm. The critical fields in the perpendicular direction turned out to be in the 13 24 T range while they were estimated to be in 42 57 T range for ab planes. In contrast to the prediction of the BCS theory, we did not observe any saturation at low temperatures: a linear temperature dependence is exhibited even at lowest temperatures at which we made the measurements. Moreover, the critical field values seemed not to depend on the normal state resistivity value. In this paper, we analyze these data considering the multiband nature of superconductivity in MgB2. We will show how the scattering mechanisms that determine critical fields and resistivity can be different.

  12. Evaluation of persistent-mode operation in a superconducting MgB2 coil in solid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; See, Khay Wai; Qiu, Wenbin; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Ma, Zongqing; Kim, Seong Jun; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Maeda, Minoru; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Rindfleisch, Matt; Tomsic, Mike; Xue Dou, Shi; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a magnesium diboride (MgB2) coil and evaluate its persistent-mode operation in a system cooled by a cryocooler with solid nitrogen (SN2) as a cooling medium. The main purpose of SN2 was to increase enthalpy of the cold mass. For this work, an in situ processed carbon-doped MgB2 wire was used. The coil was wound on a stainless steel former in a single layer (22 turns), with an inner diameter of 109 mm and height of 20 mm without any insulation. The two ends of the coil were then joined to make a persistent-current switch to obtain the persistent-current mode. After a heat treatment, the whole coil was installed in the SN2 chamber. During operation, the resultant total circuit resistance was estimated to be <7.4 × 10-14 Ω at 19.5 K ± 1.5 K, which meets the technical requirement for magnetic resonance imaging application.

  13. A persistent-mode 0.5 T solid-nitrogen-cooled MgB2 magnet for MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Jiayin; Voccio, John P.; Hahn, Seungyong; Qu, Timing; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents construction details and test results of a persistent-mode 0.5 T MgB2 magnet developed at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT. The magnet, of 276 mm inner diameter and 290 mm outer diameter, consisted of a stack of eight solenoidal coils with a total height of 460 mm. Each coil was wound with monofilament MgB2 wire, equipped with a persistent-current switch and terminated with a superconducting joint, forming an individual superconducting loop. Resistive solder joints connected the eight coils in series. The magnet, after being integrated into a testing system, immersed in solid nitrogen, was operated in a temperature range of 10-13 K. A two-stage cryocooler was deployed to cool a radiation shield and the cold mass that included mainly ˜60 kg of solid nitrogen and the magnet. The solid nitrogen was capable of providing a uniform and stable cryogenic environment to the magnet. The magnet sustained a 0.47 T magnetic field at its center persistently in a range of 10-13 K. The current in each coil was inversely calculated from the measured field profile to determine the performance of each coil in persistent-mode operation. Persistent-current switches were successfully operated in solid nitrogen for ramping the magnet. They were also designed to absorb magnetic energy in a protection mechanism; its effectiveness was evaluated in an induced quench.

  14. Field cooling of a MgB2 cylinder around a permanent magnet stack: prototype for superconductive magnetic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, E.; Giunchi, G.

    2009-04-01

    The behaviour of bulk superconductors as levitators of permanent magnets (PMs) has been extensively studied for the textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material, in the temperature range lower than 77 K, obtaining extremely high trapped fields but also experiencing limitations on the mechanical characteristics of the material and on the possibility to produce large objects. Alternatively, bulk MgB2, even if it is superconducting at lower temperatures, has fewer mechanical problems, when fully densified, and presents stable magnetization in the temperature range between 10 and 30 K. With the reactive Mg-liquid infiltration technique we have produced dense MgB2 bulk cylinders of up to 65 mm diameter and 100 mm height. This kind of cylinder can be consider as a prototype of a passive magnetic bearing for flywheels or other rotating electrical machines. We have conductively cooled one of these superconducting cylinders inside a specially constructed cryostat, and the levitation forces and stiffness, with respect to axial movements of various arrangements of the PM, have been measured as a function of the temperature below Tc. We verified the very stable characteristics of the induced magnetization after several cycles of relative movements of the PM and the superconducting cylinder.

  15. Enhancement of the critical current density and flux pinning of MgB2 superconductor by nanoparticle SiC doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S. X.; Soltanian, S.; Horvat, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, S. H.; Ionescu, M.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P.; Tomsic, M.

    2002-10-01

    Doping of MgB2 by nano-SiC and its potential for the improvement of flux pinning were studied for MgB2-x)(SiCx/2 with x=0, 0.2, and 0.3 and for 10 wt % nano-SiC-doped MgB2 samples. Cosubstitution of B by Si and C counterbalanced the effects of single-element doping, decreasing Tc by only 1.5 K, introducing intragrain pinning centers effective at high fields and temperatures, and significantly enhancing Jc and Hirr. Compared to the undoped sample, Jc for the 10 wt % doped sample increased by a factor of 32 at 5 K and 8 T, 42 at 20 K and 5 T, and 14 at 30 K and 2 T. At 20 K and 2 T, the Jc for the doped sample was 2.4 x105 A/cm2, which is comparable to Jc values for the best Ag/Bi-2223 tapes. At 20 K and 4 T, Jc was twice as high as for the best MgB2 thin films and an order of magnitude higher than for the best Fe/MgB2 tapes. The magnetic Jc is consistent with the transport Jc which remains at 20 000 A/cm2 even at 10 T and 5 K for the doped sample, an order of magnitude higher than the undoped one. Because of such high performance, it is anticipated that the future MgB2 conductors will be made using a formula of MgBxSiyCz instead of pure MgB2.

  16. Conceptual designs of conduction cooled MgB2 magnets for 1.5 and 3.0 T full body MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Tanvir; Amin, Abdullah Al; Deissler, Robert J.; Sabri, Laith; Poole, Charles; Brown, Robert W.; Tomsic, Michael; Doll, David; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Peng, Xuan; Mendris, Robert; Akkus, Ozan; Sumption, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Conceptual designs of 1.5 and 3.0 T full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets using conduction cooled MgB2 superconductor are presented. The sizes, locations, and number of turns in the eight coil bundles are determined using optimization methods that minimize the amount of superconducting wire and produce magnetic fields with an inhomogeneity of less than 10 ppm over a 45 cm diameter spherical volume. MgB2 superconducting wire is assessed in terms of the transport, thermal, and mechanical properties for these magnet designs. Careful calculations of the normal zone propagation velocity and minimum quench energies provide support for the necessity of active quench protection instead of passive protection for medium temperature superconductors such as MgB2. A new ‘active’ protection scheme for medium T c based MRI magnets is presented and simulations demonstrate that the magnet can be protected. Recent progress on persistent joints for multifilamentary MgB2 wire is presented. Finite difference calculations of the quench propagation and temperature rise during a quench conclude that active intervention is needed to reduce the temperature rise in the coil bundles and prevent damage to the superconductor. Comprehensive multiphysics and multiscale analytical and finite element analysis of the mechanical stress and strain in the MgB2 wire and epoxy for these designs are presented for the first time. From mechanical and thermal analysis of our designs we conclude there would be no damage to such a magnet during the manufacturing or operating stages, and that the magnet would survive various quench scenarios. This comprehensive set of magnet design considerations and analyses demonstrate the overall viability of 1.5 and 3.0 T MgB2 magnet designs.

  17. High temperature and low field regime vortex phase diagram of in-situ prepared stainless steel sheathed MgB2 tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Suchitra

    2017-04-01

    A magnetic field-temperature vortex phase diagram has been proposed for MgB2 on the basis of magnetoresistance studies performed on an in-situ prepared stainless steel sheathed MgB2 tapes. Thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) behavior is analyzed using Arrhenius relation. Low dissipative part of magnetoresistance with temperature is well described by vortex glass theory. Above critical region, the resistive behavior is influenced by fluctuation conductivity. In addition, a considerable vortex liquid region below HC2 is also observed but TAFF region is found to be quite narrow.

  18. Effect of boron particle size on microstructure and superconducting properties of in-situ Cu addition MgB2 multifilamentary wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishinuma, Y.; Kikuchi, A.; Shimada, Y.; Hata, S.; Takeuchi, T.; Yamada, S.; Sagara, A.

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, the secondary (impurity and non-reactive) phase and voids were observed in MgB2 matrix after the heat treatment, and then these are the lowering factors of critical current density (Jc) property. In order to improve Jc property by microstructure control of MgB2 matrix, the fine elemental boron powder as the raw material was carried out using the high-speed vibrated milling with tungsten carbide (WC) jar. The average particle size of metal boron powder was decreased from 1.14 μm to 0.20 μm by the high-speed vibrated milling. The various fine particle boron powders as the function of milling time were also prepared, and in-situ Cu addition MgB2 multifilamentary wires using these fine boron powders were fabricated. Critical transition temperature (Tc) value of Cu addition MgB2 wire using fine boron powder obtained to about 37 K. No change of the Tc property by the different particle sized boron powders was confirmed. In this paper, the comparisons of microstructure and superconducting properties between the different boron particle sizes were investigated.

  19. Significant improvement in the critical current density of MgB2 bulks in situ sintered at low temperature by excess Mg addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Cai, Qi; Yu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulks with excess Mg addition were rapidly synthesized by sintering at low temperature in present work. It is found that even after ball milling treatment of original powders, the reaction between Mg and B during subsequent low temperature sintering process was uncompleted within 5 h and there is still some residual Mg. On the other hand, the presence of residual Mg can make the sintering microstructure more homogeneous and dense, and also reduce lattice defects and mechanical strains. All the factors are contributed to the improvement of the grain connectivity in the samples with excess Mg addition sintered at low temperature compared to the reference MgB2 sample sintered at high temperature. Hence, Jc of these prepared samples is enhanced significantly across the whole measured fields. Especially, at 20 K, 2 T, the value of Jc in the 5 h-sintered MgB2 bulk with Mg addition is above 1 × 105 A cm-2. The technique developed in present work is an effective and low-cost way to further enhance Jc in the MgB2 superconductors without using expensive nanometer-size dopants.

  20. Structure, grain connectivity and pinning of as-deformed commercial MgB2 powder in Cu and Fe/Cu sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovác, P.; Husek, I.; Pachla, W.; Melisek, T.; Diduszko, R.; Fröhlich, K.; Morawski, A.; Presz, A.; Machajdik, D.

    2002-07-01

    Single-core MgB2 wires and tapes have been made by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method using commercial MgB2 powder (Alfa Aesar). Composites have been made using the two-axial rolling process in Cu and/or Fe/Cu sheaths. Alternative deformations by wire drawing, rotary swaging and cold isostatic pressing have been applied to PIT wires and tapes. Current-voltage characteristics and transport current densities in the self-field and in the external field were measured. It was found that the grain connectivity of ex situ MgB2 is affected by the applied sheath and the mode of deformation. Two-axial rolling has generated the highest powder density resulting in the best grain connectivity. The highest transport current densities of 8700 A cm-2 and 55 830 A cm-2 were measured for Cu and Fe/Cu sheathed square wires, respectively. Cold isostatic pressing at 1.5 GPa has increased current density and n-exponent, which suggests an improvement in grain connectivity. It was found that the external pressure improves the inter-grain connectivity but decreases the pinning in MgB2 cores.

  1. Strong competition between the δl and δTc flux pinning mechanisms in MgB2 doped with carbon containing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, S. R.; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Hossain, M. S. A.; Yao, Q. W.; Dou, S. X.; Lee, Sung-IK; Chung, K. C.; Kim, Y. K.

    2010-06-01

    The transport and magnetic properties of 10 wt % malic acid and 5 wt % nanocarbon doped MgB2 have been studied by measuring the resistivity (ρ), critical current density (jc), connectivity factor (AF), irreversibility field (Hirr), and upper critical field (Hc2). The pinning mechanisms are studied in terms of the collective pinning model. It was found that both mean free path (δl) and critical temperature (δTc) pinning mechanisms coexist in both doped MgB2. For both the malic acid and nanocarbon doped samples, the temperature dependence of the crossover field, which separates the single vortex and the small bundle pinning regime, Bsb(T ), shows that the δl pinning mechanism is dominant for temperatures up to t(T /Tc)=0.7 but the δTc pinning mechanism is dominant for t >0.7. This tendency of coexistence of the δl and the δTc pinning mechanism is in strong contrast with the pure MgB2, in which the δTc pinning mechanism is dominant over a wide temperature range below Tc. It was also observed that the connectivity factor, active cross-sectional area fraction (AF), are 0.11 and 0.14 for the nanocarbon and the malic acid doped MgB2, respectively, indicating that there are still rooms for further improving jc performance.

  2. Improved critical current density in ex situ processed MgB2 tapes by the size reduction of grains and crystallites by high-energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Ishitoya, Akira; Itoh, Shinji; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Fe-sheathed MgB2 tapes through an ex situ process in a powder-in-tube (PIT) technique using powders ball milled under various conditions. Although the ex situ processed wires and tapes using the high-energy ball milled MgB2 powders have been studied and the decrease of grain and crystallite sizes of MgB2 and the critical current density (Jc) improvement of those conductors were reported so far, the use of filling powders milled at a higher rotation speed than previously reported further decreases the crystallite size and improves the Jc properties. The improved Jc values at 4.2 K and 10 T were nearly twice as large as those previously reported. Those milled powders and hence as-rolled tapes easily receive contamination in air. Thus, the transport Jc properties are easily deteriorated and scattered unless the samples are handled with care. The optimized heat treatment temperature (Topt) of those tape samples at which best performance in the Jc property is obtained decreases by more than 100 °C, compared with that of tapes using the as-received MgB2 powder.

  3. Uniform transport performance of a 100 m-class multifilament MgB2 wire fabricated by an internal Mg diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Xu, Da; Zhang, Xianping; Yao, Chao; Yuan, Pusheng; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    A 100 m long six-filament MgB2 wire was successfully fabricated using an internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process. We investigated the transport properties and the uniformity of this long multifilament IMD wire. The MgB2 layer and the sub-filament region are regular, and the J c values have a fairly homogenous distribution throughout the wire, suggesting that there were no obvious defects along the length of the wire. The uniformity problem of long multifilament IMD MgB2 wires can be mitigated by optimizing the starting composite parameters, multifilament geometry, fabricating process and annealing conditions. A layer J c as high as 1.2 × 105 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 8 T was obtained, which was comparable with the highest reported value for a short multifilament IMD wire. The transport layer J c, non-barrier J c and J e values are independent of the wire diameter. In addition, the analysis of the stress-strain characteristics and the n value of the IMD wire is also presented. These results indicate that the long multifilament IMD-processed MgB2 superconducting wire is suitable for practical applications.

  4. Numerical simulation of quench protection for a 1.5 T persistent mode MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Baig, Tanvir; Poole, Charles; Amin, Abdullah; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The active quench protection of a 1.5 T MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet operating in persistent current mode is considered. An active quench protection system relies on the detection of the resistive voltage developed in the magnet, which is used to trigger the external energizing of quench heaters located on the surfaces of all ten coil bundles. A numerical integration of the heat equation is used to determine the development of the temperature profile and the maximum temperature in the coil at the origin, or ‘hot spot’, of the quench. Both n-value of the superconductor and magnetoresistance of the wire are included in the simulations. An MgB2 wire manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. was used as the basis to model the wire for the simulations. With the proposed active quench protection system, the maximum temperature was limited to 200 K or less, which is considered low enough to prevent damage to the magnet. By substituting Glidcop for the Monel in the wire sheath or by increasing the thermal conductivity of the insulation, the margin for safe operation was further increased, the maximum temperature decreasing by more than 40 K. The strain on the MgB2 filaments is calculated using ANSYS, verifying that the stress and strain limits in the MgB2 superconductor and epoxy insulation are not exceeded.

  5. Momentum dependence of the superconducting gap and in-gap states in MgB2 multiband superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Mou, Daixiang; Jiang, Rui; Taufour, Valentin; ...

    2015-06-29

    We use tunable laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of the multiband superconductor MgB2. These results form the baseline for detailed studies of superconductivity in multiband systems. We find that the magnitude of the superconducting gap on both σ bands follows a BCS-like variation with temperature with Δ0 ~ 7meV. Furthermore, the value of the gap is isotropic within experimental uncertainty and in agreement with a pure s-wave pairing symmetry. We observe in-gap states confined to kF of the σ band that occur at some locations of the sample surface. As a result, the energy of thismore » excitation, ~ 3 meV, was found to be somewhat larger than the previously reported gap on π Fermi sheet and therefore we cannot exclude the possibility of interband scattering as its origin.« less

  6. Experimental characterization of the constitutive materials of MgB2 multi-filamentary wires for the development of 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escamez, Guillaume; Sirois, Frédéric; Tousignant, Maxime; Badel, Arnaud; Granger, Capucine; Tixador, Pascal; Bruzek, Christian-Éric

    2017-03-01

    Today MgB2 superconducting wires can be manufactured in long lengths at low cost, which makes this material a good candidate for large scale applications. However, because of its relatively low critical temperature (less than 40 K), it is necessary to operate MgB2 devices in a liquid or gaseous helium environment. In this context, losses in the cryogenic environment must be rigorously minimized, otherwise the use of a superconductor is not worthy. An accurate estimation of the losses at the design stage is therefore mandatory in order to allow determining the device architecture that minimizes the losses. In this paper, we present a complete a 3D finite element model of a 36-filament MgB2 wire based on the architecture of the Italian manufacturer Colombus. In order for the model to be as accurate as possible, we made a substantial effort to characterize all constitutive materials of the wire, namely the E–J characteristics of the MgB2 filaments and the electric and magnetic properties (B‑H curves) of nickel and monel, which are the two major non-superconducting components of the wire. All properties were characterized as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Limitations of the characterization and of the model are discussed, in particular the difficulty to extract the maximum relative permeability of nickel and monel from the experimental data, as well as the lack of a thin conductive layer model in the 3D finite element method, which prevents us from taking into account the resistive barriers around the MgB2 filaments in the matrix. Two examples of numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the capabilities of the model in its current state.

  7. Pinning in high performance MgB2 thin films and bulks: Role of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhna, Tatiana; Shapovalov, Andrey; Eisterer, Michael; Shaternik, Vladimir; Goldacker, Wilfried; Weber, Harald W.; Moshchil, Viktor; Kozyrev, Artem; Sverdun, Vladimir; Boutko, Viktor; Grechnev, Gennadiy; Gusev, Alexandr; Kovylaev, Valeriy; Shaternik, Anton

    2017-02-01

    The comparison of nano-crystalline MgB2 oxygen-containing thin film (140 nm) and highly dense bulk materials showed that the critical current density, Jc, depends on the distribution of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities. It has been shown that MgB2 bulks with high Jc in low (∼106 A/cm2 in 0-1 T at 10 K) and medium magnetic fields contain MgB0.6-0.8O0.8-0.9 nano-inclusions, where δTc or a combined δTc (dominant) / δl pinning mechanism prevails, while in bulk MgB2 with high Jc in high magnetic fields (Birr(18.5 K) = 15 T, Bc2(0 K) = 42.1 T) MgB1.2-2.7O1.8-2.5 nano-layers are present and δl pinning prevails. The structure of oxygen-containing films with high Jc in low and high magnetic fields (Jc (0 Т) = 1.8 × 107 А/сm2 and Jc (5 Т) = 2 × 106 А/сm2 at 10 К) contains very fine oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inhomogeneities and δl pinning is realized. The results of DOS calculations in MgB2-xOx cells for x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 demonstrate that all compounds are conductors with metal-like behaviour. In the case of ordered oxygen substitution for boron the binding energy, Eb, does not increase sufficiently as compared with that for MgB2, while when oxygen atoms form zigzag chains the calculated Eb is even lower (Eb = -1.15712 Ry).

  8. Measurement of the penetration depth and coherence length of MgB 2 in all directions using transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudon, J. C.; Yazdi, S.; Kasama, T.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB 2, where these quantities vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a MgB 2 single crystal cut in the a c plane by focused ion beam milling and tilted to 45∘ with respect to the electron beam about the crystallographic a axis. A new method was developed to simulate these images that accounted for vortices with a nonzero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor and a simplex algorithm was used to make a quantitative comparison between the images and simulations to measure the penetration depths and coherence lengths. This gave penetration depths Λa b=100 ±35 nm and Λc=120 ±15 nm at 10.8 K in a field of 4.8 mT. The large error in Λa b is a consequence of tilting the sample about a and had it been tilted about c , the errors on Λa b and Λc would be reversed. Thus obtaining the most precise values requires taking images of the flux lattice with the sample tilted in more than one direction. In a previous paper [J. C. Loudon et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 144515 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.144515], we obtained a more precise value for Λa b using a sample cut in the a b plane. Using this value gives Λa b=107 ±8 nm, Λc=120 ±15 nm, ξa b=39 ±11 nm, and ξc=35 ±10 nm, which agree well with measurements made using other techniques. The experiment required two days to conduct and does not require large-scale facilities. It was performed on a very small sample, 30 ×15 μ m and 200-nm thick, so this method could prove useful for superconductors where only small single crystals are available, as is the case for some iron-based superconductors.

  9. A 0.6 T/650 mm RT Bore Solid Nitrogen Cooled MgB2 Demonstration Coil for MRI-a Status Report.

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, Juan; Lee, Haigunan; Bobrov, Emmanuel S; Hahn, Seungyong; Iwasa, Yukikazu; Tomsic, Mike; Rindfleisch, Matt

    2006-06-01

    Aiming to demonstrate feasibility and practicality of a low cost superconducting MRI magnet system targeted for use in small hospitals, rural communities and underdeveloped countries, MIT-Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory has developed a 0.6 T/650 mm room temperature bore demonstration coil wound with multifilament MgB2 conductor and cooled via an innovative cryogenic design/operation. The coil is to be maintained cold by solid nitrogen kept in the solid state by a cryocooler. In the event of a power failure the cryocooler is automatically thermally decoupled from the system. In this paper we present details of the MgB2 conductor, winding process, and preliminary theoretical analysis of the current-carrying performance of the conductively cooled coils in zero background field and over the 10-30 K temperature range.

  10. Comparison of critical current density in SiC-doped in situ MgB2 coils and straight wire samples processed by HIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Morawski, A.; Zaleski, A.; Cetner, T.; Małecka, M.; Presz, A.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Thong, C. J.; Surdacki, P.

    2013-11-01

    Unreacted MgB2 wires fabricated from SiC-doped precursor material by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. have been used to make small-diameter (14 mm) superconducting coils. All coils made of 500 mm length wires were subjected to hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. The critical current density (Jc) parameters of coils were compared to straight samples characteristics. Both types of samples have been measured in perpendicular magnetic field configuration for Jc and pinning force density (Fp) evaluation. No significant Jc difference between the long wires on coils and straight wires was found. These results suggest that the critical current (Ic) for coils can be determined for straight samples (25 mm). SEM analysis indicated that a small diameter of the coil does not influence the structure of in situ MgB2 wire.

  11. A 0.6 T/650 mm RT Bore Solid Nitrogen Cooled MgB2 Demonstration Coil for MRI—a Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Juan; Lee, Haigunan; Bobrov, Emmanuel S.; Hahn, Seungyong; Iwasa, Yukikazu; Tomsic, Mike; Rindfleisch, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to demonstrate feasibility and practicality of a low cost superconducting MRI magnet system targeted for use in small hospitals, rural communities and underdeveloped countries, MIT-Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory has developed a 0.6 T/650 mm room temperature bore demonstration coil wound with multifilament MgB2 conductor and cooled via an innovative cryogenic design/operation. The coil is to be maintained cold by solid nitrogen kept in the solid state by a cryocooler. In the event of a power failure the cryocooler is automatically thermally decoupled from the system. In this paper we present details of the MgB2 conductor, winding process, and preliminary theoretical analysis of the current-carrying performance of the conductively cooled coils in zero background field and over the 10–30 K temperature range. PMID:25580068

  12. Direct evidence for two-band superconductivity in MgB2 single crystals from directional point-contact spectroscopy in magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, R S; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S M; Karpinski, J

    2002-12-09

    We present the results of the first directional point-contact spectroscopy experiments in high-quality MgB2 single crystals. Because of the directionality of the current injection into the samples, the application of a magnetic field allowed us to separate the contributions of the sigma and pi bands to the total conductance of our point contacts. By using this technique, we were able to obtain the temperature dependency of each gap independent of the other. The consequent, strong reduction of the error on the value of the gap amplitude as a function of temperature allows a stricter test of the predictions of the two-band model for MgB2.

  13. Highly enhanced in-field critical current density of MgB 2 superconductor by combined addition of burned rice husk and nano Ho 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, K.; Varghese, Neson; Sundaresan, A.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2010-04-01

    With the aim of improving flux pinning and in-field critical current density [ JC( H)], two physically and chemically different additives - burned rice husk (BRH) and nano Ho 2O 3 were introduced into in situ MgB 2 superconductor. The effects of the above two additives were studied individually and combinedly. Ho 2O 3 decomposed and reacted with B to form HoB 4, without any substitution. BRH caused considerable amount of C substitution at B site and formed Mg 2Si and Mg 2C 3 secondary phases. Addition of Ho 2O 3 improved the JC( H) only marginally, but BRH improved the JC( H) strongly. Combined addition of Ho 2O 3 with BRH was found to be much more effective than their solo addition for the enhancement of JC( H) of MgB 2.

