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Sample records for c10h8o 2-methyl indol

  1. Design, synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of some new 6,8-halo-substituted-2h-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indole-3(5h)-one/-thione and 6,8-halo-substituted 5-methyl-2h-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3(5h)-one/-thione

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, Tejendra; Singh, Hariram; Jain, Sandeep; Roy, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    A new series of 6,8-halo-substituted-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indole-3(5H)-one/-thione and 6,8-halo-substituted 5-methyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3(5H)-one/-thione (5a-5l) were designed and synthesized keeping in view of the structural requirement of pharmacophore. The above compounds were characterized by thin layer chromatography and spectral analysis. Anticonvulsant activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by the maximal electroshock (MES) test. Neurotoxicity and CNS depressant effects were evaluated by the rotarod motor impairment and Porsolt’s force swim tests, respectively. A computational study was carried out, for calculation of pharmacophore pattern, prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity properties. The above study revealed that the compounds 8-chloro-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3(5H)-one (5e), 6,8-dibromo-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3(5H)-one (5i) and 6,8-dibromo-5-methyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3(5H)-one (5k) possess excellent anticonvulsant activity in the series with little CNS depressant effect and no neurotoxicity as compared to standard drugs phenytoin and carbamazepine. PMID:26417257

  2. (Z)-3-(1-Chloro-prop-1-en-yl)-2-methyl-1-phenyl-sulfonyl-1H-indole.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Saravanan, V; Yamuna, R; Mohanakrishnan, A K; Chakkaravarthi, G

    2013-11-16

    In the title compound, C18H16ClNO2S, the indole ring system forms a dihedral angle of 75.07 (8)° with the phenyl ring. The mol-ecular structure is stabilized by a weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along [10-1]. C-H⋯π inter-actions are also observed, leading to a three-dimensional network.

  3. Crystal structures of three indole derivatives: 3-ethnyl-2-methyl-1-phenyl­sulfonyl-1H-indole, 4-phenyl­sulfonyl-3H,4H-cyclo­penta­[b]indol-1(2H)-one and 1-{2-[(E)-2-(5-chloro-2-nitro­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1-phenyl­sulfonyl-1H-indol-3-yl}ethan-1-one chloro­form monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, S.; Sethusankar, K.; Ramalingam, Bose Muthu; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K.

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds, C17H13NO2S, (I), C17H13NO3S, (II), and C24H17ClN2O5S·CHCl3, (III), are indole derivatives. Compounds (I) and (II) crystalize with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The indole ring systems in all three structures deviate only slightly from planarity, with dihedral angles between the planes of the pyrrole and benzene rings spanning the tight range 0.20 (9)–1.65 (9)°. These indole ring systems, in turn, are almost orthogonal to the phenyl­sulfonyl rings [range of dihedral angles between mean planes = 77.21 (8)–89.26 (8)°]. In the three compounds, the mol­ecular structure is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating S(6) ring motifs with the sulfone O atom. In compounds (I) and (II), the two independent mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions, while in compound (III), the mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating R 2 2(22) inversion dimers. PMID:26396842

  4. Electron scattering by the hydrocarbons C4H6,C5H8 , and C6H10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiataki, Matheus B.; Pastega, Diego F.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2017-10-01

    We report calculated elastic integral and differential cross sections for electron collisions with the hydrocarbons 1,3-butadiene (C4H6 ), 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (C5H8 ), and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (C6H10 ) for impact energies up to 15 eV. Our calculations were performed with the Schwinger Multichannel Method with pseudopotentials, in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations. These molecules differ for the presence of one methyl group, in the case of C5H8 , and two methyl groups, in the case of C6H10 in substitution of one and two hydrogen atoms in C4H6 , respectively (methylation effect). For the polar molecule 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, we included the Born closure procedure in order to account for the long-range potential. We found two π* shape resonances in the integral cross section of each one of the molecules studied. The present results are also compared with the experimental values for the resonances positions and with total cross sections available in the literature. In particular, we show that the minimum in the total cross section of C5H8 located at around 1.6 eV and assigned by the authors as a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is, actually, a valley between the two π* shape resonances. Also for the C5H8 molecule, the enhancement in the total cross section below 1.6 eV is the tail of the low-lying shape resonance and not an effect due to its permanent dipole moment, as suggested by the authors. We discuss the influence of the methylation effect in the shape and magnitude of the elastic cross sections and also in the location of the π* shape resonances of these hydrocarbons.

  5. Computational and photoelectron spectroscopic study of the dipole-bound anions, indole(H2O)1,2 (.).

    PubMed

    Buytendyk, A M; Buonaugurio, A M; Xu, S-J; Nilles, J M; Bowen, K H; Kirnosov, N; Adamowicz, L

    2016-07-14

    We report our joint computational and anion photoelectron spectroscopic study of indole-water cluster anions, indole(H2O)1,2 (-). The photoelectron spectra of both cluster anions show the characteristics of dipole-bound anions, and this is confirmed by our theoretical computations. The experimentally determined vertical electron detachment (VDE) energies for indole(H2O)1 (-) and indole(H2O)2 (-) are 144 meV and 251 meV, respectively. The corresponding theoretically determined VDE values for indole(H2O)1 (-) and indole(H2O)2 (-) are 124 meV and 255 meV, respectively. The vibrational features in the photoelectron spectra of these cluster anions are assigned as the vibrations of the water molecule.

  6. Computational and photoelectron spectroscopic study of the dipole-bound anions, indole(H2O)1,2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytendyk, A. M.; Buonaugurio, A. M.; Xu, S.-J.; Nilles, J. M.; Bowen, K. H.; Kirnosov, N.; Adamowicz, L.

    2016-07-01

    We report our joint computational and anion photoelectron spectroscopic study of indole-water cluster anions, indole(H2O)1,2-. The photoelectron spectra of both cluster anions show the characteristics of dipole-bound anions, and this is confirmed by our theoretical computations. The experimentally determined vertical electron detachment (VDE) energies for indole(H2O)1- and indole(H2O)2- are 144 meV and 251 meV, respectively. The corresponding theoretically determined VDE values for indole(H2O)1- and indole(H2O)2- are 124 meV and 255 meV, respectively. The vibrational features in the photoelectron spectra of these cluster anions are assigned as the vibrations of the water molecule.

  7. 1-(2-Hy-droxy-eth-yl)-3-[(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)amino]-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Zhao, Sheng-Yin

    2011-04-01

    There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(16)H(17)N(3)O(4), in which the dihedral angles between the indole ring system and maleimide ring are 4.5 (3), 8.3 (3), 8.4 (2) and 10.4 (2)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by numerous N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  8. DNA precursor pool: a significant target for N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Topal, M D; Baker, M S

    1982-01-01

    Synchronized C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells were treated in vitro with a nontoxic dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea during their S phase. Chromatographic isolation of the deoxyribonucleotide DNA precursor pool and measurement of the precursor content per cell showed that a nucleic acid residue in the precursor pool is 190-13,000 times more susceptible to methylation than a residue in the DNA duplex, depending on the site of methylation. This conclusion comes from measurements indicating that, for example, the N-1 position of adenine in dATP is 6.3 times more methylated than the same position in the DNA, even though the adenine content of the pool is only a fraction (0.0005) of the adenine content of the DNA helix. The comparative susceptibility between pool and DNA was found to vary with the site of methylation in the order the N-1 position of adenine greater than phosphate greater than the N-3 position of adenine greater than the O6 position of guanine greater than the N-7 position of guanine. The significance of these results for chemical mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is discussed. PMID:6954535

  9. Structure-activity relationship of 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole analogues as 5-HT(6) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Cecilia; Svensson, Peder; Boettcher, Henning; Sonesson, Clas

    2013-05-01

    To further investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 6 (5-HT6) receptor agonist 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole (EMD386088, 6), a series of 2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indoles were synthesized, and in vitro affinity to, and functional activity at 5-HT6 receptors was tested. We focused on substituents made at the indole N(1)-, 2- and 5-positions and these were found to not only influence the affinity at 5-HT6 receptors but also the intrinsic activity leading to antagonists, partial agonists and full agonists. In order for a compound to demonstrate potent 5-HT6 receptor agonist properties, the indole N(1) should be unsubstituted, an alkyl group such as 2-methyl is needed and finally halogen substituents in the indole 5-position (fluoro, chloro or, bromo) were essential requirements. However, the introduction of a benzenesulfonyl group at N(1)-position switched the full agonist 6 to be a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (30). A few compounds within the 2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indoles were also screened for off-targets and generally they displayed low affinity for other 5-HT subtypes and serotonin transporter protein (SERT). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 1-(2-Hy­droxy­eth­yl)-3-[(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)amino]-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Zhao, Sheng-Yin

    2011-01-01

    There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H17N3O4, in which the dihedral angles between the indole ring system and maleimide ring are 4.5 (3), 8.3 (3), 8.4 (2) and 10.4 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by numerous N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:21754135

  11. 1-[6-(1H-Indol-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl]-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ramathilagam, C; Umarani, P R; Venkatesan, N; Rajakumar, P; Gunasekaran, B; Manivannan, V

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, C22H15N3O, the dihedral angle between the two indole units is 33.72 (3)°. The mol-ecular structure features a weak intra-molecular C-H⋯N inter-action. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane.

  12. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  13. Poly[[tetra-μ-cyanido-κ8 C:N-dodeca-cyanido-κ12 C-tris­(N,N-di­methyl­formamide-κO)tris­(methanol-κO)tris­(3,4,7,8-tetra­methyl-1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)trimanganese(II)ditungstate(V)] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Lin; Yang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Mn3{W(CN)8}2(C16H16N2)3(C3H7NO)3(CH3OH)3]·2H2O}n, consists of three [Mn(N,N-di­methyl­formamide)(methanol)(3,4,7,8-tetra­methyl-1,10-phenanthroline)]2+ cations, two [W(CN)8]3− anions and two water mol­ecules. Each water mol­ecule is disordered over three sets of sites, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.310 (9):0.275 (9):0.415 (9) for one mol­ecule and 0.335 (9):0.288 (9):0.377 (9) for the other mol­ecule. The MnII atoms exhibit a distorted octa­hedral geometry, while the WV atoms adopt a distorted square-anti­prismatic geometry. The MnII and WV atoms are linked alternatively through cyanide groups, forming a tetra­nuclear 12-atom rhombic metallacycle. Adjacent metallacycles are further connected by μ2-bridging cyanide anions, generating a 3,2-chain structure running parallel to [101]. Inter­chain π–π inter­actions are observed [centroid–centroid distances = 3.763 (3) and 3.620 (2) Å]. PMID:24860305

  14. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation of Imidamides and Divergent Couplings with Diazo Compounds: Substrate-Controlled Synthesis of Indoles and 3H-Indoles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunyun; Qi, Zisong; Wang, He; Yang, Xifa; Li, Xingwei

