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Sample records for c1 cathepsin l-like

  1. [Activity of tissue cathepsin-L-like proteinases of women with womb body oncopathology].

    PubMed

    Vovchuk, I L; Chernadchuk, S S

    2004-01-01

    Activity and optimal pH of cathepsin-L-like proteinases was studied in benign and malignant tumours of the womb body. In the benign tumors activity of cathepsin-L-like proteinases changes depending on the expansion and depth of extension benign tumour and is defined by proliferative potential of tumour cells of myometrium and endometrium. Activity of cathepsin-L-like proteinases in malignant epithelial tumour of endometrium--adenocarcinoma is inversely proportional to the level of differentiation of the tumour cells.

  2. A cathepsin L-like protease from Strongylus vulgaris: an orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans CPL-1.

    PubMed

    Ultaigh, Sinéad Nic An; Carolan, James C; Britton, Collette; Murray, Linda; Ryan, Michael F

    2009-04-01

    Cathespin L-like proteases (CPLs), characterized from a wide range of helminths, are significant in helminth biology. For example, in Caenorhabditis elegans CPL is essential for embryogenesis. Here, we report a cathepsin L-like gene from three species of strongyles that parasitize the horse, and describe the isolation of a cpl gene (Sv-cpl-1) from Strongylus vulgaris, the first such from equine strongyles. It encodes a protein of 354 amino acids with high similarity to other parasitic Strongylida (90-91%), and C.elegans CPL-1 (87%), a member of the same Clade. As S.vulgaris cpl-1 rescued the embryonic lethal phenotype of the C.elegans cpl-1 mutant, these genes may be orthologues, sharing the same function in each species. Targeting Sv-CPL-1 might enable novel control strategies by decreasing parasite development and transmission.

  3. The 3D structure and function of digestive cathepsin L-like proteinases of Tenebrio molitor larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Beton, Daniela; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Farah, Chuck S; Terra, Walter R

    2012-09-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteinases (CAL) are major digestive proteinases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Procathepsin Ls 2 (pCAL2) and 3 (pCAL3) were expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, purified and activated under acidic conditions. Immunoblot analyses of different T. molitor larval tissues demonstrated that a polyclonal antibody to pCAL3 recognized pCAL3 and cathepsin L 3 (CAL3) only in the anterior two-thirds of midgut tissue and midgut luminal contents of T. molitor larvae. Furthermore, immunocytolocalization data indicated that pCAL3 occurs in secretory vesicles and microvilli in anterior midgut. Therefore CAL3, like cathepsin L 2 (CAL2), is a digestive enzyme secreted by T. molitor anterior midgut. CAL3 hydrolyses Z-FR-MCA and Z-RR-MCA (typical cathepsin substrates), whereas CAL2 hydrolyses only Z-FR-MCA. Active site mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were constructed by replacing the catalytic cysteine with serine to prevent autocatalytic processing. Recombinant pCAL2 and pCAL3 mutants (pCAL2C25S and pCAL3C26S) were prepared, crystallized and their 3D structures determined at 1.85 and 2.1 Å, respectively. While the overall structure of these enzymes is similar to other members of the papain superfamily, structural differences in the S2 subsite explain their substrate specificities. The data also supported models for CAL trafficking to lysosomes and to secretory vesicles to be discharged into midgut contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease by a chimeric propeptide-derived inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Godat, Emmanuel; Chowdhury, Shafinaz; Lecaille, Fabien; Belghazi, Maya; Purisima, Enrico O; Lalmanach, Gilles

    2005-08-09

    Like other papain-related cathepsins, congopain from Trypanosoma congolense is synthesized as a zymogen. We have previously identified a proregion-derived peptide (Pcp27), acting as a weak and reversible inhibitor of congopain. Pcp27 contains a 5-mer YHNGA motif, which is essential for selectivity in the inhibition of its mature form [Lalmanach, G., Lecaille, F., Chagas, J. R., Authié, E., Scharfstein, J., Juliano, M. A., and Gauthier, F. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25112-25116]. In the work presented here, a homology model of procongopain was generated and subsequently used to model a chimeric 50-mer peptide (called H3-Pcp27) corresponding to the covalent linkage of an unrelated peptide (H3 helix from Antennapedia) to Pcp27. Molecular simulations suggested that H3-Pcp27 (pI = 9.99) maintains an N-terminal helical conformation, and establishes more complementary electrostatic interactions (E(coul) = -25.77 kcal/mol) than 16N-Pcp27, the 34-mer Pcp27 sequence plus the 16 native residues upstream from the proregion (E(coul) = 0.20 kcal/mol), with the acid catalytic domain (pI = 5.2) of the mature enzyme. In silico results correlated with the significant improvement of congopain inhibition by H3-Pcp27 (K(i) = 24 nM), compared to 16N-Pcp27 (K(i) = 1 microM). In addition, virtual alanine scanning of H3 and 16N identified the residues contributing most to binding affinity. Both peptides did not inhibit human cathepsins B and L. In conclusion, these data support the notion that the positively charged H3 helix favors binding, without modifying the selectivity of Pcp27 for congopain.

  5. Reversible inhibition of cathepsin L-like proteases by 4-mer pseudopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lecaille, F; Cotton, J; McKerrow, J H; Ferrer-Di Martino, M; Boll-Bataillé, E; Gauthier, F; Lalmanach, G

    2001-11-02

    A library of 121 pseudopeptides was designed to develop reversible inhibitors of trypanosomal enzymes (cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi and congopain from Trypanosoma congolense). The peptides share the framework: Cha-X1-X2-Pro (Cha=cyclohexyl-alanine, X1 and X2 were phenylalanyl analogs), based on a previous report [Lecaille, F., Authié, E., Moreau, T., Serveau, C., Gauthier, F. and Lalmanach, G. (2001) Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 2733-2741]. Five peptides containing a nitro-substituted aromatic residue (Tyr/Phe) and one a 4-chloro-phenylalanine at the X1 position, and 3-(2-naphthyl)-alanine, homocyclohexylalanine or 3-nitro-tyrosine (3-NO(2)-Tyr) at the X2 position, were selected. They inhibited congopain more effectively than cruzain, except Cha-4-NO(2)-Phe-3-NO(2)-Tyr-Pro which bound the two parasitic enzymes similarly. Among this series, Cha-3-NO(2)-Tyr-HoCha-Pro and Cha-4-NO(2)-Phe-3-NO(2)-Tyr-Pro are the most selective for congopain relative to host cathepsins. No hydrolysis occurred upon prolonged incubation time with purified enzymes. In addition introduction of non-proteogenic residues in the peptidyl backbone greatly enhanced resistance to proteolysis by mammalian sera.

  6. Subsite specificity of trypanosomal cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases. Probing the S2 pocket with phenylalanine-derived amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lecaille, F; Authié, E; Moreau, T; Serveau, C; Gauthier, F; Lalmanach, G

    2001-05-01

    The S2 subsite of mammalian cysteine proteinases of the papain family is essential for specificity. Among natural amino acids, all these enzymes prefer bulky hydrophobic residues such as phenylalanine at P2. This holds true for their trypanosomal counterparts: cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi and congopain from T. congolense. A detailed analysis of the S2 specificity of parasitic proteases was performed to gain information that might be of interest for the design of more selective pseudopeptidyl inhibitors. Nonproteogenic phenylalanyl analogs (Xaa) have been introduced into position P2 of fluorogenic substrates dansyl-Xaa-Arg-Ala-Pro-Trp, and their kinetic constants (Km, kcat/Km) have been determined with congopain and cruzain, and related host cathepsins B and L. Trypanosomal cysteine proteases are poorly stereoselective towards D/L-Phe, the inversion of chirality modifying the efficiency of the reaction but not the Km. Congopain binds cyclohexylalanine better than aromatic Phe derivatives. Another characteristic feature of congopain compared to cruzain and cathepsins B and L was that it could accomodate a phenylglycyl residue (kcat/Km = 1300 mM-1.s-1), while lengthening of the side chain by a methylene group only slightly impaired the specificity constant towards trypanosomal cysteine proteases. Mono- and di-halogenation or nitration of Phe did not affect Km for cathepsin L-like enzymes, but the presence of constrained Phe derivatives prevented a correct fitting into the S2 subsite. A model of congopain has been built to study the fit of Phe analogs within the S2 pocket. Phe analogs adopted a positioning within the S2 pocket similar to that of the Tyr of the cruzain/Z-Tyr-Ala-fluoromethylketone complex. However, cyclohexylalanine has an energetically favorable chair-like conformation and can penetrate deeper into the subsite. Fitting of modeled Phe analogs were in good agreement with kinetic parameters. Furthermore, a linear relationship could be established with

  7. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  8. Assessment of cathepsin D and L-like proteinases of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), as potential vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Kathryn; Huntley, John F; Wright, Harry W; Nath, Mintu; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2012-05-01

    Vaccination is a feasible strategy for controlling the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. A cDNA library enriched for genes upregulated after feeding was created to identify potential vaccine antigens. From this library, a gene (Dg-CatD-1) encoding a 383 amino acid protein (Dg-CatD-1) with homology to cathepsin D lysosomal aspartyl proteinases was identified as a potential vaccine candidate. A second gene (Dg-CatL-1) encoding a 341 amino acid protein (Dg-CatL-1) with homology to cathepsin L cysteine proteinases was also selected for further study. IgY obtained from naturally infested hens failed to detect Dg-CatD-1 suggesting that it is a concealed antigen. Conversely, Dg-CatL-1 was detected by IgY derived from natural-infestation, indicating that infested hens are exposed to Dg-CatL-1. Mortality rates 120 h after mites had been fed anti-Dg-CatD-1 were significantly higher than those fed control IgY (PF<0·01). In a survival analysis, fitting a proportional hazards model to the time of death of mites, anti-Dg-CatD-1 and anti-Dg-CatL-1 IgY had 4·42 and 2·13 times higher risks of dying compared with controls (PF<0·05). Dg-CatD-1 and L-1 both have potential as vaccine antigens as part of a multi-component vaccine and have the potential to be improved as vaccine antigens using alternative expression systems.

  9. Functional analysis of C1 family cysteine peptidases in the larval gut of Тenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N; Perkin, Lindsey; Oppert, Brenda

    2015-02-14

    Larvae of the tenebrionids Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum have highly compartmentalized guts, with primarily cysteine peptidases in the acidic anterior midgut that contribute to the early stages of protein digestion. High throughput sequencing was used to quantify and characterize transcripts encoding cysteine peptidases from the C1 papain family in the gut of tenebrionid larvae. For T. castaneum, 25 genes and one questionable pseudogene encoding cysteine peptidases were identified, including 11 cathepsin L or L-like, 11 cathepsin B or B-like, and one each F, K, and O. The majority of transcript expression was from two cathepsin L genes on chromosome 10 (LOC659441 and LOC659502). For cathepsin B, the major expression was from genes on chromosome 3 (LOC663145 and LOC663117). Some transcripts were expressed at lower levels or not at all in the larval gut, including cathepsins F, K, and O. For T. molitor, there were 29 predicted cysteine peptidase genes, including 14 cathepsin L or L-like, 13 cathepsin B or B-like, and one each cathepsin O and F. One cathepsin L and one cathepsin B were also highly expressed, orthologous to those in T. castaneum. Peptidases lacking conservation in active site residues were identified in both insects, and sequence analysis of orthologs indicated that changes in these residues occurred prior to evolutionary divergence. Sequences from both insects have a high degree of variability in the substrate binding regions, consistent with the ability of these enzymes to degrade a variety of cereal seed storage proteins and inhibitors. Predicted cathepsin B peptidases from both insects included some with a shortened occluding loop without active site residues in the middle, apparently lacking exopeptidase activity and unique to tenebrionid insects. Docking of specific substrates with models of T. molitor cysteine peptidases indicated that some insect cathepsins B and L bind substrates with affinities similar to human cathepsin L, while

  10. Adult Schistosoma mansoni express cathepsin L proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Dalton, J P; Clough, K A; Kilbane, C L; Harrop, S A; Hole, N; Brindley, P J

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the deduced amino acid sequence of a novel cathepsin L proteinase from Schistosoma mansoni, and describes cathepsin L-like activity in extracts of adult schistosomes. Using consensus primers specific for cysteine proteinases, gene fragments were amplified from adult S. mansoni cDNA by PCR and cloned. One of these fragments showed marked identity to Sm31, the cathepsin B cysteine proteinase of adult S. mansoni, whereas another differed from Sm31 and was employed as a probe to isolate two cDNAs from an adult S. mansoni gene library. Together these cDNAs encoded a novel preprocathepsin L of 319 amino acids; this zymogen is predicted to be processed in vivo into a mature, active cathepsin L proteinase of 215 amino acids. Closest homologies were with cathepsins L from rat, mouse, and chicken (46-47% identity). Southern hybridization analysis suggested that only one or a few copies of the gene was present per genome, demonstrated that its locus was distinct from that of Sm31, and that a homologous sequence was present in Schistosoma japonicum. Because these results indicated that schistosomes expressed a cathepsin L proteinase, extracts of adult S. mansoni were examined for acidic, cysteine proteinase activity. Based on rates of cleavage of peptidyl substrates employed to discriminate between classes of cysteine proteinases, namely cathepsin L (Z-phe-arg-AMC), cathepsin B (Z-arg-arg-AMC) and cathepsin H (Bz-arg-AMC), the extracts were found to contain vigorous cathepsin L-like activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Structural Basis for Specificity of Propeptide-Enzyme Interaction in Barley C1A Cysteine Peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Cambra, Inés; Hernández, David; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed. PMID:22615948

  12. Cathepsin O is involved in the innate immune response and metamorphosis of Antheraea pernyi.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xuan; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Tang, Lin; Sun, Yu; Chen, Chen; Nadeem Abbas, Muhammad; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-11-01

    Cathepsins are key members of mammalian papain-like cysteine proteases that play an important role in the immune response. In this study, a fragment of cDNA encoding cathepsin O proteinase (ApCathepsin O) was cloned from Antheraea pernyi. It contains an open reading frame of 1170bp and encodes a protein with 390 amino acid residues, including a conserved I29 inhibitor domain and a peptidase C1A (clan CA of cysteine proteases, papain family C1 subfamily) domain. Comparison with other previously reported cathepsin O proteins showed identity ranging from 45% to 79%. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that ApCathepsin O was highly expressed in the fat body; furthermore, the high expression during the pupal stage indicated that it might be involved during metamorphosis. After exposure to four different heat-killed pathogens (Escherichia coli, Beauveria bassiana, Micrococcus luteus, and A. pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus), the expression levels of ApCathepsin O mRNA significantly increased and showed variable expression patterns. This indicates that ApCathepsin O is potentially involved in the innate immune system of A. pernyi. Interestingly, ApCathepsin O expression was upregulated after 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) injection, which suggested that it might be regulated by 20E. In conclusion, ApCathepsin O is a protease that may play an important role in the innate immune response and metamorphosis of A. pernyi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cysteine Cathepsins in Human Carious Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, F.D.; Minciotti, C.L.; Geraldeli, S.; Carrilho, M.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.; Nader, H.B.; Salo, T.; Tjäderhane, L.; Tersariol, I.L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important in dentinal caries, and analysis of recent data demonstrates the presence of other collagen-degrading enzymes, cysteine cathepsins, in human dentin. This study aimed to examine the presence, source, and activity of cysteine cathepsins in human caries. Cathepsin B was detected with immunostaining. Saliva and dentin cysteine cathepsin and MMP activities on caries lesions were analyzed spectrofluorometrically. Immunostaining demonstrated stronger cathepsins B in carious than in healthy dentin. In carious dentin, cysteine cathepsin activity increased with increasing depth and age in chronic lesions, but decreased with age in active lesions. MMP activity decreased with age in both active and chronic lesions. Salivary MMP activities were higher in patients with active than chronic lesions and with increasing lesion depth, while cysteine cathepsin activities showed no differences. The results indicate that, along with MMPs, cysteine cathepsins are important, especially in active and deep caries. PMID:21248362

  14. Entamoeba histolytica cathepsin-like enzymes : interactions with the host gut.

    PubMed

    Kissoon-Singh, Vanessa; Mortimer, Leanne; Chadee, Kris

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica are key virulence factors involved in overcoming host defences. These proteases are cathepsin-like enzymes with a cathepsin-L like structure, but cathepsin-B substrate specificity. In the host intestine, amoeba cysteine proteases cleave colonic mucins and degrade secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG rendering them ineffective. They also act on epithelial tight junctions and degrade the extracellular matrix to promote Cell death. They are involved in the destruction of red blood cells and the evasion of neutrophils and macrophages and they activate pro-inflammatory cytokines IL- 1β and IL-18. In short, amoeba cysteine proteases manipulate and destroy host defences to facilitate nutrient acquisition, parasite colonization and/or invasion. Strategies to inhibit the activity of amoeba cysteine proteases could contribute significantly to host protection against E. histolytica.

  15. Cathepsin L and cystatin B gene expression discriminates immune cœlomic cells in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Christophe; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Bocquet, Béatrice; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Desmons, Annie; Verstraete, Mathilde; Salzet, Michel; Cocquerelle, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies evidenced that cystatin B-like gene is specifically expressed and induced in large circulating cœlomic cells following bacterial challenge in the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. In order to understand the role of that cysteine proteinase inhibitor during immune response, we investigated the existence of members of cathepsin family. We cloned a cathepsin L-like gene and studied its tissue distribution. Immunohistochemical studies using anti-cathepsin L and anti-cystatin B antibodies and ultrastructural results demonstrated the presence of three distinct cœlomic cell populations, (1) the chloragocytes which were initially defined as large cœlomocytes, (2) the granular amœbocytes, and (3) small cœlomic cells. Among those cells, while chloragocytes contain cystatin B and cathepsin L, granular amœbocytes do only contain cathepsin L and third cell population contains neither cathepsin nor inhibitor. Finally, results evidenced that cathepsin L immunopositive granular amœbocytes are chemoattracted to the site of injury and phagocyte bacteria. PMID:18177937

  16. C2K77 ELISA detects cleavage of type II collagen by cathepsin K in equine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Noé, B; Poole, A R; Mort, J S; Richard, H; Beauchamp, G; Laverty, S

    2017-12-01

    Develop a species-specific ELISA for a neo-epitope generated by cathepsin K cleavage of equine type II collagen to: (1) measure cartilage type II collagen degradation by cathepsin K in vitro, (2) identify cytokines that upregulate cathepsin K expression and (3) compare cathepsin K with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) collagenase activity in stimulated cartilage explants and freshly isolated normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilages. A new ELISA (C2K77) was developed and tested by measuring the activity of exogenous cathepsin K on equine articular cartilage explants. The ELISA was then employed to measure endogenous cathepsin K activity in cultured cartilage explants with or without stimulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumour necrosis-alpha (TNF-α), oncostatin M (OSM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cathepsin K activity in cartilage explants (control and osteoarthritic-OA) and freshly harvested cartilage (control and OA) was compared to that of MMPs employing C2K77 and C1,2C immunoassays. The addition of Cathepsin K to normal cartilage caused a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the C2K77 epitope release. Whereas the content of C1,2C, that reflects MMP collagenase activity, was increased in media by the addition to cartilage explants of TNF-α and OSM (P < 0.0001) or IL-1β and OSM (P = 0.002), no change was observed in C2K77 which also unchanged in OA cartilages compared to normal. The ELISA C2K77 measured the activity of cathepsin K in equine cartilage which was unchanged in OA cartilage. Cytokines that upregulate MMP collagenase activity had no effect on endogenous cathepsin K activity, suggesting a different activation mechanism that requires further study. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cysteine Cathepsin Activity Regulation by Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Lenarčič, Brigita

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are a group of enzymes normally found in the endolysosomes where they are primarily involved in intracellular protein turnover but also have a critical role in MHC II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. However, in a number of pathologies cysteine cathepsins were found to be heavily upregulated and secreted into extracellular milieu, where they were found to degrade a number of extracellular proteins. A major role in modulating cathepsin activities play glycosaminoglycans, which were found not only to facilitate their autocatalytic activation including at neutral pH, but also to critically modulate their activities such as in the case of the collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K. The interaction between cathepsins and glycosaminoglycans will be discussed in more detail. PMID:25587532

  18. [Research progress on cathepsin F of parasitic helminths].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zi-Gang; Fu, Bao-Quan

    2013-10-01

    Cathepsin F is an important member of papain-like subfamily in cysteine protease family. Cathepsin F of helminth parasites can hydrolyze the specific substrate, degrade host protein such as hemoglobin for nutrition, and be involved in invasion into host tissue. Therefore, cathepsin F serves as a potential target for parasitic disease immunodiagnosis, vaccine design and anti-parasite drug screening. This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanisms of cathepsin F, and research advances on cathepsin F of parasitic helminths.

  19. C1 esterase inhibitor

    MedlinePlus

    ... important in testing for autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus . Low levels of C1-INH can lead to a condition called angioedema . Angioedema results in sudden swelling of the tissues of the ...

  20. A broad survey of cathepsin K immunoreactivity in human neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang; Martignoni, Guido; Antonescu, Cristina; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Eberhart, Charles; Netto, George; Taube, Janis; Westra, William; Epstein, Jonathan I; Lotan, Tamara; Maitra, Anirban; Gabrielson, Edward; Torbenson, Michael; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Demarzo, Angelo; Shih, Ie Ming; Illei, Peter; Wu, T C; Argani, Pedram

    2013-02-01

    Cathepsin K is consistently and diffusely expressed in alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and a subset of translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, cathepsin K expression in human neoplasms has not been systematically analyzed. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMA) from a wide variety of human neoplasms, and performed cathepsin K immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only 2.7% of 1,140 carcinomas from various sites exhibited cathepsin K labeling, thus suggesting that among carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling is highly specific for translocation RCC. In contrast to carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling was relatively common (54.6%) in the 414 mesenchymal lesions studied, including granular cell tumor, melanoma, and histiocytic lesions, but not paraganglioma, all of which are in the morphologic differential diagnosis of ASPS. Cathepsin K IHC can be helpful in distinguishing ASPS and translocation RCC from some but not all of the lesions in their differential diagnosis.

  1. The Future of Cysteine Cathepsins in Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Lovro; Turk, Dušan; Turk, Boris

    2017-10-01

    Since the discovery of the key role of cathepsin K in bone resorption, cysteine cathepsins have been investigated by pharmaceutical companies as drug targets. The first clinical results from targeting cathepsins by activity-based probes and substrates are paving the way for the next generation of molecular diagnostic imaging, whereas the majority of antibody-drug conjugates currently in clinical trials depend on activation by cathepsins. Finally, cathepsins have emerged as suitable vehicles for targeted drug delivery. It is therefore timely to review the future of cathepsins in drug discovery. We focus here on inflammation-associated diseases because dysregulation of the immune system accompanied by elevated cathepsin activity is a common feature of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and investigation of dihydroxychalcones as calpain and cathepsin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyung Hye; Karki, Radha; Lee, Eung-Seok; Na, Younghwa; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2013-12-01

    In order to identify potential calpain and cathepsin inhibitors we prepared 12 dihydroxychalcone analogues and tested their ability to inhibit μ-calpain, m-calpain, cathepsins B and L. In the calpain inhibition test, compound 10 exhibited the most active inhibitory activity against m-calpain with an IC50 value of 25.25±0.901μM. With respect to inhibition of cathepsins B and L, compound 13 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on cathepsin L and moderate inhibitory activity on cathepsin B with IC50 values of 2.80±0.100 and 11.47±0.087μM, respectively. Our results suggest the possibility of developing dual calpain and cathepsin inhibitors by properly modulating structures and/or combining the essential aspects of the functional group effective for specific calpain and cathepsin inhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cathepsin K Knockout Alleviates Pressure Overload–Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Xu, Xihui; Shi, Guo-Ping; Chicco, Adam J.; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies has documented elevated levels of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K in failing hearts. Here, we hypothesized that ablation of cathepsin K mitigates pressure overload–induced cardiac hypertrophy. Cathepsin K knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction, resulting in cardiac remodeling (heart weight, cardiomyocyte size, left ventricular wall thickness, and end diastolic and end systolic dimensions) and decreased fractional shortening, the effects of which were significantly attenuated or ablated by cathepsin K knockout. Pressure overload dampened cardiomyocyte contractile function along with decreased resting Ca2+ levels and delayed Ca2+ clearance, which were partly resolved by cathepsin K knockout. Cardiac mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling cascades were upregulated by pressure overload, the effects of which were attenuated by cathepsin K knockout. In cultured H9c2 myoblast cells, silencing of cathepsin K blunted, whereas cathepsin K transfection mimicked phenylephrine–induced hypertrophic response, along with elevated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and ERK. In addition, cathepsin K protein levels were markedly elevated in human hearts of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Collectively, our data suggest that cathepsin K ablation mitigates pressure overload–induced hypertrophy, possibly via inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin and ERK pathways. PMID:23529168

  4. Cysteine Cathepsins in the Secretory Vesicle Produce Active Peptides: Cathepsin L Generates Peptide Neurotransmitters and Cathepsin B Produces Beta-Amyloid of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Vivian; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Wegrzyn, Jill; Bark, Steven; Kindy, Mark; Hook, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Recent new findings indicate significant biological roles of cysteine cathepsin proteases in secretory vesicles for production of biologically active peptides. Notably, cathepsin L in secretory vesicles has been demonstrated as a key protease for proteolytic processing of proneuropeptides (and prohormones) into active neuropeptides that are released to mediate cell-cell communication in the nervous system for neurotransmission. Moreover, cathepsin B in secretory vesicles has been recently identified as a β-secretase for production of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), participating as a notable factor in the severe memory loss in AD. These secretory vesicle functions of cathepsins L and B for production of biologically active peptides contrasts with the well-known role of cathepsin proteases in lysosomes for the degradation of proteins to result in their inactivation. The unique secretory vesicle proteome indicates proteins of distinct functional categories that provide the intravesicular environment for support of cysteine cathepsin function. Features of the secretory vesicle protein systems insure optimized intravesicular conditions that support the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. These new findings of recently discovered biological roles of cathepsins L and B indicate their significance in human health and disease. PMID:21925292

  5. Elastin Degradation by Cathepsin V Requires Two Exosites*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xin; Chen, Nelson L. H.; Wong, Andre; Craik, Charles S.; Brömme, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin V is a highly effective elastase and has been implicated in physiological and pathological extracellular matrix degradation. However, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Whereas human cathepsin V exhibits a potent elastolytic activity, the structurally homologous cathepsin L, which shares a 78% amino acid sequence, has only a minimal proteolytic activity toward insoluble elastin. This suggests that there are distinct structural domains that play an important role in elastinolysis. In this study, a total of 11 chimeras of cathepsins V and L were generated to identify elastin-binding domains in cathepsin V. Evaluation of these chimeras revealed two exosites contributing to the elastolytic activity of cathepsin V that are distant from the active cleft of the protease and are located in surface loop regions. Replacement of exosite 1 or 2 with analogous residues from cathepsin L led to a 75 and 43% loss in the elastolytic activity, respectively. Replacement of both exosites yielded a non-elastase variant similar to that of cathepsin L. Identification of these exosites may contribute to the design of inhibitors that will only affect the elastolytic activity of cysteine cathepsins without interfering with other physiological protease functions. PMID:24121514

  6. Cathepsin E promotes pulmonary emphysema via mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Shan, Peiying; Homer, Robert; Zhang, Yi; Petrache, Irina; Mannam, Praveen; Lee, Patty J

    2014-10-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung elasticity and irreversible air space enlargement, usually in the later decades of life. The molecular mechanisms of emphysema remain poorly defined. We identified a role for a novel cathepsin, cathepsin E, in promoting emphysema by inducing mitochondrial fission. Unlike previously reported cysteine cathepsins, which have been implicated in cigarette smoke-induced lung disease, cathepsin E is a nonlysosomal intracellular aspartic protease whose function has been described only in antigen processing. We examined lung tissue sections of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a clinical entity that includes emphysematous change. Human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lungs had markedly increased cathepsin E protein in the lung epithelium. We generated lung epithelial-targeted transgenic cathepsin E mice and found that they develop emphysema. Overexpression of cathepsin E resulted in increased E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1, caspase activation/apoptosis, and ultimately loss of lung parenchyma resembling emphysema. Inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1, using a small molecule inhibitor in vitro or in vivo, inhibited cathepsin E-induced apoptosis and emphysema. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify links between cathepsin E, mitochondrial fission, and caspase activation/apoptosis in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Our data expand the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of emphysema development and may provide new therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cathepsin E Promotes Pulmonary Emphysema via Mitochondrial Fission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuchen; Shan, Peiying; Homer, Robert; Zhang, Yi; Petrache, Irina; Mannam, Praveen; Lee, Patty J.

    2015-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung elasticity and irreversible air space enlargement, usually in the later decades of life. The molecular mechanisms of emphysema remain poorly defined. We identified a role for a novel cathepsin, cathepsin E, in promoting emphysema by inducing mitochondrial fission. Unlike previously reported cysteine cathepsins, which have been implicated in cigarette smoke-induced lung disease, cathepsin E is a nonlysosomal intracellular aspartic protease whose function has been described only in antigen processing. We examined lung tissue sections of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a clinical entity that includes emphysematous change. Human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lungs had markedly increased cathepsin E protein in the lung epithelium. We generated lung epithelial-targeted transgenic cathepsin E mice and found that they develop emphysema. Overexpression of cathepsin E resulted in increased E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1, caspase activation/apoptosis, and ultimately loss of lung parenchyma resembling emphysema. Inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1, using a small molecule inhibitor in vitro or in vivo, inhibited cathepsin E-induced apoptosis and emphysema. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify links between cathepsin E, mitochondrial fission, and caspase activation/apoptosis in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Our data expand the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of emphysema development and may provide new therapeutic targets. PMID:25239563

  8. Cathepsin D in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Kraimps, J L; Métayé, T; Millet, C; Margerit, D; Ingrand, P; Goujon, J M; Levillain, P; Babin, P; Begon, F; Barbier, J

    1995-12-01

    Cathepsin D is a widely distributed lysosomal acidic endopeptidase. It is an estrogen-regulated protein that is a prognostic factor in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to measure cathepsin D concentrations in thyroid tissues and to correlate these concentrations with clinical and pathologic parameters. Cathepsin D and thyroglobulin concentrations were measured in the cytosol of normal thyroid tissues (n = 14), benign nodules (n = 6), and thyroid carcinomas (n = 32) with an immunoradiometric assay. Statistical analysis was based on the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests and on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The mean level of cathepsin D, expressed as picomoles per milligram protein minus thyroglobulin, was higher in the 32 carcinomas, 29.1 +/- 15.5, than in the 14 normal thyroid tissues, 8.4 +/- 2.5 (p < 0.001) or in the 6 benign nodules, 11.2 +/- 7.3 (p = 0.003). Cathepsin D concentrations correlated with tumor size; Spearman rank correlation coefficient was rs = 0.44 (p = 0.012). No significant difference was found regarding histologic type. Cathepsin D concentrations were inversely correlated with the thyroglobulin level in the tumor; Spearman rank correlation coefficient was rs = -0.60 (p < 0.001). Cathepsin D concentration is higher in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue. Increased cathepsin D concentrations correlate with thyroid tumor size but not with histologic type. Further studies should be done to confirm the potential prognostic value of cathepsin D in patients with thyroid carcinomas.

  9. Cathepsin K knockout alleviates aging-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Robinson, Timothy J; Cao, Yongtao; Shi, Guo-Ping; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has previously been shown that protein levels of cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, are elevated in the failing heart and that genetic ablation of cathepsin K protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Here we test the hypothesis that cathepsin K knockout alleviates age-dependent decline in cardiac function. Cardiac geometry, contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ properties, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated using echocardiography, fura-2 technique, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and TUNEL staining, respectively. Aged (24-month-old) mice exhibited significant cardiac remodeling (enlarged chamber size, wall thickness, myocyte cross-sectional area, and fibrosis), decreased cardiac contractility, prolonged relengthening along with compromised intracellular Ca2+ release compared to young (6-month-old) mice, which were attenuated in the cathepsin K knockout mice. Cellular markers of senescence, including cardiac lipofuscin, p21 and p16, were lower in the aged-cathepsin K knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterpart. Mechanistically, cathepsin K knockout mice attenuated an age-induced increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and nuclear translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In cultured H9c2 cells, doxorubicin stimulated premature senescence and apoptosis. Silencing of cathepsin K blocked the doxorubicin-induced translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the nuclei. Collectively, these results suggest that cathepsin K knockout attenuates age-related decline in cardiac function via suppressing caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. PMID:25692548

  10. Follicular thyroglobulin induces cathepsin H expression and activity in thyrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Kenzaburo; Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Mycobacteriology, Leprosy Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-2-1 Aoba-cho, Higashimurayama, Tokyo 189-0002; Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omorinishi, Ota, Tokyo 143-8540

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) stored in thyroid follicles exerts a potent negative-feedback effect on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis, including Tg gene transcription and iodine uptake and organification, by suppressing the expression of specific transcription factors that regulate these steps. Pre-hormones are stored in the follicular colloid before being reabsorbed. Following lysosomal proteolysis of its precursor, thyroid hormone (TH) is released from thyroid follicles. Although the suppressive effects of follicular Tg on each step of pre-hormone biosynthesis have been extensively characterized, whether follicular Tg accumulation also affects hormone reabsorption, proteolysis, and secretion is unclear. In this study we explored whether follicular Tgmore » can regulate the expression and function of the lysosomal endopeptidases cathepsins. We found that in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 follicular Tg induced cathepsin H mRNA and protein expression, as well as cathepsin H enzyme activity. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Tg endocytosis promoted cathepsin H translocalization into lysosomes where it co-localized with internalized Tg. These results suggest that cathepsin H is an active participant in lysosome-mediated pre-hormone degradation, and that follicular Tg stimulates mobilization of pre-hormones by activating cathepsin H-associated proteolysis pathways. - Highlights: • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H mRNA and protein levels in rat thyroid cells. • Follicular Tg increases cathepsin H enzyme activity in rat thyroid cells. • After Tg stimulation cathepsin H co-localizes to lysosomes with follicular Tg. • Cathepsin H promotes hormone secretion by lysosome-mediated mechanisms.« less

  11. Procongopain from Trypanosoma congolense is processed at basic pH: an unusual feature among cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Serveau, Carole; Boulangé, Alain; Lecaille, Fabien; Gauthier, Francis; Authié, Edith; Lalmanach, Gilles

    2003-06-01

    Congopain, the major cysteine protease from Trypanosoma congolense, is synthesized as an inactive zymogen, and further converted into its active form after removal of the proregion, most probably via an autocatalytic mechanism. Processing of recombinant procongopain occurs via an apparent one-step or a multistep mechanism depending on the ionic strength. The auto-activation is pH-dependent, with an optimum at pH 4.0, and no activation observed at pH 6.0. After addition of dextran sulfate (10 microg/ml), an approx. 20-fold increase of processing (expressed as enzymatic activity) is observed. Furthermore, in the presence of dextran sulfate, procongopain can be processed at pH 8.0, an unusual feature among papain-like enzymes. Detection of procongopain and trypanosomal enzymatic activity in the plasma of T. congolense-infected cattle, together with the capacity of procongopain to be activated at weakly basic pH, suggest that procongopain may be extracellularly processed in the presence of blood vessel glycosaminoglycans, supporting the hypothesis that congopain acts as a pathogenic factor in host-parasite relationships.

  12. The expression and function of cathepsin E in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chain, Benjamin M; Free, Paul; Medd, Patrick; Swetman, Claire; Tabor, Alethea B; Terrazzini, Nadia

    2005-02-15

    Cathepsin E is an aspartic proteinase that has been implicated in Ag processing within the class II MHC pathway. In this study, we document the presence of cathepsin E message and protein in human myeloid dendritic cells, the preeminent APCs of the immune system. Cathepsin E is found in a perinuclear compartment, which is likely to form part of the endoplasmic reticulum, and also a peripheral compartment just beneath the cell membrane, with a similar distribution to that of Texas Red-dextran within 2 min of endocytosis. To investigate the function of cathepsin E in processing, a new soluble targeted inhibitor was synthesized by linking the microbial aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin to mannosylated BSA via a cleavable disulfide linker. This inhibitor was shown to block cathepsin D/E activity in cell-free assays and within dendritic cells. The inhibitor blocked the ability of dendritic cells from wild-type as well as cathepsin D-deficient mice to present intact OVA, but not an OVA-derived peptide, to cognate T cells. The data therefore support the hypothesis that cathepsin E has an important nonredundant role in the class II MHC Ag processing pathway within dendritic cells.

  13. Is digestive cathepsin D the rule in decapod crustaceans?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alarcón, Diana; Saborowski, Reinhard; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Cathepsin D is an aspartic endopetidase with typical characteristics of lysosomal enzymes. Cathepsin D activity has been reported in the gastric fluid of clawed lobsters where it acts as an extracellular digestive enzyme. Here we investigate whether cathepsin D is unique in clawed lobsters or, instead, common in decapod crustaceans. Eleven species of decapods belonging to six infraorders were tested for cathepsin D activity in the midgut gland, the muscle tissue, the gills, and when technically possible, in the gastric fluid. Cathepsin D activity was present in the midgut gland of all 11 species and in the gastric fluid from the seven species from which samples could be taken. All sampled species showed higher activities in the midgut glands than in non-digestive organs and the activity was highest in the clawed lobster. Cathepsin D mRNA was obtained from tissue samples of midgut gland, muscle, and gills. Analyses of deduced amino acid sequence confirmed molecular features of lysosomal cathepsin D and revealed high similarity between the enzymes from Astacidea and Caridea on one side, and the enzymes from Penaeoidea, Anomura, and Brachyura on the other side. Our results support the presence of cathepsin D activity in the midgut glands and in the gastric fluids of several decapod species suggesting an extracellular function of this lysosomal enzyme. We discuss whether cathepsin D may derive from the lysosomal-like vacuoles of the midgut gland B-cells and is released into the gastric lumen upon secretion by these cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Carrilho, Marcela; Tersariol, Ivarne L.; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Imazato, Satoshi; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dentin matrices release ICTP and CTX fragments during collagen degradation. ICTP fragments are known to be produced by MMPs. CTX fragments are thought to come from cathepsin K activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if quaternary methacrylates (QAMs) can inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins. Methods Dentin beams were demineralizated, and dried to constant weight. Beams were incubated with rh-cathepsin B, K, L or S for 24 h at pH 7.4 to identify which cathepsins release CTX at neutral pH. Beams were dipped in ATA, an antimicrobial QAM to determine if it can inhibit dentin matrix proteases. Other beams were dipped in another QAM (MDPB) to determine if it produced similar inhibition of dentin proteases. Results Only beams incubated with cathepsin K lost more dry mass than the controls and released CTX. Dentin beams dipped in ATA and incubated for 1 week at pH 7.4, showed a concentration-dependent reduction in weight-loss. There was no change in ICTP release from control values, meaning that ATA did not inhibit MMPs. Media concentrations of CTX fell significantly at 15 wt% ATA indicating that ATA inhibits capthesins. Beams dipped in increasing concentrations of MDPB lost progressively less mass, showing that MDPB is a protease-inhibitor. ICTP released from controls or beams exposed to low concentrations were the same, while 5 or 10% MDPB significantly lowered ICTP production. CTX levels were strongly inhibited by 2.5–10% MDPB, indicating that MDPB is a potent inhibitor of both MMPs and cathepsin K. Significance CTX seems to be released from dentin matrix only by cathepsin K. MMPs and cathepsin K and B may all contribute to matrix degradation. PMID:25467953

  15. Vaccine potential of recombinant cathepsin B against Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Chantree, Pathanin; Phatsara, Manussabhorn; Meemon, Krai; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Lorsuwannarat, Natcha; Sangpairoj, Kant; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Itagaki, Tadashi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-09-01

    In Fasciola gigantica, cathepsin Bs, especially cathepsin B2 and B3 are expressed in early juvenile stages, and are proposed to mediate the invasion of host tissues. Thus they are thought to be the target vaccine candidates that can block the invasion and migration of the juvenile parasite. To evaluate their vaccine potential, the recombinant cathepsin B2 (rFgCatB2) and cathepsin B3 (rFgCatB3) were expressed in yeast, Pichia pastoris, and used to immunize mice in combination with Freund's adjuvant to evaluate the protection against the infection by F. gigantica metacercariae, and the induction of immune responses. Mice immunized with both recombinant proteins exhibited high percent of parasite reduction at 60% for rFgCatB2 and 66% for rFgCatB3. Immunization by both antigens induced continuously increasing levels of IgG1 and IgG2a with a higher level of IgG1 isotype, indicating the mixed Th1/Th2 responses with Th2 predominating. When examined individually, the higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a were correlated with the lower numbers of worm recoveries. Thus, both cathepsin B2 and cathepsin B3 are plausible vaccine candidates whose potential should be further tested in large economic animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Histopathological analysis of cellular localization of cathepsins in abdominal aortic aneurysm wall.

    PubMed

    Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Zimmermann, Alexander; Ockert, Stefan; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2012-08-01

    An important feature of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the destruction of vessel wall, especially elastin and collagen. Besides matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins are the most potent elastolytic enzymes. The expression of cathepsins with known elastolytic and collagenolytic activities in the individual cells within AAA has not yet been determined. The vessel wall of 32 AAA patients and 10 organ donors was analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and cystatin C in all cells localized within AAA. Luminal endothelial cells (ECs) of AAA were positive for cathepsin D and partially for cathepsins B, K and S. Endothelial cells of the neovessels and smooth muscle cells in the media were positive for all cathepsins tested, especially for cathepsin B. In the inflammatory infiltrate all cathepsins were expressed in the following pattern: B > D = S > K = L. Macrophages showed the highest staining intensity for all cathepsins. Furthermore, weak overall expression of cystatin C was observed in all the cells localized in the AAA with the exception of the ECs. There is markedly increased expression of the various cathepsins within the AAA wall compared to healthy aorta. Our data are broadly consistent with a role for cathepsins in AAA; and demonstrate expression of cathepsins D, B and S in phagocytic cells in the inflammatory infiltrate; and also may reveal a role for cathepsin B in lymphocytes. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  17. Aspartic cathepsin D endopeptidase contributes to extracellular digestion in clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Liliana; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Saborowski, Reinhard; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Acid digestive proteinases were studied in the gastric fluids of two species of clawed lobster (Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus). An active protein was identified in both species as aspartic proteinase by specific inhibition with pepstatin A. It was confirmed as cathepsin D by mass mapping, N-terminal, and full-length cDNA sequencing. Both lobster species transcribed two cathepsin D mRNAs: cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2. Cathepsin D1 mRNA was detected only in the midgut gland, suggesting its function as a digestive enzyme. Cathepsin D2 mRNA was found in the midgut gland, gonads, and muscle. The deduced amino acid sequence of cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2 possesses two catalytic DTG active-site motifs, the hallmark of aspartic proteinases. The putatively active cathepsin D1 has a molecular mass of 36.4 kDa and a calculated pI of 4.14 and possesses three potential glycosylation sites. The sequences showed highest similarities with cathepsin D from insects but also with another crustacean cathepsin D. Cathepsin D1 transcripts were quantified during a starvation period using real-time qPCR. In H. americanus, 15 days of starvation did not cause significant changes, but subsequent feeding caused a 2.5-fold increase. In H. gammarus, starvation caused a 40% reduction in cathepsin D1 mRNA, and no effect was observed with subsequent feeding.

  18. Estrogen receptors and cathepsin D in human thyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Métayé, T; Millet, C; Kraimps, J L; Aubouin, B; Barbier, J; Bégon, F

    1993-09-15

    To investigate the significance of estrogen receptors (ER) in the pathogenesis of thyroid dysplasia, the authors analyzed, by analogy with breast cancers, ER and three estrogen-regulated proteins: progesterone receptor (PR), cathepsin D, and pS2 protein, in cytosols of 42 human thyroid tissues. ER and PR were measured by an immunoenzymatic assay and cathepsin D and pS2 by an immunoradiometric assay. Tissue specimens included 7 normal tissues, 6 benign nodules, 8 toxic adenomas, 7 from patients with Graves disease, and 14 carcinomas. ER was present at very low concentrations, with no statistical difference between neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues. The mean levels of cathepsin D, expressed as pmol/mg protein minus thyroglobulin, were higher in the 14 carcinomas (P = 0.0003), the 7 specimens from patients with Graves disease (P = 0.006), and the 8 toxic adenomas (P = 0.04) than in the 7 normal thyroid tissues. A significant difference also was observed between the carcinomas (P = 0.003) and six benign nodules. Compared to TNM parameters, cathepsin D concentrations correlated with tumor size: higher cathepsin D levels were found in pT4 than in pT2 and pT3 carcinomas. All the tissues tested were negative for PR and pS2 protein. The results clearly indicate a significant difference between neoplastic and normal thyroid tissue in terms of the amount of cathepsin D, but not that of ER. This suggests that cathepsin D probably is not regulated by estrogen but simply is a marker of protease activity during invasion by thyroid carcinomas.

  19. Upregulation of cathepsin S in psoriatic keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Schönefuss, Alexander; Wendt, Wiebke; Schattling, Benjamin; Schulten, Roxane; Hoffmann, Klaus; Stuecker, Markus; Tigges, Christian; Lübbert, Hermann; Stichel, Christine

    2010-08-01

    Cathepsin S (CATS) is a cysteine protease, well known for its role in MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation and extracellular matrix degradation. Disturbance of the expression or metabolism of this protease is a concomitant feature of several diseases. Given this importance we studied the localization and regulation of CATS expression in normal and pathological human/mouse skin. In normal human skin CATS-immunostaining is mainly present in the dermis and is localized in macrophages, Langerhans, T- and endothelial cells, but absent in keratinocytes. In all analyzed pathological skin biopsies, i.e. atopic dermatitis, actinic keratosis and psoriasis, CATS staining is strongly increased in the dermis. But only in psoriasis, CATS-immunostaining is also detectable in keratinocytes. We show that cocultivation with T-cells as well as treatment with cytokines can trigger expression and secretion of CATS, which is involved in MHC II processing in keratinocytes. Our data provide first evidence that CATS expression (i) is selectively induced in psoriatic keratinocytes, (ii) is triggered by T-cells and (iii) might be involved in keratinocytic MHC class II expression, the processing of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. This paper expands our knowledge on the important role of keratinocytes in dermatological disease.

  20. Repurposing a Library of Human Cathepsin L Ligands: Identification of Macrocyclic Lactams as Potent Rhodesain and Trypanosoma brucei Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Maude; Dietzel, Uwe; Anselm, Lilli; Banner, David; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Benz, Jörg; Blanc, Jean-Baptiste; Gaufreteau, Delphine; Liu, Haixia; Lin, Xianfeng; Stich, August; Kuhn, Bernd; Schuler, Franz; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schirmeister, Tanja; Kisker, Caroline; Diederich, François; Haap, Wolfgang

    2018-04-26

    Rhodesain (RD) is a parasitic, human cathepsin L (hCatL) like cysteine protease produced by Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b.) species and a potential drug target for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). A library of hCatL inhibitors was screened, and macrocyclic lactams were identified as potent RD inhibitors ( K i < 10 nM), preventing the cell-growth of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC 50 < 400 nM). SARs addressing the S2 and S3 pockets of RD were established. Three cocrystal structures with RD revealed a noncovalent binding mode of this ligand class due to oxidation of the catalytic Cys25 to a sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) during crystallization. The P-glycoprotein efflux ratio was measured and the in vivo brain penetration in rats determined. When tested in vivo in acute HAT model, the compounds permitted up to 16.25 (vs 13.0 for untreated controls) mean days of survival.

  1. Identification of interleukin-8 converting enzyme as cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kensaku; Naruto, Masanobu; Nakaki, Toshio; Sano, Emiko

    2003-06-26

    IL-8 is produced by various cells, and the NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of IL-8 displays heterogeneity among cell types. The mature form of IL-8 has 72 amino acids (72IL-8), while a precursor form (77IL-8) of IL-8 has five additional amino acids to the 72IL-8 NH(2)-terminal. However, it has been unclear how IL-8 is processed to yield the mature form. In this study, converting enzyme was purified as a single 31-kDa band on silver-stained polyacrylamide gel from 160 l of cultured fibroblast supernatant by sequential chromatography. NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed a sequence, EAPRSVDWRE, which was identified as a partial sequence of cathepsin L. Polyclonal antibodies raised against cathepsin L recognized the purified converting enzyme on Western blot. Moreover, human hepatic cathepsin L cleaved 77IL-8 between Arg(5) and Ser(6), which is the same cleavage site as the putative converting enzyme, resulting in 72IL-8 formation. These data indicate that the converting enzyme of the partially purified fraction of the human fibroblast culture supernatant was cathepsin L. Furthermore, 72IL-8 was sevenfold more potent than 77IL-8 in a neutrophil chemotaxis assay. These results show that cathepsin L is secreted from human fibroblasts in response to external stimuli and plays an important role in IL-8 processing in inflammatory sites.

  2. Cathepsins limit macrophage necroptosis through cleavage of Rip1 kinase.

    PubMed

    McComb, Scott; Shutinoski, Bojan; Thurston, Susan; Cessford, Erin; Kumar, Kriti; Sad, Subash

    2014-06-15

    It has recently been shown that programmed necrosis, necroptosis, may play a key role in the development of inflammation. Deciphering the regulation of this pathway within immune cells may therefore have implications in pathology associated with inflammatory diseases. We show that treatment of macrophages with the pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD-FMK) results in both increased phosphorylation and decreased cleavage of receptor interacting protein kinase-1 (Rip1), leading to necroptosis that is dependent on autocrine TNF signaling. Stimulation of cells with TLR agonists such as LPS in the presence of zVAD-FMK also induced Rip1-phosphorylation via a TNFR-independent mechanism. Further examination of Rip1 expression under these stimulatory conditions revealed a regulatory cleavage of Rip1 in macrophages that is not apparently attributable to caspase-8. Instead, we provide novel evidence that cysteine family cathepsins, which are highly abundant in myeloid cells, can also cleave Rip1 kinase. Using small interfering RNA knockdown, specific cathepsin inhibitors, and cell-free cleavage assays, we demonstrate that cysteine cathepsins B and S can directly cleave Rip1. Finally, we demonstrate that only through combined inhibition of cathepsins and caspase-8 could a potent induction of macrophage necroptosis be achieved. These data reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of necroptosis by cathepsins within macrophage cells. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Cysteine cathepsin S processes leptin, inactivating its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela; Assis, Diego M; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Miranda, Antonio; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Juliano, Maria A; Brömme, Dieter; Christoffolete, Marcelo Augusto; Barros, Nilana M T; Carmona, Adriana K

    2012-08-01

    Leptin is a 16  kDa hormone mainly produced by adipocytes that plays an important role in many biological events including the regulation of appetite and energy balance, atherosclerosis, osteogenesis, angiogenesis, the immune response, and inflammation. The search for proteolytic enzymes capable of processing leptin prompted us to investigate the action of cysteine cathepsins on human leptin degradation. In this study, we observed high cysteine peptidase expression and hydrolytic activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), which was capable of degrading leptin. Considering these results, we investigated whether recombinant human cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S were able to degrade human leptin. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that among the tested enzymes, cathepsin S exhibited the highest catalytic activity on leptin. Furthermore, using a Matrigel assay, we observed that the leptin fragments generated by cathepsin S digestion did not exhibit angiogenic action on endothelial cells and were unable to inhibit food intake in Wistar rats after intracerebroventricular administration. Taken together, these results suggest that cysteine cathepsins may be putative leptin activity regulators in WAT.

  4. Haematopoietic development and immunological function in the absence of cathepsin D

    PubMed Central

    Tulone, Calogero; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Novelli, Marco; Grosvenor, Nicholas; Saftig, Paul; Chain, Benjamin M

    2007-01-01

    Background Cathepsin D is a well-characterized aspartic protease expressed ubiquitously in lysosomes. Cathepsin D deficiency is associated with a spectrum of pathologies leading ultimately to death. Cathepsin D is expressed at high levels in many cells of the immune system, but its role in immune function is not well understood. This study examines the reconstitution and function of the immune system in the absence of cathepsin D, using bone marrow radiation chimaeras in which all haematopoietic cells are derived from cathepsin D deficient mice. Results Cathepsin D deficient bone marrow cells fully reconstitute the major cellular components of both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Spleen cells from cathepsin D deficient chimaeric mice contained an increased number of autofluorescent granules characteristic of lipofuscin positive lysosomal storage diseases. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in cathepsin D deficient spleen are consistent with increased autolysosomal activity. Chimaeric mice were immunised with either soluble (dinitrophenylated bovine gamma globulin) or particulate (sheep red blood cells) antigens. Both antigens induced equivalent immune responses in wild type or cathepsin D deficient chimaeras. Conclusion All the parameters of haematopoietic reconstitution and adaptive immunity which were measured in this study were found to be normal in the absence of cathepsin D, even though cathepsin D deficiency leads to dysregulation of lysosomal function. PMID:17897442

  5. Extracellular cathepsin K exerts antimicrobial activity and is protective against chronic intestinal inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sina, Christian; Lipinski, Simone; Gavrilova, Olga; Aden, Konrad; Rehman, Ateequr; Till, Andreas; Rittger, Andrea; Podschun, Rainer; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Haesler, Robert; Midtling, Emilie; Pütsep, Katrin; McGuckin, Michael A; Schreiber, Stefan; Saftig, Paul; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2013-04-01

    Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease that has pleiotropic roles in bone resorption, arthritis, atherosclerosis, blood pressure regulation, obesity and cancer. Recently, it was demonstrated that cathepsin K-deficient (Ctsk(-/-) ) mice are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune arthritis and encephalomyelitis, which implies a functional role for cathepsin K in chronic inflammatory responses. Here, the authors address the relevance of cathepsin K in the intestinal immune response during chronic intestinal inflammation. Chronic colitis was induced by administration of 2% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in distilled water. Mice were assessed for disease severity, histopathology and endoscopic appearance. Furthermore, DSS-exposed Ctsk(-/-) mice were treated by rectal administration of recombinant cathepsin K. Intestinal microflora was assessed by real-time PCR and 16srDNA molecular fingerprinting of ileal and colonic mucosal and faecal samples. Using Ctsk(-/-) mice, the authors demonstrate a protective role of cathepsin K against chronic DSS colitis. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms the authors found cathepsin K to be present in intestinal goblet cells and the mucin layer. Furthermore, a direct cathepsin K-mediated bactericidal activity against intestinal bacteria was demonstrated, which potentially explains the alteration of intestinal microbiota observed in Ctsk(-/-) mice. Rectal administration of recombinant cathepsin K in DSS-treated Ctsk(-/-) mice ameliorates the severity of intestinal inflammation. These data identify extracellular cathepsin K as an intestinal antibacterial factor with anti-inflammatory potential and suggest that topical administration of cathepsin K might provide a therapeutic option for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Cathepsin G-Dependent Modulation of Platelet Thrombus Formation In Vivo by Blood Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Faraday, Nauder; Schunke, Kathryn; Saleem, Sofiyan; Fu, Juan; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Morrell, Craig; Dore, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are consistently associated with arterial thrombotic morbidity in human clinical studies but the causal basis for this association is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner. Neutrophils enhanced aggregation of human platelets in vitro in dose-dependent fashion and this effect was diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G activity and knockdown of cathepsin G expression. Tail bleeding time in the mouse was prolonged by a cathepsin G inhibitor and in cathepsin G knockout mice, and formation of neutrophil-platelet conjugates in blood that was shed from transected tails was reduced in the absence of cathepsin G. Bleeding time was highly correlated with blood neutrophil count in wildtype but not cathepsin G deficient mice. In the presence of elevated blood neutrophil counts, the anti-thrombotic effect of cathepsin G inhibition was greater than that of aspirin and additive to it when administered in combination. Both pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence prolonged the time for platelet thrombus to form in ferric chloride-injured mouse mesenteric arterioles. In a vaso-occlusive model of ischemic stroke, inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence improved cerebral blood flow, reduced histologic brain injury, and improved neurobehavioral outcome. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil cathepsin G is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and has potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies. PMID:23940756

  7. Characterization of C1q in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Lan; Pan, Xin-Min; Xiang, Li-Xin; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    C1qs are key components of the classical complement pathway. They have been well documented in human and mammals, but little is known about their molecular and functional characteristics in fish. In the present study, full-length cDNAs of c1qA, c1qB, and c1qC from zebrafish (Danio rerio) were cloned, revealing the conservation of their chromosomal synteny and organization between zebrafish and other species. For functional analysis, the globular heads of C1qA (ghA), C1qB (ghB), and C1qC (ghC) were expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble proteins. Hemolytic inhibitory assays showed that hemolytic activity in carp serum can be inhibited significantly by anti-C1qA, -C1qB, and -C1qC of zebrafish, respectively, indicating that C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC are involved in the classical pathway and are conserved functionally from fish to human. Zebrafish C1qs also could specifically bind to heat-aggregated zebrafish IgM, human IgG, and IgM. The involvement of globular head modules in the C1q-dependent classical pathway demonstrates the structural and functional conservation of these molecules in the classical pathway and their IgM or IgG binding sites during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that c1qA, c1qB, and c1qC may be formed by duplications of a single copy of c1qB and that the C1q family is, evolutionarily, closely related to the Emu family. This study improves current understanding of the evolutionary history of the C1q family and C1q-mediated immunity. PMID:20615881

  8. A double-headed cathepsin B inhibitor devoid of warhead

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Patricia; Alfarano, Pietro; Kolb, Peter; Caflisch, Amedeo; Baici, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Most synthetic inhibitors of peptidases have been targeted to the active site for inhibiting catalysis through reversible competition with the substrate or by covalent modification of catalytic groups. Cathepsin B is unique among the cysteine peptidase for the presence of a flexible segment, known as the occluding loop, which can block the primed subsites of the substrate binding cleft. With the occluding loop in the open conformation cathepsin B acts as an endopeptidase, and it acts as an exopeptidase when the loop is closed. We have targeted the occluding loop of human cathepsin B at its surface, outside the catalytic center, using a high-throughput docking procedure. The aim was to identify inhibitors that would interact with the occluding loop thereby modulating enzyme activity without the help of chemical warheads against catalytic residues. From a large library of compounds, the in silico approach identified [2-[2-(2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl)ethylamino]-2-oxoethyl] 2-(furan-2-carbonylamino) acetate, which fulfills the working hypothesis. This molecule possesses two distinct binding moieties and behaves as a reversible, double-headed competitive inhibitor of cathepsin B by excluding synthetic and protein substrates from the active center. The kinetic mechanism of inhibition suggests that the occluding loop is stabilized in its closed conformation, mainly by hydrogen bonds with the inhibitor, thus decreasing endoproteolytic activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, the dioxothiazolidine head of the compound sterically hinders binding of the C-terminal residue of substrates resulting in inhibition of the exopeptidase activity of cathepsin B in a physiopathologically relevant pH range. PMID:18796695

  9. Cathepsin K activity-dependent regulation of osteoclast actin ring formation and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Susan R; Peters, Christoph; Saftig, Paul; Brömme, Dieter

    2009-01-23

    Cathepsin K is responsible for the degradation of type I collagen in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Collagen fragments are known to be biologically active in a number of cell types. Here, we investigate their potential to regulate osteoclast activity. Mature murine osteoclasts were seeded on type I collagen for actin ring assays or dentine discs for resorption assays. Cells were treated with cathepsins K-, L-, or MMP-1-predigested type I collagen or soluble bone fragments for 24 h. The presence of actin rings was determined fluorescently by staining for actin. We found that the percentage of osteoclasts displaying actin rings and the area of resorbed dentine decreased significantly on addition of cathepsin K-digested type I collagen or bone fragments, but not with cathepsin L or MMP-1 digests. Counterintuitively, actin ring formation was found to decrease in the presence of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor LHVS and in cathepsin K-deficient osteoclasts. However, cathepsin L deficiency or the general MMP inhibitor GM6001 had no effect on the presence of actin rings. Predigestion of the collagen matrix with cathepsin K, but not by cathepsin L or MMP-1 resulted in an increased actin ring presence in cathepsin K-deficient osteoclasts. These studies suggest that cathepsin K interaction with type I collagen is required for 1) the release of cryptic Arg-Gly-Asp motifs during the initial attachment of osteoclasts and 2) termination of resorption via the creation of autocrine signals originating from type I collagen degradation.