  14. Enhancement of the critical current density in FeO-coated MgB2 thin films at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Surdu, Andrei E; Hamdeh, Hassan H; Al-Omari, I A; Sellmyer, David J; Socrovisciuc, Alexei V; Prepelita, Andrei A; Koparan, Ezgi T; Yanmaz, Ekrem; Ryazanov, Valery V; Hahn, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Summary The effect of depositing FeO nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm onto the surface of MgB2 thin films on the critical current density was studied in comparison with the case of uncoated MgB2 thin films. We calculated the superconducting critical current densities (J c) from the magnetization hysteresis (M–H) curves for both sets of samples and found that the J c value of FeO-coated films is higher at all fields and temperatures than the J c value for uncoated films, and that it decreases to ~105 A/cm2 at B = 1 T and T = 20 K and remains approximately constant at higher fields up to 7 T. PMID:22259764

  15. Graphite coating effects on the critical current characteristics of MgB 2/Cu wires fabricated by an in situ PIT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, S.; Machi, T.; Nakao, K.; Koshizuka, N.; Tanaka, S.; Mochizuki, K.; Shibata, N.; Ushio, K.

    2005-10-01

    In order to improve the critical current characteristics of Cu sheathed MgB2 wires, we studied the carbon doping and coating effects on JC of wires prepared by an in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method. Raw materials of Mg and B powders were mixed with a certain amount of MgB2 powder to increase the core density of wires in the heat treated samples. The pellets of these mixed powders were inserted into Cu sheaths and manufactured into wires by rotary swaging, two-axial rolling and drawing under cold-working. The wires were finally heat treated at 600 °C for 2 h in Ar gas atmosphere. The critical current IC of short samples of graphite 5 at.% doped MgB2/Cu with diameter of 1.0 mm reached 548 A (JC = 440 kA/cm2) at 4.2 K in self-field. The reaction of Mg with Cu decreased for graphite coating samples compared with non-coating ones. We obtained high performance MgB2/Cu wires by doping of diamond and graphite powder in the in situ PIT method. We found that the graphite coating on the inside surface of Cu sheath was effective for suppressing the reaction of Mg with Cu sheath. We also fabricated solenoid coils by wind and react method heat treated under the above conditions. The IC value was 230 A at 4.2 K for a coil produced by using a 16 m wire. This coil generated a magnetic field of 0.42 T at liquid He temperature.

  16. Critical current densities and n-values of MgB2 strands over a wide range of temperatures and fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. Z.; Yang, Y.; Susner, M. A.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2012-02-01

    Transport measurements of critical current density, Jct, in monocore powder-in-tube MgB2 strands have been carried out at temperatures, T, of from 4.2 to 40 K, and in transverse fields, B, of up to 14 T. Processing methods used were conventional continuous tube forming/filling (CTFF) and internal magnesium diffusion (IMD). Strands with several powder compositions were measured, including binary (undoped) MgB2, 2% carbon doped MgB2, and 3% carbon doped MgB2. Magnetization loops (M-B) were also measured, and magnetic critical current density, Jcm, values extracted from them. The transport, Jct(B) and magnetic, Jcm(B), critical current densities were compared. Also studied was the influence of doping on the resistively measured irreversibility field, Birr, and upper critical field, Bc2. Critical current densities, Jct, and n-values were extracted from transport measurements and were found to be universally related (for all B and T) according to n\\propto {J}_{{ct}}^{m} in which m = 0.52 ± 0.11. Likewise n was found to be related to B according to n ∝ B-p with a T-dependent p in the range of about 0.08-0.21. Further analysis of the field (B) and temperature (T) dependences of n-value resulted in an expression that enabled n(B,T), for all B and T, to be estimated for a given strand based on the results of transport Jct(B) measurements made at one arbitrarily chosen temperature.

  17. Update on the Fabrication and Performance of 2-D Arrays of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Thermal Detectors for Outer-Planets Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook; Aslam, S.

    2011-01-01

    Detectors with better performance than the current thermopile detectors that operate at room temperature will be needed at the focal plane of far-infrared instruments on future planetary exploration missions. We will present an update on recent results from the 2-D array of MgB2 thermal detectors being currently developed at NASA Goddard. Noise and sensitivity results will be presented and compared to thermal detectors currently in use on planetary missions.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Pressure and Doping Effects on Critical Temperature in MgB2 and Nonmagnetic Borocarbides within Two-Band Eliashberg Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askerzade, I. N.

    2010-06-01

    Critical temperature of Mg1-xAlxB2, MgB2-xCx are calculated using two-band Eliashberg theory in intermediate e-ph coupling. Analytical calculations are conducted for different values of doping parameters x in this compounds. Pressure effects on critical temperature in MgB2 and nonmagnetic borocarbide YNi2B2C are also investigated. Results is compared with available experimental data and good agreement is achieved.

  19. Thermodynamic stability of transition metals on the Mg-terminated MgB2 (0001) surface and their effects on hydrogen dissociation and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Michel, Kyle; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wolverton, C.

    2015-04-01

    The hydrogenation of MgB2 is a critical step in the reversibility of several well-known hydrogen storage reactions. Of the many processes that must occur during rehydrogenation, at least two of them take place near the surface: the dissociation of H2 molecules and the subsequent diffusion of atomic hydrogen. Using first-principles calculations, we determine the energetic barriers for these processes on the ideal Mg-terminated MgB2 (0001) surface, as well as on surfaces containing transition metal dopants (Sc-Zn, Y-Cd, Pt, and Au). The calculated dissociation barrier for H2 on the clean surface is 0.89 eV, and the surface diffusion barrier is 0.17 eV. However, we find examples of dopants that significantly decrease the activation barrier for the dissociation of H2 . Our calculations suggest that Ni, Cu, and Pd are good catalytic candidates for the surface processes involved in MgB2 rehydrogenation.

  20. Magnetic field dependent stability and quench behavior and degradation limits in conduction-cooled MgB2 wires and coils

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liyang; Cruciani, Davide; Xu, Minfeng; Mine, Susumu; Amm, Kathleen; Schwartz, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Long lengths of metal/MgB2 composite conductors with high critical current density (Jc), fabricated by the power-in-tube (PIT) process, have recently become commercially available. Owing to its electromagnetic performance in the 20 K – 30 K range and relatively low cost, MgB2 may be attractive for a variety of applications. One of the key issues for magnet design is stability and quench protection, so the behavior of MgB2 wires and magnets must be understood before large systems can emerge. In this work, the stability and quench behavior of several conduction-cooled MgB2 wires are studied. Measurements of the minimum quench energy and normal zone propagation velocity are performed on short samples in a background magnetic field up to 3 T and on coils in self-field and the results are explained in terms of variations in the conductor architecture, electrical transport behavior, operating conditions (transport current and background magnetic field) and experimental setup (short sample vs small coil). Furthermore, one coil is quenched repeatedly with increasing hot-spot temperature until Jc is decreased. It is found that degradation during quenching correlates directly with temperature and not with peak voltage; a safe operating temperature limit of 260 K at the surface is identified. PMID:25883414

  1. Superconductivity, critical current density, and flux pinning in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductor after SiC nanoparticle doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S. X.; Pan, A. V.; Zhou, S.; Ionescu, M.; Wang, X. L.; Horvat, J.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effect of SiC nanoparticle doping on the crystal lattice structure, critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, and flux pinning in MgB2 superconductor. A series of MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 samples with x=0-1.0 were fabricated using an in situ reaction process. The contraction of the lattice and depression of Tc with increasing SiC doping level remained rather small most likely due to the counterbalancing effect of Si and C co-doping. The high level Si and C co-doping allowed the creation of intragrain defects and highly dispersed nanoinclusions within the grains which can act as effective pinning centers for vortices, improving Jc behavior as a function of the applied magnetic field. The enhanced pinning is mainly attributable to the substitution-induced defects and local structure fluctuations within grains. A pinning mechanism is proposed to account for different contributions of different defects in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductors.

  2. Numerical study on the quench propagation in a 1.5 T MgB2 MRI magnet design with varied wire compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Charles; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the usage of liquid helium in MRI magnets, magnesium diboride (MgB2), a high temperature superconductor, has been considered for use in a design of conduction cooled MRI magnets. Compared to NbTi wires the normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) in MgB2 is much slower leading to a higher temperature rise and the necessity of active quench protection. The temperature rise, resistive voltage, and NZPV during a quench in a 1.5 T main magnet design with MgB2 superconducting wire was calculated for a variety of wire compositions. The quench development was modeled using the Douglas-Gunn method to solve the 3D heat equation. It was determined that wires with higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity reduced the hot-spot temperature rise near the beginning of a quench. These improvements can be accomplished by increasing the copper fraction inside the wire, using a sheath material (such as Glidcop) with a higher thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity, and by increasing the thermal conductivity of the wire’s insulation. The focus of this paper is on the initial stages of quench development, and does not consider the later stages of the quench or magnet protection.

  3. Magnetic field dependent stability and quench behavior and degradation limits in conduction-cooled MgB2 wires and coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liyang; Cruciani, Davide; Xu, Minfeng; Mine, Susumu; Amm, Kathleen; Schwartz, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Long lengths of metal/MgB2 composite conductors with high critical current density (Jc), fabricated by the powder-in-tube process, have recently become commercially available. Owing to its electromagnetic performance in the 20-30 K range and relatively low cost, MgB2 may be attractive for a variety of applications. One of the key issues for magnet design is stability and quench protection, so the behavior of MgB2 wires and magnets must be understood before large systems can emerge. In this work, the stability and quench behavior of several conduction-cooled MgB2 wires are studied. Measurements of the minimum quench energy and normal zone propagation velocity are performed on short samples in a background magnetic field up to 3 T and on coils in self-field and the results are explained in terms of variations in the conductor architecture, electrical transport behavior, operating conditions (transport current and background magnetic field) and experimental setup (short sample versus small coil). Furthermore, one coil is quenched repeatedly with increasing hotspot temperature until Jc is decreased. It is found that degradation during quenching correlates directly with temperature and not with peak voltage; a safe operating temperature limit of 260 K at the surface is identified.

  4. Magnetic field dependent stability and quench behavior and degradation limits in conduction-cooled MgB2 wires and coils.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liyang; Cruciani, Davide; Xu, Minfeng; Mine, Susumu; Amm, Kathleen; Schwartz, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Long lengths of metal/MgB2 composite conductors with high critical current density (Jc), fabricated by the power-in-tube (PIT) process, have recently become commercially available. Owing to its electromagnetic performance in the 20 K - 30 K range and relatively low cost, MgB2 may be attractive for a variety of applications. One of the key issues for magnet design is stability and quench protection, so the behavior of MgB2 wires and magnets must be understood before large systems can emerge. In this work, the stability and quench behavior of several conduction-cooled MgB2 wires are studied. Measurements of the minimum quench energy and normal zone propagation velocity are performed on short samples in a background magnetic field up to 3 T and on coils in self-field and the results are explained in terms of variations in the conductor architecture, electrical transport behavior, operating conditions (transport current and background magnetic field) and experimental setup (short sample vs small coil). Furthermore, one coil is quenched repeatedly with increasing hot-spot temperature until Jc is decreased. It is found that degradation during quenching correlates directly with temperature and not with peak voltage; a safe operating temperature limit of 260 K at the surface is identified.

  5. Interplay of ballistic and diffusive superconductivity in the vortex core in the model two-band system MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Eschrig, M.; Agterberg, D. F.

    2007-03-01

    A revived interest in multi-band superconductivity has emerged due to the unexpected and interesting simultaneous presence of diffusive and ballistic bands in the superconductor MgB2. Motivated by recent experimental data on the vortex state in MgB2 obtained by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we theoretically study the intriguing effects of superconductivity in a diffusive band (`π band') induced by superconductivity in a ballistic band (`σ band'). We apply a unique model that has been developed recently [1] for describing such a system, based on coupled Eilenberger and Usadel equations. Results are presented for the spatial variation of the order parameter, the current density, and the vortex core spectrum in the two bands. A particularly interesting result emerging from our studies is the possibility of additional bound states near the gap edge in the `strong' σ band, which arise from hybridization with the `weak' π band. The development of such gap-edge bound states is examined for various sets of physical parameters that are relevant for MgB2. We will also discuss the induced Kramer-Pesch effect in the π band and magnetic-field dependence of vortex core size. [1] K. Tanaka, D. F. Agterberg, J. Kopu, M. Eschrig, Phys. Rev. B 73, 220501(R) (2006).

  6. Hysteresis losses in MgB2 superconductors exposed to combinations of low AC and high DC magnetic fields and transport currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, N.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Liu, D.; Runde, M.; Polinder, H.

    2014-11-01

    MgB2 superconductors are considered for generator field coils for direct drive wind turbine generators. In such coils, the losses generated by AC magnetic fields may generate excessive local heating and add to the thermal load, which must be removed by the cooling system. These losses must be evaluated in the design of the generator to ensure a sufficient overall efficiency. A major loss component is the hysteresis losses in the superconductor itself. In the high DC - low AC current and magnetic field region experimental results still lack for MgB2 conductors. In this article we reason towards a simplified theoretical treatment of the hysteresis losses based on available models in the literature with the aim of setting the basis for estimation of the allowable magnetic fields and current ripples in superconducting generator coils intended for large wind turbine direct drive generators. The resulting equations use the DC in-field critical current, the geometry of the superconductor and the magnitude of the AC magnetic field component as parameters. This simplified approach can be valuable in the design of MgB2 DC coils in the 1-4 T range with low AC magnetic field and current ripples.

  7. Measurement of the Penetration Depth and Coherence Length of MgB2 in All Directions Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudon, James; Yazdi, S.; Kasama, T.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure simultaneously the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB2 where these quantities vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a sample cut in the ac plane by focussed ion beam milling and compared these with simulations which accounted for flux vortices with a non-zero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor. This gave penetration depths Λab = 100 +/- 35 nm, Λc = 120 +/- 15 nm and coherence lengths ξab = 41 +/- 13 nm and ξc = 34 +/- 10 nm at 10.8 K in a field of 4.8 mT. The implications of these values for type-1.5 superconductivity will be discussed.

  8. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  9. Improved transport properties and connectivity of in situ MgB 2 wires obtained by Cold High Pressure Densification (CHPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flükiger, R.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Senatore, C.; Rindfleisch, M.

    2011-11-01

    The critical current density, Jc, of in situ MgB2 wires with C4H6O5 (malic acid) has been strongly enhanced by means of Cold High Pressure Densification (CHPD) at pressures up to 2.5 GPa prior to reaction. An increase in Jc by factors 2 and 8 was observed at 4.2 and 20 K, regardless of the applied field. Densified wires were found to exhibit a higher homogeneity due to enhanced connectivity. In addition, a higher C content was found, as shown by the lattice parameter change, the decrease of Tc, the shift of the calorimetric Tc distribution and a reduced anisotropy in tapes obtained from the same wires. The higher C content in densified wires is responsible for the observed enhancement of Birr by more than 1 T, up to 11 T at 20 K. Almost isotropic Jc values were obtained for C4H6O5 added square wires of 1 × 0.6 mm2 cross section, the values of Jc(4.2 K) = 1 × 104 A/cm2 for fields // and ⊥ to the wider surface being obtained at 13.8 and 13.1 T (1 μV/cm criterion), the values for 20 K being 6.4 and 6.2 T, respectively. The method was successfully applied to mono- and multifilamentary wires with lengths up to several meters, suggesting applicability for industrial lengths.

  10. Upper critical field and Raman spectra of MgB2 thin films irradiated with low energy oxygen ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhuang, C. G.; Li, J.; Wang, Y. Z.; Feng, Q. R.; Zheng, D. N.

    2009-11-01

    The structure, upper critical field, and Raman spectrum of epitaxial MgB2 thin films irradiated by 300 keV O2+ ions have been investigated. Lattice parameter c expands after irradiation. There is a significant increase in upper critical field in the moderately irradiated films, while the critical temperature is reduced slightly. The values of critical field at zero temperature exhibit a maximum for samples with a moderate irradiation level for the applied magnetic field both perpendicular and parallel to the film surface. The temperature dependence of the anisotropy parameter, which is defined as the ratio of the upper critical field with the field parallel to the film surface and perpendicular to the film surface, reveals that oxygen ion irradiation mainly affects the σ band at a low irradiation level. With increasing irradiation level, π band scattering is strongly enhanced, and finally both bands are in the dirty limit. A broad peak centered around 570 cm-1 is observed in the Raman spectrum of the unirradiated films, and the peak position has a visible redshift in the irradiated samples. In particular, high-frequency spectral structures appear and become dominant, while the E2g broad band diminishes gradually with increasing irradiation fluence. The results are discussed by considering the disorder-induced change in carrier scattering within and between the σ and π bands and a violation of the Raman selection rules due to oxygen ion irradiation.

  11. Fluxoid jump coupled high critical current density of nano-Co3O4 doped MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Isobe, M.; Singh, K. P.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Kishan, H.

    2006-06-01

    Polycrystalline MgB2 samples, with added 0, 2, 4 and 6% nano-Co3O4, synthesized by vacuum (10-5 Torr) annealing at 750 °C for two and a half hours each, are found to be nearly single phase with the presence of only a small quantity of Mg/MgO in the pristine sample in addition to the Co2O3 in the doped compounds. All the samples exhibited clear and sharp diamagnetic transitions at around 38 K, in zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetic susceptibility measurements with a sizeable signal. The field-cooled (FC) measurements, though having sharp transitions, showed a very small signal, indicating a high level of pinning centres in these samples. Further, some of the doped samples exhibited the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) in an applied field of 5 Oe. The critical current density (Jc), estimated by invoking Bean's model for the pristine compound, increases by nearly an order of magnitude for 2% and 4% nano-Co3O4 doping and then decreases sharply for the 6% sample at nearly all studied temperatures and applied fields. Further, the increased Jc (~108 A cm-2) is coupled with fluxoid jumps (T<=20 K and H<=1 T). Fluxoid jumps are not seen in the relatively low Jc pristine or 6% sample. This means that the fluxoid jumps are intrinsic only to the high-Jc samples.

  12. MgB2 Thin-Film Bolometer for Applications in Far-Infrared Instruments on Future Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 256 fW/square root Hz operating at 30 Hz in the 8.5 - 12.35 micron spectral bandpass. This value corresponds to an electrical specific detectivity of 7.6 x 10(exp 10) cm square root Hz/W. The bolometer shows a measured blackbody (optical) specific detectivity of 8.8 x 10(exp 9) cm square root Hz/W, with a responsivity of 701.5 kV/W and a first-order time constant of 5.2 ms. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that a blackbody specific detectivity of 6.4 x 10(exp 10) cm/square root Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17 - 250 micron spectral wavelength range.

  13. Induced Kramer-Pesch effect in a two-gap superconductor: Application to MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumann, A.; Graser, S.; Dahm, T.; Schopohl, N.

    2006-03-01

    The size of the vortex core in a clean superconductor is strongly temperature dependent and shrinks with decreasing temperature, decreasing to zero for T→0 . We study this so-called Kramer-Pesch effect both for a single-gap superconductor and for the case of a two-gap superconductor using parameters appropriate for magnesium diboride. Usually, the Kramer-Pesch effect is absent in the dirty limit. Here, we show that the Kramer-Pesch effect exists in both bands of a two-gap superconductor even if only one of the two bands is in the clean limit and the other band in the dirty limit, a case appropriate for MgB2 . In this case an induced Kramer-Pesch effect appears in the dirty band. Besides numerical results we also present an analytical model for the spatial variation of the pairing potential in the vicinity of the vortex center that allows a simple calculation of the vortex core radius even in the limit T→0 .

  14. Effect of strain along C-axis NbS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Tapender Kumar, Jagdish Sastri, O. S. K. S.

    2015-05-15

    We have studied electronic properties of double layered hexagonal structure of the Niobium Di-Sulphide (2H-NbS{sub 2}) superconductor for various strains introduced along the c-axis using ab-initio calculations. The DFT calculations based on Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method are performed using the ELK code. The total energy curve (E vs a), Density of States (DOS) and the Band structure calculations obtained in this work are matching with the earlier reports. The Pressure-Volume (P-V) diagram for 2H-NbS{sub 2} was obtained using the Equation of State(EOS) calculations, which provides the relationship between the pressure and strain applied along the c-axis. The band structures for various strains ranging from 0 percent to 10 percent along c-axis in steps of 2 percent are obtained. We note that there are increasing number of bands crossing over the Fermi energy level with increase in strain. Thus, we conclude that with increasing strain along c-axis, number of conduction bands crossing the E{sub F} increases, which gives rise to more conduction states and hence higher conductivity.

  15. Effect of strain along C-axis NbS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tapender; Kumar, Jagdish; Sastri, O. S. K. S.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied electronic properties of double layered hexagonal structure of the Niobium Di-Sulphide (2H-NbS2) superconductor for various strains introduced along the c-axis using ab-initio calculations. The DFT calculations based on Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method are performed using the ELK code. The total energy curve (E vs a), Density of States (DOS) and the Band structure calculations obtained in this work are matching with the earlier reports. The Pressure-Volume (P-V) diagram for 2H-NbS2 was obtained using the Equation of State(EOS) calculations, which provides the relationship between the pressure and strain applied along the c-axis. The band structures for various strains ranging from 0 percent to 10 percent along c-axis in steps of 2 percent are obtained. We note that there are increasing number of bands crossing over the Fermi energy level with increase in strain. Thus, we conclude that with increasing strain along c-axis, number of conduction bands crossing the EF increases, which gives rise to more conduction states and hence higher conductivity.

  16. In-plane and c-axis optical spectroscopy study on 122 Fe-pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan Lin

    2011-03-01

    I present the in-plane and the c-axis optical spectroscopy investigations on 122 Fe-pnictides. For the parent compound BaFe 2 As 2 , the in-plane measurement revealed two different energy gaps in the SDW state, whereas for the c-axis polarized measurement only the energy gap at smaller energy scale could be clearly observed. We suggest different driving mechanisms for the formation of the two energy gaps. The large energy gap is caused by the nesting between disconnected 2D cylinder-like electron and hole Fermi surfaces. It is the main driving force for the SDW instability. The small energy gap is the one formed on the 3D Fermi surface due to the presence of reduced magnetic Brillouin zone which crosses the 3D Fermi surface. It is the consequence of the establishment of the magnetic order. For the doped superconducting 122 samples, the in-plane optical measurement revealed a formation of full superconducting energy gap, whereas the c-axis optical measurement indicated a large residual quasiparticle population down to very low temperature. Those quasiparticles contribute specifically to the c-axis transport. We suggest that there exist horizontal nodes in the superconducting gap in regions of the 3D Fermi surface that contribute dominantly to the c-axis optical conductivity. Work done with Z. G. Chen, W. Z. Hu, B. Cheng, G. Li, J. Dong, T. Dong, R. H. Yuan, P. Zheng, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, Z. Fang, X. Dai, C. L. Zhang and P. Dai.

  17. Microstructure dependence of the c-axis critical current density in second generation YBCO tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y. Welp, U. Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.K.; Malozemoff, A.P.; Rupich, M.W.; Fleshler, S.; Clem, J.R.

    2011-10-31

    C-axis current flow in high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape-shaped wires arises in configurations where the local wire axis is not perpendicular to the local magnetic field, such as in power cables with helically wound HTS tapes. The c-axis critical current density J{sub c}{sup c} has been recently found to be orders of magnitude lower than the ab-plane critical current density J{sub c}{sup ab}. Here we report on J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) values of various YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}-based (YBCO) tapes with different microstructures. Our results show that the value of J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) decreases significantly with increasing concentration of ab-plane stacking faults in YBCO thin films and that the critical current anisotropy {gamma} = J{sub c}{sup ab}/J{sub c}{sup c} can reach values as high as 2070, implying that in the highest-anisotropy tape, {approx}20% of the tape width carries c-axis current in a helically wound power cable.

  18. Microstructure dependence of the c-axis critical current density in second-generation YBCO tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Rupich, M. W.; Fleshler, S.; Clem, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    C-axis current flow in high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape-shaped wires arises in configurations where the local wire axis is not perpendicular to the local magnetic field, such as in power cables with helically wound HTS tapes. The c-axis critical current density J{sub c}{sup c} has been recently found to be orders of magnitude lower than the ab-plane critical current density J{sub c}{sup ab}. Here we report on J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) values of various YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}-based (YBCO) tapes with different microstructures. Our results show that the value of J{sub c}{sup c} (77 K, sf) decreases significantly with increasing concentration of ab-plane stacking faults in YBCO thin films and that the critical current anisotropy {gamma} = J{sub c}{sup ab}/J{sub c}{sup c} can reach values as high as 2070, implying that in the highest-anisotropy tape, {approx}20% of the tape width carries c-axis current in a helically wound power cable.

  19. A method for quantitatively analyzing the angle of direction for arbitral c-axis alignment with retardation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Tanaka, Yasumitsu

    2015-01-01

    c-axis alignment in a polymer or crystal structure has drawn attention in numerous scientific and technological applications, including crystals, thin film growth, electro-optic devices, and phase difference optics. We here demonstrate a new approach based on retardation measurement that can obtain the direction of the c-axis alignment. This is employed to visualize the three-dimensional direction of continuous crystals as a thin optical film utilizing a liquid crystal panel, using retardation analysis equipment with high resolution measurement capability. The direction of the c-axis alignment is shown so as to allow a detailed characterization of the direction perpendicular to the plane. In this analysis, the direction of the c-axis alignment is identified, and differences between molecules at inequivalent sites are quantified. The results suggest that the excellent lubrication properties of the c-axis alignment may be due to a significant localization in lateral directions.

  20. Substrate Heating Effect on c-Axis Texture and Piezoelectric Properties of AlN Thin Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood; Lin, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with highly preferred (002) orientations have been reactively deposited by a pulsed-closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system using TiN/Ti as the seed/adhesion layer with various substrate temperatures. The texture, orientation and piezoelectric properties of AlN films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, rocking curves and laser interferometry. A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. It was found that a slight substrate temperature increase would significantly affect the (002) orientation and the piezoelectric coefficient of AlN thin films compared to the coating obtained with no intentional substrate heating, while higher temperature applications on substrate deteriorated the c-axis texture of the coatings without significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of AlN films.