    2016-09-19

    Indoles are an important structural motif that is commonly found in biologically active molecules. In this work, conditions for divergent couplings between imidamides and acceptor-acceptor diazo compounds were developed that afforded NH indoles and 3H-indoles under ruthenium catalysis. The coupling of α-diazoketoesters afforded NH indoles by cleavage of the C(N2 )-C(acyl) bond whereas α-diazomalonates gave 3H-indoles by C-N bond cleavage. This reaction constitutes the first intermolecular coupling of diazo substrates with arenes by ruthenium-catalyzed C-H activation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nanoliposomes for encapsulation and delivery of the potential antitumoral methyl 6-methoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1 H-indole-2-carboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Ana S.; Castanheira, Elisabete Ms; Queiroz, Maria-João Rp; Ferreira, Paula Mt; Vale-Silva, Luís A.; Pinto, Eugénia

    2011-08-01

    A potential antitumoral fluorescent indole derivative, methyl 6-methoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1 H-indole-2-carboxylate, was evaluated for the in vitro cell growth inhibition on three human tumor cell lines, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), A375-C5 (melanoma), and NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), after a continuous exposure of 48 h, exhibiting very low GI50 values for all the cell lines tested (0.25 to 0.33 μM). This compound was encapsulated in different nanosized liposome formulations, containing egg lecithin (Egg-PC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), DSPC, cholesterol, dihexadecyl phosphate, and DSPE-PEG. Dynamic light scattering measurements showed that nanoliposomes with the encapsulated compound are generally monodisperse and with hydrodynamic diameters lower than 120 nm, good stability and zeta potential values lower than -18 mV. Dialysis experiments allowed to monitor compound diffusion through the lipid membrane, from DPPC/DPPG donor liposomes to NBD-labelled lipid/DPPC/DPPG acceptor liposomes.

  16. An indole-linked C8-deoxyguanosine nucleoside acts as a fluorescent reporter of Watson-Crick versus Hoogsteen base pairing.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Katherine M; Millen, Andrea L; Wetmore, Stacey D; Manderville, Richard A

    2011-03-07

    Pyrrole- and indole-linked C(8)-deoxyguanosine nucleosides act as fluorescent reporters of H-bonding specificity. Their fluorescence is quenched upon Watson-Crick H-bonding to dC, while Hoogsteen H-bonding to G enhances emission intensity. The indole-linked probe is ∼ 10-fold brighter and shows promise as a fluorescent reporter of Hoogsteen base pairing.

  17. Photodegradation of 4-tert-butylphenol in aqueous solution by UV-C, UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanlin; Zhu, Xiufen; Chen, Hongche; Dong, Wenbo; Zhao, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) in aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of systems: UV-C directly photodegradation system, UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) system. Under experimental conditions, the degradation rate of 4-t-BP was in the order: UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/H2O2 > UV-C. The reaction kinetics of UV/S2O8(2-) system were thoroughly investigated. The increase of S2O8(2-) concentration enhanced the 4-t-BP degradation rate, which was inhibited when the concentration of S2O8(2-) exceeded 4.0 mM. The highest efficacy in 4-t-BP degradation was obtained at pH 6.5. The oxidation rate of 4-t-BP could be accelerated by increasing the reaction temperature and irradiation intensity. The highest rate constant (kobs = 8.4 × 10(-2) min(-1)) was acquired when the reaction temperature was 45 °C. The irradiation intensity was measured by irradiation distance, and the optimum irradiation distance was 10 cm. Moreover, the preliminary mechanism of 4-t-BP degradation was studied. The bond scission of the 4-t-BP molecule occurred by the oxidation of SO4(•-), which dimerized and formed two main primary products. Under the conditions of room temperature (25 °C ± 1 °C) and low concentration of K2S2O8 (0.5 mM), 35.4% of total organic carbon (TOC) was removed after 8.5-h irradiation. The results showed that UV/S2O8(2-) system was effective for the degradation of 4-t-BP.

  18. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  19. Ni(ClO4)(2)-catalysed regio- and diastereoselective [3+2] cycloaddition of indoles and aryl oxiranyl-dicarboxylates/diketones: a facile access to furo[3,4-b]indoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieming; Chen, Zuliang; Wu, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Junliang

    2012-02-07

    Ni(ClO(4))(2)·6H(2)O-catalysed regioselective and diastereoselective [3+2]-annulations of aryl oxiranyl-dicarboxylates and indoles via selective C-C bond cleavage of oxirane were revealed. The cycloadditions proceed smoothly with high regio- and diastereoselectivity under mild conditions leading to 1H-furo[3,4-b]indoles in good to excellent yields. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  20. Isotropic C6, C8 and C10 interaction coefficients for CH 4, C 2H 6, C 3H 8, n-C 4H 10 and cyclo- C3H 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gerald F.; Mulder, Fred; Meath, William J.

    1980-12-01

    The non-empirical generalized Kirkwood, Unsöld, and the single-Δ Unsöld methods (with double-zeta quality SCF wave-functions) are used to calculate isotropic dispersion (and induction) energy coefficients C2n, with n ⩽ 5, for interactions involving ground state CH 4, C 2H 6, C 3H 8, n-C 4H 10 and cyclo-C 3H 6. Results are also given for the related multipole polarizabilities α l, multipole sums S1/(0) and S1(-1) which are evaluated using sum rules, and the permanent multipole moments. for l = 1 (dipole) to l = 3 (octupole). Estimates of the reliability of the non-empirical methods, for the type of molecules considered, are obtained by a comparison with accurate literature values of α 1S1(-1) and C6. This, and the asymptotic properties of the multipolar expansion of the dispersion energy, the use to discuss recommended representation for the isotropic long range interaction energies through R-10 where R is the intermolecular separation.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, DNA-cleavage and antioxidant activities of 3-((5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylimino)methyl)quinoline-2(1H)-thione and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanand, B.; Mahendra Raj, K.; Mruthyunjayaswamy, B. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Schiff base 3-((5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylimino)methyl)quinoline-2(1H)-thione and its Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III), complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Visible, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and TGA data. The ligand and its metal complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus in minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) by cup plate method respectively, antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), which was compared with that of standard drugs vitamin-C and vitamin-E and DNA cleavage activity using calf-thymus DNA.

  2. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Marc A [Santa Fe, NM; Martinez, Rodolfo A [Santa Fe, NM; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  3. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): heavy atom effect.

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl CO, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 μs). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 μs) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5 C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1)) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)) and I2C (2.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide [Formula: see text] is equal to 1 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1); 6 × 10(3)M(-1)s(-1) and 2.7 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for indole, I2 C and I5 C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the

  4. Computational Study on the Unimolecular Decomposition of JP-8 Jet Fuel Surrogates III: Butylbenzene Isomers ( n-, s-, and t-C14H10).

    PubMed

    Belisario-Lara, Daniel; Mebel, Alexander M; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2018-04-26

    Ab initio G3(CCSD,MP2)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations of potential energy surfaces have been carried out to unravel the mechanism of the initial stages of pyrolysis of three C 10 H 14 isomers: n-, s-, and t-butylbenzenes. The computed energy and molecular parameters have been utilized in RRKM-master equation calculations to predict temperature- and pressure-dependent rate constants and product branching ratios for the primary unimolecular decomposition of these molecules and for the secondary decomposition of their radical fragments. The results showed that the primary dissociation of n-butylbenzene produces mostly benzyl (C 7 H 7 ) + propyl (C 3 H 7 ) and 1-phenyl-2-ethyl (C 6 H 5 C 2 H 4 ) + ethyl (C 2 H 5 ), with their relative yields strongly dependent on temperature and pressure, together with a minor amount of 1-phenyl-prop-3-yl (C 9 H 11 ) + methyl (CH 3 ). Secondary decomposition reactions that are anticipated to occur on a nanosecond scale under typical combustion conditions split propyl (C 3 H 7 ) into ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) + methyl (CH 3 ), ethyl (C 2 H 5 ) into ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) + hydrogen (H), 1-phenyl-2-ethyl (C 6 H 5 C 2 H 4 ) into mostly styrene (C 8 H 8 ) + hydrogen (H) and to a lesser extent phenyl (C 6 H 5 ) + ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), and 1-phenyl-prop-3-yl (C 9 H 11 ) into predominantly benzyl (C 7 H 7 ) + ethylene (C 2 H 4 ). The primary decomposition of s-butylbenzene is predicted to produce 1-phenyl-1-ethyl (C 6 H 5 CHCH 3 ) + ethyl (C 2 H 5 ) and a minor amount of 1-phenyl-prop-1-yl (C 9 H 11 ) + methyl (CH 3 ), and then 1-phenyl-1-ethyl (C 6 H 5 CHCH 3 ) and 1-phenyl-prop-1-yl (C 9 H 11 ) rapidly dissociate to styrene (C 8 H 8 ) + hydrogen (H) and styrene (C 8 H 8 ) + methyl (CH 3 ), respectively. t-Butylbenzene decomposes nearly exclusively to 2-phenyl-prop-2-yl (C 9 H 11 ) + methyl (CH 3 ), and further, 2-phenyl-prop-2-yl (C 9 H 11 ) rapidly eliminates a hydrogen atom to form 2-phenylpropene (C 9 H 10 ). If hydrogen atoms or other reactive

  5. Expansion of antimonato polyoxovanadates with transition metal complexes: (Co(N3C5H15)2)2[{Co(N3C5H15)2}V15Sb6O42(H2O)]·5H2O and (Ni(N3C5H15)2)2[{Ni(N3C5H15)2}V15Sb6O42(H2O)]·8H2O.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Elena; Näther, Christian; Kögerler, Paul; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2012-02-20

    Two new polyoxovanadates (Co(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2))(2)[{Co(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)}V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)]·5H(2)O (1) and (Ni(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2))(2)[{Ni(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)}V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)]·8H(2)O (2) (N(3)C(5)H(15) = N-(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. In both structures the [V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](6-) shell displays the main structural motif, which is strongly related to the {V(18)O(42)} archetype cluster. Both compounds crystallize in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 14.3438(4), b = 16.6471(6), c = 18.9186(6) Å, α = 87.291(3)°, β = 83.340(3)°, γ = 78.890(3)°, and V = 4401.4(2) Å(3) (1) and a = 14.5697(13), b = 15.8523(16), c = 20.2411(18) Å, α = 86.702(11)°, β = 84.957(11)°, γ = 76.941(11)°, and V = 4533.0(7) Å(3) (2). In the structure of 1 the [V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](6-) cluster anion is bound to a [Co(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)](2+) complex via a terminal oxygen atom. In the Co(2+)-centered complex, one of the amine ligands coordinates in tridentate mode and the second one in bidentate mode to form a strongly distorted CoN(5)O octahedron. Similarly, in compound 2 an analogous NiN(5)O complex is joined to the [V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](6-) anion via the same attachment mode. A remarkable difference between the two compounds is the orientation of the noncoordinated propylamine group leading to intermolecular Sb···O contacts in 1 and to Sb···N interactions in 2. In the solid-state lattices of 1 and 2, two additional [M(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)](2+) complexes act as countercations and are located between the [{M(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)}V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](4-) anions. Between the anions and cations strong N-H···O hydrogen bonds are observed. In both compounds the clusters are stacked along the b axis in an ABAB fashion with cations and water molecules occupying the space between the clusters. Magnetic characterization demonstrates that the Ni(2+) and Co(2+) cations do not

  6. Fourier transformation microwave spectroscopy of the methyl glycolate-H2O complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitake, Masaharu; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2018-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of one conformer of the methyl glycolate-H2O complex has been measured by means of the pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The observed a- and b-type transitions exhibit doublet splittings due to the internal rotation of the methyl group. On the other hand, most of the c-type transitions exhibit quartet splittings arising from the methyl internal rotation and the inversion motion between two equivalent conformations. The spectrum was analyzed using parameterized expressions of the Hamiltonian matrix elements derived by applying the tunneling matrix formalism. Based on the results obtained from ab initio calculation, the observed complex of methyl glycolate-H2O was assigned to the most stable conformer of the insertion complex, in which a non-planer seven membered-ring structure is formed by the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between methyl glycolate and H2O subunits. The inversion motion observed in the c-type transitions is therefore a kind of ring-inversion motion between two equivalent conformations. Conformational flexibility, which corresponds to the ring-inversion between two equivalent conformations and to the isomerization between two possible conformers of the insertion complex, was investigated with the help of the ab initio calculation.