  10. Human Cathepsin V Protease Participates in Production of Enkephalin and NPY Neuropeptide Neurotransmitters*

    PubMed Central

    Funkelstein, Lydiane; Lu, W. Douglas; Koch, Britta; Mosier, Charles; Toneff, Thomas; Taupenot, Laurent; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Proteases are required for processing precursors into active neuropeptides that function as neurotransmitters for cell-cell communication. This study demonstrates the novel function of human cathepsin V protease for producing the neuropeptides enkephalin and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Cathepsin V is a human-specific cysteine protease gene. Findings here show that expression of cathepsin V in neuroendocrine PC12 cells and human neuronal SK-N-MC cells results in production of (Met)enkephalin from proenkephalin. Gene silencing of cathepsin V by siRNA in human SK-N-MC cells results in reduction of (Met)enkephalin by more than 80%, illustrating the prominent role of cathepsin V for neuropeptide production. In vitro processing of proenkephalin by cathepsin V occurs at dibasic residue sites to generate enkephalin-containing peptides and an ∼24-kDa intermediate present in human brain. Cathepsin V is present in human brain cortex and hippocampus where enkephalin and NPY are produced and is present in purified human neuropeptide secretory vesicles. Colocalization of cathepsin V with enkephalin and NPY in secretory vesicles of human neuroblastoma cells was illustrated by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, expression of cathepsin V with proNPY results in NPY production. These findings indicate the unique function of human cathepsin V for producing enkephalin and NPY neuropeptides required for neurotransmission in health and neurological diseases. PMID:22393040

  11. Probing cathepsin K activity with a selective substrate spanning its active site.

    PubMed

    Lecaille, Fabien; Weidauer, Enrico; Juliano, Maria A; Brömme, Dieter; Lalmanach, Gilles

    2003-10-15

    The limited availability of highly selective cathepsin substrates seriously impairs studies designed to monitor individual cathepsin activities in biological samples. Among mammalian cysteine proteases, cathepsin K has a unique preference for a proline residue at P2, the primary determinant of its substrate specificity. Interestingly, congopain from Trypanosoma congolense also accommodates a proline residue in its S2 subsite. Analysis of a congopain model showed that amino acids forming its S2 subsite are identical with those of cathepsin K, except Leu67 which is replaced by a tyrosine residue in cathepsin K. Furthermore, amino acid residues of the congopain S2' binding pocket, which accepts a proline residue, are strictly identical with those of cathepsin K. Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph [where Abz represents o-aminobenzoic acid and EDN2ph (=EDDnp) represents N -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ethylenediamine], a substrate initially developed for trypanosomal enzymes, was efficiently cleaved at the Gly-Gly bond by cathepsin K (kcat/ K(m)=426000 M(-1) x s(-1)). On the other hand, Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph was resistant to hydrolysis by cathepsins B, F, H, L, S and V (20 nM enzyme concentration) and the Y67L (Tyr67-->Leu)/L205A cathepsin K mutant (20 nM), but still acted as a competitive inhibitor. Taken together, the selectivity of Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph to cathepsin K primarily depends on the S2 and S2' subsite specificities of cathepsin K and the ionization state of histidine at P3. Whereas Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph was hydrolysed by wild-type mouse fibroblast lysates, its hydrolysis was completely abolished in the cathepsin K-deficient samples, indicating that Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph can be used to monitor selectively cathepsin K activity in physiological fluids and cell lysates.

  12. Probing cathepsin K activity with a selective substrate spanning its active site.

    PubMed Central

    Lecaille, Fabien; Weidauer, Enrico; Juliano, Maria A; Brömme, Dieter; Lalmanach, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The limited availability of highly selective cathepsin substrates seriously impairs studies designed to monitor individual cathepsin activities in biological samples. Among mammalian cysteine proteases, cathepsin K has a unique preference for a proline residue at P2, the primary determinant of its substrate specificity. Interestingly, congopain from Trypanosoma congolense also accommodates a proline residue in its S2 subsite. Analysis of a congopain model showed that amino acids forming its S2 subsite are identical with those of cathepsin K, except Leu67 which is replaced by a tyrosine residue in cathepsin K. Furthermore, amino acid residues of the congopain S2' binding pocket, which accepts a proline residue, are strictly identical with those of cathepsin K. Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph [where Abz represents o-aminobenzoic acid and EDN2ph (=EDDnp) represents N -(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ethylenediamine], a substrate initially developed for trypanosomal enzymes, was efficiently cleaved at the Gly-Gly bond by cathepsin K (kcat/ K(m)=426000 M(-1) x s(-1)). On the other hand, Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph was resistant to hydrolysis by cathepsins B, F, H, L, S and V (20 nM enzyme concentration) and the Y67L (Tyr67-->Leu)/L205A cathepsin K mutant (20 nM), but still acted as a competitive inhibitor. Taken together, the selectivity of Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph to cathepsin K primarily depends on the S2 and S2' subsite specificities of cathepsin K and the ionization state of histidine at P3. Whereas Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph was hydrolysed by wild-type mouse fibroblast lysates, its hydrolysis was completely abolished in the cathepsin K-deficient samples, indicating that Abz-HPGGPQ-EDN2ph can be used to monitor selectively cathepsin K activity in physiological fluids and cell lysates. PMID:12837132

  13. Synthesis and Biochemical Evaluation of Thiochromanone Thiosemicarbazone Analogues as Inhibitors of Cathepsin L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A series of 36 thiosemicarbazone analogues containing the thiochromanone molecular scaffold functionalized primarily at the C-6 position were prepared by chemical synthesis and evaluated as inhibitors of cathepsins L and B. The most promising inhibitors from this group are selective for cathepsin L and demonstrate IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. In nearly all cases, the thiochromanone sulfide analogues show superior inhibition of cathepsin L as compared to their corresponding thiochromanone sulfone derivatives. Without exception, the compounds evaluated were inactive (IC50 > 10000 nM) against cathepsin B. The most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 46 nM) of cathepsin L proved to be the 6,7-difluoro analogue 4. This small library of compounds significantly expands the structure–activity relationship known for small molecule, nonpeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L. PMID:24900494

  14. l-Homocysteine-induced cathepsin V mediates the vascular endothelial inflammation in hyperhomocysteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yi-Ping; Ma, Ye-Shuo; Li, Xiao-Gang; Chen, Rui-Fang; Zeng, Ping-Yu; Li, Xiao-Hui; Qiu, Cheng-Feng; Li, Ya-Pei; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Alex F

    2018-04-01

    Vascular inflammation, including the expression of inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells, plays a critical role in hyperhomocysteinaemia-associated vascular diseases. Cathepsin V, specifically expressed in humans, is involved in vascular diseases through its elastolytic and collagenolytic activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cathepsin V on l-homocysteine-induced vascular inflammation. A high methionine diet-induced hyperhomocysteinaemic mouse model was used to assess cathepsin V expression and vascular inflammation. Cultures of HUVECs were challenged with l-homocysteine and the cathepsin L/V inhibitor SID to assess the pro-inflammatory effects of cathepsin V. Transfection and antisense techniques were utilized to investigate the effects of cathepsin V on the dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DUSPs) and MAPK pathways. Cathepsin L (human cathepsin V homologous) was increased in the thoracic aorta endothelial cells of hyperhomocysteinaemic mice; l-homocysteine promoted cathepsin V expression in HUVECs. SID suppressed the activity of cathepsin V and reversed the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), adhesion and chemotaxis of leukocytes and vascular inflammation induced by l-homocysteine in vivo and in vitro. Increased cathepsin V promoted the degradation of DUSP6 and DUSP7, phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, phosphorylation of STAT1 and expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This study has identified a novel mechanism, which shows that l-homocysteine-induced upregulation of cathepsin V mediates vascular endothelial inflammation under high homocysteine condition partly via ERK 1/2 /STAT1 pathway. This mechanism could represent a potential therapeutic target in hyperaemia-associated vascular diseases. This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  15. Role Of Cathepsin C During Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    tumor histopathology is regulated by CSTC; however, in cathepsin C (Ctsc)-deficient mice, there is a significant reduction in the number of...hyaluronan. Glycobiology 14(11): 1108. 2. Ruffell B, Johnson P. (2006) Hyaluronan induces apoptosis through CD44 in activated lymphoma cells. EJC...tumors and lymphomas [16,17]. The ability of immune-deficient mice to reject and/or inhibit the growth of many, but not all cell lines is also impaired

  16. Reevaluating cathepsin D as a biomarker for breast cancer: serum activity levels versus histopathology.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Daniel E; Margaryan, Naira V; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Khan, Seema; Kaklamani, Virginia; Winchester, David J; Hansen, Nora; Rademaker, Alfred; Khalkhali-Ellis, Zhila; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2010-01-01

    Cathepsin D is a lysosomal hydrolase involved in intra- and extracellular proteolysis. This enzyme is aberrantly produced and processed in malignancy, and most notably is over-secreted into the tumor cell microenvironment. This hyper-secretion may lead to excessive degradation of the extracellular matrix, and contribute to tumor progression and metastases. These phenomena have been established in vitro, and there is evidence that Cathepsin D is similarly dysregulated in human breast cancer patients. Because breast cancer lacks an effective screening or surveillance biomarker, here we address the hypothesis that serum Cathepsin D activity may be useful to assess the presence or progression of breast cancer in females. While representative histologic sections from various disease-specific cohorts confirm previous findings that increased Cathepsin D production and secretion correlate with tumor progression, we report no difference in serum Cathepsin D activity between patients who are disease free, patients with pre-invasive or limited invasive disease, and patients with metastatic disease. Furthermore, in patients with known metastatic disease, there were no clinical variables associated with significantly different serum Cathepsin D activity. However, the immunohistochemical localization of Cathepsin D expression in histopathologic sections from breast cancer patients correlates with disease progression. Based on the serum results, and in contradistinction to Cathepsin D localization in breast cancer tissues, our findings support using Cathepsin D as a reliable histopathology biomarker for disease progression, but not for serum screening.

  17. The Potential Role of the Proteases Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L in the Progression and Metastasis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pranjol, Md Zahidul Islam; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hannemann, Michael; Whatmore, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to relatively unspecific early symptoms, and thus often advanced stage, metastasized cancer at presentation. Metastasis of EOC occurs primarily through the transcoelomic route whereby exfoliated tumor cells disseminate within the abdominal cavity, particularly to the omentum. Primary and metastatic tumor growth requires a pool of proangiogenic factors in the microenvironment which propagate new vasculature in the growing cancer. Recent evidence suggests that proangiogenic factors other than the widely known, potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor may mediate growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this review we examine the role of some of these alternative factors, specifically cathepsin D and cathepsin L. PMID:26610586

  18. The Potential Role of the Proteases Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L in the Progression and Metastasis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pranjol, Md Zahidul Islam; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hannemann, Michael; Whatmore, Jacqueline

    2015-11-20

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to relatively unspecific early symptoms, and thus often advanced stage, metastasized cancer at presentation. Metastasis of EOC occurs primarily through the transcoelomic route whereby exfoliated tumor cells disseminate within the abdominal cavity, particularly to the omentum. Primary and metastatic tumor growth requires a pool of proangiogenic factors in the microenvironment which propagate new vasculature in the growing cancer. Recent evidence suggests that proangiogenic factors other than the widely known, potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor may mediate growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this review we examine the role of some of these alternative factors, specifically cathepsin D and cathepsin L.

  19. Structural Dynamics Investigation of Human Family 1 & 2 Cystatin-Cathepsin L1 Interaction: A Comparison of Binding Modes.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Seal, Alpana

    2016-01-01

    Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics. An overall stabilization effect is observed in all cystatins on complex formation. Complexes are mostly dominated by van der Waals interaction but the relative participation of the conserved regions varied extensively. While van der Waals contacts prevail in L1 and L2 loop, N-terminal segment chiefly acts as electrostatic interaction site. In fact the comparative dynamics study points towards the instrumental role of L1 loop in directing the total interaction profile of the complex either towards electrostatic or van der Waals contacts. The key amino acid residues surfaced via interaction energy, hydrogen bonding and solvent accessible surface area analysis for each cystatin-cathepsin L1 complex influence the mode of binding and thus control the diverse inhibitory affinity of cystatins towards cysteine proteases.

  20. Structural Dynamics Investigation of Human Family 1 & 2 Cystatin-Cathepsin L1 Interaction: A Comparison of Binding Modes

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Seal, Alpana

    2016-01-01

    Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics. An overall stabilization effect is observed in all cystatins on complex formation. Complexes are mostly dominated by van der Waals interaction but the relative participation of the conserved regions varied extensively. While van der Waals contacts prevail in L1 and L2 loop, N-terminal segment chiefly acts as electrostatic interaction site. In fact the comparative dynamics study points towards the instrumental role of L1 loop in directing the total interaction profile of the complex either towards electrostatic or van der Waals contacts. The key amino acid residues surfaced via interaction energy, hydrogen bonding and solvent accessible surface area analysis for each cystatin-cathepsin L1 complex influence the mode of binding and thus control the diverse inhibitory affinity of cystatins towards cysteine proteases. PMID:27764212

  1. A mature and fusogenic form of the Nipah virus fusion protein requires proteolytic processing by cathepsin L

    SciTech Connect

    Pager, Cara Theresia; Craft, Willie Warren; Patch, Jared

    2006-03-15

    The Nipah virus fusion (F) protein is proteolytically processed to F{sub 1} + F{sub 2} subunits. We demonstrate here that cathepsin L is involved in this important maturation event. Cathepsin inhibitors ablated cleavage of Nipah F. Proteolytic processing of Nipah F and fusion activity was dramatically reduced in cathepsin L shRNA-expressing Vero cells. Additionally, Nipah virus F-mediated fusion was inhibited in cathepsin L-deficient cells, but coexpression of cathepsin L restored fusion activity. Both purified cathepsin L and B could cleave immunopurified Nipah F protein, but only cathepsin L produced products of the correct size. Our results suggest that endosomal cathepsinsmore » can cleave Nipah F, but that cathepsin L specifically converts Nipah F to a mature and fusogenic form.« less

  2. Alcohol binding in the C1 (C1A + C1B) domain of protein kinase C epsilon

    PubMed Central

    Pany, Satyabrata; Das, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKCε. Methods In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKCε. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKCεC1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKCε were studied in NG108-15 cells. Results In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKCε in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKCεC1 reveals that these residues are 40 Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites. Conclusions The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKCε and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists. PMID:26210390

  3. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  4. Molecular Cloning, Sequencing and Characterization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S Gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. Our preliminary results showed the up-regulation of cathepsin S (CTSS) transcript during the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. This prompted us to speculate that the CTSS may play a role in infection. In this re...

  5. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, cysteine proteinases: Cloning, characterization and expression of cathepsin H and L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antigen recognition by the host immune system is a complex biochemical process that requires a battery of enzymes. Cathepsins are one of the enzyme superfamilies involving in antigenic degradations. We observed the up-regulation of cathepsin H and L transcripts during the early stage of Edward...

  6. Role of cathepsin S In periodontal wound healing-an in vitro study on human PDL cells.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Svenja; Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Damanaki, Anna; Nogueira, Andressa V B; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K; Piperi, Christina; Basdra, Efthimia K; Rath-Deschner, Birgit; Götz, Werner; Cirelli, Joni A; Jäger, Andreas; Deschner, James

    2018-04-05

    Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease, which is expressed in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under inflammatory and infectious conditions. This in vitro study was established to investigate the effect of cathepsin S on PDL cell wound closure. An in vitro wound healing assay was used to monitor wound closure in wounded PDL cell monolayers for 72 h in the presence and absence of cathepsin S. In addition, the effects of cathepsin S on specific markers for apoptosis and proliferation were studied at transcriptional level. Changes in the proliferation rate due to cathepsin S stimulation were analyzed by an XTT assay, and the actions of cathepsin S on cell migration were investigated via live cell tracking. Additionally, PDL cell monolayers were treated with a toll-like receptor 2 agonist in the presence and absence of a cathepsin inhibitor to examine if periodontal bacteria can alter wound closure via cathepsins. Cathepsin S enhanced significantly the in vitro wound healing rate by inducing proliferation and by increasing the speed of cell migration, but had no effect on apoptosis. Moreover, the toll-like receptor 2 agonist enhanced significantly the wound closure and this stimulatory effect was dependent on cathepsins. Our findings provide original evidence that cathepsin S stimulates PDL cell proliferation and migration and, thereby, wound closure, suggesting that this cysteine protease might play a critical role in periodontal remodeling and healing. In addition, cathepsins might be exploited by periodontal bacteria to regulate critical PDL cell functions.

  7. Therapeutic utility and medicinal chemistry of cathepsin C inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guay, Daniel; Beaulieu, Christian; Percival, M David

    2010-01-01

    The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C (Cat C), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase I, activates a number of granule-associated serine proteases with pro-inflammatory and immune functions by removal of their inhibitory N-terminal dipeptides. Thus, Cat C is a therapeutic target for the treatment of a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cathepsin C null mice and humans with Cat C loss of function mutations (Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome) show deficiencies in disease-relevant proteases including neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, chymases and granzymes and the Cat C mice are protected in a number of disease models. Several methodologies have been recently reported for assessing the effects of Cat C inhibitors on serine protease activities in cellular assays and prolonged treatment of rats with a reversible, selective Cat C inhibitor reduced the activity of three leukocyte serine proteases. Nearly all potent and selective Cat C inhibitors described are based on the preferred dipeptide substrates bearing either irreversible (e.g. diazomethylketone, acyloxymethyl ketone, o-acyl hydroxamic acid and vinyl sulfone) or reversible (e.g. semicarbazide, nitrile and cyanamide) electrophilic warheads. While potent and highly selective, the best inhibitors described to date still have poor stability and/or rodent pharmacokinetics, likely resulting from their peptidic nature. The lack of selective compounds with appropriate rodent pharmacokinetic properties has hampered the assessment of the effects of Cat C inhibitors on the activation of disease-relevant proteases in vivo and the full evaluation of the therapeutic utility of Cat C inhibitors.

  8. Study of the expression of cathepsins in histological material from pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan F; Aparicio, José Ramón; Peiró, Gloria; Cabezas, Antonio; Roger, Manuela; Ruiz, Francisco; Compañy, Luís; Casellas, Juan Antonio

    2016-12-01

    To assess the expression levels of cathepsins in malignant and premalignant lesions. We retrospectively included patients who underwent pancreatic surgery on pancreatic solid or cystic masses. The expression of cathepsin H, L, B and S was determined in both types of samples. Lesions were divided into three categories: malignant (pancreatic adenocarcinoma and malignant mucinous neoplasms), premalignant (mucinous neoplasms) and benign (other lesions). Thirty-one surgical resection samples were studied. The expression of cathepsins was significantly higher in malignant lesions than in premalignant and benign lesions (H 75%, 27%, 37% p = 0.05; L 92%, 36%, 37% p = 0.011; B 83%, 36%, 62% p = 0.069; S 92%, 36%, 25% p = 0.004, respectively). Cathepsins are overexpressed in histological samples of malignant lesions compared to premalignant and benign lesions. However, the expression of cathepsins is similar in both premalignant and benign lesions.

  9. Juvenile-specific cathepsin proteases in Fasciola spp.: their characteristics and vaccine efficacies.

    PubMed

    Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-08-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is one of the most neglected tropical zoonotic diseases. One sustainable control strategy against these infections is the employment of vaccines that target proteins essential for parasites' invasion and nutrition acquiring processes. Cathepsin proteases are the most abundantly expressed proteins in Fasciola spp. that have been tested successfully as vaccines against fasciolosis in experimental as well as large animals because of their important roles in digestion of nutrients, invasion, and migration. Specifically, juvenile-specific cathepsin proteases are the more effective vaccines because they could block the invasion and migration of juvenile parasites whose immune evasion mechanism has not yet been fully developed. Moreover, because of high sequence similarity and identity of cathepsins from juveniles with those of adults, the vaccines can attack both the juvenile and adult stages. In this article, the characteristics and vaccine potentials of juvenile-specific cathepsins, i.e., cathepsins L and B, of Fasciola spp. were reviewed.

  10. Irreversible inhibition of human cathepsins B, L, S and K by hypervalent tellurium compounds.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Gouvêa, Iuri E; Feitosa, Geovana P V; Alves, Márcio F M; Brömme, Dieter; Comasseto, João V; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Juliano, Luiz

    2009-11-01

    The inhibition of human cysteine cathepsins B, L, S and K was evaluated by a set of hypervalent tellurium compounds (telluranes) comprising both organic and inorganic derivatives. All telluranes studied showed a time- and concentration-dependent irreversible inhibition of the cathepsins, and their second-order inactivation rate constants were determined. The organic derivatives were potent inhibitors of the cathepsins and clear specificities were detected, which were parallel to their known substrate specificities. In all cases, the activity of the tellurane-inhibited cathepsins was recovered by treatment of the inactivated enzymes with reducing agents. The maximum stoichiometry of the reaction between cysteine residues and telluranes were also determined. The presented data indicate that it is possible to design organic compounds with a tellurium(IV) moiety as a novel warhead that covalently modifies the catalytic cysteine, and which also form strong interactions with subsites of cathepsins B, L, S and K, resulting in more specific inhibition.

  11. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Cancer Res 2004;10(12 Pt 1):4118-4124. 28. Munoz E, Gomez F, Paz JI, Casado I, Silva JM, Corcuera MT, Alonso MJ. Ki-67 immunolabeling in pre...detected prostate cancer. J Pathol 2002;197(2):148-154. 34. Claudio PP, Zamparelli A, Garcia FU, Claudio L, Ammirati G, Farina A, Bovicelli A, Russo G...JA. Distinct roles for cysteine cathepsin genes in multistage tumorigenesis. Genes Dev 2006;20(5):543-556. 47. Fernandez PL, Farre X, Nadal A

  12. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs

    PubMed Central

    Stornetta, Ruth L.; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; DePuy, Seth D.; Burke, Peter G. R.; Abbott, Stephen B. G.

    2013-01-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

  13. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Depuy, Seth D; Burke, Peter G R; Abbott, Stephen B G

    2013-08-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension.

  14. Cysteine Cathepsins Activate ELR Chemokines and Inactivate Non-ELR Chemokines*

    PubMed Central

    Repnik, Urska; Starr, Amanda E.; Overall, Christopher M.; Turk, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are primarily lysosomal proteases involved in general protein turnover, but they also have specific proteolytic functions in antigen presentation and bone remodeling. Cathepsins are most stable at acidic pH, although growing evidence indicates that they have physiologically relevant activity also at neutral pH. Post-translational proteolytic processing of mature chemokines is a key, yet underappreciated, level of chemokine regulation. Although the role of selected serine proteases and matrix metalloproteases in chemokine processing has long been known, little has been reported about the role of cysteine cathepsins. Here we evaluated cleavage of CXC ELR (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8) and non-ELR (CXCL9–12) chemokines by cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S at neutral pH by high resolution Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Whereas cathepsin B cleaved chemokines especially in the C-terminal region, cathepsins K, L, and S cleaved chemokines at the N terminus with glycosaminoglycans modulating cathepsin processing of chemokines. The functional consequences of the cleavages were determined by Ca2+ mobilization and chemotaxis assays. We show that cysteine cathepsins inactivate and in some cases degrade non-ELR CXC chemokines CXCL9–12. In contrast, cathepsins specifically process ELR CXC chemokines CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 N-terminally to the ELR motif, thereby generating agonist forms. This study suggests that cysteine cathepsins regulate chemokine activity and thereby leukocyte recruitment during protective or pathological inflammation. PMID:25833952

  15. Interacting partners of macrophage-secreted cathepsin B contribute to HIV-induced neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    CANTRES-ROSARIO, Yisel M.; HERNANDEZ, Natalia; NEGRON, Karla; PEREZ-LASPIUR, Juliana; LESZYK, John; SHAFFER, Scott A.; MELENDEZ, Loyda M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-1 infection of macrophages increases cathepsin B secretion and induces neuronal apoptosis, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Design We identified macrophage secreted cathepsin B protein interactions extracellularly and their contribution to neuronal death in vitro. Methods Cathepsin B was immunoprecipitated from monocyte-derived macrophage supernatants after 12 days post-infection. The cathepsin B interactome was quantified by label-free tandem mass spectrometry and compared to uninfected supernatants. Proteins identified were validated by western blot. Neurons were exposed to macrophage-conditioned media in presence or absence of antibodies against cathepsin B and interacting proteins. Apoptosis was measured using TUNEL labeling. Immunohistochemistry of post-mortem brain tissue samples from healthy, HIV-infected, and Alzheimer’s disease patients was performed to observe the ex vivo expression of the proteins identified. Results Nine proteins co-immunoprecipitated differentially with cathepsin B between uninfected and HIV-infected macrophages. Serum amyloid p component (SAPC) -cathepsin B interaction increased in HIV-infected macrophage supernatants, while matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) -cathepsin B interaction decreased. Pre-treatment of HIV-infected macrophage-conditioned media with antibodies against cathepsin B and SAPC decreased neuronal apoptosis. The addition of MMP-9 antibodies was not protective. SAPC was over-expressed in post-mortem brain tissue from HIV-positive neurocognitive impaired patients compared to HIV positive with normal cognition and healthy controls, while MMP-9 expression was similar in all tissues. Conclusions Inhibiting SAPC-cathepsin B interaction protects against HIV–induced neuronal death and may help to find alternative treatments for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26208400

  16. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Erica N.; Song, Jiangli; Kumar, G. D. Kishore; Odutola, Samuel O.; Chavarria, Gustavo E.; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K.; Strecker, Tracy E.; Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Sudhan, Dhivya R.; Wittenborn, Thomas R.; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Horsman, Michael R.; Chaplin, David J.; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre

  17. Upregulation of cathepsin C expression contributes to endothelial chymase activation in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Lewis, David F; Alexander, J Steven; Wang, Yuping

    2017-12-01

    Chymase is an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)-independent angiotensin II-forming enzyme whose expression is increased in the maternal vascular endothelium in preeclampsia. However, mechanisms underlying chymase activation in preeclampsia remain unclear. Cathepsin C is a key enzyme in the activation of several serine proteases including chymase. In this study, we determined whether increased cathepsin C expression/activity might be responsible for the upregulation of chymase expression in preeclampsia. Maternal vascular cathepsin C, chymase and ACE expression were examined through immunohistochemical staining of subcutaneous fat tissue sections of normal and preeclamptic pregnant women. The role of cathepsin C in endothelial chymase and ACE expression was determined in cells treated with cathepsin C. Consequences of chymase activation were then determined by measurement of angiotensin II production in cells treated with the ACE inhibitor captopril and the chymase inhibitor chymostatin, separately and in combination. Expression of both cathepsin C and chymase, but not ACE expression, was markedly increased in the maternal vascular endothelium in subjects with preeclampsia compared with normal pregnant controls. Exogenous cathepsin C induced a dose-dependent increase in expression of mature cathepsin C and chymase, but not ACE, in endothelial cells. Moreover, angiotensin II production was significantly inhibited in cells treated with captopril or chymostatin alone and was further inhibited in cells treated with both inhibitors. These results suggest that cathepsin C upregulation induces chymase activation and subsequently promotes angiotensin II generation in endothelial cells. These data also provide evidence of upregulation of the cathepsin C-chymase-angiotensin signaling axis in maternal vasculature in preeclampsia.

  18. Monoclonal antibody against recombinant Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H could detect juvenile and adult cathepsin Ls of Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Wongwairot, Sirima; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Sansri, Veerawat; Meemon, Krai; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin Ls (CatLs), the major cysteine protease secreted by Fasciola spp., are important for parasite digestion and tissue invasion. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H (FgCatL1H) is the isotype expressed in the early stages for migration and invasion. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1H (rFgCatL1H) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant proFgCatL1H (rproFgCatL1H). This MoAb is an immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 with κ light chain isotype. The MoAb reacted specifically with rproFgCatL1H, the native FgCatL1H at a molecular weight (MW) 38 to 48 kDa in the extract of whole body (WB) of metacercariae and newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) and cross-reacted with rFgCatL1 and native FgCatLs at MW 25 to 28 kDa in WB of 2- and 4-week-old juveniles, adult, and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA. It did not cross-react with antigens in WB fractions from other parasites, including Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Setaria labiato-papillosa, and Fischoederius cobboldi. By immunolocalization, MoAb against rFgCatL1H reacted with the native protein in the gut of metacercariae and NEJ and also cross-reacted with CatL1 in 2- and 4-week-old juveniles and adult F. gigantica. Therefore, FgCatL1H and its MoAb may be used for immunodiagnosis of both early and late fasciolosis in ruminants and humans.

  19. Wiseman conducts BCAT-C1 experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-076505 (25 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-C1, or BCAT-C1, experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Results from this ongoing investigation of colloids ? mixtures of small particles distributed throughout a liquid ? will help materials scientists to develop new consumer products with unique properties and longer shelf lives.

  20. Wiseman conducts BCAT-C1 experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-076510 (25 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-C1, or BCAT-C1, experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Results from this ongoing investigation of colloids ? mixtures of small particles distributed throughout a liquid ? will help materials scientists to develop new consumer products with unique properties and longer shelf lives.

  1. Wiseman conducts BCAT-C1 experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-076507 (25 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-C1, or BCAT-C1, experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. Results from this ongoing investigation of colloids ? mixtures of small particles distributed throughout a liquid ? will help materials scientists to develop new consumer products with unique properties and longer shelf lives.

  2. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Three-dimensional cultures modeling premalignant progression of human breast epithelial cells: role of cysteine cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Stefanie R; Sameni, Mansoureth; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Sloane, Bonnie F; Moin, Kamiar

    2012-12-01

    The expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in early stages of human breast cancer.To assess the potential role of cathepsin B in premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells, we employed a 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay culture model of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and isogenic variants that replicate the in vivo phenotypes of hyper plasia(MCF10AneoT) and atypical hyperplasia (MCF10AT1). MCF10A cells developed into polarized acinar structures with central lumens. In contrast, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells form larger structures in which the lumens are filled with cells. CA074Me, a cell-permeable inhibitor selective for the cysteine cathepsins B and L,reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MCF10A, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells in 3D culture. We detected active cysteine cathepsins in the isogenic MCF10 variants in 3D culture with GB111, a cell-permeable activity based probe, and established differential inhibition of cathepsin B in our 3D cultures. We conclude that cathepsin B promotes proliferation and premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with studies by others showing that deletion of cathepsin B in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a murine model that is predisposed to development of mammary cancer, reduces malignant progression.

  4. Cathepsin L Inhibition Prevents Murine Autoimmune Diabetes via Suppression of CD8+ T Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Akiko; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Arakaki, Rieko; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from defects in central and peripheral tolerance and characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of islet β cells. To determine whether specific lysosomal proteases might influence the outcome of a T cell–mediated autoimmune response, we examined the functional significance of cathepsin inhibition on autoimmune T1D-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Methods and Findings Here it was found that specific inhibition of cathepsin L affords strong protection from cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced insulitis and diabetes of NOD mice at the advanced stage of CD8+ T cell infiltration via inhibiting granzyme activity. It was discovered that cathepsin L inhibition prevents cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells in the pancreatic islets through controlling dipeptidyl peptidase I activity. Moreover, the gene targeting for cathepsin L with application of in vivo siRNA administration successfully prevented CY-induced diabetes of NOD mice. Finally, cathepsin L mRNA expression of peripheral CD8+ T cells from NOD mice developing spontaneous T1D was significantly increased compared with that from control mice. Conclusions Our results identified a novel function of cathepsin L as an enzyme whose activity is essential for the progression of CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes, and inhibition of cathepsin L as a powerful therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diabetes. PMID:20877570

  5. Effects of acid etching and adhesive treatments on host-derived cysteine cathepsin activity in dentin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhao; Yang, Weixiang; Wu, Shuyi; Zheng, Kaibin; Liao, Weili; Chen, Boli; Yao, Ke; Liang, Guobin; Li, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the effects of different processes during bonding on endogenous cysteine cathepsin activity in dentin. Dentin powder, prepared from extracted human third molars, was divided into 10 groups. Two lots of dentin powder were used to detect the effects of the procedure of protein extraction on endogenous cathepsin activity. The others were used to study effects of different acid-etching or adhesive treatments on enzyme activity. Concentrations of 37% phosphoric acid or 10% phosphoric acid, two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems, and two self-etching adhesive systems were used as dentin powder treatments. The untreated mineralized dentin powder was set as the control. After treatment, the proteins of each group were extracted. The total cathepsin activity in the extracts of each group was monitored with a fluorescence reader. In the control group, there were no significant differences in cathepsin activity between the protein extract before EDTA treatment and the protein extract after EDTA treatment (p > 0.05). The cathepsin activities of the three different extracts in the 37% phosphoric acid-treated group were different from each other (p < 0.05). The two acid-etching groups and two etch-and-rinse groups showed significant enzyme activity reduction vs the control group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between those four groups (p > 0.05). Treating the dentin powder with any of the two self-etching adhesives resulted in an increase in cathepsin activity (p < 0.05). The activity of cysteine cathepsins can be detected in dentin powder. Treatment with EDTA during protein extraction exerted an influence on cathepsin activity. Acid etching or etch-and-rinse adhesive systems may reduce the activity of endogenous cathepsins in dentin. Self-etching adhesive systems may increase the enzyme activity.

  6. Evaluation of serum cathepsin B and D in relation to clinicopathological staging of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta; Sulkowska, Mariola; Wincewicz, Andrzej; Koda, Mariusz; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix facilitates cancer invasion and promotes metastasis. The study aims at evaluation of preoperative and postoperative serum cathepsins B and D levels in correlation with selected anatomoclinical features of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 63 colorectal cancer patients before curative operation of the tumor 10 d later. Blood that was obtained from 20 healthy volunteers, served as a control. The activity of cathepsin B was measured with Bz-DL-arginine-pNA as a substrate at pH 6.0, while cathepsin D activity was determined with urea-denatured hemoglobin (pH 4.0). RESULTS: The preoperative and postoperative activities of cathepsin B were significantly (P < 0.00001) lower in serum of colorectal cancer patients than in control group. However, postoperative values of this protease were significantly increased in comparison with preoperative ones (P = 0.031). Activity of cathepsin D appeared to be significantly higher in colorectal cancer sera (P < 0.00001) compared with controls. No statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative activity of cathepsin D were noted (P = 0.09). We revealed a strong linkage of cathepsins’ levels with lymph node status and pT stage of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Blood serum activities of cathepsin B and D depend on the time of sampling, tumor size and lymph node involvement. Significantly, increased activity of cathepsin D could indicate a malignant condition of the large intestine. In our work, the serum postoperative decrease of cathepsin B activity appears as an obvious concomitant of local lymph node metastasis-the well-known clinicopathological feature of poor prognosis. PMID:16015694

  7. Cathepsin S is associated with degradation of collagen I in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Veronika; Schmies, Fadwa; Reeps, Christian; Trenner, Matthias; Geisbüsch, Sarah; Lohoefer, Fabian; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2018-06-01

    Cathepsins have been described in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), their exact role, especially in collagen degradation, is still unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse relevant cathepsins in human AAA tissue samples in relation to collagen I, III, and their degradation products. Samples from 37 AAA patients obtained from elective open surgical repair and eight healthy non-aneurysmatic aortas from kidney donors were included. Expression of cathepsins B, D, K, L, S, cystatin C, collagen I and III, their degraded products C-Telopeptide of type 1 and 3 collagen (CTX-I, CTX-III), cellular markers for leukocytes (CD45), T cells (CD3), macrophage scavenger receptor-1 (MSR-1), synthetic, and contractile smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (smoothelin: SMTH, collagen I and III, myosin heavy chain: MHC, embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain: SMemb) were determined at messenger RNA (mRNA) level, using SYBRGreen-based quantitative PCR and at protein level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of cathepsins B, D, L, and S at mRNA level was significantly elevated in AAA compared to control aorta (1.7-fold, p = 0.025; 2.5-fold, p = 0.002; 2.6-fold, p = 0.034; and 7.0-fold, p = 0.003). Expression of cathepsin S correlated significantly with leukocytes and macrophages (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.033 and ρ = 0.422, p = 0.020), synthetic SMCs were significantly associated with cathepsins B, D, and L (ρ = 0.522, p = 0.003; ρ = 0.431, p = 0.015 and ρ = 0.467, p = 0.008). At protein level, cathepsins B and S were elevated in AAA compared to controls (5.4-fold, p = 0.001 and 7.3-fold, p < 0.001). Significant correlations were observed between collagen I, its degraded product, and cathepsin S (r = -0.350, p = 0.034 and r = +0.504, p < 0.001). Expression of cathepsin B was associated with SMCs, expression of cathepsin S with inflammatory cells. Particularly cathepsin S was associated with the degradation product of collagen I and

  8. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by cathepsin G in porcine pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Glusa, Erika; Adam, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Serine proteinases elicit profound cellular effects in various tissues mediated by activation of proteinase-activated receptors (PAR). In the present study, we investigated the vascular effects of cathepsin G, a serine proteinase that is present in the azurophil granules of leukocytes and is known to activate several cells that express PARs. In prostaglandin F2α (3 μM)-precontracted rings from porcine pulmonary arteries with intact endothelium, cathepsin G caused concentration-dependent relaxant responses (pEC50=9.64±0.12). The endothelium-dependent relaxant effect of cathepsin G could also be demonstrated in porcine coronary arteries (pEC50=9.23±0.07). In pulmonary arteries the cathepsin G-induced relaxation was inhibited after blockade of nitric oxide synthesis by L-NAME (200 μM) and was absent in endothelium-denuded vessels. Bradykinin- and cathepsin G-induced relaxant effects were associated with a 5.7 fold and 2.4 fold increase in the concentration of cyclic GMP, respectively. Compared with thrombin and trypsin, which also produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries, cathepsin G was 2.5 and four times more potent, respectively. Cathepsin G caused only small homologous desensitization. In cathepsin G-challenged vessels, thrombin was still able to elicit a relaxant effect. The effects of cathepsin G were blocked by soybean trypsin inhibitor (IC50=0.043 μg ml−1), suggesting that proteolytic activity is essential for induction of relaxation. Recombinant acetyl-eglin C proved to be a potent inhibitor (IC50=0.14 μg ml−1) of the cathepsin G effect, whereas neither indomethacin (3 μM) nor the thrombin inhibitor hirudin (5 ATU ml−1) elicited any inhibitory activity. Due to their polyanionic structure defibrotide (IC50=0.11 μg ml−1), heparin (IC50=0.48 μg ml−1) and suramin (IC50=1.85 μg ml−1) diminished significantly the relaxation in response to the basic protein cathepsin G. In conclusion, like

  9. Cathepsin H Functions as an Aminopeptidase in Secretory Vesicles for Production of Enkephalin and Galanin Peptide Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, W. Douglas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Toneff, Thomas; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Peptide neurotransmitters function as key intercellular signaling molecules in the nervous system. These peptides are generated in secretory vesicles from proneuropeptides by proteolytic processing at dibasic residues, followed by removal of N- and/or C-terminal basic residues to form active peptides. Enkephalin biosynthesis from proenkephalin utilizes the cysteine protease cathepsin L and the subtilisin-like prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). Cathepsin L generates peptide intermediates with N-terminal basic residue extensions, which must be removed by an aminopeptidase. In this study, we identified cathepsin H as an aminopeptidase in secretory vesicles that produces (Met)enkephalin (ME) by sequential removal of basic residues from KR-ME and KK-ME, supported by in vivo knockout of the cathepsin H gene. Localization of cathepsin H in secretory vesicles was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Purified human cathepsin H sequentially removes N-terminal basic residues to generate ME, with peptide products characterized by nano-LC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. Cathepsin H shows highest activities for cleaving N-terminal basic residues (Arg and Lys) among amino acid fluorogenic substrates. Notably, knockout of the cathepsin H gene results in reduction of ME in mouse brain. Cathepsin H deficient mice also show a substantial decrease in galanin peptide neurotransmitter levels in brain. These results illustrate a role for cathepsin H as an aminopeptidase for enkephalin and galanin peptide neurotransmitter production. PMID:22582844

  10. The development and characterization of an ELISA specifically detecting the active form of cathepsin K.

    PubMed

    Sun, S; Karsdal, M A; Bay-Jensen, A C; Sørensen, M G; Zheng, Q; Dziegiel, M H; Maksymowych, W P; Henriksen, K

    2013-10-01

    Cathepsin K plays essential roles in bone resorption and is intensely investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Hence an assessment of the active form of cathepsin K may provide important biological information in metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis. Presently there are no robust assays for the assessment of active cathepsin K in serum, and therefore an ELISA specifically detecting the N-terminal of the active form of cathepsin K was developed. The assay was technically robust, with a lowest limit of detection (LOD) of 0.085 ng/mL. The average intra- and inter-assay CV% were 6.60% and 8.56% respectively. The dilution recovery and spike recovery tests in human serum were within 100±20% within the range of the assay. A comparison of latent and active cathepsin K confirmed specificity towards the active form. Quantification of the levels of active cathepsin K in supernatants of purified human osteoclasts compared to corresponding macrophages showed a 30-fold induction (p<0.001). In contrast, in serum samples from osteoporotic women on estrogen or bisphosphonate therapy and from ankylosing spondylitis patients no clinically relevant differences were observed. In summary, we have developed a robust and sensitive assay specifically detecting the active form of cathepsin K; however, while it monitors osteoclasts with high specificity in vitro, it appears that circulating levels of active cathepsin K do not reflect bone changes under these circumstances. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cathepsin K: a cysteine protease with unique kinin-degrading properties

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Taking into account a previous report of an unidentified enzyme from macrophages acting as a kininase, the ability of cysteine proteases to degrade kinins has been investigated. Wild-type fibroblast lysates from mice, by contrast with cathepsin K-deficient lysates, hydrolysed BK (bradykinin), and released two metabolites, BK-(1–4) and BK-(5–9). Cathepsin K, but not cathepsins B, H, L and S, cleaved kinins at the Gly4–Phe5 bond and the bradykinin-mimicking substrate Abz (o-aminobenzoic acid)-RPPGFSPFR-3-NO2-Tyr (3-nitrotyrosine) more efficiently (pH 6.0: kcat/Km=12500 mM−1·s−1; pH 7.4: kcat/Km=6930 mM−1·s−1) than angiotensin-converting enzyme hydrolysed BK. Conversely Abz-RPPGFSPFR-3-NO2-Tyr was not cleaved by the Y67L (Tyr67→Leu)/L205A (Leu205→Ala) cathepsin K mutant, indicating that kinin degradation mostly depends on the S2 substrate specificity. Kininase activity was further evaluated on bronchial smooth muscles. BK, but not its metabolites BK(1-4) and BK(5-9), induced a dose-dependent contraction, which was abolished by Hoe140, a B2-type receptor antagonist. Cathepsin K impaired BK-dependent contraction of normal and chronic hypoxic rats, whereas cathepsins B and L did not. Taking together vasoactive properties of kinins and the potency of cathepsin K to modulate BK-dependent contraction of smooth muscles, the present data support the notion that cathepsin K may act as a kininase, a unique property among mammalian cysteine proteases. PMID:15265002

  12. Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Kyle C.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activatedmore » fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.« less

  13. [Changes in active cysteine cathepsins in lysosomes from tissues thyroid papillary carcinomas with various biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Kalinichenko, O V; Myshunina, T M; Tron'ko, M D

    2013-01-01

    To clarify possible role of cysteine cathepsin H, B and L in the proteolytic processes that contribute to the progression of tumor growth in the thyroid, we studied their activity in lysosomes isolated from the tissue of papillary carcinomas. It was shown that for these enzymes there is a dependence of the changes in their activity on a number of biological characteristics of the tumors. Thus, the sharp increase in the activity ofcathepsin H observed in lysosomes of tissue carcinomas category T2 and T3, with intra-and ekstrathyroid and lymphatic invasion of tumor cells. An increase in the activity of cathepsin B is set in the lysosomes of tissue heterogeneous follicular structure, especially in the presence of solid areas, in comparison with typical papillary tumors and in the lysosomes of tissue carcinomas in intrathyroid and cathepsin L-at extrathyroid invasion. A common feature of the enzymes is to increase the activity of cathepsins in lysosomes of tissue nonencapsulated papillary carcinomas. These enzymes probably do not take part in the invasion of tumor cells into blood vessels and in the mechanisms of tumor metastasis to regional lymph nodes. The latter shows no changes in the activity of cathepsins in lysosomes of tissue carcinomas category N1. The results indicate the different role of cathepsin H, B and L in thyroid carcinogenesis, where each enzyme has its specific function.

  14. Grassystatins A–C from Marine Cyanobacteria, Potent Cathepsin E Inhibitors that Reduce Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Jason C.; Eksioglu, Erika A.; Liu, Chen; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    In our efforts to explore marine cyanobacteria as a source of novel bioactive compounds we discovered a statine unit-containing linear decadepsipeptide, grassystatin A (1), which we screened against a diverse set of 59 proteases. We describe the structure determination of 1 and two natural analogs, grassystatins B (2) and C (3), using NMR, MS, and chiral HPLC techniques. Compound 1 selectively inhibited cathepsins D and E with IC50s of 26.5 nM and 886 pM, respectively. Compound 2 showed similar potency and selectivity against cathepsins D and E (IC50s 7.27 nM and 354 pM, respectively), whereas the truncated peptide analog grassystatin C (3), which consists of two fewer residues than 1 and 2, was less potent against both but still selective for cathepsin E. The selectivity of compounds 1–3 for cathepsin E over D (20- to 38-fold) suggests that these natural products may be useful tools to probe cathepsin E function. We investigated the structural basis of this selectivity using molecular docking. We also show that 1 can reduce antigen presentation by dendritic cells, a process thought to rely on cathepsin E. PMID:19715320

  15. A possible alternative mechanism of kinin generation in vivo by cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Puzer, Luciano; Vercesi, Juliana; Alves, Marcio F M; Barros, Nilana M T; Araujo, Mariana S; Aparecida Juliano, Maria; Reis, Marina L; Juliano, Luiz; Carmona, Adriana K

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the ability of cathepsin L to induce a hypotensive effect after intravenous injection in rats and correlated this decrease in blood pressure with kinin generation. Simultaneously with blood pressure decrease, we detected plasma kininogen depletion in the treated rats. The effect observed in vivo was abolished by pre-incubation of cathepsin L with the cysteine peptidase-specific inhibitor E-64 (1 microM) or by previous administration of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist JE049 (4 mg/kg). A potentiation of the hypotensive effect caused by cathepsin L was observed by previous administration of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg). In vitro studies indicated that cathepsin L excised bradykinin from the synthetic fluorogenic peptide Abz-MTSVIRRPPGFSPFRAPRV-NH2, based on the Met375-Val393 sequence of rat kininogen (Abz = o-aminobenzoic acid). In conclusion, our data indicate that in vivo cathepsin L releases a kinin-related peptide, and in vitro experiments suggest that the kinin generated is bradykinin. Although it is well known that cysteine proteases are strongly inhibited by kininogen, cathepsin L could represent an alternative pathway for kinin production in pathological processes.

  16. Phosphatidylserine Stimulates Ceramide 1-Phosphate (C1P) Intermembrane Transfer by C1P Transfer Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiuhong; Gao, Yong-Guang; Mishra, Shrawan K; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Benson, Linda M; Bergen, H Robert; Malinina, Lucy; Mundy, John; Molotkovsky, Julian G; Patel, Dinshaw J; Brown, Rhoderick E

    2017-02-10

    Genetic models for studying localized cell suicide that halt the spread of pathogen infection and immune response activation in plants include Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death 11 mutant ( acd11 ). In this mutant, sphingolipid homeostasis is disrupted via depletion of ACD11, a lipid transfer protein that is specific for ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) and phyto-C1P. The C1P binding site in ACD11 and in human ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein (CPTP) is surrounded by cationic residues. Here, we investigated the functional regulation of ACD11 and CPTP by anionic phosphoglycerides and found that 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidic acid or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (≤15 mol %) in C1P source vesicles depressed C1P intermembrane transfer. By contrast, replacement with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylserine stimulated C1P transfer by ACD11 and CPTP. Notably, "soluble" phosphatidylserine (dihexanoyl-phosphatidylserine) failed to stimulate C1P transfer. Also, none of the anionic phosphoglycerides affected transfer action by human glycolipid lipid transfer protein (GLTP), which is glycolipid-specific and has few cationic residues near its glycolipid binding site. These findings provide the first evidence for a potential phosphoglyceride headgroup-specific regulatory interaction site(s) existing on the surface of any GLTP-fold and delineate new differences between GLTP superfamily members that are specific for C1P versus glycolipid. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G in pregnancies complicated by the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Ivana; Andrys, Ctirad; Drahosova, Marcela; Soucek, Ondrej; Pliskova, Lenka; Stepan, Martin; Bestvina, Tomas; Maly, Jan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) based on the presence of the microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). A total of 154 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations were assessed by ELISA. MIAC was determined using a non-cultivation approach. IAI was defined as an amniotic fluid bedside interleukin-6 concentration ≥ 745 pg/mL. Women with MIAC had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women without MIAC (with MIAC: median 82.7 ng/mL, versus without MIAC: median 64.7 ng/mL; p = 0.0003). Women with IAI had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women without this complication (with IAI: median 103.0 ng/mL, versus without IAI: median 66.2 ng/mL; p < 0.0001). Women with microbial-associated (with both MIAC and IAI) IAI and sterile (IAI without MIAC) IAI had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women with colonization (MIAC without IAI) and women without both MIAC and IAI (p < 0.0001). The presence of either microbial-associated or sterile IAI was associated with increased amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations in pregnancies complicated by PPROM. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G appears to be a potential marker of IAI.

  19. The granulocyte-angiotensin system. Angiotensin I-converting activity of cathepsin G.

    PubMed

    Klickstein, L B; Kaempfer, C E; Wintroub, B U

    1982-12-25

    Cathepsin G, an Mr = 26,000-29,000 cationic human neutrophil lysosomal serine protease, releases angiotensin II from angiotensinogen and was, therefore, examined for angiotensin I-converting activity. Cathepsin G-dependent angiotensin I conversion was detected by a high performance liquid chromatography assay which permitted independent quantitation of angiotensin I and angiotensin II and detection of angiotensin degradation products. 1.8-5.0 X 10(-9) M cathepsin G converted angiotensin I (3.3 X 10(-4) M) to angiotensin II without further degradation of angiotensin II. The pH optimum for cathepsin G-catalyzed angiotensin I conversion was pH 7.0-7.5, and the Km and Kcat were 2.2 X 10(-4) M and 3.4 s-1, respectively. In contrast to dipeptidyl hydrolase-converting enzyme, cathepsin G did not inactivate bradykinin, did not cleave hippuryl-His-Leu, and was not inhibited by 10(-4) M Captopril or SQ 20881. Purified human neutrophils stimulated with 2.5 X 10(-6) M-10(-10) M fMet-Leu-Phe released angiotensin-converting activity with a Km of 3.3 X 10(-4) M. That the angiotensin-converting activity released from neutrophils was attributable to cathepsin G was indicated by similar susceptibility to inhibitors and adsorption by goat antibody to cathepsin G. The granulocyte-angiotensin system provides a mechanism for the local generation of angiotensin II at sites of neutrophil accumulation and may be of significance in regulation of blood flow in tissue microvasculature.

  20. UVA Causes Dual Inactivation of Cathepsin B and L Underlying Lysosomal Dysfunction in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous exposure to chronic solar UVA-radiation is a causative factor in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Recently, we have identified the thiol-dependent cysteine-protease cathepsin B as a novel UVA-target undergoing photo-oxidative inactivation upstream of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in fibroblasts. In this study, we examined UVA effects on a wider range of cathepsins and explored the occurrence of UVA-induced cathepsin inactivation in other cultured skin cell types. In dermal fibroblasts, chronic exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of UVA caused pronounced inactivation of the lysosomal cysteine-proteases cathepsin B and L, effects not observed in primary keratinocytes and occurring only to a minor extent in primary melanocytes. In order to determine if UVA-induced lysosomal impairment requires single or dual inactivation of cathepsin B and/or L, we used a genetic approach (siRNA) to selectively downregulate enzymatic activity of these target cathepsins. Monitoring an established set of protein markers (including LAMP1, LC3-II, and p62) and cell ultrastructural changes detected by electron microscopy, we observed that only dual genetic antagonism (targeting both CTSB and CTSL expression) could mimic UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations, whereas single knockdown (targeting CTSB or CTSL only) did not display ‘UVA-mimetic’ effects failing to reproduce the UVA-induced phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic UVA inhibits both cathepsin B and L enzymatic activity and that dual inactivation of both enzymes is a causative factor underlying UVA-induced impairment of lysosomal function in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23603447

  1. Characterization of cathepsin B gene from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides involved in SGIV infection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Yan, Yang; Guo, Chuanyu; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B of papain family is a key regulator and signaling molecule that involves in various biological processes, such as the regulation of apoptosis and activation of virus. In the present study, cathepsin B gene (Ec-CB) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-CB cDNA was composed of 1918 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 330 amino acids with higher identities to cathepsin B of teleosts and mammalians. Ec-CB possessed typical cathepsin B structural features including an N-terminal signal peptide, the propeptide region and the cysteine protease domain which were conserved in other cathepsin B sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ec-CB was most closely related to Lutjanus argentimaculatus. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ec-CB transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues which abundant in spleen, kidney and gill. After challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin B in E. coioides was up-regulated at 24 h post-infection. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-CB was distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. When the fish cells (GS or FHM) were treated with the cathepsin B specific inhibitor CA-074Me, the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV was delayed, and the viral gene transcription was significantly inhibited. Additionally, SGIV-induced typical apoptosis was also inhibited by CA-074Me in FHM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the Ec-CB might play a functional role in SGIV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactions of C1 Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, Michael

    The chapter “Reactions of C1 Building Blocks” covers the direct conversion of methane to aromatics, the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTHC) conversion with respect to gasoline (methanol to gasoline) and olefins (methanol to olefins, methanol-to-propene) as well as some combinations like the TIGAS and Mobil's olefin-to-gasoline and distillate processes. The main focus within this chapter will be on the industrial processes, especially concerning the MTHC reactions - including catalytic systems, reaction conditions, process - and to a minor extent related to the mechanistic aspects and kinetic considerations.

  3. Biosynthesis and processing of cathepsin K in cultured human osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Rieman, D J; McClung, H A; Dodds, R A; Hwang, S M; Holmes, M W; James, I E; Drake, F H; Gowen, M

    2001-03-01

    Cathepsin K (cat K) is the major cysteine protease expressed in osteoclasts and is thought to play a key role in matrix degradation during bone resorption. However, little is known regarding the synthesis, activation, or turnover of the endogenous enzyme in osteoclasts. In this study, we show that mature cat K protein and enzyme activity are localized within osteoclasts. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that, following the synthesis of pro cat K, intracellular conversion to the mature enzyme occurred in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the level of mature enzyme decreased. Little or no cat K was observed in the culture media at any timepoint. Pretreatment of osteoclasts with either chloroquine or monensin resulted in complete inhibition of the processing of newly synthesized cat K. In addition, pro cat K demonstrated susceptibility to treatment with N-glycosidase F, suggesting the presence of high-mannose-containing oligosaccharides. Treatment of osteoclasts with the PI3-kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin (WT), not only prevented the intracellular processing of cat K but also resulted in the secretion of proenzyme into the culture media. Taken together, these results suggest that the biosynthesis, processing, and turnover of cat K in human osteoclasts is constitutive and occurs in a manner similar to that of other known cysteine proteases. Furthermore, cat K is not secreted as a proenzyme, but is processed intracellularly, presumably in lysosomal compartments prior to the release of active enzyme into the resorption lacunae.

  4. Cathepsin B is not the processing enzyme for mouse prorenin.

    PubMed

    Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2010-05-01

    Renin, an aspartyl protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is proteolytically activated by a second protease [referred to as the prorenin processing enzyme (PPE)] before its secretion from the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney. Although several enzymes are capable of activating renin in vitro, the leading candidate for the PPE in the kidney is cathepsin B (CTSB) due to is colocalization with the renin precursor (prorenin) in juxtaglomerular cell granules and because of its site-selective activation of human prorenin both in vitro and in transfected tissue culture cell models. To verify the role of CTSB in prorenin processing in vivo, we tested the ability of CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) mice to generate active renin. CTSB-/- mice do not exhibit any overt symptoms (renal malformation, preweaning mortality) typical of an RAS deficiency and have normal levels of circulating active renin, which, like those in control animals, rise more than 15-fold in response to pharmacologic inhibition of the RAS. The mature renin enzyme detected in kidney lysates of CTSB-/- mice migrates at the same apparent molecular weight as that in control mice, and the processing to active renin is not affected by chloroquine treatment of the animals. Finally, the distribution and morphology of renin-producing cells in the kidney is normal in CTSB-/- mice. In conclusion, CTSB-deficient mice exhibit no differences compared with controls in their ability to generate active renin, and our results do not support CTSB as the PPE in mice.