  1. A comprehensive study of the pinning mechanisms of MgB2 wires treated with malic acid and their relationships with lattice defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaman, A.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Xu, X.; See, K. W.; Chung, K. C.; Dou, S. X.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of sintering temperature on the lattice parameters, structural strain, critical temperature (Tc), critical current density (Jc), irreversibility field (Birr), upper critical field (Bc2), and resistivity (ρ) of MgB2 wires treated with 10 wt.% malic acid (C4H6O5) are investigated in this paper. The a-lattice parameter of the sample treated with malic acid was drastically reduced, to 3.0745 Å, as compared to those for the undoped samples. Reduction in the a-lattice parameter is related to crystalline imperfections arising from carbon substitution—as confirmed by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra—which play a vital role in enhancing Jc, Bc2 and Birr. We have also analyzed the pinning mechanisms, and concluded that flux pinning is dominated by point and correlated pinning at lower and higher magnetic fields, respectively, for the carbon-doped samples sintered at both 700 and 900 ° C. The degree of flux pinning enhancement and the ratio RHH (Bc2/Birr) have been estimated to guide us towards further enhancement of Jc. We argue that δℓ and δTc pinning mechanisms, based on variation of the mean free path (ℓ) and the critical temperature, respectively, coexist in the MgB2 wires treated with malic acid, regardless of the sintering temperature. The δℓ pinning is predominant at lower operating temperatures, and δTc pinning starts close to Tc, which means that spatial variation in the charge carrier mean free path is the main mechanism responsible for the flux pinning in the MgB2 wires treated with malic acid that were sintered at 700 and 900 ° C.

  2. Comparative study of mono- and multi-filament MgB2 wires with different boron powders and malic acid addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Matsumoto, A.; Kumakura, H.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Dou, S. X.

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of different boron (B) powders and of malic acid (C4H6O5) addition on the critical current density (Jc) of mono- and multi-filament MgB2 wires. We found that Jc of the wires made from the amorphous B showed the best performance. Low sintering processing keeps the grain size small, which leads to strong flux pinning. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, we confirmed that the crystalline B powders supplied by SMI and Tangshan had a β-rhombohedral structure as a main phase. These two powders also had numerous defects, such as twin and stacking faults inside the powder particles. However, these defects are not enough to promote the full reaction between magnesium (Mg) and B crystalline powder when sintered at low temperatures, and brings about low Jc values. Even though the morphologies of the two crystalline B powders appeared somewhat different, Jc for the two wires had similar quantitative values. For the malic acid doped wires, Jc of the wire made from the amorphous B was estimated to be above 100 000 A cm - 2 at 6 T and 4.2 K. This value is comparable to the low temperature superconductor Nb-Ti. In addition, the Jc was 25 000 A cm - 2 at 10 T and 4.2 K. This performance is the best Jc reported so far in in situ processed MgB2 wires. Interestingly, the low-field Jc performance of malic acid doped wire fabricated with crystalline B is higher than that of the pure wire fabricated with amorphous B. At 20 K, enhanced performance of Jc by malic acid doping is much higher than that of the pure MgB2 wire. The Jc at 5 T and 20 K was estimated to be 13 000 A cm - 2.

  3. Development of 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) for Far-IR Investigations of the Outer Planets and Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-09-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far -IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  4. Fabrication and superconducting properties of multifilamentary MgB2 conductors for AC purposes: twisted tapes and wires with very thin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagoli, A.; Bernini, C.; Braccini, V.; Fanciulli, C.; Romano, G.; Vignolo, M.

    2009-10-01

    In order to use MgB2 conductors for AC applications, research and development efforts have to be carried out on their architecture and sheath material to minimize the AC losses. This paper will present the fabrication and characterization of two types of ex situ powder-in-tube processed pure MgB2 conductors with properties making them good candidates for AC industrial applications: a multifilamentary tape with 12 filaments with a twisting pitch down to 17 mm and a 361-filament wire with an average single-filament size of about 30 µm. Concerning the twisted tapes we will present values of critical current density of about 105 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 2 T and we will show that it is possible to achieve a proper compromise between the tape size, the twisting pitch length and the critical current density to face a reduction of the critical current density as a consequence of the strain on the filaments. Concerning the 361-multifilamentary wire we will show appreciable values of critical current density of about 5 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 2.5 T which, together with the advantages given by the high number of very thin filaments and the non-magnetic matrix, could justify their employment.

  5. The distribution of elements in sequentially prepared MgB2 on SiC buffered Si substrate and possible pinning mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromik, Š.; Nishida, A.; Štrbík, V.; Gregor, M.; Espinós, J. P.; Liday, J.; Durný, R.

    2013-03-01

    MgB2 thin films are prepared by sequential evaporation of boron and magnesium bilayers on SiC buffered Si substrates followed by an in situ annealing. Precursor Mg-B bilayers are deposited by electron beam evaporation at room temperature. The amount of B is varied so as to result in different thickness (15 nm and 50 nm) of stoichiometric MgB2 final film after an in situ reaction with the excess Mg top layer in the vacuum. We show the distribution of the elements through the film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses have shown that carbon is not free in the films (except the surface of the film) and silicon is in the compound form, too. In the case of the 15 nm thick films we see a strong interdiffusion of the elements (C, B) and we observe a suppression of TC of the film to 20 K. We register different slope of the H(T) dependence - the lowest temperature value of H for the 15 nm thick film exceeds the one for the 50 nm thick film in spite of lower TC. We suppose that δl pinning mechanism is dominant for the 15 nm thick film.

  6. The Effect of High-energy Ball Milling on the Microstructure and Properties of Ti-doped MgB2 Bulks and Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Yan, G.; Wang, Q. Y.; Xiong, X. M.; Li, S. Q.; liu, G. Q.; Feng, J. Q.; Pang, Y. C.; Li, C. S.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P. X.

    MgB2 bulks were prepared by high-energy ball milling of Mg, B and Ti powders at ambient temperatures. The mixed powders were ball-milled for 0-10 h using a ball-to-powder mass ratio of 10 and sintered at 750 °C for 2 h. The phase and microstructure of MgB2 were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD results reveal the appearance of a small amount of MgO impurity, and the relative percentage composition of MgO phase is gradually increased with prolonged the milling time. It proved that the sample milled 5 h has the best homogeneity in grain size. The milled 5 h powders were further processed to wires. The wire samples were fabricated by the in-situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The mechanical properties were analyzed by stress-strain measurements at room temperature and the superconducting behaviors are investigated by electrical tests at 4.2 K. The critical engineering current Ic reaches above 330 A (Jce exceeding 2.2×104 A/cm2) at 4.2 K and 2 T.

  7. High temperature heat treatment on boron precursor and PIT process optimization to improve the Jc performance of MgB2-based conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolo, M.; Bovone, G.; Bernini, C.; Palenzona, A.; Kawale, S.; Romano, G.; Siri, A. S.

    2013-10-01

    The promising results reported in our previous works led us to think that the production process of boron plays a crucial role in MgB2 synthesis. A new method for boron preparation has been developed in our laboratory. This particular process is based on magnesiothermic reaction (Moissan’s process) with the addition of an initial step that gives boron powder with nano-metric grain size. In this paper we report our efforts regarding optimization of the powder-in-tube (PIT) method for these nano-metric powders, and the resolution of problems previously highlighted such as the difficulty in powder packaging and the high friction phenomena occurring during cold working. This increases cracking during the tape and wire manufacture, leading to failure. Packaging problems are related to the amorphous nature of boron synthesized in our laboratory, so a crystallization treatment was applied to improve the crystallinity of the boron. To prevent excessive friction phenomena we synthesized non-stoichiometric MgB2 and used magnesium as lubricant. Our goal is the Jc improvement, but a global physical-chemical characterization was also made to analyse the improvement given by our treatments: this characterization includes x-ray diffraction, ρ(T) measurement, and SEM imaging, besides magnetic and transport Jc measurements.

  8. First-principles study of the superconductivity in MgB2 bulk and in its bilayer thin film based on electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshedloo, T.; Roknabadi, M. R.; Behdani, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, phonon-mediated superconductivity has been investigated in MgB2 bulk structure and bilayer thin film by using first-principles calculations. The electronic band structure, total and partial density of states (DOS and PDOS), phonon dispersion, isotropic Eliashberg function α2F(ω), and electron-phonon coupling have been calculated within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Our results indicate that holes at the top of boron σ bands mainly and holes in the boron π band partially contribute to formation of coupled holes in superconductivity state. The density of states at the Fermi energy level is increased for MgB2 bilayer with respect to its bulk structure. According to the phonon dispersion and Eliashberg function curves, coupling considerably occurs between holes at the top of the boron σ band by means of optical phonon mode for both structures. This phonon mode has the E2g symmetry at the Г point. We obtain electron-phonon coupling constants of 0.74 and 0.91 for bulk and bilayer structures, respectively. By using the Allen-Dynes formula, we estimate superconducting transition temperature TC of 40 K for bulk and 48 K for the thin film.

  9. Influence of crystalline boron powders on superconducting properties of C-doped internal Mg diffusion processed MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Xianping; Tang, Shaopu; Xu, Da; Yao, Chao; Dong, Chiheng; Xu, Zhongtang; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Monofilament MgB2/Fe wires or tapes were fabricated with two different purity crystalline boron powders, using internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) and in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) processes. To evaluate which method was more insensitive to the purity of the boron powders, a sensitivity factor was used. It was found that the IMD process was less sensitive to the purity of the boron powders, compared to the PIT method. Furthermore, J c values of the IMD-processed wires were higher than those of the PIT-processed samples. The reduced porosity and hence the increased density in the IMD-processed samples was thought to be the main reason. Although a number of B-rich particles remained in the MgB2 region, a layer J c as high as 4.8 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T was still obtained in the IMD-processed wire, which was comparable to that of IMD-processed wires fabricated using amorphous boron powders.

  10. Scattering effect of the well-ordered MgB4 impurity phase in two-step sintered polycrystalline MgB2 with glycine addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qi; Liu, Yongchang; Guo, Qianying; Ma, Zongqing

    2017-04-01

    Glycine-doped MgB2 bulk was prepared by two-step sintering in this study, first at 750 °C and then 900 °C. The MgB4 particles are induced to precipitate where the dislocations concentrated after C substitution or along the steps of screw dislocation during crystal growth, forming ordered MgB4 arrays throughout the MgB2 grain. By means of atomic force microscope, the detected magnetic domains are arranged in agreement with the ordered MgB4 particles after the measurement of magnetic hysteresis loop, which supported that the nano-scale MgB4 domain structure brought strong scattering effects and indicated that atomic force microscopy could test the role of the impurities. As a result, the extrapolating upper critical field H c2(0 K) is enhanced to 22.8 T for the sample with ordered MgB4, while only 18.1 T for the un-doped sample underwent the same sintering program. Besides, carbon substitution contributed to the enhancement of H c2 as well.

  11. Latest developments of large-diameter c-axis sapphire grown by CHES method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard Schwerdtfeger, C.; Ullal, Saurabh; Shetty, Raj; Filgate, Joshua; Dhanaraj, Govindhan

    2014-05-01

    Large diameter c-axis crystal growth of sapphire boules up to 50 kg is in production at many sites world-wide. It has long been known that c-axis growth of sapphire could be the most cost-effective way to produce large diameter substrates for LED applications compared to a-axis growth with orthogonal coring due to the extremely large size boule required to core large diameter cores from the side of the boule. This paper will discuss the latest improvements, characterization, material utilizations, and crystal quality of boules designed specifically for 6-in., 8-in., and 10-in. wafer production. Improvements and continued R&D in slicing, polishing, and MOCVD of 6-in. and 8-in. sapphire has poised the industry for a rapid shift to larger diameter substrates, if the cores can be cost-effective. ARC Energy's CHES technology can produce 170 mm diameter boules optimized for 6-in. (150 mm) diameter wafer production. Additionally it can produce 8-in. or 10-in. diameter cores directly from 220 mm or 260 mm diameter boules, respectively. The latest developments, both equipment and process, will be discussed along with the resulting boule and core quality. Cost reductions for these large diameter cores will be shown to provide much more cost-effective 6-in. and 8-in. substrates. This low-cost enabling technology is poised to spur stable and long-term LED industry growth.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of High c-axis ZnO Thin Film by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System and its UV Photodetector Application.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chung-Hua; Wei, Da-Hua

    2015-10-03

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high c-axis (0002) preferential orientation have been successfully and effectively synthesized onto silicon (Si) substrates via different synthesized temperatures by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The effects of different synthesized temperatures on the crystal structure, surface morphologies and optical properties have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the intensity of (0002) diffraction peak became stronger with increasing synthesized temperature until 400 (o)C. The diffraction intensity of (0002) peak gradually became weaker accompanying with appearance of (10-10) diffraction peak as the synthesized temperature up to excess of 400 (o)C. The RT photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited a strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission observed at around 375 nm and a negligible deep-level (DL) emission located at around 575 nm under high c-axis ZnO thin films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed the homogeneous surface and with small grain size distribution. The ZnO thin films have also been synthesized onto glass substrates under the same parameters for measuring the transmittance. For the purpose of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector application, the interdigitated platinum (Pt) thin film (thickness ~100 nm) fabricated via conventional optical lithography process and radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. In order to reach Ohmic contact, the device was annealed in argon circumstances at 450 (o)C by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system for 10 min. After the systematic measurements, the current-voltage (I-V) curve of photo and dark current and time-dependent photocurrent response results exhibited a good responsivity and reliability, indicating that the high c-axis ZnO thin film is a suitable sensing layer for UV photodetector application.

  13. Effect of cold isostatic pressing on the transport current of filamentary MgB2 wire made by the IMD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Pachla, W.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Rosová, A.; Kopera, L.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the effect of cold isostatic pressing applied to as-drawn filamentary wires in a GlidCop and/or Cu sheath made by the internal magnesium diffusion process. Critical currents of as-drawn and isostatically pressed wires at high pressures up to 2.0 GPa followed by heat treatment at 640 °C for 40 min were measured. The obtained results show an improvement in boron powder density resulting in an increase of the critical current of MgB2 layers. The engineering current density increases by 4-13 times after the high-pressure treatment, and is influenced by the density of the boron powder and by the mechanical strength of the outer sheath.

  14. The effect of used deformation, metal sheath and heat treatment on the I-V curve of ex situ MgB 2 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.

    2004-01-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of MgB 2 composite wires made of ex situ process using Cu, Fe and stainless steel (SS) sheaths have been measured at 4.2 K in the self-field and external magnetic field between 2 and 4 T. It was found that the used mode of deformation (drawing, rotary swaging and two-axial rolling) influences the slope of I-V curve due to affected grain connectivity. Final heat treatment at 950 °C/0.5 h improves grain connectivity apparently, which results in I-V characteristic with very high n-exponents. The n-exponents of multi-core wires measured in external field are apparently lower due to a current sharing among the non-uniform filaments surrounded by high resistance matrix.

  15. The roles of CHPD: superior critical current density and n-value obtained in binary in situ MgB2 cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S. A.; Motaman, A.; Barua, S.; Patel, D.; Mustapic, M.; Kim, J. H.; Maeda, M.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Cicek, O.; Melisek, T.; Kopera, L.; Kario, A.; Ringsdorf, B.; Runtsch, B.; Jung, A.; Dou, S. X.; Goldacker, W.; Kovac, P.

    2014-09-01

    A binary magnesium diboride (MgB2) cable has been assembled by braiding six Nb/Monel sheathed monofilament strands around a central copper stabilizer for improving the operational environment. The total critical current (Ic) of the braided cable is obtained by multiplying the Ic of six single wires, without any dissipation. In this work, various mechanical deformations, i.e., swaging, two-axial rolling, groove rolling, and cold high-pressure densification (CHPD) at 1.8 GPa have been applied to the 6-stranded cable to obtain additional densification. The highest critical current density at both 4.2 and 20 K has been achieved in this work through the CHPD treated cable due to higher filament mass density. The present results are promising in view of the cable, particularly in power applications at industrial lengths that pave the way to seeking an optimal protocol to meet a practical functionality.

  16. Experimental research of high field pinning centers in 2% C doped MgB2 wires at 20 K and 25 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, D.; Morawski, A.; Zaleski, A. J.; Häßler, W.; Nenkov, K.; Małecka, M.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Tomsic, M.

    2016-09-01

    High field pinning centers in MgB2 doped with 2 at. % carbon under a low and a high hot isostatic pressures have been investigated by transport measurements. The field dependence of the transport critical current density was analyzed within the different pinning mechanisms: surface pinning, point pinning, and pinning due to spatial variation in the Ginzburg-Landau parameter (Δκ pinning). Research indicates that a pressure of 1 GPa allows similar pinning centers to Δκ pinning centers to be obtained. This pinning is very important, because it makes it possible to increase the critical current density in high magnetic fields at 20 K and 25 K. Our results indicate that the δTc and δl pinning mechanisms, which are due to a spatial variation in the critical temperature (Tc) and the mean free path, l, respectively, create dislocations. The high density of dislocations with inhomogeneous distribution in the structure of the superconducting material creates the δl pinning mechanism. The low density of dislocations with inhomogeneous distribution creates the δTc pinning mechanism. Research indicates that the hot isostatic pressure process makes it possible to obtain a high dislocation density with a homogeneous distribution. This allows us to obtain the δTc pinning mechanism in MgB2 wires. In addition, a high pressure increases the crossover field from the single vortex to the small vortex bundle regime (Bsb) and improves the δTc pinning mechanism. Our research has proved that a high pressure significantly increases the crossover field from the small bundle to the thermal regime (Bth), with only a modest decrease in Tc of 1.5 K, decreases the thermal fluctuations, increases the irreversibility magnetic field (Birr) and the upper critical field (Bc2) in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 25 K, and reduces Birr and Bc2 above 25 K.

  17. C-axis electrical resistivity of PrO1-aFaBiS2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Masanori; Miura, Akira; Watauchi, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-08-01

    The high anisotropy in RO1-aFaBiS2 (R denotes a rare-earth element) superconductors demonstrates their potential use as intrinsic Josephson junctions, considering the weak coupling among BiS2-PrO(F)-BiS2 (superconducting-normal-superconducting) layers along the c-axis. We grew PrO1-aFaBiS2 single crystals using CsCl/KCl flux. The superconducting anisotropies of the grown single crystals were estimated to be approximately 40-50 from the effective mass model. The c-axis transport properties were characterized using single-crystal s-shaped intrinsic Josephson junctions with a focused ion beam. Along the c-axis, the crystals showed zero resistivity at 2.7 K and a critical current density of 1.33 × 103 A/cm2 at 2.0 K. The current-voltage curve along the c-axis displayed hysteresis. The c-axis transport measurements under a magnetic field parallel to the ab-plane revealed a “lock-in” state due to the Josephson vortex flow, indicating that BiS2 superconductors are promising candidates for intrinsic Josephson junctions.

  18. Superconductivity in LiOHFeS single crystals with a shrunk c-axis lattice constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai; Kang, RuiZhe; Kong, Lu; Zhu, XiYu; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2017-02-01

    By using a hydrothermal ion-exchange method, we have successfully grown superconducting crystals of LiOHFeS with T c of about 2.8 K. Being different from the sister sample (Li1- x Fe x )OHFeSe, the energy dispersion spectrum analysis on LiOHFeS shows that the Fe/S ratio is very close to 1:1, suggesting an almost charge neutrality and less electron doping in the FeS planes of the system. Comparing with the non superconducting LiOHFeS crystal, each peak of the X-ray diffraction pattern of the superconducting crystal splits into two, and the diffraction peaks locating at lower reflection angles are consistent with that of non-superconducting ones. The rest set of diffraction peaks with higher reflection angles is corresponding to the superconducting phase, suggesting that the superconducting phase may has a shrunk c-axis lattice constant. Magnetization measurements indicate that the magnetic shielding due to superconductivity can be quite high under a weak magnetic field. The resistivity measurements under various magnetic fields show that the upper critical field is quite low, which is similar to the tetragonal FeS superconductor.

  19. Origin of the c-Axis Tilt Occurring During the Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, T. S.; Inoki, C. K.; Zhang, R.; Gu, S.; Kuech, T. F.

    2001-03-01

    A large angle c-axis tilt has often been observed in GaN layers grown by lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) through narrow windows defined on a seed layer. The c-axis tilt generates vertical tilt boundaries at the coalescence of growth facets. To investigate the defect mechanisms responsible for the onset of c-axis tilt, a series of GaN LEO samples was grown using the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) technique and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cross sectional TEM images indicate that as LEO proceeds from triangular-shaped ridges originally grown over the windows, all edge-type threading dislocations propagated from the seed layer bend into screw type and glide on the c plane. Plan-view TEM observations reveal further that to relax the twist/shear strain in the LEO regions, these screw dislocations collectively make another 90^o bend again, forming arrays of edge dislocations parallel to the mask edge. The number of dislocations in the arrays can account for the amount of crystal tilt observed. The c-axis tilt is thus a stress-driven phenomenon dictated by the growth window geometry, and is much less influenced by the growth parameters.

  20. Effects of Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Impurities in MgB2: A Point-Contact Study of Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghero, D.

    2007-03-01

    We studied the effects of chemical substitutions, either magnetic (Mn) or non-magnetic (Al, C), on the energy gaps of MgB2 by means of directional point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) in state-of-the-art single crystals. Here we discuss two noticeable cases, i.e. Mg1-xMnxB2 crystals with x up to 0.015, and Mg1-xAlxB2 crystals with x up to 0.32. In both cases, we used a pressure-less PCS technique in which a thin Au wire is put in contact with the side surface of the crystal by means of a small drop of Ag paint. The gaps δσ and δπ were obtained through a two-band Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) fit of the Andreev-reflection conductance curves of the resulting contacts. Both in Mn- and Al-doped MgB2, the gaps decrease on decreasing the critical temperature of the contacts, Tc^A (at which the Andreev-reflection structures disappear), but remain clearly distinct down to Tc^A˜10 K. Once analysed within the two-band Eliashberg theory, the δσ and δπ vs. Tc^A curves give information about the effects of Mn and Al substitutions on the different scattering channels (interband and intraband, magnetic or non-magnetic). It turns out that the main effect of Mn is to increase the spin-flip scattering within the σ band (with smaller contributions from either the π-π or the σ-π channels), as also confirmed by first-principle bandstructure calculations. In the case of Al, the band-filling effect is largely dominant. An increase in non-magnetic interband scattering is possible, but small enough not to give rise to gap merging. In collaboration with G.A. Ummarino, A. Calzolari, M. Tortello, D. Delaude, R.S. Gonnelli, Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Politecnico di Torino, Italy; V.A. Stepanov, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia; N.D. Zhigadlo, J. Karpinski, Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland; and S. Massidda, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitàdi Cagliari, Italy.

  1. The effect of carbon doping on the upper critical field (Hc2) and resistivity of MgB2 by using sucrose (C12H22O11) as the carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhou, S. H.; Lu, C.; Konstantinov, K.; Dou, S. X.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, sucrose was doped into MgB2 samples to act as a carbon source. The sintering temperature varied from 850 to 1050 °C. The effects of sucrose doping and sintering temperature on the lattice parameters, microstrain, critical temperature (Tc), resistivity, and upper critical field (Hc2) have been investigated in detail. It has been found that sucrose doping results in a small depression in Tc and high resistivity, while the Hc2 performance is improved. The best performance was shown in the sucrose-doped sample sintered at 850 °C. The reason for the enhancement of Hc2 is likely to be disorder caused by C substitution for B and/or diffusion of C atoms in the MgB2 lattice as interstitial atoms.

  2. Improvement of critical properties of undoped, multifilamentary MgB2 wires in Nb/Cu after annealing under high gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetner, T.; Morawski, A.; Adamczyk, K.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Zaleski, A.; Gajda, D.; Presz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Raw MgB2 wires have been manufactured by Hyper Tech Inc. Each of their 18 cores contained undoped in situ powder surrounded by an Nb barrier and placed in a Cu sheath, and cores were coated in a common Monel sheath. Wires of diameters 0.63 and 0.83 mm were annealed under high argon pressure (up to 1 GPa). Parameters of such HIP process (temperature, time, and pressure) were varied in order to determine their optimal values. Superconducting properties of such samples were investigated by means of four-probe critical current j c measurement. Bitter magnet producing magnetic field up to 14 T was used. It provided place for samples 70 mm long in parallel field and 20 mm long in perpendicular field. Results include critical current j c and pinning force density F p dependencies on magnetic field as well as Kramer plots. Critical current of 104 A/cm 2 was achieved at 12 T magnetic field. SEM pictures of wire cross sections were also taken to determine quality of Nb barrier and microstructure of superconducting material.

  3. Some considerations on the additional absorption peak in the c-axis infrared conductivity of bilayer cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzar, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    Changes of the 400 cm-1 peak in the c-axis conductivity of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.6 upon application of a parallel magnetic field reported by Kojima et al. are shown to be consistent with the model where the peak is due to the superfluid. Results of our calculations of the c-axis response of bilayer compounds with well defined bilayer split bands are presented and discussed. For moderate values of the bilayer splitting (Δɛ comparable to 2Δmax) the spectra of the superconducting state exhibit an additional mode which is due to the condensate and similar to the one of earlier phenonomenological approaches.