  7. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  8. Volume properties and refraction of aqueous solutions of bisadducts of light fullerene C60 and essential amino acids lysine, threonine, and oxyproline (C60(C6H13N2O2)2, C60(C4H8NO3)2, and C60(C5H9NO2)2) at 25°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, K. N.; Ivanova, N. M.; Charykov, N. A.; Keskinov, V. A.; Kalacheva, S. S.; Duryagina, N. N.; Garamova, P. V.; Kulenova, N. A.; Nabieva, A.

    2017-02-01

    Concentration dependences of the density of aqueous solutions of bisadducts of light fullerene C60 and essential amino acids are studied by pycnometry. Concentration dependences of the average molar volumes and partial volumes of components (H2O and corresponding bisadducts) are calculated for C60(C6H13N2O2)2-H2O, C60(C4H8NO3)2-H2O, and C60(C5H9NO2)2-H2O binary systems at 25°C. Concentration dependences of the indices of refraction of C60(C6H13N2O2)2-H2O, C60(C4H8NO3)2-H2O, and C60(C5H9NO2)2-H2O binary systems are determined at 25°C. The concentration dependences of specific refraction and molar refraction of bisadducts and aqueous solutions of them are calculated.

  9. Structural, vibrational and NMR spectroscopic investigations of newly synthesized 3-((ethylthio)(4-nitrophenyl)methyl)-1H-indole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Sheeraz Ahmad; Dar, Ajaz A.; Ahmad, Shabbir; Khan, Abu T.

    2017-10-01

    The compound 3-((ethylthio)(4-nitrophenyl)methyl)-1H-indole was synthesized at room temperature through one-pot three-component reaction from 1H-indole, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, and ethanethiol using hydrated ferric sulfate as a Lewis acid catalyst. The structure was characterised by single crystal XRD, FTIR (4000-400 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-50 cm-1) and 1H and 13C NMR analysis. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic with volume 3238.3(9) Å3. The experimental vibrational data find the theoretical support through anharmonic frequency calculations using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in combination with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. It is observed that the predicted geometry well reproduces the XRD structural parameters. The experimental 1H and 13C NMR spectra in CDCl3 solvent and the simulated spectra predicted using gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) approach are also found in agreement with each other. HOMO-LUMO, MEP, atomic charges and various other thermodynamic and NLO properties of the title molecule are also reported in this paper.

  10. Hydrothermal Syntheses and Structures of Three-Dimensional Oxo-fluorovanadium Phosphates: [H 2N(C 2H 4) 2NH 2] 0.5[(VO) 4V(HPO 4) 2(PO 4) 2F 2(H 2O) 4] · 2H 2O and K 2[(VO) 3(PO 4) 2F 2(H 2O)] · H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavia, Grant; Haushalter, R. C.; Zubieta, Jon

    1996-11-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of FPO3H2with vanadium oxides result in the incorporation of fluoride into V-P-O frameworks as a consequence of metal-mediated hydrolysis of the fluorophosphoric acid to produce F-and PO3-4. By exploiting this convenient source of F-, two 3-dimensional oxo-fluorovanadium phosphate phases were isolated, [H2N(C2H4)2NH2]0.5[(VO)4V(HOP4)2(PO4)2F2(H2O)4) · 2H2O (1 · 2H2O) and K2[(VO)3(PO4)2F2(H2O)] · H2O (2 · H2O). Both anionic frameworks contain (VIVO)-F--phosphate layers, with confacial bioctahedral {(VIVO)2FO6} units as the fundamental motif. In the case of 1, the layers are linked through {VIIIO6} octahedra, while for 2 the interlayer connectivity is provided by edge-sharing {(VIVO)2F2O6} units. Crystal data are 1 · 2H2O, CH10FN0.5O13P2V2.5, monoclinicC2/m,a= 18.425(4) Å,c= 8.954(2) Å, β = 93.69(2)0,V= 1221.1(4) Å3,Z= 4,Dcalc= 2.423 g cm-3; 2 · H2O, H4F2K2O13P2V3, triclinicPoverline1,a= 7.298(1) Å,b= 8.929(2) Å,c = 10.090(2) Å, α = 104.50(2)0, β = 100.39(2)0, δ = 92.13(2)0,V= 623.8(3) Å3,Z= 2,Dcalc= 2.891 g cm-3.

  11. Ab Initio Reaction Kinetics of CH 3 O$$\\dot{C}$$(=O) and $$\\dot{C}$$H 2 OC(=O)H Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Ting; Yang, Xueliang; Ju, Yiguang

    The dissociation and isomerization kinetics of the methyl ester combustion intermediates methoxycarbonyl radical (CH3Omore » $$\\dot{C}$$(=O)) and (formyloxy)methyl radical ($$\\dot{C}$$H2OC(=O)H) are investigated theoretically using high-level ab initio methods and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM)/master equation (ME) theory. Geometries obtained at the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction (CCSD(T)) levels of theory are found to be similar. We employ high-level ab initio wave function methods to refine the potential energy surface: CCSD(T), multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) with the Davidson–Silver (DS) correction, and multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MRACPF2) theory. MRSDCI+DS and MRACPF2 capture the multiconfigurational character of transition states (TSs) and predict lower barrier heights than CCSD(T). The temperature- and pressure-dependent rate coefficients are computed using RRKM/ME theory in the temperature range 300–2500 K and a pressure range of 0.01 atm to the high-pressure limit, which are then fitted to modified Arrhenius expressions. Dissociation of CH3O$$\\dot{C}$$(=O) to $$\\dot{C}$$H3 and CO2 is predicted to be much faster than dissociating to CH3$$\\dot{O}$$ and CO, consistent with its greater exothermicity. Isomerization between CH3O$$\\dot{C}$$(=O) and $$\\dot{C}$$H2OC(=O)H is predicted to be the slowest among the studied reactions and rarely happens even at high temperature and high pressure, suggesting the decomposition pathways of the two radicals are not strongly coupled. The predicted rate coefficients and branching fractions at finite pressures differ significantly from the corresponding high-pressure-limit results, especially at relatively high temperatures. Finally, because it is one of the most important CH3$$\\dot{O}$$ removal mechanisms under atmospheric conditions, the reaction kinetics of

  12. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): Heavy atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl Cdbnd O, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 μs). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 μs) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 108 M-1 s-1) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 107 M-1 s-1) and I2C (2.3 × 107 M-1 s-1). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide kqT1 is equal to 1 × 104 M-1 s-1; 6 × 103 M-1 s-1 and 2.7 × 104 M-1 s-1 for indole, I2C and I5C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the triplet states has been expressed in

  13. NiFe(C2O4)x as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for removal of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Chang, Huazhen; Huang, Ting; Fang, Shunyan

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x , which showed better catalytic activity than Ni(C 2 O 4 ) x and better re-usability than Fe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The methyl orange removal efficiency was 98% in heterogeneous Fenton system using NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The prepared NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a laminated shape and the size was in the range of 2-4 μm, and Ni was doped into catalyst's structure successfully. The NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a synergistic effect of catalyst of 24.7 for methyl orange removal, and the dope of Ni significantly reduced the leaching of Fe by 77%. The reaction factors and kinetics were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 0.4 g/L of catalyst dose and 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 98% of methyl orange was removed within 20 min. Analysis showed that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals participated in the reaction. With NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x catalyst, the suitable pH range for heterogeneous Fenton system was wide from 3 to 10. The catalyst showed good efficiency after five times re-use. NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x provided great potential in treatment of refractory wastewater with excellent property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Syntheses, structures and characterization of isomorphous CoII and NiII coordination polymers based on 2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiu Ying; Zhao, Yang; Meng, Xiang Ru

    2017-08-01

    Careful choice of the organic ligands is one of the most important parameters in the rational design and synthesis of coordination polymers. Aromatic polycarboxylates have been widely used in the preparation of metal-organic polymers since they can utilize various coordination modes to form diverse structures and can act as hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors in the assembly of supramolecular structures. Nitrogen-heterocyclic organic compounds have also been used extensively as ligands for the construction of polymers with interesting structures. In the polymers catena-poly[[[diaquabis{2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-κN 3 }cobalt(II)]-μ 2 -benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ 2 O 1 :O 4 ] dihydrate], {[Co(C 8 H 4 O 4 )(C 12 H 11 N 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 22H 2 O} n , (I), and catena-poly[[[diaquabis{2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-κN 3 }nickel(II)]-μ 2 -benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ 2 O 1 :O 4 ] dihydrate], {[Ni(C 8 H 4 O 4 )(C 12 H 11 N 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 22H 2 O} n , (II), the Co II or Ni II ion lies on an inversion centre and exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, coordinated by two N atoms from two imidazole rings and four O atoms from two monodentate carboxylate groups and two water molecules. The dicarboxylate ligands bridge metal ions forming a polymeric chain. The 2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole ligands coordinate to the Co II or Ni II centres in monodentate modes through an imidazole N atom and are pendant on opposite sides of the main chain. The two structures are isomorphous. In the crystal, the one-dimensional chains are further connected through O-H...O, O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. In addition, the IR spectroscopic properties, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric behaviours and fluorescence properties of both polymers have been investigated.