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin B and cathepsin B-Like proteins of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kang, Heekyoung; Seo, Ga-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics. Seven hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB McAbs and three hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB-L McAbs were produced. Among these, 2C9 (monoclone for rNfCPB) and 1C8 (monoclone for rNfCPB-L) McAb showed high antibody titres and were finally selected for use. As determined by western blotting, 2C9 McAb bound to N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB protein, which had bands of 28 kDa and 38.4 kDa. 1C8 McAb reacted with N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB-L protein, which had bands of 24 kDa and 34 kDa. 2C9 and 1C8 monoclonal antibodies did not bind to lysates of other amoebae, such as N. gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii and A. polyphaga in western blot analyses. Immuno-cytochemistry analysis detected NfCPB and NfCPB-L proteins in the cytoplasm of N. fowleri trophozoites, particularly in the pseudopodia and food-cup. These results suggest that monoclonal antibodies produced against rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins may be useful for further immunological study of PAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described PMID:22791822

  7. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of cathepsin G expression in severe atopic dermatitis following medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Breuckmann, Frank; von Kobyletzki, Gregor; Avermaete, Annelies; Kreuter, Alexander; Altmeyer, Peter; Gambichler, Thilo

    2002-01-01

    Background During the last decade, medium-dose UVA1 phototherapy (50 J/cm2) has achieved great value within the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of our study was to investigate to what extent UVA1 irradiation is able to modulate the status of protease activity by the use of a monoclonal antibody labeling cathepsin G. Methods In order to further elucidate the mechanisms by which medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to an improvement of skin status in patients with AD, biopsy specimens from 15 patients before and after treatment were analyzed immunohistochemically for proteolytic activation. Results Compared to lesional skin of patients with AD before UVA1 irradiation, the number of cells positive for cathepsin G within the dermal infiltrate decreased significantly after treatment. The decrease of cathepsin G+ cells was closely linked to a substantial clinical improvement in skin condition. Conclusions In summary, our findings demonstrated that medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to a modulation of the expression of cathepsin G in the dermal inflammatory infiltrate in patients with severe AD. Cathepsin G may attack laminin, proteoglycans, collagen I and insoluble fibronectin, to provoke proinflammatory events, to degrade the basement membrane, to destroy the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and to increase the endothelial permeability. Therefore, its down-regulation by UVA1 phototherapy may induce the reduction of skin inflammation as well as improvement of the skin condition. PMID:12204095

  9. Lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B enhances the aggregate forming activity of exogenous α-synuclein fibrils.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tatebe, Harutsugu; Tokuda, Takahiko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The formation of intracellular aggregates containing α-synuclein (α-Syn) is one of the key steps in the progression of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Recently, it was reported that pathological α-Syn fibrils can undergo cell-to-cell transmission and form Lewy body-like aggregates. However, little is known about how they form α-Syn aggregates from fibril seeds. Here, we developed an assay to study the process of aggregate formation using fluorescent protein-tagged α-Syn-expressing cells and examined the aggregate forming activity of exogenous α-Syn fibrils. α-Syn fibril-induced formation of intracellular aggregates was suppressed by a cathepsin B specific inhibitor, but not by a cathepsin D inhibitor. α-Syn fibrils pretreated with cathepsin B in vitro enhanced seeding activity in cells. Knockdown of cathepsin B also reduced fibril-induced aggregate formation. Moreover, using LAMP-1 immunocytochemistry and live-cell imaging, we observed that these aggregates initially occurred in the lysosome. They then rapidly grew larger and moved outside the boundary of the lysosome within one day. These results suggest that the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is involved in triggering intracellular aggregate formation by α-Syn fibrils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Identification, immunolocalization, and characterization analyses of an exopeptidase of papain superfamily, (cathepsin C) from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Xu, Yanquan; Chen, Xueqing; Huang, Yan; Ren, Mengyu; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-10-01

    Cathepsin C is an important exopeptidase of papain superfamily and plays a number of great important roles during the parasitic life cycle. The amino acid sequence of cathepsin C from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) showed 54, 53, and 49% identities to that of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing the sequences of papain superfamily of C. sinensis demonstrated that cathepsin C and cathepsin Bs came from a common ancestry. Cathepsin C of C. sinensis (Cscathepsin C) was identified as an excretory/secretory product by Western blot analysis. The results of transcriptional level and translational level of Cscathepsin C at metacercaria stage were higher than that at adult worms. Immunolocalization analysis indicated that Cscathepsin C was specifically distributed in the suckers (oral sucker and ventral sucker), eggs, vitellarium, intestines, and testis of adult worms. In the metacercaria, it was mainly detected on the cyst wall and excretory bladder. Combining with the results mentioned above, it implies that Cscathepsin C may be an essential proteolytic enzyme for proteins digestion of hosts, nutrition assimilation, and immune invasion of C. sinensis. Furthermore, it may be a potential diagnostic antigen and drug target against C. sinensis infection.

  11. Hepatic steatosis inhibits autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Inami, Yoshihiro; Yamashina, Shunhei, E-mail: syamashi@juntendo.ac.jp; Izumi, Kousuke

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Acidification of autophagosome was blunted in steatotic hepatocytes. {yields} Hepatic steatosis did not disturb fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome. {yields} Proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes was inhibited by steatosis. {yields} Hepatic expression of cathepsin B and L was suppressed by steatosis. -- Abstract: Autophagy, one of protein degradation system, contributes to maintain cellular homeostasis and cell defense. Recently, some evidences indicated that autophagy and lipid metabolism are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic steatosis impairs autophagic proteolysis. Though accumulation of autophagosome is observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice, expression of p62 was augmentedmore » in liver from ob/ob mice more than control mice. Moreover, degradation of the long-lived protein leucine was significantly suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from ob/ob mice. More than 80% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, rate of LTR-stained autophagosomes in hepatocytes were suppressed in ob/ob mice. On the other hand, clearance of autolysosomes loaded with LTR was blunted in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Although fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome was not disturbed, proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes and cathepsin B and L expression of liver were suppressed in ob/ob mice. These results indicate that lipid accumulation blunts autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression.« less

  12. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. C1q Protein Binds to the Apoptotic Nucleolus and Causes C1 Protease Degradation of Nucleolar Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26231209

  14. Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marceline; Misasi, John; Ren, Tao; Bruchez, Anna; Lee, Kyungae; Filone, Claire Marie; Hensley, Lisa; Li, Qi; Ory, Daniel; Chandran, Kartik; Cunningham, James

    2011-08-24

    Ebola virus (EboV) is a highly pathogenic enveloped virus that causes outbreaks of zoonotic infection in Africa. The clinical symptoms are manifestations of the massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection and in many outbreaks, mortality exceeds 75%. The unpredictable onset, ease of transmission, rapid progression of disease, high mortality and lack of effective vaccine or therapy have created a high level of public concern about EboV. Here we report the identification of a novel benzylpiperazine adamantane diamide-derived compound that inhibits EboV infection. Using mutant cell lines and informative derivatives of the lead compound, we show that the target of the inhibitor is the endosomal membrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We find that NPC1 is essential for infection, that it binds to the virus glycoprotein (GP), and that antiviral compounds interfere with GP binding to NPC1. Combined with the results of previous studies of GP structure and function, our findings support a model of EboV infection in which cleavage of the GP1 subunit by endosomal cathepsin proteases removes heavily glycosylated domains to expose the amino-terminal domain, which is a ligand for NPC1 and regulates membrane fusion by the GP2 subunit. Thus, NPC1 is essential for EboV entry and a target for antiviral therapy.

  15. HvPap-1 C1A Protease and HvCPI-2 Cystatin Contribute to Barley Grain Filling and Germination1

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Cambra, Ines; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles; Garcia, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Proteolysis is an essential process throughout the mobilization of storage proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains during germination. It involves numerous types of enzymes, with C1A Cys proteases the most abundant key players. Manipulation of the proteolytic machinery is a potential way to enhance grain yield and quality, and it could influence the mobilization of storage compounds along germination. Transgenic barley plants silencing or over-expressing the cathepsin F-like HvPap-1 Cys protease show differential accumulation of storage molecules such as starch, proteins, and free amino acids in the grain. It is particularly striking that the HvPap-1 artificial microRNA lines phenotype show a drastic delay in the grain germination process. Alterations to the proteolytic activities in the over-expressing and knock-down grains associated with changes in the level of expression of several C1A peptidases were also detected. Similarly, down-regulating cystatin Icy-2, one of the proteinaceous inhibitors of the cathepsin F-like protease, also has important effects on grain filling. However, the ultimate physiological influence of manipulating a peptidase or an inhibitor cannot be always predicted, since the plant tries to compensate the modified proteolytic effects by modulating the expression of some other peptidases or their inhibitors. PMID:26912343

  16. HvPap-1 C1A Protease and HvCPI-2 Cystatin Contribute to Barley Grain Filling and Germination.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Cambra, Ines; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles; Garcia, Antonia; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Proteolysis is an essential process throughout the mobilization of storage proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains during germination. It involves numerous types of enzymes, with C1A Cys proteases the most abundant key players. Manipulation of the proteolytic machinery is a potential way to enhance grain yield and quality, and it could influence the mobilization of storage compounds along germination. Transgenic barley plants silencing or over-expressing the cathepsin F-like HvPap-1 Cys protease show differential accumulation of storage molecules such as starch, proteins, and free amino acids in the grain. It is particularly striking that the HvPap-1 artificial microRNA lines phenotype show a drastic delay in the grain germination process. Alterations to the proteolytic activities in the over-expressing and knock-down grains associated with changes in the level of expression of several C1A peptidases were also detected. Similarly, down-regulating cystatin Icy-2, one of the proteinaceous inhibitors of the cathepsin F-like protease, also has important effects on grain filling. However, the ultimate physiological influence of manipulating a peptidase or an inhibitor cannot be always predicted, since the plant tries to compensate the modified proteolytic effects by modulating the expression of some other peptidases or their inhibitors. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Inhibitory assay for degradation of collagen IV by cathepsin B with a surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Atsushi; Suenaga, Yumiko; Hosaka, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuuki; Yanagida, Akio; Sugawara, Masao

    2017-10-25

    We describe a simple method for evaluating the inhibition of collagen IV degradation by cathepsin B with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. The change in the SPR signal decreased with an increase in the concentration of cathepsin B inhibitors. The order of the inhibitory constant (Ki) obtained by the SPR method was CA074Me≈Z-Phe-Phe-FMK < leupeptin. This order was different from that obtained by benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Phe-Fluoromethylketone (Z-Phe-Phe-FMK) as a peptide substrate. The comparison of Ki suggested that CA074 and Z-Phe-Phe-FMK inhibited exopeptidase activity, and leupeptin inhibited the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B more strongly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel allosteric mechanism in the cysteine peptidase cathepsin K discovered by computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novinec, Marko; Korenč, Matevž; Caflisch, Amedeo; Ranganathan, Rama; Lenarčič, Brigita; Baici, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Allosteric modifiers have the potential to fine-tune enzyme activity. Therefore, targeting allosteric sites is gaining increasing recognition as a strategy in drug design. Here we report the use of computational methods for the discovery of the first small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of the collagenolytic cysteine peptidase cathepsin K, a major target for the treatment of osteoporosis. The molecule NSC13345 is identified by high-throughput docking of compound libraries to surface sites on the peptidase that are connected to the active site by an evolutionarily conserved network of residues (protein sector). The crystal structure of the complex shows that NSC13345 binds to a novel allosteric site on cathepsin K. The compound acts as a hyperbolic mixed modifier in the presence of a synthetic substrate, it completely inhibits collagen degradation and has good selectivity for cathepsin K over related enzymes. Altogether, these properties qualify our methodology and NSC13345 as promising candidates for allosteric drug design.

  19. Cathepsin K expression is increased in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Siponen, Maria; Bitu, Carolina Cavalcante; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Nieminen, Pentti; Salo, Tuula

    2016-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an idiopathic T-cell-mediated mucosal inflammatory disease. Cathepsin K (Cat K) is one of the lysosomal cysteine proteases. It is involved in many pathological conditions, including osteoporosis and cancer. The expression and role of Cat K in OLP are unknown. Twenty-five oral mucosal specimens diagnosed histopathologically as OLP and fourteen healthy controls (HC) were used to study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of Cat K. Colocalization of Cat K with CD1a, Melan-A, CD68, CD45, mast cell tryptase (MCT), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 and 9 were studied using double IHC and/or immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Expression of Cat K was also evaluated in OLP tissue samples before and after topical tacrolimus treatment. Cat K was expressed in a higher percentage of cells in the epithelial zone, and the staining intensity was stronger in the stroma in OLP compared to controls (P < 0.001). In OLP, Cat K was present mostly in melanocytes and macrophages and sporadically in basal keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and extracellularly. Cat K was found also in some fibroblasts in HC and OLP samples. Coexpression of Cat K and TLRs 4 and 9 was seen in some dendritic cells (presumably melanocytes) and macrophages. In OLP, tacrolimus treatment reduced the expression of Cat K in the epithelium but increased it in the stroma. These results suggest that Cat K is involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Cat K possibly takes part in the modulation of matrix molecules and cellular receptors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effective DNA Inhibitors of Cathepsin G by In Vitro Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Barbara; Vianini, Elena; Lucatello, Lorena; Sissi, Claudia; Moltrasio, Danilo; Pescador, Rodolfo; Porta, Roberto; Palumbo, Manlio

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. In several inflammatory and ischaemic diseases the impaired balance between CatG and its physiological inhibitors leads to tissue destruction and platelet aggregation. Inhibitors of CatG are suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and procoagulant conditions. DNA released upon the death of neutrophils at injury sites binds CatG. Moreover, short DNA fragments are more inhibitory than genomic DNA. Defibrotide, a single stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide with antithrombotic effect is also a potent CatG inhibitor. Given the above experimental evidences we employed a selection protocol to assess whether DNA inhibition of CatG may be ascribed to specific sequences present in defibrotide DNA. A Selex protocol was applied to identify the single-stranded DNA sequences exhibiting the highest affinity for CatG, the diversity of a combinatorial pool of oligodeoxyribonucleotides being a good representation of the complexity found in defibrotide. Biophysical and biochemical studies confirmed that the selected sequences bind tightly to the target enzyme and also efficiently inhibit its catalytic activity. Sequence analysis carried out to unveil a motif responsible for CatG recognition showed a recurrence of alternating TG repeats in the selected CatG binders, adopting an extended conformation that grants maximal interaction with the highly charged protein surface. This unprecedented finding is validated by our results showing high affinity and inhibition of CatG by specific DNA sequences of variable length designed to maximally reduce pairing/folding interactions. PMID:19325843

  1. Activation of lysosomal cathepsins in pregnant bovine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Md Abdus Shabur; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Shirozu, Takahiro; Kim, Sung Woo; Kunii, Hiroki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ito, Tsukino; Kimura, Koji; Takahashi, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    In ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT) - mediated expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can indicate pregnancy. Recently, type 1 IFN-mediated activation of lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins (CTSs) was observed in immune cells. This study investigated the status of lysosomal CTSs and lysosomes in PBLs collected from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) dairy cows, and conducted in vitro IFNT stimulation of NP blood leukocytes. Blood samples were collected 0, 7, 14 and 18 days post-artificial insemination, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) separated. The fluorescent activity of CTSB and CTSK in PMNs significantly increased with the progress of pregnancy, especially on day 18. In vitro supplementation of IFNT significantly increased the activities of CTSB and CTSK in NP PBMCs and PMNs. CTSB expression was significantly higher in PBMCs and PMNs collected from P day-18 cows than from NP cows, whereas there was no difference in CTSK expression. IFNT increased CTSB expression but did not affect CTSK expression. Immunodetection showed an increase of CTSB in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. In vitro stimulation of IFNT increased CTSB in NP PBMCs and PMNs. Lysosomal acidification showed a significant increase in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. IFNT also stimulated lysosomal acidification. Expressions of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1 and LAMP2 were significantly higher in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. The results suggest that pregnancy-specific activation of lysosomal functions by CTS activation in blood leukocytes is highly associated with IFNT during maternal and fetal recognition of pregnancy. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Cathepsin B & L are not required for ebola virus replication.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Reinheckel, Thomas; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), family Filoviridae, emerged in 1976 on the African continent. Since then it caused several outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in humans with case fatality rates up to 90% and remains a serious Public Health concern and biothreat pathogen. The most pathogenic and best-studied species is Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV). EBOV encodes one viral surface glycoprotein (GP), which is essential for replication, a determinant of pathogenicity and an important immunogen. GP mediates viral entry through interaction with cellular surface molecules, which results in the uptake of virus particles via macropinocytosis. Later in this pathway endosomal acidification activates the cysteine proteases Cathepsin B and L (CatB, CatL), which have been shown to cleave ZEBOV-GP leading to subsequent exposure of the putative receptor-binding and fusion domain and productive infection. We studied the effect of CatB and CatL on in vitro and in vivo replication of EBOV. Similar to previous findings, our results show an effect of CatB, but not CatL, on ZEBOV entry into cultured cells. Interestingly, cell entry by other EBOV species (Bundibugyo, Côte d'Ivoire, Reston and Sudan ebolavirus) was independent of CatB or CatL as was EBOV replication in general. To investigate whether CatB and CatL have a role in vivo during infection, we utilized the mouse model for ZEBOV. Wild-type (control), catB(-/-) and catL(-/-) mice were equally susceptible to lethal challenge with mouse-adapted ZEBOV with no difference in virus replication and time to death. In conclusion, our results show that CatB and CatL activity is not required for EBOV replication. Furthermore, EBOV glycoprotein cleavage seems to be mediated by an array of proteases making targeted therapeutic approaches difficult.

  3. Cathepsin K expression and activity in canine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Schmit, J M; Pondenis, H C; Barger, A M; Borst, L B; Garrett, L D; Wypij, J M; Neumann, Z L; Fan, T M

    2012-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. People with pathologic bone resorption have higher circulating CatK concentrations. Canine osteosarcoma (OS) cells will possess CatK, and its secretion will be cytokine inducible. Circulating CatK concentrations will be increased in dogs with OS, and will be a surrogate marker of bone resorption. Fifty-one dogs with appendicular OS and 18 age- and weight-matched healthy control dogs. In a prospective study, expressions of CatK mRNA and protein were investigated in OS cells. The inducible secretion and proteolytic activity of CatK from OS cells was assessed in vitro. Serum CatK concentrations were quantified in normal dogs and dogs with OS and its utility as a bone resorption marker was evaluated in dogs with OS treated with palliative radiation and antiresorptive agents. Canine OS cells contain preformed CatK within cytoplasmic vesicles. In OS cells, TGFβ1 induced the secretion of CatK, which degraded bone-derived type I collagen in vitro. CatK concentrations were higher in dogs with OS than healthy dogs (11.3 ± 5.2 pmol/L versus 8.1 ± 5.0 pmol/L, P = .03). In a subset of dogs with OS, pretreatment CatK concentrations gradually decreased after palliative radiation and antiresorptive treatment, from 9.3 ± 3.2 pmol/L to 5.0 ± 3.1 pmol/L, P = .03. Canine OS is associated with pathologic bone resorption, and CatK inhibitors might aid in the management of canine OS-related malignant osteolysis. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S) as well as in an aspartic protease group (D). Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi. PMID:25923525

  6. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S) as well as in an aspartic protease group (D). Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi.

  7. Role of endocytosis and cathepsin-mediated activation in Nipah virus entry

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, Sandra; Thiel, Lena; Maisner, Andrea

    The recent discovery that the Nipah virus (NiV) fusion protein (F) is activated by endosomal cathepsin L raised the question if NiV utilize pH- and protease-dependent mechanisms of entry. We show here that the NiV receptor ephrin B2, virus-like particles and infectious NiV are internalized from the cell surface. However, endocytosis, acidic pH and cathepsin-mediated cleavage are not necessary for the initiation of infection of new host cells. Our data clearly demonstrate that proteolytic activation of the NiV F protein is required before incorporation into budding virions but not after virus entry.

  8. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2014-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM.

  9. Structural and functional aspects of C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bos, Ineke G A; Hack, C Erik; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2002-09-01

    C1-Inh is a serpin that inhibits serine proteases from the complement and the coagulation pathway. C1-Inh consists of a serpin domain and a unique N-terminal domain and is heavily glycosylated. Non-functional mutants of C1-Inh can give insight into the inhibitory mechanism of C1-Inh. This review describes a novel 3D model of C1-Inh, based on a newly developed homology modelling method. This model gives insight into a possible potentiation mechanism of C1-Inh and based on this model the essential residues for efficient inhibition by C1-Inh are discussed.

  10. Gamma-interferon causes a selective induction of the lysosomal proteases, cathepsins B and L, in macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lah, T. T.; Hawley, M.; Rock, K. L.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that acid-optimal cysteine proteinase(s) in the endosomal-lysosomal compartments, cathepsins, play a critical role in the proteolytic processing of endocytosed proteins to generate the antigenic peptides presented to the immune system on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. The presentation of these peptides and the expression of MHC class II molecules by macrophages and lymphocytes are stimulated by gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN). We found that treatment of human U-937 monocytes with gamma-IFN increased the activities and the content of the two major lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L. Assays of protease activity, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) and immunoblotting showed that this cytokine increased the amount of cathepsin B 5-fold and cathepsin L 3-fold in the lysosomal fraction. By contrast, the aspartic proteinase, cathepsin D, in this fraction was not significantly altered by gamma-IFN treatment. An induction of cathepsins B and L was also observed in mouse macrophages, but not in HeLa cells. These results suggest coordinate regulation in monocytes of the expression of cathepsins B and L and MHC class II molecules. Presumably, this induction of cysteine proteases contributes to the enhancement of antigen presentation by gamma-IFN.

  11. uPAR and Cathepsin B Downregulation Induces Apoptosis by Targeting Calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Rama Rao; Gopinath, Sreelatha; Gondi, Christopher S.; Alapati, Kiranmai; Dinh, Dzung H.; Tsung, Andrew J.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are postulated to play key roles in glioma invasion. Calcineurin is one of the key regulators of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Hence, we studied subcellular localization of calcineurin after transcriptional downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B in glioma. In the present study, efficient downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B increased the translocation of calcineurin A from the mitochondria to the cytosol, decreased pBAD (S136) expression and its interaction with 14-3-3ζ, and increased the interaction of BAD with Bcl-Xl. Co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B induced mitochondrial translocation of BAD and caspase 3 as well as PARP activation, cytochrome c and SMAC release. These effects were inhibited by FK506 (10 μM), a specific inhibitor of calcineurin. Calcineurin A was co-localized and also co-immunoprecipitated with Bcl-2. This interaction decreased with co-depletion of uPAR and cathepsin B and also with Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA 14-1 (20 μg/mL). Altered localization and interaction of calcineurin A with Bcl-2 was also observed in vivo when uPAR and cathepsin B were downregulated. In conclusion, downregulation of uPAR and cathepsin B induced apoptosis by targeting calcineurin A to BAD via Bcl-2 in glioma. PMID:21964739

  12. Molecular Cloning and Sequence of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. This enzyme digests the invariant chain molecules so that antigenic peptides are able to load on the class II-associated invariant chain peptide of MHC. The complexes can subsequently be presented to the CD4 cell surface. In ...

  13. Inhibition of cathepsin B by caspase-3 inhibitors blocks programmed cell death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Cai, Y-M; Bonneau, L; Rotari, V; Danon, A; McKenzie, E A; McLellan, H; Mach, L; Gallois, P

    2016-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is used by plants for development and survival to biotic and abiotic stresses. The role of caspases in PCD is well established in animal cells. Over the past 15 years, the importance of caspase-3-like enzymatic activity for plant PCD completion has been widely documented despite the absence of caspase orthologues. In particular, caspase-3 inhibitors blocked nearly all plant PCD tested. Here, we affinity-purified a plant caspase-3-like activity using a biotin-labelled caspase-3 inhibitor and identified Arabidopsis thaliana cathepsin B3 (AtCathB3) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Consistent with this, recombinant AtCathB3 was found to have caspase-3-like activity and to be inhibited by caspase-3 inhibitors. AtCathepsin B triple-mutant lines showed reduced caspase-3-like enzymatic activity and reduced labelling with activity-based caspase-3 probes. Importantly, AtCathepsin B triple mutants showed a strong reduction in the PCD induced by ultraviolet (UV), oxidative stress (H2O2, methyl viologen) or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our observations contribute to explain why caspase-3 inhibitors inhibit plant PCD and provide new tools to further plant PCD research. The fact that cathepsin B does regulate PCD in both animal and plant cells suggests that this protease may be part of an ancestral PCD pathway pre-existing the plant/animal divergence that needs further characterisation.

  14. Reduction of mutant huntingtin accumulation and toxicity by lysosomal cathepsins D and B in neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Huntington's disease is caused by aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein containing more than a 36 polyQ repeat. Upregulation of macroautophagy was suggested as a neuroprotective strategy to degrade mutant huntingtin. However, macroautophagy initiation has been shown to be highly efficient in neurons whereas lysosomal activities are rate limiting. The role of the lysosomal and other proteases in Huntington is not clear. Some studies suggest that certain protease activities may contribute to toxicity whereas others are consistent with protection. These discrepancies may be due to a number of mechanisms including distinct effects of the specific intermediate digestion products of mutant huntingtin generated by different proteases. These observations suggested a critical need to investigate the consequence of upregulation of individual lysosomal enzyme in mutant huntingtin accumulation and toxicity. Results In this study, we used molecular approaches to enhance lysosomal protease activities and examined their effects on mutant huntingtin level and toxicity. We found that enhanced expression of lysosomal cathepsins D and B resulted in their increased enzymatic activities and reduced both full-length and fragmented huntingtin in transfected HEK cells. Furthermore, enhanced expression of cathepsin D or B protected against mutant huntingtin toxicity in primary neurons, and their neuroprotection is dependent on macroautophagy. Conclusions These observations demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of enhancing lysosomal cathepsins in reducing mutant huntingtin level and toxicity in transfected cells. They highlight the potential importance of neuroprotection mediated by cathepsin D or B through macroautophagy. PMID:21631942

  15. Virtual screening of cathepsin k inhibitors using docking and pharmacophore models.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Muttineni; Pavan, S; Bairy, Santhosh; Pramod, A B; Sumakanth, M; Kishore, Madala; Sumithra, Tirunagaram

    2008-07-01

    Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is highly and selectively expressed in osteoclasts, the cells which degrade bone during the continuous cycle of bone degradation and formation. Inhibition of cathepsin K represents a potential therapeutic approach for diseases characterized by excessive bone resorption such as osteoporosis. In order to elucidate the essential structural features for cathepsin K, a three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built on the basis of a set of known cathepsin K inhibitors selected from the literature using catalyst program. Several methods are used in validation of pharmacophore hypothesis were presented, and the fourth hypothesis (Hypo4) was considered to be the best pharmacophore hypothesis which has a correlation coefficient of 0.944 with training set and has high prediction of activity for a set of 30 test molecules with correlation of 0.909. The model (Hypo4) was then employed as 3D search query to screen the Maybridge database containing 59,000 compounds, to discover novel and highly potent ligands. For analyzing intermolecular interactions between protein and ligand, all the molecules were docked using Glide software. The result showed that the type and spatial location of chemical features encoded in the pharmacophore are in full agreement with the enzyme inhibitor interaction pattern identified from molecular docking.

  16. Characterization of CAA0225, a novel inhibitor specific for cathepsin L, as a probe for autophagic proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ueno, Takashi; Tanida, Isei; Minematsu-Ikeguchi, Naoko; Murata, Mitsuo; Kominami, Eiki

    2009-03-01

    We screened a series of new epoxysuccinyl peptides for the development of a lysosomal cathepsin L-specific inhibitor. Among the compounds tested, (2S,3S)-oxirane-2,3-dicarboxylic acid 2-[((S)-1-benzylcarbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl)-amide] 3-{[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-amide} (compound CAA0225) was the most potent inhibitor of cathepsin L. CAA0225 inhibited rat liver cathepsin L with IC50 values of 1.9 nM, but not rat liver cathepsin B (IC50, >1000-5000 nM). To assess the contribution of cathepsin L to lysosomal proteolysis, we evaluated autophagy, which is the process of lysosomal self-degradation of cell constituents. In HeLa and Huh-7 cells cultured under nutrient-deprived conditions CAA0225 significantly inhibited degradation of long-lived proteins; however, the magnitude of inhibition was comparable to that in the presence of CA-074-OMe, which is a cathepsin B-specific inhibitor. Thus the contributions of cathepsin L and cathepsin B to autophagic protein degradation of cytoplasmic proteins are nearly equal. During autophagy, microtubule-associated protein IA/IB light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP)-II, which are specific markers of autophagosomal membranes that engulf cytoplasmic components, also undergo degradation upon fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. CAA0225 effectively inhibited degradation of LC3-II and GABARAP, whereas CA-074-OMe had only a marginal effect on their levels. Therefore we conclude that cathepsin L does not play a general role in the degradation of proteins in the lumen of autophagosomes, but rather is involved specifically in the degradation of autophagosomal membrane markers.

  17. Crystal structure of cathepsin A, a novel target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Schreuder, Herman A., E-mail: herman.schreuder@sanofi.com; Liesum, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.liesum@sanofi.com; Kroll, Katja, E-mail: katja.kroll@sanofi.com

    2014-03-07

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structures of active cathepsin A and the inactive precursor are very similar. • The only major difference is the absence of a 40 residue activation domain. • The termini of the active catalytic core are held together by a disulfide bond. • Compound 1 reacts with the catalytic Ser150, building a tetrahedral intermediate. • Compound 2 is cleaved by the enzyme and a fragment remained bound. - Abstract: The lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase cathepsin A is involved in the breakdown of peptide hormones like endothelin and bradykinin. Recent pharmacological studies with cathepsin A inhibitors inmore » rodents showed a remarkable reduction in cardiac hypertrophy and atrial fibrillation, making cathepsin A a promising target for the treatment of heart failure. Here we describe the crystal structures of activated cathepsin A without inhibitor and with two compounds that mimic the tetrahedral intermediate and the reaction product, respectively. The structure of activated cathepsin A turned out to be very similar to the structure of the inactive precursor. The only difference was the removal of a 40 residue activation domain, partially due to proteolytic removal of the activation peptide, and partially by an order–disorder transition of the peptides flanking the removed activation peptide. The termini of the catalytic core are held together by the Cys253–Cys303 disulfide bond, just before and after the activation domain. One of the compounds we soaked in our crystals reacted covalently with the catalytic Ser150 and formed a tetrahedral intermediate. The other compound got cleaved by the enzyme and a fragment, resembling one of the natural reaction products, was found in the active site. These studies establish cathepsin A as a classical serine proteinase with a well-defined oxyanion hole. The carboxylate group of the cleavage product is bound by a hydrogen-bonding network involving one aspartate and two glutamate side

  18. Synthetic cyclohexenyl chalcone natural products possess cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer cells and inhibit cysteine cathepsins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deb Majumdar, Ishita; Devanabanda, Arvind; Fox, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Jacob; Cong, Huan; Porco, John A; Weber, Horst C

    2011-12-16

    A number of cyclohexenyl chalcone Diels-Alder natural products possess promising biological properties including strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells. Herein, we show that natural products in this class including panduratin A and nicolaioidesin C inhibit cysteine cathepsins as indicated by protease profiling assays and cell-free cathepsin L enzyme assays. Owing to the critical roles of cathepsins in the biology of human tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis, these findings should pave the way for development of novel antitumor agents for use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of cellular compartments involved in processing of cathepsin E in primary cultures of rat microglia.

    PubMed

    Sastradipura, D F; Nakanishi, H; Tsukuba, T; Nishishita, K; Sakai, H; Kato, Y; Gotow, T; Uchiyama, Y; Yamamoto, K

    1998-05-01

    Cathepsin E is a major nonlysosomal, intracellular aspartic proteinase that localizes in various cellular compartments such as the plasma membrane, endosome-like organelles, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To learn the segregation mechanisms of cathepsin E into its appropriate cellular destinations, the present studies were initiated to define the biosynthesis, processing, and intracellular localization as well as the site of proteolytic maturation of the enzyme in primary cultures of rat brain microglia. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed that cathepsin E was the most abundant in microglia among various brain cell types, where the enzyme existed predominantly as the mature enzyme. Immunoelectron microscopy studies showed the presence of the enzyme predominantly in the endosome-like vacuoles and partly in the vesicles located in the trans-Golgi area and the lumen of ER. In the primary cultured microglial cells labeled with [35S]methionine, >95% of labeled cathepsin E were represented by a 46-kDa polypeptide (reduced form) after a 30-min pulse. Most of it was proteolytically processed via a 44-kDa intermediate to a 42-kDa mature form within 4 h of chase. This processing was completely inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. Brefeldin A, a blocker for the traffic of secretory proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex, also inhibited the processing of procathepsin E and enhanced its degradation. Procathepsin E, after pulse-labeling, showed complete susceptibility to endoglycosidase H, whereas the mature enzyme almost acquired resistance to endoglycosidases H as well as F. The present studies provide the first evidence that cathepsin E in microglia is first synthesized as the inactive precursor bearing high-mannose oligosaccharides and processed to the active mature enzyme with complex-type oligosaccharides via the intermediate form and that the final proteolytic maturation step occurs in endosome-like acidic

  20. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of the cathepsin H gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Chan-Il; Hwang, Seong Don; Jeong, Ji-Min; Kim, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shim, Sang Hee

    2013-07-01

    Cathepsins are lysosomal cysteine proteases belonging to the papain family, whose members play important roles in normal metabolism for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) cathepsin H (RbCTSH) cDNAs were identified by expressed sequence tag analysis of a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rock bream liver cDNA library. The full-length RbCTSH cDNA (1326 bp) contained an open reading frame of 978 bp encoding 325 amino acids. The presence of an ERFNIN-like motif was predicted in the propeptide region of RbCTSH. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed that the EPQNCSAT region was well conserved among other cathepsin H sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbCTSH is most closely related to Nile tilapia cathepsin H. RbCTSH was expressed significantly in the intestine, spleen, head kidney and stomach. RbCTSH mRNA expression was also examined in several tissues under conditions of bacterial and viral challenge. All examined tissues of fish infected with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) showed significant increases in RbCTSH expression compared to the control. In the kidney and spleen, RbCTSH mRNA expression was upregulated markedly following infection with bacterial pathogens. These findings indicate that RbCTSH plays an important role in the innate immune response of rock bream. Furthermore, these results provide important information for the identification of other cathepsin H genes in various fish species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The control of neutrophil chemotaxis by inhibitors of cathepsin G and chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Lomas, D A; Stone, S R; Llewellyn-Jones, C; Keogan, M T; Wang, Z M; Rubin, H; Carrell, R W; Stockley, R A

    1995-10-06

    Neutrophil chemotaxis plays an important role in the inflammatory response and when excessive or persistent may augment tissue damage. The effects of inhibitors indicated the involvement of one or more serine proteinases in human neutrophil migration and shape change in response to a chemoattractant. Monospecific antibodies, chloromethylketone inhibitors, and reactive-site mutants of alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin were used to probe the specificity of the proteinases involved in chemotaxis. Antibodies specific for cathepsin G inhibited chemotaxis. Moreover, rapid inhibitors of cathepsin G and alpha-chymotrypsin suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis to the chemoattractants N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP) and zymosan-activated serum in multiple blind well assays and to fMLP in migration assays under agarose. The concentrations of antichymotrypsin mutants that reduced chemotaxis by 50% would inactivate free cathepsin G with a half-life of 1.5-3 s, whereas the concentrations of chloromethylketones required to produce a similar inhibition of chemotaxis would inactivate cathepsin G with a half-life of 345 s. These data suggest different modes of action for these two classes of inhibitors. Indeed the chloromethylketone inhibitors of cathepsin G (Z-Gly-Leu-Phe-CMK) and to a lesser extent of chymotrypsin (Cbz-Gly-Gly-Phe-CMK) mediated their effect by preventing a shape change in the purified neutrophils exposed to fMLP. Antichymotrypsin did not affect shape change in response to fMLP even at concentrations that were able to reduce neutrophil chemotaxis by 50%. These results support the involvement of cell surface proteinases in the control of cell migration and show that antichymotrypsin and chloromethylketones have differing modes of action. This opens the possibility for the rational design of anti-inflammatory agents targeted at neutrophil membrane enzymes.

  2. Autophagic-lysosomal dysregulation downstream of cathepsin B inactivation in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, using 2D-DIGE proteomics we have identified cathepsin B as a novel target of UVA in human Hs27 skin fibroblasts. In response to chronic exposure to noncytotoxic doses of UVA (9.9 J/cm2, twice a week, 3 weeks), photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B enzymatic activity occurred with accumulation of autofluorescent aggregates colocalizing with lysosomes, an effect mimicked by pharmacological antagonism of cathepsin B using the selective inhibitor CA074Me. Here, we have further explored the mechanistic involvement of cathepsin B inactivation in UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations using autophagy-directed PCR expression array analysis as a discovery tool. Consistent with lysosomal expansion, UVA upregulated cellular protein levels of the lysosomal marker glycoprotein Lamp-1, and increased levels of the lipidated autophagosomal membrane constituent LC3-II were detected. UVA did not alter expression of beclin 1 (BECN1), an essential factor for initiation of autophagy, but upregulation of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), a selective autophagy substrate, and α-synuclein (SNCA), an autophagic protein substrate and aggresome component, was observed at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, UVA downregulated transglutaminase-2 (TGM2), an essential enzyme involved in autophagolysosome maturation. Strikingly, UVA effects on Lamp-1, LC3-II, beclin 1, p62, α-synuclein, and transglutaminase-2 were mimicked by CA074Me treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations occur as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux downstream of cathepsin B inactivation, a novel molecular mechanism potentially involved in UVA-induced skin photodamage. PMID:21773629

  3. Gene profiling of cathepsin K deficiency in atherogenesis: profibrotic but lipogenic.

    PubMed

    Lutgens, S P M; Kisters, N; Lutgens, E; van Haaften, R I M; Evelo, C T A; de Winther, M P J; Saftig, P; Daemen, M J A P; Heeneman, S; Cleutjens, K B J M

    2006-11-01

    Recently, we showed that cathepsin K deficiency reduces atherosclerotic plaque progression, induces plaque fibrosis, but aggravates macrophage foam cell formation in the ApoE -/- mouse. To obtain more insight into the molecular mechanisms by which cathepsin K disruption evokes the observed phenotypic changes, we used microarray analysis for gene expression profiling of aortic arches of CatK -/-/ApoE -/- and ApoE -/- mice on a mouse oligo microarray. Out of 20 280 reporters, 444 were significantly differentially expressed (p-value of < 0.05, fold change of > or = 1.4 or < or = - 1.4, and intensity value of > 2.5 times background in at least one channel). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GenMAPP revealed upregulation of genes involved in lipid uptake, trafficking, and intracellular storage, including caveolin - 1, - 2, - 3 and CD36, and profibrotic genes involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signalling, including TGFbeta2, latent TGFbeta binding protein-1 (LTBP1), and secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), in CatK -/-/ApoE -/- mice. Differential gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. In vitro modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake assays, using bone marrow derived macrophages preincubated with caveolae and scavenger receptor inhibitors, confirmed the importance of caveolins and CD36 in increasing modified LDL uptake in the absence of cathepsin K. In conclusion, we suggest that cathepsin K deficiency alters plaque phenotype not only by decreasing proteolytic activity, but also by stimulating TGFbeta signalling. Besides this profibrotic effect, cathepsin K deficiency has a lipogenic effect owing to increased lipid uptake mediated by CD36 and caveolins. Copyright 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. 26 CFR 1.514(c)-1 - Acquisition indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Acquisition indebtedness. 1.514(c)-1 Section 1.514(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(c)-1...

  5. Transient expression of progesterone receptor and cathepsin-l in human granulosa cells during the periovulatory period.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor; Kohen, Paulina; Maldonado, Carola; Sierralta, Walter; Muñoz, Alex; Villarroel, Claudio; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    To study in vivo the progesterone receptor (PR) expression levels in human granulosa cells (GCs) during the periovulatory period and the affect of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway on PR expression and cathepsin-L expression-activation. Experimental study. University research unit. Twenty-five women of reproductive age. Follicular fluid and GCs obtained from spontaneous cycles before and during the normal luteinizing hormone surge, and samples obtained 36 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. To determine PR, cathepsin-L messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein of PR, cathepsin-L, and PKA in human GCs. The Western blot analysis revealed that bands of PR (isoform A) were the most abundant and that mRNA (PR-A and PR-B) have a temporal pattern of expression throughout the periovulatory period. The protein levels of PR and cathepsin-L were up-regulated by hCG. The abundance of PR was diminished in the presence of PKA inhibitor, and cathepsin-L with PR receptor antagonist. The transient expression of PR in human GCs of the preovulatory follicle suggests that PR and its ligand play a role in the activation of cathepsin-L, which is presumably involved in the degradation of the follicular extracellular matrix during human ovulation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Cathepsin B is the driving force of esophageal cell invasion in a fibroblast-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Andl, Claudia D; McCowan, Kelsey M; Allison, Gillian L; Rustgi, Anil K

    2010-06-01

    Esophageal cancer, which frequently exhibits coordinated loss of E-cadherin (Ecad) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor II (TbetaRII), has a high mortality rate. In a three-dimensional organotypic culture model system, esophageal keratinocytes expressing dominant-negative mutant versions of both Ecad and TbetaRII (ECdnT) invade into the underlying matrix embedded with fibroblasts. We also find that cathepsin B induction is necessary for fibroblast-mediated invasion. Furthermore, the ECdnT cells in this physiological context activate fibroblasts through the secretion of TGFbeta1, which, in turn, is activated by cathepsin B. These results suggest that the interplay between the epithelial compartment and the surrounding microenvironment is crucial to invasion into the extracellular matrix.

  7. Advances in the discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors on bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wang, Maolin; Wang, Ziyue; Fu, Zhongqi; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2018-12-01

    Cathepsin K (Cat K), highly expressed in osteoclasts, is a cysteine protease member of the cathepsin lysosomal protease family and has been of increasing interest as a target of medicinal chemistry efforts for its role in bone matrix degradation. Inhibition of the Cat K enzyme reduces bone resorption and thus, has rendered the enzyme as an attractive target for anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapy. Over the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to design and develop highly potent, excellently selective and orally applicable Cat K inhibitors. These inhibitors are derived from synthetic compounds or natural products, some of which have passed preclinical studies and are presently in clinical trials at different stages of advancement. In this review, we briefly summarised the historic development of Cat K inhibitors and discussed the relationship between structures of inhibitors and active sites in Cat K for the purpose of guiding future development of inhibitors.

  8. Effects of Chilling and Partial Freezing on Rigor Mortis Changes of Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Fillets: Cathepsin Activity, Protein Degradation and Microstructure of Myofibrils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Han; Liu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yuemei; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of chilling and partial freezing on rigor mortis changes in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), pH, cathepsin B, cathepsin B+L activities, SDS-PAGE of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, texture, and changes in microstructure of fillets at 4 °C and -3 °C were determined at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after slaughter. The results indicated that pH of fillets (6.50 to 6.80) was appropriate for cathepsin function during the rigor mortis. For fillets that were chilled and partially frozen, the cathepsin activity in lysosome increased consistently during the first 12 h, followed by a decrease from the 12 to 24 h, which paralleled an increase in activity in heavy mitochondria, myofibrils and sarcoplasm. There was no significant difference in cathepsin activity in lysosomes between fillets at 4 °C and -3 °C (P > 0.05). Partially frozen fillets had greater cathepsin activity in heavy mitochondria than chilled samples from the 48 to 72 h. In addition, partially frozen fillets showed higher cathepsin activity in sarcoplasm and lower cathepsin activity in myofibrils compared with chilled fillets. Correspondingly, we observed degradation of α-actinin (105 kDa) by cathepsin L in chilled fillets and degradation of creatine kinase (41 kDa) by cathepsin B in partially frozen fillets during the rigor mortis. The decline of hardness for both fillets might be attributed to the accumulation of cathepsin in myofibrils from the 8 to 24 h. The lower cathepsin activity in myofibrils for fillets that were partially frozen might induce a more intact cytoskeletal structure than fillets that were chilled. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. The Role of Stromally Produced Cathepsin D in Promoting Prostate Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    was related to TGF-β activity. It has been previously shown in in vitro experiments that CathD can liberate TGF-β from the latency inhibitor complex...was performed fol- lowing a protocol that was described previously [31]. CathepsinDandProstateCancer 3 The Prostate Tissue slides were then incubated... low grade and high grade malignant prostate tissue. P-values less than 0.05 were consid- ered statistically significant. RESULTS

  10. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis induces Calpain-Cathepsin axis activation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Franc; Thüne, Katrin; Sikorska, Beata; Schmitz, Matthias; Tahir, Waqas; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Cramm, Maria; Gotzmann, Nadine; Carmona, Margarita; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Michel, Uwe; Zafar, Saima; Schuetz, Anna-Lena; Rajput, Ashish; Andréoletti, Olivier; Bonn, Stefan; Fischer, Andre; Liberski, Pawel P; Torres, Juan Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2017-04-27

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the most prevalent form of human prion disease and it is characterized by the presence of neuronal loss, spongiform degeneration, chronic inflammation and the accumulation of misfolded and pathogenic prion protein (PrP Sc ). The molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations are largely unknown, but the presence of intracellular neuronal calcium (Ca 2+ ) overload, a general feature in models of prion diseases, is suggested to play a key role in prion pathogenesis.Here we describe the presence of massive regulation of Ca 2+ responsive genes in sCJD brain tissue, accompanied by two Ca 2+ -dependent processes: endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of the cysteine proteases Calpains 1/2. Pathogenic Calpain proteins activation in sCJD is linked to the cleavage of their cellular substrates, impaired autophagy and lysosomal damage, which is partially reversed by Calpain inhibition in a cellular prion model. Additionally, Calpain 1 treatment enhances seeding activity of PrP Sc in a prion conversion assay. Neuronal lysosomal impairment caused by Calpain over activation leads to the release of the lysosomal protease Cathepsin S that in sCJD mainly localises in axons, although massive Cathepsin S overexpression is detected in microglial cells. Alterations in Ca 2+ homeostasis and activation of Calpain-Cathepsin axis already occur at pre-clinical stages of the disease as detected in a humanized sCJD mouse model.Altogether our work indicates that unbalanced Calpain-Cathepsin activation is a relevant contributor to the pathogenesis of sCJD at multiple molecular levels and a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  12. HnRNP L and L-like cooperate in multiple-exon regulation of CD45 alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Preußner, Marco; Schreiner, Silke; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Porstner, Martina; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Benes, Vladimir; Rätsch, Gunnar; Bindereif, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    CD45 encodes a trans-membrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase expressed in diverse cells of the immune system. By combinatorial use of three variable exons 4–6, isoforms are generated that differ in their extracellular domain, thereby modulating phosphatase activity and immune response. Alternative splicing of these CD45 exons involves two heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins, hnRNP L and its cell-type specific paralog hnRNP L-like (LL). To address the complex combinatorial splicing of exons 4–6, we investigated hnRNP L/LL protein expression in human B-cells in relation to CD45 splicing patterns, applying RNA-Seq. In addition, mutational and RNA-binding analyses were carried out in HeLa cells. We conclude that hnRNP LL functions as the major CD45 splicing repressor, with two CA elements in exon 6 as its primary target. In exon 4, one element is targeted by both hnRNP L and LL. In contrast, exon 5 was never repressed on its own and only co-regulated with exons 4 and 6. Stable L/LL interaction requires CD45 RNA, specifically exons 4 and 6. We propose a novel model of combinatorial alternative splicing: HnRNP L and LL cooperate on the CD45 pre-mRNA, bridging exons 4 and 6 and looping out exon 5, thereby achieving full repression of the three variable exons. PMID:22402488

  13. Nicotinamide Inhibits the Lysosomal Cathepsin b-like Protease and Kills African Trypanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Unciti-Broceta, Juan D.; Maceira, José; Morales, Sonia; García-Pérez, Angélica; Muñóz-Torres, Manuel E.; Garcia-Salcedo, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide, a soluble compound of the vitamin B3 group, has antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms ranging from viruses to parasite protozoans. However, the mode of action of this antimicrobial activity is unknown. Here, we investigate the trypanocidal activity of nicotinamide on Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis. Incubation of trypanosomes with nicotinamide causes deleterious defects in endocytic traffic, disruption of the lysosome, failure of cytokinesis, and, ultimately, cell death. At the same concentrations there was no effect on a cultured mammalian cell line. The effects on endocytosis and vesicle traffic were visible within 3 h and can be attributed to inhibition of lysosomal cathepsin b-like protease activity. The inhibitory effect of nicotinamide was confirmed by a direct activity assay of recombinant cathepsin b-like protein. Taken together, these data demonstrate that inhibition of the lysosomal protease cathepsin b-like blocks endocytosis, causing cell death. In addition, these results demonstrate for the first time the inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on a protease. PMID:23443665

  14. Cathepsins L and Z Are Critical in Degrading Polyglutamine-containing Proteins within Lysosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Nidhi; Piccirillo, Rosanna; Hourez, Raphael; Venkatraman, Prasanna; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases caused by extended polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences in proteins, aggregation-prone polyQ proteins accumulate in intraneuronal inclusions. PolyQ proteins can be degraded by lysosomes or proteasomes. Proteasomes are unable to hydrolyze polyQ repeat sequences, and during breakdown of polyQ proteins, they release polyQ repeat fragments for degradation by other cellular enzymes. This study was undertaken to identify the responsible proteases. Lysosomal extracts (unlike cytosolic enzymes) were found to rapidly hydrolyze polyQ sequences in peptides, proteins, or insoluble aggregates. Using specific inhibitors against lysosomal proteases, enzyme-deficient extracts, and pure cathepsins, we identified cathepsins L and Z as the lysosomal cysteine proteases that digest polyQ proteins and peptides. RNAi for cathepsins L and Z in different cell lines and adult mouse muscles confirmed that they are critical in degrading polyQ proteins (expanded huntingtin exon 1) but not other types of aggregation-prone proteins (e.g. mutant SOD1). Therefore, the activities of these two lysosomal cysteine proteases are important in host defense against toxic accumulation of polyQ proteins. PMID:22451661

  15. TGF-ß Regulates Cathepsin Activation during Normal and Pathogenic Development.

    PubMed

    Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Christian, Courtney; Lu, Po-Nien; Aarnio-Peterson, Megan; Sanman, Laura; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie; Azadi, Parastoo; Bogyo, Matthew; Steet, Richard A

    2018-03-13

    Cysteine cathepsins play roles during development and disease beyond their function in lysosomal protein turnover. Here, we leverage a fluorescent activity-based probe (ABP), BMV109, to track cysteine cathepsins in normal and diseased zebrafish embryos. Using this probe in a model of mucolipidosis II, we show that loss of carbohydrate-dependent lysosomal sorting alters the activity of several cathepsin proteases. The data support a pathogenic mechanism where TGF-ß signals enhance the proteolytic processing of pro-Ctsk by modulating the expression of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S). In MLII, elevated C4-S corresponds with TGF-ß-mediated increases in chst11 expression. Inhibiting chst11 impairs the proteolytic activation of Ctsk and alleviates the MLII phenotypes. These findings uncover a regulatory loop between TGF-ß signaling and Ctsk activation that is altered in the context of lysosomal disease. This work highlights the power of ABPs to identify mechanisms underlying pathogenic development in living animals. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F. Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  17. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-08

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Cathepsins: Proteases that are vital for survival but can also be fatal.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema; Homaei, Ahmad; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Akhtar, Nadeem

    2018-06-06

    The state of enzymes in the human body determines the normal physiology or pathology, so all the six classes of enzymes are crucial. Proteases, the hydrolases, can be of several types based on the nucleophilic amino acid or the metal cofactor needed for their activity. Cathepsins are proteases with serine, cysteine, or aspartic acid residues as the nucleophiles, which are vital for digestion, coagulation, immune response, adipogenesis, hormone liberation, peptide synthesis, among a litany of other functions. But inflammatory state radically affects their normal roles. Released from the lysosomes, they degrade extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and elastin, mediating parasite infection, autoimmune diseases, tumor metastasis, cardiovascular issues, and neural degeneration, among other health hazards. Over the years, the different types and isoforms of cathepsin, their optimal pH and functions have been studied, yet much information is still elusive. By taming and harnessing cathepsins, by inhibitors and judicious lifestyle, a gamut of malignancies can be resolved. This review discusses these aspects, which can be of clinical relevance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Late-onset Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome without alteration of the cathepsin C gene.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Ulrike; Hennies, Hans Christian; Truschnegg, Astrid; Aberer, Elisabeth

    2003-11-01

    Mutations in the cathepsin C gene have recently been detected in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS). Until now, 5 cases with the late-onset variation of this disease have been reported in the literature. The genetic background of this type of PLS is still unknown. We describe a 46-year-old woman with late-onset transgredient palmar hyperkeratosis and a 10-year history of severe periodontal disease. Histology of skin biopsy specimens revealed a psoriasiform pattern. Dental examination showed severe gingival inflammation with loss of alveolar bone. Dental plaque investigated by a polymerase chain reaction method revealed DNA signals of 5 different dental bacteria. DNA from EDTA blood was investigated for mutations in the cathepsin C gene by polymerase chain reaction analysis and direct sequencing. A silent variation in the codon for proline-459 was detected but interpreted as a polymorphism of this gene. All genetic linkage and mutation studies for PLS performed so far have shown that PLS is genetically homogeneous. Our patient with late-onset variation of PLS, however, did not show a mutation in the cathepsin C gene. Thus, we suspect that there is another genetic cause for the late-onset forms of PLS.

  20. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar; Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar; Singh, Jyoti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2015-12-30

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of dipeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L for improved Toxoplasma gondii selectivity and CNS permeability.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Jeffery D; Diaz, Nicolas A; Guerra, Alfredo J; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin; Carruthers, Vern B; Larsen, Scott D

    2018-06-01

    The neurotropic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the second leading cause of death due to foodborne illness in the US, and has been designated as one of five neglected parasitic infections by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, no treatment options exist for the chronic dormant-phase Toxoplasma infection in the central nervous system (CNS). T. gondii cathepsin L (TgCPL) has recently been implicated as a novel viable target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. In this study, we report the first body of SAR work aimed at developing potent inhibitors of TgCPL with selectivity vs the human cathepsin L. Starting from a known inhibitor of human cathepsin L, and guided by structure-based design, we were able to modulate the selectivity for Toxoplasma vs human CPL by nearly 50-fold while modifying physiochemical properties to be more favorable for metabolic stability and CNS penetrance. The overall potency of our inhibitors towards TgCPL was improved from 2 μM to as low as 110 nM and we successfully demonstrated that an optimized analog 18b is capable of crossing the BBB (0.5 brain/plasma). This work is an important first step toward development of a CNS-penetrant probe to validate TgCPL as a feasible target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of technological factors on the activity and losses of cathepsins B, D and L during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzes the effect of salt and acetic acid concentration, time, temperature and fish freezing on the activity and losses of cathepsins during the marinating of Atlantic and Baltic herrings. The highest contribution to meat general proteolytic activity was found for cathepsin D-like activity. This contribution decreased during the marinating process as a result of, among other things, cathepsin losses to brine. The methods of marinating had a significant impact on cathepsin activity losses. The average ratio of cathepsin D-like activity to L and B in brine accounted for 15:3.5:1.5, respectively. Depending on the method of calculation, cathepsin activity in brine was similar (per gram of tissue/milliliter of brine) or multiply higher (per gram protein in tissue/brine) than in the marinated herring meat. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the extent and structure of cathepsin losses were significantly correlated with the quantitative and qualitative composition of protein hydrolysis products in marinades. The presented results depict new phenomena of cathepsin losses and explain their impact on the process of fish marinating. Results allow better optimization of the process of meat ripening. The high activity of aspartyl and cysteine cathepsins in brine indicates the real feasibility of their application in the food industry for novel food design. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Nonclinical and clinical pharmacological characterization of the potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitor MIV-711.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Erik; Rizoska, Biljana; Henderson, Ian; Terelius, Ylva; Jerling, Markus; Edenius, Charlotte; Grabowska, Urszula

    2018-05-09

    Cathepsin K is an attractive therapeutic target for diseases in which bone resorption is excessive such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA). The current paper characterized the pharmacological profile of the potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitor, MIV-711, in vitro and in cynomolgus monkeys, and assessed translation to human based on a single dose clinical study in man. The potency and selectivity of MIV-711 were assessed in vitro using recombinant enzyme assays and differentiated human osteoclasts. MIV-711 was administered to healthy cynomolgus monkeys (3-30 µmol/kg, p.o.). Plasma levels of MIV-711 and the bone resorption biomarker CTX-I were measured after single dose experiments, and urine levels of CTX-I, NTX-I and CTX-II biomarkers were measured after repeat dose experiments. The safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (serum CTX-I) of MIV-711 were assessed in human healthy subjects after single ascending doses from 20 to 600 mg. MIV-711 was a potent inhibitor of human cathepsin K (K i : 0.98 nmol/L) with > 1300-fold selectivity towards other human cathepsins. MIV-711 inhibited human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption with an IC 50 value of 43 nmol/L. Single oral doses of MIV-711 to monkeys reduced plasma levels of CTX-I in a dose-dependent fashion by up to 57% at trough. The effect on CTX-I was linearly correlated to the plasma exposure of MIV-711, while the efficacy duration outlasted plasma exposure. Repeat oral dosing with MIV-711 also reduced urinary levels of the bone resorption biomarkers CTX-I (by 93%) and NTX-I (by 71%) and the cartilage degradation biomarker CTX-II (by 71%). MIV-711 was safe and well-tolerated when given as single ascending doses to healthy subjects. MIV-711 reduced serum CTX-I levels in a dose-dependent manner by up to 79% at trough. The relationship between MIV-711 exposure and effects on these biomarkers in humans was virtually identical when compared to the corresponding monkey data. MIV-711 is a potent

  4. Identification of an IgG CDR sequence contributing to co-purification of the host cell protease cathepsin D.

    PubMed

    Bee, Jared S; Machiesky, LeeAnn M; Peng, Li; Jusino, Kristin C; Dickson, Matthew; Gill, Jeffrey; Johnson, Douglas; Lin, Hung-Yu; Miller, Kenneth; Heidbrink Thompson, Jenny; Remmele, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) must be purified from host cell proteins (HCPs), DNA, and other impurities present in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture media. HCPs can potentially result in adverse clinical responses in patients and, in specific cases, have caused degradation of the final mAb product. As reported previously, residual traces of cathepsin D caused particle formation in the final product of mAb-1. The current work was focused on identification of a primary sequence in mAb-1 responsible for the binding and consequent co-purification of trace levels of CHO cathepsin D. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to detect binding between immobilized CHO cathepsin D and a panel of mAbs. Out of 13 mAbs tested, only mAb-1 and mAb-6 bound to cathepsin D. An LYY motif in the HC CDR2 was common, yet unique, to only these two mAbs. Mutation of LYY to AAA eliminated binding of mAb-1 to cathepsin D providing confirmation that this sequence motif was involved in the binding to CHO cathepsin D. Interestingly, the binding between mAb-1 and cathepsin D was weaker than that of mAb-6, which may be related to the fact that two aspartic acid residues near the LYY motif in mAb-1 are replaced with neutral serine residues in mAb-6. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:140-145, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Cathepsin-mediated Necrosis Controls the Adaptive Immune Response by Th2 (T helper type 2)-associated Adjuvants*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lee S.; Lima, Heriberto; Goldberg, Michael F.; Gocheva, Vasilena; Tsiperson, Vladislav; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Gapp, Bianca V.; Blomen, Vincent A.; Chandran, Kartik; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Brojatsch, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are critical components of vaccines, but it remains unclear how prototypical adjuvants enhance the adaptive immune response. Recent studies have shown that necrotic cells could trigger an immune response. Although most adjuvants have been shown to be cytotoxic, this activity has traditionally been considered a side effect. We set out to test the role of adjuvant-mediated cell death in immunity and found that alum, the most commonly used adjuvant worldwide, triggers a novel form of cell death in myeloid leukocytes characterized by cathepsin-dependent lysosome-disruption. We demonstrated that direct lysosome-permeabilization with a soluble peptide, Leu-Leu-OMe, mimics the alum-like form of necrotic cell death in terms of cathepsin dependence and cell-type specificity. Using a combination of a haploid genetic screen and cathepsin-deficient cells, we identified specific cathepsins that control lysosome-mediated necrosis. We identified cathepsin C as critical for Leu-Leu-OMe-induced cell death, whereas cathepsins B and S were required for alum-mediated necrosis. Consistent with a role of necrotic cell death in adjuvant effects, Leu-Leu-OMe replicated an alum-like immune response in vivo, characterized by dendritic cell activation, granulocyte recruitment, and production of Th2-associated antibodies. Strikingly, cathepsin C deficiency not only blocked Leu-Leu-OMe-mediated necrosis but also impaired Leu-Leu-OMe-enhanced immunity. Together our findings suggest that necrotic cell death is a powerful mediator of a Th2-associated immune response. PMID:23297415

  6. Structural Basis for Reversible and Irreversible Inhibition of Human Cathepsin L by their Respective dipeptidyl glyoxal and diazomethylketone Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    R Shenoy; J Sivaraman

    Cathepsin L plays a key role in many pathophysiological conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, tumor invasion and metastasis, bone resorption and remodeling. Here we report the crystal structures of two analogous dipeptidyl inhibitor complexes which inhibit human cathepsin L in reversible and irreversible modes, respectively. To-date, there are no crystal structure reports of complexes of proteases with their glyoxal inhibitors or complexes of cathepsin L and their diazomethylketone inhibitors. These two inhibitors - inhibitor 1, an {alpha}-keto-{beta}-aldehyde and inhibitor 2, a diazomethylketone, have different groups in the S1 subsite. Inhibitor 1 [Z-Phe-Tyr (OBut)-COCHO], with a Ki of 0.6 nM, is themore » most potent, reversible, synthetic peptidyl inhibitor of cathepsin L reported to-date. The structure of the inhibitor 1 complex was refined up to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of the complex of the inhibitor 2 [Z-Phe-Tyr (t-Bu)-diazomethylketone], an irreversible inhibitor that can inactivate cathepsin L at {micro}M concentrations, was refined up to 1.76 {angstrom} resolution. These two inhibitors have substrate-like interactions with the active site cysteine (Cys25). Inhibitor 1 forms a tetrahedral hemithioacetal adduct, whereas the inhibitor 2 forms a thioester with Cys25. The inhibitor 1 {beta}-aldehyde group is shown to make a hydrogen bond with catalytic His163, whereas the ketone carbonyl oxygen of the inhibitor 2 interacts with the oxyanion hole. tert-Butyl groups of both inhibitors are found to make several non-polar contacts with S' subsite residues of cathepsin L. These studies, combined with other complex structures of cathepsin L, reveal the structural basis for their potency and selectivity.« less

  7. Activity of aspargate (cathepsin D), cysteine proteases (cathepsins B, B + L, and H), and matrix metallopeptidase (collagenase) and their influence on protein and water-holding capacity of muscle in commercially farmed atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.).