  4. Quartz c-axis fabrics of poly-deformed leucocratic gneisses from the Aracena metamorphic belt (SW Variscan Chain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Fernández, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Quartz c-axis fabrics from leucocratic gneisses of the Aracena metamorphic belt (southwestern Variscan Chain) record two different tectonic phases. The first one consists of a predominant flattening component and the local development of shear zones with a normal, top-to-the-north shear sense. The second phase resulted in the reactivation of the first-phase shear zones that subsequently acted with a reverse, top-to-the-south sense of displacement. Accordingly, it is suggested that the imprint of a non-coaxial deformation phase over a previous flattening phase leads to quartz c-axis fabrics defined by asymmetric small circles around the Z-axis of the finite-strain ellipsoid.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of multi-layered C-axis inclined zigzag zinc oxide thin-film resonators as viscosity sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Bao, Yuanye

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a new zigzag C-axis inclined multi-layer ZnO thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) as a viscosity sensor to monitor the lubrication performance of engine oil and other liquids. Free vibration and forced vibration for the FBAR loaded with liquids are analyzed. Equations necessary to calculate the sensitivity are derived. The numerical analysis shows that as the number of layers increases, the absolute sensitivity increases as well. The influences on the sensitivity of C-axis inclined angle, Q-factor, and thickness are also investigated. The results provide a foundation for further design of multi-layer FBAR viscosity sensors.

  6. Magnetization behavior and critical current density along the c-axis in melt-grown YBCO fiber crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, H.; Hara, T.; Hirano, S.; Figueredo, A. M.; Cima, M. J.

    1994-05-01

    The magnetic-hysteresis behavior of single-crystal YBCO fibers was investigated below 1 T and in the temperature range 40 to 88 K. The sample was prepared by the laser-heated floating zone method. The magnetization curves exhibited a fairly large asymmetry with respect to the field axis, especially at elevated temperatures. This behavior may be attributed to the surface Meissner current contribution. It was demonstrated for the temperature range examined that the magnetic hysteresis width, Δ M, versus external-field curves were well described by assuming that the critical current density in the c-axis direction Jcc obeys the critical-state model of the form Jc( B)= JcO[1+( B/ B0) n]-1. Then, in turn, the field dependence of the critical current density along the c-axis at field temperatures was deduced using parameters obtained by fitting the Δ M vs. field curves. It was shown that the critical current density in the direction of the c-axis in our sample was over 10 4 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K below 0.3 T. The field and temperature variations of Jcc were discussed in relation to the previous studies on some melt-processed YBCO.

  7. Charge-screening role of c -axis atomic displacements in YBa2Cu3O6 +x and related superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božin, E. S.; Huq, A.; Shen, Bing; Claus, H.; Kwok, W. K.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The importance of charge reservoir layers for supplying holes to the CuO2 planes of cuprate superconductors has long been recognized. Less attention has been paid to the screening of the charge transfer by the intervening ionic layers. We address this issue in the case of YBa2Cu3O6 +x , where CuO chains supply the holes for the planes. We present a simple dielectric-screening model that gives a linear correlation between the relative displacements of ions along the c axis, determined by neutron powder diffraction, and the hole density of the planes. Applying this model to the temperature-dependent shifts of ions along the c axis, we infer a charge transfer of 5-10% of the hole density from the planes to the chains on warming from the superconducting transition to room temperature. Given the significant coupling of c -axis displacements to the average charge density, we point out the relevance of local displacements for screening charge modulations and note recent evidence for dynamic screening of in-plane quasiparticles. This line of argument leads us to a simple model for atomic displacements and charge modulation that is consistent with images from scanning-tunneling microscopy for underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ .

  8. Rapid and semi-analytical design and simulation of a toroidal magnet made with YBCO and MgB2 superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Dimitrov, I. K.; Zhang, X.; Solovyov, V. F.; ...

    2015-07-07

    Recent advances in second-generation (YBCO) high-temperature superconducting wire could potentially enable the design of super high performance energy storage devices that combine the high energy density of chemical storage with the high power of superconducting magnetic storage. However, the high aspect ratio and the considerable filament size of these wires require the concomitant development of dedicated optimization methods that account for the critical current density in type-II superconductors. In this study, we report on the novel application and results of a CPU-efficient semianalytical computer code based on the Radia 3-D magnetostatics software package. Our algorithm is used to simulate andmore » optimize the energy density of a superconducting magnetic energy storage device model, based on design constraints, such as overall size and number of coils. The rapid performance of the code is pivoted on analytical calculations of the magnetic field based on an efficient implementation of the Biot-Savart law for a large variety of 3-D “base” geometries in the Radia package. The significantly reduced CPU time and simple data input in conjunction with the consideration of realistic input variables, such as material-specific, temperature, and magnetic-field-dependent critical current densities, have enabled the Radia-based algorithm to outperform finite-element approaches in CPU time at the same accuracy levels. Comparative simulations of MgB2 and YBCO-based devices are performed at 4.2 K, in order to ascertain the realistic efficiency of the design configurations.« less

  9. Temperature dependence of the superconductivity-induced collective mode in the c-axis infrared spectra of bilayer cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzar, D.; Chaloupka, J.; Bernhard, C.; Dubroka, A.; Vašátko, J.

    2010-12-01

    The low-temperature spectra of the c-axis infrared conductivity of bilayer high-Tc cuprate superconductors (HTCS) exhibit two superconductivity-induced modes [Li Yu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 177004; and references therein]. Both can be understood in terms of a microscopic theory developed recently [J. Chaloupka, C. Bernhard, D. Munzar, Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 184513]. Here we summarize the elements of the theory and report on the temperature dependence (TD) of the low-energy mode and of the total optical spectral weight (SW). The calculated TD of the mode is consistent with experiment but the trends of the SW are not.

  10. Effect of combined addition of nano-SiC and nano-Ho2O3 on the in-field critical current density of MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Roy, S. B.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2010-01-01

    MgB2 superconducting samples added with nano-Ho2O3 (n-Ho2O3) and/or nano-SiC (n-SiC) have been prepared by an in situ solid state reaction method to investigate and compare the combined and individual effects of n-SiC and n-Ho2O3 on a crystal structure, critical temperature (TC), and critical current density (JC) of MgB2. All the doped samples exhibit significantly enhanced in-field JC and the codoped sample with 2.5 wt % n-Ho2O3 and 5 wt % n-SiC gives the best performance in in-field JC, and the enhancement is around 100 times and 2 times greater than the undoped and monodoped n-SiC samples, respectively, at 5 K and 8 T. For the n-SiC added sample, lattice distortions due to C substitution on the B site and the formation of reacted phase Mg2Si as flux pinners cause enhanced JC up to the maximum field studied (8 T). While in the n-Ho2O3 added sample, a reacted phase HoB4 having a strong magnetic moment forms, without any substitution at the Mg or B site, which acts as a flux pinner in order to enhance the in-field JC. Accordingly the best codoped sample exhibits these combined benefits of n-SiC and n-Ho2O3 in MgB2 superconductor.

  11. Incoherent c-Axis Interplane Response of the Iron Chalcogenide FeTe0:55Se0:45 Superconductor from Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, G.D.; Moon, S.J.; Homes, C.C.; Akrap, A.; Xu,, Z.J.; Wen, J.S.; Lin,, Z.W.; Li, Q.; Basov, D.N.

    2011-05-23

    We report on the interplane c-axis electronic response of FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} investigated by infrared spectroscopy. We find that the normal-state c-axis electronic response of FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} is incoherent and bears significant similarities to those of mildly underdoped cuprates. The c-axis optical conductivity {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) of FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} does not display well-defined Drude response at all temperatures. As temperature decreases, {sigma}{sub c}({omega}) is continuously suppressed. The incoherent c-axis response is found to be related to the strong dissipation in the ab-plane transport: a pattern that holds true for various correlated materials as well as FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45}.

  12. MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPERCONDUCTING MGB(2).

    SciTech Connect

    ZHU,Y.; LI,Q.; WU,L.; VOLKOV,V.; GU,G.; MOODENBAUGH,A.R.

    2001-07-12

    Recently, Akimitsu and co-workers [1] discovered superconductivity at 39 K in the intermetallic compound MgB{sub 2}. This discovery provides a new perspective on the mechanism for superconductivity. More specifically, it opens up possibilities for investigation of structure/properties in a new class of materials. With the exceptions of the cuprate and C{sub 60} families of compounds, MgB{sub 2} possesses the highest superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}. Its superconductivity appears to follow the BCS theory, apparently being mediated by electron-phonon coupling. The coherence length of MgB{sub 2} is reported to be longer than that of the cuprates [2]. In contrast to the cuprates, grain boundaries are strongly coupled and current density is determined by flux pinning [2,3]. Presently, samples of MgB{sub 2} commonly display inhomogeneity and porosity on the nanoscale, and are untextured. In spite of these obstacles, magnetization and transport measurements show that polycrystalline samples may carry large current densities circulating across many grains [3,4]. Very high values of critical current densities and critical fields have been recently observed in thin films [5,6]. These attributes suggest possible large scale and electronic applications. The underlying microstructure can be intriguing, both in terms of basic science and in applied areas. Subsequent to the discovery, many papers were published [1-13], most dealing with synthesis, physical properties, and theory. There have yet been few studies of microstructure and structural defects [11, 14]. A thorough understanding of practical superconducting properties can only be developed after an understanding of microstructure is gained. In this work we review transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of sintered MgB{sub 2} pellets [14]. Structural defects, including second phase particles, dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries, are analyzed using electron diffraction, electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high resolution imaging, and structural modeling.

  13. Combined Effect of Upper Critical Field and Flux Pinning on Enhancing Critical Current Density of In-situ MgB2/Fe Tapes with Various Carbon Sources Simultaneously Doped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xifeng; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Guo; Feng, Yong

    2012-01-01

    MgB2/Fe tapes with various forms of mono- and co-doped C sources were prepared by an in-situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method to study the effect of different C sources on the transport critical current density Jc behavior of MgB2. A remarkable Jc improvement at 4.2 K under higher fields and a significant increase in the actual content of C substitution for B were achieved for the tapes with various C sources co-doped. For these co-doped tapes, both enhanced Hc2 and flux pinning properties are responsible for their Jc improvement in this work. Comparing the 4 wt % C9H11NO doped tape with the 20 wt % malic acid doped tape, the latter possesses much better in-field Jc performance at 4.2 K and 10 T and sharper field dependence of Jc, which suggests that the flux pinning plays a crucial role in determining its Jc behavior.

  14. Temperature-dependent growth of LaAlO3 films on YBa2CuO7 C-axis films for multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, M. E.; Houlton, R. J.; Raistrick, I. A.; Garzon, F. H.

    Fabrication of ultra smooth films, free of micro-shorts, is essential to the development of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin film devices. One such example is a SNS junction consisting of two HTS layers separated by a uniformly smooth continuous barrier material. Other schemes under consideration require multilayer structures of up to 5 - 7 epitaxially grown layers of complex oxide material. Successful fabrication of such devices necessitates understanding the epitaxial growth of polycrystalline oxide films on polycrystalline film templates. Toward this end we have developed a set of deposition parameters that produce high quality epitaxial insulating layers suitable for HTS device applications. All films in this study were grown by off-axis RF magnetron sputter deposition. LaAlO3 films were deposited over MgO grown YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) c-axis thin films at temperatures ranging from 200 to 700C and on virgin substrates at 600C. Atomic Force Microscopy, eddy current measurements, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to monitor the effect of growth conditions on the resulting film crystallinity, nanostructure, and electrical properties. Ex-situ interrupted growth characterization of these materials has yielded new insight into the processes that control the growth mechanism and resulting microstructure. All films were polycrystalline. Below 600C, LaAlO3 films were not epitaxial while films grown at 650C showed some zone group axes(200) orientation. The shape of the underlying YBCO film is most clearly evident for the film grown at 400C. Surface roughness depended on the appearance of crystals on the film surface. The superconducting properties of the underlying YBCO film required O2 annealing prior to deposition of the LaAlO3 layer.

  15. Atom probe tomography evaporation behavior of C-axis GaN nanowires: Crystallographic, stoichiometric, and detection efficiency aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, David R. Gorman, Brian P.; Kirchhofer, Rita; Sanford, Norman; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matt

    2013-11-14

    The field evaporation behavior of c-axis GaN nanowires was explored in two different laser-pulsed atom probe tomography (APT) instruments. Transmission electron microscopy imaging before and after atom probe tomography analysis was used to assist in reconstructing the data and assess the observed evaporation behavior. It was found that the ionic species exhibited preferential locations for evaporation related to the underlying crystal structure of the GaN and that the species which evaporated from these locations was dependent on the pulsed laser energy. Additionally, the overall stoichiometry measured by APT was significantly correlated with the energy of the laser pulses. At the lowest laser energies, the apparent composition was nitrogen-rich, while higher laser energies resulted in measurements of predominantly gallium compositions. The percent of ions detected (detection efficiency) for these specimens was found to be considerably below that shown for other materials, even for laser energies which produced the expected Ga:N ratio. The apparent stoichiometry variation and low detection efficiency appear to be a result of evaporation of Ga ions between laser pulses at the lowest laser energies and evaporation of neutral N{sub 2} species at higher laser energies. All of these behaviors are tied to the formation of nitrogen-nitrogen bonds on the tip surface, which occurred under all analysis conditions. Similar field evaporation behaviors are therefore expected for other materials where the anionic species readily form a strong diatomic bond.

  16. Atom probe tomography evaporation behavior of C-axis GaN nanowires: Crystallographic, stoichiometric, and detection efficiency aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diercks, David R.; Gorman, Brian P.; Kirchhofer, Rita; Sanford, Norman; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matt

    2013-11-01

    The field evaporation behavior of c-axis GaN nanowires was explored in two different laser-pulsed atom probe tomography (APT) instruments. Transmission electron microscopy imaging before and after atom probe tomography analysis was used to assist in reconstructing the data and assess the observed evaporation behavior. It was found that the ionic species exhibited preferential locations for evaporation related to the underlying crystal structure of the GaN and that the species which evaporated from these locations was dependent on the pulsed laser energy. Additionally, the overall stoichiometry measured by APT was significantly correlated with the energy of the laser pulses. At the lowest laser energies, the apparent composition was nitrogen-rich, while higher laser energies resulted in measurements of predominantly gallium compositions. The percent of ions detected (detection efficiency) for these specimens was found to be considerably below that shown for other materials, even for laser energies which produced the expected Ga:N ratio. The apparent stoichiometry variation and low detection efficiency appear to be a result of evaporation of Ga ions between laser pulses at the lowest laser energies and evaporation of neutral N2 species at higher laser energies. All of these behaviors are tied to the formation of nitrogen-nitrogen bonds on the tip surface, which occurred under all analysis conditions. Similar field evaporation behaviors are therefore expected for other materials where the anionic species readily form a strong diatomic bond.

  17. Spin-Triplet Pairing State of Sr2RuO4 in the c-Axis Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Shuhei; Yanase, Youichi

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the spin-triplet superconducting state of Sr2RuO4 in the magnetic field along the c-axis on the basis of the four-component Ginzburg--Landau (GL) model with a weak spin--orbit coupling. We consider superconducting states described by the d-vector parallel to the ab-plane (\\mbi{d}\\parallel ab), and find that three spin-triplet pairing states are stabilized in the magnetic field--temperature (H--T) phase diagram. Although a helical state is stable at low magnetic fields, a chiral II state is stabilized at high magnetic fields. A non-unitary spin-triplet pairing state appears near the transition temperature owing to the coupling of magnetic field and chirality. We elucidate synergistic and/or competing roles of the magnetic field, chirality, and spin--orbit coupling. It is shown that a fractional vortex lattice is stabilized in the chiral II phase owing to the spin--orbit coupling.

  18. Significant enhancement of the in-field critical current density of the MgB2 superconductor through codoping of nano-TiC with nano-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, K.; Varghese, Neson; Roy, S. B.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles of two carbides, SiC and TiC, having different reactivities with the Mg/B are doped into the MgB2 system. These carbides are added in mono-and codoping conditions through the in situ solid state reaction, and the structural and superconducting properties are studied. The results show distinct modifications in the structural and superconducting properties by the two dopants. SiC causes considerable C substitution at the B site and the formation of intragrain inclusions, whereas TiC remains unreacted and does not cause any substitution. The codoped samples show significantly enhanced JC(H) performance compared to the undoped and monodoped samples. Compared to the undoped sample, the enhancement of JC is more than two orders of magnitude at 15 K for fields >7 T for the best sample. The results of JC(H) performance of the samples are discussed.

  19. The enhanced Jc and Birr of in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with C4H6O5 (malic acid) after cold high pressure densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S. A.; Senatore, C.; Flükiger, R.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Tomsic, M. J.; Kim, J. H.; Dou, S. X.

    2009-09-01

    Cold high pressure densification, a method recently introduced at GAP in Geneva, was applied for improving the transport critical current density, Jc, and the irreversibility field, Birr, of monofilamentary in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with 10 wt% C4H6O5 (malic acid). Tapes densified at 1.48 GPa exhibited after reaction an enhancement of Jc from 2 to 4 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K/10 T and from 0.5 to 4 × 104 A cm-2 at 20 K/5 T, while the Birr was enhanced from 19.3 to 22 T at 4.2 K and from 7.5 to 10.0 T at 20 K. Cold densification also caused a strong enhancement of B(104), the field at which Jc takes the value 1 × 104 A cm-2. For tapes subjected to 1.48 GPa, B(10^{4})^{\\parallel } and B(10^{4})^{ \\perp } at 4.2 K were found to increase from 11.8 and 10.5 T to 13.2 and 12.2 T, respectively. Almost isotropic conditions were obtained for rectangular wires with aspect ratios a/b<2 subjected to 2.0 GPa, where B(10^{4})^{\\parallel }=12.7 and B(10^{4})^{ \\perp }=12.5 T were obtained. At 20 K, the wires exhibited an almost isotropic behavior, with B(10^{4})^{\\parallel }=5.9 T and B(10^{4})^{ \\perp }=5.75 T, Birr(20 K) being ~10 T. These values are equal to or higher than the highest values reported so far for isotropic in situ wires with SiC or other carbon based additives. Further improvements are expected on optimizing the cold high pressure densification process, which has the potential for fabrication of MgB2 wires of industrial lengths.

  20. A new method to preserve the c-axis growth of thick YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongliang; Huang, Jie; Li, Hui; Shen, Mingrong; Su, Xiaodong

    2009-11-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were prepared on (1 0 0) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. In order to eliminate the a-axis growth, which is commonly observed in the YBCO film thicker than a critical value, we developed a new PLD target that was sintered at a temperature far below YBCO 123 phase formation. The surface analysis made by AFM technique confirmed that very fine particles of around 20 nm size could be ejected from the new target to the substrate. The fine oxide clusters could be easily moved and incorporated into the YBCO phase thus benefited the c-axis growth even in the thick films. For instance, only the c-axis growth in the new film with a thickness of about 650 nm was larger than a critical thickness of the a-axis growth. However, in the standard film of the same thickness, there is ∼24.5% of the a-axis growth accompanying the main c-axis growth. Therefore, the c-axis growth could be preserved in the very thick YBCO film by a non-superconducting target.

  1. Origin of the c-axis ultraincompressibility of Mo{sub 2}GaC above about 15 GPa from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Qing-He, Gao; Zhi-Jun, Xu; Ling, Tang; Ze-Jin, Yang; Jin, Li; An, Du; Yun-Dong, Guo

    2016-01-07

    The mechanical properties and structural evolution of Mo{sub 2}GaC are calculated by first-principles under pressure. Our results unexpectedly found that the c axis is always stiffer than a axis within 0–100 GPa. An ultraincompressibility of c axis within 15–60 GPa is observed, with a contraction of about 0.2 Å, slightly larger than that of a axis (0.14 Å). The abnormal expansion of c axis and the fast decrease in a axis above about 15 GPa and 70 GPa failed to induce the structural instability, whereas such behavior caused the elastic softening in many mechanical quantities. The shrinkage anomaly of c axis is closely reflected by the internal coordinate (u) shift of Mo atom as it shows three different slopes within 0–15 GPa, 20–60 GPa, and 70–100 GPa, respectively. The longest Mo-Mo bond is responsible for the unusual shrinkage of c-axis under pressure as they experience nearly identical pressure dependences, whereas the a axis presents certain response with the variation of C-Mo bond particularly at 70 GPa. The electronic properties are investigated, including the energy band and density of states, and so on. At G point of K-M line, the energy decreases at 10 GPa first and increases at 30 GPa subsequently, the critical point is at about 15 GPa, with respective values of −0.17 of 0 GPa, −0.18 of 10 GPa, −0.16 of 15 GPa, and −0.13 of 30 GPa, respectively. This alternative energy change of G point, which is the symmetry center of the rhombic parallelogram of Ga atoms and the midpoint of the two bonded Mo atoms, convincingly reveal the origin of the anomalous ultraincompressibility of c axis as the Mo-Mo bond length shrinkage has to overcome the increasing energy barrier height. The Mo-Mo bond population and the electronegativity investigations of the Mo atom further reveal the most likely origin of the ultraincompressibility of c axis. This interesting result expects further experimental confirmation as this is

  2. Steady-state and transient photoconductivity in c-axis GaN nanowires grown by nitrogen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, N. A.; Blanchard, P. T.; Bertness, K. A.; Mansfield, L.; Schlager, J. B.; Sanders, A. W.; Roshko, A.; Burton, B. B.; George, S. M.

    2010-02-15

    Analysis of steady-state and transient photoconductivity measurements at room temperature performed on c-axis oriented GaN nanowires yielded estimates of free carrier concentration, drift mobility, surface band bending, and surface capture coefficient for electrons. Samples grown (unintentionally n-type) by nitrogen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy primarily from two separate growth runs were examined. The results revealed carrier concentration in the range of (3-6)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for one growth run, roughly 5x10{sup 14}-1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} for the second, and drift mobility in the range of 500-700 cm{sup 2}/(V s) for both. Nanowires were dispersed onto insulating substrates and contacted forming single-wire, two-terminal structures with typical electrode gaps of {approx_equal}3-5 {mu}m. When biased at 1 V bias and illuminated at 360 nm (3.6 mW/cm{sup 2}) the thinner ({approx_equal}100 nm diameter) nanowires with the higher background doping showed an abrupt increase in photocurrent from 5 pA (noise level) to 0.1-1 {mu}A. Under the same conditions, thicker (151-320 nm) nanowires showed roughly ten times more photocurrent, with dark currents ranging from 2 nA to 1 {mu}A. With the light blocked, the dark current was restored in a few minutes for the thinner samples and an hour or more for the thicker ones. The samples with lower carrier concentration showed similar trends. Excitation in the 360-550 nm range produced substantially weaker photocurrent with comparable decay rates. Nanowire photoconductivity arises from a reduction in the depletion layer via photogenerated holes drifting to the surface and compensating ionized surface acceptors. Simulations yielded (dark) surface band bending in the vicinity of 0.2-0.3 V and capture coefficient in the range of 10{sup -23}-10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to conformally deposit {approx_equal}10 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on several devices. Photoconductivity, persistent

  3. Steady-state and transient photoconductivity in c-axis GaN nanowires grown by nitrogen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, N. A.; Blanchard, P. T.; Bertness, K. A.; Mansfield, L.; Schlager, J. B.; Sanders, A. W.; Roshko, A.; Burton, B. B.; George, S. M.

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of steady-state and transient photoconductivity measurements at room temperature performed on c-axis oriented GaN nanowires yielded estimates of free carrier concentration, drift mobility, surface band bending, and surface capture coefficient for electrons. Samples grown (unintentionally n-type) by nitrogen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy primarily from two separate growth runs were examined. The results revealed carrier concentration in the range of (3-6)×1016 cm-3 for one growth run, roughly 5×1014-1×1015 cm-3 for the second, and drift mobility in the range of 500-700 cm2/(V s) for both. Nanowires were dispersed onto insulating substrates and contacted forming single-wire, two-terminal structures with typical electrode gaps of ≈3-5 μm. When biased at 1 V bias and illuminated at 360 nm (3.6 mW/cm2) the thinner (≈100 nm diameter) nanowires with the higher background doping showed an abrupt increase in photocurrent from 5 pA (noise level) to 0.1-1 μA. Under the same conditions, thicker (151-320 nm) nanowires showed roughly ten times more photocurrent, with dark currents ranging from 2 nA to 1 μA. With the light blocked, the dark current was restored in a few minutes for the thinner samples and an hour or more for the thicker ones. The samples with lower carrier concentration showed similar trends. Excitation in the 360-550 nm range produced substantially weaker photocurrent with comparable decay rates. Nanowire photoconductivity arises from a reduction in the depletion layer via photogenerated holes drifting to the surface and compensating ionized surface acceptors. Simulations yielded (dark) surface band bending in the vicinity of 0.2-0.3 V and capture coefficient in the range of 10-23-10-19 cm2. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to conformally deposit ≈10 nm of Al2O3 on several devices. Photoconductivity, persistent photoconductivity, and subgap photoconductivity of the coated nanowires were increased in all cases. TaN ALD coatings

  4. Preferred orientation of BSCCO via centrifugal slip casting

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlage, G.; Roeder, R.; Trumble, K.; Bowman, K. ); Li, S.; McElfresh, M. )

    1994-04-01

    Due to the highly anisotropic properties of BSCCO superconductors, the bulk properties of these materials can be greatly affected by preferential orientation. Substantial [ital c]-axis orientation normal to the desired direction of current flow has been demonstrated by centrifugally slip casting lead-doped BSCCO-2223. The strong preferred orientation developed in the centrifugally slip-cast material demonstrates high critical current potential.