  15. New indole, aminoindole and pyranoindole derivatives with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Nakkady, S S; Fathy, M M; Hishmat, O H; Mahmond, S S; Ebeid, M Y

    2000-01-01

    6-Methoxy-1-methyl-2,3-diphenyl indol-5-carboxaldehyde (2) was demethylated to give the 6-hydroxy derivative (3) which was cyclized to the pyrano[3,2-f]indole derivatives (4a-d) by the action of ethyl acetoacetate, diethyl malonate, malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate. When 4c was boiled in acetic acid, it gave 4d. Reduction of 4c by sodium borohydride yielded the orthoaminonitrile (5). Friedel Craft's acetylation of 1b yielded the 5-acetyl derivative (6), which reacted with hydrazine hydrate, o-toluidine and o-aminophenol to afford (7a-c). Demethylation of (1b) yielded the hydroxyl derivative (8), which differs from compound (9) obtained by demethylation of 6-methoxy-2,3-diphenyl-indole (1a). Friedel Craft's acetylation of 9 gave the 7-acetyl compound (10) which yielded the hydrazone (11). The reaction of primary aromatic amines, (i.e. p-nitroaniline, p-anisidine and p-bromo aniline) with 6-methoxy-1-methyl-2,3-diphenyl-indol-5-carboxaldehyde (2) gave the Schiff bases (12a-c). The latter compounds were reduced by sodium borohydride to yield the corresponding Mannich bases (13a-c). Treatment of 12a-c with thioglycolic acid led to the thiazolidin-4-one-derivatives (14a-c). When (12a-c) reacted with cyanoacetamide, the amino group was replaced by the active methylene to form the cyano compound (15). The structure was confirmed by reacting the carboxaldehyde (2) with cyanoacetamide to yield (15). Pharmacological screening was has been carried out to test the anti-inflammatory activity, ulcerogenecity, effect on the isolated rabbit intestine and the antispasmodic activity.

  16. Destruction of C2H4O2 isomers in ice-phase by X-rays: Implication on the abundance of acetic acid and methyl formate in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Marina G.; Faquine, Karla; Pilling, S.

    2017-12-01

    The C2H4O2 isomers methyl formate (HCOOCH3), acetic acid (CH3COOH) and glycoaldehyde (HOCH2CHO) have been detected in molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, as well as, hot cores, hot corinos and around protostellar objects. However, their abundances are very different, being methyl formate more abundant than the other two isomers. This fact may be related to the different destruction by ionizing radiation of these molecules. The goal of this work is experimentally study the photodissociation processes of methyl formate and acetic acid ices when exposed to broadband soft X-ray from 6 up to 2000 eV. The experiments were performed coupled to the SGM beamline in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS/CNPEM) at Campinas, Brazil. The simulated astrophysical ices (12 K) were monitored throughout the experiment using infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR). The analysis of processed ices allowed the determination of the effective destruction cross sections of the parent molecules as well as the effective formation cross section of daughter molecular species such as CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and H2CO (only for methyl formate) and the hydrocarbons C2H6 and C5H10 (only for acetic acid). The half-lives of molecules at ices toward young stellar objects (YSOs) and inside molecular clouds (e.g. Sgr B2 and W51) due to the presence of incoming soft X-rays were estimated. We determined the effective formation rate and the branching ratios for assigned daughter species after the establishment of a chemical equilibrium. The main product from photodissociation of both methyl formate and acetic acid is CO, that can be formed by recombination of ions, formed during the photodissociation, in the ice surface. The relative abundance between methyl formate and acetic acid (NCH3COOH/NHCOOCH3) in different astronomical scenarios and their column density evolution in the presence of X-rays were calculated. Our results suggest that such radiation field can be one of the factors that

  17. Promotional effects of chemisorbed oxygen and hydroxide in the activation of C-H and O-H bonds over transition metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbitts, David; Neurock, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Electronegative coadsorbates such as atomic oxygen (O*) and hydroxide (OH*) can act as Brønsted bases when bound to Group 11 as well as particular Group 8-10 metal surfaces and aid in the activation of X-H bonds. First-principle density functional theory calculations were carried out to systematically explore the reactivity of the C-H bonds of methane and surface methyl intermediates as well as the O-H bond of methanol directly and with the assistance of coadsorbed O* and OH* intermediates over Group 11 (Cu, Ag, and Au) and Group 8-10 transition metal (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt) surfaces. C-H as well as O-H bond activation over the metal proceeds via a classic oxidative addition type mechanism involving the insertion of the metal center into the C-H or O-H bond. O* and OH* assist C-H and O-H activation over particular Group 11 and Group 8-10 metal surfaces via a σ-bond metathesis type mechanism involving the oxidative addition of the C-H or O-H bond to the metal along with a reductive deprotonation of the acidic C-H and O-H bond over the M-O* or M-OH* site pair. The O*- and OH*-assisted C-H activation paths are energetically preferred over the direct metal catalyzed C-H scission for all Group 11 metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) with barriers that are 0.4-1.5 eV lower than those for the unassisted routes. The barriers for O*- and OH*-assisted C-H activation of CH4 on the Group 8-10 transition metals, however, are higher than those over the bare transition metal surfaces by as much as 1.4 eV. The C-H activation of adsorbed methyl species show very similar trends to those for CH4 despite the differences in structure between the weakly bound methane and the covalently adsorbed methyl intermediates. The activation of the O-H bond of methanol is significantly promoted by O* as well as OH* intermediates over both the Group 11 metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) as well as on all Group 8-10 metals studied (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt). The O*- and OH*-assisted CH3O-H barriers are 0.6 to 2

  18. Preparation of Benzo[c]carbazol-6-amines via Manganese-Catalyzed Enaminylation of 1-(Pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with Ketenimines and Subsequent Oxidative Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Li, Zhenmin; Zhang, Zhiyin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2018-03-02

    Manganese-catalyzed C 2 -H enaminylation of 1-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with ketenimines is reported. The reaction provided 2-enaminylated indole derivatives in moderate to excellent yields with a broad substrate scope. A migration of the directing group pyrimidinyl occurred during this process. The synthesized 2-enaminyl indoles could be conveniently converted into 5-aryl-7H-benzo[c]carbazol-6-amines.

  19. New metal-organic frameworks of [M(C6H5O7)(C6H6O7)(C6H7O7)(H2O)] . H2O (M=La, Ce) and [Ce2(C2O4)(C6H6O7)2] . 4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Sheng-Feng; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Shen

    2012-04-01

    Two novel materials, [M(C6H5O7)(C6H6O7)(C6H7O7)(H2O)] . H2O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce2(C2O4)(C6H6O7)2] . 4H2O (2), with a metal-organic framework (MOF) were prepared with hydrothermal reactions and characterized with photoluminescence, magnetic susceptibility, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction in situ. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallized in triclinic space group P1¯ (No. 2); compound 2 crystallized in monoclinic space group P21/c (No. 14). The structure of 1 is built from a 1D MOF, composed of deprotonated citric ligands of three kinds. Compound 2 contains a 2D MOF structure consisting of citrate and oxalate ligands; the oxalate ligand arose from the decomposition in situ of citric acid in the presence of CuII ions. Photoluminescence spectra of compounds 1b and 2 revealed transitions between the 5d1 excited state and two levels of the 4f1 ground state (2F5/2 and 2F7/2). Compounds 1b and 2 containing CeIII ion exhibit a paramagnetic property with weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent magnetic centers.

  20. Influence of the Organic Species and Oxoanion in the Synthesis of two Uranyl Sulfate Hydrates, (H 3 O) 2 [(UO 2 ) 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ­(H 2 O)]·7H 2 O and (H 3 O) 2 [(UO 2 ) 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (H 2 O)]·4H 2 O, and a Uranyl Selenate-Selenite [C 5 H 6 N][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 )(HSeO 3 )

    SciTech Connect

    Jouffret, Laurent J.; Wylie, Ernest M.; Burns, Peter C.

    2012-08-08

    Two uranyl sulfate hydrates, (H3O)2[(UO2)2(SO4)3(H2O)]·7H2O (NDUS) and (H3O)2[(UO2)2(SO4)3(H2O)]·4H2O (NDUS1), and one uranyl selenate-selenite [C5H6N][(UO2)(SeO4)(HSeO3)] (NDUSe), were obtained and their crystal structures solved. NDUS and NDUSe result from reactions in highly acidic media in the presence of L-cystine at 373 K. NDUS crystallized in a closed vial at 278 K after 5 days and NDUSe in an open beaker at 278 K after 2 weeks. NDUS1 was synthesized from aqueous solution at room temperature over the course of a month. NDUS, NDUS1, and NDUSe crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n, a = 15.0249(4) Å,b = 9.9320(2) Å, c = 15.6518(4)more » Å, β = 112.778(1)°, V = 2153.52(9) Å3,Z = 4, the tetragonal space group P43212, a = 10.6111(2) Å,c = 31.644(1) Å, V = 3563.0(2) Å3, Z = 8, and in the monoclinic space group P21/n, a = 8.993(3) Å, b = 13.399(5) Å, c = 10.640(4) Å,β = 108.230(4)°, V = 1217.7(8) Å3, Z = 4, respectively.The structural units of NDUS and NDUS1 are two-dimensional uranyl sulfate sheets with a U/S ratio of 2/3. The structural unit of NDUSe is a two-dimensional uranyl selenate-selenite sheets with a U/Se ratio of 1/2. In-situ reaction of the L-cystine ligands gives two distinct products for the different acids used here. Where sulfuric acid is used, only H3O+ cations are located in the interlayer space, where they balance the charge of the sheets, whereas where selenic acid is used, interlayer C5H6N+ cations result from the cyclization of the carboxyl groups of L-cystine, balancing the charge of the sheets.« less

  1. Degradation mechanism of alachlor during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Liu, Chao; Dong, Bingzhi; Zhang, Yalei

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of alachlor by direct ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) was investigated in this study with focus on identification of degradation byproducts. The second-order reaction rate constant between ozone and alachlor was determined to be 2.5+/-0.1M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 20 degrees C. Twelve and eight high-molecular-weight byproducts (with the benzene ring intact) from alachlor degradation were identified during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2), respectively. The common degradation byproducts included N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-methyleneamine, 8-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-quinoline, 8-ethyl-quinoline, 1-chloroacetyl-2-hydro-3-ketone-7-acetyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-diacetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide, 2-chloro-2'-acetyl-6'-ethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide, and two hydroxylated alachlor isomers. In direct ozonation, four more byproducts were also identified including 1-chloroacetyl-2,3-dihydro-7-ethyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-ethyl-acetanilide, 2-chloro-2',6'-acetyl-acetanilide and 2-chloro-2'-ethyl-6'-acetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide. Degradation of alachlor by O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) also led to the formation of low-molecular-weight byproducts including formic, acetic, propionic, monochloroacetic and oxalic acids as well as chloride ion (only detected in O(3)/H(2)O(2)). Nitrite and nitrate formation was negligible. Alachlor degradation occurred via oxidation of the arylethyl group, N-dealkylation, cyclization and cleavage of benzene ring. After O(3) or O(3)/H(2)O(2) treatment, the toxicity of alachlor solution examined by the Daphnia magna bioassay was slightly reduced. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new 1-[(tetrazol-5-yl)methyl] indole derivatives, their 1,2,4-triazole thioglycosides and acyclic analogs.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Weal A; Abdel Megeid, Randa E; Abbas, Hebat-Allah S

    2011-07-01

    New 1-[(tetrazol-5-yl)methyl]indole derivatives, their acyclic nucleoside analogs and the corresponding glycoside derivatives were synthesized. Furthermore, the [)(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl])-2H-tetrazole derivative as well as the corresponding thioglucoside were prepared. The synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus Niger, Penicillium sp, Candida albican, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus lacti, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., and streptomyces sp. Compounds 3, 5 and 19b exhibited potent antibacterial activity and compounds 4, 5 and 10 exhibited high activities against the tested fungi compared with fusidic acid.