    PubMed

    Hagen, Orjan; Solberg, Christel; Johnston, Ian A

    2008-07-23

    Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) were commercially farmed in Helgeland, Norway (May 2004-May 2005). The average weight (Mb) of fish increased over the 12 month production cycle by approximately 73% for females and approximately 50% for males, although during the winter months (November-early May) Mb was unchanged in females and declined by 18% in males because of sexual maturation and sperm release. Periods of zero or negative growth were associated with up to 5.7% (females) and 17.9% (males) decline in fast muscle protein content. The activities of cathepsins B, B + L, H, and D showed a reciprocal relationship and were highly correlated with the changes in protein content. Water-holding capacity was measured as the liquid loss increased from 3-5% in November to 11-13% in May. Two general additive models (GAMs) showed that cathepsin B + L, cathepsin D, and collagenase explained 73.1% of the total variance in protein content, while cathepsin H was the largest contributor to liquid loss, explaining approximately 48.8% of the total variance. The results indicate that to obtain the best flesh quality Atlantic halibut should be harvested in the fall or early winter when the liquid loss and cathepsin activities are low and less likely to cause problems during secondary processing and storage.

  8. Are C1 chondrites chemically fractionated - A trace element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, M.; Wolf, R.; Anders, E.

    1982-01-01

    Six C1 chondrite samples and a C2 xenolith from the Plainview H5 chondrite were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for a large variety of elements, including rare earths. The sample processing is described, including the irradiation, chemical procedure, rare earths separation, counting techniques, radiochemical purity check, and chemical yields. The results of consistency checks on a number of elements are discussed. Abundances for siderophiles, volatiles, and rare earths are presented and discussed. Tests are presented for fractionation of rare earths and other refractories, compositional uniformity of C1's, and interelement correlations. There is no conclusive evidence for nebular fractionation affecting C1's. Three fractionation-prone rare earths have essentially the same relative abundances in C1's and all other chondrite classes, and hence are apparently not fractionated in C1's.

  9. KINETIC CHARACTERIZATION AND MOLECULAR DOCKING OF A NOVEL, POTENT, AND SELECTIVE SLOW-BINDING INHIBITOR OF HUMAN CATHEPSIN L

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parag P.; Myers, Michael C.; Beavers, Mary Pat; Purvis, Jeremy E.; Jing, Huiyan; Grieser, Heather J.; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Napper, Andrew D.; Huryn, Donna M.; Cooperman, Barry S.; Smith, Amos B.; Diamond, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel small molecule thiocarbazate (PubChem SID 26681509), a potent inhibitor of human cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) with an IC50 of 56 nM, was developed following a 57,821 compound screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository. After a 4 hr preincubation with cathepsin L, this compound became even more potent, demonstrating an IC50 of 1.0 nM. The thiocarbazate was determined to be a slow-binding and slowly reversible competitive inhibitor. Through a transient kinetic analysis for single-step reversibility, inhibition rate constants were kon = 24,000 M-1s-1 and koff = 2.2 × 10-5 s-1 (Ki = 0.89 nM). Molecular docking studies were undertaken using the experimentally-derived X-ray crystal structure of papain/CLIK-148 (1cvz.pdb). These studies revealed critical hydrogen bonding patterns of the thiocarbazate with key active site residues in papain. The thiocarbazate displayed 7- to 151-fold greater selectivity toward cathepsin L than papain and cathepsins B, K, V, and S with no activity against cathepsin G. The inhibitor demonstrated a lack of toxicity in human aortic endothelial cells and zebrafish. Additionally, the thiocarbazate inhibited in vitro propagation of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 of 15.4 μM and inhibited Leishmania major with an IC50 of 12.5 μM. PMID:18403718

  10. Analysis of tumor- and stroma-supplied proteolytic networks reveals a brain metastasis-promoting role for cathepsin S

    PubMed Central

    Sevenich, Lisa; Bowman, Robert L.; Mason, Steven D.; Quail, Daniela F.; Rapaport, Franck; Elie, Benelita T.; Brogi, Edi; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Hahn, William C.; Holsinger, Leslie J.; Massagué, Joan; Leslie, Christina S.; Joyce, Johanna A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis remains the most common cause of death in most cancers, with limited therapies for combating disseminated disease. While the primary tumor microenvironment is an important regulator of cancer progression, it is less well understood how different tissue environments influence metastasis. We analyzed tumor-stroma interactions that modulate organ tropism of brain, bone and lung metastasis in xenograft models. We identified a number of potential modulators of site-specific metastasis, including cathepsin S as a regulator of breast-to-brain metastasis. High cathepsin S expression at the primary site correlated with decreased brain metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients. Both macrophages and tumor cells produce cathepsin S, and only the combined depletion significantly reduced brain metastasis in vivo. Cathepsin S specifically mediates blood-brain barrier transmigration via proteolytic processing of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin S significantly reduced experimental brain metastasis, supporting its consideration as a therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:25086747

  11. Cathepsins in Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: Identification in Human Chronic Tears and Temporal Induction in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Seto, Song P; Parks, Akia N; Qiu, Yongzhi; Soslowsky, Louis J; Karas, Spero; Platt, Manu O; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2015-09-01

    While overuse of the supraspinatus tendon is a leading factor in rotator cuff injury, the underlying biochemical changes have not been fully elucidated. In this study, torn human rotator cuff (supraspinatus) tendon tissue was analyzed for the presence of active cathepsin proteases with multiplex cysteine cathepsin zymography. In addition, an overuse injury to supraspinatus tendons was induced through downhill running in an established rat model. Histological analysis demonstrated that structural damage occurred by 8 weeks of overuse compared to control rats in the region of tendon insertion into bone. In both 4- and 8-week overuse groups, via zymography, there was approximately a 180% increase in cathepsin L activity at the insertion region compared to the controls, while no difference was found in the midsubstance area. Additionally, an over 400% increase in cathepsin K activity was observed for the insertion region of the 4-week overused tendons. More cathepsin K and L immunostaining was observed at the insertion region of the overuse groups compared to controls. These results provide important information on a yet unexplored mechanism for tendon degeneration that may operate alone or in conjunction with other proteases to contribute to chronic tendinopathy.

  12. Cathepsins in Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: Identification in Human Chronic Tears and Temporal Induction in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Song P.; Parks, Akia N.; Qiu, Yongzhi; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Karas, Spero; Platt, Manu O.; Temenoff, Johnna S.

    2015-01-01

    While overuse of the supraspinatus tendon is a leading factor in rotator cuff injury, the underlying biochemical changes have not been fully elucidated. In this study, torn human rotator cuff (supraspinatus) tendon tissue was analyzed for the presence of active cathepsin proteases with multiplex cysteine cathepsin zymography. In addition, an overuse injury to supraspinatus tendons was induced through downhill running in an established rat model. Histological analysis demonstrated that structural damage occurred by 8 weeks of overuse compared to control rats in the region of tendon insertion into bone. In both 4- and 8-week overuse groups, via zymography, there was approximately a 180% increase in cathepsin L activity at the insertion region compared to the controls, while no difference was found in the midsubstance area. Additionally, an over 400% increase in cathepsin K activity was observed for the insertion region of the 4-week overused tendons. More cathepsin K and L immunostaining was observed at the insertion region of the overuse groups compared to controls. These results provide important information on a yet unexplored mechanism for tendon degeneration that may operate alone or in conjunction with other proteases to contribute to chronic tendinopathy. PMID:25558848

  13. Azadirachtin-induced apoptosis involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Xingan; Meng, Qianqian; Wang, Peidan; Shu, Benshui; Hu, Qiongbo; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    Azadirachtin as a kind of botanical insecticide has been widely used in pest control. We previously reported that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis of Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1, which involves in the up-regulation of P53 protein. However, the detailed mechanism of azadirachtin-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood in insect cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of lysosome and lysosomal protease in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. The result confirmed that azadirachtin indeed inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. The lysosomes were divided into different types as time-dependent manner, which suggested that changes of lysosomes were necessarily physiological processes in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Interestingly, we noticed that azadirachtin could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L releasing to cytosol. Z-FF-FMK (a cathepsin L inhibitor), but not CA-074me (a cathepsin B inhibitor), could effectively hinder the apoptosis induced by azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of caspase-3 could also be inactivated by the inhibition of cathepsin L enzymatic activity induced by Z-FF-FMK. Taken together, our findings suggest that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells in a lysosomal pathway, and cathepsin L plays a pro-apoptosis role in this process through releasing to cytosol and activating caspase-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 17 CFR 270.3c-1 - Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of beneficial... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3c-1 Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds. (a) As used in this section: (1) The term...

  15. NR3C1 hypermethylation in depressed and bullied adolescents.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, Paschalis; Andersson, Filip; Melas, Philippe A; Yang, Liu L; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Rȕegg, Joëlle; Ekström, Tomas J; Forsell, Yvonne; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2018-06-19

    The disruption of key epigenetic processes during critical periods of brain development can increase an individual's vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. For instance, DNA methylation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adulthood is known to be associated with early-life adversities and has been suggested to mediate the development of stress-related disorders. However, the association between NR3C1 methylation and the emergence of internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence has not been studied extensively. In the present report, we used saliva DNA from a cohort of Swedish adolescents (13-14 years old; N = 1149) to measure NR3C1 methylation in the exon 1F region. Internalizing psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). We found that NR3C1 hypermethylation was cross-sectionally associated with high score for internalizing symptoms in the whole group as well as among the female participants. In addition, an analysis of social environmental stressors revealed that reports of bullied or lacking friends were significantly associated with NR3C1 hypermethylation. This cross-sectional association of NR3C1 exon 1F hypermethylation with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents, as well as with bullying and lack of friends are novel results in this field. Longitudinal studies are needed to address whether NR3C1 methylation mediates the link between social stressors and psychopathology in adolescence.

  16. The dilemma: does tissue expression of cathepsin D reflect tumor malignancy? The question: does the assay truly mirror cathepsin D mis-function in the tumor?

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Giuseppina; Castino, Roberta; Follo, Carlo; Peracchio, Claudia; Valente, Guido; Isidoro, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    Three molecular forms of the proteolytic enzyme Cathepsin D (CD) are found in the cell: the precursor (proCD), the intermediate single-chain and the mature double-chain. ProCD, which is found in the Golgi Complex, is enzymatically inactive, while the intermediate and the mature forms, respectively found in endosomes and lysosomes, are enzymatically active. The latter are involved in autophagy and apoptosis pathways thus playing a crucial role in the control of cell and tissue homeostasis. ProCD can be secreted in the extracellular space and, by interacting with membrane receptors, can promote cell proliferation. At slightly acid pH, secreted proCD undergoes partial maturation and becomes active. In the extracellular space, CD can degrade the protein components of the matrix and free growth factors therein embedded, thus favoring tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. Based on the multiple tasks performed by CD inside and outside the cell, it is not irrational to hypothesize its involvement in cancer development and progression and a strict link between its tissue expression and the clinico-pathological features of the tumor. Thus, not surprisingly, as many as 519 articles are found in the database of pubmed with the keywords 'cathepsin D, cancer and marker'. Disappointingly, however, in spite of, or because of, this large number of studies, the scientific community has not reached a general agreement on the prognostic value of CD in cancer progression. Here, we will briefly review the relevant literature and offer a possible explanation for the conflicting data.

  17. Pharmacogenetic Features of Inhibitors to Cathepsin B that Improve Memory Deficit and Reduce Beta-Amyloid Related to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Vivian; Hook, Gregory; Kindy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) in brain is a major factor involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that results in severe memory deficit. Our recent studies demonstrate pharmacogenetic differences in the effects of inhibitors of cathepsin B to improve memory and reduce Aβ in different mouse models of AD. The inhibitors improve memory and reduce brain Aβ in mice expressing the wild-type (WT) β-secretase site of human APP, expressed in most AD patients. However, these inhibitors have no effect in mice expressing the rare Swedish (Swe) mutant APP. Knockout of the cathepsin B decreased brain Aβ in mice expressing WT APP, validating cathepsin B as the target. The specificity of cathepsin B to cleave the WT β-secretase site, but not the Swe mutant site, of APP for Aβ production explains the distinct inhibitor responses in the different AD mouse models. In contrast to cathepsin B, the BACE1 β-secretase prefers to cleave the Swe mutant site. Discussion of BACE1 data in the field indicate that they do not preclude cathepsin B as also being a β-secretase. Cathepsin B and BACE1 may participate jointly as β-secretases. Significantly, the majority of AD patients express WT APP and, therefore, inhibitors of cathepsin B represent candidate drugs for AD. PMID:20536395

  18. Deletion of Cysteine Cathepsins B or L Yields Differential Impacts on Murine Skin Proteome and Degradome*

    PubMed Central

    Tholen, Stefan; Biniossek, Martin L.; Gansz, Martina; Gomez-Auli, Alejandro; Bengsch, Fee; Noel, Agnes; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N.; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Reinheckel, Thomas; Schilling, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the fact that concerted proteolysis is essential for skin morphology and function. The cysteine protease cathepsin L (Ctsl) has been implicated in epidermal proliferation and desquamation, as well as in hair cycle regulation. In stark contrast, mice deficient in cathepsin B (Ctsb) do not display an overt skin phenotype. To understand the systematic consequences of deleting Ctsb or Ctsl, we determined the protein abundances of >1300 proteins and proteolytic cleavage events in skin samples of wild-type, Ctsb−/−, and Ctsl−/− mice via mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. Both protease deficiencies revealed distinct quantitative changes in proteome composition. Ctsl−/− skin revealed increased levels of the cysteine protease inhibitors cystatin B and cystatin M/E, increased cathepsin D, and an accumulation of the extracellular glycoprotein periostin. Immunohistochemistry located periostin predominantly in the hypodermal connective tissue of Ctsl−/− skin. The proteomic identification of proteolytic cleavage sites within skin proteins revealed numerous processing sites that are underrepresented in Ctsl−/− or Ctsb−/− samples. Notably, few of the affected cleavage sites shared the canonical Ctsl or Ctsb specificity, providing further evidence of a complex proteolytic network in the skin. Novel processing sites in proteins such as dermokine and Notch-1 were detected. Simultaneous analysis of acetylated protein N termini showed prototypical mammalian N-alpha acetylation. These results illustrate an influence of both Ctsb and Ctsl on the murine skin proteome and degradome, with the phenotypic consequences of the absence of either protease differing considerably. PMID:23233448

  19. Cathepsin B-sensitive polymers for compartment-specific degradation and nucleic acid release

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David S.H.; Johnson, Russell N.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Degradable cationic polymers are desirable for in vivo nucleic acid delivery because they offer significantly decreased toxicity over non-degradable counterparts. Peptide linkers provide chemical stability and high specificity for particular endopeptidases but have not been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications. In this work, enzymatically degradable peptide-HPMA copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of HPMA with methacrylated peptide macromonomers, resulting in polymers with low polydispersity and near quantitative incorporation of peptides. Three peptide-HPMA copolymers were evaluated: (i) pHCathK10, containing peptides composed of the linker phe-lys-phe-leu (FKFL), a substrate of the endosomal/lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin B, connected to oligo-(l)-lysine for nucleic acid binding, (ii) pHCath(d)K10, containing the FKFL linker with oligo-(d)-lysine, and (iii) pH(d)Cath(d)K10, containing all (d) amino acids. Cathepsin B degraded copolymers pHCathK10 and pHCath(d)K10 within one hour while no degradation of pH(d)Cath(d)K10 was observed. Polyplexes formed with pHCathK10 copolymers show DNA release by 4 hrs of treatment with cathepsin B; comparatively, polyplexes formed with pHCath(d)K10 and pH(d)Cath(d)K10 show no DNA release within 8 hrs. Transfection efficiency in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells were comparable between the copolymers but pHCathK10 was less toxic. This work demonstrates the successful application of peptide linkers for degradable cationic polymers and DNA release. PMID:22036879

  20. Expansion of cytochrome P450 and cathepsin genes in the generalist herbivore brown marmorated stink bug.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Michel, Andy

    2018-01-18

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an invasive pest in North America which causes severe economic losses on tree fruits, ornamentals, vegetables, and field crops. The H. halys is an extreme generalist and this feeding behaviour may have been a major contributor behind its establishment and successful adaptation in invasive habitats of North America. To develop an understanding into the mechanism of H. halys' generalist herbivory, here we specifically focused on genes putatively facilitating its adaptation on diverse host plants. We generated over 142 million reads via sequencing eight RNA-Seq libraries, each representing an individual H. halys adult. The de novo assembly contained 79,855 high quality transcripts, totalling 39,600,178 bases. Following a comprehensive transcriptome analysis, H. halys had an expanded suite of cytochrome P450 and cathepsin-L genes compared to other insects. Detailed characterization of P450 genes from the CYP6 family, known for herbivore adaptation on host plants, strongly hinted towards H. halys-specific expansions involving gene duplications. In subsequent RT-PCR experiments, both P450 and cathepsin genes exhibited tissue-specific or distinct expression patterns which supported their principal roles of detoxification and/or digestion in a particular tissue. Our analysis into P450 and cathepsin genes in H. halys offers new insights into potential mechanisms for understanding generalist herbivory and adaptation success in invasive habitats. Additionally, the large-scale transcriptomic resource developed here provides highly useful data for gene discovery; functional, population and comparative genomics as well as efforts to assemble and annotate the H. halys genome.

  1. 16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C1...

  2. 16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C1...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C1...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix C1 to Part 305 - Compact Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. C1...

  5. Anti-C1q Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    ORBAI, ANA-MARIA; TRUEDSSON, LENNART; STURFELT, GUNNAR; NIVED, OLA; FANG, HONG; ALARCÓN, GRACIELA S.; GORDON, CAROLINE; MERRILL, JOAN T.; FORTIN, PAUL R.; BRUCE, IAN N.; ISENBERG, DAVID A.; WALLACE, DANIEL J.; RAMSEY-GOLDMAN, ROSALIND; BAE, SANG-CHEOL; HANLY, JOHN G.; SANCHEZ-GUERRERO, JORGE; CLARKE, ANN E.; ARANOW, CYNTHIA B.; MANZI, SUSAN; UROWITZ, MURRAY B.; GLADMAN, DAFNA D.; KALUNIAN, KENNETH C.; COSTNER, MELISSA I.; WERTH, VICTORIA P.; ZOMA, ASAD; BERNATSKY, SASHA; RUIZ-IRASTORZA, GUILLERMO; KHAMASHTA, MUNTHER A.; JACOBSEN, SOREN; BUYON, JILL P.; MADDISON, PETER; DOOLEY, MARY ANNE; VAN VOLLENHOVEN, RONALD F.; GINZLER, ELLEN; STOLL, THOMAS; PESCHKEN, CHRISTINE; JORIZZO, JOSEPH L.; CALLEN, JEFFREY P.; LIM, S. SAM; FESSLER, BARRI J.; INANC, MURAT; KAMEN, DIANE L.; RAHMAN, ANISUR; STEINSSON, KRISTJAN; FRANKS, ANDREW G.; SIGLER, LISA; HAMEED, SUHAIL; PHAM, NEENA; BREY, ROBIN; WEISMAN, MICHAEL H.; MCGWIN, GERALD; MAGDER, LAURENCE S.; PETRI, MICHELLE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs. rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multi-center study. Methods Information and blood samples were obtained in a cross-sectional study from patients with SLE (n=308) and other rheumatologic diseases (n=389) from 25 clinical sites (84% female, 68% Caucasian, 17% African descent, 8% Asian, 7% other). IgG anti-C1q against the collagen-like region was measured by ELISA. Results Prevalence of anti-C1q was 28% (86/308) in patients with SLE and 13% (49/389) in controls (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.8-4, p<0.001). Anti-C1q was associated with proteinuria (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1, p<0.001), red cell casts (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.4, p=0.015), anti-dsDNA (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.9-6.1, p<0.001) and anti-Smith (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.5-5.0, p=0.01). Anti-C1q was independently associated with renal involvement after adjustment for demographics, ANA, anti-dsDNA and low complement (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2, p<0.01). Simultaneously positive anti-C1q, anti-dsDNA and low complement was strongly associated with renal involvement (OR=14.9, 95% CI: 5.8-38.4, p<0.01). Conclusions Anti-C1q was more common in patients with SLE and those of Asian race/ethnicity. We confirmed a significant association of anti-C1q with renal involvement, independent of demographics and other serologies. Anti-C1q in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis. PMID:25124676

  6. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business...

  8. Integration of C 1 and C 2 Metabolism in Trees

    DOE PAGES

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Fernandes de Souza, Vinicius; Oikawa, Patty; ...

    2017-09-23

    C 1 metabolism in plants is known to be involved in photorespiration, nitrogen and amino acid metabolism, as well as methylation and biosynthesis of metabolites and biopolymers. Although the flux of carbon through the C 1 pathway is thought to be large, its intermediates are difficult to measure and relatively little is known about this potentially ubiquitous pathway. In this study, we evaluated the C 1 pathway and its integration with the central metabolism using aqueous solutions of 13C-labeled C 1 and C 2 intermediates delivered to branches of the tropical species Inga edulis via the transpiration stream. Delivery ofmore » [ 13C]methanol and [ 13C]formaldehyde rapidly stimulated leaf emissions of [ 13C]methanol, [ 13C]formaldehyde, [ 13C]formic acid, and 13CO 2, confirming the existence of the C 1 pathway and rapid interconversion between methanol and formaldehyde. However, while [ 13C]formate solutions stimulated emissions of 13CO 2, emissions of [ 13C]methanol or [ 13C]formaldehyde were not detected, suggesting that once oxidation to formate occurs it is rapidly oxidized to CO 2 within chloroplasts. 13C-labeling of isoprene, a known photosynthetic product, was linearly related to 13CO 2 across C 1 and C 2 ([ 13C 2]acetate and [2- 13C]glycine) substrates, consistent with reassimilation of C 1, respiratory, and photorespiratory CO 2. Moreover, [ 13C]methanol and [ 13C]formaldehyde induced a quantitative labeling of both carbon atoms of acetic acid emissions, possibly through the rapid turnover of the chloroplastic acetyl-CoA pool via glycolate oxidation. The results support a role of the C 1 pathway to provide an alternative carbon source for glycine methylation in photorespiration, enhance CO 2 concentrations within chloroplasts, and produce key C 2 intermediates (e.g., acetyl-CoA) central to anabolic and catabolic metabolism.« less

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business...

  11. Integration of C1 and C2 Metabolism in Trees

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Higuchi, Niro; Bill, Markus; Porras, Rachel; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2017-01-01

    C1 metabolism in plants is known to be involved in photorespiration, nitrogen and amino acid metabolism, as well as methylation and biosynthesis of metabolites and biopolymers. Although the flux of carbon through the C1 pathway is thought to be large, its intermediates are difficult to measure and relatively little is known about this potentially ubiquitous pathway. In this study, we evaluated the C1 pathway and its integration with the central metabolism using aqueous solutions of 13C-labeled C1 and C2 intermediates delivered to branches of the tropical species Inga edulis via the transpiration stream. Delivery of [13C]methanol and [13C]formaldehyde rapidly stimulated leaf emissions of [13C]methanol, [13C]formaldehyde, [13C]formic acid, and 13CO2, confirming the existence of the C1 pathway and rapid interconversion between methanol and formaldehyde. However, while [13C]formate solutions stimulated emissions of 13CO2, emissions of [13C]methanol or [13C]formaldehyde were not detected, suggesting that once oxidation to formate occurs it is rapidly oxidized to CO2 within chloroplasts. 13C-labeling of isoprene, a known photosynthetic product, was linearly related to 13CO2 across C1 and C2 ([13C2]acetate and [2-13C]glycine) substrates, consistent with reassimilation of C1, respiratory, and photorespiratory CO2. Moreover, [13C]methanol and [13C]formaldehyde induced a quantitative labeling of both carbon atoms of acetic acid emissions, possibly through the rapid turnover of the chloroplastic acetyl-CoA pool via glycolate oxidation. The results support a role of the C1 pathway to provide an alternative carbon source for glycine methylation in photorespiration, enhance CO2 concentrations within chloroplasts, and produce key C2 intermediates (e.g., acetyl-CoA) central to anabolic and catabolic metabolism. PMID:28946627

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as an...

  13. Integration of C 1 and C 2 Metabolism in Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Fernandes de Souza, Vinicius; Oikawa, Patty

    C 1 metabolism in plants is known to be involved in photorespiration, nitrogen and amino acid metabolism, as well as methylation and biosynthesis of metabolites and biopolymers. Although the flux of carbon through the C 1 pathway is thought to be large, its intermediates are difficult to measure and relatively little is known about this potentially ubiquitous pathway. In this study, we evaluated the C 1 pathway and its integration with the central metabolism using aqueous solutions of 13C-labeled C 1 and C 2 intermediates delivered to branches of the tropical species Inga edulis via the transpiration stream. Delivery ofmore » [ 13C]methanol and [ 13C]formaldehyde rapidly stimulated leaf emissions of [ 13C]methanol, [ 13C]formaldehyde, [ 13C]formic acid, and 13CO 2, confirming the existence of the C 1 pathway and rapid interconversion between methanol and formaldehyde. However, while [ 13C]formate solutions stimulated emissions of 13CO 2, emissions of [ 13C]methanol or [ 13C]formaldehyde were not detected, suggesting that once oxidation to formate occurs it is rapidly oxidized to CO 2 within chloroplasts. 13C-labeling of isoprene, a known photosynthetic product, was linearly related to 13CO 2 across C 1 and C 2 ([ 13C 2]acetate and [2- 13C]glycine) substrates, consistent with reassimilation of C 1, respiratory, and photorespiratory CO 2. Moreover, [ 13C]methanol and [ 13C]formaldehyde induced a quantitative labeling of both carbon atoms of acetic acid emissions, possibly through the rapid turnover of the chloroplastic acetyl-CoA pool via glycolate oxidation. The results support a role of the C 1 pathway to provide an alternative carbon source for glycine methylation in photorespiration, enhance CO 2 concentrations within chloroplasts, and produce key C 2 intermediates (e.g., acetyl-CoA) central to anabolic and catabolic metabolism.« less

  14. 26 CFR 1.678(c)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts for support. 1.678(c)-1 Section 1.678(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(c)-1 Trusts for support... cotrustee, to apply the income of the trust to the support or maintenance of a person whom the holder is...

  15. (-) Epicatechin prevents alterations in lysosomal glycohydrolases, cathepsins and reduces myocardial infarct size in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen

    2013-04-15

    The preventive effects of (-) epicatechin on oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondrial damage, altered membrane bound adenosine triphosphatases and minerals were reported previously in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model. Leakage of lysosomal glycohydrolases and cathepsins play an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of (-) epicatechin on alterations in lysosomal glycohydrolases, cathepsins and myocardial infarct size in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with (-) epicatechin (20mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 21 days. After the pretreatment period, isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously into the rats at an interval of 24h for two days to induce myocardial infarction. The levels of serum cardiac troponin-I and the activities of serum and heart lysosomal enzymes (β-glucuronidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly (P<0.05) and the activities of β-glucuronidase and cathepsin-D in the heart lysosomal fractions were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study revealed the potent antioxidant action of (-) epicatechin. Pretreatment with (-) epicatechin daily for a period of 21 days prevented the leakage of cardiac marker, lysosomal glycohydrolases, cathepsins, and reduced infarct size, thereby protecting the lysosomal membranes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats, by virtue of its membrane stabilizing property. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  17. Cathepsin B inhibitory activities of three new phthalate derivatives isolated from seahorse, Hippocampus Kuda Bleeler.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2008-12-01

    Three new phthalate acid derivatives, 2,12-diethyl-11-methylhexadecyl 2-ethyl-11-methylhexadecyl phthalate (1), 2-ethyldecyl 2-ethylundecyl phthalate (2), and bis(2-ethyldodecyl) phthalate (3), were isolated from seahorse, Hippocampus Kuda Bleeler, together with a known natural analog bis(2-ethylheptyl) phthalate (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated mainly by means of the comprehensive analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data. The four phthalate derivatives showed dose-dependent cathepsin B inhibitions activities with IC(50) values of 0.13 mM (1), 0.21 mM (2), 0.18 mM (3), and 0.29 mM (4), respectively.

  18. The synthesis of a tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled cathepsin C inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul; Bragg, Ryan A; Caffrey, Moya; Ericsson, Cecilia; Hickey, Michael J; Kingston, Lee P; Elmore, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    As part of a medicinal chemistry program aimed at developing a highly potent and selective cathepsin C inhibitor, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled materials were required. The synthesis of tritium-labeled methanesulfonate 5 was achieved via catalytic tritiolysis of a chloro precursor, albeit at a low radiochemical purity of 67%. Tritium-labeled AZD5248 was prepared via a 3-stage synthesis, utilizing amide-directed hydrogen isotope exchange. Carbon-14 and stable isotope-labeled AZD5248 were successfully prepared through modifications of the medicinal chemistry synthetic route, enabling the use of available labeled intermediates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Protection against Fasciola gigantica infection in mice by vaccination with recombinant juvenile-specific cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Sansri, Veerawat; Meemon, Krai; Changklungmoa, Narin; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Chantree, Pathanin; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Lorsuwannarat, Natcha; Itagaki, Tadashi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-03-24

    Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H (FgCatL1H) is one of the major cathepsin L released by juveniles of F. gigantica to aid in the invasion of host's tissues. Due to its high sequence similarity with other cathepsin L (CatL) isoforms of late stage F. gigantica, it was considered to be a good vaccine candidate that can block all CatL-mediated protease activities and affect juveniles as well as adult parasites. In this study, recombinant proFgCatL1H protein expressed in yeast, Pichia pastoris, system was mixed with Freund's adjuvants and used to subcutaneously immunize mice that were later challenged with metacercariae of F. gigantica. The percentage of worm protection in the rproFgCatL1H-vaccinated mice compared to the non-immunized and adjuvant control mice were approximately 62.7% and 66.1%, respectively. Anti-rproFgCatL1H antisera collected from vaccinated mice reacted specifically with rproFgCatL1H and other cathepsin L isoforms of F. gigantica, but the antibodies did not cross react with antigens from other trematode and nematode parasites, including Eurytrema pancreaticum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fischoederius cobboldi, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, and Setaria labiato-papillosa. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a in mouse sera increased significantly at two weeks after immunization and were highest during the sixth to eighth weeks after immunization. The IgG1 level was higher than IgG2a at all periods of immunization, implicating the dominance of the Th2 response. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera were shown to be strongly correlated with the numbers of worm recovery, and the correlation coefficient was higher for IgG1. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase were significantly lower in the sera of rproFgCatL1H-vaccinated mice than in the infected control mice indicating a lower degree of liver damage. This study demonstrated a high potential of FgCatL1H vaccine, and its

  20. Pyrazole-based cathepsin S inhibitors with arylalkynes as P1 binding elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ameriks, Michael K.; Axe, Frank U.; Bembenek, Scott D.

    A crystal structure of 1 bound to a Cys25Ser mutant of cathepsin S helped to elucidate the binding mode of a previously disclosed series of pyrazole-based CatS inhibitors and facilitated the design of a new class of arylalkyne analogs. Optimization of the alkyne and tetrahydropyridine portions of the pharmacophore provided potent CatS inhibitors (IC{sub 50} = 40-300 nM), and an X-ray structure of 32 revealed that the arylalkyne moiety binds in the S1 pocket of the enzyme.

  1. Cathepsin S-cleavable, multi-block HPMA copolymers for improved SPECT/CT imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Wenting; Jia, Yinnong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Brusnahan, Susan K; Garrison, Jered C

    2016-10-01

    This work continues our efforts to improve the diagnostic and radiotherapeutic effectiveness of nanomedicine platforms by developing approaches to reduce the non-target accumulation of these agents. Herein, we developed multi-block HPMA copolymers with backbones that are susceptible to cleavage by cathepsin S, a protease that is abundantly expressed in tissues of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Specifically, a bis-thiol terminated HPMA telechelic copolymer containing 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Three maleimide modified linkers with different sequences, including cathepsin S degradable oligopeptide, scramble oligopeptide and oligo ethylene glycol, were subsequently synthesized and used for the extension of the HPMA copolymers by thiol-maleimide click chemistry. All multi-block HPMA copolymers could be labeled by (177)Lu with high labeling efficiency and exhibited high serum stability. In vitro cleavage studies demonstrated highly selective and efficient cathepsin S mediated cleavage of the cathepsin S-susceptible multi-block HPMA copolymer. A modified multi-block HPMA copolymer series capable of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was utilized to investigate the rate of cleavage of the multi-block HPMA copolymers in monocyte-derived macrophages. Confocal imaging and flow cytometry studies revealed substantially higher rates of cleavage for the multi-block HPMA copolymers containing the cathepsin S-susceptible linker. The efficacy of the cathepsin S-cleavable multi-block HPMA copolymer was further examined using an in vivo model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Based on the biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies, the copolymer extended with the cathepsin S susceptible linker exhibited significantly faster clearance and lower non-target retention without compromising tumor targeting. Overall, these results indicate that

  2. Differential regulation of ATP binding cassette protein A1 expression and ApoA-I lipidation by Niemann-Pick type C1 in murine hepatocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Dong; Franklin, Vivian; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Kiss, Robert S; Ho, Kenneth; Gallant, Michel; Marcel, Yves L

    2007-08-03

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (Npc1) protein inactivation results in lipid accumulation in late endosomes and lysosomes, leading to a defect of ATP binding cassette protein A1 (Abca1)-mediated lipid efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in macrophages and fibroblasts. However, the role of Npc1 in Abca1-mediated lipid efflux to apoA-I in hepatocytes, the major cells contributing to HDL formation, is still unknown. Here we show that, whereas lipid efflux to apoA-I in Npc1-null macrophages is impaired, the lipidation of endogenously synthesized apoA-I by low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol or de novo synthesized cholesterol or phospholipids in Npc1-null hepatocytes is significantly increased by about 1-, 3-, and 8-fold, respectively. The increased cholesterol efflux reflects a major increase of Abca1 protein in Npc1-null hepatocytes, which contrasts with the decrease observed in Npc1-null macrophages. The increased Abca1 expression is largely post-transcriptional, because Abca1 mRNA is only slightly increased and Lxr alpha mRNA is not changed, and Lxr alpha target genes are reduced. This differs from the regulation of Abcg1 expression, which is up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in Npc1-null cells. Abca1 protein translation rate is higher in Npc1-null hepatocytes, compared with wild type hepatocytes as measured by [(35)S]methionine incorporation, whereas there is no difference for the degradation of newly synthesized Abca1 in these two types of hepatocytes. Cathepsin D, which we recently identified as a positive modulator of Abca1, is markedly increased at both mRNA and protein levels by Npc1 inactivation in hepatocytes but not in macrophages. Consistent with this, inhibition of cathepsin D with pepstatin A reduced the Abca1 protein level in both Npc1-inactivated and WT hepatocytes. Therefore, Abca1 expression is specifically regulated in hepatocytes, where Npc1 activity modulates cathepsin D expression and Abca1 protein translation rate.

  3. K-ras mutation promotes ionizing radiation-induced invasion and migration of lung cancer in part via the Cathepsin L/CUX1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Zhao, Yifan; Xiong, Yajie; Wang, Wenjuan; Fei, Yao; Tan, Caihong; Liang, Zhongqin

    2018-01-15

    K-ras mutation is involved in cancer progression including invasion and migration, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Cathepsin L is a lysosomal cysteine protease and has recently been associated with invasion and migration in human cancers when it is overexpressed. Our recent studies have shown that ionizing radiation (IR) enhanced expression of cathepsin L and increased invasion and migration of tumor cells, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the effects of K-ras mutation and IR induced invasion and migration of lung cancer as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, the levels of cathepsin L and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins remarkably changed in A549 (K-ras mutant) after irradiation compared with H1299 (K-ras wild), thereby promoting invasion and migration. Additionally, cathepsin L and its downstream transcription factor CUX1/p110 were increased after irradiation in A549 transfected with CUX1/p200, and the proteolytic processing of CUX1 by cathepsin L was remarkably increased after co-transfection of CUX1/p200 and cathepsin L-lentivirus in H1299. In addition, delivery of a mutant K-ras (V12) into HEK 293 cells stimulated EMT after irradiation due to the accumulation of cathepsin L. Moreover, mutated K-ras was associated with IR-induced cathepsin L and EMT in BALB/c nude mice. Finally, the level of cathepsin L expression was higher in samples carrying a K-ras mutation than in wild-type K-ras samples and the mesenchymal markers were upregulated in the samples of mutant K-ras, whereas the epithelial marker E-cadherin was downregulated in non-small cell lung cancers tissues. In conclusion, the findings demonstrated that mutated K-ras promotes cathepsin L expression and plays a pivotal role in EMT of human lung cancer. The regulatory effect of IR-induced cathepsin L on lung cancer invasion and migration was partially attributed to the Cathepsin L

  4. Subcutaneous infusion of human C1 inhibitor in swine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haixiang; Zhang, Hua-Mei; Frank, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Hereditary angioedema afflicts patients with unpredictable episodes of swelling that can be life threatening. Treatments approved by the Food and Drug Administration for routine prophylaxis include danazol given orally and the nanofiltered human C1 esterase inhibitor, CINRYZE, which is approved for intravenous administration. Approved for the treatment of acute attacks are the C1 esterase inhibitor, Berinert, given intravenously, and the kallikrein inhibitor, KALBITOR, given subcutaneously. C1 inhibitor has generally been non-toxic and neither pro-inflammatory nor pro-fibrotic, suggesting that it may be suitable for subcutaneous infusion. The current study used a swine model to compare blood levels of human C1 inhibitor following intravenous and subcutaneous infusion, and the effect of infusion route on heart and skin pathology. Levels of C1 inhibitor achieved with SC infusion compared favorably with levels achieved after IV infusion and were relatively more stable than those after IV infusion. Neither cardiac nor skin toxicity was observed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cathepsin B Expression and the Correlation with Clinical Aspects of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-En; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsin B (CTSB), a member of the cathepsin family, is a cysteine protease that is widely distributed in the lysosomes of cells in various tissues. It is overexpressed in several human cancers and may be related to tumorigenesis. The main purpose of this study was to analyze CTSB expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with patient prognosis. Tissue microarrays were used to detect CTSB expression in 280 patients and to examine the association between CTSB expression and clinicopathological parameters. In addition, the metastatic effects of the CTSB knockdown on two oral cancer cell lines were investigated by transwell migration assay. Cytoplasmic CTSB expression was detected in 34.6% (97/280) of patients. CTSB expression was correlated with positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007) and higher tumor grade (p = 0.008) but not with tumor size and distant metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed a higher hazard ratio, demonstrating that CTSB expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in buccal mucosa carcinoma patients. Furthermore, the Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that buccal mucosa OSCC patients with positive CTSB expression had significantly shorter overall survival. Moreover, treatment with the CTSB siRNA exerted an inhibitory effect on migration in OC2 and CAL27 oral cancer cells. We conclude that CTSB expression may be useful for determining OSCC prognosis, particularly for patients with lymph node metastasis, and may function as a biomarker of the survival of OSCC patients in Taiwan.

  6. Co-distribution of cysteine cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases in human dentin.

    PubMed

    Scaffa, Polliana Mendes Candia; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Vidal, Cristina de Mattos Pimenta; Curci, Rosa; Apolonio, Fabianni; Gobbi, Pietro; Pashley, David; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tersariol, Ivarne Luis Dos Santos; Nascimento, Fábio Dupart; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that cysteine cathepsins (CTs) along with matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) may work in conjunction in the proteolysis of mature dentin matrix. The aim of this study was to verify simultaneously the distribution and presence of cathepsins B (CT-B) and K (CT-K) in partially demineralized dentin; and further to evaluate the activity of CTs and MMPs in the same tissue. The distribution of CT-B and CT-K in sound human dentin was assessed by immunohistochemistry. A double-immunolabeling technique was used to identify, at once, the occurrence of those enzymes in dentin. Activities of CTs and MMPs in dentin extracts were evaluated spectrofluorometrically. In addition, in situ gelatinolytic activity of dentin was assayed by zymography. The results revealed the distribution of CT-B and CT-K along the dentin organic matrix and also indicated co-occurrence of MMPs and CTs in that tissue. The enzyme kinetics studies showed proteolytic activity in dentin extracts for both classes of proteases. Furthermore, it was observed that, at least for sound human dentin matrices, the activity of MMPs seems to be predominant over the CTs one. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Gauthier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

  8. Cathepsin B-degradable, NIR-responsive nanoparticulate platform for target-specific cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarassoli, Sam P.; Martinez de Pinillos Bayona, Alejandra; Pye, Hayley; Mosse, C. Alexander; Callan, John F.; MacRobert, Alexander; McHale, Anthony P.; Nomikou, Nikolitsa

    2017-02-01

    Stimuli-responsive anticancer formulations can promote drug release and activation within the target tumour, facilitate cellular uptake, as well as improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs and reduce off-target effects. In the present work, indocyanine green (ICG)-containing polyglutamate (PGA) nanoparticles were developed and characterized. Digestion of nanoparticles with cathepsin B, a matrix metalloproteinase overexpressed in the microenvironment of advanced tumours, decreased particle size and increased ICG cellular uptake. Incorporation of ICG in PGA nanoparticles provided the NIR-absorbing agent with time-dependent altered optical properties in the presence of cathepsin B. Having minimal dark toxicity, the formulation exhibited significant cytotoxicity upon NIR exposure. Combined use of the formulation with saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, resulted in synergistically enhanced cytotoxicity attributed to the photo-induced release of saporin from endo/lysosomes. The results suggest that this therapeutic approach can offer significant therapeutic benefit in the treatment of superficial malignancies, such as head and neck tumours.

  9. A novel approach for reliable detection of cathepsin S activities in mouse antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Steimle, Alex; Kalbacher, Hubert; Maurer, Andreas; Beifuss, Brigitte; Bender, Annika; Schäfer, Andrea; Müller, Ricarda; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a eukaryotic protease mostly expressed in professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Since CTSS activity regulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and psoriasis as well as in cancer progression, there is an ongoing interest in the reliable detection of cathepsin S activity. Various applications have been invented for specific detection of this enzyme. However, most of them have only been shown to be suitable for human samples, do not deliver quantitative results or the experimental procedure requires technical equipment that is not commonly available in a standard laboratory. We have tested a fluorogen substrate, Mca-GRWPPMGLPWE-Lys(Dnp)-DArg-NH2, that has been described to specifically detect CTSS activities in human APCs for its potential use for mouse samples. We have modified the protocol and thereby offer a cheap, easy, reproducible and quick activity assay to detect CTSS activities in mouse APCs. Since most of basic research on CTSS is performed in mice, this method closes a gap and offers a possibility for reliable and quantitative CTSS activity detection that can be performed in almost every laboratory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Efficient inhibition of cathepsin B by a secreted type 1 cystatin of Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Siricoon, Sinee; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Grams, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    Cysteine proteases are important antigens in the liver fluke genus Fasciola, essential for infection, protection and nutrition. While their biochemistry, biological roles and application as vaccines have been thoroughly studied there is a lack of data concerning their regulation. In the present study we have continued our investigation of cysteine protease inhibitors in Fasciola gigantica and demonstrate, in comparison with FgStefin-1 and human cystatin C, that a second type 1 cystatin of the parasite, FgStefin-2, has been evolutionary adapted to block cathepsin B. The protein, which unusually for a type 1 cystatin carries a signal peptide, is expressed from the metacercarial to adult stage and located in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract in all stages and in the prostate gland cells in adults. Both cell types may contribute to the released FgStefin-2 observed in the ES product of the parasite. Distinct isoforms of cathepsin B are essential for host tissue penetration during the early infection process and FgStefin-2 may act as key regulator, required to protect the minute juvenile from autoproteolysis. Expression in the prostate gland in the adult stage suggests an additional regulative role of cysteine protease activity in the reproductive system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracellular cystatin SN and cathepsin B prevent cellular senescence by inhibiting abnormal glycogen accumulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Seok; Park, Soojong; Lee, Ki-Won; Madhi, Hamadi; Park, Sae Gwang; Lee, Hee Gu; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Yoo, Jiyun; Dong Kim, Kwang

    2017-04-06

    Cystatin SN (CST1), a known inhibitor of cathepsin B (CatB), has important roles in tumor development. Paradoxically, CatB is a member of the cysteine cathepsin family that acts in cellular processes, such as tumor development and invasion. However, the relationship between CST1 and CatB, and their roles in tumor development are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that the knockdown of CST1 induced the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype genes, including interleukin-6 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, in MDA-MB-231 and SW480 cancer cells. Furthermore, CST1 knockdown decreased extracellular CatB activity, and direct CatB inhibition, using specific inhibitors or shCatB, induced cellular senescence. Reconstitution of CST1 restored CatB activity and inhibited cellular senescence in CST1 knockdown cells. CST1 knockdown or CatB inhibition increased glycogen synthase (GS) kinase 3β phosphorylation at serine 9, resulting in the activation of GS and the induction of glycogen accumulation associated with cellular senescence. Importantly, CST1 knockdown suppressed cancer cell proliferation, soft agar colony growth and tumor growth in a xenograft model. These results indicate that CST1-mediated extracellular CatB activity enhances tumor development by preventing cellular senescence. Our findings suggest that antagonists of CST1 or inhibitors of CatB are potential anticancer agents.

  12. Lipotoxicity Mediated Cell Dysfunction and Death Involves Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cathepsin L Activity

    PubMed Central

    Almaguel, Frankis G.; Liu, Jo-Wen; Pacheco, Fabio J.; De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino

    2010-01-01

    Lipotoxicity, which is triggered when cells are exposed to elevated levels of free fatty acids, involves cell dysfunction and apoptosis and is emerging as an underlying factor contributing to various pathological conditions including disorders of the central nervous system and diabetes. We have shown that palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity (PA-LTx) in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 (NGFDPC12) cells is linked to an augmented state of cellular oxidative stress (ASCOS) and apoptosis, and that these events are inhibited by docosahexanoic acid (DHA). The mechanisms of PA-LTx in nerve cells are not well understood, but our previous findings indicate that it involves ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), and caspase activation. The present study used nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells (NGFDPC12 cells) and found that lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is an early event during PA-induced lipotoxicity that precedes MMP and apoptosis. Cathepsin L, but not cathepsin B, is an important contributor in this process since its pharmacological inhibition significantly attenuated LMP, MMP, and apoptosis. In addition, co-treatment of NGFDPC12 cells undergoing lipotoxicity with DHA significantly reduced LMP, suggesting that DHA acts by antagonizing upstream signals leading to lysosomal dysfunction. These results suggest that LMP is a key early mediator of lipotoxicity, and underscore the value of interventions targeting upstream signals leading to LMP for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with lipotoxicity. PMID:20043885

  13. Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph

    2006-01-09

    Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex,more » resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.« less

  14. 6-Shogaol inhibits chondrocytes' innate immune responses and cathepsin-K activity.

    PubMed

    Villalvilla, Amanda; da Silva, Jame's A; Largo, Raquel; Gualillo, Oreste; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Gómez, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Ginger has long been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat osteoarthritis. Indeed, scientific research has reported that ginger derivatives (GDs) have the potential to control innate immune responses. Given the widespread use and demonstrated properties of GDs, we set out to study their anti-inflammatory and anticatabolic properties in chondrocytes. 6-shogaol (6-S), the most active GD, was obtained from ginger. 6-S was not toxic as measured by MTT assay, and inhibited NO production and IL-6 and MCP-1 induced gene expression in LPSbut not in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. 6-S also inhibited LPS-mediated ERK1/2 activation as well as NOS2 and MyD88 induced expression as determined by Western blot. Moreover, zymography revealed that 6-S inhibited matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2/9 induction in LPS-treated cells. Hydrated 6-S was modified to obtain a compound (SSi6) without 6-S potential anti-inflammatory properties. Both 6-S and SSi6 inhibited cathepsin-K activity. 6-S blocked TLR4-mediated innate immune responses and MMP induction in chondrocytes. These results, together with GDs-mediated cathepsin-K inhibition, suggest the potential for GDs use against cartilage and bone degradation. Therefore, considering that clinical trials involving oral administration of ginger achieved relevant nontoxic GDs serum concentrations, we suggest that a ginger-supplemented diet might reduce OA symptoms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Unnatural amino acids increase activity and specificity of synthetic substrates for human and malarial cathepsin C.

    PubMed

    Poreba, Marcin; Mihelic, Marko; Krai, Priscilla; Rajkovic, Jelena; Krezel, Artur; Pawelczak, Malgorzata; Klemba, Michael; Turk, Dusan; Turk, Boris; Latajka, Rafal; Drag, Marcin

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian cathepsin C is primarily responsible for the removal of N-terminal dipeptides and activation of several serine proteases in inflammatory or immune cells, while its malarial parasite ortholog dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 plays a crucial role in catabolizing the hemoglobin of its host erythrocyte. In this report, we describe the systematic substrate specificity analysis of three cathepsin C orthologs from Homo sapiens (human), Bos taurus (bovine) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria parasite). Here, we present a new approach with a tailored fluorogenic substrate library designed and synthesized to probe the S1 and S2 pocket preferences of these enzymes with both natural and a broad range of unnatural amino acids. Our approach identified very efficiently hydrolyzed substrates containing unnatural amino acids, which resulted in the design of significantly better substrates than those previously known. Additionally, in this study significant differences in terms of the structures of optimal substrates for human and malarial orthologs are important from the therapeutic point of view. These data can be also used for the design of specific inhibitors or activity-based probes.

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cathepsin D from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cuiping; Cha, Yue; Wu, Fan; Xu, Xianbing; Qin, Lei; Du, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Cathepsin D (CTSD, EC 3.4.23.5) belongs to aspartic protease family, which is located in lysosomes and is distributed in diverse tissues and cells. CTSD has a wide variety of physiological functions, owing to its proteolytic activity in degradating proteins and peptides. In the current study, the full length cDNA of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cathepsin D (AjCTSD) was firstly cloned, then the association between AjCTSD and sea cucumber autolysis was investigated. The full length cDNA of AjCTSD was 2896 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) for 391 amino acids. AjCTSD was widely expressed in body wall, muscle and intestine; the expression level was the highest in intestine, followed by muscle and body wall. Compared to fresh tissues, AjCTSD expression levels were significantly increased in all examined autolytic tissues. The purified recombinant AjCTSD promoted the degradation of sea cucumber muscle. In conclusion, AjCTSD contributed to sea cucumber muscle autolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a highly selective quenched activity-based probe and its application in dual color imaging studies of cathepsin S activity localization.

    PubMed

    Oresic Bender, Kristina; Ofori, Leslie; van der Linden, Wouter A; Mock, Elliot D; Datta, Gopal K; Chowdhury, Somenath; Li, Hao; Segal, Ehud; Sanchez Lopez, Mateo; Ellman, Jonathan A; Figdor, Carl G; Bogyo, Matthew; Verdoes, Martijn

    2015-04-15

    The cysteine cathepsins are a group of 11 proteases whose function was originally believed to be the degradation of endocytosed material with a high degree of redundancy. However, it has become clear that these enzymes are also important regulators of both health and disease. Thus, selective tools that can discriminate between members of this highly related class of enzymes will be critical to further delineate the unique biological functions of individual cathepsins. Here we present the design and synthesis of a near-infrared quenched activity-based probe (qABP) that selectively targets cathepsin S which is highly expressed in immune cells. Importantly, this high degree of selectivity is retained both in vitro and in vivo. In combination with a new green-fluorescent pan-reactive cysteine cathepsin qABP we performed dual color labeling studies in bone marrow-derived immune cells and identified vesicles containing exclusively cathepsin S activity. This observation demonstrates the value of our complementary cathepsin probes and provides evidence for the existence of specific localization of cathepsin S activity in dendritic cells.

  18. 75 FR 57846 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1... installation, with replacement as necessary for Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1...

  19. GENETIC CATHEPSIN B DEFICIENCY REDUCES β-AMYLOID IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING HUMAN WILD-TYPE AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Vivian Y. H.; Kindy, Mark; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides participate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD); therefore, reduction of Aβ generated from APP may provide a therapeutic approach for AD. Gene knockout studies in transgenic mice producing human Aβ may identify targets for reducing Aβ. This study shows that knockout of the cathepsin B gene in mice expressing human wild-type APP (hAPPwt) results in substantial decrease of Aβ40 and Aβ42 by 67% in brain, and decreases levels of the C-terminal β-secretase fragment (CTFβ) derived from APP. In contrast, knockout of cathepsin B in mice expressing hAPP with the rare Swedish (Swe) and Indiana (Ind) mutations had no effect on Aβ. The difference in reduction of Aβ in hAPPwt mice, but not in hAPPSwe/Ind mice, shows that the transgenic model can affect cathepsin B gene knockout results. Since most AD patients express hAPPwt, these data validate cathepsin B as a target for development of inhibitors to lower Aβ in AD. PMID:19501042

  20. Genetic cathepsin B deficiency reduces beta-amyloid in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Hook, Vivian Y H; Kindy, Mark; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Gregory

    2009-08-21

    Neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides participate in Alzheimer's disease (AD); therefore, reduction of Abeta generated from APP may provide a therapeutic approach for AD. Gene knockout studies in transgenic mice producing human Abeta may identify targets for reducing Abeta. This study shows that knockout of the cathepsin B gene in mice expressing human wild-type APP (hAPPwt) results in substantial decreases in brain Abeta40 and Abeta42 by 67% and decreases in levels of the C-terminal beta-secretase fragment (CTFbeta) derived from APP. In contrast, knockout of cathepsin B in mice expressing hAPP with the rare Swedish (Swe) and Indiana (Ind) mutations had no effect on Abeta. The difference in reduction of Abeta in hAPPwt mice, but not in hAPPSwe/Ind mice, shows that the transgenic model can affect cathepsin B gene knockout results. Since most AD patients express hAPPwt, these data validate cathepsin B as a target for development of inhibitors to lower Abeta in AD.

  1. Cathepsin K expression in a wide spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas): a clinicopathological study emphasizing extrarenal PEComas.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qiu; Cheng, Liang; Xia, Qiu-yuan; Liu, Biao; Li, Li; Shi, Qun-li; Shi, Shan-shan; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ru-song; Ma, Heng-hui; Lu, Zhen-feng; Tu, Pin; Zhou, Xiao-jun

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cathepsin K seems to be a powerful marker in identifying renal perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas). However, the expression in extrarenal PEComas has not been well characterized due to their rare incidence. Our aim was to investigate the expression of cathepsin K in a wide spectrum of extrarenal PEComas and evaluate its potential diagnostic usefulness in comparison with other commonly used markers. Twenty-three cases of PEComa (liver, n = 9; lung, n = 1; broad ligament of uterus, n = 1; vertex subcutaneous soft tissue, n = 1; abdominal wall, n = 1; and kidney, n = 10) were selected for study. All displayed a high percentage of cells with moderately to strongly positive reactions for cathepsin K (mean 91%; range 80-100%). HMB45, Melan-A and smooth muscle actin (SMA) were expressed in 78, 87 and 87% of cases, respectively, with various percentages of positive cells (mean, 34, 40 and 38%; range 0-80, 0-90 and 0-90%). Transcription factor E3 (TFE3) was expressed strongly in only three cases; none exhibited evidence of TFE3 gene fusion or amplification. Cathepsin K appears to be more powerful than other commonly used markers in diagnosing a wide spectrum of PEComas and distinguishing them from the majority of human cancers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Keeping data continuous when analyzing the prognostic impact of a tumor marker: an example with cathepsin D in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bossard, N; Descotes, F; Bremond, A G; Bobin, Y; De Saint Hilaire, P; Golfier, F; Awada, A; Mathevet, P M; Berrerd, L; Barbier, Y; Estève, J

    2003-11-01

    The prognostic value of cathepsin D has been recently recognized, but as many quantitative tumor markers, its clinical use remains unclear partly because of methodological issues in defining cut-off values. Guidelines have been proposed for analyzing quantitative prognostic factors, underlining the need for keeping data continuous, instead of categorizing them. Flexible approaches, parametric and non-parametric, have been proposed in order to improve the knowledge of the functional form relating a continuous factor to the risk. We studied the prognostic value of cathepsin D in a retrospective hospital cohort of 771 patients with breast cancer, and focused our overall survival analysis, based on the Cox regression, on two flexible approaches: smoothing splines and fractional polynomials. We also determined a cut-off value from the maximum likelihood estimate of a threshold model. These different approaches complemented each other for (1) identifying the functional form relating cathepsin D to the risk, and obtaining a cut-off value and (2) optimizing the adjustment for complex covariate like age at diagnosis in the final multivariate Cox model. We found a significant increase in the death rate, reaching 70% with a doubling of the level of cathepsin D, after the threshold of 37.5 pmol mg(-1). The proper prognostic impact of this marker could be confirmed and a methodology providing appropriate ways to use markers in clinical practice was proposed.