  5. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2014-02-21

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls.

  6. Dual Mode Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBARs) Based on AlN, ZnO and GaN Films with Tilted c-Axis Orientation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    FBARs fabri - cation, and their thickness usually ranges from several mi- crometers down to tenth of micrometers, which results in high resonant...mentioned be- fore. Films with in-plane polarization have also been fabri - cated on certain substrate crystal such as tetragonal LiAlO2 100 for...dynamics, and cerebral aneurysm diseases ; his research work is also related to experimental and medical device design. Hongbin Cheng received his

  7. Charge-screening role of c-axis atomic displacements in YBa2Cu3O6+x and related superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    E. S. Bozin; Huq, A.; Shen, Bing; ...

    2016-02-29

    Here, the importance of charge reservoir layers for supplying holes to the CuO2 planes of cuprate superconductors has long been recognized. Less attention has been paid to the screening of the charge transfer by the intervening ionic layers. We address this issue in the case of YBa2Cu3O6+x, where CuO chains supply the holes for the planes. We present a simple dielectric-screening model that gives a linear correlation between the relative displacements of ions along the c axis, determined by neutron powder diffraction, and the hole density of the planes. Applying this model to the temperature-dependent shifts of ions along themore » c axis, we infer a charge transfer of 5–10% of the hole density from the planes to the chains on warming from the superconducting transition to room temperature. Given the significant coupling of c-axis displacements to the average charge density, we point out the relevance of local displacements for screening charge modulations and note recent evidence for dynamic screening of in-plane quasiparticles. This line of argument leads us to a simple model for atomic displacements and charge modulation that is consistent with images from scanning-tunneling microscopy for underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ.« less

  8. Dynamic control of substrate bias for highly c-axis textured thin ferromagnetic CoCrTa film in inductively coupled plasma-assisted sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Okimura, Kunio; Oyanagi, Junya

    2005-01-01

    This study shows highly c-axis textured thin ferromagnetic Co-based alloy (CoCrTa) film growth in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-assisted sputtering with an internal coil with an insulated surface. Dynamic control of the substrate bias achieved highly c-axis textured CoCrTa film with a thickness of 70 nm in 3 min depositions on a Si substrate. The prepared film showed a smooth, dense surface consisting of small crystal grains. The film had a perpendicular magnetic coercivity of 1030 Oe and coercive squareness of 0.36. ICP-assisted sputtering with an internal coil with an insulated surface enabled higher-density ({>=}1.0x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) plasma with lower space potential ({<=}30 V) compared to ICP-assisted sputtering with bare coil systems. Therefore, the proposed bias control is quite effective for textured growth of thinner Co layers via the effect of a high flux of ions with proper energies. This method can be a candidate for the deposition technique of c-axis textured films as perpendicular magnetic recording media.

  9. Blowpipe Mineralogy for Physics/Environment: Highest-Possible-Tc SuperConductor (Beyond: (but via!!!) MgB2, Cuprates, Pnictides) Quest; BOTH PERMANENT FOREVER Carb-IDES SOLID-State Sequestration AND Drought(s)-Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segler, Kurt; Williams, Wendell; Siegel, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Detailed are old blowpipe new applications: charcoal-block reduction of borates to yield ("N-NW" of MgB2) Overhauser-[PR 35,1,411(1987); Intl.J.Mod.Phys.1, 2 & 4, 927(1987)]-"land" predicted high-EST-POSSIBLE Tc SC "LiD2"; very-early: Siegel[Phys.Stat.Sol.(a)11,45(1972);Semiconductors.and Insulators 5: 39,47,62(1979)] carb-IDES SOLID-state phase-TRANSITIONED CHEMICALLY-REDOX"-REACTED STABLE PERMANENT LONG-term NOT "CO2" BUT C-sequestration: PROFITABLE "Grab and Sell" TRUMPS "cap and trade"!!!; Mott alloying/vertical metal-insulator transitions in "borax-(GLASS)-beads"; and very-earlySiegel [{3rd Intl.Conf.Alt.Energy }(1980)-vol.5/p.459!!!] "FLYING-WATER" Hindenberg-effect (H2-UP;H2O-DOWN) via Hydrogen-maximal-Archimedes-buoyancy "chemical-rain-in-pipelines", only via Siegel proprietary "magnetic-hydrogen-valve"(MHV): Renewables-Hydrogen-Water flexible versatile agile scaleable retrofitable integrated operating-system for PERMANENT drought(s)-elimination FOREVER!!!

  10. Electrical behaviors of c-axis textured 0.975Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.025BiCoO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feifei; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Shantao; Liu, Danqing; Wu, Fengmin; Wang, Dali; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-10-01

    The thin films of 0.975Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.025BiCoO3 (BNT-BC) have been successfully deposited on (1 1 1) Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (1 0 0) substrates by pulse laser deposition and their ferroelectric, dielectric, local piezoelectric properties and temperature dependent leakage current behaviors have been investigated systematically. X-ray diffraction indicates the films are single phased and c-axis oriented. The thin films exhibit ferroelectric polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop with a remnant polarization (Pr) of 10.0 μC/cm2 and an excellent fatigue resistance property up to 5 × 109 switching cycles. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss are 500 and 0.22 at 1 kHz, respectively. The tunability of the dielectric constant is about 12% at 20 kV/mm. The piezo-phase response hysteresis loop and piezo-amplitude response butterfly curve are observed by switching spectroscopy mode of piezoelectric force microscope (SS-PFM) and the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is about 19-63 pm/V, which is comparable to other reports. The dominant leakage current conduction mechanisms are ohmic conduction at low electric field and Schottky emission at high electric field, respectively. Our results may be helpful for further work on BNT-based thin films with improved electric properties.

  11. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  12. Steady-State and Transient Photoconductivity in c-Axis GaN Nanowires Grown by Nitrogen-Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Steady-state and transient photoconductivity in c-axis GaN nanowires grown by nitrogen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy N. A. Sanford,1,a P. T...assisted molecular beam epitaxy primarily from two separate growth runs were examined. The results revealed carrier concentration in the range of 3–61016...cm−3 for one growth run, roughly 51014–11015 cm−3 for the second, and drift mobility in the range of 500–700 cm2 / V s for both. Nanowires were

  13. Mathematical model to determine the dimensions of superconducting cylindrical coils with a given central field - the case study for MgB2 conductors with isotropic Ic(B) characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitel, Jozef; Melišek, Tibor; Tropeano, Matteo; Nardelli, Davide; Tumino, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical model which enables to design cylindrical coils with a given central field, made of the superconducting conductor with isotropic Ic(B) characteristic. The model results in a computer code that enables to find out the coil dimensions, and to calculate the coil parameters such as critical current, maximum field in the winding and field non-uniformity on the coil axis. The Ic(B) characteristic of the conductor is represented by the set of data measured in discrete points. This approach allows us to express the Ic(B) as a function linearized in parts. Then, it is possible to involve the central field of the coil, coil dimensions, and parameters of the conductor, including its Ic(B) characteristic, in one equation which can be solved using ordinary numerical non-linear methods. Since the coil dimensions and conductor parameters are mutually linked in one equation with respect to a given coil central field, it is possible to analyze an influence of one parameter on the other one. The model was applied to three commercially available MgB2/Ni/Cu conductors produced by Columbus Superconductors. The results of simulations with the Ic(B) data at 20 K illustrate that there exists a set of winding geometries that generate a required central field, changing from a disc shape to long thin solenoid. Further, we analyze how the thickness of stabilizing copper influences the coil dimensions, overall conductor length, coil critical current, maximum field in the winding. An influence of the safety coefficient in operating current on coil dimensions and other above mentioned parameters is studied as well. Finally, we compare the coil dimensions, overall conductor length as well as coil critical current and maximum field in the winding if the value of required central field changes between 1 and 3 T.

  14. Photoinduced enhancement of the c-axis conductivity in oxygen-deficient YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitsch, W.; Stockinger, C.; Lang, W. |; Bierleutgeb, K.; Pedarnig, J.D.; Baeuerle, D.

    1997-09-01

    High quality thin films of oxygen-depleted YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (x{approx}6.6) were prepared by pulsed-laser deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}, substrates that were cut with tilt angles of 10{degree} and 20{degree} with respect to the [001] direction, resulting in a steplike growth of the layers. The resistance showed a semiconducting behavior along the projection of the c axis to the film surface, but a metallic behavior in the perpendicular direction, indicating that the former is dominated by the c-axis resistivity and the latter by the ab-plane resistivity of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}. Long-term illumination of the samples with a 100 W halogen lamp resulted in a significant conductivity enhancement in both directions. The photoinduced change of the out-of-plane resistance vs temperature characteristics is comparable to the effect of large hydrostatic pressure, introducing structural changes similar to that of photoexcitation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Magnesium diboride thin films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi

    densities and IcRn products are high with clear gap characteristics and low subgap currents. The Fraunhofer-pattern of Josephson supercurrent modulation in magnetic fields demonstrates excellent junction uniformity. The barrier thickness and height were estimated, and the barrier composition was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Josephson tunnel junctions with non-c-axis-oriented MgB2 were made which clearly exhibit tunneling spectra from both MgB2 superconducting gaps. The two-band superconductivity and its effect on vortices were studied by tunneling spectroscopy in magnetic fields. Planar all-MgB2 Josephson junctions were made by creating a weak-link through a TiB2 underlayer or an ion damaged MgB 2. Junctions exhibited Josephson critical current and RSJ-like characteristics and Shapiro steps under microwave radiation. Uniform ion damage MgB2 Josephson junction array was also demonstrated.

  16. c-axis inclined ZnO films for shear-wave transducers deposited by reactive sputtering using an additional blind

    SciTech Connect

    Link, M.; Schreiter, M.; Weber, J.; Gabl, R.; Pitzer, D.; Primig, R.; Wersing, W.; Assouar, M.B.; Elmazria, O.

    2006-03-15

    This article reports on the growth and characterization of polycrystalline ZnO films having c axis inclined up to 16 deg. with respect to the substrate normal. These films allow the excitation of shear and longitudinal waves with comparable electromechanical coupling constants and are of significant interest for thin film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs). The films are deposited on silicon substrates covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} buffer layers under low pressure using a modified reactive dc-pulsed magnetron sputtering system. A blind has been positioned between target and substrate, allowing oblique particle incidence without tilting the wafer. The study of structural properties of the deposited ZnO films by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy has permitted to show the presence of the inclined structure. Electromechanical coupling constants K up to 13% have been extracted for shear-mode excitation using highly overmoded FBARs.

  17. Influence of the spatially inhomogeneous gap distribution on the quasiparticle current in c-axis junctions involving d-wave superconductors with charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekino, T.; Gabovich, A. M.; Li, Mai Suan; Szymczak, H.; Voitenko, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    The quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between the superconducting ab-planes along the c-axis and the corresponding conductance G(V)=\\text{d}J/\\text{d}V were calculated for symmetric junctions composed of disordered d-wave layered superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs). Here, V is the voltage. Both the checkerboard and unidirectional CDWs were considered. It was shown that the spatial spread of the CDW-pairing strength substantially smears the peculiarities of G(V) appropriate to uniform superconductors. The resulting curves G(V) become very similar to those observed for a number of cuprates in intrinsic junctions, e.g. mesas. In particular, the influence of CDWs may explain the peak-dip-hump structures frequently found for high-T c oxides.

  18. Sputter Synthesis of c-axis YBCO Films with Excellent Surface Smoothness and Fabrication of Sandwich type Junctions with Interface Engineered Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohk, K.; Iwashita, N.; Kikunaga, K.; Okuda, T.; Obara, K.; Terada, N.

    2006-06-01

    Flat surface is essential to base electrodes of sandwich type Josephson junctions. In the present study, c-axis YBa2Cu3O7 (c-YBCO) films with excellent surface smoothness were fabricated by off-axis sputtering. For the flat surfaces, key parameters in the sputtering process were growth temperature, atmosphere conditions and surface nature of substrates. The correlation between the sputtering conditions and the characteristic of the c-YBCO films reveal the following phenomena; i) The films deposited at low temperature of 660 °C showed a low zero-resistance temperature because of a poor connection between the c-axis crystallites. Surfaces of these low temperature grown films involve large and rectangular shaped a-axis grains, thereby the peak-to-valley (PV) amplitude of the surface was beyond 80 nm. The experiments indicate that the growth of the grains should be caused by low surface diffusion of adatoms at the low growth temperature. ii) Contrarily, at high Ts above 770 °C, a serious deviation of film composition from the stoichiometry took places, which also promoted an outgrowth of a-axis grains. Consequently, the high temperature grown films had seriously rough surfaces (PV amplitude > 25 nm). iii) The growth at the optimised Ts of 765 °C led a remarkable reduction of surface roughness (root-mean-square (RMS) of the roughness < 1.8 nm) without any degradation of superconducting properties. The achieved surface morphology is classified as one of the smoothest surfaces of the YBCO film grow by sputtering. iv) A density of the a-axis outgrowth was related to the surface defects of the substrate. The usage of SrTiO3 (100) plane consists of atomically flat and wide terraces and unit-cell high steps resulted in almost outgrowth-face surface with an excellent smoothness (PV amplitude < 10 nm, RMS of the roughness < 1.0 nm).

  19. Temperature-dependent growth of LaAlO{sub 3} films on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} C-axis films for multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, M.E.; Houlton, R.J.; Raistrick, I.A.; Garzon, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra smooth films, free of micro-shorts, is essential to the development of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin film devices. One such example is a SNS junction consisting of two HTS layers separated by a uniformly smooth continuous barrier material. Other schemes under consideration require multilayer structures of up to 5 - 7 epitaxially grown layers of complex oxide material. Successful fabrication of such devices necessitates understanding the epitaxial growth of polycrystalline oxide films on polycrystalline film templates. Toward this end we have developed a set of deposition parameters that produce high quality epitaxial insulating layers suitable for HTS device applications. All films in this study were grown by off-axis RF magnetron sputter deposition. LaAlO{sub 3} films were deposited over MgO grown YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) c-axis thin films at temperatures ranging from 200 to 700C and on virgin substrates at 600C. Atomic Force Microscopy, eddy current measurements, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to monitor the effect of growth conditions on the resulting film crystallinity, nanostructure, and electrical properties. Ex-situ interrupted growth characterization of these materials has yielded new insight into the processes that control the growth mechanism and resulting microstructure. All films were polycrystalline. Below 600C, LaAlO{sub 3} films were not epitaxial while films grown at 650C showed some <200> orientation. The shape of the underlying YBCO film is most clearly evident for the film grown at 400C. Surface roughness depended on the appearance of crystals on the film surface. The superconducting properties of the underlying YBCO film required O{sub 2} annealing prior to deposition of the LaAlO{sub 3} layer.

  20. Effect on C-axis transport properties of a critical state in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.H.; Maley, M.P.; Bulaevskii, L.N.

    1995-12-31

    At low temperatures, the c-axis transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals depend strongly on the magnetic field history for fields applied along the c-axis, indicating the effect of a critical state in the ab direction. In this study, the authors report zero field cooled (ZFC), field cooled warming (FCW), and field cooled cooling (FCC) c-axis transport properties. In addition, they also report magnetic relaxation measurements on the same samples to identify the c-axis dissipation mechanism. They observe a relaxation of the c-axis resistivity that follows the relaxation of the flux profile across the ab plane. By identifying the irreversible temperature vs. magnetic field for H // c, they construct a phase diagram of vortex states. Finally, they will discuss the implication of the phase diagram and the features related to the transport properties of the Josephson-coupled system and the role of pancake vortices in highly two-dimensional superconductors.

  1. Preferred crystal orientation of sol-gel-derived Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 thin films on silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Takayuki; Sumitani, Kazushi; Haruki, Rie; Kohno, Atsushi

    2007-12-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of La-substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) were formed directly on p-type Si(100) substrates by using sol-gel and spin coat methods. The BLT film and interfacial layer between BLT and Si were quantitatively investigated by the X-ray reflectivity method. Also, crystal orientations of sub-100-nm-thick BLT thin films were confirmed by X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation source. The preferred c-axis orientation normal to the surface depended on the crystallization temperature. The difference in the preferred c-axis orientations of the BLT films caused the difference in the hysteresis voltage width in the capacitance-voltage characteristics of Au/BLT/p-Si structures. Furthermore, the c-axis of the Bilayered structure was preferentially oriented and aligned in the in-plane direction.

  2. c-Axis projected electron-positron momentum density in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Bansil, A.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Smedskjaer, L.C.

    1990-11-01

    The authors present the theoretical c-axis projected electron-positron momentum density N{sub 2{gamma}}(P{sub x},p{sub y}) in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} based on the local density approximation (LDA) framework along various lines in momentum space. The calculations use the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) band structure formalism. The anisotropic distribution defined by taking cuts through the calculated spectra along different lines in the (p{sub x},p{sub y}) plane possesses complex structures which arise from both Fermi surface effects and the anisotropy of the smoothly varying underlying background from filled bands; the maximum size of the anisotropy is about 10% of N{sub 2{gamma}}(0,0). The theoretically predicted N{sub 2{gamma}}(p{sub x},{sub y}) distribution is compared with the measured 2D-ACAR spectrum. The considerations suggest that in interpreting the 2D-ACAR data on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} in terms of a band theory LDA picture, a substantial, largely isotropic, background should be subtracted from both the 2D-ACAR`s and the associated LCW-folded spectra.

  3. IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis regulates the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shu; Liu, Genxia; Jin, Lin; Pang, Xiyao; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Zilu; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor IGF-1R play a paramount role in tooth/bone formation while hsa-let-7c actively participates in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the interaction between IGF-1/IGF-1R and hsa-let-7c on the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remains unclear. In this study, human SCAPs were isolated and treated with IGF-1 and hsa-let-7c over/low-expression viruses. The odonto/osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were subsequently investigated. Alizarin red staining showed that hsa-let-7c low-expression can significantly promote the mineralization of IGF-1 treated SCAPs, while hsa-let-7c over-expression can decrease the calcium deposition of IGF-1 treated SCAPs. Western blot assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction further demonstrated that the expression of odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, COL-I/COL-I, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1) in IGF-1 treated SCAPs were significantly upregulated in Let-7c-low group. On the contrary, hsa-let-7c over-expression could downregulate the expression of these odonto/osteogenic markers. Moreover, western blot assay showed that the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were activated in Let-7c-low SCAPs but inhibited in Let-7c-over SCAPs. Together, the IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis can control the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of IGF-1-treated SCAPs via the regulation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27833148

  4. Crystallographic Orientation of Cuttlebone Shield Determined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Maggie; Chung, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In common with many cephalopod mollusks, cuttlefish produce an internal biomineral buoyancy device. This cuttlebone is analogous to a surf board in shape and structure, providing rigidity and a means of controlling buoyancy. The cuttlebone is composed of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and comprises an upper dorsal shield and a lower lamellar matrix. The lamellar matrix comprises layers of chambers with highly corrugated walls. The dorsal shield comprises bundles of aragonite needles stacked on top of each other. Electron backscatter diffraction analyses of the dorsal shield reveal that the c-axis of aragonite is parallel with the long axis of the needles in the bundles such that any spread in crystallographic orientation is consistent with the spread in orientation of the fibers as they radiate to form the overall structure of the dorsal shield. This arrangement of c-axis coincident with the long axis of the biomineral structure is similar to the arrangement in corals and in contrast to the situation in the molluskan aragonite nacre of brachiopod calcite where the c-axis is perpendicular to the aragonite tablet or calcite fiber, respectively.

  5. Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Debangsu Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2014-02-21

    Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

  6. Electrodeposition of (001) oriented CoPt L10 columns into anodic alumina films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, N.; Imada, A.; Den, T.

    2003-10-01

    Anodic alumina films are known to have perpendicular holes normal to the film surface. This character is favorable to perpendicular magnetic recording and patterned media. L10-ordered CoPt columns are filled into anodic alumina nanoholes by an electrodeposition method and a subsequent thermal annealing process. Two kinds of metal (W and Pt) were used as underlayers at the bottom of nanoholes, which acts as electrode layer for electrodeposition. We show that while the embedded L10-ordered CoPt columns have random c-axis orientations for W underlayer samples, the c-axis orientation can be controlled by using the underlayer with Pt(001) surface. This orientation controlled sample has a perpendicular anisotropy with Hc=7.4 kOe, and Mr/Ms=0.96. This approach has the potential to become one of the important methods for the fabrication of recording media with ultrahigh areal density.

  7. Measurement of the c-axis optical reflectance of AFe2As2 (A=Ba, Sr) single crystals: evidence of different mechanisms for the formation of two energy gaps.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z G; Dong, T; Ruan, R H; Hu, B F; Cheng, B; Hu, W Z; Zheng, P; Fang, Z; Dai, X; Wang, N L

    2010-08-27

    We present the c-axis optical reflectance measurement on single crystals of BaFe2As2 and SrFe2As2, the parent compounds of FeAs based superconductors. Different from the ab-plane optical response where two distinct energy gaps were observed in the spin-density-wave (SDW) state, only the smaller energy gap could be seen clearly for E∥c axis. The very pronounced energy gap structure seen at a higher energy scale for E∥ab plane is almost invisible. We propose a novel picture for the band structure evolution across the SDW transition and suggest different driving mechanisms for the formation of the two energy gaps.

  8. Charge-screening role of c-axis atomic displacements in YBa2Cu3O6+x and related superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    E. S. Bozin; Huq, A.; Shen, Bing; Claus, H.; Kwok, W. K.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2016-02-29

    Here, the importance of charge reservoir layers for supplying holes to the CuO2 planes of cuprate superconductors has long been recognized. Less attention has been paid to the screening of the charge transfer by the intervening ionic layers. We address this issue in the case of YBa2Cu3O6+x, where CuO chains supply the holes for the planes. We present a simple dielectric-screening model that gives a linear correlation between the relative displacements of ions along the c axis, determined by neutron powder diffraction, and the hole density of the planes. Applying this model to the temperature-dependent shifts of ions along the c axis, we infer a charge transfer of 5–10% of the hole density from the planes to the chains on warming from the superconducting transition to room temperature. Given the significant coupling of c-axis displacements to the average charge density, we point out the relevance of local displacements for screening charge modulations and note recent evidence for dynamic screening of in-plane quasiparticles. This line of argument leads us to a simple model for atomic displacements and charge modulation that is consistent with images from scanning-tunneling microscopy for underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ.

  9. Crystallographic orientation and concentric layers in spicules of calcareous sponges.

    PubMed

    Rossi, André Linhares; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Lemos, Moara; Werckmann, Jacques; Borojevic, Radovan; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle; Farina, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the crystallography of calcareous sponges (Porifera) spicules and the organization pattern of the concentric layers present in their inner structure were investigated in 10 species of the subclass Calcaronea and three species of the subclass Calcinea. Polished spicules had specific concentric patterns that varied depending on the plane in which the spicules were sectioned. A 3D model of the concentric layers was created to interpret these patterns and the biomineralization process of the triactine spicules. The morphology of the spicules was compared with the crystallographic orientation of the calcite crystals by analyzing the Kikuchi diffraction patterns using a scanning electron microscope. Triactine spicules from the subclass Calcinea had actines (rays) elongated in the 〈210〉 direction, which is perpendicular to the c-axis. The scale spicules of the hypercalcified species Murrayona phanolepis presented the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the scale, which is in accordance with the crystallography of all other Calcinea. The triactine spicules of the calcaronean species had approximately the same crystallographic orientation with the unpaired actine elongated in the ∼[211] direction. Only one Calcaronea species, whose triactine was regular, had a different orientation. Three different crystallographic orientations were found in diactines. Spicules with different morphologies, dimensions and positions in the sponge body had similar crystallographic directions suggesting that the crystallographic orientation of spicules in calcareous sponges is conserved through evolution.

  10. Studies of C-Axis Charge Transport in BISMUTH(2) STRONTIUM(2) Calcium COPPER(2) OXYGEN(8 + Delta) and Anomalous Hall Effect in (LANTHANUM(0.67) CALCIUM(0.33)) Manganese OXYGEN(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi-Feng, Yan

    In this thesis I report my studies on charge transport on two perovskite metal oxides: La_ {1-x}Ca_{x}MnO_3(LCMO) --a colossal magnetoresistance oxide and Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_{8+delta } (BSCCO)--a high temperature superconducting compound. Large and high quality Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O_{8+delta} single crystals were grown by self-flux method. The quality of the crystals were examined by x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. I have systematically investigated the c-axis magnetoresistance (MR) of various BSCCO single crystals with different oxygen contents. With field H parallel to c-axis and the current (H//c//J), we observed that MR is negative if rho_ {c} is semiconducting and positive if rho_{c} is pseudo-metallic. We consider that the negative MR is a normal state property. We have also measured the field dependence of rho_{c} in the flux flow state (H//c//J) at fields up to 14T. Whereas rho_{c} increases rapidly in weak fields, it saturates to the extrapolated normal-state curve when the field H_ {2D} is attained (H_ {2D} is the field at which the vortex pancakes in adjacent layers are completely decoupled). At fields above H_{2D}, rho_{c} decreases slowly. We verify that this is a continuation of the negative MR observed above Tc. We propose that the antiferromagnetic coupling along the c-axis in adjacent CuO_2 planes and spin singlet formation are the cause of negative magnetoresistance in c-axis in bilayer cuprates. We found that the c-axis resistivity in bilayer cuprates can be fitted into the following empirical formula: rho_{c}{= }a/Te^{Delta/T} + cT + d where a, c and d are temperature independent constants; Delta is called pseudogap. In Y -doped BSCCO, rho_{c} displays a logarithmic temperature dependence. The LCMO thin films used in this experiment were grown by Plasma Enhanced-MOCVD method. The Hall effect and magnetoresistance of LCMO thin films have been systematically investigated. At low temperature, the Hall effect is linear with field and positive

  11. Effects of the crystallographic orientation of Sn on the electromigration of Cu/Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu ball joints

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiju; Kim, Keun-Soo; Tsukada, Yutaka; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Yamanaka, Kimihiro; Kuritani, Soichi; Ueshima, Minoru

    2011-11-17

    Electromigration behavior and fast circuit failure with respect to crystallographic orientation of Sn grains were examined. The test vehicle was Cu/Sn-3.0 wt% Ag-0.5 wt% Cu/Cu ball joints, and the applied current density was 15 kA/cm2 at 160 °C. The experimental results indicate that most of the solder bumps show different microstructural changes with respect to the crystallographic orientation of Sn grains. Fast failure of the bump occurred due to the dissolution of the Cu circuit on the cathode side caused by the fast interstitial diffusion of Cu atoms along the c-axis of the Sn grains when the c-axis was parallel to the electron flow. Slight microstructural changes were observed when the c-axis was perpendicular to the electron flow. In addition, Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) was formed along the direction of the c-axis of the Sn grains instead of the direction of electron flow in all solder ball joints.