  3. A V(IV) Hydroxyhydrogenomonophosphate with an Intersecting Tunnel Structure: HK 4[V 10O 10(H 2O) 2(OH) 4(PO 4) 7]·9H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrah, F.; Guesdon, A.; Leclaire, A.; Borel, M. M.; Provost, J.; Raveau, B.

    1999-12-01

    A V(IV) hydroxyhydrogenomonophosphate HK4[V10O10(H2O)2(OH)4(PO4)7]·9H2O has been obtained, using hydrothermal conditions. Its structure, closely related to that of (CH3)2NH2K4[V10O10(H2O)2(OH)4(PO4)7]·4H2O, differs from the latter by its I41/a space group (instead of P43). This difference corresponds to a "disordering" of the vanadium atoms, with respect to the dimethyl ammonium phase. It is shown that this disorder, which appears in the form of "V5O22" units distributed at random, does not affect the oxygen framework. The analysis of this complex structure shows that it can be described from the stacking along c of [V8P7O38(OH)4(H2O)2]∞ layers interconnected through layers of isolated VO6 octahedra. In this structure, built up of VO6, VO5OH, and VO4(OH)(H2O) octahedra, of VO4OH pyramids, and of PO4 tetrahedra, large "toffee" tunnels and smaller ones with a tulip-shape section are running along a (or b). The first ones are stuffed with H2O molecules forming aquo tubes, where protons are likely "delocalized," whereas the second ones are occupied by K+ cations.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10024 - 10H-Phenothiazine, ar-(C9-rich C8-10-branched alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 10H-Phenothiazine, ar-(C9-rich C8-10... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10024 10H-Phenothiazine, ar-(C9-rich C8-10-branched... substance identified as 10H-phenothiazine, ar-(C9-rich C8-10-branched alkyl) derivs (PMN P-01-771; CAS No...

  5. 3-Methyl-7-(2-thienyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione: pi-stacked bilayers built from N-H...O, C-H...O and C-H...pi hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Trilleras, Jorge; Quiroga, Jairo; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-06-01

    In the title compound, C(12)H(9)N(3)O(2)S, the thienyl substituent is disordered over two sets of sites with occupancies of 0.749 (3) and 0.251 (3). A combination of N-H...O, C-H...O and C-H...pi hydrogen bonds links the molecules into bilayers and these bilayers are themselves linked into a continuous structure by pi-pi stacking interactions.

  6. Synthesis of carbon-11-labeled 5-HT6R antagonists as new candidate PET radioligands for imaging of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Dong, Fugui; Miao, Caihong; Li, Wei; Wang, Min; Gao, Mingzhang; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Xu, Zhidong

    2018-06-01

    Carbon-11-labeled serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 6 receptor (5-HT 6 R) antagonists, 1-[(2-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]-5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2a) and 1-[(2-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]-5-methoxy-3-[(4-[ 11 C]methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2a), 5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2b) and 5-methoxy-3-((4-[ 11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2b), 1-((4-isopropylphenyl)sulfonyl)-5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2c) and 1-((4-isopropylphenyl)sulfonyl)-5-methoxy-3-((4-[ 11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2c), 1-((4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-5-[ 11 C]methoxy-3-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (O-[ 11 C]2d) and 1-((4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-5-methoxy-3-((4-[ 11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)-1H-indole (N-[ 11 C]2d), were prepared from their O- or N-desmethylated precursors with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O- or N-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by HPLC combined with SPE in 40-50% radiochemical yield, based on [ 11 C]CO 2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The radiochemical purity was >99%, and the molar activity (MA) at EOB was 370-740 GBq/μmol with a total synthesis time of ∼40-min from EOB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lanthanite-(Nd), Nd2(CO3)3·8H2O

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaunna M.; Andrade, Marcelo B.; Wenz, Michelle D.; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Downs, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanite-(Nd), ideally Nd2(CO3)3·8H2O [dineodymium(III) tricarbonate octa­hydrate], is a member of the lanthanite mineral group characterized by the general formula REE 2(CO3)3·8H2O, where REE is a 10-coordinated rare earth element. Based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction of a natural sample from Mitsukoshi, Hizen-cho, Karatsu City, Saga Prefecture, Japan, this study presents the first structure determination of lanthanite-(Nd). Its structure is very similar to that of other members of the lanthanite group. It is composed of infinite sheets made up of corner- and edge-sharing of two NdO10-polyhedra (both with site symmetry ..2) and two carbonate triangles (site symmetries ..2 and 1) parallel to the ab plane, and stacked perpendicular to c. These layers are linked to one another only through hydrogen bonding involving the water mol­ecules. PMID:23476479

  8. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Ln(σ:η(1)-CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)(THF)2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingying; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-04-14

    Rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls can be stabilized by the incorporation of a functional sidearm into both π and σ ligands. Reaction of [Me3NH][7,8-O(CH2)2-7,8-C2B9H10] with one equiv. of Ln(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)3 gave metallacarborane alkyls [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Ln(σ:η(1)-CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)(THF)2 (Ln = Y (), Gd (), Er ()) via alkane elimination. They represent the first examples of rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls. Treatment of with RN[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]NR (R = Cy, (i)Pr) or 2-benzoylpyridine afforded the corresponding mono-insertion products [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[η(2)-(RN)2C(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)](DME) (R = Cy (), (i)Pr ()) or [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[C5H4NC(Ph)(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)O](THF)2 (), respectively. Complex also reacted with ArNCO or ArNC (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl) to give di-insertion products [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[OC([double bond, length as m-dash]NC6H3Me2)N(C6H3Me2)C(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)O](THF)2 () or [η(1):η(5)-O(CH2)2C2B9H9]Y[C([double bond, length as m-dash]NC6H3(i)Pr2)C([double bond, length as m-dash]NC6H3(i)Pr2)(CH2C6H4-o-NMe2)](DME) (). These results showed that the reactivity pattern of the Ln-C σ bond in rare-earth metallacarborane alkyls was dependent on the nature of the unsaturated organic molecules. New complexes were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. Some were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

  9. Ruthenium-catalyzed alkylation of indoles with tertiary amines by oxidation of a sp3 C-H bond and Lewis acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Zhong; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Wong, Man-Kin; Che, Chi-Ming

    2010-05-17

    Ruthenium porphyrins (particularly [Ru(2,6-Cl(2)tpp)CO]; tpp=tetraphenylporphinato) and RuCl(3) can act as oxidation and/or Lewis acid catalysts for direct C-3 alkylation of indoles, giving the desired products in high yields (up to 82% based on 60-95% substrate conversions). These ruthenium compounds catalyze oxidative coupling reactions of a wide variety of anilines and indoles bearing electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substituents with high regioselectivity when using tBuOOH as an oxidant, resulting in the alkylation of N-arylindoles to 3-{[(N-aryl-N-alkyl)amino]methyl}indoles (yield: up to 82%, conversion: up to 95%) and the alkylation of N-alkyl or N-H indoles to 3-[p-(dialkylamino)benzyl]indoles (yield: up to 73%, conversion: up to 92%). A tentative reaction mechanism involving two pathways is proposed: an iminium ion intermediate may be generated by oxidation of an sp(3) C-H bond of the alkylated aniline by an oxoruthenium species; this iminium ion could then either be trapped by an N-arylindole (pathway A) or converted to formaldehyde, allowing a subsequent three-component coupling reaction of the in situ generated formaldehyde with an N-alkylindole and an aniline in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst (pathway B). The results of deuterium-labeling experiments are consistent with the alkylation of N-alkylindoles via pathway B. The relative reaction rates of [Ru(2,6-Cl(2)tpp)CO]-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions of 4-X-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines with N-phenylindole (using tBuOOH as oxidant), determined through competition experiments, correlate linearly with the substituent constants sigma (R(2)=0.989), giving a rho value of -1.09. This rho value and the magnitudes of the intra- and intermolecular deuterium isotope effects (k(H)/k(D)) suggest that electron transfer most likely occurs during the initial stage of the oxidation of 4-X-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines. Ruthenium-catalyzed three-component reaction of N-alkyl/N-H indoles

  10. Synthesis and Pharmacology of 1-Alkyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles: Steric and Electronic Effects of 4- and 8-Halogenated Naphthoyl Substituents.

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Smith, Valerie J.; Chen, Jianhong; Martin, Billy R.; Huffman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    To develop SAR at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors for 3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles bearing moderately electron withdrawing substituents at C-4 of the naphthoyl moiety, 1-propyl and 1-pentyl-3-(4-fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl) derivatives were prepared. To study the steric and electronic effects of substituents at the 8-position of the naphthoyl group, the 3-(4-chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl)indoles were also synthesized. The affinities of both groups of compounds for the CB1 and CB2 receptors were determined and several of them were evaluated in vivo in the mouse. The effects of these substituents on receptor affinities and in vivo activity are discussed and structure-activity relationships are presented. Although many of these compounds are selective for the CB2 receptor, only three JWH-423, 1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-422, 2-methyl-1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, the 2-methyl analog of JWH-423 and JWH-417, 1-pentyl-3-(8-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, possess the desirable combination of low CB1 affinity and good CB2 affinity. PMID:22341572

  11. Design and syntheses of hybrid metal-organic materials based on K3[M(C2O4)3]·3H2O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] metallotectons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yayong; Zong, Yingxia; Ma, Haoran; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Debao; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    By using K3[M(C2O4)3]·3H2O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] (C2O42-=oxalate) metallotectons as the starting material, we have synthesized eight novel complexes with formulas [{Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2}2]·(H-L1)2·H2O 1, [Fe(C2O4)Cl2]·(H2-L2)0.5·(L2)0.5·H2O 2, [{Fe(C2O4)1.5Cl2}2]·(H-L3)43, [Fe2(C2O4)Cl8]·(H2-L4)2·2H2O 4, K[Al(C2O4)3]·(H2-L5)·2H2O 5, K[Al(C2O4)3]·(H-L6)2·2H2O 6, K[Cr(C2O4)3]·2H2O 7, Na[Fe(C2O4)3]·(H-L6)2·2H2O 8 (with L1=4-dimethylaminopyridine, L2=2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, L3=2-aminobenzimidazole, L4=1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, L5=1,4-bis((2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, L6=2-methylbenzimidazole). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. Compound 3 is a 2D H-bonded supramolecular architecture. Others are 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 1 shows a [Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2]- unit and 3D antionic H-bonded framework. Compound 2 features a [Fe(C2O4)Cl2]- anion and 1D iron-oxalate-iron chain. Compound 3 features a [Fe2(C2O4)3Cl4]4- unit. Compound 4 features distinct [Fe2(C2O4)Cl8]4- units, which are mutual linked by water molecules to generated a 2D H-bonded network. Compound 5 features infinite ladder-like chains constructed by [Al(C2O4)3]3- units and K+ cations. The 1D chains are further extended into 3D antionic H-bonded framework through O-H···O H-bonds. Compounds 6-8 show 2D [KAl(C2O4)3]2- layer, [KCr(C2O4)3]2- layer and [NaFe(C2O4)3]2- layer, respectively.