  3. Selective imaging of cathepsin L in breast cancer by fluorescent activity-based probes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04303a

    PubMed Central

    Rut, Wioletta; Vizovisek, Matej; Groborz, Katarzyna; Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Finlay, Darren; Vuori, Kristiina; Turk, Dusan; Turk, Boris; Salvesen, Guy S.

    2018-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins normally function in the lysosomal degradation system where they are critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and the MHC II immune response, and have been found to have major roles in several diseases and in tumor progression. Selective visualization of individual protease activity within a complex proteome is of major importance to establish their roles in both normal and tumor cells, thereby facilitating our understanding of the regulation of proteolytic networks. A generally accepted means to monitor protease activity is the use of small molecule substrates and activity-based probes. However, there are eleven human cysteine cathepsins, with a few of them displaying overlapping substrate specificity, making the development of small molecules that selectively target a single cathepsin very challenging. Here, we utilized HyCoSuL, a positional scanning substrate approach, to develop a highly-selective fluorogenic substrate and activity-based probe for monitoring cathepsin L activity in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Use of this probe enabled us to distinguish the activity of cathepsin L from that of other cathepsins, particularly cathepsin B, which is abundant and ubiquitously expressed in normal and transformed cell types. We found that cathepsin L localization in MDA-MB-231 cells greatly overlaps with that of cathepsin B, however, several cathepsin L-rich lysosomes lacked cathepsin B activity. Overall, these studies demonstrate that HyCoSuL-derived small molecule probes are valuable tools to image cathepsin L activity in living cells. This approach thus enables evaluation of cathepsin L function in tumorigenesis and is applicable to other cysteine cathepsins. PMID:29719685

  4. Cathepsin L plays a major role in cholecystokinin production in mouse brain cortex and in pituitary AtT-20 cells: protease gene knockout and inhibitor studies.

    PubMed

    Beinfeld, Margery C; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Foulon, Thierry; Cadel, Sandrine; Kitagawa, Kouki; Toneff, Thomas; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Vivian

    2009-10-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide neurotransmitter whose production requires proteolytic processing of the proCCK precursor to generate active CCK8 neuropeptide in brain. This study demonstrates the significant role of the cysteine protease cathepsin L for CCK8 production. In cathepsin L knockout (KO) mice, CCK8 levels were substantially reduced in brain cortex by an average of 75%. To evaluate the role of cathepsin L in producing CCK in the regulated secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells, pituitary AtT-20 cells that stably produce CCK were treated with the specific cathepsin L inhibitor, CLIK-148. CLIK-148 inhibitor treatment resulted in decreased amounts of CCK secreted from the regulated secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells. CLIK-148 also reduced cellular levels of CCK9 (Arg-CCK8), consistent with CCK9 as an intermediate product of cathepsin L, shown by the decreased ratio of CCK9/CCK8. The decreased CCK9/CCK8 ratio also suggests a shift in the production to CCK8 over CCK9 during inhibition of cathepsin L. During reduction of the PC1/3 processing enzyme by siRNA, the ratio of CCK9/CCK8 was increased, suggesting a shift to the cathepsin L pathway for the production of CCK9. The changes in ratios of CCK9 compared to CCK8 are consistent with dual roles of the cathepsin L protease pathway that includes aminopeptidase B to remove NH2-terminal Arg or Lys, and the PC1/3 protease pathway. These results suggest that cathepsin L functions as a major protease responsible for CCK8 production in mouse brain cortex, and participates with PC1/3 for CCK8 production in pituitary cells.

  5. Cathepsin B is involved in the heat shock induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis as well as the anti-apoptosis effect of HSP-70.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Cheng, Bor-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-11-01

    Cathepsin B is one of the major lysosomal cysteine proteases that plays an important role in apoptosis. Herein, we investigated whether Cathepsin B is involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by hyperthermic injury (HI) and heat shock protein (HSP)-70 protects these cells from HI-induced apoptosis mediated by Cathepsin. HI was produced in H9C2 cells by putting them in a circulating 43 °C water bath for 120 min, whereas preinduction of HSP-70 was produced in H9C2 cells by mild heat preconditioning (or putting them in 42 °C water bath for 30 min) 8 h before the start of HI. It was found that HI caused both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. E-64-c, in addition to reducing Cathepsin B activity, significantly attenuated HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis (evidenced by increased apoptotic cell numbers, increased tuncated Bid (t-Bid), increased cytochrome C, increased caspase-9/-3, and decreased Bcl-2/Bax) in H9C2 cells. In addition, preinduction of HSP-70 by mild heat preconditioning or inhibition of HSP-70 by Tripolide significantly attenuated or exacerbated respectively both the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of pre-induction of HSP-70 by mild heat production in reducing both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased Cathepsin B activity caused by HI can be significantly reduced by Triptolide preconditioning. These results indicate that Cathepsin B is involved in HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in H9C2 cells and HSP-70 protects these cells from HI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through Cathepsin B pathways.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lowest qualified benchmark is determined using the adjusted applicable stock price, as defined in § 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In.... Under section 1092(d)(3)(B)(i)(I), stock is personal property if the stock is part of a straddle that...

  7. Activation mechanism of erythrocyte cathepsin E. evidence for the occurrence of the membrane-associated active enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ueno, E; Sakai, H; Kato, Y; Yamamoto, K

    1989-06-01

    Activation of the erythrocyte cathepsin E located on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane in a latent form was studied in stripped inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from human erythrocyte membranes. Incubation of the vesicles at 40 degrees C at pH 4 resulted in increased degradation of the membrane proteins, especially band 3. This proteolysis was selectively inhibited by the inclusion of pepstatin (isovaleryl-Val-Val-statyl-Ala-statine) or H 297 [Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe(CH2-NH)Nle-Arg-Leu] in the incubation mixtures, indicating that cathepsin E, as the only aspartic proteinase in erythrocytes, is responsible for the proteolysis. Two potential active-site-directed inhibitors of aspartic proteinases, pepstatin and H 297, were used to prove the occurrence of the membrane-associated active enzyme. To minimize potential errors arising from non-specific binding, the concentrations of the inhibitors used in the binding assay (pepstatin, 5 x 10(-8) M; H 297, 1 x 10(-5) M) were determined by calibration for purified and membrane-associated cathepsin E. The inhibition of the membrane-associated cathepsin E by each inhibitor, which showed the binding of the inhibitor to the activated enzyme, was temperature- and time-dependent. The binding of each inhibitor to the enzyme on the exposed surface of the membrane at pH 4 was highly specific, saturable, and reversible. The present study thus provides the first evidence that cathepsin E tightly bound to the membrane is converted to the active enzyme in the membrane-associated form, and suggests that this enzyme may be responsible for the degradation of band 3.

  8. Abnormality of autophagic function and cathepsin expression in the liver from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuo, Yuka; Yamashina, Shunhei; Sonoue, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Nakadera, Eisuke; Aoyama, Tomonori; Uchiyama, Akira; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that hepatic steatosis suppresses autophagic proteolysis. The present study evaluated the correlation between autophagic function and cathepsin expression in the liver from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with chronic liver diseases (chronic hepatitis C [CHC; n = 20], chronic hepatitis B [CHB; n = 16], primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC; n = 23], NAFLD [n = 22] and control [n = 14]). The number of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes was counted by using transmission electron microscopy. Expression of cathepsin B, D, L and p62 in the liver section was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The histological severity of NAFLD is assessed by NAFLD activity score (NAS). The number of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes was significantly increased in both CHC and NAFLD groups, but not CHB and PBC, more than control. Although hepatocytes with aggregation of p62 were observed in less than 15% of CHC, p62 aggregation was detected in approximately 65% of NAFLD. Cathepsin B, D and L expression was significantly suppressed in the liver from NAFLD patients. Suppression of cathepsin B, D and L expression was not observed in CHB, CHC and PBC. In NAFLD patients, p62 aggregation was correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase value and inflammatory activity by NAS. These results indicate that a decrease in hepatic cathepsin expression in NAFLD is associated with autophagic dysfunction. Hepatic inflammation correlates with autophagic dysfunction in NAFLD. These findings indicate that the suppression of autophagic proteolysis by hepatic steatosis is involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. Gene trapping in differentiating cell lines: regulation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B in skeletal myoblast growth and fusion.

    PubMed

    Gogos, J A; Thompson, R; Lowry, W; Sloane, B F; Weintraub, H; Horwitz, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify genes regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation, we have infected mouse C2C12 myoblasts with retroviral gene trap vectors, containing a promoterless marker gene with a 5' splice acceptor signal. Integration of the vector adjacent to an actively transcribed gene places the marker under the transcriptional control of the endogenous gene, while the adjacent vector sequences facilitate cloning. The vector insertionally mutates the trapped locus and may also form fusion proteins with the endogenous gene product. We have screened several hundred clones, each containing a trapping vector integrated into a different endogenous gene. In agreement with previous estimates based on hybridization kinetics, we find that a large proportion of all genes expressed in myoblasts are regulated during differentiation. Many of these genes undergo unique temporal patterns of activation or repression during cell growth and myotube formation, and some show specific patterns of subcellular localization. The first gene we have identified with this strategy is the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B. Expression from the trapped allele is upregulated during early myoblast fusion and downregulated in myotubes. A direct role for cathepsin B in myoblast growth and fusion is suggested by the observation that the trapped cells deficient in cathepsin B activity have an unusual morphology and reduced survival in low-serum media and undergo differentiation with impaired cellular fusion. The phenotype is reproduced by antisense cathepsin B expression in parental C2C12 myoblasts. The cellular phenotype is similar to that observed in cultured myoblasts from patients with I cell disease, in which there is diminished accumulation of lysosomal enzymes. This suggests that a specific deficiency of cathepsin B could contribute to the myopathic component of this illness.

  10. Identification of Chalcones as Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L Inhibitors Using a Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Florencia; Merlino, Alicia; dell´Oca, Nicolás; Gil, Jorge; Tort, José F.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Cabrera, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. Chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. However, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and target molecules to control fluke infections. Methodology/Principle Findings We searched a library of forty flavonoid derivatives for inhibitors of key stage specific Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteases (FhCL3 and FhCL1). Chalcones substituted with phenyl and naphtyl groups emerged as good cathepsin L inhibitors, interacting more frequently with two putative binding sites within the active site cleft of the enzymes. One of the compounds, C34, tightly bounds to juvenile specific FhCL3 with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. We demonstrated that C34 is a slow-reversible inhibitor that interacts with the Cys-His catalytic dyad and key S2 and S3 pocket residues, determinants of the substrate specificity of this family of cysteine proteases. Interestingly, C34 induces a reduction in NEJ ability to migrate through the gut wall and a loss of motility phenotype that leads to NEJ death within a week in vitro, while it is not cytotoxic to bovine cells. Conclusions/Significance Up to date there are no reports of in vitro screening for non-peptidic inhibitors of Fasciola hepatica cathepsins, while in general these are considered as the best strategy for in vivo inhibition. We have identified chalcones as novel inhibitors of the two main Cathepsins secreted by juvenile and adult liver flukes. Interestingly, one compound (C34) is highly active towards the juvenile enzyme reducing larval ability to penetrate the gut wall and decreasing NEJ´s viability in vitro. These findings open new avenues

  11. A complex of cardiac cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y L; Kaminsky, L S; King, T E

    1976-01-10

    The interactions of cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c from bovine cardiac mitochondria were investigated. Cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c formed a 1:1 molecular complex in aqueous solutions of low ionic strength. The complex was stable to Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The formation and stability of the complex were independent of the oxidation state of the cytochrome components as far as those reactions studied were concerned. The complex was dissociated in solutions of ionic strength higher than 0.07 or pH exceeding 10 and only partially dissociated in 8 M urea. No complexation occurred when cytochrome c was acetylated on 64% of its lysine residues or photooxidized on its 2 methionine residues. Complexes with molecular ratios of less than 1:1 (i.e. more cytochrome c) were obtained when polymerized cytochrome c, or cytochrome c with all lysine residues guanidinated, or a "1-65 heme peptide" from cyanogen bromide cleavage of cytochrome c was used. These results were interpreted to imply that the complex was predominantly maintained by ionic interactions probably involving some of the lysine residues of cytochrome c but with major stabilization dependent on the native conformations of both cytochromes. The reduced complex was autooxidizable with biphasic kinetics with first order rate constants of 6 X 10(-5) and 5 X U0(-5) s-1 but did not react with carbon monoxide. The complex reacted with cyanide and was reduced by ascorbate at about 32% and 40% respectively, of the rates of reaction with cytochrome c alone. The complex was less photoreducible than cytochrome c1 alone. The complex exhibited remarkably different circular dichroic behavior from that of the summation of cytochrome c1 plus cytochrome c. We concluded that when cytochromes c1 and c interacted they underwent dramatic conformational changes resulting in weakening of their heme crevices. All results available would indicate that in the complex cytochrome c1 was bound at the entrance to the heme crevice of

  12. The effect of excision of the posterior arch of C1 on C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws.

    PubMed

    Chang, K C; Samartzis, D; Fuego, S M; Dhatt, S S; Wong, Y W; Cheung, W Y; Luk, K D K; Cheung, K M C

    2013-07-01

    Transarticular screw fixation with autograft is an established procedure for the surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability. Removal of the posterior arch of C1 may affect the rate of fusion. This study assessed the rate of atlantoaxial fusion using transarticular screws with or without removal of the posterior arch of C1. We reviewed 30 consecutive patients who underwent atlantoaxial fusion with a minimum follow-up of two years. In 25 patients (group A) the posterior arch of C1 was not excised (group A) and in five it was (group B). Fusion was assessed on static and dynamic radiographs. In selected patients CT imaging was also used to assess fusion and the position of the screws. There were 15 men and 15 women with a mean age of 51.2 years (23 to 77) and a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (2 to 11.6). Stable union with a solid fusion or a stable fibrous union was achieved in 29 patients (97%). In Group A, 20 patients (80%) achieved a solid fusion, four (16%) a stable fibrous union and one (4%) a nonunion. In Group B, stable union was achieved in all patients, three having a solid fusion and two a stable fibrous union. There was no statistically significant difference between the status of fusion in the two groups. Complications were noted in 12 patients (40%); these were mainly related to the screws, and included malpositioning and breakage. The presence of an intact or removed posterior arch of C1 did not affect the rate of fusion in patients with atlantoaxial instability undergoing C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws and autograft.

  13. Natively Inhibited Trypanosoma brucei Cathepsin B Structure Determined by Using an X-ray Laser

    PubMed Central

    DePonte, Daniel P.; White, Thomas A.; Rehders, Dirk; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Liang, Mengning; Barends, Thomas R.M.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Aquila, Andrew; Arnlund, David; Bajt, Sasa; Barth, Torsten; Bogan, Michael J.; Caleman, Carl; Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Doak, R. Bruce; Fleckenstein, Holger; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Galli, Lorenzo; Grotjohann, Ingo; Hunter, Mark S.; Johansson, Linda C.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Katona, Gergely; Kirian, Richard A.; Koopmann, Rudolf; Kupitz, Chris; Lomb, Lukas; Martin, Andrew V.; Mogk, Stefan; Neutze, Richard; Shoeman, Robert L.; Steinbrener, Jan; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Duszenko, Michael; Betzel, Christian; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    The Trypanosoma brucei cysteine protease cathepsin B (TbCatB), which is involved in host protein degradation, is a promising target to develop new treatments against sleeping sickness, a fatal disease caused by this protozoan parasite. The structure of the mature, active form of TbCatB has so far not provided sufficient information for the design of a safe and specific drug against T. brucei. By combining two recent innovations, in vivo crystallization and serial femtosecond crystallography, we obtained the room-temperature 2.1 angstrom resolution structure of the fully glycosylated precursor complex of TbCatB. The structure reveals the mechanism of native TbCatB inhibition and demonstrates that new biomolecular information can be obtained by the “diffraction-before-destruction” approach of x-ray free-electron lasers from hundreds of thousands of individual microcrystals. PMID:23196907

  14. Purification and characterization of cathepsin L in arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) muscle.

    PubMed

    Visessanguan, Wonnop; Benjakul, Soottawat; An, Haejung

    2003-03-01

    A predominant, heat-activated proteinase in muscle extract of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) was purified to 55-fold by heat treatment, followed by a series of chromatographic separations. The apparent molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 27 kDa by size exclusion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteinase had high affinity and activity toward Z-Phe-Arg-NMec with K(m) and k(cat) values of 8.2 microM and 12.2/s, respectively. Activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and activated by reducing agents. The purified proteinase displayed optimal activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Consistent with the properties of proteases from other species, the heat-activated proteinase in arrowtooth flounder can be identified as cathepsin L.

  15. Design of potent and selective human cathepsin K inhibitors that span the active site

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott K.; Halbert, Stacie M.; Bossard, Mary J.; Tomaszek, Thaddeus A.; Levy, Mark A.; Zhao, Baoguang; Smith, Ward W.; Abdel-Meguid, Sherin S.; Janson, Cheryl A.; D’Alessio, Karla J.; McQueney, Michael S.; Amegadzie, Bernard Y.; Hanning, Charles R.; DesJarlais, Renee L.; Briand, Jacques; Sarkar, Susanta K.; Huddleston, Michael J.; Ijames, Carl F.; Carr, Steven A.; Garnes, Keith T.; Shu, Art; Heys, J. Richard; Bradbeer, Jeremy; Zembryki, Denise; Lee-Rykaczewski, Liz; James, Ian E.; Lark, Michael W.; Drake, Fred H.; Gowen, Maxine; Gleason, John G.; Veber, Daniel F.

    1997-01-01

    Potent and selective active-site-spanning inhibitors have been designed for cathepsin K, a cysteine protease unique to osteoclasts. They act by mechanisms that involve tight binding intermediates, potentially on a hydrolytic pathway. X-ray crystallographic, MS, NMR spectroscopic, and kinetic studies of the mechanisms of inhibition indicate that different intermediates or transition states are being represented that are dependent on the conditions of measurement and the specific groups flanking the carbonyl in the inhibitor. The species observed crystallographically are most consistent with tetrahedral intermediates that may be close approximations of those that occur during substrate hydrolysis. Initial kinetic studies suggest the possibility of irreversible and reversible active-site modification. Representative inhibitors have demonstrated antiresorptive activity both in vitro and in vivo and therefore are promising leads for therapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Expansion of these inhibitor concepts can be envisioned for the many other cysteine proteases implicated for therapeutic intervention. PMID:9405598

  16. E2-mediated cathepsin D (CTSD) activation involves looping of distal enhancer elements.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Nancy; Kangaspeska, Sara; Seifert, Martin; Reid, George; Gannon, Frank; Denger, Stefanie

    2008-08-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is a ligand dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of target genes through interacting with cis-acting estrogen response elements (EREs). However, only a minority of ERalpha binding sites are located within the proximal promoter regions of responsive genes. Here we report the characterization of an ERE located 9kbp upstream of the TSS of the cathepsin D gene (CTSD) that up-regulates CTSD expression upon estrogen stimulation in MCF-7 cells. Using ChIP, we show recruitment of ERalpha and phosphorylated PolII at the CTSD distal enhancer region. Moreover, we determine the kinetics of transient CpG methylation on the promoter region of CTSD and for the first time, at a distal enhancer element. We show that ERalpha is crucial for long-distance regulation of CTSD expression involving a looping mechanism.

  17. Cysteine cathepsins: their role in tumor progression and recent trends in the development of imaging probes

    PubMed Central

    Löser, Reik; Pietzsch, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases bear an enormous potential as drug discovery targets for both infectious and systemic human diseases. The considerable progress in this field over the last two decades has also raised interest in the visualization of these enzymes in their native context, especially with regard to tumor imaging. After a short introduction to structure and general functions of human cysteine cathepsins, we highlight their importance for drug discovery and development and provide a critical update on the current state of knowledge toward their involvement in tumor progression, with a special emphasis on their role in therapy response. In accordance with a radiopharmaceutical point of view, the main focus of this review article will be the discussion of recently developed fluorescence and radiotracer-based imaging agents together with related molecular probes. PMID:26157794

  18. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Murray, Thomas F.; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(−)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contrast to cocaine. Pharmacokinetic assays showed compound 2 occupied mouse brain rapidly, as cocaine itself; moreover, 2 and 6 were behaviorally active in mice in the forced-swim test model of depression and the conditioned place preference test. Analog 2 was a weaker inhibitor of voltage-dependent Na+ channels than cocaine, although 6 was more potent than cocaine, highlighting the need to assay future C-1 analogs for this activity. Receptorome screening indicated few significant binding targets other than the monoamine transporters. Benztropine-like “atypical” DAT inhibitors are known to display reduced cocaine-like locomotor stimulation, presumably by their propensity to interact with an inward-facing transporter conformation. However, 2 and 6, like cocaine, but unlike benztropine, exhibited preferential interaction with an outward-facing conformation upon docking in our DAT homology model. In summary, C-1 cocaine analogs are not cocaine-like in that they are not stimulatory in vivo. However, they are not benztropine-like in binding mechanism and seem to interact with the DAT similarly to cocaine. The present data warrant further consideration of these novel cocaine analogs for antidepressant or cocaine substitution potential. PMID:22895898

  19. Cathepsin B Expression and the Correlation with Clinical Aspects of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-En; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cathepsin B (CTSB), a member of the cathepsin family, is a cysteine protease that is widely distributed in the lysosomes of cells in various tissues. It is overexpressed in several human cancers and may be related to tumorigenesis. The main purpose of this study was to analyze CTSB expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with patient prognosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Tissue microarrays were used to detect CTSB expression in 280 patients and to examine the association between CTSB expression and clinicopathological parameters. In addition, the metastatic effects of the CTSB knockdown on two oral cancer cell lines were investigated by transwell migration assay. Cytoplasmic CTSB expression was detected in 34.6% (97/280) of patients. CTSB expression was correlated with positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007) and higher tumor grade (p = 0.008) but not with tumor size and distant metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed a higher hazard ratio, demonstrating that CTSB expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in buccal mucosa carcinoma patients. Furthermore, the Kaplan–Meier curve revealed that buccal mucosa OSCC patients with positive CTSB expression had significantly shorter overall survival. Moreover, treatment with the CTSB siRNA exerted an inhibitory effect on migration in OC2 and CAL27 oral cancer cells. Conclusions We conclude that CTSB expression may be useful for determining OSCC prognosis, particularly for patients with lymph node metastasis, and may function as a biomarker of the survival of OSCC patients in Taiwan. PMID:27031837

  20. Cathepsin D immobilized capillary reactors for on-flow screening assays.

    PubMed

    Cornelio, Vivian Estevam; de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Domingues, Vanessa de Cassia; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Gracas Fernandes; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2018-03-20

    The treatment of diseases using enzymes as targets has called for the development of new and reliable methods for screening. The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. The activity and kinetic parameters of CatD-IMER were evaluated by monitoring the product MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe (P-MOCAc) (K M  = 81.9 ± 7.49 μmol/L) generated by cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys(DNP)-d-Arg-NH2 (S-MOCAc). Stability studies have indicated that CatD-IMER retained 20% of activity after 5 months, a relevant result, because proteases are susceptible to autoproteolysis in solution assays with free enzyme. In the search for inhibitors, 12 crude natural product extracts were analyzed using CatD-IMER as the target, resulting in the isolation of different classes of natural products. In addition, 26 compounds obtained from different species of plants were also screened, demonstrating the efficiency and reproducibility of the herein reported assay even in the case of complex matrices such as plant crude extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased plasma cathepsin S and trombospondin-1 in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Befekadu, Rahel; Christiansen, Kjeld; Larsson, Anders; Grenegård, Magnus

    2018-04-03

    The role of cathepsins in the pathological progression of atherosclerotic lesions in ischemic heart disease have been defined in detail more than numerous times. This investigation examined the platelet-specific biomarker trombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and platelet function ex vivo, and compared this with cathepsin S (Cat-S; a biomarker unrelated to platelet activation but also associated this with increased mortality risk) in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The STEMI patients were divided into two groups depending on the degree of coronary vessel occlusion: those with closed (n = 90) and open culprit vessel (n = 40). Cat-S and TSP-1 were analyzed before, 1-3 days after and 3 months after percutanous coronary intervention (PCI). During acute STEMI, plasma TSP-1 was significantly elevated in patients with closed culprit lesions, but rapidly declined after PCI. In fact, TSP-1 after PCI was significantly lower inpatient samples compared to healthy individuals. In comparison, plasma Cat-S was significantly elevated both before and after PCI. In patients with closed culprit lesions, Cat-S was significantly higher compared to patients with open culprit lesions 3 months after PCI. Although troponin-I were higher (p < 0.01) in patients with closed culprit lesion, there was no correlation with Cat-S and TSP-1. Cat-S but not TSP-1 may be a useful risk biomarker in relation to the severity of STEMI. However, the causality of Cat-S as a predictor for long-term mortality in STEMI remains to be ascertained in future studies.

  2. Characterization of the secreted cathepsin B cysteine proteases family of the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lv, Xiaoli; Tian, Yanli; Xu, Yanquan; Mao, Qiang; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESP) have gained high attentions because of their potential to be vaccine candidates and drug targets in C. sinensis prevention. In this study, we extensively profiled the characteristics of four C. sinensis cathepsin B cysteine proteases (CsCB1, CsCB2, CsCB3, and CsCB4). Bioinformatics analysis showed all CsCBs contained signal peptides at the N-terminal. Functional domains and residues were found in CsCB sequences. We expressed four CsCBs and profiled immune responses followed by vaccine trials. Recombinant CsCBs could induce high IgG titers, indicating high immunogenicity of CsCB family. Additionally, ELISA results showed that both IgG1 and IgG2a levels apparently increased post-immunization with all four CsCBs, showing that combined Th1/Th2 immune responses were triggered by CsCB family. Both Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting confirmed that four CsCBs have distinct expression patterns in C. sinensis life stages. More importantly, we validated our hypothesis that CsCBs were C. sinensis excretory/secretory products. CsCBs could be recognized by C. sinensis-infected sera throughout the infection period, indicating that secreted CsCBs are immune triggers during C. sinensis infection. The protective effect was assessed by comparing the worm burden and egg per gram (EPG) between CsCB group and control group, showing that worm burden (P < 0.01) and EPG (P < 0.01) in CsCB2 and CsCB3 groups were significantly lower than in control group. In conclusion, we profiled secreted cathepsin B cysteine proteases family for the first time and demonstrated that all CsCB family were C. sinensis excretory/secretory products that may regulate host immune responses.

  3. Disinhibition of Cathepsin C Caused by Cystatin F Deficiency Aggravates the Demyelination in a Cuprizone Model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junjie; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yanli; Hou, Changyi; Yang, Xiaohan; Shimizu, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Fan, Kai; Ma, Jianmei

    2016-01-01

    Although the precise mechanism underlying initial lesion development in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, CNS inflammation has long been associated with demyelination, and axonal degeneration. The activation of microglia/macrophages, which serve as innate immune cells in the CNS, is the first reaction to even minor pathologic changes in the CNS and is considered an initial pathogenic event in MS. Microglial activation accompanies a variety of gene expressions, including cystatin F (Cys F), which belongs to the cystatin superfamily and is one of the cathepsin inhibitors. In our previous study we showed that Cys F has a unique expression pattern in microglia/macrophages in the demyelination process. Specifically, the timing of Cys F induction correlated with ongoing demyelination, and the sites of Cys F expression overlapped with areas of remyelination. Cys F induction ceased in chronic demyelination when remyelination capacity was lost, suggesting that Cys F expressed by microglia/macrophages may play an important role in demyelination and/or remyelination. The functional role of Cys F in demyelinating disease of the CNS, however, is unclear. Cys F gene knockout mice were used in the current study to clarify the functional role of Cys F in the demyelination process in a cuprizone-induced demyelination animal model. We demonstrated that absence of the Cys F gene and the resulting disinhibition of cathepsin C (Cat C) aggravates the demyelination, and this finding may be related to the increased expression of the glia-derived chemokine, CXCL2, which may attract inflammatory cells to sites of myelin sheath damage. This effect was reversed by knock down of the Cat C gene. The findings gain further insight to function of Cat C in pathophysiology of MS, which may have implications for therapeutics for the prevention of neuroinflammation-involved neurological disorders in the future.

  4. Disinhibition of Cathepsin C Caused by Cystatin F Deficiency Aggravates the Demyelination in a Cuprizone Model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Junjie; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yanli; Hou, Changyi; Yang, Xiaohan; Shimizu, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Fan, Kai; Ma, Jianmei

    2016-01-01

    Although the precise mechanism underlying initial lesion development in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, CNS inflammation has long been associated with demyelination, and axonal degeneration. The activation of microglia/macrophages, which serve as innate immune cells in the CNS, is the first reaction to even minor pathologic changes in the CNS and is considered an initial pathogenic event in MS. Microglial activation accompanies a variety of gene expressions, including cystatin F (Cys F), which belongs to the cystatin superfamily and is one of the cathepsin inhibitors. In our previous study we showed that Cys F has a unique expression pattern in microglia/macrophages in the demyelination process. Specifically, the timing of Cys F induction correlated with ongoing demyelination, and the sites of Cys F expression overlapped with areas of remyelination. Cys F induction ceased in chronic demyelination when remyelination capacity was lost, suggesting that Cys F expressed by microglia/macrophages may play an important role in demyelination and/or remyelination. The functional role of Cys F in demyelinating disease of the CNS, however, is unclear. Cys F gene knockout mice were used in the current study to clarify the functional role of Cys F in the demyelination process in a cuprizone-induced demyelination animal model. We demonstrated that absence of the Cys F gene and the resulting disinhibition of cathepsin C (Cat C) aggravates the demyelination, and this finding may be related to the increased expression of the glia-derived chemokine, CXCL2, which may attract inflammatory cells to sites of myelin sheath damage. This effect was reversed by knock down of the Cat C gene. The findings gain further insight to function of Cat C in pathophysiology of MS, which may have implications for therapeutics for the prevention of neuroinflammation-involved neurological disorders in the future. PMID:28066178

  5. Comparative study of cathepsins D and S in rat IPE and RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Eriko; Tomita, Hiroshi; Abe, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Asahi; Tamai, Makoto

    2003-08-01

    To investigate differences between activities related to phagocytosis in iris pigment epithelial (IPE) and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, an aspartic protease, cathepsin D (cat D), and a cysteine protease, cathepsin S (cat S), of IPE and RPE were studied. IPE and RPE cells were isolated from Long Evans rat eyes. The origin of the isolated cells was determined by pigmentation and cytokeratin labelling. The mRNA expressions of cat D and cat S in cultured IPE or RPE cells were investigated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Enzyme activities of cat D and cat S in IPE or RPE cells were measured by using specific fluorogenic substrates, MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys-(Dnp)D-Arg-NH2 and Z-Val-Val-Arg-MCA, respectively. Western blot analysis of both proteins was also performed. The cultured cells, both of IPE and RPE cells were pigmented and showed positive labelling with an anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. The cat D activity in RPE cells was 37 times that in IPE cells. The cat S activity in RPE cells was four times that in IPE cells. On the other hand, mRNA expression levels of cat D in RPE cells were at the same level with IPE cells, cat S mRNA expression in RPE cells were 10 times that in IPE cells. These results were also correlated with the Western blot analysis. In this study, we measured the characteristic expressions of cat D and S in IPE and RPE cells for the first time to compare their lysosomal activities. IPE cells have the lysosomal activities like RPE cells, however, the function of lysosomal activity in IPE cells is beneath RPE's. These results indicated that the ability of ROS digestion in IPE cells was not same as RPE cells.

  6. Discovery of a Xylooligosaccharide Oxidase from Myceliophthora thermophila C1.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro R; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Vugts, Aniek S C; Koetsier, Martijn J; Visser, Jaap; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-11-04

    By inspection of the predicted proteome of the fungus Myceliophthora thermophila C1 for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO)-type flavoprotein oxidases, a putative oligosaccharide oxidase was identified. By homologous expression and subsequent purification, the respective protein could be obtained. The protein was found to contain a bicovalently bound FAD cofactor. By screening a large number of carbohydrates, several mono- and oligosaccharides could be identified as substrates. The enzyme exhibits a strong substrate preference toward xylooligosaccharides; hence it is named xylooligosaccharide oxidase (XylO). Chemical analyses of the product formed upon oxidation of xylobiose revealed that the oxidation occurs at C1, yielding xylobionate as product. By elucidation of several XylO crystal structures (in complex with a substrate mimic, xylose, and xylobiose), the residues that tune the unique substrate specificity and regioselectivity could be identified. The discovery of this novel oligosaccharide oxidase reveals that the VAO-type flavoprotein family harbors oxidases tuned for specific oligosaccharides. The unique substrate profile of XylO hints at a role in the degradation of xylan-derived oligosaccharides by the fungus M. thermophila C1. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Activation of cathepsins B and L in mouse lymphosarcoma tissue under the effect of cyclophosphamide is associated with apoptosis induction and infiltration by mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhanaeva, S Ya; Mel'nikova, E V; Trufakin, V A; Korolenko, T A

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed activities of lysosomal cystein cathepsins B and L in mouse LS lymphosarcoma and its drug-resistant RLS 40 strain and their correlations with the dynamics of the percentage of cells with fragmented DNA and CD14 (+) phagocytes over 3 days after cyclophosphamide injection. LS regression and inhibition of RLS 40 growth after cyclophosphamide injection were paralleled by an increase in cathepsins B and L activities in tumor tissues. The antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide associated with apoptosis intensity and protease activities were significantly higher in LS. Positive correlations between activities of cathepsins B and L and the LS tissue content of cells with fragmented DNA and CD14 (+) phagocytes and negative correlations thereof with tumor weight were detected. It seems that the increase in cathepsins B and L activities in LS tissues was caused by cyclophosphamide induction of apoptosis and depended on the level of tumor cell infiltration with mononuclear phagocytes.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a novel juvenile-specific cathepsin L of Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Sansri, Veerawat; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Sobhon, Prasert; Meemon, Krai

    2013-10-01

    Cathepsin L proteases are a major class of endopeptidases expressed at a high level in Fasciola parasites. Several isoforms of cathepsin L were detected and they may perform different functions during the parasite development. In this study, a complete cDNA encoding a cathepsin L protease was cloned from a newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) cDNA library of Fasciola gigantica and named FgCatL1H. It encoded a 326 amino acid preproenzyme which shared 62.8-83.1% and 39.5-42.9% identity to Fasciola spp. and mammalian cathepsins L, respectively. All functionally important residues previously described for cathepsin L were conserved in FgCatL1H. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that FgCatL1H belonged to a distinct group, clade 4, with respect to adult and other juvenile Fasciola cathepsin L genes. FgCatL1H expression was detected by RT-PCR, using gene specific primers, in metacercariae and NEJ, and the expression gradually decreased in advanced developmental stages. A recombinant proFgCatL1H (rproFgCatL1H) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, affinity purified, and found to migrate in SDS-PAGE at approximately 47.6 and 38.3kDa in glycosylated and deglycosylated forms, respectively. The molecular mass of the activated mature rFgCatL1H in glycosylated form was approximately 40.7kDa. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using rabbit antibodies against rproFgCatL1H showed that FgCatL1H was predominantly expressed in epithelial cells of the digestive tract of metacercariae, NEJs and juveniles of F. gigantica. FgCatL1H could cleave the synthetic fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-MCA preferentially over Z-Gly-Pro-Arg-MCA at an optimum pH of 6.5. It also showed hydrolytic activity against native substrates, including type I collagen, laminin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in vitro, suggesting possible roles in host tissue migration and immune evasion. Therefore, the FgCatL1H is a possible target for vaccine and chemotherapy for controlling F. gigantica infection. Copyright

  9. The silencing of cathepsin K used in gene therapy for periodontal disease reveals the role of cathepsin K in chronic infection and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Gao, B; Hao, L; Zhu, G; Jules, J; MacDougall, M J; Wang, J; Han, X; Zhou, X; Li, Y-P

    2016-10-01

    Periodontitis is a severe chronic inflammatory disease and one of the most prevalent non-communicable chronic diseases that affects the majority of the world's adult population. While great efforts have been devoted toward understanding the pathogenesis of periodontitis, there remains a pressing need for developing potent therapeutic strategies for targeting this dreadful disease. In this study, we utilized adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing cathepsin K (Ctsk) small hairpin (sh)RNA (AAV-sh-Ctsk) to silence Ctsk in vivo and subsequently evaluated its impact in periodontitis as a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease. We used a known mouse model of periodontitis, in which wild-type BALB/cJ mice were infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 in the maxillary and mandibular periodontium to induce the disease. AAV-sh-Ctsk was then administrated locally into the periodontal tissues in vivo, followed by analyses to assess progression of the disease. AAV-mediated Ctsk silencing drastically protected mice (> 80%) from P. gingivalis-induced bone resorption by osteoclasts. In addition, AAV-sh-Ctsk administration drastically reduced inflammation by impacting the expression of many inflammatory cytokines as well as T-cell and dendritic cell numbers in periodontal lesions. AAV-mediated Ctsk silencing can simultaneously target both the inflammation and bone resorption associated with periodontitis through its inhibitory effect on immune cells and osteoclast function. Thereby, AAV-sh-Ctsk administration can efficiently protect against periodontal tissue damage and alveolar bone loss, establishing this AAV-mediated local silencing of Ctsk as an important therapeutic strategy for effectively treating periodontal disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Proteolysis of serum amyloid A and AA amyloid proteins by cysteine proteases: cathepsin B generates AA amyloid proteins and cathepsin L may prevent their formation

    PubMed Central

    Rocken, C; Menard, R; Buhling, F; Vockler, S; Raynes, J; Stix, B; Kruger, S; Roessner, A; Kahne, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: AA amyloidosis develops in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. The AA amyloid proteins are proteolytic fragments obtained from serum amyloid A (SAA). Previous studies have provided evidence that endosomes or lysosomes might be involved in the processing of SAA, and contribute to the pathology of AA amyloidosis. Objective: To investigate the anatomical distribution of cathepsin (Cath) B and CathL in AA amyloidosis and their ability to process SAA and AA amyloid proteins. Methods and results: CathB and CathL were found immunohistochemically in every patient with AA amyloidosis and displayed a spatial relationship with amyloid in all the cases studied. Both degraded SAA and AA amyloid proteins in vitro. With the help of mass spectrometry 27 fragments were identified after incubation of SAA with CathB, nine of which resembled AA amyloid proteins, and seven fragments after incubation with CathL. CathL did not generate AA amyloid-like peptides. When native human AA amyloid proteins were used as a substrate 26 fragments were identified after incubation with CathB and 18 after incubation with CathL. Conclusion: The two most abundant and ubiquitously expressed lysosomal proteases can cleave SAA and AA amyloid proteins. CathB generates nine AA amyloid-like proteins by its carboxypeptidase activity, whereas CathL may prevent the formation of AA amyloid proteins by endoproteolytic activity within the N-terminal region of SAA. This is particularly interesting, because AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease affecting many organs and tissue types, almost all of which express CathB and CathL. PMID:15897303

  11. Efficient C1-continuous phase-potential upwind (C1-PPU) schemes for coupled multiphase flow and transport with gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiamin; Younis, Rami M.

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of counter-current flow, nonlinear convergence problems may arise in implicit time-stepping when the popular phase-potential upwinding (PPU) scheme is used. The PPU numerical flux is non-differentiable across the co-current/counter-current flow regimes. This may lead to cycles or divergence in the Newton iterations. Recently proposed methods address improved smoothness of the numerical flux. The objective of this work is to devise and analyze an alternative numerical flux scheme called C1-PPU that, in addition to improving smoothness with respect to saturations and phase potentials, also improves the level of scalar nonlinearity and accuracy. C1-PPU involves a novel use of the flux limiter concept from the context of high-resolution methods, and allows a smooth variation between the co-current/counter-current flow regimes. The scheme is general and applies to fully coupled flow and transport formulations with an arbitrary number of phases. We analyze the consistency property of the C1-PPU scheme, and derive saturation and pressure estimates, which are used to prove the solution existence. Several numerical examples for two- and three-phase flows in heterogeneous and multi-dimensional reservoirs are presented. The proposed scheme is compared to the conventional PPU and the recently proposed Hybrid Upwinding schemes. We investigate three properties of these numerical fluxes: smoothness, nonlinearity, and accuracy. The results indicate that in addition to smoothness, nonlinearity may also be critical for convergence behavior and thus needs to be considered in the design of an efficient numerical flux scheme. Moreover, the numerical examples show that the C1-PPU scheme exhibits superior convergence properties for large time steps compared to the other alternatives.

  12. Cathepsins B and L activate Ebola but not Marburg virus glycoproteins for efficient entry into cell lines and macrophages independent of TMPRSS2 expression.

    PubMed

    Gnirss, Kerstin; Kühl, Annika; Karsten, Christina; Glowacka, Ilona; Bertram, Stephanie; Kaup, Franziska; Hofmann, Heike; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) cause severe hemorrhagic fever. The host cell proteases cathepsin B and L activate the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) for cellular entry and constitute potential targets for antiviral intervention. However, it is unclear if different EBOV species and MARV equally depend on cathepsin B/L activity for infection of cell lines and macrophages, important viral target cells. Here, we show that cathepsin B/L inhibitors markedly reduce 293T cell infection driven by the GPs of all EBOV species, independent of the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2, which cleaved but failed to activate EBOV-GPs. Similarly, a cathepsin B/L inhibitor blocked macrophage infection mediated by different EBOV-GPs. In contrast, MARV-GP-driven entry exhibited little dependence on cathepsin B/L activity. Still, MARV-GP-mediated entry was efficiently blocked by leupeptin. These results suggest that cathepsins B/L promote entry of EBOV while MARV might employ so far unidentified proteases for GP activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Up-regulation of 5-lipoxygenase by inhibition of cathepsin G enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of survivin

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Seo, Seung Un; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Song, Dae Kyu; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin G is a serine protease secreted from activated neutrophils, it has important roles in inflammation and immune response. Moreover, cathepsin G promotes tumor cell-cell adhesion and migration in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of cathepsin G could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. An inhibitor of cathepsin G [Cathepsin G inhibitor I (Cat GI); CAS 429676-93-7] markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), lung cancer (A549) and cervical cancer (Hela) cells. In contrast, combined treatment with Cat GI and TRAIL had no effect on apoptosis in normal cells [mesangial cell (MC) and human skin fibroblast (HSF)]. Cat GI induced down-regulation of survivin expression at the post-translational level, and overexpression of survivin markedly blocked apoptosis induced by combined treatment with Cat GI plus TRAIL. Interestingly, Cat GI induced down-regulation of survivin via 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of 5-LOX by gene silencing (siRNA) or a pharmacological inhibitor of 5-LOX (zileuton) markedly attenuated combined treatment-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate that inhibition of cathepsin G sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through 5-LOX-mediated down-regulation of survivin expression. PMID:29290980

  14. Reduction of CO2 to C1 products and fuel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mill, T.; Ross, D.

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical semiconductor processes readily reduced CO2 to a broad range of C1 products. However the intrinsic and solar efficiencies for the processes were low. Improved quantum efficiencies could be realized utilizing quantum-sized particles, but at the expense of using less of the visible solar spectrum. Conversely, semiconductors with small bandgaps used more of the visible solar spectrum at the expense of quantum efficiency. Thermal reduction of CO2 with Fe(II) was thermodynamically favored for forming many kinds of organic compounds and occurred readily with olivine and other Fe(II) minerals above 200??C to form higher alkanes and alkenes. No added hydrogen was required.

  15. Z-FL-COCHO, a cathepsin S inhibitor, enhances oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis through upregulation of Bim expression.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung Un; Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2018-04-15

    Inhibition of cathespsin S not only inhibits invasion and angiogenesis, but also induces apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. In present study, we revealed that pharmacological inhibitor [Z-FL-COCHO (ZFL)] of cathepsin S up-regulates pro-apoptotic protein Bim expression at the posttranslational levels. These effects were not associated with MAPKs and AMPK signal pathways. Interestingly, pretreatment with the chemical chaperones (TUDCA and PBA) and knockdown of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) markedly inhibited ZFL-induced Bim upregulation. ZFL enhances oxaliplatin-mediated apoptosis through ER stress-induced Bim upregulation in cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that inhibition of cathepsin S-induced Bim upregulation contribute to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptotic cell death in renal carcinoma Caki cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Localisation of a gene for prepubertal periodontitis to chromosome 11q14 and identification of a cathepsin C gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, T; Hart, P; Michalec, M; Zhang, Y; Marazita, M; Cooper, M; Yassin, O; Nusier, M; Walker, S

    2000-01-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive disease of young children that results in destruction of the periodontal support of the primary dentition. The condition may occur as part of a recognised syndrome or may occur as an isolated finding. Both autosomal dominant and recessive forms of Mendelian transmission have been reported for PPP. We report a consanguineous Jordanian family with four members affected by PPP in two nuclear sibships. The parents of the affected subjects are first cousins. We have localised a gene of major effect for PPP in this kindred (Zmax=3.55 for D11S901 at θ=0.00) to a 14 cM genetic interval on chromosome 11q14 flanked by D11S916 and D11S1367. This PPP candidate interval overlaps the region of chromosome 11q14 that contains the cathepsin C gene responsible for Papillon-Lefèvre and Haim-Munk syndromes. Sequence analysis of the cathepsin C gene from PPP affected subjects from this Jordanian family indicated that all were homozygous for a missense mutation (1040A→G) that changes a tyrosine to a cysteine. All four parents were heterozygous carriers of this Tyr347Cys cathepsin C mutation. None of the family members who were heterozygous carriers for this mutation showed any clinical findings of PPP. None of the 50 controls tested were found to have this Tyr347Cys mutation. This is the first reported gene mutation for non-syndromic periodontitis and shows that non-syndromic PPP is an allelic variant of the type IV palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasias.


Keywords: prepubertal periodontitis; periodontal disease; cathepsin C; linkage PMID:10662808

  17. Active subsite properties, subsite residues and targeting to lysosomes or midgut lumen of cathepsins L from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Ticiane F; Dias, Renata O; de Oliveira, Juliana R; Salinas, Roberto K; Juliano, Maria A; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2017-10-01

    Cathepsins L are the major digestive peptidases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Two digestive cathepsins L (TmCAL2 and TmCAL3) from it had their 3D structures solved. The aim of this paper was to study in details TmCAL3 specificity and properties and relate them to its 3D structure. Recombinant TmCAL3 was assayed with 64 oligopeptides with different amino acid replacements in positions P2, P1, P1' and P2'. Results showed that TmCAL3 S2 specificity differs from the human enzyme and that its specificities also explain why on autoactivation two propeptide residues remain in the enzyme. Data on free energy of binding and of activation showed that S1 and S2' are mainly involved in substrate binding, S1' acts in substrate binding and catalysis, whereas S2 is implied mainly in catalysis. Enzyme subsite residues were identified by docking with the same oligopeptide used for kinetics. The subsite hydrophobicities were calculated from the efficiency of hydrolysis of different amino acid replacements in the peptide and from docking data. The results were closer for S1 and S2' than for S1' and S2, indicating that the residue subsites that were more involved in transition state binding are different from those binding the substrate seen in docking. Besides TmCAL1-3, there are nine other cathepsins L, most of them more expressed at midgut. They are supposed to be directed to lysosomes by a Drosophila-like Lerp receptor and/or motifs in their prodomains. The mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal sorting machinery is absent from T. molitor transcriptome. Cathepsin L direction to midgut contents seems to depend on overexpression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective protein/cathepsin A down-regulates osteoclastogenesis by associating with and degrading NF-kappaB p50/p65.

    PubMed

    Masuhara, Masaaki; Sato, Takuya; Hada, Naoto; Hakeda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of the cooperative function balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts causes various bone disorders, some of which are attributed to abnormal osteoclast recruitment. Osteoclast differentiation is dependent on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL) as well as the macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The osteoclast formation induced by cytokines requires activation of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1. However, osteoclasts are not the only cell types that express these transcription factors, suggesting that some unknown molecules specific for osteoclasts may associate with the transcription factors. Here, we explored the possibility of molecules binding directly to NF-kappaB and cloned protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) by yeast two-hybrid screening using a cDNA library of osteoclast precursors. Forced expression of PPCA with p50/p65 in HEK293 cells decreased both the level of p50/p65 proteins and the transcriptional activity. Abundant PPCA was detected in the lysosomes of the transfected HEK293 cells, but a small amount of this enzyme was also present in the cytosolic fraction. In addition, over-expression of PPCA caused the disappearance of p50/p65 in both the lysosomal and cytosolic fractions. PPCA was expressed throughout osteoclastogenesis, and the expression was slightly up-regulated by RANKL signaling. Knockdown of PPCA in osteoclast precursors with PPCA siRNA stimulated binding of nuclear proteins to oligonucleotides containing an NF-kappaB binding motif and increased osteoclastogenesis. Our present results indicate a novel role for PPCA in osteoclastogenesis via down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity and suggest a new function for PPCA as an NF-kappaB-degrading enzyme in addition to its known multifunctional properties.

  19. Biosynthesis and processing of cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase in the leukemic myeloid cell line U-937.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, A; Persson, A M; Olsson, I

    1990-12-01

    The processing of the neutral proteases cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase, normally synthesized in myeloid precursor cells and stored in azurophil granules, were investigated by biosynthetic labeling with 14C-leucine of the monoblastic cell line U-937. The proteases were precipitated with specific antibodies and the immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by fluorography. The transfer to lysosomes of newly synthesized proteases was demonstrated in pulse-chase labeling experiments followed by centrifugation of cell homogenates in a Percoll gradient. The presence of a closely spaced polypeptide band-doublet at intermediate gradient density suggested cleavage of the specific aminoterminal pro dipeptide extension before storage in lysosomes. The molecular heterogeneity observed for cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase seemed to be due to modifications occurring after sorting into lysosomes, most likely because of C-terminal processing. Modifications of the secreted enzymes were not detectable by SDS-PAGE. In contrast to other lysosomal enzymes, no phosphorylation was demonstrated. Newly synthesized cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase rapidly became resistant to endoglycosidase H, indicating transport through the medial and trans cisternae of the Golgi complex and conversion to "complex" oligosaccharide side chains. This conversion was inhibited by an agent swainsonine, but translocation from the Golgi complex and secretion were unaffected. The processing described may play a role in activation of the proteases.

  20. Deoxycholic Acid-Mediated Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2 Signaling Exacerbates DSS-Induced Colitis through Promoting Cathepsin B Release.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengnan; Gong, Zizhen; Du, Xixi; Tian, Chunyan; Wang, Lingyu; Zhou, Jiefei; Xu, Congfeng; Chen, Yingwei; Cai, Wei; Wu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    We recently have proved that excessive fecal DCA caused by high-fat diet may serve as an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern to activate NLRP3 inflammasome and thus contributes to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, the effect of DCA on inflammasome activation is mainly mediated through bile acid receptor sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2); however, the intermediate process remains unclear. Here, we sought to explore the detailed molecular mechanism involved and examine the effect of S1PR2 blockage in a colitis mouse model. In this study, we found that DCA could dose dependently upregulate S1PR2 expression. Meanwhile, DCA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation is at least partially achieved through stimulating extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway downstream of S1PR2 followed by promoting of lysosomal cathepsin B release. DCA enema significantly aggravated DSS-induced colitis in mice and S1PR2 inhibitor as well as inflammasome inhibition by cathepsin B antagonist substantially reducing the mature IL-1 β production and alleviated colonic inflammation superimposed by DCA. Therefore, our findings suggest that S1PR2/ERK1/2/cathepsin B signaling plays a critical role in triggering inflammasome activation by DCA and S1PR2 may represent a new potential therapeutic target for the management of intestinal inflammation in individuals on a high-fat diet.

  1. UV radiation promotes melanoma dissemination mediated by the sequential reaction axis of cathepsins-TGF-β1-FAP-α.

    PubMed

    Wäster, Petra; Orfanidis, Kyriakos; Eriksson, Ida; Rosdahl, Inger; Seifert, Oliver; Öllinger, Karin

    2017-08-08

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-α is a serine protease expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, promoting tumour invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. The signalling mechanism behind the upregulation of FAP-α is not yet completely revealed. Expression of FAP-α was analysed after UVR exposure in in vitro co-culture systems, gene expression arrays and artificial skin constructs. Cell migration and invasion was studied in relation to cathepsin activity and secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Fibroblast activation protein-α expression was induced by UVR in melanocytes of human skin. The FAP-α expression was regulated by UVR-induced release of TGF-β1 and cathepsin inhibitors prevented such secretion. In melanoma cell culture models and in a xenograft tumour model of zebrafish embryos, FAP-α mediated ECM degradation and facilitated tumour cell dissemination. Our results provide evidence for a sequential reaction axis from UVR via cathepsins, TGF-β1 and FAP-α expression, promoting cancer cell dissemination and melanoma metastatic spread.

  2. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  3. Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li; Wu, Zhou; Baba, Masashi

    Research highlights: {yields} Cathepsin B (CB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in neuron and glia. {yields} CB increased in hypogrossal nucleus neurons after nerve injury in adult mice. {yields} CB-deficiency significantly increased the mean survival ratio of injured neurons. {yields} Thus, CB plays a critical role in axotomy-induced neuronal death in adult mice. -- Abstract: There are significant differences in the rate of neuronal death after peripheral nerve injury between species. The rate of neuronal death of motor neurons after nerve injury in the adult rats is very low, whereas that in adult mice is relatively high. However, themore » understanding of the mechanism underlying axotomy-induced motor neuron death in adult mice is limited. Cathepsin B (CB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, has been implicated in three major morphologically distinct pathways of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death. The possible involvement of CB in the neuronal death of hypogrossal nucleus (HGN) neurons after nerve injury in adult mice was thus examined. Quantitative analyses showed the mean survival ratio of HGN neurons in CB-deficient (CB-/-) adult mice after nerve injury was significantly greater than that in the wild-type mice. At the same time, proliferation of microglia in the injured side of the HGN of CB-/- adult mice was markedly reduced compared with that in the wild-type mice. On the injured side of the HGN in the wild-type adult mice, both pro- and mature forms of CB markedly increased in accordance with the increase in the membrane-bound form of LC3 (LC3-II), a marker protein of autophagy. Furthermore, the increase in CB preceded an increase in the expression of Noxa, a major executor for axotomy-induced motor neuron death in the adult mouse. Conversely, expression of neither Noxa or LC3-II was observed in the HGN of adult CB-/- mice after nerve injury. These observations strongly suggest that CB plays a critical role in

  4. Expression of cathepsin S antisense transcripts by adenovirus in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, P E; Lai, M C; Baines, M G; Spilsbury, K; Constable, I J

    1998-10-01

    To show the production of sense or antisense transcripts by recombinant adenoviruses, to investigate whether the transcripts produced were suitable for downregulating the expression of the targeted gene, cathepsin S (CatS), and to examine the effect of antisense transcript production on the biologic function of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, including the regulation of endogenous aspartic protease expression. Ad.MLP.CatSAS, Ad.RSV.CatSAS, and Ad.MLP.CatSS recombinant viruses were produced by homologous recombination. The recombinant viruses were tested by restriction enzyme digestion to confirm the orientation of the inserts. The expression of antisense transcripts was tested by northern blot analysis. Western blot analysis was used to study the regulation of the endogenous CatS protein in ARPE19 cells. The biologic effect of CatS downregulation in ARPE19 cells was tested by proliferation and phagocytosis assays, de novo cathepsin D (CatD) synthesis, and measurement of aspartic protease activity. After characterization of the recombinant adenovirus constructs, the production of antisense and sense CatS transcripts was shown in ARPE19 cells. The transcripts appeared at approximately 1.9 kb 48 hours after transduction, and the expression of the antisense transcripts was similar in constructs carrying either the MLP or the RSV promoter. Western blot analysis showed that ARPE19 cells transduced with Ad.MLP.CatSAS and Ad.RSV.CatSAS had no detectable CatS. In contrast, there was a strong signal appearing at 24 kDa in ARPE19 cells transduced with Ad.MLP.CatSS. ARPE19 cells were transduced to a high level. The transduction of ARPE19 cells with the recombinant adenoviruses did not affect the morphologic appearance of the cells, their proliferation, or their phagocytosing ability. However, ARPE19 cells transduced by Ad.MLP.CatSAS recombinant adenovirus showed a significant downregulation of de novo CatD synthesis and a twofold decrease in aspartic protease activity

  5. Virulence of Serovar C-1 Strains of Avibacterium paragallinarum.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Ruíz, H H; Shivaprasad, H L; Morales-Erasto, V; Talavera-Rojas, M; Salgado-Miranda, C; Salazar-García, F; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2016-12-01

    The bacterium Avibacterium paragallinarum is the etiologic agent of infectious coryza of chickens. There are nine serovars of A. paragallinarum , and serovar C-1 has emerged in outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer hens in the Americas, with all isolates having been obtained from infectious coryza-vaccinated chickens. In the current study, the clinical and histopathologic outcomes of experimental infections in chickens with A. paragallinarum of serovar C-1 were investigated. The Japanese serovar reference strain, H-18, and a Mexican isolate, ESV-135, were included in the study. No differences in clinical sign scores or morbidity were observed between the two strains. The two bacterial strains caused microscopic lesions of lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, infraorbital sinus, and trachea. Similar severe lesions were observed in birds inoculated with both H-18 and ESV-135 strains. The lesions were present 48 hr after inoculation and persisted until day 10 after inoculation. Slight to severe, extensive hemorrhages were observed in the lumen, mucous membranes, and lamina propria of the nasal cavity and infraorbital sinus in most of the chickens inoculated with either the reference strain H-18 or the ESV-135 isolate. Hemorrhages in the upper respiratory tract of chickens experimentally infected with A. paragallinarum are reported here for the first time. The results have confirmed the high virulence of the reference strain H-18 as previously reported and have shown that the Mexican isolate was as virulent as the reference strain. The virulence of A. paragallinarum isolates may play a role in explaining why severe infectious coryza outbreaks are being seen in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated chicken flocks.