  12. SHMUTZ & PROTON-DIAMANT H + Irradiated/Written-Hyper/Super-conductivity(HC/SC) Precognizance/Early Experiments Connections: Wet-Graphite Room-Tc & Actualized MgB2 High-Tc: Connection to Mechanical Bulk-Moduli/Hardness: Diamond Hydrocarbon-Filaments, Disorder, Nano-Powders:C,Bi,TiB2,TiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderman, Irwin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Lewis, Thomas; Young, Frederic; Smith, Adolph; Dresschhoff-Zeller, Gieselle

    2013-03-01

    SHMUTZ: ``wet-graphite''Scheike-....[Adv.Mtls.(7/16/12)]hyper/super-SCHMUTZ-conductor(S!!!) = ``wet''(?)-``graphite''(?) = ``graphene''(?) = water(?) = hydrogen(?) =ultra-heavy proton-bands(???) = ...(???) claimed room/high-Tc/high-Jc superconductOR ``p''-``wave''/ BAND(!!!) superconductIVITY and actualized/ instantiated MgB2 high-Tc superconductors and their BCS- superconductivity: Tc Siegel[ICMAO(77);JMMM 7,190(78)] connection to SiegelJ.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(80)] disorder/amorphous-superconductivity in nano-powders mechanical bulk/shear(?)-moduli/hardness: proton-irradiated diamond, powders TiB2, TiC,{Siegel[Semis. & Insuls.5:39,47, 62 (79)])-...``VS''/concommitance with Siegel[Phys.Stat.Sol.(a)11,45(72)]-Dempsey [Phil.Mag. 8,86,285(63)]-Overhauser-(Little!!!)-Seitz-Smith-Zeller-Dreschoff-Antonoff-Young-...proton-``irradiated''/ implanted/ thermalized-in-(optimal: BOTH heat-capacity/heat-sink & insulator/maximal dielectric-constant) diamond: ``VS'' ``hambergite-borate-mineral transformable to Overhauser optimal-high-Tc-LiBD2 in Overhauser-(NW-periodic-table)-Land: CO2/CH4-ETERNAL-sequestration by-product: WATER!!!: physics lessons from

  13. Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+delta} c-axis twist Josephson junctions : a new phase-sensitive test of order parameter symmetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R. A.; Arnold, G.; Bille, A.; Rieck, C. T.; Scharnberg, K.

    1999-09-20

    Li et al. found that the critical current density J{sub c}{sup J} across atomically clean c-axis twist junctions of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} is the same as that of the constituent single crystal, J{sub c}{sup S}, independent of the twist angle {phi}{sub 0}, even at and below T{sub c}. They investigated theoretically if a d{sub x{sup 2}{minus}y{sup 2}} wave order parameter might twist by mixing in d{sub xy}-wave components, but found that such mixing cannot possibly explain the data near to T{sub c}. Combined with group theoretical arguments, they then conclude that the order parameter contains at least a substantial s-wave component, but does not contain any purported d{sub x{sup 2}{minus}y{sup 2}}-wave component, except possibly below a second, unobserved phase transition. By studying tunneling models, they further conclude that the intrinsic c-axis Josephson tunneling in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} is likely to be mostly incoherent.

  14. Controlling laser emission by selecting crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser emission by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, emission wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm → 1061/1062 + 1068 nm → 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated emission cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.

  15. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  16. Blocks and residual stresses in sapphire rods of different crystallographic orientations grown by the Stepanov method

    SciTech Connect

    Krymov, V. M. Nosov, Yu. G.; Bakholdin, S. I.; Maslov, V. N.; Shul’pina, I. L.

    2015-05-15

    The formation of blocks in shaped sapphire rods of two crystallographic orientations has been investigated. It is shown that, when growth occurs in the direction of the optical c axis, blocks are formed with a higher probability than in the case of growth in the a direction. A model of formation of blocks in rods of different orientations is proposed. The distribution of residual stresses over sapphire rod cross sections is measured by conoscopy. It is found that stresses increase from the middle of a rod to its periphery and reach 20 MPa.

  17. Orientation and the Young Orienteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. E.; Martland, J. R.

    Orientation within orienteering is dependent on the use of two basic strategies; that is, either a compass or Magnetic-North-based strategy, which relies on the use of one set of information; or the use of a map and landmark-based strategy which relies on the use of at least two sets of information. Walsh and found that, when given the choice, young children use the compass-based strategy when following complex potentially disorientating routes.The efficacy of these two basic orientation strategies was investigated within three different orienteering environments: (1) a familiar known environment; (2) a familiar unknown environment and (3) an unfamiliar unknown environment.Subjects, age range from 9 to 10think aloud particularly the introduction of basic skills to young performers. They support the argument that is essential to introduce the map and compass simultaneously and that relocation and orientation skills should be coached concurrently.

  18. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  19. Birefringence imaging and orientation of laser patterned β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals with bending and curved shapes in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2013-11-15

    Nonlinear optical β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals (β-BBO) with bending and curved shapes were patterned at the surface of 8Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–42BaO–50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass by laser irradiations (Yb:YVO{sub 4} laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm, power of 0.8 W, and scanning speed of 4 μm/s), and the orientation state of β-BBO crystals was examined from the birefringence imaging obtained by polarization optical microscope (POM) observations. The formation (crystallization) of β-BBO crystals follows along laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes at a certain point within the bending angle of 60°. The birefringence images indicate that the formation of highly c-axis oriented β-BBO crystals follows along laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes, and in particular the direction of the c-axis of β-BBO crystals changes gradually at the bending point. The model for the orientation of the c-axis of β-BBO near the bending point is proposed. The present study proposes that the laser-induced crystallization opens a new door for the science and technology in crystal growth engineering. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the birefringence images obtained by the Abrio IM imaging system (λ=546 nm) for the laser-patterned β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal line with the bending angle of 45° in the glass. The relation between the direction of slow axis and color is also shown. It is demonstrated that the formation (crystallization) of highly c-axis oriented β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals follows along laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes. Display Omitted - Highlights: • β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals with bending and curved shapes were patterned by laser irradiations. • The orientation was examined from the birefringence imaging. • Highly c-axis oriented crystals follows along laser scanning direction. • The c-axis direction changes gradually at the bending point. • The

  20. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  1. Quantitative regulation of bone-mimetic, oriented collagen/apatite matrix structure depends on the degree of osteoblast alignment on oriented collagen substrates.

    PubMed

    Matsugaki, Aira; Isobe, Yoshihiro; Saku, Taro; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Bone tissue has a specific anisotropic morphology derived from collagen fiber alignment and the related apatite crystal orientation as a bone quality index. However, the precise mechanism of cellular regulation of the crystallographic orientation of apatite has not been clarified. In this study, anisotropic construction of cell-produced mineralized matrix in vitro was established by initiating organized cellular alignment and subsequent oriented bone-like matrix (collagen/apatite) production. The oriented collagen substrates with three anisotropic levels were prepared by a hydrodynamic method. Primary osteoblasts were cultured on the fabricated substrates until mineralized matrix formation is confirmed. Osteoblast alignment was successfully regulated by the level of substrate collagen orientation, with preferential alignment along the direction of the collagen fibers. Notably, both fibrous orientation of newly synthesized collagen matrix and c-axis of produced apatite crystals showed preferential orientation along the cell direction. Because the degree of anisotropy of the deposited apatite crystals showed dependency on the directional distribution of osteoblasts cultured on the oriented collagen substrates, the cell orientation determines the crystallographic anisotropy of produced apatite crystals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy, even the alignment of apatite crystals, is controllable by varying the degree of osteoblast alignment via regulating the level of substrate orientation.

  2. Domain-orientation dependence of levitation force in seeded melt grown single-domain YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, D.; Qu, D.; Sagar, S.; Lahiri, K.

    1997-06-01

    Domain-orientation dependence of levitation force has been determined for single-domain YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}. The single-domain material is obtained from a seeded melt growth process. The levitation force has been found to reach a maximum as the c axis of the domain is parallel to the direction of the force. The levitation force decreases in a cosine law fashion as the angle {theta} (the angle between the direction of the force and the c axis) increases from 0{degree} to 60{degree}. A maximum anisotropy of levitation force of 2.29 has been found. A physical model is proposed to explain the observed orientation dependence. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Orientation and interface effects on the structural and magnetic properties of MnAs-on-GaAs hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Däweritz, L.; Kolovos-Vellianitis, D.; Trampert, A.; Herrmann, C.; Ploog, K. H.; Bauer, E.; Locatelli, A.; Cherifi, S.; Heun, S.

    2006-03-01

    MnAs grows either with the (1bar {1}00)prism-plane on GaAs(001), (113)A and (110) or the (0001) c-plane on GaAs(111)B substrates. The strain state of the films determines the phase coexistence of ferromagnetic α - and paramagnetic β -MnAs and their distribution in self-organized structures. The mismatch accommodation mechanisms along the a-axis of α -MnAs are in principle the same for all substrate orientations, while they are very different along the c-axis. Depending on the orientation the Curie temperature can exceed the value for bulk MnAs.

  4. Recrystallization fabrics of sheared quartz veins with a strong pre-existing crystallographic preferred orientation from a seismogenic shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Nancy A.; Song, Won Joon; Johnson, Scott E.; Gerbi, Christopher C.; Beane, Rachel J.; West, David P.

    2016-07-01

    Microstructural investigations were carried out on quartz veins in schist, protomylonite, and mylonite samples from an ancient seismogenic strike-slip shear zone (Sandhill Corner shear zone, Norumbega fault system, Maine, USA). We interpret complexities in the microstructural record to show that: (1) pre-existing crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in the host rock may persist in the new CPO patterns of the shear zone and (2) the inner and outer parts of the shear zone followed diverging paths of fabric development. The host rocks bounding the shear zone contain asymmetrically-folded quartz veins with a strong CPO. These veins are increasingly deformed and recrystallized with proximity to the shear zone core. Matrix-accommodated rotation and recrystallization may position an inherited c-axis maximum in an orientation coincident with rhomb < a > or basal < a > slip. This inherited CPO likely persists in the shear zone fabric as a higher concentration of poles in one hemisphere of the c-axis pole figure, leading to asymmetric crossed girdle or paired maxima c-axis patterns about the foliation plane. Three observed quartz grain types indicate a general trend of localization with decreasing temperature: (1) large (> 100 μm), low aspect ratio (< 5) and (2) high aspect ratio ( 5-20) grains overprinted by (3) smaller (< 80 μm), low aspect ratio (< 4) grains through subgrain rotation-dominated recrystallization. In the outer shear zone, subgrain rotation recrystallization led to a well-developed c-axis crossed girdle pattern. In the inner shear zone, the larger grains are completely overprinted by smaller grains, but the CPO patterns are relatively poorly developed and are associated with distinctively different misorientation angle histogram profiles ("flat" neighbor-pair profile with similar number fraction for angles from 10 to 90°). This may reflect the preferential activation of grain size sensitive deformation processes in the inner-most part of the

  5. Quartz microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation: Which shear sense do they indicate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger

    2011-10-01

    Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and shape fabrics of dynamically recrystallized quartz are currently used as shear sense indicators. We show that the CPO and shape fabric in a polyphase rock do not necessarily indicate the shear sense at the global scale of the shear zone but rather at the local scale of the deforming and recrystallizing quartz aggregates. In lower amphibolite facies shear zones in the Gran Paradiso metagranodiorite, magmatic quartz grains have recrystallized dynamically by subgrain rotation and grain boundary migration and deform inside a very fine-grained feldspar-mica matrix. The quartz CPO has a peripheral [c]-axis maximum inclined synthetically with the local shear sense. The orientation of the surface fabric is related to the orientation of the [c]-axis maximum and the microscopic shear sense in the quartz aggregate. The geometry of the surface fabric ranges from monoclinic to symmetric depending on the relative contribution of grain boundary migration. It is inferred that flow partitioning between the quartz aggregates and the matrix controls the local kinematics. CPOs are only reliable shear sense indicators in polyphase rocks if the most highly strained parts are analyzed where spin of the aggregates with respect to the shear zone boundary has ceased.

  6. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  7. Hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays: Fabrication, morphology, cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tian, Bo; Lei, Yong; Ke, Qin-Fei; Zhu, Zhen-An; Guo, Ya-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals exhibit rod-like shape with c-axis orientation and plate-like shape with a(b)-axis orientation in vertebrate bones and tooth enamel surfaces, respectively. Herein, we report the synthesis of HA coatings with the oriented nanorod arrays (RHACs) and HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays (PHACs) by using bioglass coatings as sacrificial templates. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 120°C, the bioglass coatings are hydrothermally converted into the HA coatings via a dissolution-precipitation reaction. If the Ca/P ratios in SBF are 2.50 and 1.25, the HA crystals on the coatings are oriented nanorod arrays and oriented nanoplate arrays, respectively. Moreover, the bioglass coatings are treated with SBF at 37°C, plate-like HA coatings with a low crystallinity (SHACs) are prepared. As compared with the Ti6Al4V and SHACs, the human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the RHACs and PHACs have better cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation because of their moderately hydrophilic surfaces and similar chemical composition, morphology and crystal orientation to human hard tissues. Notably, the morphologies of HA crystals have no obvious effects on cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Hence, the HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays or oriented nanorod arrays have a great potential for orthopedic applications.

  8. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  9. Influence of osteon area fraction and degree of orientation of HAp crystals on mechanical properties in bovine femur.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Satoshi; Tadano, Shigeru; Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Kodaki, Yuka

    2013-01-04

    Cortical bone has a hierarchical structure, spanning from the macrostructure at several millimeters or whole bone level, the microstructure at several hundred micrometers level, to the nanostructure at hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals and collagen fibrils levels. The aim of the study is to understand the relationship between the HAp crystal orientation and the elastic modulus and the relationship between the osteon area fraction and the deformation behavior of HAp crystals in cortical bone. In the experiments, five strip specimens (40×2×1mm(3)) aligned with the bone axis were taken from the cortical bone of a bovine femur. The degree of c-axis orientation of HAp crystals in the specimens was measured with the X-ray diffraction technique with the imaging plate. To measure the deformation behavior of HAp crystals in the specimens, tensile tests under X-ray irradiation were conducted. The specimens were cut at the X-ray measurement positions and osteon area fraction and porosity at the transverse cross-sections were observed. Further, the volume fraction of HAp of the specimens was measured. Results showed the degree of c-axis orientation of HAp crystals was positively correlated with the elastic modulus of the specimens (r=0.94). The volume fraction of HAp and the porosity showed no statistical correlation with the elastic modulus and the tensile strength. The HAp crystal strain ε(H) increased linearly with the bone tissue strain ε. The average value of ε(H)/ε was 0.69±0.13 and there was no correlation between the osteon area fraction and ε(H)/ε (r=-0.27, p=0.33). The results suggest that the degree of c-axis orientation of HAp crystals affects the elastic modulus and the magnitude of HAp crystal strain does not depend on the osteon area fraction.

  10. Characterization of tin crystal orientation evolution during thermal cycling in lead-free solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bite

    To address the long term reliability of lead-free solder joints in electronic devices during thermal cycling, the fundamental understanding of deformation mechanisms was studied using polarized light optical microscopy (PLM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Near-eutectic Sn-3.0(wt %) Ag-0.5(wt %) Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder joints were assessed in three different package designs: low-strain plastic ball grid array (PBGA), medium-strain fine-pitch ball grid array (BGA), and high-strain wafer-level-chip-scale package (WLCSP). The effect of microstructure evolution on solder failure is correlated with dislocation slip activities. The major failure mode in lead-free solder joints during thermal cycling that causes the electrical failure of the device is cracking in the bulk Sn near the Si chip/solder interface. Microstructure and Sn grain orientation evolution usually precedes crack development. A combined approach of both statistical analysis of a large number of solder joints, and detailed studies of individual solder balls was used to investigate the causes of fracture. Sn crystal orientation evolution and its effect on deformation was characterized in solder joints with different thermal histories, and compared with those from other package designs with different effective strain levels. The relationship between the initial dominant and localized recrystallized Sn grain orientations on crack development was investigated. It is found that in the low-strain package design, cracking is strongly correlated with Sn grain orientations with the [001] direction (c-axis) nearly aligned with the chip/solder interface. But no cracks were observed in solder balls with dominant orientations that have the c-axis normal to the interface plane. In higher-strain packages, however, cracking occurred in a variety of Sn grain orientations, and even solder balls with dominant orientations that are

  11. Praseodymium Cuprate Thin Film Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Roles of Doping, Orientation, and Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Hayamizu, Yoshiaki; Kim, Chang Sub; Kolchina, Liudmila M; Mazo, Galina N; Istomin, Sergey Ya; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L

    2016-12-21

    Highly textured thin films of undoped, Ce-doped, and Sr-doped Pr2CuO4 were synthesized on single crystal YSZ substrates using pulsed laser deposition to investigate their area-specific resistance (ASR) as cathodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The effects of T' and T* crystal structures, donor and acceptor doping, and a-axis and c-axis orientation on ASR were systematically studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on half cells. The addition of both Ce and Sr dopants resulted in improvements in ASR in c-axis oriented films, as did the T* crystal structure with the a-axis orientation. Pr1.6Sr0.4CuO4 is identified as a potential cathode material with nearly an order of magnitude faster oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at 600 °C compared to thin films of the commonly studied cathode material La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Orientation control of the cuprate films on YSZ was achieved using seed layers, and the anisotropy in the ASR was found to be less than an order of magnitude. The rare-earth doped cuprate was found to be a versatile system for study of relationships between bulk properties and the oxygen reduction reaction, critical for improving SOFC performance.

  12. Mechanism of Calcite Co-Orientation in the Sea Urchin Tooth

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, Christopher; Metzler, Rebecca; Gong, Y. U. T.; Olson, Ian; Aizenberg, Joanna; Politi, Yael; Wilt, Fred; Scholl, Andreas; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea urchin teeth are remarkable and complex calcite structures, continuously growing at the forming end and self-sharpening at the mature grinding tip. The calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) crystals of tooth components, plates, fibers, and a high-Mg polycrystalline matrix, have highly co-oriented crystallographic axes. This ability to co-orient calcite in a mineralized structure is shared by all echinoderms. However, the physico-chemical mechanism by which calcite crystals become co-oriented in echinoderms remains enigmatic. Here, we show differences in calcite c-axis orientations in the tooth of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and microbeam X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD). All plates share one crystal orientation, propagated through pillar bridges, while fibers and polycrystalline matrix share another orientation. Furthermore, in the forming end of the tooth, we observe that CaCO{sub 3} is present as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). We demonstrate that co-orientation of the nanoparticles in the polycrystalline matrix occurs via solid-state secondary nucleation, propagating out from the previously formed fibers and plates, into the amorphous precursor nanoparticles. Because amorphous precursors were observed in diverse biominerals, solid-state secondary nucleation is likely to be a general mechanism for the co-orientation of biomineral components in organisms from different phyla.

  13. On the annealing of fission tracks in randomly oriented grains of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Sandro; Curvo, Eduardo A. C.; Tello, Carlos A.; Hadler, Julio C.; Iunes, Pedro J.; Paulo, Sérgio R.; Palissari, Rosane

    2007-03-01

    Apatite fission-track thermochronology has been based upon measurements in prismatic sections. Until now, all annealing data sets referred to this kind of measurement. However, prismatic sections are not always available, e.g. for detrital apatite grains, making the work impossible. An alternative would be to use grains in any orientation. This requires that a suitable annealing model be employed, i.e. one obtained from measurements in grains without preferential orientation. In this work, the angular distribution of confined fission tracks parallel to the surfaces of grains randomly oriented relative to the crystallographic c-axis is obtained. This distribution shows that track at higher angles relative to c-axis, when compared with the prismatic section distribution, are found. The procedure measurements in randomly oriented sections is presented along with empirical model equations. Model parameters have been obtained for the most common empirical equations and the partial annealing zone has been calculated for these equations. Results are compared with geological benchmarks; the fanning linear Arrhenius model yields the best agreement. This empirical model and those most used in literature have been applied to samples from the São Francisco Craton, Brazil, to show an instance in which the effects of grain orientation is important. Thermal histories of geological samples have been obtained through these equations. The samples tested presented moderate annealing and experienced a relatively simple thermal history. Under these conditions, taking into account the uncertainties in the model equations and confined track measurements, and using compatible systems, the presented model equations and the most used prismatic face ones constrained the same thermal history feature.

  14. Uniaxial drawing of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]/cellulose acetate butyrate blends and their orientation behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Wuk; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Doi, Yoshiharu; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2005-09-16

    Miscible blends of PHB and CAB were prepared by the solvent-casting method with various blend compositions, and their orientation behavior was investigated during uniaxial drawing. X-ray analysis revealed that the orientation of the crystallizable PHB component in the drawn PHB/CAB blends was changed from c-axis-orientation to a-axis-orientation with increasing CAB content. The a-axis-orientation was a result from the a-axis-oriented crystal growth caused by the intramolecular nucleation and the confined crystal growth. For quantitative assessment of the chain orientation, the Hermans orientation functions of the two respective components were obtained from the polarized FT-IR measurements. The orientation function of pure PHB stretched to 5 times of its initial length was approximately 0.8. However the value decreased rapidly with increasing CAB content, and it turned to a negative value from 30 wt.-% CAB content. This indicates that the PHB chains were aligned perpendicular to the drawing direction. On the contrary, the value of the CAB component remained almost unchanged at about 0.1 regardless of the blend composition and the annealing time, indicating that the CAB chains were constantly oriented parallel to the drawing direction without any chain relaxation. In addition, SAXS analysis suggested that the lamellar stacking direction also changed from parallel to perpendicular in the stretching direction with increasing CAB content.

  15. Orientation of PVDF α and γ crystals in nanolayered films.

    PubMed

    Jurczuk, Kinga; Galeski, Andrzej; Mackey, Matthew; Hiltner, Anne; Baer, Eric

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering in conjunction with pole figure technique was used to study the texture of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) α and γ phase crystals in nanolayered polysulfone/poly(vinylidene fluoride) films (PSF/PVDF) produced by layer-multiplying coextrusion. In all as-extruded PSF/PVDF films, the PVDF nanolayers crystallized into the α phase crystals. A large fraction of those crystals was oriented with macromolecular chains perpendicular to the PSF/PVDF interface as evidenced from the (021) pole figures. Further refinement of the texture occurs during isothermal recrystallization at 170 °C in conjunction with transformation of α to γ crystals. The γ crystals orientation was probed with the (004) pole figures showing the c-axis of PVDF γ crystals perpendicular to the PSF/PVDF interface. The thinner the PVDF layers the stronger the orientation of γ crystals. It was proven that the X-ray reflections from the (021) planes of α crystals and from the (004) planes of γ crystals are not overlapped with other reflections and can be effectively used for the texture determination of PVDF nanolayers in multilayered PSF/PVDF films.

  16. Spin orientation, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Habib, A. H.; Gee, S. H.; Hong, Y. K.; McHenry, M. E.

    2015-05-01

    Monodisperse hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by forced hydrolysis of acidic Fe3+ solution. Rietveld analysis was applied to the X-ray powder diffraction data to refine the lattice constants and atomic positions. The lattice constants for a hexagonal unit cell were determined to be a ˜ 0.50327 and c ˜ 1.37521 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to study the morphology of the particles. Atomic scale micrographs and diffraction patterns from several zone axes were obtained. These reveal the high degree of crystallinity of the particles. A series of observations made on the particles by tilting them through a range of ±45° revealed the particles to be micaceous with stacking of platelets with well defined crystallographic orientations. The Morin transition in these nanoparticles was found to occur at 210 K, which is lower temperature than 263 K of bulk hematite. It was ascertained from the previous Mössbauer studies that the spin orientation for nano-sized hematite particle flips from 90° to 28° with respect to the c-axis of the hexagonal structure during the Morin transition, which is in contrast to that observed in bulk hematite where spin orientation flips from 90° to 0°.

  17. Spin orientation, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Habib, A. H.; Gee, S. H.; Hong, Y. K.; McHenry, M. E.