  12. Synthesis of methyl 2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside and methyl 2-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Dubey, R; Abbas, S A; Matta, K L

    1987-03-15

    Treatment of methyl 3-O-benzyl-2-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D- mannopyranoside (1) with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride in N,N-dimethylformamide afforded methyl 3-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl -alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (2). Oxidation of 2 with pyridinium chlorochromate, followed by reduction of the carbonyl group, and subsequent O-deacetylation afforded methyl 3-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl- alpha-D- talopyranoside (5). Cleavage of the tert-butyldiphenylsilyl group of 5 with tetrabutylammonium fluoride in oxolane, followed by hydrogenolysis, gave methyl 2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside (7). O-Deacetylation of 1 gave methyl 3-O-benzyl-2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (8). Treatment of 8 with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride afforded a 6,6'-disilyl derivative, which was converted into a 2',3'-O-isopropylidene derivative, and then further oxidized with pyridinium chlorochromate. The resulting diketone was reduced and removal of the protecting groups gave methyl 2-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside (15). The structures of both 7 and 15 were established by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis, structural elucidation, spectroscopic studies, thermal behavior and luminescence properties of a new 3-d compound: FeAlF2(C10H8N2)(HPO4)2(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidia, Nabaa; Salah, Najet; Hamdi, Besma; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid

    2017-04-01

    The study of metal phosphate has been a proactive field of research thanks to its applied and scientific importance, especially in terms of the development of optical devices such as solid state lasers as well as optical fibers. The present paper seeks to investigate the synthesis, crystal structure, elemental analysis and properties of FeAlF2(C10H8N2)(HPO4)2(H2O) compound investigated by spectroscopic studies (FT-IR and FT-Raman), thermal behavior and luminescence. The Hirshfeld surface analysis and 2-D fingerprint plot have been performed to explore the behavior of these weak interactions and crystal cohesion. This investigation shows that the molecules are connected by hydrogen bonds of the type Osbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯F. In addition, the 2,2'‒bipyridine ligand plays a significant role in the construction of 3-D supramolecular framework via π‒π stacking. FT‒IR and FT‒Raman spectra were used so as to ease the responsibilities of the vibration modes of the title compound. The thermal analysis (TGA) study shows a mass loss evolution as a temperature function. Finally, the optical properties were evaluated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  14. [Mechanism and performance of styrene oxidation by O3/H2O2].

    PubMed

    He, Jue-Cong; Huang, Qian-Ru; Ye, Qi-Hong; Luo, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Zai-Li; Fan, Qing-Juan; Wei, Zai-Shan

    2013-10-01

    It can produce a large number of free radicals in O3/H2O2, system, ozone and free radical coupling oxidation can improve the styrene removal efficiency. Styrene oxidation by O3/H2O2 was investigated. Ozone dosage, residence time, H2o2 volume fraction, spray density and molar ratio of O3/C8H8 on styrene removal were evaluated. The experimental results showed that styrene removal efficiency achieved 85.7%. The optimal residence time, H2O2, volume fraction, spray density and O3/C8H8 molar ratio were 20. 6 s, 10% , 1.72 m3.(m2.h)-1 and 0.46, respectively. The gas-phase degradation intermediate products were benzaldehyde(C6H5CHO) and benzoic acid (C6H5 COOH) , which were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The degradation mechanism of styrene is presented.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10025 - 10H-Phenothiazine, ar, ar′-(C9-rich C8-10-branched alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 10H-Phenothiazine, ar, arâ²-(C9-rich... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10025 10H-Phenothiazine, ar, ar′-(C9-rich C8-10... chemical substances identified as 10H-phenothiazine, ar, ar′-(C9-rich C8-10-branched alkyl) derivs (PMN P...

  16. Detection of interstellar ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Ikeda, M; Ishikawa, S; Nummelin, A; Hjalmarson, A

    1997-11-10

    We report the identification of 10 transitions that support the detection of the small cyclic molecule ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) in Sgr B2N. Although one of these transitions is severely blended, so that an accurate intensity and line width could not be determined, and two other lines are only marginally detected, we have done Gaussian fits to the remaining seven lines and have performed a rotation diagram analysis. Our results indicate a rotation temperature T(rot) = 18 K and a molecular column density N(c-C2H4O) = 3.3 x 10(14) cm-2, corresponding to a fractional abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of order 6 x 10(-11). This is a factor of more than 200 higher than the abundance for this molecule suggested by the "new standard" chemistry model of Lee, Bettens, & Herbst. This result suggests that grain chemistry might play an effective role in the production of c-C2H4O. No transitions of this molecule were detected in either Sgr B2M or Sgr B2NW.

  17. Combined Experimental and Computational Study on the Unimolecular Decomposition of JP-8 Jet Fuel Surrogates. I. n-Decane (n-C10H22).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Yang, Tao; Kaiser, Ralf I; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Belisario-Lara, Daniel; Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Mebel, Alexander M

    2017-02-16

    Exploiting a high temperature chemical reactor, we explored the pyrolysis of helium-seeded n-decane as a surrogate of the n-alkane fraction of Jet Propellant-8 (JP-8) over a temperature range of 1100-1600 K at a pressure of 600 Torr. The nascent products were identified in situ in a supersonic molecular beam via single photon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization coupled with a mass spectroscopic analysis of the ions in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF). Our studies probe, for the first time, the initial reaction products formed in the decomposition of n-decane-including radicals and thermally labile closed-shell species effectively excluding mass growth processes. The present study identified 18 products: molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), C2 to C7 1-alkenes [ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) to 1-heptene (C 7 H 14 )], C1-C3 radicals [methyl (CH 3 ), vinyl (C 2 H 3 ), ethyl (C 2 H 5 ), propargyl (C 3 H 3 ), allyl (C 3 H 5 )], small C1-C3 hydrocarbons [methane (CH 4 ), acetylene (C 2 H 2 ), allene (C 3 H 4 ), methylacetylene (C 3 H 4 )], along with higher-order reaction products [1,3-butadiene (C 4 H 6 ), 2-butene (C 4 H 8 )]. On the basis of electronic structure calculations, n-decane decomposes initially by C-C bond cleavage (excluding the terminal C-C bonds) producing a mixture of alkyl radicals from ethyl to octyl. These alkyl radicals are unstable under the experimental conditions and rapidly dissociate by C-C bond β-scission to split ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) plus a 1-alkyl radical with the number of carbon atoms reduced by two and 1,4-, 1,5-, 1,6-, or 1,7-H shifts followed by C-C β-scission producing alkenes from propene to 1-octene in combination with smaller 1-alkyl radicals. The higher alkenes become increasingly unstable with rising temperature. When the C-C β-scission continues all the way to the propyl radical (C 3 H 7 ), it dissociates producing methyl (CH 3 ) plus ethylene (C 2 H 4 ). Also, at higher temperatures, hydrogen atoms can abstract hydrogen

  18. Preparation of 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-ylacetic acid and its [13C2], [5-n-3H], and [5-n-3H]-7-O-glucosyl analogues for use in the study of indol-3-ylacetic acid catabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    An improved synthesis of 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-ylacetic acid via the base-induced condensation reaction between oxalate esters and 7-benzyloxyindolin-2-one is described. 7-Benzyloxyindolin-2-one was prepared in four steps and 50% overall yield from 3-hydroxy-2-nitrotoluene. The yield of the title compound from 7-benzyloxyindolin-2-one was 56%. This route was used to prepare 7-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl[13C2]acetic acid in 30% yield from [13C2]oxalic acid dihydrate. The method could not be extended to the preparation of the corresponding [14C2]-compound. However, an enzyme preparation from Zea mays roots catalysed the conversion of carrier-free [5-n-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid with a specific activity of 16.7 Ci mmol-1 to a mixture of 7-hydroxy-2-oxo[5-n-3H]indolin-3-ylacetic acid and its [5-n-3H]-7-O-glucoside in ca. 3 and 40% radiochemical yield respectively. The glucoside was converted into the 7-hydroxy compound in 80% yield by means of beta-glucosidase.

  19. Crystal structure of 1-methyl-3-([2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dioxo-1,3-dioxane-5-ylidene]methyl)urea

    SciTech Connect

    Habibi, A., E-mail: habibi@khu.ac.ir; Ghorbani, H. S.; Bruno, G.

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of 1-Methyl-3-([2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dioxo-1,3-dioxane-5-ylidene]methyl)urea (C{sub 9}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, a = 5.3179(2), b = 18.6394(6), c =10.8124(3) Å, β = 100.015(2)°, Z = 4, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c, R = 0.0381 for 2537 reflections with I > 2σ(I). Except for C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} group, the molecule is planar. The structure is stabilized by inter- and intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H...O interactions.

  20. Determination of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in mung bean sprouts using high performance liquid chromatography with immobilized Ru(bpy)3(2+)-KMnO4 chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhijun; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua; Shi, Zuolong; Tian, Wei

    2009-07-15

    A novel method for determination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in an extract from mung bean sprouts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection is described. The method is based on the CL reaction of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid) with acidic potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II), which was immobilized on the cationic ion-exchange resin. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Nucleosil RP-C18 column (i.d.: 250 mm x 4.6 mm, particle size: 5 microm, pore size: 100) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:1, v/v/v). At a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), the total run time was 20 min. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were 5.0x10(-8) to 5.0x10(-6)g mL(-1) and 5.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-5)g mL(-1) for IAA and IBA, respectively. The detection limits were 2.0x10(-8)g mL(-1) and 2.0x10(-7)g mL(-1) for IAA and IBA, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day were 3.1% and 2.3% (n=11) for 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IAA and 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IBA; The relative standard deviations of inter-day precision were 6.9% and 4.9% for 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IAA and 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IBA. The proposed method had been successfully applied to the determination of auxin in mung bean sprouts.

  1. Synthesis, Cytotoxic and Contraceptive Activity of 6,8,9-Trihydroxy-2-methyl-2H-naphtho[2,3-b]pyran-5,10-dione, a Pigment of Echinothrix diadema, and its Analogs.