  6. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech. PMID:22356764

  7. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Garçon-Bocquet, Annelise; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Nagnan-le Meillour, Patricia; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2012-02-22

    In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  8. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; O’Neill, Sandra; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3) and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3) proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1) on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139) on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description of F

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ligand-Induced Flap Conformational Changes in Cathepsin-D-A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2016-11-01

    The flap region in aspartic proteases is a unique structural feature to this class of enzymes, and found to have a profound impact on protein overall structure, function, and dynamics. Understanding the structure and dynamic behavior of the flap regions is crucial in the design of selective inhibitors against aspartic proteases. Cathepsin-D, an aspartic protease enzyme, has been implicated in a long list of degenerative diseases as well as breast cancer progression. Presented herein, for the first time, is a comprehensive description of the conformational flap dynamics of cathepsin-D using a comparative 50 ns "multiple" molecular dynamics simulations. Diverse collective metrics were proposed to accurately define flap dynamics. These are distance d1 between the flap tips residues (Gly79 and Met301); dihedral angle ϕ; in addition to TriCα angles Gly79-Asp33-Asp223, θ1 , and Gly79-Asp223-Met301, θ2 . The maximum distance attained throughout the simulation was 17.42 and 11.47 Å for apo and bound cathepsin-D, respectively, while the minimum distance observed was 8.75 and 6.32 Å for apo and bound cathepsin-D, respectively. The movement of the flap as well as the twist of the active pocket can properly be explained by measuring the angle, θ1 , between Gly79-Asp33-Met301 and correlating it with the distance Cα of the flap tip residues. The asymmetrical opening of the binding cavity was best described by the large shift of -6.26° to +20.94° in the dihedral angle, ϕ, corresponding to the full opening of the flap at a range of 31-33 ns. A wide-range of post-dynamic analyses was also applied in this report to supplement our findings. We believe that this report would augment current efforts in designing potent structure-based inhibitors against cathepsin-D in the treatment of breast cancer and other degenerative diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2643-2657, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cathepsin B is a New Drug Target for Traumatic Brain Injury Therapeutics: Evidence for E64d as a Promising Lead Drug Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Gregory; Jacobsen, J. Steven; Grabstein, Kenneth; Kindy, Mark; Hook, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no therapeutic drug treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) despite decades of experimental clinical trials. This may be because the mechanistic pathways for improving TBI outcomes have yet to be identified and exploited. As such, there remains a need to seek out new molecular targets and their drug candidates to find new treatments for TBI. This review presents supporting evidence for cathepsin B, a cysteine protease, as a potentially important drug target for TBI. Cathepsin B expression is greatly up-regulated in TBI animal models, as well as in trauma patients. Importantly, knockout of the cathepsin B gene in TBI mice results in substantial improvements of TBI-caused deficits in behavior, pathology, and biomarkers, as well as improvements in related injury models. During the process of TBI-induced injury, cathepsin B likely escapes the lysosome, its normal subcellular location, into the cytoplasm or extracellular matrix (ECM) where the unleashed proteolytic power causes destruction via necrotic, apoptotic, autophagic, and activated glia-induced cell death, together with ECM breakdown and inflammation. Significantly, chemical inhibitors of cathepsin B are effective for improving deficits in TBI and related injuries including ischemia, cerebral bleeding, cerebral aneurysm, edema, pain, infection, rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The inhibitor E64d is unique among cathepsin B inhibitors in being the only compound to have demonstrated oral efficacy in a TBI model and prior safe use in man and as such it is an excellent tool compound for preclinical testing and clinical compound development. These data support the conclusion that drug development of cathepsin B inhibitors for TBI treatment should be accelerated. PMID:26388830

  11. 6-Shogaol has anti-amyloidogenic activity and ameliorates Alzheimer's disease via CysLT1R-mediated inhibition of cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Na, Ji-Young; Song, Kibbeum; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Sokho; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-08-12

    Although 6-shogaol, a constituent of ginger, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects on neuronal cells, the effects of 6-shogaol on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not yet been investigated. Here we aimed to determine whether 6-shogaol exerts neuroprotective effects against AD. Specifically, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol on the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT1R), a major factor in AD pathogenesis. Moreover, we clarified the relationship between CysLT1R and cathepsin B, a cysteine protease. We used in vitro and in vivo models to determine whether 6-shogaol inhibits CysLT1R/cathepsin B in an amyloid-beta (Aβ; 1-42)-induced model of neurotoxicity. We first confirmed that CysLT1R and cathepsin B are upregulated by Aβ (1-42) and that CysLT1R activation induces cathepsin B. In contrast, we found that 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of CysLT1R downregulates cathepsin B in both in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, we found that 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of CysLT1R/cathepsin B reduces Aβ deposition in the brain and ameliorates behavioral deficits in APPSw/PS1-dE9 Tg mice. Our results indicate that 6-shogaol is a CysLT1R/cathepsin B inhibitor and is a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Running-Induced Systemic Cathepsin B Secretion Is Associated with Memory Function.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo Youl; Becke, Andreas; Berron, David; Becker, Benjamin; Sah, Nirnath; Benoni, Galit; Janke, Emma; Lubejko, Susan T; Greig, Nigel H; Mattison, Julie A; Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette

    2016-08-09

    Peripheral processes that mediate beneficial effects of exercise on the brain remain sparsely explored. Here, we show that a muscle secretory factor, cathepsin B (CTSB) protein, is important for the cognitive and neurogenic benefits of running. Proteomic analysis revealed elevated levels of CTSB in conditioned medium derived from skeletal muscle cell cultures treated with AMP-kinase agonist AICAR. Consistently, running increased CTSB levels in mouse gastrocnemius muscle and plasma. Furthermore, recombinant CTSB application enhanced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and doublecortin (DCX) in adult hippocampal progenitor cells through a mechanism dependent on the multifunctional protein P11. In vivo, in CTSB knockout (KO) mice, running did not enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory function. Interestingly, in Rhesus monkeys and humans, treadmill exercise elevated CTSB in plasma. In humans, changes in CTSB levels correlated with fitness and hippocampus-dependent memory function. Our findings suggest CTSB as a mediator of effects of exercise on cognition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cathepsin L is required for endothelial progenitor cell-induced neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Urbich, Carmen; Heeschen, Christopher; Aicher, Alexandra

    Infusion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but not of mature endothelial cells (ECs), promotes neovascularization after ischemia. We performed a gene expression profiling of EPCs and ECs to identify genes, which might be important for the neovascularization capacity of EPCs. Intriguingly, the protease cathepsin L (CathL) was highly expressed in EPCs as opposed to ECs and is essential for matrix degradation and invasion by EPCs in vitro. CathL deficient mice showed impaired functional recovery after hind limb ischemia supporting the concept for an important role of CathL in postnatal neovascularization. Infused CathL deficient progenitor cells failed to home to sitesmore » of ischemia and to augment neovascularization. In contrast, over expression of CathL in mature ECs significantly enhanced their invasive activity and induced their neovascularization capacity in vivo. Taken together, CathL plays a crucial role for the integration of circulating EPCs into the ischemic tissue and is required for neovascularization mediated by EPCs.« less

  14. Cathepsin B plays a key role in optimal production of the influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Macon D; Ha, Soon-Duck; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; Barr, Stephen Dominic; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as 'flu'. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. CTSB-deficient (CTSB -/- ) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8). Viral entry and propagation were measured through quantitative real-time RT-PCR; production and localization of hemagglutinin (HA) protein in the infected host cells were analysed by Western blots, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy; production of progeny viruses were measured by a hemagglutination assay. CTSB -/- macrophages and CA-074Me-treated A549 cells had no defects in incorporating IAV-PR8 virions and permitting viral RNA synthesis. However, these cells produced significantly lower amounts of HA protein and progeny virions than wild-type or untreated cells. These data indicate that CTSB is involved in the expression of IAV-PR8 HA protein and subsequent optimal production of IAV-PR8 progeny virions. Targeting CTSB can be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating IAV infection.

  15. Exogenous cathepsin V protein protects human cardiomyocytes HCM from angiotensin Ⅱ-Induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Gao, Lu; Yang, Ming; Wang, Jiliang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Li, Huili

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) Ⅱ-induced cardiac hypertrophy can deteriorate to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality. Endogenous Cathepsin V (CTSV) has been reported to be cardioprotective against hypertrophy. However, little is known about the effect of exogenous CTSV on cardiac hypertrophy. We used the human cardiomyocytes HCM as a cell model to investigate the effects of exogenous CTSV on Ang Ⅱ-induced cardiac cell hypertrophy. Cell surface area and expression of classical markers of hypertrophy were analyzed. We further explored the mechanism of CTSV cardioprotective by assessing the levels and activities of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway proteins. We found that pre-treating cardiomyocytes with CTSV could significantly inhibit Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy. The mRNA expression of hypertrophy markers ANP, BNP and β-MHC was obviously elevated in Ang Ⅱ-treated cardiac cells. Whereas, exogenous CTSV effectively halted this elevation. Further study revealed that the protective effects of exogenous CTSV might be mediated by repressing the phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Based on our results, we concluded that exogenous CTSV inhibited Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy in HCM cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR. This study provides experimental evidence for the application of CTSV protein for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating cathepsin S in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kai; Liu, Yi-Jun; Xing, Shan; Chi, Pei-dong; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Ning; Lai, Yan-zhen; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether serum Cathepsin S (Cat S) could serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC), Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum Cat S in 496 participants including healthy controls and patients with benign gastric diseases, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer. The levels of serum Cat S were significantly increased in cancer patients, especially in GC patients. The qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the overexpression of Cat S in GC cell lines and tissues. The diagnostic value of serum Cat S for GC patients from controls resulted in an AUC of 0.803 with a sensitivity of 60.7% and a specificity of 90.0%. Moreover, the levels of serum Cat S were associated with GC tumor volume, lymphoid nodal status, metastasis status, and stages. Moreover, the patients with high levels of serum Cat S had a poorer overall survival. Univariate analysis revealed Cat S expression was a prognostic factor. The knockdown of Cat S significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of GC cells. This study suggested serum Cat S may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of GC. PMID:27058412

  17. Cathepsin-Mediated Cleavage of Peptides from Peptide Amphiphiles Leads to Enhanced Intracellular Peptide Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Handan; Samaeekia, Ravand; Schnorenberg, Mathew R.

    Peptides synthesized in the likeness of their native interaction domain(s) are natural choices to target protein protein interactions (PPIs) due to their fidelity of orthostatic contact points between binding partners. Despite therapeutic promise, intracellular delivery of biofunctional peptides at concentrations necessary for efficacy remains a formidable challenge. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) provide a facile method of intracellular delivery and stabilization of bioactive peptides. PAs consisting of biofunctional peptide headgroups linked to hydrophobic alkyl lipid-like tails prevent peptide hydrolysis and proteolysis in circulation, and PA monomers are internalized via endocytosis. However, endocytotic sequestration and steric hindrance from the lipid tail are twomore » major mechanisms that limit PA efficacy to target intracellular PPIs. To address these problems, we have constructed a PA platform consisting of cathepsin-B cleavable PAs in which a selective p53-based inhibitory peptide is cleaved from its lipid tail within endosomes, allowing for intracellular peptide accumulation and extracellular recycling of the lipid moiety. We monitor for cleavage and follow individual PA components in real time using a resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tracking system. Using this platform, components in real time using a Forster we provide a better understanding and quantification of cellular internalization, trafficking, and endosomal cleavage of PAs and of the ultimate fates of each component.« less

  18. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing dentin bond durability: control of collagen degradation by matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins

    PubMed Central

    Tjäderhane, Leo; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Tersariol, Ivarne L.S.; Geraldeli, Saulo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Carrilho, Marcela R.; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Contemporary adhesives lose their bond strength to dentin regardless of the bonding system used. This loss relates to the hydrolysis of collagen matrix of the hybrid layers. The preservation of the collagen matrix integrity is a key issue in the attempts to improve the dentin bonding durability. Methods Dentin contains collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins, which are responsible for the hydrolytic degradation of collagen matrix in the bonded interface. Results The identities, roles and function of collagenolytic enzymes in mineralized dentin has been gathered only within last 15 years, but they have already been demonstrated to have an important role in dental hard tissue pathologies, including the degradation of the hybrid layer. Identifying responsible enzymes facilitates the development of new, more efficient methods to improve the stability of dentin-adhesive bond and durability of bond strength. Significance Understanding the nature and role of proteolytic degradation of dentin-adhesive interfaces has improved immensely and has practically grown to a scientific field of its own within only 10 years, holding excellent promise that stable resin-dentin bonds will be routinely available in a daily clinical setting already in a near future. PMID:22901826

  20. Recombinant cathepsin E has no proteolytic activity at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Nousheen; Herrmann, Timo; Voelter, Wolfgang; Kalbacher, Hubert

    2007-08-17

    Cathepsin E (CatE) is a major intracellular aspartic protease reported to be involved in cellular protein degradation and several pathological processes. Distinct cleavage specificities of CatE at neutral and acidic pH have been reported previously in studies using CatE purified from human gastric mucosa. Here, in contrast, we have analyzed the proteolytic activity of recombinant CatE at acidic and neutral pH using two separate approaches, RP-HPLC and FRET-based proteinase assays. Our data clearly indicate that recombinant CatE does not possess any proteolytic activity at all at neutral pH and was unable to cleave the peptides glucagon, neurotensin, and dynorphin A that were previously reported to be cleaved by CatE at neutral pH. Even in the presence of ATP, which is known to stabilize CatE, no proteolytic activity was observed. These discrepant results might be due to some contaminating factor present in the enzyme preparations used in previous studies or may reflect differences between recombinant CatE and the native enzyme.

  1. Cathepsin B plays a key role in optimal production of the influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Macon D.; Ha, Soon-Duck; Haeryfar, S.M. Mansour; Barr, Stephen Dominic; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2017-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as ‘flu’. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. Methods CTSB-deficient (CTSB−/−) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8). Viral entry and propagation were measured through quantitative real-time RT-PCR; production and localization of hemagglutinin (HA) protein in the infected host cells were analysed by Western blots, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy; production of progeny viruses were measured by a hemagglutination assay. Results CTSB−/− macrophages and CA-074Me-treated A549 cells had no defects in incorporating IAV-PR8 virions and permitting viral RNA synthesis. However, these cells produced significantly lower amounts of HA protein and progeny virions than wild-type or untreated cells. Conclusion These data indicate that CTSB is involved in the expression of IAV-PR8 HA protein and subsequent optimal production of IAV-PR8 progeny virions. Targeting CTSB can be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating IAV infection. PMID:29349092

  2. Identification and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis cathepsin B proteases in the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjun; Ning, Dan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Tingjin; Lv, Xiaoli; Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-12-21

    Human clonorchiasis is a prevailing food-borne disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection. Functional characterizations of key molecules from C. sinensis could facilitate the intervention of C. sinensis associated diseases. In this study, immunolocalization of C. sinensis cathepsin B proteases (CsCBs) in C. sinensis worms was investigated. Four CsCBs were expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast cells. Purified yCsCBs were measured for enzymatic and hydrolase activities in the presence of various host proteins. Cell proliferation, wound-healing and transwell assays were performed to show the effect of CsCBs on human cells. CsCBs were localized in the excretory vesicle, oral sucker and intestinal tract of C. sinensis. Recombinant yCsCBs from yeast showed active enzymatic activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and at 37-42 °C. yCsCBs can degrade various host proteins including human serum albumin, human fibronectin, human hemoglobin and human IgG. CsCBs were detected in liver tissues of mice and cancer patients afflicted with clonorchiasis. Various bioassays collectively demonstrated that CsCBs could promote cell proliferation, migration and invasion of human cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that CsCBs can degrade various human proteins and we proved that the secreted CsCBs are involved in the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

  3. Decreased cathepsin K levels in human atherosclerotic plaques are associated with plaque instability.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Qin, Xiujiao; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Xiwei; Dong, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the determinants and dynamics of atherosclerotic plaque instability is a key area of current cardiovascular research. Extracellular matrix degradation from excessive proteolysis induced by enzymes such as cathepsin K (Cat K) is implicated in the pathogenesis of unstable plaques. The current study assessed the expression of Cat K in human unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Specimens of popliteal arteries with atherosclerotic plaques were classified as stable (<40% lipid core plaque area; n=6) or unstable (≥40% lipid core plaque area; n=14) based on histopathological examinations of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The expression of Cat K and cystatin C (Cys C) were assessed by immunohistochemical examination and levels of Cat K mRNA were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes including a larger lipid core, endothelial proliferation with foam cells and destruction of internal elastic lamina were observed in unstable atherosclerotic plaques. In unstable plaques, the expression of Cat K protein and mRNA was upregulated, whereas Cys C protein expression was downregulated. The interplay between Cat K and Cys C may underlie the progression of plaques from stable to unstable and the current study indicated that Cat K and Cys C are potential targets for preventing and treating vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque ruptures.

  4. A novel role for cathepsin K in periosteal osteoclast precursors during fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Walia, Bhavita; Lingenheld, Elizabeth; Duong, Le; Sanjay, Archana; Drissi, Hicham

    2018-03-01

    Osteoporosis management is currently centered around bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast (OC) bone resorption but do not affect bone formation. This reduces fracture risk, but fails to restore healthy bone remodeling. Studies in animal models showed that cathepsin K (CatK) inhibition by genetic deletion or chemical inhibitors maintained bone formation while abrogating resorption during bone remodeling and stimulated periosteal bone modeling. Recently, periosteal mononuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP + ) osteoclast precursors (OCPs) were shown to augment angiogenesis-coupled osteogenesis. CatK gene deletion increased osteoblast differentiation via enhanced OCP and OC secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and sphingosine 1 phosphate. The effects of periosteum-derived OCPs on bone remodeling are unknown, particularly with regard to fracture repair. We hypothesized that periosteal OCPs derived from CatK-null (Ctsk -/- ) mice may enhance periosteal bone formation during fracture repair. We found fewer periosteal OCPs in Ctsk -/- mice under homeostatic conditions; however, after fracture, this population increased in number relative to that seen in wild-type (WT) mice. Enhanced TRAP staining and greater expression of PDGF-BB were observed in fractured Ctsk -/- femurs relative to WT femurs. This early pattern of augmented PDGF-BB expression in Ctsk -/- mice may contribute to improved fracture healing by enhancing callus mineralization in Ctsk -/- mice. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Mice heterozygous for cathepsin D deficiency exhibit mania-related behavior and stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Lu, Yi; Han, Yong; Li, Xia; Lou, Huifang; Zhu, Liya; Zhen, Xuechu; Duan, Shumin

    2015-12-03

    Mutations in cathepsin D (CTSD), an aspartic protease in the endosomal-lysosomal system, underlie congenital neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (cNCL, also known as CLN10), a devastating neurodegenerative disease. CLN10 patients die within the first few days of life, and in the few patients who live into adulthood psychopathological symptoms have not been reported. Extensive neuropathology and altered neurotransmission have been reported in CTSD-deficient mice; however signs of neuropsychiatric behavior in these mice are not well characterized due to the severe movement disorder and premature death of the animal. In the present study, we show that heterozygous CTSD-deficient (CTSD HET) mice display an overall behavioral profile that is similar to human mania, including hyperlocomotion, d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, sleep-disturbance, and reduced anxiety-like behavior. However, under stressful conditions CTSD HET mice manifest depressive-like behavior, including anhedonia, behavioral despair, and enhanced learned helplessness. Chronic administration of lithium chloride or valproic acid, two clinically effective mood stabilizers, reverses the majority of these behavioral abnormalities. In addition, CTSD HET mice display stress-induced hypersecretion of corticosterone. These findings suggest an important role for CTSD in the regulation of mood stabilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress-resistant Translation of Cathepsin L mRNA in Breast Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Tholen, Martina; Wolanski, Julia; Stolze, Britta; Chiabudini, Marco; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Bronsert, Peter; Stickeler, Elmar; Rospert, Sabine; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL) is often thought to act as a tumor promoter by enhancing tumor progression and metastasis. This goes along with increased CTSL activity in various tumor entities; however, the mechanisms leading to high CTSL levels are incompletely understood. With the help of the polyoma middle T oncogene driven breast cancer mouse model expressing a human CTSL genomic transgene, we show that CTSL indeed promotes breast cancer metastasis to the lung. During tumor formation and progression high expression levels of CTSL are maintained by enduring translation of CTSL mRNA. Interestingly, human breast cancer specimens expressed the same pattern of 5′ untranslated region (UTR) splice variants as the transgenic mice and the human cancer cell line MDA-MB 321. By polyribosome profiling of tumor tissues and human breast cancer cells, we observe an intrinsic resistance of CTSL to stress-induced shutdown of translation. This ability can be attributed to all 5′ UTR variants of CTSL and is not dependent on a previously described internal ribosomal entry site motif. In conclusion, we provide in vivo functional evidence for overexpressed CTSL as a promoter of lung metastasis, whereas high CTSL levels are maintained during tumor progression due to stress-resistant mRNA translation. PMID:25957406

  7. Near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of Comet Austin (1989c1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valk, Jacobus H.; O'Dell, C. R.; Cochran, Anita L.; Cochran, William D.; Opal, Chet B. S.; Barker, Edwin S.

    1992-01-01

    Comet Austin (1989c1) was observed post-perihelion at a heliocentric distance near 1.25 AU. The wavelength range was from the atmospheric cutoff at 3000 to 4000 A. The coma spectra were calibrated into flux units and the contaminating sky spectrum and solar scattered light continuum were subtracted, leaving an ultraviolet spectrum of about 1.5-A resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The spectrum is dominated by emissions from OH, NH, CH, C3, and CN, some of the weaker emissions of which are seen here for the first time. More bands of CO(2+) were found than in any previous investigation and several intensity anomalies were noted; H2CO, OH(+), NCN, N(2+), and CN(+) may be present. Several emission features well above the noise level remain unidentified. The relative intensities of the OH and CN bands agree with the predictions of resonance fluorescence when one considers the potential effects of contamination by other molecules. The effects of the ozone absorption spectrum are not fully removed by the data-reduction process, although this does not affect these results.

  8. Radiation damage of the HEAO C-1 germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage from proton bombardment of the four HEAO C-1 high purity germanium detectors have been measured and compared to predictions. Because of the presence of numerous gamma-ray lines in the detector background spectra and because of the relatively long exposure time of the HEAO 3 satellite to cosmic-ray and trapped protons, it has been possible to measure both the energy and time dependence of radiation damage. After 100 d in orbit, each of the four detectors has been exposed to approximately 3 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm, and the average energy resolution at 1460 keV had degraded from 3.2 keV fwhm to 8.6 keV fwhm. The lines were all broadened to the low energy side although the line profile was different for each of the four detectors. The damage-related contribution to the degradation in energy resolution was found to be linear in energy and proton influence.

  9. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  10. Potentiation of C1-esterase inhibitor by heparin and interactions with C1s protease as assessed by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Mohsen; Struble, Evi; Zhou, Zhaohua; Karnaukhova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a multifunctional plasma protein with a wide range of inhibitory and non-inhibitory properties, mainly recognized as a key down-regulator of the complement and contact cascades. The potentiation of C1-INH by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulates a broad spectrum of C1-INH activities in vivo both in normal and disease states. SCOPE OF RESEARCH: We have studied the potentiation of human C1-INH by heparin using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), circular dichroism (CD) and a functional assay. To advance a SPR for multiple-unit interaction studies of C1-INH we have developed a novel (consecutive double capture) approach exploring different immobilization and layout. Our SPR experiments conducted in three different design versions showed marked acceleration in C1-INH interactions with complement protease C1s as a result of potentiation of C1-INH by heparin (from 5- to 11-fold increase of the association rate). Far-UV CD studies suggested that heparin binding did not alter C1-INH secondary structure. Functional assay using chromogenic substrate confirmed that heparin does not affect the amidolytic activity of C1s, but does accelerate its consumption due to C1-INH potentiation. This is the first report that directly demonstrates a significant acceleration of the C1-INH interactions with C1s due to heparin by using a consecutive double capture SPR approach. The results of this study may be useful for further C-INH therapeutic development, ultimately for the enhancement of current C1-INH replacement therapies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Activation of the P2X₇ receptor induces migration of glial cells by inducing cathepsin B degradation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Niamh; Lynch, Marina A

    2012-12-01

    The P2X(7) receptor is an ion-gated channel, which is activated by high extracellular concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Activation of P2X(7) receptors has been shown to induce neuroinflammatory changes associated with several neurological conditions. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that have several functions including degradation of the extracellular matrix, cell migration and modulation of bioactive molecules. The actions of MMPs are prevented by a family of protease inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In this study, we show that ATP-treated glial cultures from neonatal C57BL/6 mice release and increase MMP-9 activity, which is coupled with a decrease in release of TIMP-1 and an increase in activated cathepsin B within the extracellular space. This process occurs independently of NLRP3-inflammasome formation. Treatment with a P2X(7) receptor antagonist prevents ATP-induced MMP-9 activity, inhibition of active cathepsin B release and allows for TIMP-1 to be released from the cell. We have shown that cathepsin B degrades TIMP-1, and inhibition of cathepsin B allows for release of TIMP-1 and inhibits MMP-9 activity. We also present data that indicate that ATP or cell damage induces glial cell migration, which is inhibited by P2X(7) antagonism, depletion of MMP-9 or inhibition of cathepsin B. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Cathepsin B and uPAR regulate self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells through GLI-regulated Sox2 and Bmi1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Jasti S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cells comprise a heterogeneous population of undifferentiated cells with the capacity for self-renewal and high proliferative potential. We investigated the role of uPAR and cathepsin B in the maintenance of stem cell nature in glioma-initiating cells (GICs). Simultaneous knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B significantly reduced the expression of CD133, Nestin, Sox2 and Bmi1 at the protein level and GLI1 and GLI2 at the messenger RNA level. Also, knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B resulted in a reduction in the number of GICs as well as sphere size. These changes are mediated by Sox2 and Bmi1, downstream of hedgehog signaling. Addition of cyclopamine reduced the expression of Sox2 and Bmi1 along with GLI1 and GLI2 expression, induced differentiation and reduced subsphere formation of GICs thereby indicating that hedgehog signaling acts upstream of Sox2 and Bmi1. Further confirmation was obtained from increased luciferase expression under the control of a GLI-bound Sox2 and Bmi1 luciferase promoter. Simultaneous knockdown of uPAR and cathepsin B also reduced the expression of Nestin Sox2 and Bmi1 in vivo. Thus, our study highlights the importance of uPAR and cathepsin B in the regulation of malignant stem cell self-renewal through hedgehog components, Bmi1 and Sox2. PMID:23222817

  13. Anti-C1q autoantibodies deposit in glomeruli but are only pathogenic in combination with glomerular C1q-containing immune complexes

    PubMed Central

    Trouw, Leendert A.; Groeneveld, Tom W.L.; Seelen, Marc A.; Duijs, Jacques M.G.J.; Bajema, Ingeborg M.; Prins, Frans A.; Kishore, Uday; Salant, David J.; Verbeek, J. Sjef; Kooten, Cees van; Daha, Mohamed R.

    2004-01-01

    Anti-C1q autoantibodies are present in sera of patients with several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Strikingly, in SLE the presence of anti-C1q is associated with the occurrence of nephritis. We have generated mouse anti–mouse C1q mAb’s and used murine models to investigate whether anti-C1q autoantibodies actually contribute to renal pathology in glomerular immune complex disease. Administration of anti-C1q mAb JL-1, which recognizes the collagen-like region of C1q, resulted in glomerular deposition of C1q and anti-C1q autoantibodies and mild granulocyte influx, but no overt renal damage. However, combination of JL-1 with a subnephritogenic dose of C1q-fixing anti–glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies enhanced renal damage characterized by persistently increased levels of infiltrating granulocytes, major histological changes, and increased albuminuria. This was not observed when a non–C1q-fixing anti-GBM preparation was used. Experiments with different knockout mice showed that renal damage was dependent not only on glomerular C1q and complement activation but also on Fcγ receptors. In conclusion, anti-C1q autoantibodies deposit in glomeruli together with C1q but induce overt renal disease only in the context of glomerular immune complex disease. This provides an explanation why anti-C1q antibodies are especially pathogenic in patients with SLE. PMID:15343386

  14. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin B5 is an acidic endo- and exopeptidase of the immature and mature parasite.

    PubMed

    Siricoon, Sinee; Vichasri Grams, Suksiri; Lertwongvisarn, Kittisak; Abdullohfakeeyah, Muntana; Smooker, Peter M; Grams, Rudi

    2015-12-01

    Cysteine proteases of the liver fluke Fasciola have been described as essential molecules in the infection process of the mammalian host. Destinct cathepsin Bs, which are already expressed in the metacercarial stage and released by the newly excysted juvenile are major actors in this process. Following infection their expression is stopped and the proteins will not be detectable any longer after the first month of development. On the contrary, the novel cathepsin B5 of Fasciola gigantica (FgCB5) described in this work was also found expressed in later juvenile stages and the mature worm. Like all previously described Fasciola family members it was located in the cecal epithelium of the parasite. Western blot analysis of adult antigen preparations detected procathepsin B5 in crude worm extract and in small amounts in the ES product. In support of these data, the sera of infected rabbits and mice were reactive with recombinant FgCB5 in Western blot and ELISA. Biochemical analysis of yeast-expressed FgCB5 revealed that it has properties of a lysosomal hydrolase optimized for activity at acid pH and that it is able to efficiently digest a broad spectrum of host proteins. Unlike previously characterized Fasciola family members FgCB5 carries a histidine doublet in the occluding loop equivalent to residues His110 and His111 of human mature cathepsin B and consequently showed substantial carboxydipeptidyl activity which depends on these two residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the cathepsin S inhibitor, LY3000328, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher D; Deeg, Mark A; Chan, Melanie; Tan, Lai Hock; LaBell, Elizabeth Smith; Shen, Tong; DeBrota, David J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LY3000328 when administered as single escalating doses to healthy volunteers. This was a phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study with LY3000328 in 21 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were administered escalating LY3000328 doses up to 300 mg with food in this single dose study. Blood samples were collected at set times post-dose for the assessment of LY3000328 pharmacokinetics and the measurement of cathepsin S (CatS) activity, CatS mass and calculated CatS specific activity. All doses of LY3000328 were well tolerated, with linear pharmacokinetics up to the 300 mg dose. The pharmacodynamic activity of LY3000328 was measured ex vivo showing a biphasic response to LY3000328, where CatS activity declines, then returns to baseline, and then increases to a level above baseline. CatS mass was also assessed post-dose which increased in a dose-dependent manner, and continued to increase after LY3000328 had been cleared from the body. CatS specific activity was additionally calculated to normalize CatS activity for changes in CatS mass. This demonstrated the increase in CatS activity was attributable to the increase in CatS mass detected in plasma. A specific inhibitor of CatS which is cleared quickly from plasma may produce a transient decrease in plasma CatS activity which is followed by a more prolonged increase in plasma CatS mass which may have implications for the future clinical development of inhibitors of CatS. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the cathepsin S inhibitor, LY3000328, in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Christopher D; Deeg, Mark A; Chan, Melanie; Tan, Lai Hock; LaBell, Elizabeth Smith; Shen, Tong; DeBrota, David J

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LY3000328 when administered as single escalating doses to healthy volunteers. Methods This was a phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study with LY3000328 in 21 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were administered escalating LY3000328 doses up to 300 mg with food in this single dose study. Blood samples were collected at set times post-dose for the assessment of LY3000328 pharmacokinetics and the measurement of cathepsin S (CatS) activity, CatS mass and calculated CatS specific activity. Results All doses of LY3000328 were well tolerated, with linear pharmacokinetics up to the 300 mg dose. The pharmacodynamic activity of LY3000328 was measured ex vivo showing a biphasic response to LY3000328, where CatS activity declines, then returns to baseline, and then increases to a level above baseline. CatS mass was also assessed post-dose which increased in a dose-dependent manner, and continued to increase after LY3000328 had been cleared from the body. CatS specific activity was additionally calculated to normalize CatS activity for changes in CatS mass. This demonstrated the increase in CatS activity was attributable to the increase in CatS mass detected in plasma. Conclusion A specific inhibitor of CatS which is cleared quickly from plasma may produce a transient decrease in plasma CatS activity which is followed by a more prolonged increase in plasma CatS mass which may have implications for the future clinical development of inhibitors of CatS. PMID:25039273

  17. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar VR, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N.; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P.; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W.; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia–induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68+ intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage–derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction–related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases. PMID:26567242

  18. Cathepsin D in Podocytes Is Important in the Pathogenesis of Proteinuria and CKD

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Nonaka, Kanae; Koike, Masato; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Miyuki; Oliva Trejo, Juan Alejandro; Seki, Takuto; Hidaka, Teruo; Ichimura, Koichiro; Sakai, Tatsuo; Tada, Norihiro; Ueno, Takashi; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Studies have revealed many analogies between podocytes and neurons, and these analogies may be key to elucidating the pathogenesis of podocyte injury. Cathepsin D (CD) is a representative aspartic proteinase in lysosomes. Central nervous system neurons in CD-deficient mice exhibit a form of lysosomal storage disease with a phenotype resembling neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. In the kidney, the role of CD in podocytes has not been fully explored. Herein, we generated podocyte–specific CD–knockout mice that developed proteinuria at 5 months of age and ESRD by 20–22 months of age. Immunohistochemical analysis of these mice showed apoptotic podocyte death followed by proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis with aging. Using electron microscopy, we identified, in podocytes, granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs), autophagosome/autolysosome-like bodies, and fingerprint profiles, typical hallmarks of CD-deficient neurons. CD deficiency in podocytes also led to the cessation of autolysosomal degradation and accumulation of proteins indicative of autophagy impairment and the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c accumulation in the GRODs, again similar to changes reported in CD-deficient neurons. Furthermore, both podocin and nephrin, two essential components of the slit diaphragm, translocated to Rab7– and lysosome–associated membrane glycoprotein 1–positive amphisomes/autolysosomes that accumulated in podocyte cell bodies in podocyte–specific CD–knockout mice. We hypothesize that defective lysosomal activity resulting in foot process effacement caused this accumulation of podocin and nephrin. Overall, our results suggest that loss of CD in podocytes causes autophagy impairment, triggering the accumulation of toxic subunit c–positive lipofuscins as well as slit diaphragm proteins followed by apoptotic cell death. PMID:26823550

  19. A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K.

    PubMed

    Law, Simon; Panwar, Preety; Li, Jody; Aguda, Adeleke H; Jamroz, Andrew; Guido, Rafael V C; Brömme, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is a cysteine protease that plays an important role in mammalian intra- and extracellular protein turnover and is known for its unique and potent collagenase activity. Through studies on the mechanism of its collagenase activity, selective ectosteric sites were identified that are remote from the active site. Inhibitors targeting these ectosteric sites are collagenase selective and do not interfere with other proteolytic activities of the enzyme. Potential ectosteric inhibitors were identified using a computational approach to screen the druggable subset of and the entire 281,987 compounds comprising Chemical Repository library of the National Cancer Institute-Developmental Therapeutics Program (NCI-DTP). Compounds were scored based on their affinity for the ectosteric site. Here we compared the scores of three individual molecular docking methods with that of a composite score of all three methods together. The composite docking method was up to five-fold more effective at identifying potent collagenase inhibitors (IC50 < 20 μM) than the individual methods. Of 160 top compounds tested in enzymatic assays, 28 compounds revealed blocking of the collagenase activity of CatK at 100 μM. Two compounds exhibited IC50 values below 5 μM corresponding to a molar protease:inhibitor concentration of <1:12. Both compounds were subsequently tested in osteoclast bone resorption assays where the most potent inhibitor, 10-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-7,8-diethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione, (NSC-374902), displayed an inhibition of bone resorption with an IC50-value of approximately 300 nM and no cell toxicity effects.

  20. A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K

    PubMed Central

    Law, Simon; Panwar, Preety; Li, Jody; Aguda, Adeleke H.; Jamroz, Andrew; Guido, Rafael V. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is a cysteine protease that plays an important role in mammalian intra- and extracellular protein turnover and is known for its unique and potent collagenase activity. Through studies on the mechanism of its collagenase activity, selective ectosteric sites were identified that are remote from the active site. Inhibitors targeting these ectosteric sites are collagenase selective and do not interfere with other proteolytic activities of the enzyme. Potential ectosteric inhibitors were identified using a computational approach to screen the druggable subset of and the entire 281,987 compounds comprising Chemical Repository library of the National Cancer Institute-Developmental Therapeutics Program (NCI-DTP). Compounds were scored based on their affinity for the ectosteric site. Here we compared the scores of three individual molecular docking methods with that of a composite score of all three methods together. The composite docking method was up to five-fold more effective at identifying potent collagenase inhibitors (IC50 < 20 μM) than the individual methods. Of 160 top compounds tested in enzymatic assays, 28 compounds revealed blocking of the collagenase activity of CatK at 100 μM. Two compounds exhibited IC50 values below 5 μM corresponding to a molar protease:inhibitor concentration of <1:12. Both compounds were subsequently tested in osteoclast bone resorption assays where the most potent inhibitor, 10-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-7,8-diethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione, (NSC-374902), displayed an inhibition of bone resorption with an IC50-value of approximately 300 nM and no cell toxicity effects. PMID:29088253

  1. Dissociated overexpression of cathepsin D and estrogen receptor alpha in preinvasive mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Daures, J P; Maudelonde, T; Pignodel, C; Gleizes, M; Chapelle, J; Marty-Double, C; Baldet, P; Mares, P; Laffargue, F; Rochefort, H

    2000-05-01

    The role of estrogen as a promoter agent of sporadic breast cancer has been considered by assaying, in benign breast disease (BBD) and in situ carcinomas (CIS), 2 markers, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and cathepsin D (cath-D) involved in estrogen action on mammary tissue. ERalpha and cath-D were assayed by quantitative immunohistochemistry using an image analyzer in 170 lesions of varying histological risk (94 BBD and 76 CIS), and in "normal" glands close to these lesions. The ERalpha level increased significantly in proliferative BBD with atypia (P < .001), in non-high-grade CIS (P < .001), and in adjacent "normal" glands. ERalpha level was decreased in high-grade ductal CIS (DCIS) and also in adjacent "normal" glands. Cath-D level increased in ductal proliferative BBD (P < or = .01) and in high-grade DCIS (P < or = .003), but not in the other lesions. After menopause, ERalpha level was increased (P = .012) but not cath-D level. According to Mac Neman test, the high-grade DCIS were predominantly ERalpha negative and cath-D positive (P = .0017), and the other CIS were predominantly ERalpha positive and cath-D negative (P = .0002). The 2 markers are overexpressed early in premalignant lesions, but independently. This dissociation suggests a branched model of mammary carcinogenesis involving 1 estrogen-independent pathway with high cath-D and low ERalpha levels (including high-grade DCIS) and 1 estrogen-dependent pathway, with high ERalpha level (including proliferative BBD with atypia and low-grade DCIS). We propose that ERalpha-negative breast cancers may develop directly from high-grade DCIS and that ERalpha assay in preinvasive lesions should be considered in prevention trials with antiestrogens.

  2. Cathepsin S Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Muscular Dystrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tjondrokoesoemo, Andoria; Schips, Tobias G; Sargent, Michelle A; Vanhoutte, Davy; Kanisicak, Onur; Prasad, Vikram; Lin, Suh-Chin J; Maillet, Marjorie; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2016-05-06

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. Loss of dystrophin protein compromises the stability of the sarcolemma membrane surrounding each muscle cell fiber, leading to membrane ruptures and leakiness that induces myofiber necrosis, a subsequent inflammatory response, and progressive tissue fibrosis with loss of functional capacity. Cathepsin S (Ctss) is a cysteine protease that is actively secreted in areas of tissue injury and ongoing inflammation, where it participates in extracellular matrix remodeling and healing. Here we show significant induction of Ctss expression and proteolytic activity following acute muscle injury or in muscle from mdx mice, a model of DMD. To examine the functional ramifications associated with greater Ctss expression, the Ctss gene was deleted in the mdx genetic background, resulting in protection from muscular dystrophy pathogenesis that included reduced myofiber turnover and histopathology, reduced fibrosis, and improved running capacity. Mechanistically, deletion of the Ctss gene in the mdx background significantly increased myofiber sarcolemmal membrane stability with greater expression and membrane localization of utrophin, integrins, and β-dystroglycan, which anchor the membrane to the basal lamina and underlying cytoskeletal proteins. Consistent with these results, skeletal muscle-specific transgenic mice overexpressing Ctss showed increased myofiber necrosis, muscle histopathology, and a functional deficit reminiscent of muscular dystrophy. Hence, Ctss induction during muscular dystrophy is a pathologic event that partially underlies disease pathogenesis, and its inhibition might serve as a new therapeutic strategy in DMD. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin K: A promising novel approach for postmenopausal osteoporosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kakoli; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that is characterized by heightened state of bone resorption accompanied by diminished bone formation, leading to a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) and deterioration of bone quality, thus increasing the risk of developing fractures. Molecular insight into bone biology identified cathepsin K (CatK) as a novel therapeutic target. CatK is a lysosomal cysteine protease secreted by activated osteoclasts during bone resorption, whose primary substrate is type I collagen, the major component of organic bone matrix. Available anti-resorptive drugs affect osteoclast survival and influence both resorption and formation of bone. CatK inhibitors are distinct from the existing anti-resorptives as they only target the resorption process itself without impairing osteoclast differentiation and do not interfere with bone formation. An inhibitor of CatK, odanacatib, robustly increased both trabecular and cortical BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. The phase III fracture prevention trial with odanacatib ended early due to good efficacy and a favorable benefit/risk profile, thus, enhancing the opportunity for CatK as a pharmacological target for osteoporosis. So far, all the inhibitors that reached to the stage of clinical trial targeted active site of CatK to abrogate the entire proteolytic activity of the enzyme in addition to the desired blockage of excessive elastin and collagen degradation, and could thus pose safety concerns with long term use. Identification of selective exosite inhibitors that inhibit CatK's elastase and/or collagenase activity but do not affect the hydrolysis of other physiologically relevant substrates of CatK would be an improved strategy to inhibit this enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Substrate-derived triazolo- and azapeptides as inhibitors of cathepsins K and S.

    PubMed

    Galibert, Matthieu; Wartenberg, Mylène; Lecaille, Fabien; Saidi, Ahlame; Mavel, Sylvie; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Korkmaz, Brice; Brömme, Dieter; Aucagne, Vincent; Delmas, Agnès F; Lalmanach, Gilles

    2018-01-20

    Cathepsin (Cat) K is a critical bone-resorbing protease and is a relevant target for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastasis, while CatS is an attractive target for drugs in autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), emphysema or neuropathic pain. Despite major achievements, current pharmacological inhibitors are still lacking in safety and may have damaging side effects. A promising strategy for developing safer reversible and competitive inhibitors as new lead compounds could be to insert non-cleavable bonds at the scissile P1-P1' position of selective substrates of CatS and CatK. Accordingly, we introduced a 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole heterocycle that mimics most of the features of a trans-amide bond, or we incorporated a semicarbazide bond (azaGly residue) by replacing the α-carbon of the glycyl residue at P1 by a nitrogen atom. AzaGly-containing peptidomimetics inhibited powerfully their respective target proteases in the nM range, while triazolopeptides were weaker inhibitors (Ki in the μM range). The selectivity of the azaGly CatS inhibitor (1b) was confirmed by using spleen lysates from wild-type vs CatS-deficient mice. Alternatively, the azaGly bradykinin-derived CatK inhibitor (2b) potently inhibited CatK (Ki = 9 nM) and impaired its kininase activity in vitro. Molecular modeling studies support that the semicarbazide bond of 2b is more favorable than the 1,2,3-triazole linkage of the bradykinin-derived pseudopeptide 2a to preserve an effective affinity towards CatK, its protease target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug-to-antibody determination for an antibody-drug-conjugate utilizing cathepsin B digestion coupled with reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Michael; Sun, Guoyong; Qiu, Difei; Valente, Joseph; Lan, Wenkui; Song, Hangtian; Bolgar, Mark; Katiyar, Amit; Krishnamurthy, Girija

    2017-01-20

    Antibody drug conjugates or ADCs are currently being evaluated for their effectiveness as targeted chemotherapeutic agents across the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the complexity arising from the choice of antibody, drug and linker; analytical methods for release and stability testing are required to provide a detailed understanding of both the antibody and the drug during manufacturing and storage. The ADC analyzed in this work consists of a tubulysin drug analogue that is randomly conjugated to lysine residues in a human IgG1 antibody. The drug is attached to the lysine residue through a peptidic, hydrolytically stable, cathepsin B cleavable linker. The random lysine conjugation produces a heterogeneous mixture of conjugated species with a variable drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR), therefore, the average amount of drug attached to the antibody is a critical parameter that needs to be monitored. In this work we have developed a universal method for determining DAR in ADCs that employ a cathepsin B cleavable linker. The ADC is first cleaved at the hinge region and then mildly reduced prior to treatment with the cathepsin B enzyme to release the drug from the antibody fragments. This pre-treatment allows the cathepsin B enzyme unrestricted access to the cleavage sites and ensures optimal conditions for the cathepsin B to cleave all the drug from the ADC molecule. The cleaved drug is then separated from the protein components by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and quantitated using UV absorbance. This method affords superior cleavage efficiency to other methods that only employ a cathepsin digestion step as confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. This method was shown to be accurate and precise for the quantitation of the DAR for two different random lysine conjugated ADC molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Cathepsin B-Like Protease Family Unique to Trypanosoma congolense▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Palomares, Carlos; Biteau, Nicolas; Giroud, Christiane; Coustou, Virginie; Coetzer, Theresa; Authié, Edith; Boulangé, Alain; Baltz, Théo

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteases have been shown to be essential virulence factors and drug targets in trypanosomatids and an attractive antidisease vaccine candidate for Trypanosoma congolense. Here, we describe an important amplification of genes encoding cathepsin B-like proteases unique to T. congolense. More than 13 different genes were identified, whereas only one or two highly homologous genes have been identified in other trypanosomatids. These proteases grouped into three evolutionary clusters: TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and TcoCBc6, which possess the classical catalytic triad (Cys, His, and Asn), and TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13, which contains an unusual catalytic site (Ser, Xaa, and Asn). Expression profiles showed that members of the TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and the TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13 groups are expressed mainly in bloodstream forms and localize in the lysosomal compartment. The expression of recombinant representatives of each group (TcoCB1, TcoCB6, and TcoCB12) as proenzymes showed that TcoCBc1 and TcoCBc6 are able to autocatalyze their maturation 21 and 31 residues, respectively, upstream of the predicted start of the catalytic domain. Both displayed a carboxydipeptidase function, while only TcoCBc1 behaved as an endopeptidase. TcoCBc1 exhibited biochemical differences regarding inhibitor sensitivity compared to that of other cathepsin B-like proteases. Recombinant pro-TcoCBs12 did not automature in vitro, and the pepsin-matured enzyme was inactive in tests with cathepsin B fluorogenic substrates. In vivo inhibition studies using CA074Me (a cell-permeable cathepsin B-specific inhibitor) demonstrated that TcoCB are involved in lysosomal protein degradation essential for survival in bloodstream form. Furthermore, TcoCBc1 elicited an important immune response in experimentally infected cattle. We propose this family of proteins as a potential therapeutic target and as a plausible antigen for T. congolense diagnosis. PMID:18281598

  7. Exploration of peptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K protease by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen tripeptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K were discovered by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation. The 18 tripeptides fit the active site better than the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, and a better inhibitor of cathepsin K could be designed considering these tripeptides. Among the 18 tripeptides, Phe-Arg-Asp and Tyr-Arg-Asp fit the active site the best and their structural similarity should be considered in the design process. Interesting factors emerged from the structure of the decision tree, and its structural information will guide exploration of potential inhibitor molecules for proteases.

  8. THE INHIBITION OF PLASMIN, PLASMA KALLIKREIN, PLASMA PERMEABILITY FACTOR, AND THE C'1r SUBCOMPONENT OF THE FIRST COMPONENT OF COMPLEMENT BY SERUM C'1 ESTERASE INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Ratnoff, Oscar D.; Pensky, Jack; Ogston, Derek; Naff, George B.

    1969-01-01

    The fraction of human serum designated as C'1 esterase inhibitor is known to inhibit the action of C'1 esterase, a plasma kallikrein, and PF/Dil, an enzyme in plasma enhancing cutaneous vascular permeability. In the present study, C'1 esterase inhibitor has been found to block the actions of plasmin and the C'1r subcomponent of the first component of complement, and to retard the generation of PF/Dil. No inhibition of blood clotting or of the generation of plasmin was demonstrable. PMID:4178758

  9. Biomechanical comparison of four C1 to C2 rigid fixative techniques: anterior transarticular, posterior transarticular, C1 to C2 pedicle, and C1 to C2 intralaminar screws.

    PubMed

    Lapsiwala, Samir B; Anderson, Paul A; Oza, Ashish; Resnick, Daniel K

    2006-03-01

    We performed a biomechanical comparison of several C1 to C2 fixation techniques including crossed laminar (intralaminar) screw fixation, anterior C1 to C2 transarticular screw fixation, C1 to 2 pedicle screw fixation, and posterior C1 to C2 transarticular screw fixation. Eight cadaveric cervical spines were tested intact and after dens fracture. Four different C1 to C2 screw fixation techniques were tested. Posterior transarticular and pedicle screw constructs were tested twice, once with supplemental sublaminar cables and once without cables. The specimens were tested in three modes of loading: flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. All tests were performed in load and torque control. Pure bending moments of 2 nm were applied in flexion-extension and lateral bending, whereas a 1 nm moment was applied in axial rotation. Linear displacements were recorded from extensometers rigidly affixed to the C1 and C2 vertebrae. Linear displacements were reduced to angular displacements using trigonometry. Adding cable fixation results in a stiffer construct for posterior transarticular screws. The addition of cables did not affect the stiffness of C1 to C2 pedicle screw constructs. There were no significant differences in stiffness between anterior and posterior transarticular screw techniques, unless cable fixation was added to the posterior construct. All three posterior screw constructs with supplemental cable fixation provide equal stiffness with regard to flexion-extension and axial rotation. C1 lateral mass-C2 intralaminar screw fixation restored resistance to lateral bending but not to the same degree as the other screw fixation techniques. All four screw fixation techniques limit motion at the C1 to 2 articulation. The addition of cable fixation improves resistance to flexion and extension for posterior transarticular screw fixation.

  10. [Clinical significance of detection of cathepsin X and cystatin C in the sera of patients with lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuede; Hou, Yanli; Niu, Zequn; Li, Wei; Meng, Xia; Zhang, Na; Yang, Shuanying

    2013-08-20

    Cathepsin X (Cat X) has been identified as a member of cathepsin family. Studies have shown that Cat X is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor development of various cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the clinicopathological prognosis and the levels of Cat X and cystatin C in the serum of patients with lung cancer. Blood samples were collected from 84 patients with lung cancer and 36 healthy control subjects. Cat X and cystatin C were determined by quantitative ELISA. Cat X and cystatin C levels were significantly higher in the patients with lung cancer than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.01). Cat X level was correlated with the pathological types of lung cancer (P=0.076). Cystatin C was positively correlated with TNM stage (P=0.01). Furthermore, cystatin C/Cat X was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.058). The patients with high Cat X levels experienced significantly shorter overall survival rates compared with those with low Cat X. Univariate analysis indicated that Cat X and TNM stage were related to overall survival. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that TNM stage may be used as an independent prognostic variable in patients with lung cancer. Cat X and cystatin C levels were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer. Cat X and cystatin C detection in the sera may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer and may be used to evaluate the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.

  11. A Regulatory Pathway, Ecdysone-Transcription Factor Relish-Cathepsin L, Is Involved in Insect Fat Body Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yao; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Liu, Jian; Yang, Cui; Feng, Qi-Li; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Insect fat body is the organ for intermediary metabolism, comparable to vertebrate liver and adipose tissue. Larval fat body is disintegrated to individual fat body cells and then adult fat body is remodeled at the pupal stage. However, little is known about the dissociation mechanism. We find that the moth Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CL) is expressed heavily in the fat body and is released from fat body cells into the extracellular matrix. The inhibitor and RNAi experiments demonstrate that Har-CL functions in the fat body dissociation in H. armigera. Further, a nuclear protein is identified to be transcription factor Har-Relish, which was found in insect immune response and specifically binds to the promoter of Har-CL gene to regulate its activity. Har-Relish also responds to the steroid hormone ecdysone. Thus, the dissociation of the larval fat body is involved in the hormone (ecdysone)-transcription factor (Relish)-target gene (cathepsin L) regulatory pathway. PMID:23459255

  12. The selective cathepsin K inhibitor MIV-711 attenuates joint pathology in experimental animal models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Erik; Rizoska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Edenius, Charlotte; Bendele, Alison M; Maul, Don; Larson, Michael; Shah, Neha; Yoder Otto, Valerie; Jerome, Chris; Grabowska, Urszula

    2018-03-09

    MIV-711 is a highly potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitor. The current article summarizes the therapeutic effects of MIV-711 on joint pathology in rabbits subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and the prophylactic effects on joint pathology in dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy, two surgical models of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting 1 week after surgery, rabbits were dosed daily via oral gavage with either MIV-711 or vehicle (n = 7/group) for 7 weeks. The four treatment groups were: (1) sham + vehicle; (2) ACLT + vehicle; (3) ACLT + MIV-711, 30 µmol/kg and (4) ACLT + MIV-711, 100 µmol/kg. Subchondral bone and articular cartilage structures were assessed by µCT, histomorphometry, and scoring. Dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy received either MIV-711 (30 µmol/kg) or vehicle (n = 15/group) via oral gavage once daily, starting 1 day before meniscectomy, for 28 days. Cartilage degradation was assessed at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The exposures of MIV-711 were assessed in both studies and biomarkers reflecting bone resorption (HP-1 in rabbits, CTX-I in dogs) and cartilage degradation (CTX-II) were measured. In ACLT rabbits, MIV-711 decreased HP-1 levels by up to 72% (p < 0.001) and CTX-II levels by up to 74% (p < 0.001) compared to ACLT vehicle controls. ACLT surgery significantly reduced the total thickness of the subchondral bone plate and reduced trabecular bone volume in the femur and tibia. These effects were reversed by MIV-711. ACLT resulted in cartilage thickening, which was attenuated by MIV-711. MIV-711 did not affect osteophyte formation or Mankin scores. In dogs, MIV-711 reduced CTX-I and CTX-II levels by 86% (p < 0.001) and 80% (p < 0.001), respectively. Synovial CTX-II levels were reduced by 55-57% (p < 0.001) compared to baseline. MIV-711-treated animals had 25-37% lower macroscopic scores in the femur condyles and 13-33% lower macroscopic

  13. Downregulation of cathepsin G reduces the activation of CD4+ T cells in murine autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Fang; Lai, Xiaoyang; Li, Jing; Lei, Shuihong; Hu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease due to progressive injury of islet cells mediated by T lymphocytes (T cells). Our previous studies have shown that only cathepsin G (CatG), not other proteases, is involved in the antigen presentation of proinsulin, and if the presentation is inhibited, the activation of CD4+ T cells induced by proinsulin is alleviated in T1DM patients, and CatG-specific inhibitor reduces the activation of CD4+ cells induced by proinsulin in T1DM patients. Therefore, we hypothesize that CatG may play an important role in the activation of CD4+ T cells in T1DM. To this end, mouse studies were conducted to demonstrate that CatG impacts the activation of CD4+ T cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CatG gene expression and the activation of CD4+ T cells were examined in NOD mice. The effect of CatG inhibitor was investigated in NOD mice on the activation of CD4+ T cells, islet β cell function, islet inflammation and β-cell apoptosis. Furthermore, NOD mice were injected with CatG siRNA in early stage to observe the effect of CatG knockdown on the activation status of CD4+ T cells and the progression of diabetes. During the pathogenesis of diabetes, the expression level of CatG in NOD mice gradually increased and the CD4+ T cells were gradually activated, resulting in more TH1 cells and less TH2 and Treg cells. Treatment with CatG-specific inhibitor reduced the blood glucose level, improved the function of islet β cells and reduced the activation of CD4+ T cells. Early application of CatG siRNA improved the function of islet β cells, reduced islet inflammation and β cell apoptosis, and lowered the activation level of CD4+ T cells, thus slowing down the progression of diabetes. PMID:29218110

  14. Downregulation of cathepsin G reduces the activation of CD4+ T cells in murine autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fang; Lai, Xiaoyang; Li, Jing; Lei, Shuihong; Hu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease due to progressive injury of islet cells mediated by T lymphocytes (T cells). Our previous studies have shown that only cathepsin G (CatG), not other proteases, is involved in the antigen presentation of proinsulin, and if the presentation is inhibited, the activation of CD4+ T cells induced by proinsulin is alleviated in T1DM patients, and CatG-specific inhibitor reduces the activation of CD4+ cells induced by proinsulin in T1DM patients. Therefore, we hypothesize that CatG may play an important role in the activation of CD4+ T cells in T1DM. To this end, mouse studies were conducted to demonstrate that CatG impacts the activation of CD4+ T cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CatG gene expression and the activation of CD4+ T cells were examined in NOD mice. The effect of CatG inhibitor was investigated in NOD mice on the activation of CD4+ T cells, islet β cell function, islet inflammation and β-cell apoptosis. Furthermore, NOD mice were injected with CatG siRNA in early stage to observe the effect of CatG knockdown on the activation status of CD4+ T cells and the progression of diabetes. During the pathogenesis of diabetes, the expression level of CatG in NOD mice gradually increased and the CD4+ T cells were gradually activated, resulting in more TH1 cells and less TH2 and Treg cells. Treatment with CatG-specific inhibitor reduced the blood glucose level, improved the function of islet β cells and reduced the activation of CD4+ T cells. Early application of CatG siRNA improved the function of islet β cells, reduced islet inflammation and β cell apoptosis, and lowered the activation level of CD4+ T cells, thus slowing down the progression of diabetes.

  15. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin L1 of Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Srirakam, Thippawan; Pandonlan, Sudarat; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against a recombinant cathepsin L1 of Fasciola gigantica (rFgCatL1) were produced in vitro by fusion of BALB/c mice spleen cells immunized with rFgCatL1 and mouse myeloma cells. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1E10, 1F5, 3D11, 4B10, 4D3, 4E3 and 5E7. Clones 1E10, 1F5 and 3D11 were IgM, whereas clones 4B10, 4D3, 4E3 and 5E7 were IgG1. All MoAbs had kappa light chain isotypes. All MoAbs reacted with rCatL1 at molecular weight (MW) 30kDa and with the native CatL1 at MW 27kDa in whole body (WB) extracts of metacercariae (Met), newly excysted juveniles (NEJ), 1, 3, 5-week-old juveniles (Ju), adult WB and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with adult tegumental antigens (TA). All of these MoAbs showed no cross-reactions with antigens of other parasites commonly found in ruminants and human, including Paramphistomum cervi, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Schistosoma spindale, Schistosoma mansoni, Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, Trichuris sp., Haemonchus placei and Setaria labiato-papillosa. Localization of CatL1 in each developmental stages of F. gigantica by immunoperoxidase technique, using these MoAbs as probes, indicated that CatL1 was present at high concentration in the caecal epithelium and caecal lumen of metacercariae, NEJ, 1, 3, 5-week-old juveniles and adult fluke. This finding indicated that CatL1 is a copiously expressed parasite protein that is released into the ES, thus CatL1 and its MoAb could be a good candidate for immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminant and human. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Wu, Xuefei; Fan, Bin; Li, Ning; Lin, Yongzhong; Yao, Yiwen; Ma, Jianmei

    2012-05-20

    Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the expression, release and upregulate enzymatic activity of Cat C in

  17. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cathepsin C (Cat C) functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Results Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the expression, release and

  18. Potentiation of apoptosis by histone deacetylase inhibitors and doxorubicin combination: cytoplasmic cathepsin B as a mediator of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Cheriyath, V; Kuhns, M A; Kalaycio, M E; Borden, E C

    2011-03-15

    Although inhibitors of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) in combination with genotoxins potentiate apoptosis, the role of proteases other than caspases in this process remained elusive. Therefore, we examined the potentiation of apoptosis and related mechanisms of HDACis and doxorubicin combination in a panel of myeloma cell lines and in 25 primary myelomas. At IC(50) concentrations, sodium butyrate (an HDACi) or doxorubicin alone caused little apoptosis. However, their combination potentiated apoptosis and synergistically reduced the viability of myeloma cells independent of p53 and caspase 3-7 activation. Potentiated apoptosis correlated with nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, suggesting the induction of caspase 3- and 7-independent pathways. Consistent with this, butyrate and doxorubicin combination significantly increased the activity of cytoplasmic cathepsin B. Inhibition of cathepsin B either with a small-molecule inhibitor or downregulation with a siRNA reversed butyrate- and doxorubicin-potentiated apoptosis. Finally, ex vivo, clinically relevant concentrations of butyrate or SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, an HDACi in clinical testing) in combination with doxorubicin significantly (P<0.0001) reduced the survival of primary myeloma cells. Cathepsin B has a prominent function in mediating apoptosis potentiated by HDACi and doxorubicin combinations in myeloma. Our results support a molecular model of lysosomal-mitochondrial crosstalk in HDACi- and doxorubicin-potentiated apoptosis through the activation of cathepsin B.