    2015-05-07

    Monodisperse hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by forced hydrolysis of acidic Fe{sup 3+} solution. Rietveld analysis was applied to the X-ray powder diffraction data to refine the lattice constants and atomic positions. The lattice constants for a hexagonal unit cell were determined to be a ∼ 0.50327 and c ∼ 1.37521 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to study the morphology of the particles. Atomic scale micrographs and diffraction patterns from several zone axes were obtained. These reveal the high degree of crystallinity of the particles. A series of observations made on the particles by tilting them through a range of ±45° revealed the particles to be micaceous with stacking of platelets with well defined crystallographic orientations. The Morin transition in these nanoparticles was found to occur at 210 K, which is lower temperature than 263 K of bulk hematite. It was ascertained from the previous Mössbauer studies that the spin orientation for nano-sized hematite particle flips from 90° to 28° with respect to the c-axis of the hexagonal structure during the Morin transition, which is in contrast to that observed in bulk hematite where spin orientation flips from 90° to 0°.

  18. Crystallographic orientation inhomogeneity and crystal splitting in biogenic calcite

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Bonarski, Jan T.; Willinger, Marc G.; Faryna, Marek; Berent, Katarzyna; Kania, Bogusz; González-Segura, Alicia; Pina, Carlos M.; Pospiech, Jan; Morawiec, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The calcitic prismatic units forming the outer shell of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera have been analysed using scanning electron microscopy–electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the initial stages of growth, the individual prismatic units are single crystals. Their crystalline orientation is not consistent but rather changes gradually during growth. The gradients in crystallographic orientation occur mainly in a direction parallel to the long axis of the prism, i.e. perpendicular to the shell surface and do not show preferential tilting along any of the calcite lattice axes. At a certain growth stage, gradients begin to spread and diverge, implying that the prismatic units split into several crystalline domains. In this way, a branched crystal, in which the ends of the branches are independent crystalline domains, is formed. At the nanometre scale, the material is composed of slightly misoriented domains, which are separated by planes approximately perpendicular to the c-axis. Orientational gradients and splitting processes are described in biocrystals for the first time and are undoubtedly related to the high content of intracrystalline organic molecules, although the way in which these act to induce the observed crystalline patterns is a matter of future research. PMID:23804442

  19. Orientation alignment of epitaxial LiCoO2 thin films on vicinal SrTiO3 (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Ohta, Narumi; Watanabe, Ken; Takada, Kazunori

    2016-09-01

    LiCoO2 is epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (100) substrates with (104) orientation. Because the LiCoO2 film is grown with its c-axis parallel to four equivalent <111> axes of the SrTiO3, the (104)-oriented film exhibits four-domain structure on the SrTiO3 (100) substrate. Introducing off-cut angle to the substrate surface breaks the equivalency between the four <111> axes of the SrTiO3 substrate to induce preferential growth of specific orientation with the c-axis in a descending direction of off-cut surface. Increasing off-cut angle and lowering deposition rate promote the preferential growth, because they facilitate step-flow growth mode, and finally align the c-axes in the domains completely into one <111> direction of the SrTiO3 substrate. The LiCoO2 film delivers a discharge capacity of 90 mAh g-1 at a low discharge rate of 0.01 C, and 25% of capacity is kept even at a high rate of discharge with 100 C.

  20. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  1. Ferroelectric properties of highly c-oriented epitaxial Bi2WO6 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yoonho; Son, Jong Yeog

    2017-03-01

    Bi2WO6 (BWO) thin films were epitaxially deposited onto single crystal Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates via pulsed laser deposition (PLD). To control the growth mode of the BWO thin films, the deposition rate was varied from 0.01 to 0.4 nm/pulse. The BWO thin films yielded an island growth mode during a rapid deposition rate of 0.4 nm/pulse. On the other hand, a layer-by-layer growth mode was achieved with a low deposition rate of 0.01 nm/pulse. We could obtain highly c-oriented epitaxial BWO thin films by means of the layer-by-layer mode. Piezoresponse force microscopy revealed that the highly c-oriented epitaxial BWO thin films possessed spontaneous polarizations that were perpendicular to the c-axis.

  2. Thinking in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  3. Biomimetic apatite coatings--carbonate substitution and preferred growth orientation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lenka; Conforto, Egle; Caillard, Daniel; Müller, Frank A

    2007-11-01

    Biomimetic apatite coatings were obtained by soaking chemically treated titanium in SBF with different HCO(3)(-) concentration. XRD, FTIR and Raman analyses were used to characterize phase composition and degree of carbonate substitution. The microstructure, elemental composition and preferred alignment of biomimetically precipitated crystallites were characterized by cross-sectional TEM analyses. According to XRD, the phase composition of precipitated coatings on chemically pre-treated titanium after exposure to SBF was identified as hydroxy carbonated apatite (HCA). A preferred c-axis orientation of the deposited crystals can be supposed due to the high relative peak intensities of the (002) diffraction line at 2theta=26 degrees compared to the 100% intensity peak of the (211) plane at 2theta=32 degrees . The crystallite size in direction of the c-axis of HCA decreased from 26 nm in SBF5 with a HCO(3)(-) concentration of 5 mmol/l to 19 nm in SBF27 with a HCO(3)(-) concentration of 27 mmol/l. Cross-sectional TEM analyses revealed that all distances correspond exactly to the hexagonal structure of hydroxyapatite. The HCO(3)(-) content in SBF also influences the composition of precipitated calcium phosphates. Biomimetic apatites were shown to have a general formula of Ca(10-x-y)Mg(y)(HPO(4))(x-z)(CO(3))(z)(PO(4))(6-x)(OH)(2-x-w)(CO(3))(w/2). According to FTIR and Raman analyses, it can be supposed that as long as the HCO(3)(-) concentration in the testing solutions is below 20 mmol/l, only B-type HCA (0

  4. Growth of highly oriented LiNbO 3 thin films through structure controlled metal alkoxide precursor solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shin-ichi; Takeichi, Yoshikuni; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2002-04-01

    Highly oriented LiNbO 3 thin films have been successfully synthesized by chemical solution deposition through a structure controlled metal-organic precursor. The homogeneous LiNbO 3 precursor solution was prepared by controlling the reaction of metal alkoxides and selecting the ligand for modification. LiNbO 3 thin films with c-axis preferred orientation were directly crystallized on sapphire C substrates from chemical solutions synthesized in this study. The epitaxial relation of LiNbO 3 film to sapphire substrate was found to depend strongly upon the precursor structure modified with β-diketone. 1-Phenyl-1,3-butanedione (PBD) was found to be superior to acetylacetone (acacH) and dibenzoylmethane (DBM) for the crystallization of epitaxial LiNbO 3 films. The results suggested that the existence of a benzene ring in the ligand strongly influenced the degree of orientation of synthesized films.

  5. They Call it Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Mark

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of personal anecdotes, the author details his initial experience with orienteering, a sport rapidly increasing in popularity that teaches people not to get lost in the woods. Sources of information about orienteering are provided. (BT)

  6. Effect of Sn Grain Orientation on Formation of Cu6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound Under Current Stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Yao; Lin, Han-wen; Chen, Chih

    2016-12-01

    Solder joints with Cu/Sn-Ag/Cu structure and bump height of 15 μm have been used to investigate the electromigration phenomenon at different temperatures and current densities. Moreover, the grain orientation was analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the anisotropic properties of tin affected the formation rate of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs), and that the angle between the electron flow direction and tin grain orientation played an important role in the formation of Cu6Sn5 IMC. With changes in angle, the diffusion rate of copper atoms in tin also varied. When the c-axis of tin was parallel to the electron flux, copper atoms diffused rapidly, resulting in fast formation of Cu-Sn IMCs. On the other hand, if the angle between the c-axis of the grain and the electron flow direction was large, the tin grains were more resistant to Cu diffusion during current stressing, leading to a very slow IMC formation rate.

  7. Effect of Sn Grain Orientation on Formation of Cu6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound Under Current Stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Yao; Lin, Han-wen; Chen, Chih

    2017-04-01

    Solder joints with Cu/Sn-Ag/Cu structure and bump height of 15 μm have been used to investigate the electromigration phenomenon at different temperatures and current densities. Moreover, the grain orientation was analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the anisotropic properties of tin affected the formation rate of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs), and that the angle between the electron flow direction and tin grain orientation played an important role in the formation of Cu6Sn5 IMC. With changes in angle, the diffusion rate of copper atoms in tin also varied. When the c-axis of tin was parallel to the electron flux, copper atoms diffused rapidly, resulting in fast formation of Cu-Sn IMCs. On the other hand, if the angle between the c-axis of the grain and the electron flow direction was large, the tin grains were more resistant to Cu diffusion during current stressing, leading to a very slow IMC formation rate.

  8. Determination of crystallographic orientation of lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Qi; Zhu, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Qian; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-03-10

    Crystallographic structure of sol-gel-processed lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) epitaxial films on [100]-cut SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline substrates was investigated for a deeper understanding of its piezoelectric response. Lattice parameter measurement by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the orthorhombic KNN films on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces are [010] oriented (b-axis-oriented) rather than commonly identified c-axis orientation. Based on the crystallographic orientation and corresponding ferroelectric domain structure investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy, the superior piezoelectric property along b-axis of epitaxial KNN films than other orientations can be explained.

  9. Influences of Crystalline Anisotropy, Doping, Porosity, and Connectivity on the Critical Current Densities of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Bulks, Wires, and Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susner, Michael Adam

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a material with a superconducting transition temperature of 39 K. Discovered in 2001, the relatively large coherence length (and associated lack of weak links) together with its simple binary composition (making phase pure formation relatively easy) have made it a material of substantial interest. However, it has been difficult to assess in detail the relative importance of the roles of flux pinning, crystalline anisotropy, porosity, connectivity, doping, and doping homogeneity on the observed transport limitations of this conductor. This work focused on deconvoluting the most dominant of these effects. First, the overall effects of electrical connectivity and crystalline anisotropy of critical current density (Jc) were investigated. In doing so the Jcs of dense, well-connected c-axis oriented films were compared with the relatively degraded Jcs of standard powder-in-tube MgB2 wires. With the aid of a percolation model it was deduced that at 4.2 K, 10 T. about 60% of the degradation was due to MgB2’s crystalline anisotropy and the remaining 40% to porosity. Second, chemical substitutions onto both the Mg and B sites were investigated in terms of effects on structure and superconducting properties. The homogeneity of C-substitution onto the B site was quantified in terms of the width of the superconducting specific heat transition. Analysis of the results led to optimization of methods for homogeneous doping of C into the B sublattice. Zr substituted onto the Mg sublattice was investigated using samples prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Changes in magnetic, resistive, superconductive, chemical, and structural properties were studied over a wide range of Zr composition.

  10. Preferential growth orientation of laser-patterned LiNbO{sub 3} crystals in lithium niobium silicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, T.; Koshiba, K.; Honma, T.

    2011-02-15

    Dots and lines consisting of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals are patterned on the surface of 1CuO-40Li{sub 2}O-32Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-28SiO{sub 2} (mole ratio) glass by irradiations of continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser (wavelength: {lambda}=1064 nm), diode laser ({lambda}=795 nm), and Yb:YVO{sub 4} fiber laser ({lambda}=1080 nm), and the feature of laser-patterned LiNbO{sub 3} crystal growth is examined from linearly polarized micro-Raman scattering spectrum measurements. LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with the c-axis orientation are formed at the edge parts of the surface and cross-section of dots. The growth direction of an LiNbO{sub 3} along the laser scanning direction is the c-axis. It is proposed that the profile of the temperature distribution in the laser-irradiated region and its change along laser scanning would be one of the most important conditions for the patterning of crystals with a preferential growth orientation. Laser irradiation giving a narrow width is also proposed to be one of the important factors for the patterning of LiNbO{sub 3} crystal lines with homogeneous surface morphologies. -- Graphical abstract: Polarized optical microscope observations for the surface and cross-section of the dot obtained by LD laser ({lambda}=795 nm) irradiations of P=1.4 W and t=20 s in Cu-LNS glass. Schematic model for the orientation of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals at the edge parts of the surface and cross-section of the dot is also shown. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Dots and lines with LiNbO{sub 3} crystals are patterned on the glass surface by laser irradiations. > LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with the c-axis orientation are formed at the edge parts of the surface and cross-section of dots. > The profile of the temperature distribution in the laser-irradiated region is one of the most important conditions for the patterning of highly oriented crystals.

  11. Collinear ferromagnetism and spin orientation in the molecule-based magnets M[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} (M=Co,Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Kmety, C.R.; Manson, J.L.; Huang, Q. |; Lynn, J.W.; Erwin, R.W.; Miller, J.S.; Epstein, A.J. |

    1999-07-01

    Zero-field unpolarized neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the low-T magnetic structure and {ital T}-dependent crystal structure of M[N(CN){sub 2}]{sub 2} (M=Co,Ni). Both compounds show collinear ferromagnetism with spin orientation along the {ital c} axis. The results provide the determination of a complete magnetic structure in the ordered state for a molecule-based magnet. The {ital c} lattice parameter exhibits negative thermal expansion, explained by a wine-rack-like deformation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Cooling achieved by rotating an anisotropic superconductor in a constant magnetic field: A new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Mandrus, David

    2016-12-01

    A new type of rotary coolers based on the temperature change (Δ Trot ) of an anisotropic superconductor when rotated in a constant magnetic field is proposed. We show that at low temperature the Sommerfeld coefficient γ (B ,Θ ) of a single crystalline superconductor, such as MgB2 and NbS2, sensitively depends on the applied magnetic field (B) and the orientation of the crystal axis (Θ ) , which is related to the electronic entropy (SE) and temperature (T) via the expression: SE=γ T . A simple rotation of the crystal from one axis to one another in a constant magnetic field results in a change in γ and hence SE: Δ SE =Δ γ T . A temperature change -Δ Trot ˜ 0.94 K from a bath temperature of 2.5 K is achieved by simply rotating the single crystal MgB2 by 90° with respect to the c-axis direction in a fixed field of 2 T. Δ Trot can be tuned by adjusting the strength of B within a wide magnetic field range. Our study paves the way for development of new materials and cryogenic refrigerators that are potentially more energy-efficient, simplified, and compact.

  13. Terahertz Imaging of the Distribution of Crystallinity and Crystalline Orientation in a Poly(ɛ-caprolactone) Film.

    PubMed

    Funaki, Chihiro; Toyouchi, Takuya; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Sato, Harumi

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of crystallinity and the crystalline orientation of a poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) film have been studied using terahertz (THz) imaging. Terahertz images were developed by using the intensity ratio of the two spectral peaks at 1.42 and 2.03 THz that are assigned to the crystalline modes parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis (I⊥/I ||) of the PCL film. The obtained THz images show that the distribution of crystallinity and crystalline orientation vary considerably between the different regions in the PCL film, even though this inhomogeneity is not visible in the corresponding optical image. Our results clearly illustrate that THz imaging is a promising technique to characterize the physical properties of semi-crystalline polymers.

  14. Adolescent sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Spigarelli, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    Sexual orientation has been defined as the patterns of sexual thoughts, fantasies, and attractions that an individual has toward other persons of the same or opposite gender. Throughout childhood and approaching adolescence, children try to understand their own sexuality and sexual orientation in the context of the society in which they live. Typically, this attempt to understand first occurs in thoughts of a sexual nature and later through actions, usually before sexual orientation is clearly defined. How these experiences are handled, by the individual and close friends and relatives, helps to define how an individual views and accepts their sexual orientation ultimately as an adult.

  15. Nanoindentation measurements of a highly oriented wurtzite-type boron nitride bulk crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deura, Momoko; Kutsukake, Kentaro; Ohno, Yutaka; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We succeeded in synthesizing a bulk crystal of wurtzite-type boron nitride (w-BN) by the direct conversion method. The synthesized crystal was approximately 2 mm wide and 350 µm thick, and highly oriented to the c-axis. We performed nanoindentation measurements on the c-plane of the w-BN crystal at room temperature to evaluate the mechanical properties of w-BN. The hardness and Young’s modulus of w-BN from the obtained curves were simultaneously determined to be 54 ± 2 and 860 ± 40 GPa, respectively. The underlying physical mechanism that dominates the mechanical properties of group-III nitride semiconductors is also examined.

  16. Low-temperature oriented growth of vanadium dioxide films on CoCrTa metal template on Si and vertical metal-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Okimura, Kunio; Mian, Md.Suruz

    2012-09-15

    The authors achieved oriented growth of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films on CoCrTa metal template grown on an Si substrate. Low-temperature ({approx}250 Degree-Sign C) deposition of VO{sub 2} films using inductively coupled-plasma-assisted sputtering technique realized an abrupt interface between VO{sub 2} and CoCrTa layers, suppressing the oxidation and diffusion of metal components. The films revealed a metal-insulator transition with resistance change of over 2 orders of magnitude. The CoCrTa film, in which Co hexagonal crystalline grains with c-axis orientation were surrounded by segregated Cr and Ta, serves for the oriented growth of VO{sub 2} crystalline film, enabling higher orders of transition in resistance and low voltage switching, even for the vertical (out-of-plane) direction.

  17. Inducing uniform single-crystal like orientation in natural rubber with constrained uniaxial stretch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiming; Meng, Lingpu; Lu, Jie; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Li, Liangbin

    2015-07-07

    The effect of flow on crystallization is commonly attributed to entropic reduction, which is caused by stretch and orientation of polymer chains but overlooks the role of flow on final-state free energy. With the aid of in situ synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and a homemade constrained uniaxial tensile testing machine, polycrystals possessing single-crystal-like orientation rather than uniaxial orientation are found during the constrained stretch of natural rubber, whereas the c-axis and a-axis align in the stretch direction (SD) and constrained direction (CD), respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that aligning the a-axis of crystal nuclei in CD leads to the lowest free energy increase and favors crystal nucleation. This indicates that the nomenclature of strain-induced crystallization may not fully account for the nature of flow-induced crystallization (FIC) as strain mainly emphasizes the entropic reduction of initial melt, whereas stress rather than strain plays the dominant role in crystal deformation. The current work not only contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of flow-induced crystallization but also demonstrates the potential application of constrained uniaxial tensile stretch for the creation of functional materials containing polycrystals that possess single-crystal-like orientation.

  18. Decision Making In Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Katia

    1997-01-01

    Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

  19. Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom

    The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the…

  20. Orienteering in Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Elston F.

    One of the recent developments in camping is "orienteering", a program using a map and compass. Orienteering can be dovetailed into an overall camping program and used to "point up" the entire program, or it can be confined to a single simple game. The arrangement depends on the situation. The minimum age of the participants should be about 9 or…

  1. Are quartz LPOs predictably oriented with respect to the shear zone boundary?: A test from the Alpine Fault mylonites, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.

    2016-03-01

    The Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has a known slip kinematics. Within ˜1 km of the fault, the mylonitic foliation is subparallel to the boundary of the amphibolite-facies ductile shear zone in which it formed. Using EBSD, we analyzed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations [LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the Alpine Fault. All LPOs feature a strongest girdle of [c]-axes that is forward-inclined ˜28 ± 4° away from the pole to the fault. A maximum of axes is inclined at the same angle relative the fault. The [c]-axis girdle is perpendicular to extensional (C') shear bands and the maximum is parallel to their slip direction. [c]-axis girdles do not form perpendicular to the SZB. Schmid factor analysis suggests that σ1 was arranged at 60-80° to the Alpine Fault. These observations indicate ductile transpression in the shear zone. The inclined arrangement of [c]-axis girdles, axes, and C' planes relative to the fault can be explained by their alignment relative to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate in a general shear zone, a significant new insight regarding shear zones and how LPO fabrics may generally develop within them. For the Alpine mylonite zone, our data imply a kinematic vorticity number (Wk) of ˜0.7 to ˜0.85. Inversions of seismic focal mechanisms in the brittle crust of the Southern Alps indicate that σ1 is oriented ˜60° to the Alpine Fault; that shear bands form at ˜30° to this direction, and that σ2 and σ3 flip positions between the brittle and ductile parts of the crust.

  2. Analysis of dynamic recrystallization of ice from EBSD orientation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnat, Maurine; Chauve, Thomas; Barou, Fabrice; Tommasi, Andrea; Beausir, Benoît; Fressengeas, Claude

    2015-12-01

    We present high resolution observations of microstructure and texture evolution during dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of ice polycrystals deformed in the laboratory at high temperature (≈0.98Tm). Ice possesses a significant viscoplastic anisotropy that induces strong strain heterogeneities, which result in an early occurrence of DRX mechanisms. It is therefore a model material to explore these mechanisms. High resolution c-axis measurements at sample scale by optical techniques and full crystallographic orientation measurements by cryo- Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) provide a solid database for analyzing the relative impact of the macroscopic imposed stress versus the local and internal stress field on DRX mechanisms. Analysis of misorientation gradients in the EBSD data highlights a heterogeneous dislocation distribution, which is quantified by the Nye tensor estimation. Joint analyses of the dislocation density maps and microstructural observations highlight spatial correlation between high dislocation density sites and the onset of nucleation taking place by grain-boundary bulging, subgrain rotation or by the formation of kink-bands.

  3. Developing a market orientation.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-03-01

    Developing a market-orientated organization is a complex task. An organization's market orientation is reflected in its ability to fulfil its customer's needs. The organization must look outside itself and adopt a flexible response to changing needs. This paper will examine what is meant by the term marketing and why it is necessary for an organization to incorporate the marketing concept. Analysis of the organization's culture and its relevance to the development of market orientation will also be considered. Reference will be made to health care where appropriate.

  4. A technique for recording polycrystalline structure and orientation during in situ deformation cycles of rock analogues using an automated fabric analyser.

    PubMed

    Peternell, M; Russell-Head, D S; Wilson, C J L

    2011-05-01

    Two in situ plane-strain deformation experiments on norcamphor and natural ice using synchronous recording of crystal c-axis orientations have been performed with an automated fabric analyser and a newly developed sample press and deformation stage. Without interrupting the deformation experiment, c-axis orientations are determined for each pixel in a 5 × 5 mm sample area at a spatial resolution of 5 μm/pixel. In the case of norcamphor, changes in microstructures and associated crystallographic information, at a strain rate of ∼2 × 10(-5) s(-1), were recorded for the first time during a complete in situ deformation-cycle experiment that consisted of an annealing, deformation and post-deformation annealing path. In the case of natural ice, slower external strain rates (∼1 × 10(-6) s(-1)) enabled the investigation of small changes in the polycrystal aggregate's crystallography and microstructure for small amounts of strain. The technical setup and first results from the experiments are presented.

  5. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  6. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  7. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  8. UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Girit, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of an on-line isotope separator and a dilution refrigerator has increased the applicability of the nuclear orientation technique to a wide range of nuclei, especially those very far from stability. The UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility (UNISOR/NOF) is among the two (the other being NICOLE at CERN) that have recently become operational. The following is an overall view of the UNISOR system and recent results. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T(sub co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 105 A/sq cm, respectively.

  10. Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

  11. Continuous change of supersaturation and evolution of oriented structure in dipping LPE process of YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L. S.; Chen, Y. Y.; Yao, X.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films was performed by vertical dipping along both the [0 0 1] and the [1 1 0] directions of (1 1 0) NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates. Remarkably, an evolution of oriented structure from c-axis to a-axis, corresponding to the supersaturation (σ) change from high to low level, was explicitly observed on a single NGO substrate. Distinctively, creeping along the [0 0 1] direction and forming a low-σ-related a-oriented film with a crack-free macrostructure, the liquid presented a strong anisotropic wettability with the NGO substrate. Most importantly, this work provides a unique method to achieve high-quality a-axis YBCO LPE films, which are potentially appropriate for Josephson junction devices.

  12. Effects of vortex line shape on critical current density in high Tc superconducting film with nano-rod pinning centers under applied magnetic field of various orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, K.; Rhee, J.; Lee, W.; Lee, H.; Youm, D.; Yoo, J.

    2013-03-01

    We measured magneto-optical images (MOIs) on a coated conductor comprised of (Gd,Y)1Ba2Cu3O7-δ-BaZrO3 film under applied magnetic field of various orientations. MOIs showed systematic changes of asymmetric distribution of magnetic flux density and critical current density. TEM measurements showed that nano-rod pinning centers (RPCs) tilt by ∼13° from the c-axis. We were able to explain the results of MOI measurements using a simple model calculation about vortex line shapes, which change according to the magnitude and the orientation of applied magnetic field. In this model the critical current density, which is due to the vortex pinning, is determined by the geometrical relationship of the curved vortex lines and the tilted RPCs.

  13. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  14. Molecular Orientation in Quantasomes

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Kenneth

    1965-01-01

    A new apparatus is described for measuring dichroism spectra with very high sensitivity for macromolecular structures oriented in a hydrodynamic gradient. The method has been used to explore the dichroism spectrum of quantasome aggregates isolated from spinach chloroplasts. The quantasome flow dichroism resembles qualitatively that observed previously using electric field orientation, in that a pigment absorbing at wavelengths longer than 680 mμ exhibits appreciably greater dichroism than those absorbing at shorter wavelengths. It is shown that the absorption oscillator for this long wavelength absorption lies parallel to the streamlines of the sheer gradient, which is assumed to be the direction in which the planes of the chloroplast lamellae are oriented. PMID:19431337

  15. Optimally oriented grooves on dental implants improve bone quality around implants under repetitive mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Nakano, Takayoshi; Ishimoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Muneteru; Inoue, Maaya; Yasutake, Munenori; Sawase, Takashi

    2017-01-15

    The aim was to investigate the effect of groove designs on bone quality under controlled-repetitive load conditions for optimizing dental implant design. Anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy implants with -60° and +60° grooves around the neck were placed in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits. The application of a repetitive mechanical load was initiated via the implants (50N, 3Hz, 1800 cycles, 2days/week) at 12weeks after surgery for 8weeks. Bone quality, defined as osteocyte density and degree of biological apatite (BAp) c-axis/collagen fibers, was then evaluated. Groove designs did not affect bone quality without mechanical loading; however, repetitive mechanical loading significantly increased bone-to-implant contact, bone mass, and bone mineral density (BMD). In +60° grooves, the BAp c-axis/collagen fibers preferentially aligned along the groove direction with mechanical loading. Moreover, osteocyte density was significantly higher both inside and in the adjacent region of the +60° grooves, but not -60° grooves. These results suggest that the +60° grooves successfully transmitted the load to the bone tissues surrounding implants through the grooves. An optimally oriented groove structure on the implant surface was shown to be a promising way for achieving bone tissue with appropriate bone quality. This is the first report to propose the optimal design of grooves on the necks of dental implants for improving bone quality parameters as well as BMD. The findings suggest that not only BMD, but also bone quality, could be a useful clinical parameter in implant dentistry.