    PubMed

    Pokhilo, Natalia D; Melman, Galina I; Kiseleva, Marina I; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Anufriev, Victor Ph

    2015-07-01

    6,8,9-Trihydroxy-2-methyl-2H-naphtho[2,3-b]pyran-5,10-dion, a pigment of the sea urchin Echinothrix diadema, and six analogs were synthesized. The cytotoxic activity and contraceptive properties of the synthesized pyranonaphthazarins have been investigated using the sperm and eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ones/thiones as potent anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohammad; Javed, Sadique Akhtar; Kumar, Harish

    2008-12-01

    Twelve new 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ones/thiones (7-18) have been synthesized by reacting 1-aryl-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-propen-1-one with urea and thiourea in ethanolic potassium hydroxide. Their structures have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity. Test results revealed that compounds showed 49.5 to 70.7% anti-inflammatory activity where-as the standard drug ibuprofen showed 86.4% activity at the same oral dose. Four compounds, 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-one (8), 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-one (10), 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione (14), 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione (16), that showed significant anti-inflammatory activity were selected to study their ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation activities. All tested compounds showed significant reduction in the ulcerogenic potential and lipid peroxidation compared to the standard drug ibuprofen.

  3. Interatomic interactions in M2(C8H4O4)2C6H12N2 (M = Zn, Cu, Co, Ni) metal-organic framework polymers: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, QTAIM and ELF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, S. G.; Ryzhikov, M. R.; Samsonenko, D. G.; Kalinkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Interatomic interactions in M2(C8H4O4)2C6H12N2 (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) metal-organic framework polymers have been studied with the methods of quantum chemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Interactions of C6H12N2 molecules and C8H4O42- anions with metal atoms are shown to be of closed-shell type. C6H12N2 molecules are positively charged, the value of the charge slightly depends on the type of the metal atoms. Msbnd M interactions are described as "intermediate interactions" with some covalence contribution which reaches maximum for the interactions between cobalt atoms. The obtained quantum-chemical data agree with those obtained from photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  4. Cleavage of sp3 C-O bonds via oxidative addition of C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongwook; Choliy, Yuriy; Zhang, Xiawei; Emge, Thomas J; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2009-11-04

    (PCP)Ir (PCP = kappa(3)-C(6)H(3)-2,6-[CH(2)P(t-Bu)(2)](2)) is found to undergo oxidative addition of the methyl-oxygen bond of electron-poor methyl aryl ethers, including methoxy-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene and methoxypentafluorobenzene, to give the corresponding aryloxide complexes (PCP)Ir(CH(3))(OAr). Although the net reaction is insertion of the Ir center into the C-O bond, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and a significant kinetic isotope effect [k(CH(3))(OAr)/k(CD(3))(OAr) = 4.3(3)] strongly argue against a simple insertion mechanism and in favor of a pathway involving C-H addition and alpha-migration of the OAr group to give a methylene complex followed by hydride-to-methylene migration to give the observed product. Ethoxy aryl ethers, including ethoxybenzene, also undergo C-O bond cleavage by (PCP)Ir, but the net reaction in this case is 1,2-elimination of ArO-H to give (PCP)Ir(H)(OAr) and ethylene. DFT calculations point to a low-barrier pathway for this reaction that proceeds through C-H addition of the ethoxy methyl group followed by beta-aryl oxide elimination and loss of ethylene. Thus, both of these distinct C-O cleavage reactions proceed via initial addition of a C(sp(3))-H bond, despite the fact that such bonds are typically considered inert and are much stronger than C-O bonds.

  5. Elevated blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Michalec, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a late-life neurodegenerative disease. Genetic and environmental factors play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin that shows structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In 2002 and 2007, we demonstrated elevated blood harmane concentrations [HA] in essential tremor (ET) cases. We now assessed whether blood [HA] were elevated in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well. Blood [HA] were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 113 PD cases and 101 controls. Mean log blood [HA] in PD cases was double that of controls (0.59±0.63 g(-10)/ml vs. 0.27±0.63 g(-10)/ml, p<0.001). A non-parametric test on non-transformed data (median blood [HA]=3.31 g(-10)/ml in cases and 1.44 g(-10)/ml in controls) also showed this difference (p<0.001). In unadjusted and then adjusted logistic regression analyses, log blood [HA] was associated with PD (odds ratio [OR]unadjusted 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-3.67, p<0.001; OR(adjusted) 2.54, 95% CI 1.55-4.16, p<0.001). In PD, log blood [HA] co-varied with family history, being lowest in PD cases with no family history (0.54±0.60 g(-10)/ml) and highest in PD cases with a family history of both ET and PD (0.84±0.68 g(-10)/ml) (p=0.06). Blood harmane appears to be elevated in PD. The finding needs to be reproduced in additional cohorts to assess its generalizability. The higher concentration in familial PD suggests that the mechanism may involve genetic factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated Blood Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) Concentrations In Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Michalec, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is a late-life neurodegenerative disease. Genetic and environmental factors play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin that shows structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Objectives In 2002 and 2007, we demonstrated elevated blood harmane concentrations [HA] in essential tremor (ET) cases. We now assessed whether blood [HA] were elevated in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well. Methods Blood [HA] were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 113 PD cases and 101 controls. Results Mean log blood [HA] in PD cases was double that of controls (0.59 ± 0.63 g −10/ml vs. 0.27 ± 0.63 g−10/ml, p <0.001). A non-parametric test on non-transformed data (median blood [HA] = 3.31 g −10/ml in cases and 1.44 g −10/ml in controls) also showed this difference (p <0.001). In unadjusted and then adjusted logistic regression analyses, log blood [HA] was associated with PD (odds ratio [OR]unadjusted 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 – 3.67, p <0.001; ORadjusted 2.54, 95% CI 1.55 – 4.16, p <0.001). In PD, log blood [HA] co-varied with family history, being lowest in PD cases with no family history (0.54 ± 0.60 g−10/ml) and highest in PD cases with a family history of both ET and PD (0.84 ± 0.68 g−10/ml)(p = 0.06). Conclusions Blood harmane appears to be elevated in PD. The finding needs to be reproduced in additional cohorts to assess its generalizability. The higher concentration in familial PD suggests that the mechanism may involve genetic factors. PMID:24300779

  7. 5-Chloro-5''-[4-(di-methyl-amino)-benzyl-idene]-4'-[4-(di-methyl-amino)-phen-yl]-1',1''-di-methyl-dispiro-[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3''-piperidine]-2,4''-dione.

    PubMed

    Farag, I S Ahmed; Girgis, Adel S; Ramadan, A A; Moustafa, A M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C34H38ClN5O2, has spiro links connecting the pyrrolidine ring and indole residue, as well as the piperidine and pyrrolidine rings. A half-chair conformation is found for the piperidine ring with the C atom connected to the spiro-C atom lying 0.738 (4) Å out of the plane of the remaining five atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0407 Å). The methyl-ene C atom is the flap in the envelope conformation for the pyrrolidine ring. In the crystal, supra-molecular chains are sustained by alternating eight-membered {⋯HNCO}2 and 14-membered {⋯HC5O}2 synthons. Chains are connected into a three-dimensional network by (pyrrolidine-bound phenyl-meth-yl)C-H⋯π(pyrrolidine-bound phen-yl) edge-to-face inter-actions.

  8. Spectral and thermal studies of MgI2·8H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Violeta; Stefov, Viktor; Najdoski, Metodija; Ilievski, Zlatko; Cahil, Adnan

    2017-10-01

    In the present contribution special attention is paid to the spectroscopic and thermal characterization of MgI2·8H2O which is the stable hydrated form at room temperature. The infrared spectra of MgI2·8H2O and its deuterated analogues recorded at room and liquid nitrogen temperature are presented and interpreted. In the low-temperature diference infrared spectrum of the slightly deuterated analogue (≈5% D) at least four bands are found out of the expected five (at 2595, 2550, 2538 and 2495 cm-1) as a result of the uncoupled O-D oscillators in the isotopically isolated HOD molecules. Multiple bands are observed in the water bending region and only two bands of the HOH librational modes are found. For more precise and deep description of the processes occurring upon heating of MgI2·8H2O we have applied simultaneous TG/DTA/Mass spectrometry technique identifying the gases evolved during the thermal transformations. We have established that the thermal decomposition of MgI2·8H2O is a complex process that takes place in two main stages. In the first stage (between 120 and 275 °C) the salt undergoes a partial stepwise dehydration to MgI2·2H2O followed by a hydrolytic decomposition with formation of magnesium hydroxyiodide Mg(OH)1.44I0.56 accompanied with simultaneous release of H2O and HI. In the second stage Mg(OH)1.44I0.56 is completely decomposed to MgO with elimination of gaseous H2O, HI, I2 and H2. Infrared spectra of the annealed samples heated between 190 and 270 °C confirmed the formation of magnesium hydroxyiodide.

  9. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of substituted 2-phenyl-1H-indoles.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Cigdem; Kadri, Hachemi; Coban, Tulay; Suzen, Sibel; Westwell, Andrew D

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we report the design, synthesis and antioxidant activity of a series of substituted 2-(4-aminophenyl)-1H-indoles and 2-(methoxyphenyl)-1H-indoles. The new compounds are structurally related to the known indole-based antioxidant lead compound melatonin (MLT), and the antitumour 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole and 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)benzothiazole series. Efficient access to the target 2-phenylindoles was achieved via Fischer indole synthesis between substituted phenylhydrazines and acetophenones. 2-(4-Aminophenyl)indoles (such as the 6-fluoro analogue 3b) in particular showed potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assays (80% and 81% inhibition at 1mM concentration of 3b, respectively), at a level comparable with the reference standard MLT (98% and 75% at 1 mM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solvent-Free Addition of Indole to Aldehydes: Unexpected Synthesis of Novel 1-[1-(1H-Indol-3-yl) Alkyl]-1H-Indoles and Preliminary Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity in Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Graziella; Zedda, Gloria; Casu, Mariano; Simbula, Gabriella; Begala, Michela

    2017-10-17

    New 1-[1-(1 H -indol-3-yl) alkyl]-1 H -indoles, surprisingly, have been obtained from the addition of indole to a variety of aldehydes under neat conditions. CaO, present in excess, was fundamental for carrying out the reaction with paraformaldehyde. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes afforded only classical bis (indolyl) aryl indoles. In this paper, the role of CaO, together with the regiochemistry and the mechanism of the reaction, are discussed in detail. The effect of some selected 3,3'- and 1,3'-diindolyl methane derivatives on cell proliferation of the hepatoma cell line FaO was also evaluated.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of two novel inorganic/organic hybrid materials based on polyoxomolybdate clusters: (C5H5N5)2(C5H6N5)4[(HAsO4)2Mo6O18]·11H2O and Na2(Himi)3[SeMo6O21(CH3COO)3]·6H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayed, Meriem; Mestiri, Imen; Ayed, Brahim; Haddad, Amor

    2017-01-01

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, (C5H5N5)2(C5H6N5)4[(HAsO4)2Mo6O18]·11H2O (I) and Na2(Himi)3[SeMo6O21(CH3COO)3]·6H2O (II) were synthesized and structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analyses, FTIR, UV spectroscopy, thermal stability analysis, XRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: (I) triclinic system, space group P-1, a = 11,217 (9) Å, b = 11,637 (8) Å, c = 14,919 (8) Å, α = 70,90 (5)°, β = 70,83 (2)°, γ = 62,00(1)° and Z = 1; (II) triclinic system, space group P-1, a = 10.6740(1) Å, b = 10.6740(1) Å, c = 20.0570(1) Å, α = 76.285(1)°, β = 82.198(2)°, γ = 87.075(1)°, Z = 1. The crystal structure of (I) can be described by infinite polyanions [(HAsO4)2Mo6O18]4- organized with water molecules in layers parallel to the c-direction; adjacent layers are further joined up by hydrogen bonding interactions with organic groups which were associated in chains spreading along the b-direction. The structure of (II) consists of functionalized selenomolybdate clusters [SeMo6O21(CH3COO)3]5-, protonated imidazole cations, sodium ions and lattice water molecules, which are held together to generate a three-dimensional supramolecular network via hydrogen-bonding interaction. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of these compounds have been studied.