  19. Differential requirement for cathepsin D for processing of the full length and C-terminal fragment of the malaria antigen MSP1.

    PubMed

    Tulone, Calogero; Sponaas, Anne-Marit; Raiber, Eun-Ang; Tabor, Alethea B; Langhorne, Jean; Chain, Benny M

    2011-01-01

    Merozoite Surface Protein 1 is expressed on the surface of malaria merozoites and is important for invasion of the malaria parasite into erythrocytes. MSP1-specific CD4 T cell responses and antibody can confer protective immunity in experimental models of malaria. In this study we explore the contributions of cathepsins D and E, two aspartic proteinases previously implicated in antigen processing, to generating MSP1 CD4 T-cell epitopes for presentation. The absence of cathepsin D, a late endosome/lysosomal enzyme, is associated with a reduced presentation of MSP1 both following in vitro processing of the epitope MSP1 from infected erythrocytes by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and following in vivo processing by splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells. By contrast, processing and presentation of the soluble recombinant protein fragment of MSP1 is unaffected by the absence of cathepsin D, but is inhibited when both cathepsin D and E are absent. The role of different proteinases in generating the CD4 T cell repertoire, therefore, depends on the context in which an antigen is introduced to the immune system.

  20. Differential Requirement for Cathepsin D for Processing of the Full Length and C-Terminal Fragment of the Malaria Antigen MSP1

    PubMed Central

    Raiber, Eun-Ang; Tabor, Alethea B.; Langhorne, Jean; Chain, Benny M.

    2011-01-01

    Merozoite Surface Protein 1 is expressed on the surface of malaria merozoites and is important for invasion of the malaria parasite into erythrocytes. MSP1-specific CD4 T cell responses and antibody can confer protective immunity in experimental models of malaria. In this study we explore the contributions of cathepsins D and E, two aspartic proteinases previously implicated in antigen processing, to generating MSP1 CD4 T-cell epitopes for presentation. The absence of cathepsin D, a late endosome/lysosomal enzyme, is associated with a reduced presentation of MSP1 both following in vitro processing of the epitope MSP1 from infected erythrocytes by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and following in vivo processing by splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells. By contrast, processing and presentation of the soluble recombinant protein fragment of MSP1 is unaffected by the absence of cathepsin D, but is inhibited when both cathepsin D and E are absent. The role of different proteinases in generating the CD4 T cell repertoire, therefore, depends on the context in which an antigen is introduced to the immune system. PMID:22053177

  1. Activation of cathepsin L contributes to the irreversible depolarization induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shogo; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) elicits a rapid and irreversible depolarization with a latency of ∼5min in intracellular recordings of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rat slice preparations. In the present study, we examined the role of cathepsin L in the OGD-induced depolarization. OGD-induced depolarizations were irreversible as no recovery of membrane potential was observed. The membrane potential reached 0mV when oxygen and glucose were reintroduced immediately after the onset of the OGD-induced rapid depolarization. The OGD-induced depolarizations became reversible when the slice preparations were pre-incubated with cathepsin L inhibitors (types I and IV at 0.3-2nM and 0.3-30nM, respectively). Moreover, pre-incubation with these cathepsin inhibitors prevented the morphological changes, including swelling of the cell soma and fragmentation of dendrites, observed in control neurons after OGD. These findings suggest that the activation of cathepsin L contributes to the irreversible depolarization produced by OGD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-1 - Commonly controlled trades or businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commonly controlled trades or businesses. 1.414(c)-1 Section 1.414(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(c)-1 Commonly controlled trades or businesses. For...

  4. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. 270.22c-1 Section 270.22c-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a) No...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation. 240.15c1-2 Section 240.15c1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and...

  6. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after...

  7. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation...

  8. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation...

  9. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation...

  10. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.1...

  11. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.1...

  12. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.1...

  13. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.1...

  14. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation...

  15. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. The subject matter of...

  18. Characterization of recombinant human C1 inhibitor secreted in milk of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Harrie A; Koiter, Jaco; Vogelezang, Carla J M; van Wessel, Noucha; van Dam, Tijtje; Velterop, Ingeborg; van Houdt, Kristina; Kupers, Luc; Horbach, Danielle; Salaheddine, Mourad; Nuijens, Jan H; Mannesse, Maurice L M

    2012-12-31

    C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is a single-chain glycoprotein that inhibits activation of the contact system of coagulation and the complement system. C1INH isolated from human blood plasma (pd-hC1INH) is used for the management of hereditary angioedema (HAE), a disease caused by heterozygous deficiency of C1INH, and is a promise for treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injuries like acute myocardial or cerebral infarction. To obtain large quantities of C1INH, recombinant human C1INH (rhC1INH) was expressed in the milk of transgenic rabbits (12 g/l) harboring genomic human C1INH sequences fused to 5' bovine αS(1) casein promoter sequences. Recombinant hC1INH was isolated from milk to a specific activity of 6.1 U/mg and a purity of 99%; by size-exclusion chromatography the 1% impurities consisted of multimers and N-terminal cleaved C1INH species. Mass spectrometric analysis of purified rhC1INH revealed a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 67,200. Differences in M(r) on SDS PAGE and mass spectrometric analysis between rhC1INH and pd-hC1INH are explained by differential glycosylation (calculated carbohydrate contents of 21% and 28%, respectively), since protein sequencing analysis of rhC1INH revealed intact N- and C-termini. Host-related impurity analysis by ELISA revealed trace amounts of rabbit protein (approximately 10 ppm) in purified batches, but not endogenous rabbit C1INH. The kinetics of inhibition of the target proteases C1s, Factor XIIa, kallikrein and Factor XIa by rhC1INH and pd-hC1INH, indicated comparable inhibitory potency and specificity. Recently, rhC1INH (Ruconest(®)) has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of SI-591, a new class of cathepsin K inhibitor with peptidomimetic structure, on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Mizuho; Kubo, Akiko; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-12-01

    SI-591[N-[1-[[[(1S)-3-[[(3S)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-azepin-3-yl]amino]-1-(1-methylethyl)-2,3-dioxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]cyclohexyl]-2-furancarboxamide] is an orally bioavailable compound that was synthesized as one of several unique peptidomimetic compounds without a basic group. This compound was found to have the ability to inhibit cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease. Cathepsin K is known to be expressed in osteoclasts and involved in bone loss processes. In this study, SI-591 was shown to inhibit the activity of various purified cathepsin molecules at nanomolar concentrations but had high selectivity for cathepsin K over other subtypes including B and L. SI-591 also decreased the level of CTX-I, a bone resorption marker, which was released from osteoclasts in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The mobilization of calcium from the bones to the blood stream is known to increase in rats fed with a low calcium diet; SI-591 inhibited this increase in serum calcium level at an oral dose of 3mg/kg. Furthermore, SI-591 significantly decreased the level of CTX-I and DPD, bone resorption markers, at oral doses of 10mg/kg or less in ovariectomized rats, while it did not affect the level of BGP, a bone formation marker. In addition, SI-591 prevented bone mineral density loss in the lumber vertebrae and femurs in ovariectomized rats. These results suggest that SI-591 inhibits bone resorption without affecting osteoblast maturation. Therefore, SI-591, a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, could be a promising agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Amyloid β oligomers induce interleukin-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Taneo, Jun; Adachi, Takumi; Yoshida, Aiko

    2015-03-13

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of Aβ aggregates on IL-1β production in mouse primary microglia. We prepared Aβ oligomer and fibril from Aβ (1–42) peptide in vitro. We analyzed the characteristics of these oligomers and fibrils by electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Interestingly, Aβ oligomers but not Aβ monomers or fibrils induced robust IL-1β production in themore » presence of lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, Aβ oligomers induced endo/phagolysosome rupture, which released cathepsin B into the cytoplasm. Aβ oligomer-induced IL-1β production was inhibited not only by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me but also by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine. Random chemical crosslinking abolished the ability of the oligomers to induce IL-1β. Thus, multimerization and fibrillization causes Aβ oligomers to lose the ability to induce IL-1β. These results indicate that Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils, induce IL-1β production in primary microglia in a cathepsin B- and ROS-dependent manner. - Highlights: • We prepared amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils with minimum contamination of Aβ oligomers. • Primary microglia (MG) produced IL-1β in response to Aβ oligomers, but not fibrils. • Only Aβ oligomers induced leakage of cathepsin B from endo/phagolysosomes. • IL-1β production in response to Aβ oligomers depended on both cathepsin B and ROS. • Crosslinking reduced the ability of the Aβ oligomers to induce IL-1β from MG.« less

  1. Sildenafil Decreases BACE1 and Cathepsin B Levels and Reduces APP Amyloidogenic Processing in the SAMP8 Mouse.

    PubMed

    Orejana, Lourdes; Barros-Miñones, Lucía; Jordan, Joaquin; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Tordera, Rosa M; Aguirre, Norberto; Puerta, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8), used as a model of aging, displays many established pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive impairments and increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau are found in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice along with an increased β-secretase activity and amyloid-β (Aβ) depositions that increase in number and extent with age. Based on a previous study from our laboratory showing an amelioration of cognitive impairments and tau pathology by sildenafil, in this study we tested whether this drug could also modulate the amyloid precursor protein amyloidogenic processing in this mouse model. Our results show that the protein levels of the β-secretases β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and cathepsin B are higher in the hippocampus of 9-month-old SAMP8 mice than those of age-matched senescence-resistant-1. Sildenafil (7.5mg/kg for 4 weeks) attenuated learning and memory impairments shown by SAMP8 mice in the passive avoidance test. The increased expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 was also reduced by sildenafil, an effect paralleled to decreases in the activities of two β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 modulators, calpain and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 protein. Interestingly, sildenafil enhanced both Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (ser9) phosphorylation, which could be mediating the reduction in cathepsin B levels found in the hippocampus of sildenafil-treated SAMP8 mice. Sildenafil-induced reduction in β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and cathepsin B expression in SAMP8 mice was associated with a decrease in hippocampal Aβ42 levels which, in turn, could mediate the parallel decline in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression observed in these animals. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of sildenafil in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  2. DETERMINATION OF C1 AND Cx CELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITIES IN ENZYME PREPARATIONS OF MOLD FUNGI (Opredelenie C1 i Cx Tsellyuloliticheskikh Aktivnostei v Fermentnykh Preparatakh iz Plesnevykh Gribov),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Trichotecium roseum, Aspergillus awamory, Asp. niger , Asp. flavus. Differences in the distribution of C1 - and Cx - activities in the preparations of various strains of the same fungus (Asp. awamory, Asp. oryzae) are shown. (Author)

  3. Microwave Spectra for the Three 13C_1 Isotopologues of Propene and New Rotational Constants for Propene and its 13C_1 Isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Groner, Peter; Conrad, Andrew R.; Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    New measurements of microwave lines (A and E) of propene and its three 13C_1 isotopologues have been made in the 10-22 GHz region with FT accuracy. The revised lines for propene along with many hundreds from the literature were fitted with the ERHAM program for internal rotors to give improved rotational constants. The new constants for propene are A_0 = 46280.2904(16), B_0 = 9305.24260(30), and C_0 = 8134.22685(28) MHz. Lines for the 3-13C_1 species were observed in a pure sample; lines for the 1-13C_1 and 2-13C_1 species were observed in natural abundance. In fitting the limited sets of lines for the 13C_1 species, many of the centrifugal distortion constants and most of the tunneling parameters were transferred from the fit of propene itself with 27 parameters. Improved rotational constants for the 13C_1 species are reported.

  4. Biodegradation and adsorption of C1- and C2-phenanthrenes and C1- and C2-dibenzothiophenes in the presence of clay minerals: effect on forensic diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C

    2014-07-01

    The impact of modified montmorillonites on adsorption and biodegradation of crude oil C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. Consequently, the effect on C1-dibenzothiophenes/C1-phenanthrenes, C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, 2+3-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1-methyldibenzothiophene/4-methyldibenzothiophene ratios commonly used as diagnostic ratios for oil forensic studies was evaluated. The clay mineral samples were treated to produce acid activated montmorillonite, organomontmorillonite and homoionic montmorillonite which were used in this study. The different clay minerals (modified and unmodified) showed varied degrees of biodegradation and adsorption of the C1-phenanthrenes, C1-dibenzothiophenes, C2-phenanthrenes and C2-dibenzothiophenes. The study indicated that as opposed to biodegradation, adsorption has no effect on the diagnostic ratios. Among the diagnostic ratios reviewed, only C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratio was neither affected by adsorption nor biodegradation making this ratio very useful in forensic studies of oil spills and oil-oil correlation.

  5. Antihistone Properties of C1 Esterase Inhibitor Protect against Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Kosanovic, Djuro; Wujak, Lukasz; Reppe, Katrin; Henneke, Ingrid; Frey, Helena; Didiasova, Miroslava; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Marsh, Leigh M; Baal, Nelli; Hackstein, Holger; Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Müller-Redetzky, Holger C; de Maat, Steven; Maas, Coen; Nolte, Marc W; Panousis, Con; Schermuly, Ralph T; Seeger, Werner; Witzenrath, Martin; Schaefer, Liliana; Markart, Philipp

    2017-07-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, edema formation, and intraalveolar contact phase activation. To explore whether C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH), an endogenous inhibitor of the contact phase, may protect from lung injury in vivo and to decipher the possible underlying mechanisms mediating protection. The ability of C1INH to control the inflammatory processes was studied in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that application of C1INH alleviates bleomycin-induced lung injury via direct interaction with extracellular histones. In vitro, C1INH was found to bind all histone types. Interaction with histones was independent of its protease inhibitory activity, as demonstrated by the use of reactive-center-cleaved C1INH, but dependent on its glycosylation status. C1INH sialylated-N- and -O-glycans were not only essential for its interaction with histones but also to protect against histone-induced cell death. In vivo, histone-C1INH complexes were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple models of lung injury. Furthermore, reactive-center-cleaved C1INH attenuated pulmonary damage evoked by intravenous histone instillation. Collectively, C1INH administration provides a new therapeutic option for disorders associated with histone release.

  6. Cathepsin B Cysteine Proteinase is Essential for the Development and Pathogenesis of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Ling; Huang, Xin; Wu, Wen-Jia; Li, Dan-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is an important plant parasitic nematode which severely harms many crops. Cathepsin B is present in a wide variety of organisms, and plays an important role in many parasites. Understanding cathepsin B of R. similis would allow us to find new targets and approaches for its control. In this study, we found that Rs-cb-1 mRNA was expressed in esophageal glands, intestines and gonads of females, testes of males, juveniles and eggs in R. similis. Rs-cb-1 expression was the highest in females, followed by juveniles and eggs, and was the lowest in males. The maximal enzyme activity of Rs-CB-1 was detected at pH 6.0 and 40 °C. Silencing of Rs-cb-1 using in vitro RNAi (Soaking with dsRNA in vitro) not only significantly inhibited the development and hatching of R. similis, but also greatly reduced its pathogenicity. Using in planta RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-cb-1 expression in nematodes were significantly suppressed and the resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in T2 generation transgenic tobacco plants expressing Rs-cb-1 dsRNA. The genetic effects of in planta RNAi-induced gene silencing could be maintained in the absence of dsRNA for at least two generations before being lost, which was not the case for the effects induced by in vitro RNAi. Overall, our results first indicate that Rs-cb-1 plays key roles in the development, hatching and pathogenesis of R. similis, and that in planta RNAi is an effective tool in studying gene function and genetic engineering of plant resistance to migratory plant parasitic nematodes. PMID:26221074

  7. A Clinical Wide-Field Fluorescence Endoscopic Device for Molecular Imaging Demonstrating Cathepsin Protease Activity in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sensarn, Steven; Zavaleta, Cristina L.; Segal, Ehud; Rogalla, Stephan; Lee, Wansik; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Bogyo, Matthew; Contag, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Early and effective detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract will require novel molecular probes and advances in instrumentation that can reveal functional changes in dysplastic and malignant tissues. Here, we describe adaptation of a wide-field clinical fiberscope to perform wide-field fluorescence imaging while preserving its white-light capability for the purpose of providing wide-field fluorescence imaging capability to point-of-care microscopes. Procedures We developed and used a fluorescent fiberscope to detect signals from a quenched probe, BMV109, that becomes fluorescent when cleaved by, and covalently bound to, active cathepsin proteases. Cathepsins are expressed in inflammation- and tumor-associated macrophages as well as directly from tumor cells and are a promising target for cancer imaging. The fiberscope has a 1-mm outer diameter enabling validation via endoscopic exams in mice, and therefore we evaluated topically applied BMV109 for the ability to detect colon polyps in an azoxymethane-induced colon tumor model in mice. Results This wide-field endoscopic imaging device revealed consistent and clear fluorescence signals from BMV109 that specifically localized to the polypoid regions as opposed to the normal adjacent colon tissue (p < 0.004) in the murine colon carcinoma model. Conclusions The sensitivity of detection of BMV109 with the fluorescence fiberscope suggested utility of these tools for early detection at hard-to-reach sites. The fiberscope was designed to be used in conjunction with miniature, endoscope-compatible fluorescence microscopes for dual wide-field and microscopic cancer detection. PMID:27154508

  8. A Clinical Wide-Field Fluorescence Endoscopic Device for Molecular Imaging Demonstrating Cathepsin Protease Activity in Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sensarn, Steven; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Segal, Ehud; Rogalla, Stephan; Lee, Wansik; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Bogyo, Matthew; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-12-01

    Early and effective detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract will require novel molecular probes and advances in instrumentation that can reveal functional changes in dysplastic and malignant tissues. Here, we describe adaptation of a wide-field clinical fiberscope to perform wide-field fluorescence imaging while preserving its white-light capability for the purpose of providing wide-field fluorescence imaging capability to point-of-care microscopes. We developed and used a fluorescent fiberscope to detect signals from a quenched probe, BMV109, that becomes fluorescent when cleaved by, and covalently bound to, active cathepsin proteases. Cathepsins are expressed in inflammation- and tumor-associated macrophages as well as directly from tumor cells and are a promising target for cancer imaging. The fiberscope has a 1-mm outer diameter enabling validation via endoscopic exams in mice, and therefore we evaluated topically applied BMV109 for the ability to detect colon polyps in an azoxymethane-induced colon tumor model in mice. This wide-field endoscopic imaging device revealed consistent and clear fluorescence signals from BMV109 that specifically localized to the polypoid regions as opposed to the normal adjacent colon tissue (p < 0.004) in the murine colon carcinoma model. The sensitivity of detection of BMV109 with the fluorescence fiberscope suggested utility of these tools for early detection at hard-to-reach sites. The fiberscope was designed to be used in conjunction with miniature, endoscope-compatible fluorescence microscopes for dual wide-field and microscopic cancer detection.

  9. Relationship between bcl-2, bax, beclin-1, and cathepsin-D proteins during postovulatory follicular regression in fish ovary.

    PubMed

    Morais, Roberto D V S; Thomé, Ralph G; Santos, Hélio B; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2016-04-01

    In fish ovaries, postovulatory follicles (POFs) are key biomarkers of breeding and provide an interesting model for studying the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of autophagic and apoptotic proteins to improve the knowledge on the mechanisms regulating ovarian remodeling after spawning. Females from three neotropical fish species kept in captivity were submitted to hormonal induction. After ova stripping, ovarian sections were sampled daily until 5 days postspawning (dps). Similar events of POF regression were detected by histology, terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and electron microscopy in the three species: follicular cells hypertrophy, progressive disintegration of the basement membrane, gradual closing of the follicular lumen, theca thickening, and formation of large autophagic vacuoles preceding apoptosis of the follicular cells. Autophagic and apoptotic proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric analysis of the immunolabeling revealed a more intense reaction for bcl-2 and beclin-1 (BECN1) in POFs at 0 to 1 dps and for bax at 2 to 3 dps (P < 0.001), the later period being the peak of apoptosis of the follicular cells. The immunostaining for cathepsin-D was more elevated until 2 to 3 dps and decreased significantly at 4 to 5 dps, when the POFs were in late stage of regression. Double labeling for BECN1 and caspase-3 indicated a shift in the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis at 2 to 3 dps, a critical period in determining the fate of follicular cells in POFs. Together, these results indicate that the bcl-2 family, BECN1, and cathepsin-D can be involved in the regulation of ovarian remodeling in teleost fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunogenicity assessment of recombinant human c1-inhibitor: an integrated analysis of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Hack, C Erik; Mannesse, Maurice; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Relan, Anurag

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) is used to treat acute angioedema attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to a genetic C1INH deficiency. Recombinant proteins in general may induce antibody responses and therefore evaluation of such responses in the target population is an essential step in the clinical development program of a recombinant protein. Here we report the assessment of the immunogenicity of rhC1INH in symptomatic HAE patients. Blood samples collected before and after administration of rhC1INH were tested for antibodies against plasma-derived (pd) or rhC1INH, or against host-related impurities (HRI). Above cut-off screening results were confirmed with displacement assays, and also tested for neutralizing anti-C1INH antibodies. Finally, the relation of antibodies to clinical efficacy and safety of rhC1INH was analyzed. Data from 155 HAE patients who received 424 treatments with rhC1INH were analyzed. 1.5% of all pre-exposure tests and 1.3% of all post-exposure tests were above the cut-off level in the screening assay for anti-C1INH antibodies. Six patients (3.9%) had anti-rhC1INH antibodies positive in the confirmatory assay. In two patients, confirmed antibodies were pre-existing with no increase post-exposure; in three patients, the antibodies occurred on a single occasion post-exposure; and in one patient, on subsequent occasions post-exposure. Neutralizing anti-pdC1INH antibodies were not found. Anti-HRI antibodies in the screening assay occurred in <0.7% of the tests before exposure to rhC1INH, in <1.9% after first exposure and in <3.1% after repeat treatment with rhC1INH. Five patients had anti-HRI antibodies positive in the confirmatory assay. In one patient, the antibodies were pre-existing, whereas in three of the 155 rhC1INH-treated patients (1.9%), confirmed anti-HRI antibodies occurred at more time points. Antibody findings were not associated with altered efficacy of rhC1INH or adverse events. These results indicate a reassuring

  11. Expression and regulation of complement C1q by human THP-1-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker, D G

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of C1q expression was examined in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Since these cells can be differentiated into cells with macrophage properties and induced to express C1q, they were used as models for mature human monocyte/macrophages and indirectly microglia. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the anti-inflammatory steroid agents dexamethasone and prednisone were powerful stimulators of C1q production, alone or in combination. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also had significant stimulatory activity. Phorbol myristate acetate, a protein kinase C activator, reduced C1q expression. Four additional classes of pharmacological agents were tested for their effect on C1q secretion. Tacrine, but not indomethacin, cimetidine, or propentofylline, showed activity in inhibiting C1q secretion by IFN-gamma treated THP-1-derived macrophages.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant human C1 inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Colm; Hayes, Siobhan; Relan, Anurag; van Amersfoort, Edwin S; Pijpstra, Rienk; Hack, C Erik

    2013-12-01

    To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) in healthy volunteers and hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients. Plasma levels of C1INH following 294 administrations of rhC1INH in 133 subjects were fitted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The model was used to simulate maximal C1INH levels for the proposed dosing scheme. A one-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics described the data. Baseline C1INH levels were 0.901 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.839-0.968] and 0.176 U ml(-1) (95% CI: 0.154-0.200) in healthy volunteers and HAE patients, respectively. The volume of distribution of rhC1INH was 2.86 l (95% CI: 2.68-3.03). The maximal rate of elimination and the concentration corresponding to half this maximal rate were 1.63 U ml(-1) h(-1) (95% CI: 1.41-1.88) and 1.60 U ml(-1) (95% CI: 1.14-2.24), respectively, for healthy volunteers and symptomatic HAE patients. The maximal elimination rate was 36% lower in asymptomatic HAE patients. Peak C1INH levels did not change upon repeated administration of rhC1INH. Bodyweight was found to be an important predictor of the volume of distribution. Simulations of the proposed dosing scheme predicted peak C1INH concentrations above the lower level of the normal range (0.7 U ml(-1)) for at least 94% of all patients. The population PK model for C1INH supports a dosing scheme on a 50 U kg(-1) basis up to 84 kg, with a fixed dose of 4200 U above 84 kg. The PK of rhC1INH following repeat administration are consistent with the PK following the first administration. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Immunosafety of recombinant human C1-inhibitor in hereditary angioedema: evaluation of ige antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hack, C Erik; Relan, Anurag; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Versteeg, Serge; van Ree, Ronald; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2013-04-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) purified from milk of transgenic rabbits is used for the treatment of acute attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. The objective was to investigate the risk of rhC1INH inducing IgE antibodies or eliciting anaphylactic reactions. In subjects treated with rhC1INH, we retrospectively analysed the frequency and clinical relevance of pre-exposure and potentially newly induced IgE antibodies against rabbit and other animal allergens including cow's milk by the ImmunoCAP(®) Specific IgE blood test system. 130 HAE patients and 14 healthy subjects received 300 administrations of rhC1INH, 65 subjects (47.4 %) on one occasion; 72 (52.6 %) on at least two occasions (range 2-12; median 2). Five subjects had pre-existing anti-rabbit epithelium IgE; the subject with the highest levels and a previously undisclosed rabbit allergy developed an anaphylactic reaction upon first exposure to rhC1INH, whereas the other four subjects with lower pre-existing IgE levels (Class 1-3), did not. No other anaphylactic reactions were identified in any of the subjects exposed to rhC1INH. Analysis of post-exposure samples revealed that the risk of inducing new or boosting existing IgE responses to rabbit or cow's milk allergens was negligible. The propensity of rhC1INH to induce IgE antibodies following repeated administration of rhC1INH is low. Subjects with substantially elevated anti-rabbit epithelium IgE antibodies and/or clinical allergy to rabbits may have an increased risk for an allergic reaction. No other risk factors for allergic reactions to rhC1INH have been identified.

  14. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1-8 Section 240.15c1-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market...

  15. Methamphetamine induces autophagy and apoptosis in a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal culture model: role of cathepsin-D in methamphetamine-induced apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, V; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, A G

    2006-08-01

    Autophagy is a phylogenetically conserved process that plays a critical role in the degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins and organelle turnover. The role of oxidative stress and apoptosis in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity is well known; however, the potential contribution of autophagy to METH-induced oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal systems remains unclear. The goals of the present article were twofold: (a) to develop an in vitro dopaminergic cell culture model to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and (b) to determine whether lysosomal protease cathepsin-D activation, resulting from the loss of lysosomal membrane integrity, contributes to METH-induced apoptosis. To accomplish these goals, we characterized morphological and biochemical changes in an immortalized mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell line (N27 cells) following treatment with METH. Exposure of METH (2 mM) to N27 cells resulted in the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuolar structures reminiscent of autophagic vacuoles within 3 h. In order to ascertain the identity of the vacuolar structures that are formed following METH exposure, immunohistochemical staining for markers of autophagy were performed. LAMP 2, a classical marker of autophagolysosomes, revealed an extensive punctuate pattern of distribution on the vacuolar membrane surface, with exclusive localization in the cytoplasm. Additionally, using DNA fragmentation analysis we showed a dose-dependent increase in fragmented DNA in METH treated N27 cells. Since METH-induced autophagy preceded DNA fragmentation, we tested whether dysfunction of the autophagolysosomal system contributes to nuclear damage. Immunofluorescence studies with cathepsin-d demonstrated a granular pattern of staining in untreated cells, whereas an increased cathepsin- D immunoreactivity with a globular pattern of staining was observed in METH-treated cells. Nevertheless, blockade of cathepsin

  16. Protective mechanisms of CA074-me (other than cathepsin-B inhibition) against programmed necrosis induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Jingye; Song, Xinghui; Wei, Ruili; He, Fangping; Peng, Guoping; Luo, Benyan

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the key role of lysosomes in ischemic cell death in the brain and have led to the "lysosomocentric" hypothesis. In this hypothesis, the release of cathepsin-B due to a change of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) or rupture is critical, and this can be prevented by its inhibitors CA074 and CA074-me. However, the role of CA074-me in neuronal death and its effect on the change of lysosomal membrane integrity after global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is not clear, so we investigated this here. Rat hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was evaluated after 20-min global cerebral I/R injury. CA074-me (1 μg, 10 μg) were given intracerebroventricularly 1h before ischemia or 1h post reperfusion. The changes of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), cathepsin-B, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), and the change of lysosomal pH were evaluated respectively. Hippocampal CA1 neuronal programmed necrosis induced by global cerebral I/R injury was prevented by CA074-me both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Diffuse cytoplasmic cathepsin-B and LAMP-1 immunostaining synchronized with the pyknotic nuclear changes 2 days post reperfusion, and a rise of lysosomal pH with the leakage of DND-153, a dye of lysosomes, after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was detected. Both of these changes demonstrated the rupture of lysosomal membrane and the leakage of cathepsin-B, and this was strongly inhibited by CA074-me pre-treatment. The overexpression and nuclear translocation of RIP3 and the reduction of NAD(+) level after I/R injury were also inhibited, while the upregulation of Hsp70 was strengthened by CA074-me pre-treatment. Delayed fulminant leakage of cathepsin-B due to lysosomal rupture is a critical harmful factor in neuronal programmed necrosis induced by 20-min global I/R injury. In addition to being an inhibitor of cathepsin-B, CA074-me may have an indirect neuroprotective effect by

  17. The cysteine protease inhibitor, E64d, reduces brain amyloid-β and improves memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease animal models by inhibiting cathepsin B, but not BACE1, β-secretase activity

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Gregory; Hook, Vivian; Kindy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine protease cathepsin B is a potential drug target for reducing brain amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and improving memory in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), because reduction of cathepsin B in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) results in significantly decreased brain Aβ. Cathepsin B cleaves the wild-type β-secretase site sequence in AβPP to produce Aβ and cathepsin B inhibitors administered to animal models expressing AβPP containing the wild-type β-secretase site sequence reduce brain Aβ in a manner consistent with β-secretase inhibition. But such inhibitors could act either by direct inhibition of cathepsin B β-secretase activity or by off-target inhibition of the other β-secretase, the aspartyl protease BACE1. To evaluate that issue, we orally administered a cysteine protease inhibitor, E64d, to normal guinea pigs or transgenic mice expressing human AβPP, both of which express the human wild-type β-secretase site sequence. In guinea pigs, oral E64d administration caused a dose-dependent reduction of up to 92% in brain, CSF and plasma of Aβ(40) and Aβ(42), a reduction of up to 50% in the C-terminal β-secretase fragment (CTFβ), and a 91% reduction in brain cathepsin B activity but increased brain BACE1 activity by 20%. In transgenic AD mice, oral E64d administration improved memory deficits and reduced brain Aβ(40) and Aβ(42), amyloid plaque, brain CTFβ, and brain cathepsin B activity but increased brain BACE1 activity. We conclude that E64d likely reduces brain Aβ by inhibiting cathepsin B and not BACE1 β-secretase activity and that E64d therefore may have potential for treating AD patients. PMID:21613740

  18. Comparison of contemporary occipitocervical instrumentation techniques with and without C1 lateral mass screws.

    PubMed

    Wolfla, Christopher E; Salerno, Simon A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2007-09-01

    This study was designed to test the kinematic properties of three occiput-C2 instrumentation constructs with and without supplemental rigid C1 fixation. The results are compared with intact specimens and with constructs incorporating contemporary cabling techniques. Five unembalmed human cadaver specimens underwent range of motion (ROM) testing in the intact condition, followed by destabilization with odontoid osteotomy. Destabilized specimens then underwent ROM testing with each of seven occipitocervical instrumentation constructs, all incorporating occipital screws: C1 and C2 sublaminar cables with cable connectors, C2 pars screws +/- C1 lateral mass screws, C2 lamina screws +/- C1 lateral mass screws, and C1-C2 transarticular screws +/- C1 lateral mass screws. All seven constructs demonstrated significantly lower ROM in all loading modes than intact specimens (P < 0.05). With a single exception, the addition of C1 lateral mass screws to the screw-based constructs produced no significant change in ROM in any of the loading modes. Compared with intact specimens, constructs anchored by C1-C2 transarticular screws demonstrated the greatest decrease in ROM, and those anchored by sublaminar cables demonstrated the least decrease in ROM. Any of the tested screw-based constructs are likely to provide adequate support for the patient with an unstable craniocervical junction. Therefore, the choice of construct should be based on anatomic considerations. The routine incorporation of C1 lateral mass screws into occipitocervical instrumentation constructs does not seem necessary.

  19. A case of hereditary angioneurotic oedema, successfully treated with ε-aminocaproic acid. Studies on C'1 esterase inhibitor, C'1 activation, plasminogen level and histamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lundh, B.; Laurell, Anna-Brita; Wetterqvist, H.; White, T.; Granerus, G.

    1968-01-01

    A patient with clinical and laboratory findings characteristic of hereditary angioneurotic oedema was investigated. The patient was observed for a period of 5 weeks, during which he had four attacks. ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) was then given continuously for 5 months, during which time the patient had no attacks. Attacks reappeared on withdrawal of EACA. Trans-4-(aminomethyl) cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA®) was found to be equally effective in later therapeutic trials. C'1 esterase inhibitor was found in low concentration in defibrinated plasma also during attacks. ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) produced no significant change of the inhibitor content. C'1 esterase inhibitor disappeared on incubation of defibrinated plasma from the patient at 37°C for 40 min, and C'1 esterase was generated. The generation time of C'1 esterase increased with increasing the concentration of EDTA in the test solution. The C'1 esterase inhibitor content of defibrinated plasma from the patient, varied with the C'1 esterase generation time, the coefficient of correlation being higher in plasma sampled before treatment with EACA. Plasminogen and α2-macroglobulin were within the normal ranges, also during attacks. EACA markedly depressed the plasminogen level, which rapidly returned to normal on withdrawal of the drug. The studies on histamine metabolism revealed no significant changes with the exception of the urinary excretion of histamine, which was moderately increased towards the end of the period studied. On the days the patient received EACA the urine never contained 1-methylimidazole-5-acetic acid which was present in all the other specimens of urine examined. The basal gastric acid secretion was increased. PMID:5701955

  20. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. The thrombogenicity of C1 esterase inhibitor (human): review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Mark; Bauer, Kenneth A; Kaplan, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic events associated with human plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) use in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have been reported in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System database. The purpose of this article is to review and assess the strength of available evidence regarding the thrombogenicity of human plasma-derived C1-INH. A PubMed search was conducted of English language articles from January 1990 to December 2013 reporting the thrombogenicity of C1-INH. Original research articles were selected if the following criteria were met: (1) C1-INH was the focus of the study and (2) the authors addressed the pro- or antithrombotic potential of C1-INH. Additional articles on the clinical use of C1-INH in disease states other than HAE were obtained using reference lists of selected articles. Pivotal studies and prescribing information for C1-INH products were also reviewed. Limited animal and clinical data suggest that C1-INH, particularly at high doses of up to 500 U/kg (compared with the U.S. FDA-approved 20-U/kg dose), may be prothrombotic. In contrast, C1-INH has been used in some patients with myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, sepsis, and capillary leak syndrome at off-label supratherapeutic doses (up to 100 U/kg) without evidence of a thrombogenic effect. Based on our review, thromboembolic events reported with C1-INH use are rare and patients with HAE who experienced such events often have underlying thromboembolic risk factors.

  2. 26 CFR 301.6104(c)-1 - Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the communication from the Internal Revenue Service to the organization which informs such... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information to State officers. 301.6104(c)-1 Section 301.6104(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. 1.512(c)-1 Section 1.512(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain...

  4. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income, apply...

  5. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income, apply...

  6. A modified, hypoallergenic variant of the Ricinus communis Ric c1 protein retains biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Soares, Thaís; de Oliveira Carvalho, André; da Silva Araújo, Jucélia; da Silva de Souza, Giliane; Machado, Olga L.T.

    2018-01-01

    Ric c1, an allergenic protein from castor oil plants (Ricinus communis), is an insect α-amylase inhibitor that has become an occupational allergen. Ric c1 can cross-react with allergens from wheat, soybean, peanut, shrimp, fish, gluten, house dust, tobacco and air fungus, thereby amplifying the concern and risks caused by castor oil plants (COP) allergens. Two continuous IgE-binding epitopes were identified in Ric c1, both containing glutamic acid residues involved in IgE-binding and allergic challenges. We produced recombinant Ric c1 (rRic c1) in Escherichia coli, using primers from foliar castor oil plant DNA, and a mutant (Glu-Leu) recombinant protein (mrRic c1) in the same system using synthetic genes. rRic c1 preserved both allergenic and α-amylase inhibitory properties, and mrRic c1 drastically reduced allergenic properties. These results can help to establish meaningful relationships between structure, defence and allergenicity, important steps for producing engineered plants and developing new approaches for immunotherapy. PMID:29444820

  7. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted jobs credit... deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by the amount...

  8. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income, apply...

  9. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1... small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of... meaning of section 642(c)(1). The limitations of section 681, regarding unrelated business income, apply...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  12. 26 CFR 1.512(c)-1 - Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general. 1.512(c)-1 Section 1.512(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain...

  13. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section 1361...

  14. Effects of weak/non-complement-binding HLA antibodies on C1q-binding.

    PubMed

    Hönger, G; Amico, P; Arnold, M-L; Spriewald, B M; Schaub, S

    2017-08-01

    It is unknown under what conditions and to what extent weak/non-complement (C)-binding IgG subclasses (IgG2/IgG4) can block C1q-binding triggered by C-binding IgG subclasses (IgG1/IgG3). Therefore, we investigated in vitro C1q-binding induced by IgG subclass mixtures targeting the same HLA epitope. Various mixtures of HLA class II specific monoclonal antibodies of different IgG subclasses but identical V-region were incubated with HLA DRB1*07:01 beads and monitored for C1q-binding. The lowest concentration to achieve maximum C1q-binding was measured for IgG3, followed by IgG1, while IgG2 and IgG4 did not show appreciable C1q-binding. C1q-binding occurred only after a critical amount of IgG1/3 has bound and sharply increased thereafter. When both, C-binding and weak/non-C-binding IgG subclasses were mixed, C1q-binding was diminished proportionally to the fraction of IgG2/4. A 2- to 4-fold excess of IgG2/4 inhibited C1q-binding by 50%. Very high levels (10-fold excess) almost completely abrogated C1q-binding even in the presence of significant IgG1/3 levels that would usually lead to strong C1q-binding. In sensitized renal allograft recipients, IgG subclass constellations with ≥ 2-fold excess of IgG2/4 over IgG1/3 were present in 23/66 patients (34.8%) and overall revealed slightly decreased C1q signals. However, spiking of patient sera with IgG2 targeting a different epitope than the patient's IgG1/3 synergistically increased C1q-binding. In conclusion, if targeting the same epitope, an excess of IgG2/4 is repressing the extent of IgG1/3 triggered C1q-binding in vitro. Such IgG subclass constellations are present in about a third of sensitized patients and their net effect on C1q-binding is slightly inhibitory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Activated cathepsin L is associated with the switch from autophagy to apoptotic death of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lingyun, E-mail: lingyunlee@126.com; Experimental Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004; Gao, Luyan

    Autophagy and apoptosis are common responses to pathological damage in the process of Parkinson's disease (PD), and lysosome dysfunction may contribute to the etiology of PD's neurodegenerative process. In this study, we demonstrated that the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) increased autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, as determined by detection of the lysosome marker lysosomal-associated membrane protein1, the autophagy protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II and the autophagy substrate P62 protein. Meanwhile, autophagy repression with 3-methyladenine accelerated the activation of caspase-3 and PARP and aggravated the cell apoptotic death induced by 6-OHDA. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA treatment resulted in a transient increase inmore » the intracellular and nuclear expression of cathepsin L (CTSL). The CTSL inhibitor, Z-FY-CHO, could promote autophagy, decrease accumulation of P62, and block activation of caspase-3 and PARP. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of autophagy may primarily be a protective process in SH-SY5Y cell death induced by 6-OHDA, and the nuclear translocation of CTSL could enhance the cell apoptotic cascade via disturbing autophagy-apoptotic systems in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings highlight the potential role of CTSL in the cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis, which might be considered a therapeutic strategy for treatment of pathologic conditions associated with neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Inhibition of autophagy aggravated the cell apoptotic death in SH-SY5Y cells. • Activation of cathepsin L impaired the autophagy pathway. • Activation of cathepsin L enhanced the cell apoptotic cascade. • Cathepsin L involves in the cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis.« less

  16. Trichinella spiralis Calreticulin Binds Human Complement C1q As an Immune Evasion Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Limei; Shao, Shuai; Chen, Yi; Sun, Ximeng; Sun, Ran; Huang, Jingjing; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    As a multicellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis regulates host immune responses by producing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules to escape from host immune attack, but the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion are not well understood. Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin (Ts-CRT), a Ca2+-binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. In the present study, Ts-CRT was found to be expressed on the surface of different developmental stages of T. spiralis as well as in the secreted products of adult and muscle larval worms. Functional analysis identified that Ts-CRT was able to bind to human C1q, resulting in the inhibition of C1q-initiated complement classical activation pathway reflected by reduced C4/C3 generation and C1q-dependent lysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. Moreover, recombinant Ts-CRT (rTs-CRT) binding to C1q suppressed C1q-induced THP-1-derived macrophages chemotaxis and reduced monocyte–macrophages release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). Blocking Ts-CRT on the surface of newborn larvae (NBL) of T. spiralis with anti-Ts-CRT antibody increased the C1q-mediated adherence of monocyte–macrophages to larvae and impaired larval infectivity. All of these results suggest that T. spiralis-expressed Ts-CRT plays crucial roles in T. spiralis immune evasion and survival in host mostly by directly binding to host complement C1q, which not only reduces C1q-mediated activation of classical complement pathway but also inhibits the C1q-induced non-complement activation of macrophages. PMID:28620388

  17. Trichinella spiralis Calreticulin Binds Human Complement C1q As an Immune Evasion Strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Limei; Shao, Shuai; Chen, Yi; Sun, Ximeng; Sun, Ran; Huang, Jingjing; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    As a multicellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis regulates host immune responses by producing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules to escape from host immune attack, but the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion are not well understood. Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin ( Ts -CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. In the present study, Ts -CRT was found to be expressed on the surface of different developmental stages of T. spiralis as well as in the secreted products of adult and muscle larval worms. Functional analysis identified that Ts -CRT was able to bind to human C1q, resulting in the inhibition of C1q-initiated complement classical activation pathway reflected by reduced C4/C3 generation and C1q-dependent lysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. Moreover, recombinant Ts -CRT (r Ts -CRT) binding to C1q suppressed C1q-induced THP-1-derived macrophages chemotaxis and reduced monocyte-macrophages release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). Blocking Ts -CRT on the surface of newborn larvae (NBL) of T. spiralis with anti- Ts -CRT antibody increased the C1q-mediated adherence of monocyte-macrophages to larvae and impaired larval infectivity. All of these results suggest that T. spiralis -expressed Ts -CRT plays crucial roles in T. spiralis immune evasion and survival in host mostly by directly binding to host complement C1q, which not only reduces C1q-mediated activation of classical complement pathway but also inhibits the C1q-induced non-complement activation of macrophages.

  18. χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} Resonance Parameters with the Decays χ_{c1,c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-}.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Atzeni, M; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bordyuzhin, I; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hu, W; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Keizer, F; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Kress, F; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luchinsky, A; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malecki, B; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepulveda, E S; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, J; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Weisser, C; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, M; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2017-12-01

    The decays χ_{c1}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} and χ_{c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} are observed and used to study the resonance parameters of the χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} mesons. The masses of these states are measured to be m(χ_{c1})=3510.71±0.04(stat)±0.09(syst)  MeV and m(χ_{c2})=3556.10±0.06(stat)±0.11(syst)  MeV, where the knowledge of the momentum scale for charged particles dominates the systematic uncertainty. The momentum-scale uncertainties largely cancel in the mass difference m(χ_{c2})-m(χ_{c1})=45.39±0.07(stat)±0.03(syst)  MeV. The natural width of the χ_{c2} meson is measured to be Γ(χ_{c2})=2.10±0.20(stat)±0.02(syst)  MeV. These results are in good agreement with and have comparable precision to the current world averages.

  19. χc 1 and χc 2 Resonance Parameters with the Decays χc 1 ,c 2→J /ψ μ+μ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Atzeni, M.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Beranek, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørn, M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Chapman, M. G.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S.-G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hancock, T. H.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P. H.; Hu, W.; Huard, Z. C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Keizer, F.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreps, M.; Kress, F.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, P.-R.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Lisovskyi, V.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luchinsky, A.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; Mackowiak, P.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malecki, B.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombächer, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepulveda, E. S.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, J.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Toriello, F.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Weisser, C.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, M.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The decays χc 1→J /ψ μ+μ- and χc 2→J /ψ μ+μ- are observed and used to study the resonance parameters of the χc 1 and χc 2 mesons. The masses of these states are measured to be m (χc 1)=3510.71 ±0.04 (stat ) ±0.09 (syst ) MeV and m (χc 2)=3556.10 ±0.06 (stat ) ±0.11 (syst ) MeV , where the knowledge of the momentum scale for charged particles dominates the systematic uncertainty. The momentum-scale uncertainties largely cancel in the mass difference m (χc 2)-m (χc 1)=45.39 ±0.07 (stat ) ±0.03 (syst ) MeV . The natural width of the χc 2 meson is measured to be Γ (χc 2)=2.10 ±0.20 (stat ) ±0.02 (syst ) MeV . These results are in good agreement with and have comparable precision to the current world averages.

  20. Might tumor secreted cathepsin proteases leave specific molecular signals in skin, hair and nails years before a cancer becomes clinically apparent?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Mark R; Mascitelli, Luca

    2017-06-01

    X-ray fiber diffraction analysis (FDA) of the fibrous macromolecules in hair, nails and skin has been shown to non-invasively diagnose various cancers, at sites remote from the cancer, years before the cancer becomes clinically apparent. The technology is not widely accepted because of reproducibility issues (that can be easily resolved) and lack of an explanation as to how a clinically unapparent tumor can leave molecular "signatures" at remote sites. However, there is evidence that tumor-specific cathepsins (lysosomal proteases) circulate systemically long before a cancer is clinically apparent. As such, we hypothesize that cathepsins, by virtue of their proteolytic activity, impart molecular changes in tissues remote from the primary tumor. These subtle molecular changes, which are specific for various tumors, can be readily detected by FDA of hair, nails and skin. We call for more research in the utility of FDA and tumor specific cathepsins for the early and non-invasive diagnosis of various malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular cloning and anti-invasive activity of cathepsin L propeptide-like protein from Calotropis procera R. Br. against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Yang, Hee; Yeo, SuBin; Park, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Ae Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2018-12-01

    Cathepsin L of cancer cells has been shown to play an important role in degradation of extracellular matrix for metastasis. In order to reduce cell invasion, cathepsin L propeptide-like proteins which are classified as the I29 family in the MEROPS peptidase database were characterized from Calotropis procera R. Br., rich in cysteine protease. Of 19 candidates, the cloned and expressed recombinant SnuCalCp03-propeptide (rSnuCalCp03-propeptide) showed a low nanomolar K i value of 2.3 ± 0.2 nM against cathepsin L. A significant inhibition of tumor cell invasion was observed with H1975, HT29, MDA-BM-231, PANC1, and PC3 with a 76, 67, 67, 63, and 79% reduction, respectively, in invasion observed in the presence of 400 nM of the rSnuCalCp03-propeptide. In addition, thermal and pH study showed rSnuCalCp03-propeptide consisting of secondary structures was stable at a broad range of temperatures (30-70 °C) and pH (2-10, except for 5 which is close to the isoelectric point of 5.2).

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of new NIR-fluorescent probes for cathepsin B: ICT versus FRET as a turn-ON mode-of-action.

    PubMed

    Kisin-Finfer, Einat; Ferber, Shiran; Blau, Rachel; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shabat, Doron

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the design and study of molecular imaging geared towards biological and biomedical applications. The expression or activity of specific enzymes including proteases can be monitored by cutting edge molecular imaging techniques. Cathepsin B plays key roles in tumor progression via controlled degradation of extracellular matrix. Consequently, this protease has been attracting significant attention in cancer research, and many imaging probes targeting its activity have been developed. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and evaluation of two novel near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes for detection of cathepsin B activity with different turn-ON mechanisms. One probe is based on an ICT activation mechanism of a donor-two-acceptor π-electron dye system, while the other is based on the FRET mechanism obtained by a fluorescent dye and a quencher. The two probes exhibit significant fluorescent turn-ON response upon cleavage by cathepsin B. The NIR fluorescence of the ICT probe in its OFF state was significantly lower than that of the FRET-based probe. This effect results in a higher signal-to-noise ratio and consequently increased sensitivity and better image contrast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase based Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anju; Raina, O K; Nagar, Gaurav; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Maharana, B R; Kollannur, Justin D

    2012-02-10

    Native cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase (28 kDa) was purified from the excretory secretory products of Fasciola gigantica and was used for sero-diagnosis of F. gigantica infection in buffaloes by Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA). The test detected F. gigantica field infection in these animals with a sensitivity of ∼ 90%. No specific IgG antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 76 buffaloes considered to be Fasciola and other parasite-free by microscopic examination of faeces and necropsy examination of liver, rumen and intestine. Additionally, sera from 156 Fasciola-free buffaloes, yet infected with Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum, Gastrothylax spp., Strongyloides papillosus and hydatid cyst were all negative, indicating that F. gigantica cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase does not cross-react with these helminth parasites in natural infection of the host. The data indicated that cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase based Dot-ELISA reached ∼ 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity with relation to above parasites in the detection of bubaline fasciolosis. The present Dot-ELISA diagnostic assay is relevant to the field diagnosis of F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Azilsartan Increases Levels of IL-10, Down-Regulates MMP-2, MMP-9, RANKL/RANK, Cathepsin K and Up-Regulates OPG in an Experimental Periodontitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier; Araújo, Lorena de Souza; do Nascimento, José Heriberto Oliveira; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of azilsartan (AZT) on bone loss, inflammation, and the expression of matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), osteoprotegerin (OPG), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cathepsin K in periodontal tissue in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Materials and Methods Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each: (1) nonligated, water; (2) ligated, water; (3) ligated, 1 mg/kg AZT; (4) ligated, 5 mg/kg AZT; and (5) ligated, 10 mg/kg AZT. All groups were treated with saline or AZT for 10 days. Periodontal tissues were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANKL, RANK, OPG, and cathepsin K. Levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glutathione (GSH) were determined by ELISA. Results Treatment with 5 mg/kg AZT resulted in reduced MPO (p<0.05) and IL-1β (p<0.05), increased levels of IL-10 (p<0.05), and reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANK, RANKL, cathepsin K, and increased expression of OPG. Conclusions These findings reveal that AZT increases anti-inflammatory cytokines and GSH and decreases bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. PMID:24819928

  5. Azilsartan increases levels of IL-10, down-regulates MMP-2, MMP-9, RANKL/RANK, Cathepsin K and up-regulates OPG in an experimental periodontitis model.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Varela, Hugo; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier de; Araújo, Lorena de Souza; do Nascimento, José Heriberto Oliveira; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of azilsartan (AZT) on bone loss, inflammation, and the expression of matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), osteoprotegerin (OPG), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cathepsin K in periodontal tissue in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each: (1) nonligated, water; (2) ligated, water; (3) ligated, 1 mg/kg AZT; (4) ligated, 5 mg/kg AZT; and (5) ligated, 10 mg/kg AZT. All groups were treated with saline or AZT for 10 days. Periodontal tissues were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANKL, RANK, OPG, and cathepsin K. Levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glutathione (GSH) were determined by ELISA. Treatment with 5 mg/kg AZT resulted in reduced MPO (p<0.05) and IL-1β (p<0.05), increased levels of IL-10 (p<0.05), and reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANK, RANKL, cathepsin K, and increased expression of OPG. These findings reveal that AZT increases anti-inflammatory cytokines and GSH and decreases bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

  6. Atlantoaxial Fusion Using C1 Sublaminar Cables and C2 Translaminar Screws.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Alexandra M Giantini; Grannan, Benjamin L; Koffie, Robert M; Coumans, Jean-Valéry

    2018-06-01

    Atlantoaxial instability, which can arise in the setting of trauma, degenerative diseases, and neoplasm, is often managed surgically with C1-C2 arthrodesis. Classical C1-C2 fusion techniques require placement of instrumentation in close proximity to the vertebral artery and C2 nerve root. To report a novel C1-C2 fusion technique that utilizes C2 translaminar screws and C1 sublaminar cables to decrease the risk of injury to the vertebral artery and C2 nerve root. To facilitate fixation to the atlas, while minimizing the risk of injury to the vertebral artery and to the C2 nerve root, we sought to determine the feasibility of using a soft cable around the C1 arch and affixing it to a rod connected to C2 laminar screws. We reviewed our experience in 3 patients. We used this technique in patients in whom we anticipated difficult C1 screw placement. Three patients were identified through a review of the senior author's cases. Atlantoaxial instability was associated with trauma in 2 patients and chronic degenerative changes in 1 patient. Common symptoms on presentation included pain and limited range of motion. All patients underwent C1-C2 fusion with C2 translaminar screws with sublaminar cable harnessing of the posterior arch of C1. There were no reports of postoperative complications or hardware failure. We demonstrate a novel, technically straightforward approach for C1-C2 fusion that minimizes risk to the vertebral artery and to the C2 nerve root, while still allowing for semirigid fixation in instances of both traumatic and chronic degenerative atlantoaxial instability.

  7. C1 lateral mass screw-induced occipital neuralgia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Eimear; Laing, Alan; Kenneally, Rory; Poynton, A R

    2010-03-01

    C1-2 polyaxial screw-rod fixation is a relatively new technique. While recognizing the potential for inadvertent vertebral artery injury, there have been few reports in the literature outlining all the possible complications. Aim of this study is to review all cases of C1 lateral mass screws insertion with emphasis on the evaluation of potential structures at risk during the procedure. We retrospectively reviewed all patients in our unit who had C1 lateral mass screw insertion over a 2-year period. The C1 lateral mass screw was inserted as part of an atlantoaxial stabilization or incorporated into a modular occiput/subaxial construct. Outcome measures included clinical and radiological parameters. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication and the number of levels stabilized. Intraoperative complications including blood loss, vertebral artery injury or dural tears were recorded. Postoperative pain distribution and neurological deficit were recorded. Radiological indicators included postoperative plain radiographs to assess sagittal alignment and to check for screw malposition or construct failure. A total of 18 lateral mass screws were implanted in 9 patients. There were three male and six female patients who had C1 lateral mass screw insertion in this unit. Two patients had atlantoaxial stabilization for C2 fracture. There were four patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose C1 lateral mass screws were inserted as part of an occipitocervical or subaxial cervical stabilization. There was no vertebral artery injury, no cerebrospinal fluid leak and minimal blood loss in all patients. Three patients developed postoperative occipital neuralgia. This neuralgia was transient, in one of the patients having settled at 6-week follow-up. In the other two patients the neuralgia was unresolved at time of latest follow-up but was adequately controlled with appropriate pain management. Postoperatively no patient had radiographic evidence of

  8. C1 lateral mass screw-induced occipital neuralgia: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Alan; Kenneally, Rory; Poynton, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    C1–2 polyaxial screw-rod fixation is a relatively new technique. While recognizing the potential for inadvertent vertebral artery injury, there have been few reports in the literature outlining all the possible complications. Aim of this study is to review all cases of C1 lateral mass screws insertion with emphasis on the evaluation of potential structures at risk during the procedure. We retrospectively reviewed all patients in our unit who had C1 lateral mass screw insertion over a 2-year period. The C1 lateral mass screw was inserted as part of an atlantoaxial stabilization or incorporated into a modular occiput/subaxial construct. Outcome measures included clinical and radiological parameters. Clinical indicators included age, gender, neurologic status, surgical indication and the number of levels stabilized. Intraoperative complications including blood loss, vertebral artery injury or dural tears were recorded. Postoperative pain distribution and neurological deficit were recorded. Radiological indicators included postoperative plain radiographs to assess sagittal alignment and to check for screw malposition or construct failure. A total of 18 lateral mass screws were implanted in 9 patients. There were three male and six female patients who had C1 lateral mass screw insertion in this unit. Two patients had atlantoaxial stabilization for C2 fracture. There were four patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose C1 lateral mass screws were inserted as part of an occipitocervical or subaxial cervical stabilization. There was no vertebral artery injury, no cerebrospinal fluid leak and minimal blood loss in all patients. Three patients developed postoperative occipital neuralgia. This neuralgia was transient, in one of the patients having settled at 6-week follow-up. In the other two patients the neuralgia was unresolved at time of latest follow-up but was adequately controlled with appropriate pain management. Postoperatively no patient had radiographic evidence of

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of recombinant human C1 inhibitor in patients with hereditary angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Colm; Hayes, Siobhan; Relan, Anurag; van Amersfoort, Edwin S; Pijpstra, Rienk; Hack, C Erik

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) in healthy volunteers and hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients. Methods Plasma levels of C1INH following 294 administrations of rhC1INH in 133 subjects were fitted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The model was used to simulate maximal C1INH levels for the proposed dosing scheme. Results A one-compartment model with Michaelis–Menten elimination kinetics described the data. Baseline C1INH levels were 0.901 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.839–0.968] and 0.176 U ml−1 (95% CI: 0.154–0.200) in healthy volunteers and HAE patients, respectively. The volume of distribution of rhC1INH was 2.86 l (95% CI: 2.68–3.03). The maximal rate of elimination and the concentration corresponding to half this maximal rate were 1.63 U ml−1 h−1 (95% CI: 1.41–1.88) and 1.60 U ml−1 (95% CI: 1.14–2.24), respectively, for healthy volunteers and symptomatic HAE patients. The maximal elimination rate was 36% lower in asymptomatic HAE patients. Peak C1INH levels did not change upon repeated administration of rhC1INH. Bodyweight was found to be an important predictor of the volume of distribution. Simulations of the proposed dosing scheme predicted peak C1INH concentrations above the lower level of the normal range (0.7 U ml−1) for at least 94% of all patients. Conclusions The population PK model for C1INH supports a dosing scheme on a 50 U kg−1 basis up to 84 kg, with a fixed dose of 4200 U above 84 kg. The PK of rhC1INH following repeat administration are consistent with the PK following the first administration. PMID:23594263

  10. Biomechanical analysis comparing three C1-C2 transarticular screw salvaging fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Potluri, Tejaswy; Goel, Vijay K; Foster, Scott; Faizan, Ahmad; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2010-02-15

    This is an in vitro biomechanical study. To compare the biomechanical stability of the 3 C1-C2 transarticular screw salvaging fixation techniques. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial complex is a challenging procedure because of its complicated anatomy. Many posterior stabilization techniques of the atlantoaxial complex have been developed with C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation been the current gold standard. The drawback of using the transarticular screws is that it has a potential risk of vertebral artery injury due to a high riding transverse foramen of C2 vertebra, and screw malposition. In such cases, it is not recommended to proceed with inserting the contralateral transarticular screw and the surgeon should find an alternative to fix the contralateral side. Many studies are available comparing different atlantoaxial stabilization techniques, but none of them compared the techniques to fix the contralateral side while using the transarticular screw on one side. The current options are C1 lateral mass screw and short C2 pedicle screw or C1 lateral mass screw and C2 intralaminar screw, or C1-C2 sublaminar wire. Nine fresh human cervical spines with intact ligaments (C0-C4) were subjected to pure moments in the 6 loading directions. The resulting spatial orientations of the vertebrae were recorded using an Optotrak 3-dimensional Motion Measurement System. Measurements were made sequentially for the intact spine after creating type II odontoid fracture and after stabilization with unilateral transarticular screw placement across C1-C2 (TS) supplemented with 1 of the 3 transarticular salvaging techniques on the contralateral side; C1 lateral mass screw and C2 pedicle screw (TS+C1LMS+C2PS), C1 lateral mass and C2 intralaminar screw (TS+C1LMS+C2ILS), or sublaminar wire (TS + wire). The data indicated that all the 3 stabilization techniques significantly decreased motion when compared to intact in all the loading cases (left/right lateral bending, left/right axial

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c1-7 - Discretionary accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-7 Discretionary... transactions or purchase or sale which are excessive in size or frequency in view of the financial resources...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-7 - Discretionary accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-7 Discretionary... transactions or purchase or sale which are excessive in size or frequency in view of the financial resources...