  16. Orientational order in disordered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, J. )

    1991-05-13

    Orientational order in weakly pinned Abrikosov flux lattices is studied, taking into account two heretofore neglected effects: dislocations and orientational couplings to the underlying lattice. Without orientational couplings, arbitrarily weak pinning destroys long-ranged orientational order for all spatial dimensions {ital d}{lt}4. Orientational couplings stabilize long-ranged orientational order. For fields along an axis of {ital fourfold} symmetry, {ital sixfold} (hexatic) orientational order is described by a random-field Ising model, and so does not occur in {ital d}=2 (thin films) but does in {ital d}=3 (bulk).

  17. Topography and pigeon orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G.

    1972-01-01

    Two types of homing experiments with pigeons to determine the influence of topographical features on the orientation behavior of the birds are discussed. The releases and following were conducted by ground experiments in which the birds are tracked by visual observation at points of topographical interest and the helicopter method by which the birds are tracked throughout the entire flight. The ground experiments showed a strong influence of topographical features on initial orientation. The helicopter experiments showed that the ground experiments do not provide adequate information on the manner in which homing occurs.

  18. New Faculty Orientation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    This report provides an overview of Triton College's (Illinois) New Faculty Orientation Plan, which was developed in light of the large number of retirements and new hires expected by the year 2000. The purpose of the plan is to assist newly hired instructors to move productively into their professional roles and to become actively involved in the…

  19. Geography and Orienteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    Orienteering is a rapidly growing sport, developed in Sweden, which has great possibilities for education in geography. It can be conceived as an organizing device for outdoor work and as a basis for developing map skills and for map construction. (Author)

  20. Control Oriented System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  1. A cast orientation index.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  2. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  3. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  4. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  5. An orientable search coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, P. J.; Poblocki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a design for a low cost orientable search coil that can be used to investigate the variation of magnetic flux with angle. This experiment is one of the required practical activities in the current A level physics specification for the AQA examination board in the UK. We demonstrate its performance and suggest other suitable investigations that can be undertaken.

  6. Oriented divisions, fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott E.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    During development, the establishment of proper tissue architecture depends upon the coordinated control of cell divisions not only in space and time, but also direction. Execution of an oriented cell division requires establishment of an axis of polarity and alignment of the mitotic spindle along this axis. Frequently, the cleavage plane also segregates fate determinants, either unequally or equally between daughter cells, the outcome of which is either an asymmetric or symmetric division, respectively. The last few years have witnessed tremendous growth in understanding both the extrinsic and intrinsic cues that position the mitotic spindle, the varied mechanisms in which the spindle orientation machinery is controlled in diverse organisms and organ systems, and the manner in which the division axis influences the signaling pathways that direct cell fate choices. PMID:24021274

  7. Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eanes, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Since the beginning of regular space geodetic measurements, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has routinely provided polar motion and length of day solutions. At the present time, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) regularly produces daily polar motion solutions with 0.4 mas accuracy, equivalent to the routine 1-day VLBI experiments and SLR solutions using 3 days of Lageos-1 data. This rapid progress of the GPS technique forces a review of any resource allocations for VLBI and SLR measurements of Earth orientation.

  8. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  9. Highly oriented Bi-based thin films with zero resistance at 106 K

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R.; Gorecka, J.; Lewardowski, S.L. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on fabrication and characterization of nearly single-phase superconducting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} thin films. The films were dc magnetron sputtered from heavily Pb-doped (Pb/Bi molar ratios up to 1.25), sintered targets on unheated MgO, SrTiO{sub 3}, CaNdAlO{sub 4}, and SrLaAlO{sub 4} single crystals. For the films grown on the (100) oriented MgO substrate, less than 1 hour of annealing in air at 870{degrees} C was sufficient to obtain more than 90% of the 110-K-phase material, with highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure and zero resistivity at 106 K. The films fabricated on the other substrates also exhibited a narrow superconducting transition and were fully superconducting above 100 K, but they consisted of a mixed-phase material with a large percentage of the 80 K phase.

  10. Strain-induced step bunching in orientation-controlled GaN on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tetsuo; Iguchi, Hiroko; Horibuchi, Kayo; Otake, Nobuyuki; Hoshi, Shinichi; Tomita, Kazuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    We report a technique for the fabrication of high-quality GaN-on-silicon (Si) substrates for use in various power applications. GaN epitaxial layers were generated on Si(111) vicinal faces that had been previously covered with a thin coating of Al2O3 to control the orientation of the AlN seed layers. We obtained orientation-controlled GaN layers and found a linear relationship between the GaN c-axis and Si[111] tilt angles. As a result, the threading dislocation density in the AlN seed layer was reduced and high-quality GaN layers were generated. The X-ray rocking curves for these layers exhibited full width at half maximum values of 390‧‧ and 550‧‧ for the (004) and (114) reflections, respectively. Significant step bunching was observed on a GaN(0001) vicinal face produced using this technique, attributed to strain-induced attractive interactions between steps. Thus, by controlling the strain near the surface layer, we achieved the step flow growth of GaN on Si.

  11. Orienting and circulating sub

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, W.A.; McDonald, W.J.; Maurer, W.C.; Leitko, C.E. Jr.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an apparatus for angular drilling in the earth comprising a drill string extending into a substantially vertical well bore in the earth, a fluid operated motor and drill bit operated thereby secured on the bottom end of the drill string, means supporting at least a part of the motor and drill bit at a substantial angle to the substantially vertical well bore for continuing the drilling of the well bore at an angle to the substantially vertical portion thereof, a surveying tool connected in the drill string above the motor for determining and controlling the direction of drilling, a mule shoe keying sub connected to the surveying tool for orienting the position of the motor in relation to the surveying tool, and an orienting sub connected to the mule shoe keying sub at one end and connected at the other end to the means supporting the motor at an angle, and including means to orient angularly the point of connection to the mule shoe keying sub in relation to the means supporting the motor at an angle.

  12. Multilayer pinning in a-axis-oriented EuBa2Cu3O7/PrBa2Cu3O7 superconducting superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. I.; Velez, M.; Vicent, J. L.

    1995-08-01

    a-axis EuBa2Cu3O7/PrBa2Cu3O7 superlattices and a-axis films have been grown by dc sputtering to study the interplay between the natural material anisotropy (Cu-O planes) and the artificial layered structure (PrBa2Cu3O7 layers). These a-axis-oriented superlattices are unique because, in comparison with c-axis superlattices, they allow one to separate both effects: in c-axis multilayers Cu-O planes and the artificial layers are parallel whereas in a-axis multilayers the intrinsic and the artificial layers are perpendicular to each other. When B is parallel to the substrate plane, the superlattices show an enhancement of the pinning force in comparison with the behavior of the films that is controlled by the EuBa2Cu3O7 layer thickness. If B is perpendicular to the substrate plane, the flux motion presents a log B dependence of the activation energy up to at least, 40-unit-cell-thick layers.

  13. Incorporating Orienteering in School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Douglas

    Orienteering has been described as being "either a serious sport, or a relaxing recreation". Orienteering can be a family affair or an individual fight against the clock. In its simplest form, orienteering can be described as a cross-country run, jog, or walk on a predetermined course, using a map and a compass to find several control points on…

  14. Swedish Orienteers: A Survey Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosson, Torgny

    1995-01-01

    A survey questionnaire was sent to 1,200 members of Swedish orienteering clubs. Some common beliefs about orienteers were verified. Respondents identifying themselves as active orienteers were often well educated and in the upper middle class, had a healthy lifestyle, and tended to participate as families. (Author/TD)

  15. Community Orientation and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Kurt; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship among media use, participation in local shopping and leisure activities, and orientation toward the local community. Reexamines Robert Merton's Cosmopolitan scale, finding it to have both localite (exclusively local orientation) and cosmopolite (orientation to events outside the local community) dimensions. (MM)

  16. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  17. Curriculum Orientations of Virtual Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Nicole Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the curriculum orientation preferences of K-12 public school teachers who provided instruction in virtual settings (n = 47) in a midwestern state. Curriculum orientations were explored using a mixed-methods design. Quantitative assessments data revealed a pattern of curriculum orientations similar to teachers working in…

  18. Training for DD Council Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James, Ed.; And Others

    Provided for Developmental Disabilities Councils is a resource handbook on planning orientation training for council members. The material, including three major presentations on orientation planning, advocacy, and orientation principles, is explained to be drawn from three 1975 regional conferences. Among training techniques analyzed are use of a…

  19. Orienteering for Sport and Pleasure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Hans; Atkinson, George

    This text presents the principles of the sport of orienteering (navigating through an unknown area using a map and compass as guide) and is useful to beginners, experienced orienteers, and "armchair" orienteers. Included in the text are: (1) a glossary of key words; (2) a basic introduction to, and history of, the sport; (3) description of the…

  20. Sex Role and Dating Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Collins, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female subjects from three age groups completed questionnaires on sex roles and dating orientations. Males approached dating from both a psychoaffectional and psychobiological orientation, while females approached it from a psychoaffectional orientation. Significant differences were found in dating attitudes between male and female…

  1. Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince-Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Sen; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jun; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    A tilted, linearly polarized laser diode end-pumped Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched a-cut Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for generating numerous Ince-Gaussian (IG) laser modes with controllable orientations has been demonstrated by selecting the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal. The same IG laser mode with different orientations has been achieved with the same absorbed pump power in a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser under linearly polarized pumping when the incident pump power and the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal are both properly selected. The significant improvement of pulsed laser performance of controllable IG modes has been achieved by selecting the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal. The maximum pulse energy is obtained along the a-axis of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal and the highest peak power is achieved along the c-axis of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal, respectively, which has potential applications on quantum computation and optical manipulation. The generation of controllable IG laser modes in microchip lasers under linearly polarized pumping provides a convenient and universal way to control IG laser mode numbers with anisotropic crystal as a gain medium.

  2. Injuries in orienteering.

    PubMed

    Linde, F

    1986-09-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lower extremity while 18% of acute injuries was located elsewhere. Acute injuries were most frequent in the competitive season while overuse injuries occurred most often during the continuous training period.

  3. Representation of orientation distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wenk, H.R.; Kocks, U.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper illustrates the principles presented with a particular experimental texture: from the surface layer of a copper polycrystal cold-rolled to 60% reduction in thickness. Four incomplete pole figures (200, 220, 222, and 113) were determined by x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry. The measured pole figures nearly exhibited orthorhombic symmetry (as expected), which was then strictly enforced by averaging the four quadrants of the pole figure. The orientation distribution function was obtained using the expansion in spherical harmonics (with only even-order coefficients up to l = 18).

  4. High resolution 11B NMR of MgB2 using cryogenic magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Beckett, Peter; Denning, Mark S.; Heinmaa, Ivo; Dimri, Mukesh C.; Young, Edward A.; Carravetta, Marina

    2013-03-01

    Static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) 11B NMR data at 4.7 T and 8.5 T have been obtained under cryogenic conditions on a diluted sample of magnesium diboride powder in the normal and superconducting state. We demonstrate that MAS NMR is possible on type-II superconductors despite the sample rotation. The data provide accurate information on the magnetic shift variation and longitudinal relaxation data down to a temperature of 8 K, with a resolution improvement over the entire temperature range. The onset of superconductivity is unaffected by the sample rotation, as revealed by a steep variation of the magnetic shift just below the critical temperature. Appeared in JCP 137, 114201, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4751476

  5. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Marzik

    2012-03-26

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl{sub 3} in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB{sub 2} wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J{sub c}, in excess of 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2} at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H{sub c2}(0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T{sub c} in carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant chemistry and concentration, wire processing technology, and collection technology will lead to the commercialization of boron nanopowder as a precursor for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Potential commercial applications include magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fault current limiters, wind turbine generators.

  6. Surface Impedance Measurements of Single Crystal MgB2 Films for Radiofrequency Superconductivity Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Binping Xiao, Xin Zhao, Joshua Spradlin, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, Teng Tan, Xi Xiaoxing

    2012-07-01

    We report microstructure analyses and superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) measurements of large scale epitaxial MgB{sub 2} films. MgB{sub 2} films on 5 cm dia. sapphire disks were fabricated by a Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) technique. The electron-beam backscattering diffraction (EBSD) results suggest that the film is a single crystal complying with a MgB{sub 2}(0001) {parallel} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) epitaxial relationship. The SRF properties of different film thicknesses (200 nm and 350 nm) were evaluated under different temperatures and applied fields at 7.4 GHz. A surface resistance of 9 {+-} 2 {mu}{Omega} has been observed at 2.2 K.

  7. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology.This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron

  8. Design oriented structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Desirable characteristics and benefits of design oriented analysis methods are described and illustrated by presenting a synoptic description of the development and uses of the Equivalent Laminated Plate Solution (ELAPS) computer code. ELAPS is a design oriented structural analysis method which is intended for use in the early design of aircraft wing structures. Model preparation is minimized by using a few large plate segments to model the wing box structure. Computational efficiency is achieved by using a limited number of global displacement functions that encompass all segments over the wing planform. Coupling with other codes is facilitated since the output quantities such as deflections and stresses are calculated as continuous functions over the plate segments. Various aspects of the ELAPS development are discussed including the analytical formulation, verification of results by comparison with finite element analysis results, coupling with other codes, and calculation of sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of ELAPS for multidisciplinary design application is illustrated by describing its use in design studies of high speed civil transport wing structures.

  9. [Family oriented nursing care].

    PubMed

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquin Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Sáez-Bueno, Africa

    2009-01-01

    Nursing has experienced an important methodological development, in which it gives priority to the individual, although at a socioeconomic level a marked interest is seen in the health care of the family unit and the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) nursing guidelines, using diagnoses, criteria of results and interventions orientated towards this aim. We consider to the family as an opened system consisted of human elements, with a common history, which they form a functional unit been ruled by own procedure. In this paper we look at those aspects that must be taken into account in nursing assessment of families from a systemic perspective, including some tools for data collection and analysis of information. In addition, we identify specific areas of intervention. We believe that the family must be studied from a nursing care point of view with its own characteristics as opposed to those possessed individually by each of its members. We also believe that, when assessment is centred on the Henderson unaided activities study or the Gordon functional health patterns, they are not useful in assessing the family unit. This work offers an assessment method centred on the family unit, which helps to identify the nursing diagnoses applicable to it. Our proposal, which has been successfully used by nursing students over the last few years, hopes to contribute to quality clinical practice with a tool orientated towards the family.

  10. Neuronal representation of object orientation.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Ferber, S; Bülthoff, H H

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation between object identity and object orientation observed in six patients with brain damage, has been taken as evidence for a view-invariant model of object recognition. However, there was also some indication that these patients were not generally agnosic for object orientation but were able to gain access to at least some information about objects' canonical upright. We studied a new case (KB) with spared knowledge of object identity and impaired perception of object orientation using a forced choice paradigm to contrast directly the patient's ability to perceive objects' canonical upright vs non-upright orientations. We presented 2D-pictures of objects with unambiguous canonical upright orientations in four different orientations (0 degrees, -90 degrees, +90 degrees, 180 degrees ). KB showed no impairment in identifying letters, objects, animals, or faces irrespective of their given orientation. Also, her knowledge of upright orientation of stimuli was perfectly preserved. In sharp contrast, KB was not able to judge the orientation when the stimuli were presented in a non-upright orientation. The findings give further support for a distributed view-based representation of objects in which neurons become tuned to the features present in certain views of an object. Since we see more upright than inverted animals and familiar objects, the statistics of these images leads to a larger number of neurons tuned for objects in an upright orientation. We suppose that probably for this reason KB's knowledge of upright orientation was found to be more robust against neuronal damage than knowledge of other orientations.

  11. Orientation dependence of the orientation-contingent face aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tamara L; Clifford, Colin W G

    2006-10-01

    Prolonged exposure to upright and inverted female and male faces produces opposite effects on subsequent judgments of the sex of faces depending on their orientation. We show that the magnitude of this orientation-contingent gender aftereffect can be predicted from simple aftereffects induced separately at the same orientations. The contingent aftereffect can also be induced in faces tilted 90 degrees to the right and left, eliminating any difference in face-processing strategy that may be in operation with upright and inverted faces. This suggests that neurons employing a single face encoding strategy can be activated in an orientation-specific manner.

  12. [Market oriented occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

    2012-09-09

    The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities.

  13. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the natural killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

  14. Lunar orientation in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-02-22

    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects.

  15. Stable vicinal step orientations in m-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelchner, K. M.; Kuritzky, L. Y.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    The performance of InxGa1-xN-based m-plane LEDs and laser diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on bulk GaN substrates is currently limited by lower indium uptake and inhomogeneous linewidth broadening in the blue spectrum compared to semipolar planes and c-plane. Linewidth broadening is partially attributed to inhomogeneous indium composition that is associated with template morphology. We investigate the morphological evolution of homoepitaxial GaN growth on bulk m-plane substrates in three co-loaded miscut orientations: nominally on-axis, 1° in the -c-direction (-c-miscut), and 1° in the a-direction (a-miscut). Atomic force microscopy reveals four-sided pyramidal hillocks for on-axis growth with faces inclined toward the [ 11 2 bar 0 ]a-axis (a-faces) and the [0001] c-axis (c-faces). The a-faces exhibit steps oriented in an a+c direction with longer terrace widths than the c-face steps. The -c-miscut template growth sometimes forms diagonal striations, characterized by regions with stable a+c step direction. The a-miscut template growth exhibits meandering steps oriented in the a±c directions that bunch to form diagonal striations. These results reveal that c-direction steps are unstable compared to a±c directions. We further demonstrate that m-plane GaN substrates with combined a+c miscut lead to narrower InxGa1-xN photoluminescence emission spectra in blue with enhanced indium incorporation.

  16. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  17. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Thompson, Carl V.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

  18. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

  19. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  20. Occupational Orientation: Industrial Oriented Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These experimental curriculum materials, for one of five clusters developed for the occupational orientation program in Illinois, contain teacher references and a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the industrial oriented occupations field. The 30…

  1. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-01-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. PMID:25855249

  2. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  3. Device Oriented Project Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  4. Industrial Technology Orientation Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    The four courses in this guide were designed to meet the specifications for the career orientation level of Illinois' Education for Employment Curriculum Model. These orientation-level courses can be taken by high school students in any sequence: (1) communication technology; (2) energy utilization technology; (3) production technology; and (4)…

  5. Postdictive Modulation of Visual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1) or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment). The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation). The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process. PMID:22393421

  6. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  7. AFS Orientation Handbook. Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaremba, Mary Ann; And Others

    This handbook is intended for use by all who design, plan, and lead orientation and cross-cultural training sessions for American Field Service students, natural and host families, and volunteers. It features orientation and training resources originating in Venezuela, France, Italy, Denmark, Canada, Argentina, Japan, Portugal, Germany, and the…

  8. Magneto-transport properties of As-implanted highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.

    2016-11-01

    We report on magneto-transport experiments in a high-quality sample of highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Magneto-resistance and Hall resistivity measurements were carried out in magnetic inductions up to B = 9 T applied parallel to the c-axis at fixed temperatures between T=2 K and T=12 K. The sample was submitted to three subsequent irradiations with As ions. The implanted As contents were 2.5, 5 and 10 at% at the maximum of the distribution profile. Experiments were performed after each implantation stage. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in both the magneto-resistance and Hall-effect measurements. Analyses of these results with fast Fourier transform (FFT) lead to fundamental frequencies and effective masses for electrons and holes that are independent of the implantation fluences. The Hall resistivity at low temperatures shows a sign reversal as a function of the field in all implanted states. We interpret the obtained results with basis on a qualitative model that supposes the existence of an extrinsic hole density associated to the defect structure of our sample. We conclude that the As implantation does not produce a semiconductor-type doping in our HOPG sample. Instead, an increase in the extrinsic hole density is likely to occur as a consequence of disorder induced by implantation.

  9. 3-D matrix template-assisted growth of oriented oxide nanowire arrays using glancing angle pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, N.; Mateo-Feliciano, D.; Ostoski, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Witanachchi, S.

    Nanosphere lithography is a combination of different methods to nanofabrication. In this work nanosphere lithography is used to study the growth of Zinc Oxide Nano-columns (ZnO NCs) on different diameter Silica Nanosphere (SNS) self-assembled templates. ZnO NCs are promising building blocks for many existing and emerging optical, electrical, and piezoelectric devices, specifically, the seeded growth of other oxide materials. Recently, reports have shown a ferroelectric phase of zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) and while lead zirconium titanate oxide (PZT) has been the main material of interest in ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications, the toxicity of lead has been of great concern. The possibility of developing lead free piezoelectric materials is of great interest in the ferroelectric community. Langmuir-Blodgett method was used to construct a self-assembled monolayer of SNSs on silicon substrates. Oriented ZnO NCs were grown on top of the spheres using the glancing angle pulsed laser deposition technique. Columns were formed in a spatially ordered closed-packed hexagonal configuration. Growth of ZnO NCs was studied as function of ambient Oxygen pressure with SNS size ranging from 250-1000 nm. Cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the template structure. Relative aspect ratios were studied and showed tunability of column dimensions with sphere size. XRD revealed ZnO NC arrays were c-axis oriented with hexagonal wurtzite structure.

  10. Binocular combination of stimulus orientation

    PubMed Central

    Yehezkel, O.; Ding, J.; Sterkin, A.; Polat, U.

    2016-01-01

    When two sine waves that differ slightly in orientation are presented to the two eyes separately, a single cyclopean sine wave is perceived. However, it is unclear how the brain calculates its orientation. Here, we used a signal detection rating method to estimate the perceived orientation when the two eyes were presented with Gabor patches that differed in both orientation and contrast. We found a nearly linear combination of orientation when both targets had the same contrast. However, the binocular percept shifted away from the linear prediction towards the orientation with the higher contrast, depending on both the base contrast and the contrast ratio. We found that stimuli that differ slightly in orientation are combined into a single percept, similarly for monocular and binocular presentation, with a bias that depends on the interocular contrast ratio. Our results are well fitted by gain-control models, and are consistent with a previous study that favoured the DSKL model that successfully predicts binocular phase and contrast combination and binocular contrast discrimination. In this model, the departures from linearity may be explained on the basis of mutual suppression and mutual enhancement, both of which are stronger under dichoptic than monocular conditions. PMID:28018641

  11. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Schmierer, Eric N.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  12. Oriented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  13. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  14. Molecular rectification in oriented polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentein, C.; Fiorini, C.; Lorin, A.; Nunzi, J.-M.; Sicot, L.

    1998-06-01

    We underline the intrinsic rectifying nature of an oriented polymeric material. Orientation of the initially symmetric structure is performed through DC-field ordering of the polar molecules contained in the polymer. The internal field induced in the polymeric material is evidenced by the induction of a rectifying current-voltage characteristic. Our preparation technique opens a new route for the improvement of organic-semiconductor devices efficiency. Nous soulignons la nature intrinsèquement rectifiante d'un polymère orienté. L'orientation moléculaire est induite par polarisation sous champ permanent. Le champ interne piégé dans le matériau induit une rectification de la caractéristique courant tension. Notre technique de préparation ouvre une voie nouvelle pour l'amélioration des performances des dispositifs semiconducteurs organiques.

  15. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  16. Orientational high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2014-12-01

    In high-entropy alloys (HEA), the configurational entropy arising from the presence of multiple elements, stabilizes a disordered solid solution in preference to the possible formation of compounds. In the current work, we identify cluster compounds (of the type AM4X8) as orientational analogues of HEA (as a first report on orientational high-entropy systems). In cluster compounds, orientational disorder increases the entropy and plays a role analogous to positional disorder in HEA. In the GaMo4S8 compound, at temperatures greater than 50 K, the entropic benefit more than makes up for the strain energy cost and stabilizes the disordered phase in preference to an orientationally ordered compound.

  17. Predicting Organizational Orientation toward Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 81 managers and 364 employees identified five factors predicting high team orientation in organizations: relationships with management, innovation, control of work by immediate supervisors, group cohesiveness, and open group process. (SK)

  18. Making Ninth Grade Orientation Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Butler, William F.

    1985-01-01

    Rainier Beach High School, Seattle, Washington, uses a three-day freshman orientation program to prepare ninth graders for the high school experience and to help the high school to better know and provide for them. (DCS)

  19. Grain orientation in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmood, A.; Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III

    1974-01-01

    Orientation of lunar soil particles in a vertical plane, as seen in the radiographs of core tubes was characterized by preparing orientation diagrams for the different stratigraphic units. Radiographs of double-core drive tubes 64001/64002, 60009/60010, and 60013/60014 were used. The orientation results reinforced the stratigraphic differences. Another source of fabric data was the laboratory-deposited sample 14163,148. The artificial deposition results showed that the grain arrangements were dependent upon the method of deposition. These results from lunar soil and other data from a crushed basalt simulant can be a basis for the inference that lunar soil grain orientation and properties are useful in interpreting lunar surface history.

  20. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.