  13. 26 CFR 1.672(c)-1 - Related or subordinate party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(c)-1 Related or... subservient to the grantor in respect of the exercise or nonexercise of the powers conferred on them unless...

  14. Is Collapsing C1q Nephropathy Another MYH9-Associated Kidney Disease? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Bowden, Donald W.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Comeau, Mary E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2009-01-01

    C1q nephropathy is a rare kidney disease that can present with nephrotic syndrome and typically has the histological phenotype of either minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Disagreement exists as to whether it is a distinct immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy or whether it resides in the spectrum of FSGS-MCD. Two African American patients with C1q nephropathy histologically presenting as the collapsing variant of FSGS (collapsing C1q nephropathy) and rapid loss of kidney function were genotyped for polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9). Both cases were homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype; the variant strongly associated with idiopathic FSGS, collapsing FSGS in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated nephropathy and focal global glomerulosclerosis (historically attributed to hypertensive nephrosclerosis). Collapsing C1q nephropathy with rapid progression to ESRD appears to reside in the MYH9-associated disease spectrum. PMID:20116156

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins with sodium bicarbonates as the C1 source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jie; Mao, Xianwen; Jamison, Timothy F; Hatton, T Alan

    2014-03-25

    An effective transformation of alkenes into cyclic carbonates has been achieved using NaHCO3 as the C1 source in acetone-water under microwave heating, with selectivities and yields significantly surpassing those obtained using conventional heating.

  16. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  17. C1 inhibitor-mediated myocardial protection from chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinrong; Guo, Furong; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaoman; Hu, Ke; Li, Mingjiang

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment for chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiovascular injuries has yet to be determined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect and mechanism of a C1 inhibitor in CIH in the myocardium. The present study used a rat model of CIH in which complement regulatory protein, known as C1 inhibitor (C1INH), was administered to the rats in the intervention groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were detected by western blot analysis. The expression of complement C3 protein and RNA were also analyzed. C1INH was observed to improve the cardiac function in rats with CIH. Myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was significantly decreased in the C1INH intervention group compared with the CIH control group, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly attenuated (P<0.05). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were decreased and those of Bax were increased in the CIH group compared with the normal control group, but the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were increased and those of Bax were decreased in the C1INH intervention group, as compared with the CIH group. Furthermore, the CIH-induced expression and synthesis of complement C3 in the myocardium were also reduced in the C1INH intervention group. C1INH, in addition to inhibiting complement activation and inflammation, preserved cardiac function in CIH-mediated myocardial cell injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. PMID:27698713

  18. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)-2 - Shortfall method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortfall method. 1.412(c)(1)-2 Section 1.412(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.412(c)(1)-2 Shortfall method. (a) In general—(1) Shortfall method. The shortfall method is a funding method that adapts a plan's...

  19. Complement, Kinins, and Hereditary Angioedema: Mechanisms of Plasma Instability when C1 Inhibitor is Absent.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Allen P; Joseph, Kusumam

    2016-10-01

    Plasma of patients with types I and II hereditary angioedema is unstable if incubated in a plastic (i.e., inert) vessel at 37 °C manifested by progressively increasing formation of bradykinin. There is also a persistent low level of C4 in 95 % of patients even when they are symptomatic. These phenomena are due to the properties of the C1r subcomponent of C1, factor XII, and the bimolecular complex of prekallikrein with high molecular weight kininogen (HK). Purified C1r auto-activates in physiologic buffers, activates C1s, which in turn depletes C4. This occurs when C1 inhibitor is deficient. The complex of prekallikrein-HK acquires an inducible active site not present in prekallikrein which in Tris-type buffers cleaves HK stoichiometrically to release bradykinin, or in phosphate buffer auto-activates to generate kallikrein and bradykinin. Thus immunologic depletion of C1 inhibitor from factor XII-deficient plasma (phosphate is the natural buffer) auto-activates on incubation to release bradykinin. Normal C1 inhibitor prevents this from occurring. During attacks of angioedema, if factor XII auto-activates on surfaces, the initial factor XIIa formed converts prekallikrein to kallikrein, and kallikrein cleaves HK to release bradykinin. Kallikrein also rapidly activates most remaining factor XII to factor XIIa. Additional cleavages convert factor XIIa to factor XIIf and factor XIIf activates C1r enzymatically so that C4 levels approach zero, and C2 is depleted. There is also a possibility that kallikrein is generated first as a result of activation of the prekallikrein-HK complex by heat shock protein 90 released from endothelial cells, followed by kallikrein activation of factor XII.

  20. Effects of C1 Inhibitor on Tissue Damage in a Porcine Model of Controlled Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    and cytokine release and improves metabolic acidosis in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Male Yorkshire swine were assigned to experimental groups...damage in a dose-dependent man- ner (100 and 250 IU/kg). In addition, rhC1-INH (250 IU/kg) markedly improved hemorrhage-induced metabolic acidosis ... acidosis , reduced circulating tumor necrosis factor !, and attenuated tissue damage in this model. The observed beneficial effects of rhC1-INH treatment on

  1. Identification of C1q as a Binding Protein for Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Miho; Shibata, Takahiro; Hatasa, Yukinori; Hirose, Sayumi; Otaki, Natsuki; Nakashima, Fumie; Ito, Mika; Machida, Sachiko; Maruyama, Shoichi; Uchida, Koji

    2016-01-26

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) make up a heterogeneous group of molecules formed from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with the free amino groups of proteins. The abundance of AGEs in a variety of age-related diseases, including diabetic complications and atherosclerosis, and their pathophysiological effects suggest the existence of innate defense mechanisms. Here we examined the presence of serum proteins that are capable of binding glycated bovine serum albumin (AGEs-BSA), prepared upon incubation of BSA with dehydroascorbate, and identified complement component C1q subcomponent subunit A as a novel AGE-binding protein in human serum. A molecular interaction analysis showed the specific binding of C1q to the AGEs-BSA. In addition, we identified DNA-binding regions of C1q, including a collagen-like domain, as the AGE-binding site and established that the amount of positive charge on the binding site was the determining factor. C1q indeed recognized several other modified proteins, including acylated proteins, suggesting that the binding specificity of C1q might be ascribed, at least in part, to the electronegative potential of the ligand proteins. We also observed that C1q was involved in the AGEs-BSA-activated deposition of complement proteins, C3b and C4b. In addition, the AGEs-BSA mediated the proteolytic cleavage of complement protein 5 to release C5a. These findings provide the first evidence of AGEs as a new ligand recognized by C1q, stimulating the C1q-dependent classical complement pathway.

  2. Biomechanical analysis of a novel hook-screw technique for C1-2 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marco Túlio; Nottmeier, Eric W; Reyes, Phillip M; Baek, Seungwon; Crawford, Neil R

    2012-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has not cleared the following medical devices for the use described in this study. The following medical devices are being discussed for an off-label use: cervical lateral mass screws. As an alternative for cases in which the anatomy and spatial relationship between C-2 and a vertebral artery precludes insertion of C-2 pedicle/pars or C1-2 transarticular screws, a technique that includes opposing laminar hooks (claw) at C-2 combined with C-1 lateral mass screws may be used. The biomechanical stability of this alternate technique was compared with that of a standard screw-rod technique in vitro. Flexibility tests were performed in 7 specimens (occiput to C-3) in the following 6 different conditions: 1) intact; 2) after creating instability and attaching a posterior cable/graft at C1-2; 3) after removing the graft and attaching a construct comprising C-1 lateral mass screws and C-2 laminar claws; 4) after reattaching the posterior cable-graft at C1-2 (posterior hardware still in place); 5) after removing the posterior cable-graft and laminar hooks and placing C-2 pedicle screws interconnected to C-1 lateral mass screws via rod; and 6) after reattaching the posterior cable-graft at C1-2 (screw-rod construct still in place). All types of stabilization significantly reduced the range of motion, lax zone, and stiff zone compared with the intact condition. There was no significant biomechanical difference in terms of range of motion or lax zone between the screw-rod construct and the screw-claw-rod construct in any direction of loading. The screw-claw-rod technique restricts motion much like the standard Harms technique, making it an acceptable alternative technique when aberrant arterial anatomy precludes the placement of C-2 pars/pedicle screws or C1-2 transarticular screws.

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a price...

  4. HAEdb: a novel interactive, locus-specific mutation database for the C1 inhibitor gene.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Lajos; Hegedüs, Tamás; Farkas, Henriette; Nagy, Melinda; Tordai, Attila

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary angioneurotic edema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by episodic local subcutaneous and submucosal edema and is caused by the deficiency of the activated C1 esterase inhibitor protein (C1-INH or C1INH; approved gene symbol SERPING1). Published C1-INH mutations are represented in large universal databases (e.g., OMIM, HGMD), but these databases update their data rather infrequently, they are not interactive, and they do not allow searches according to different criteria. The HAEdb, a C1-INH gene mutation database (http://hae.biomembrane.hu) was created to contribute to the following expectations: 1) help the comprehensive collection of information on genetic alterations of the C1-INH gene; 2) create a database in which data can be searched and compared according to several flexible criteria; and 3) provide additional help in new mutation identification. The website uses MySQL, an open-source, multithreaded, relational database management system. The user-friendly graphical interface was written in the PHP web programming language. The website consists of two main parts, the freely browsable search function, and the password-protected data deposition function. Mutations of the C1-INH gene are divided in two parts: gross mutations involving DNA fragments >1 kb, and micro mutations encompassing all non-gross mutations. Several attributes (e.g., affected exon, molecular consequence, family history) are collected for each mutation in a standardized form. This database may facilitate future comprehensive analyses of C1-INH mutations and also provide regular help for molecular diagnostic testing of HAE patients in different centers.

  5. Discovery of a New Class of Cathepsin K Inhibitors in Rhizoma Drynariae as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zuo-Cheng; Dong, Xiao-Li; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Gao-Keng; Wang, Xin-Luan; Wong, Ka-Chun; Wong, Man-Sau; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoma Drynariae (RD), as one of the most common clinically used folk medicines, has been reported to exert potent anti-osteoporotic activity. The bioactive ingredients and mechanisms that account for its bone protective effects are under active investigation. Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. It has been the focus of target based drug discovery in recent years. We have identified two components in RD, Kushennol F and Sophoraflavanone G, that can potentially interact with Ctsk. Biological studies were performed to verify the effects of these compounds on Ctsk and its related bone resorption process, which include the use of in vitro fluorescence-based Ctsk enzyme assay, bone resorption pit formation assay, as well as Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine RAW264.7 cells. Finally, the binding mode and stability of these two compounds that interact with Ctsk were determined by molecular docking and dynamics methods. The results showed that the in silico target fishing method could successfully identify two components from RD that show inhibitory effects on the bone resorption process related to protease Ctsk. PMID:27999266

  6. The cathepsin B inhibitor z-FA-CMK induces cell death in leukemic T cells via oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liow, K Y; Chow, Sek C

    2018-01-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK) was recently found to induce apoptosis at low concentrations in Jurkat T cells, while at higher concentrations, the cells die of necrosis. In the present study, we showed that z-FA-CMK readily depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK in Jurkat T cells was completely abrogated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting that the toxicity mediated by z-FA-CMK is due to oxidative stress. We found that L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) which depletes intracellular GSH through the inhibition of GSH biosynthesis in Jurkat T cells did not promote ROS increase or induce cell death. However, NAC was still able to block z-FA-CMK toxicity in Jurkat T cells in the presence of BSO, indicating that the protective effect of NAC does not involve GSH biosynthesis. This is further corroborated by the protective effect of the non-metabolically active D-cysteine on z-FA-CMK toxicity. Furthermore, in BSO-treated cells, z-FA-CMK-induced ROS increased which remains unchanged, suggesting that the depletion of GSH and increase in ROS generation mediated by z-FA-CMK may be two separate events. Collectively, our results demonstrated that z-FA-CMK toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress through the increase in ROS generation.

  7. Cathepsin B is a novel gender-dependent determinant of cholesterol absorption from the intestine[S

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Winifred P. S.; Altemus, Jessica B.; Hester, James F.; Chan, Ernest R.; Côté, Jean-François; Serre, David; Sehayek, Ephraim

    2013-01-01

    We used a mouse C57BL/6J×CASA/Rk intercross to map a locus on chromosome 14 that displayed a gender-dependent effect on cholesterol absorption from the intestine. Studies in congenic animals revealed a complex locus with multiple operating genetic determinants resulting in alternating gender-dependent phenotypic effects. Fine-mapping narrowed the locus to a critical 6.3 Mb interval. Female subcongenics, but not males, of the critical interval displayed a decrease of 33% in cholesterol absorption. RNA-Seq analysis of female subcongenic jejunum revealed that cysteine protease cathepsin B (Ctsb) is a candidate to explain the interval effect. Consistent with the phenotype in critical interval subcongenics, female Ctsb knockout mice, but not males, displayed a decrease of 31% in cholesterol absorption. Although studies in Ctsb knockouts revealed a gender-dependent effect on cholesterol absorption, further fine-mapping dismissed a role for Ctsb in determining the effect of the critical 6.3 Mb interval on cholesterol absorption. PMID:23248330

  8. Inhibition of Cathepsin B Alleviates Secondary Degeneration in Ipsilateral Thalamus After Focal Cerebral Infarction in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xialin; Hou, Qinghua; Jin, Jizi; Zhan, Lixuan; Li, Xinyu; Sun, Weiwen; Lin, Kunqin; Xu, En

    2016-09-01

    Secondary degeneration in areas beyond ischemic foci can inhibit poststroke recovery. The cysteine protease Cathepsin B (CathB) regulates cell death and intracellular protein catabolism. To investigate the roles of CathB in the development of secondary degeneration in the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the ipsilateral thalamus after focal cerebral infarction, infarct volumes, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analyses were conducted in a distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) stroke model in adult rats. We observed marked neuron loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral thalamus after dMCAO, and the expression of CathB and cleaved caspase-3 in the VPN was significantly upregulated; glial cells were the major source of CathB. Although it had no effect on infarct volume, delayed intracerebroventricular treatment with the membrane-permeable CathB inhibitor CA-074Me suppressed the expression of CathB and cleaved caspase-3 in ipsilateral VPN and accordingly alleviated the secondary degeneration. These data indicate that CathB mediates a novel mechanism of secondary degeneration in the VPN of the ipsilateral thalamus after focal cortical infarction and suggest that CathB might be a therapeutic target for the prevention of secondary degeneration in patients after stroke. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A clinicopathological study of C1q nephropathy at King Abdulaziz University.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Ghadeer A; Jalalah, Sawsan M

    2015-07-01

    C1q nephropathy is a relatively rare idiopathic glomerulopathy characterized by mesangial immunoglobulin and complement deposits with dominance or co-dominance of C1q, with no evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus. We describe the incidence, clinical manifestation, histopathological features, and follow-up of patients with C1q nephropathy at our institute. Of 750 kidney biopsy specimens obtained in the period of January 2000 to December 2011, all the cases that meet the criteria for the diagnosis of C1q nephropathy were retrieved.  The histological slides were examined and the clinical charts were reviewed by 2renal pathologists. We had 11 patients, all children, that met the criteria for the diagnosis of C1q nephropathy accounting for an incidence of 1.5%.  The mean age at the time of presentation was 3.7 years and all the patients were presented with nephrotic syndrome. Two patients had microhematuria and 2 had hypertension. Histological examination of these cases showed variable degrees of mesangial cells hypercellularity and matrix expansion with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis observed in 2 cases. Nine patients were steroid resistant (82%) and 2 were steroid dependent. Six patients required immunosuppressive therapy and 1 patient developed end-stage renal disease. In our series, C1q nephropathy affected predominantly young children. Mesangioproliferative pattern was the most frequent histopathological finding in these patients. Clinically, despite steroid resistance, the patients had a relatively good outcome; the worst prognostic outcome was associated with collapsing glomerulopathy.

  10. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Simeone, A; Mavilio, F; Acampora, D; Giampaolo, A; Faiella, A; Zappavigna, V; D'Esposito, M; Pannese, M; Russo, G; Boncinelli, E

    1987-07-01

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomain identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hydridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny.

  11. The Cyclic Peptide Ecumicin Targeting ClpC1 Is Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Jin-Yong; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Akopian, Tatos; Hong, Seungpyo; Jin, Ying-Yu; Kandror, Olga; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Sun-Young; McAlpine, James B.; Mulugeta, Surafel; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Wang, Yuehong; Yang, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Tae-Mi; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Pauli, Guido F.; Cho, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lent urgency to finding new drug leads with novel modes of action. A high-throughput screening campaign of >65,000 actinomycete extracts for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability identified ecumicin, a macrocyclic tridecapeptide that exerts potent, selective bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro, including nonreplicating cells. Ecumicin retains activity against isolated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis. The subcutaneous administration to mice of ecumicin in a micellar formulation at 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in plasma and lung exposures exceeding the MIC. Complete inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice was achieved following 12 doses at 20 or 32 mg/kg. Genome mining of lab-generated, spontaneous ecumicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains identified the ClpC1 ATPase complex as the putative target, and this was confirmed by a drug affinity response test. ClpC1 functions in protein breakdown with the ClpP1P2 protease complex. Ecumicin markedly enhanced the ATPase activity of wild-type (WT) ClpC1 but prevented activation of proteolysis by ClpC1. Less stimulation was observed with ClpC1 from ecumicin-resistant mutants. Thus, ClpC1 is a valid drug target against M. tuberculosis, and ecumicin may serve as a lead compound for anti-TB drug development. PMID:25421483

  12. C1orf106 is a colitis risk gene that regulates stability of epithelial adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Vishnu; Nakata, Toru; Desch, A Nicole; Lévesque, Chloé; Boroughs, Angela; Guzman, Gaelen; Cao, Zhifang; Creasey, Elizabeth; Yao, Junmei; Boucher, Gabrielle; Charron, Guy; Bhan, Atul K; Schenone, Monica; Carr, Steven A; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Daly, Mark J; Rioux, John D; Lassen, Kara G; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2018-03-09

    Polymorphisms in C1orf106 are associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the function of C1orf106 and the consequences of disease-associated polymorphisms are unknown. Here we demonstrate that C1orf106 regulates adherens junction stability by regulating the degradation of cytohesin-1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that controls activation of ARF6. By limiting cytohesin-1-dependent ARF6 activation, C1orf106 stabilizes adherens junctions. Consistent with this model, C1orf106 -/- mice exhibit defects in the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, a phenotype observed in IBD patients that confers increased susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, the IBD risk variant increases C1orf106 ubiquitination and turnover with consequent functional impairments. These findings delineate a mechanism by which a genetic polymorphism fine-tunes intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and elucidate a fundamental mechanism of cellular junctional control. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Microtubule Binding and Disruption and Induction of Premature Senescence by Disorazole C1S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tierno, Marni Brisson; Kitchens, Carolyn A.; Petrik, Bethany; Graham, Thomas H.; Wipf, Peter; Xu, Fengfeng L.; Saunders, William S.; Raccor, Brianne S.; Balachandran, Raghavan; Day, Billy W.; Stout, Jane R.; Walczak, Claire E.; Ducruet, Alexander P.; Reese, Celeste E.; Lazo, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Disorazoles comprise a family of 29 macrocyclic polyketides isolated from the fermentation broth of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. The major fermentation product, disorazole A1, was found previously to irreversibly bind to tubulin and to have potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, possibly because of its highly electrophilic epoxide moiety. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized the epoxide-free disorazole C1 and found it retained potent antiproliferative activity against tumor cells, causing prominent G2/M phase arrest and inhibition of in vitro tubulin polymerization. Furthermore, disorazole C1 produced disorganized microtubules at interphase, misaligned chromosomes during mitosis, apoptosis, and premature senescence in the surviving cell populations. Using a tubulin polymerization assay, we found disorazole C1 inhibited purified bovine tubulin polymerization, with an IC50 of 11.8 ± 0.4 μM, and inhibited [3H]vinblastine binding noncompetitively, with a Ki of 4.5 ± 0.6 μM. We also found noncompetitive inhibition of [3H]dolastatin 10 binding by disorazole C1, with a Ki of 10.6 ± 1.5 μM, indicating that disorazole C1 bound tubulin uniquely among known antimitotic agents. Disorazole C1 could be a valuable chemical probe for studying the process of mitotic spindle disruption and its relationship to premature senescence. PMID:19066338

  14. Possible involvement of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and selected NR3C1 gene variants in regulation of human testicular function.

    PubMed

    Nordkap, L; Almstrup, K; Nielsen, J E; Bang, A K; Priskorn, L; Krause, M; Holmboe, S A; Winge, S B; Egeberg Palme, D L; Mørup, N; Petersen, J H; Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    2017-11-01

    Perceived stress has been associated with decreased semen quality but the mechanisms have not been elucidated. It is not known whether cortisol, the major stress hormone in humans, can act directly via receptors in the testis, and whether variants in the gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) can possibly modulate the effect. To address these questions, we investigated the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in human testicular tissue, including adult and fetal samples (n = 20) by immunohistochemical staining, and in silico analysis of publicly available datasets. In the adult testis NR3C1 protein was detected in peritubular cells, a subset of Leydig cells, Sertoli cells (weak), and spermatogonia, but not in spermatids. The NR3C1 expression pattern in fetal testis samples differed by a notably stronger reaction in Sertoli cells, lack of staining in gonocytes but the presence in a subset of pro-spermatogonia, and the almost absent reaction in nascent peritubular cells. In parallel, we explored the association between adult testicular function and three single nucleotide NR3C1 polymorphisms (BcII [rs41423247], 9β [rs6198], and Tth111I [rs10052957]) affecting glucocorticoid sensitivity. Testicular function was determined by semen analysis and reproductive hormone profiling in 893 men from the general population. The NR3C1 SNP BclI was associated with semen quality in an over-dominant manner with heterozygotes having better semen parameters compared to both homozygote constellations, and with sperm motility showing the strongest association. This association was supported by a higher inhibin B and inhibin B/FSH ratio, as well as a lower FSH in BclI heterozygotes. The SNPs 9β and Tth111I were not associated with semen parameters. Although the clinical impact of the findings is limited, the results substantiate a suggested link between stress and testicular function. Hence this investigation should be regarded as a discovery study generating

  15. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  16. Microarray expression analysis and identification of serum biomarkers for Niemann-Pick disease, type C1.

    PubMed

    Cluzeau, Celine V M; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Fu, Rao; Borate, Bhavesh; Yanjanin, Nicole; Dail, Michelle K; Davidson, Cristin D; Walkley, Steven U; Ory, Daniel S; Wassif, Christopher A; Pavan, William J; Porter, Forbes D

    2012-08-15

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by liver disease and progressive neurodegeneration. Deficiency of either NPC1 or NPC2 leads to the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomes and early lysosomes. In order to identify pathological mechanisms underlying NPC and uncover potential biomarkers, we characterized liver gene expression changes in an Npc1 mouse model at six ages spanning the pathological progression of the disease. We identified altered gene expression at all ages, including changes in asymptomatic, 1-week-old mice. Biological pathways showing early altered gene expression included: lipid metabolism, cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in arachidonic acid and drug metabolism, inflammation and immune responses, mitogen-activated protein kinase and G-protein signaling, cell cycle regulation, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling. In contrast, apoptosis and oxidative stress appeared to be late pathological processes. To identify potential biomarkers that could facilitate monitoring of disease progression, we focused on a subset of 103 differentially expressed genes that encode secreted proteins. Further analysis identified two secreted proteins with increased serum levels in NPC1 patients: galectin-3 (LGALS3), a pro-inflammatory molecule, and cathepsin D (CTSD), a lysosomal aspartic protease. Elevated serum levels of both proteins correlated with neurological disease severity and appeared to be specific for NPC1. Expression of Lgals3 and Ctsd was normalized following treatment with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a therapy that reduces pathological findings and significantly increases Npc1(-/-) survival. Both LGALS3 and CTSD have the potential to aid in diagnosis and serve as biomarkers to monitor efficacy in therapeutic trials.

  17. Complement C1q formation of immune complexes with milk caseins and wheat glutens in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin; Halling, Meredith; Stallings, Cassie R.; Origoni, Andrea E.; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Alaedini, Armin; Dupont, Didier; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Immune system factors including complement pathway activation are increasingly linked to the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Complement protein, C1q, binds to and helps to clear immune complexes composed of immunoglobulins coupled to antigens. The antigenic stimuli for C1q activation in schizophrenia are not known. Food sensitivities characterized by elevated IgG antibodies to bovine milk caseins and wheat glutens have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we examined the extent to which these food products might comprise the antigen component of complement C1q immune complexes in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia (n=38), non-recent onset schizophrenia (n=61) and non-psychiatric controls (n=63). C1q seropositivity was significantly associated with both schizophrenia groups (recent onset, odds ratio (OR)=8.02, p≤0.008; non-recent onset, OR=3.15, p≤0.03) compared to controls (logistic regression models corrected for age, sex, race and smoking status). Casein- and/or gluten-IgG binding to C1q was significantly elevated in the non-recent onset group compared to controls (OR=4.36, p≤0.01). Significant amounts of C1q-casein/gluten-related immune complexes and C1q correlations with a marker for gastrointestinal inflammation in non-recent onset schizophrenia suggests a heightened rate of food antigens in the systemic circulation, perhaps via a disease-associated altered intestinal permeability. In individuals who are in the early stages of disease onset, C1q activation may reflect the formation of immune complexes with non-casein- or non-gluten-related antigens, the presence of C1q autoantibodies, and/or a dissociated state of immune complex components. In conclusion, complement activation may be a useful biomarker to diagnose schizophrenia early during the course of the disease. Future prospective studies should evaluate the impacts of casein- and gluten-free diets on C1q activation in schizophrenia. PMID:22801085

  18. Atomic resolution model of the antibody Fc interaction with the complement C1q component.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sebastian; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-05-01

    The globular C1q heterotrimer is a subunit of the C1 complement factor. Binding of the C1q subunit to the constant (Fc) part of antibody molecules is a first step and key event of complement activation. Although three-dimensional structures of C1q and antibody Fc subunits have been determined experimentally no atomic resolution structure of the C1q-Fc complex is known so far. Based on systematic protein-protein docking searches and Molecular Dynamics simulations a structural model of the C1q-IgG1-Fc-binding geometry has been obtained. The structural model is compatible with available experimental data on the interaction between the two partner proteins. It predicts a binding geometry that involves mainly the B-subunit of the C1q-trimer and both subunits of the IgG1-Fc-dimer with small conformational adjustments with respect to the unbound partners to achieve high surface complementarity. In addition to several charge-charge and polar contacts in the rim region of the interface it also involves nonpolar contacts between the two proteins and is compatible with the carbohydrate moiety of the Fc subunit. The model for the complex structure provides a working model for rationalizing available biochemical data on this important interaction and can form the basis for the design of Fc variants with a greater capacity to activate the complement system for example on binding to cancer cells or other target structures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum dynamics of the C(1D)+HD and C(1D)+n-D2 reactions on the ã 1A' and b 1A" surfaces.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Paolo; Gamallo, Pablo; González, Miguel; Akpinar, Sinan; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Honvault, Pascal; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2010-03-14

    We present the Born-Oppenheimer, quantum dynamics of the reactions C((1)D)+HD and C((1)D)+n-D(2) on the uncoupled potential energy surfaces ã (1)A' and b (1)A", considering the Coriolis interactions and the nuclear-spin statistics. Using the real wavepacket method, we obtain initial-state-resolved probabilities, cross sections, isotopic branching ratios, and rate constants. Similarly to the C+n-H(2) reaction, the probabilities present many ã (1)A' or few b (1)A" sharp resonances, and the cross sections are very large at small collision energies and decrease at higher energies. At any initial condition, the C+HD reaction gives preferentially the CD+H products. Thermal cross sections, isotopic branching ratios, and rate constant k vary slightly with temperature and agree very well with the experimental values. At 300 K, we obtain for the various products k(CH+H)=(2.45+/-0.08) x 10(-10), k(CD+H)=(1.19+/-0.04) x 10(-10), k(CH+D)=(0.71+/-0.02) x 10(-10), k(CD+D)=(1.59+/-0.05) x 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1), and k(CD+H)/k(CH+D)=1.68+/-0.01. The b (1)A" contribution to cross sections and rate constants is always large, up to a maximum value of 62% for a rotationally resolved C+D(2) rate constant. The upper b (1)A" state is thus quite important in the C((1)D) collision with H(2) and its deuterated isotopes, as the agreement between theory and experiment shows.

  20. A comparison of biomechanical stability and pullout strength of two C1-C2 fixation constructs.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jason W; Limthongkul, Worawat; Park, Hyung-Soon; Zhang, Li-Qun; Karaikovic, Eldin E

    2011-07-01

    Several fusion techniques are used to treat atlantoaxial instability. Recent literature suggests that intralaminar screw (LS) fixation and pedicle screw (PS) fixation offer similar stability and comparable pullout strength. No studies have compared these characteristics after cyclic loading. To compare the stability and pullout strength of intra-LSs and PSs in a C1-C2 instability model after 1,000 cycles of axial loading. In vitro biomechanical study. Stability in axial rotation and screw pullout strength after cyclic loading. Six fresh-frozen human cadaveric cervical spines (C1-C2) were used in this study. C1-C2 instability was mimicked via odontoidotomy at its base and posterior soft-tissue release, including the supraspinous ligaments and facet joint capsules. Specimens were tested to 1,000 cycles after stabilization with two fixation constructs: C1 lateral mass (LM) screws and C2 intra-LSs (C1LM-C2LS) and C1 LM screws and C2 PSs (C1LM-C2PS). Angular motion was recorded for right and left axial rotation using an Optotrak 3020 system (Northern Digital, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada). Tensile loading to failure was then performed collinear to the longitudinal axis of the screw, and the data were recorded as peak pullout strength in newtons. There was no statistically significant difference in stability (measured in degrees of rotation) between the intra-LS and PS constructs at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 cycles of axial rotation. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in stability at 250 cycles versus 1,000 cycles for the LS (1.30 vs. 1.49, p = .80) or PS (0.84 vs. 0.85, p = .96). Pedicle screws had higher pullout strength when compared with the intra-LSs (757.5 ± 239 vs. 583.4 ± 472 N); however, high standard deviation precluded statistical significance (p = .44). Our data suggest that a C1LM and C2LS construct has similar biomechanical stability when compared with a C1LM and C2PS construct after 1,000 cycles of axial rotation. Furthermore, PSs had higher

  1. C1q complement component and -antibodies reflect SLE activity and kidney involvement.

    PubMed

    Horák, P; Hermanová, Z; Zadrazil, J; Ciferská, H; Ordeltová, M; Kusá, L; Zurek, M; Tichý, T

    2006-07-01

    The role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of systemic diseases is very ambivalent. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), many abnormalities in the activation of the complement system have been reported. The most important antibodies formed against the complement system in SLE are the ones associated with the C1q component. The aim of this study was to assess separately the anti-C1q antibodies and C1q component in the serum from 65 patients with SLE, then in individuals with (n=33) and without (n=32) lupus nephritis and with active (n=36) and nonactive (n=29) form of the disease (European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement, ECLAM>3, ECLAMC1q antibodies were measured by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test, while radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini was used to measure the C1q complement component. The mean serum levels were 90.89+/-13 IU/ml for anti-C1q antibodies and 145+/-52 mg/l for C1q. The significant difference in C1q antibodies levels was found between individuals with and without lupus nephritis (117.5+/-52 IU/ml vs. 28.2+/-12.2 IU/ml, p=0.0001) and between those with active and nonactive SLE (154.6+/-115 IU/ml vs. 50.6+/-73, p=0.001). C1q complement component was statistically lower in patients with lupus nephritis (144+/-30 mg/l vs. 175+/-50 mg/ml, p=0.002) and in active patients (138+/-40 mg/l vs. 202+/-20 mg/l, p=0.001). If the two parameters are measured together, they seem to have a mirror-like pattern of serum concentration, and they are potential markers of SLE activity and of the presence of lupus nephritis.

  2. Deposition Velocities of C1 - C5 Alkyl Nitrates at a Northern Colorado Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeleira, A.; Sive, B. C.; Farmer, D.; Swarthout, B.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates (RONO2) are ubiquitous in the troposphere and are part of gas-phase oxidized nitrogen (NOy = NOx + HNO3 + HONO + N2O5 + HO2NO2 + PAN + NO3 + RONO2). RONO2 can act as both sinks and sources of HOx (RO + RO2 + OH) and NOx (NO + NO2), contributing to the nonlinearity of ozone (O3) formation. It is thus potentially important to understand sinks of RONO2, and how they change seasonally, in order to predict O3 on local, regional and global scales. We focus here on speciated C1 - C5 monofunctional alkyl nitrates (C1 - C5 ANs). In polluted continental regions the dominant source of C1 - C5 ANs is the OH-initiated oxidation of parent alkanes in the presence of NO, and thus changes seasonally with OH mixing ratios. Direct emissions of C1 - C2 ANs include oceanic sources and biomass burning. The sinks of C1 - C5 ANs include OH oxidation and photolysis, both of which release O3 precursors. Chemical transport models tend to overestimate the mixing ratios of small ANs indicating that a missing sink is not included. Wet deposition of C1 - C5 ANs is typically ignored due to the very low Henry's Law constants of these species. However, dry deposition of total organic nitrogen has been observed to be substantial. The dry deposition velocity of methyl nitrate has previously been estimated from summer observations at a rural New England site with a value of 0.13 cm s-1. Here we report deposition velocities for C1 - C5 ANs from surface observations at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado during winter 2011 and spring 2015. We calculate deposition velocities from the observed decay in C1 - C5 ANs at night during periods with a stable nocturnal boundary layer height of 100 - 200 meters. Ideal meteorological conditions were observed for 5 nights during the 2011 NACHTT campaign (February - March 2011), and for 5 nights during the 2015 SONGNEX campaign (March - May 2015). Deposition velocities increased with alkyl nitrate size, ranging from 0.15 cm

  3. Occult spinal canal stenosis due to C-1 hypoplasia in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shunji; Imakiire, Takanori; Koga, Hiroaki; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Hiromi; Taketomi, Eiji; Higo, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Komiya, Setsuro

    2007-12-01

    Little has been published about subclinical spinal canal stenosis due to C-1 hypoplasia in patients with Down syndrome. In this paper the authors performed a matched comparison study with cross-sectional survey to investigate occult spinal canal stenosis due to C-1 hypoplasia in children with Down syndrome. A total of 102 children with Down syndrome ranging in age from 10 to 15 years were matched according to age and physique with 176 normal children. In all participants, the anteroposterior (AP) diameter of C-1 and the atlas-dens interval (ADI) were measured on plain lateral x-ray images of the cervical spine. The cross-sectional area of the atlas was also measured from a cross-sectional computed tomography image of C-1. Eight children (6.7%) with Down syndrome developed atlantoaxial subluxation associated with myelopathy. The difference in the ADI between the patients and controls was not statistically significant. The average AP diameter of the atlas and the spinal canal area along the cross-section of the atlas were significantly smaller in children with Down syndrome than those in the control group. Atlantoaxial instability and occult spinal canal stenosis due to C-1 hypoplasia in patients with Down syndrome may significantly increase the risk of myelopathy.

  4. Procyanidin trimer C1 derived from Theobroma cacao reactivates latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus.

    PubMed

    Hori, Takanori; Barnor, Jacob; Huu, Tung Nguyen; Morinaga, Osamu; Hamano, Akiko; Ndzinu, Jerry; Frimpong, Angela; Minta-Asare, Keren; Amoa-Bosompem, Mildred; Brandful, James; Odoom, John; Bonney, Joseph; Tuffour, Isaac; Owusu, Baffour-Awuah; Ofosuhene, Mark; Atchoglo, Philip; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Adegle, Richard; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Ampofo, William; Koram, Kwadwo; Nyarko, Alexander; Okine, Laud; Edoh, Dominic; Appiah, Alfred; Uto, Takuhiro; Yoshinaka, Yoshiyuki; Uota, Shin; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2015-04-03

    Despite remarkable advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains incurable due to the incomplete elimination of the replication-competent virus, which persists in latent reservoirs. Strategies for targeting HIV reservoirs for eradication that involves reactivation of latent proviruses while protecting uninfected cells by cART are urgently needed for cure of HIV infection. We screened medicinal plant extracts for compounds that could reactivate the latent HIV-1 provirus and identified a procyanidin trimer C1 derived from Theobroma cacao as a potent activator of the provirus in human T cells latently infected with HIV-1. This reactivation largely depends on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways because either overexpression of a super-repressor form of IκBα or pretreatment with a MEK inhibitor U0126 diminished provirus reactivation by C1. A pan-PKC inhibitor significantly blocked the phorbol ester-induced but not the C1-induced HIV-1 reactivation. Although C1-induced viral gene expression persisted for as long as 48 h post-stimulation, NF-κB-dependent transcription peaked at 12 h post-stimulation and then quickly declined, suggesting Tat-mediated self-sustainment of HIV-1 expression. These results suggest that procyanidin C1 trimer is a potential compound for reactivation of latent HIV-1 reservoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validity of palpation of the C1 transverse process: comparison with a radiographic reference standard

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan; Lew, Makani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Primary goal: to determine the validity of C1 transverse process (TVP) palpation compared to an imaging reference standard. Methods: Radiopaque markers were affixed to the skin at the putative location of the C1 TVPs in 21 participants receiving APOM radiographs. The radiographic vertical distances from the marker to the C1 TVP, mastoid process, and C2 TVP were evaluated to determine palpatory accuracy. Results: Interexaminer agreement for radiometric analysis was “excellent.” Stringent accuracy (marker placed ±4mm from the most lateral projection of the C1 TVP) = 57.1%; expansive accuracy (marker placed closer to contiguous structures) = 90.5%. Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) = 4.34 (3.65, 5.03) mm; root-mean-squared error = 5.40mm. Conclusions: Manual palpation of the C1 TVP can be very accurate and likely to direct a manual therapist or other health professional to the intended diagnostic or therapeutic target. This work is relevant to manual therapists, anesthetists, surgeons, and other health professionals. PMID:26136601

  6. In pursuit of excellence: an integrated care pathway for C1 inhibitor deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Manson, A L; Price, A; Dempster, J; Clinton-Tarestad, P; Greening, C; Enti, R; Hill, S; Grigoriadou, S; Buckland, M S; Longhurst, H J

    2013-01-01

    There are estimated to be approximately 1500 people in the United Kingdom with C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. At BartsHealth National Health Service (NHS) Trust we manage 133 patients with this condition and we believe that this represents one of the largest cohorts in the United Kingdom. C1INH deficiency may be hereditary or acquired. It is characterized by unpredictable episodic swellings, which may affect any part of the body, but are potentially fatal if they involve the larynx and cause significant morbidity if they involve the viscera. The last few years have seen a revolution in the treatment options that are available for C1 inhibitor deficiency. However, this occurs at a time when there are increased spending restraints in the NHS and the commissioning structure is being overhauled. Integrated care pathways (ICP) are a tool for disseminating best practice, for facilitating clinical audit, enabling multi-disciplinary working and for reducing health-care costs. Here we present an ICP for managing C1 inhibitor deficiency. PMID:23607500

  7. C1q deficiency: identification of a novel missense mutation and treatment with fresh frozen plasma.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu, Rezan; Taskiran, Ekim Z; Tan, Cagman; Erman, Baran; Ozaltin, Fatih; Sanal, Ozden

    2012-07-01

    A Turkish patient with C1q deficiency presented with a lupus-like disease, and a new missense mutation at A chain is presented. To characterize the genetic defect, all exons of the genes for the A, B, and C chains of C1q were sequenced in the patient. This revealed a missense mutation in the collagen-like domain of the A chain, p.Gly31 Arg. No other sequence variants, including the common silent mutations, were found in the three chains. Exon 1 of the C1q A chain was sequenced in 105 samples from healthy controls for this particular mutation. None of these carried the mutation. The C1q-deficient patient was treated with fresh frozen plasma infusions. Our findings showed that Turkish patients may have different mutations than the previously described common mutation, and once again, not only nonsense mutations but also missense mutations cause hereditary C1q deficiency. Regular fresh frozen plasma infusions to the patient have been clinically and therapeutically successful.

  8. Second-order optimality conditions for problems with C1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginchev, Ivan; Ivanov, Vsevolod I.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we obtain second-order optimality conditions of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type and Fritz John one for a problem with inequality constraints and a set constraint in nonsmooth settings using second-order directional derivatives. In the necessary conditions we suppose that the objective function and the active constraints are continuously differentiable, but their gradients are not necessarily locally Lipschitz. In the sufficient conditions for a global minimum we assume that the objective function is differentiable at and second-order pseudoconvex at , a notion introduced by the authors [I. Ginchev, V.I. Ivanov, Higher-order pseudoconvex functions, in: I.V. Konnov, D.T. Luc, A.M. Rubinov (Eds.), Generalized Convexity and Related Topics, in: Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, vol. 583, Springer, 2007, pp. 247-264], the constraints are both differentiable and quasiconvex at . In the sufficient conditions for an isolated local minimum of order two we suppose that the problem belongs to the class C1,1. We show that they do not hold for C1 problems, which are not C1,1 ones. At last a new notion parabolic local minimum is defined and it is applied to extend the sufficient conditions for an isolated local minimum from problems with C1,1 data to problems with C1 one.

  9. Protein phosphatase AP2C1 negatively regulates basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Boniecka, Justyna; Schweighofer, Alois; Simulis, Justinas; Kvederaviciute, Kotryna; Stumpe, Michael; Mauch, Felix; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Boutrot, Freddy; Zipfel, Cyril; Meskiene, Irute

    2017-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate plant immune responses to pathogenic bacteria. However, less is known about the cell autonomous negative regulatory mechanism controlling basal plant immunity. We report the biological role of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 as a negative regulator of plant basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae. AP2C2, a closely related MAPK phosphatase, also negatively controls plant resistance. Loss of AP2C1 leads to enhanced pathogen-induced MAPK activities, increased callose deposition in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000, and enhanced resistance to bacterial infection with Pto. We also reveal the impact of AP2C1 on the global transcriptional reprogramming of transcription factors during Pto infection. Importantly, ap2c1 plants show salicylic acid-independent transcriptional reprogramming of several defense genes and enhanced ethylene production in response to Pto. This study pinpoints the specificity of MAPK regulation by the different MAPK phosphatases AP2C1 and MKP1, which control the same MAPK substrates, nevertheless leading to different downstream events. We suggest that precise and specific control of defined MAPKs by MAPK phosphatases during plant challenge with pathogenic bacteria can strongly influence plant resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Antithrombin III/SerpinC1 insufficiency exacerbates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Guangyuan; Lu, Zeyuan; Geurts, Aron M; Usa, Kristie; Jacob, Howard J; Cowley, Allen W; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Antithrombin III, encoded by SerpinC1, is a major anti-coagulation molecule in vivo and has anti-inflammatory effects. We found that patients with low antithrombin III activities presented a higher risk of developing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. To study this further, we generated SerpinC1 heterozygous knockout rats and followed the development of acute kidney injury in a model of modest renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Renal injury, assessed by serum creatinine and renal tubular injury scores after 24 h of reperfusion, was significantly exacerbated in SerpinC1+/− rats compared to wild-type littermates. Concomitantly, renal oxidative stress, tubular apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration following this injury were significantly aggravated in SerpinC1+/− rats. However, significant thrombosis was not found in the kidneys of any group of rats. Antithrombin III is reported to stimulate the production of prostaglandin I2, a known regulator of renal cortical blood flow, in addition to having anti-inflammatory effects and to protect against renal failure. Prostaglandin F1α, an assayable metabolite of prostaglandin I2, was increased in the kidneys of the wild-type rats at 3 h after reperfusion. The increase of prostaglandin F1α was significantly blunted in SerpinC1+/− rats, which preceded increased tubular injury and oxidative stress. Thus, our study found a novel role of SerpinC1 insufficiency in increasing the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26108065

  11. Altered transition metal homeostasis in Niemann-Pick disease, Type C1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya Hui; Faux, Noel G.; Killilea, David W.; Yanjanin, Nicole; Firnkes, Sally; Volitakis, Irene; Ganio, George; Walterfang, Mark; Hastings, Caroline; Porter, Forbes D.; Ory, Daniel S.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2014-01-01

    The loss of NPC1 protein function is the predominant cause of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NP-C1), a systemic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late-endosomal/lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids. Limited evidence from post-mortem human tissues, an Npc1−/− mouse model, and cell culture studies also suggest failure of metal homeostasis in NP-C1. To investigate these findings, we performed a comprehensive transition metal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and tissue samples from human NP-C1 patients and an Npc1−/− mouse model. NPC1 deficiency in the Npc1−/− mouse model resulted in a perturbation of transition metal homeostasis in the plasma and key organs (brain, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and kidneys). Analysis of human patient CSF, plasma and post-mortem brain tissues also indicated disrupted metal homeostasis. There was a disparity in the direction of metal changes between the human and the Npc1−/− mouse samples, which may reflect species-specific metal metabolism. Nevertheless, common to both species is brain zinc accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor miglustat, the only drug shown in a controlled clinical trial to have some efficacy for NP-C1, did not correct the alterations in CSF and plasma transition metal and ceruloplasmin (CP) metabolism in NP-C1 patients. These findings highlight the importance of NPC1 function in metal homeostasis, and indicate that metal-targeting therapy may be of value as a treatment for NP-C. PMID:24343124

  12. Selective Cathepsin S Inhibition with MIV-247 Attenuates Mechanical Allodynia and Enhances the Antiallodynic Effects of Gabapentin and Pregabalin in a Mouse Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Ellen; Pitcher, Thomas; Rizoska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Henderson, Ian; Sahlberg, Britt-Louise; Grabowska, Urszula; Classon, Björn; Edenius, Charlotte; Malcangio, Marzia; Lindström, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Cathepsin S inhibitors attenuate mechanical allodynia in preclinical neuropathic pain models. The current study evaluated the effects when combining the selective cathepsin S inhibitor MIV-247 with gabapentin or pregabalin in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Mice were rendered neuropathic by partial sciatic nerve ligation. MIV-247, gabapentin, or pregabalin were administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using von Frey hairs. Neurobehavioral side effects were evaluated by assessing beam walking. MIV-247, gabapentin, and pregabalin concentrations in various tissues were measured. Oral administration of MIV-247 (100-200 µmol/kg) dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia by up to approximately 50% reversal when given as a single dose or when given twice daily for 5 days. No behavioral deficits were observed at any dose of MIV-247 tested. Gabapentin (58-350 µmol/kg) and pregabalin (63-377 µmol/kg) also inhibited mechanical allodynia with virtually complete reversal at the highest doses tested. The minimum effective dose of MIV-247 (100 µmol/kg) in combination with the minimum effective dose of pregabalin (75 µmol/kg) or gabapentin (146 µmol/kg) resulted in enhanced antiallodynic efficacy without augmenting side effects. A subeffective dose of MIV-247 (50 µmol/kg) in combination with a subeffective dose of pregabalin (38 µmol/kg) or gabapentin (73 µmol/kg) also resulted in substantial efficacy. Plasma levels of MIV-247, gabapentin, and pregabalin were similar when given in combination as to when given alone. Cathepsin S inhibition with MIV-247 exerts significant antiallodynic efficacy alone, and also enhances the effect of gabapentin and pregabalin without increasing side effects or inducing pharmacokinetic interactions. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Highly Conserved Arg Residue of ERFNIN Motif of Pro-Domain is Important for pH-Induced Zymogen Activation Process in Cysteine Cathepsins K and L.

    PubMed

    Aich, Pulakesh; Biswas, Sampa

    2018-06-01

    Pro-domain of a cysteine cathepsin contains a highly conserved Ex 2 Rx 2 Fx 2 Nx 3 Ix 3 N (ERFNIN) motif. The zymogen structure of cathepsins revealed that the Arg(R) residue of the motif is a central residue of a salt-bridge/H-bond network, stabilizing the scaffold of the pro-domain. Importance of the arginine is also demonstrated in studies where a single mutation (Arg → Trp) in human lysosomal cathepsin K (hCTSK) is linked to a bone-related genetic disorder "Pycnodysostosis". In the present study, we have characterized in vitro Arg → Trp mutant of hCTSK and the same mutant of hCTSL. The R → W mutant of hCTSK revealed that this mutation leads to an unstable zymogen that is spontaneously activated and auto-proteolytically degraded rapidly. In contrast, the same mutant of hCTSL is sufficiently stable and has proteolytic activity almost like its wild-type counterpart; however it shows an altered zymogen activation condition in terms of pH, temperature and time. Far and near UV circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence experiments have revealed that the mutation has minimal effect on structure of the protease hCTSL. Molecular modeling studies shows that the mutated Trp31 in hCTSL forms an aromatic cluster with Tyr23 and Trp30 leading to a local stabilization of pro-domain and supplements the loss of salt-bridge interaction mediated by Arg31 in wild-type. In hCTSK-R31W mutant, due to presence of a non-aromatic Ser30 residue such interaction is not possible and may be responsible for local instability. These differences may cause detrimental effects of R31W mutation on the regulation of hCTSK auto-activation process compared to altered activation process in hCTSL.

  14. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Taíse Fernanda da Silva; Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Alves, Marcio Fernando Madureira; Belasque-Júnior, Jose; Rosa, José César; Hunter, Wayne Brian; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Huanglonbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB). DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM) and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM). The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM) and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM) and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM). RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control.

  15. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Alves, Marcio Fernando Madureira; Belasque-Júnior, Jose; Rosa, José César; Hunter, Wayne Brian; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Huanglonbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB). DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (K m = 23.5 μM) and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (K m = 6.13 μM). The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM) and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM) and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM). RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control. PMID:26717484

  16. Inhibition of cathepsin K reduces cartilage degeneration in the anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit and murine models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Tadashi; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Pickarski, Maureen; Duong, Le T

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the disease modifying effects of cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor L-006235 compared to alendronate (ALN) in two preclinical models of osteoarthritis (OA). Skeletally mature rabbits underwent sham or anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-surgery and were treated with L-006235 (L-235, 10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, p.o., daily) or ALN (0.6 mg/kg, s.c., weekly) for 8-weeks. ACLT joint instability was also induced in CatK(-/-) versus wild type (wt) mice and treated for 16-weeks. Changes in cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone volume and osteophyte area were determined by histology and μ-CT. Collagen type I helical peptide (HP-I), a bone resorption marker and collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II), a cartilage degradation marker were measured. L-235 (50 mg/kg) and ALN treatment resulted in significant chondroprotective effects, reducing CTX-II by 60% and the histological Mankin score for cartilage damage by 46% in the ACLT-rabbits. Both doses of L-235 were more potent than ALN in protecting against focal subchondral bone loss, and reducing HP-I by 70% compared to vehicle. L-235 (50 mg/kg) and ALN significantly reduced osteophyte formation in histomorphometric analysis by 55%. The Mankin score in ACLT-CatK(-/-) mice was ~2.5-fold lower than the ACLT-wt mice and was not different from sham-CatK(-/-). Osteophyte development was not different among the groups. Inhibition of CatK provides significant benefits in ACLT-model of OA, including: 1) protection of subchondral bone integrity, 2) protection against cartilage degradation and 3) reduced osteophytosis. Preclinical evidence supports the role of CatK as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced Glycation End Products Inhibit the Proliferation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Inhibiting Cathepsin D.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Ye; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Chen, Yintao; Zhang, Naijin; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I and p62. Immunofluorescence of p62 and acridine orange staining revealed that AGEs significantly increased the expression of p62 and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, respectively. Chloroquine (CQ) could further promote the expression of LC3 II/I and p62, increase the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and promote cell injury induced by AGEs. In addition, AGEs reduced cathepsin D (CTSD) expression in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of wild-type CTSD significantly decreased the ratio of LC 3 II/I as well as p62 accumulation induced by AGEs, but overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant CTSD had no such effects. Only overexpression of wild-type CTSD could restore the proliferation of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. However, overexpression of both wild-type CTSD and catalytically inactive mutant CTSD could promote the migration of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. Collectively, our study found that AGEs inhibited the proliferation and migration in HUVECs and promoted autophagic flux, which in turn played a protective role against AGEs-induced cell injury. CTSD, in need of its catalytic activity, may promote proliferation in AGEs-treated HUVECs independent of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Meanwhile, CTSD could improve the migration of AGEs-treated HUVECs regardless of its enzymatic activity.

  18. The Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Using Recombinant Cathepsin L Protease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales Santana, Bibiana; Vasquez Camargo, Fabio; Parkinson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease of domestic animals caused by helminths of the genus Fasciola. In many parts of the world, particularly in poor rural areas where animal disease is endemic, the parasite also infects humans. Adult parasites reside in the bile ducts of the host and therefore diagnosis of human fascioliasis is usually achieved by coprological examinations that search for parasite eggs that are carried into the intestine with the bile juices. However, these methods are insensitive due to the fact that eggs are released sporadically and may be missed in low-level infections, and fasciola eggs may be misclassified as other parasites, leading to problems with specificity. Furthermore, acute clinical symptoms as a result of parasites migrating to the bile ducts appear before the parasite matures and begins egg laying. A human immune response to Fasciola antigens occurs early in infection. Therefore, an immunological method such as ELISA may be a more reliable, easy and cheap means to diagnose human fascioliasis than coprological analysis. Methodology/Principal findings Using a panel of serum from Fasciola hepatica-infected patients and from uninfected controls we have optimized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which employs a recombinant form of the major F. hepatica cathepsin L1 as the antigen for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. We examined the ability of the ELISA test to discern fascioliasis from various other helminth and non-helminth parasitic diseases. Conclusions/Significance A sensitive and specific fascioliasis ELISA test has been developed. This test is rapid and easy to use and can discriminate fasciola-infected individuals from patients harbouring other parasites with at least 99.9% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity. This test will be a useful standardized method not only for testing individual samples but also in mass screening programs to assess the extent of human fascioliasis in regions where this

  19. The diagnosis of human fascioliasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant cathepsin L protease.

    PubMed

    Gonzales Santana, Bibiana; Dalton, John P; Vasquez Camargo, Fabio; Parkinson, Michael; Ndao, Momar

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease of domestic animals caused by helminths of the genus Fasciola. In many parts of the world, particularly in poor rural areas where animal disease is endemic, the parasite also infects humans. Adult parasites reside in the bile ducts of the host and therefore diagnosis of human fascioliasis is usually achieved by coprological examinations that search for parasite eggs that are carried into the intestine with the bile juices. However, these methods are insensitive due to the fact that eggs are released sporadically and may be missed in low-level infections, and fasciola eggs may be misclassified as other parasites, leading to problems with specificity. Furthermore, acute clinical symptoms as a result of parasites migrating to the bile ducts appear before the parasite matures and begins egg laying. A human immune response to Fasciola antigens occurs early in infection. Therefore, an immunological method such as ELISA may be a more reliable, easy and cheap means to diagnose human fascioliasis than coprological analysis. Using a panel of serum from Fasciola hepatica-infected patients and from uninfected controls we have optimized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which employs a recombinant form of the major F. hepatica cathepsin L1 as the antigen for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. We examined the ability of the ELISA test to discern fascioliasis from various other helminth and non-helminth parasitic diseases. A sensitive and specific fascioliasis ELISA test has been developed. This test is rapid and easy to use and can discriminate fasciola-infected individuals from patients harbouring other parasites with at least 99.9% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity. This test will be a useful standardized method not only for testing individual samples but also in mass screening programs to assess the extent of human fascioliasis in regions where this zoonosis is suspected.

  20. Cathepsin B-Deficient Mice Resolve Leishmania major Inflammation Faster in a T Cell-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mériaux, Véronique; Khan, Erin M.; Borde, Chloé; Ciulean, Ioana S.; Fitting, Catherine; Manoury, Bénédicte; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Doyen, Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    A critical role for intracellular TLR9 has been described in recognition and host resistance to Leishmania parasites. As TLR9 requires endolysosomal proteolytic cleavage to achieve signaling functionality, we investigated the contribution of different proteases like asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) or cysteine protease cathepsins B (CatB), L (CatL) and S (CatS) to host resistance during Leishmania major (L. major) infection in C57BL/6 (WT) mice and whether they would impact on TLR9 signaling. Unlike TLR9-/-, which are more susceptible to infection, AEP-/-, CatL-/- and CatS-/- mice are as resistant to L. major infection as WT mice, suggesting that these proteases are not individually involved in TLR9 processing. Interestingly, we observed that CatB-/- mice resolve L. major lesions significantly faster than WT mice, however we did not find evidence for an involvement of CatB on either TLR9-dependent or independent cytokine responses of dendritic cells and macrophages or in the innate immune response to L. major infection. We also found no difference in antigen presenting capacity. We observed a more precocious development of T helper 1 responses accompanied by a faster decline of inflammation, resulting in resolution of footpad inflammation, reduced IFNγ levels and decreased parasite burden. Adoptive transfer experiments into alymphoid RAG2-/-γc-/- mice allowed us to identify CD3+ T cells as responsible for the immune advantage of CatB-/- mice towards L. major. In vitro data confirmed the T cell intrinsic differences between CatB-/- mice and WT. Our study brings forth a yet unappreciated role for CatB in regulating T cell responses during L. major infection. PMID:27182703