  12. 2C-Methyl- D- erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a functional gene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)] is a perennial herb which accumulates sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs) in its leaf tissue. SGs are synthesized by 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Of the various enzymes of the MEP pathway, 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) (encoded by MDS) catalyzes the cyclization of 4-(cytidine 5' diphospho)-2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate into 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate. Complementation of the MDS knockout mutant strain of Escherichia coli, EB370 with putative MDS of stevia (SrMDS) rescued the lethal mutant, suggesting SrMDS to be a functional gene. Experiments conducted in plant growth chamber and in the field suggested SrMDS to be a light regulated gene. Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA; 50, 100 μM) down-regulated the expression of SrMDS at 4 h of the treatment, whereas, abscisic acid did not modulate its expression. A high expression of SrMDS was observed during the light hours of the day as compared to the dark hours. The present work established functionality of SrMDS and showed the role of light and IAA in regulating expression of SrMDS.

  13. Detection and quantification of RNA 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation

    PubMed Central

    Karijolich, John

    2016-01-01

    RNA-guided RNA modification is a naturally occurring process that introduces 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation into rRNA, spliceosomal snRNA and several other types of RNA. The Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and Box H/ACA RNP, each containing one unique guide RNA (Box C/D RNA or Box H/ACA RNA) and a set of core proteins, are responsible for 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation respectively. Box C/D RNA and Box H/ACA RNA provide the modification specificity through base pairing with their RNA substrate. These post-transcriptional modifications could profoundly alter the properties and functions of substrate RNAs. Thus it is desirable to establish reliable and standardized modification methods to study biological functions of modified nucleotides in RNAs. Here, we present several sensitive and efficient methods and protocols for detecting and quantifying post-transcriptional 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation. PMID:26853326

  14. Synthesis of new substituted azetidinoyl and thiazolidinoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazino (6,5-b) indoles as promising anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Bhati, Sudhir Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-11-01

    Various N-({5-[(arylmethylene)amino]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}methyl) [1,3,4] thiadiazino[6,5-b]indol-3-amine (6a-6h), 2-aryl-3-{5-[([1,3,4] thiadiazino[6,5-b]indol-3-ylamino)methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (7a-7h), and 3-chloro-4-aryl-1-{5-[{[1,3,4]thiadiazino[6,5-b]indol-3-ylamino]methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}azetidin-2-one (8a-8h) have been synthesized in the present study. The structure of these newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their analytical and spectral data. These compounds were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, ulcerogenic and analgesic activities. Compound 8g has shown most active anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with better ulcerogenic activity than phenylbutazone, while this compound was found to be associated with lesser degree of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as compared to indomethacin.

  15. Experimental determination of solubilities of di-calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid hydrate [Ca2C10H12N2O8·7H2O(s)] in NaCl and MgCl2 solutions to high ionic strengths and its Pitzer model: Applications to geological disposal of nuclear waste and other low temperature environments

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Yongliang; Kirkes, Leslie; Westfall, Terry

    2017-04-01

    In this study, solubility measurements on di-calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [Ca 2C 10H 12N 2O 8(s), abbreviated as Ca 2EDTA(s)] as a function of ionic strength are conducted in NaCl solutions up to I = 5.0 mol•kg –1 and in MgCl 2 solutions up to I = 7.5 mol•kg –1, at room temperature (22.5 ± 0.5oC).

  16. Structure guided inhibitor designing of CDK2 and discovery of potential leads against cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun V A; Mohan, Keshav; Riyaz, Syed

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of stereo specific information obtained from crystal structures of CDK2, indole and chromene analogues were designed by suitably substituting the pharmacophores on their moiety and docked with target protein for calculating binding affinities. The binding affinities are represented in glide score. (5E)-5-[(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylidene]-2,4,6-trioxotetrahydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-ide (I1), (5E)-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethylidene)-2,4,6-trioxotetrahydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-ide (I2) and 2-amino-4-(4-methyl phenyl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (C9) were selected for synthesis and biological testing based on vital interactions. (5E)-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethylidene)-2,4,6-trioxotetrahydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-ide(I2) and 2-amino-4-(4-methyl phenyl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (C9) were proved to be active against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines.

  17. Axial zero-field splitting in mononuclear Co(ii) 2-N substituted N-confused porphyrin: Co(2-NC3H5-21-Y-CH2C6H4CH3-NCTPP)Cl (Y = o, m, p) and Co(2-NC3H5-21-CH2C6H5-NCTPP)Cl.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ya-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horung; Wang, Shin-Shin; Tung, Jo-Yu

    2016-03-21

    The inner C-benzyl- and C-o-xylyl (or m-xylyl, p-xylyl)-substituted cobalt(ii) complexes of a 2-N-substituted N-confused porphyrin were synthesized from the reaction of 2-NC3H5NCTPPH (1) and CoCl2·6H2O in toluene (or o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene). The crystal structures of diamagnetic chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-hydrogen-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')zinc(ii) [Zn(2-NC3H5-21-H-NCTPP)Cl; 3 ] and paramagnetic chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-benzyl-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')cobalt(ii) [Co(2-NC3H5-21-CH2C6H5NCTPP)Cl; 7], and chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-Y-xylyl-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')cobalt(ii) [Co(2-NC3H5-21-Y-CH2C6H4CH3NCTPP)Cl] [Y = o (8), m (9), p (10)] were determined. The coordination sphere around the Zn(2+) (or Co(2+)) ion in 3 (or 7-10) is a distorted tetrahedron (DT). The free energy of activation at the coalescence temperature Tc for the exchange of phenyl ortho protons o-H (26) with o-H (22) in 3 in a CDCl3 solvent is found to be ΔG = 61.4 kJ mol(-1) through (1)H NMR temperature-dependent measurements. The axial zero-field splitting parameter |D| was found to vary from 35.6 cm(-1) in 7 (or 30.7 cm(-1) in 8) to 42.0 cm(-1) in 9 and 46.9 cm(-1) in 10 through paramagnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnitude of |D| can be related to the coordination sphere at the cobalt sites.

  18. A one-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating 1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole and adipate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun Li; Huang, Qiu Ying; Meng, Xiang Ru

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of coordination polymers or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has attracted considerable interest owing to the interesting structures and potential applications of these compounds. It is still a challenge to predict the exact structures and compositions of the final products. A new one-dimensional coordination polymer, catena-poly[[[bis{1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole-κN 3 }zinc(II)]-μ-hexane-1,6-dicarboxylato-κ 4 O 1 ,O 1' :O 6 ,O 6' ] monohydrate], {[Zn(C 6 H 8 O 4 )(C 9 H 8 N 6 ) 2H 2 O} n , has been synthesized by the reaction of Zn(Ac) 2 (Ac is acetate) with 1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole (bimt) and adipic acid (H 2 adi) at room temperature. In the polymer, each Zn II ion exhibits an irregular octahedral ZnN 2 O 4 coordination geometry and is coordinated by two N atoms from two symmetry-related bimt ligands and four O atoms from two symmetry-related dianionic adipate ligands. Zn II ions are connected by adipate ligands into a one-dimensional chain which runs parallel to the c axis. The bimt ligands coordinate to the Zn II ions in a monodentate mode on both sides of the main chain. In the crystal, the one-dimensional chains are further connected through N-H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. In addition, the title polymer exhibits fluorescence, with emissions at 334 and 350 nm in the solid state at room temperature.

  19. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and CYP1A induction by cooked food-derived carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in human HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Masashi; Sumi, Haruna; Hosaka, Takuomi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-11-01

    The ability of nine cooked food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-6-methylpyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-pyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole hydrochloride (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), to activate human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR) was examined using a HepG2-A10 cell line, which has previously established from human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells for use in hAhR-based luciferase reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, AαC, MeAαC, IQ and MeIQx showed a definite ability to induce not only luciferase (hAhR activation) in HepG2-A10 cells but also cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1/1A2 mRNAs in HepG2 cells, while such the ability of Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, and PhIP was very low. In addition, all the HCAs examined, especially MeAαC and MeIQx, had a definite capacity for inhibiting the activity of ethoxyresorfin O-deethylase (CYP1As, especially CYP1A1). The present findings demonstrate that all the HCAs examined have the ability to activate hAhR and its target genes, and further confirm that these HCAs become good substrates for human CYP1A subfamily enzyme(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The 2:1 salt-type adduct formed between 6-amino-3-methyl-5-nitrosopyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and piperidine: sheets containing 20 independent hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Fabián; Insuasty, Braulio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-05-01

    The title compound, piperidinium 6-amino-3-methyl-5-nitroso-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ide 6-amino-3-methyl-5-nitrosopyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, C(5)H(12)N(+).C(5)H(5)N(4)O(3)(-).C(5)H(6)N(4)O(3), (I), crystallizes with Z' = 2 in the space group P1. There is an intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond in each pyrimidine unit and within the selected asymmetric unit the six independent components are linked by 11 hydrogen bonds, seven of the N-H...O type and four of the N-H...N type. These six-component aggregates are linked into sheets by five further hydrogen bonds, three of the N-H...O type and one each of the N-H...N and C-H...O types.

  2. H-TiO(2) @MnO(2) //H-TiO(2) @C core-shell nanowires for high performance and flexible asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xihong; Yu, Minghao; Wang, Gongming; Zhai, Teng; Xie, Shilei; Ling, Yichuan; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-01-11

    A flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device with H-TiO(2) @MnO(2) core-shell NWs as the positive electrode and H-TiO(2) @C core-shell NWs as the negative electrode is developed. This device operates in a 1.8 V voltage window and is able to deliver a high specific capacitance of 139.6 F g(-1) and maximum volumetric energy density of 0.30 mWh cm(-3) with excellent cycling performance and good flexibility. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A novel technique for measurement of thermal rate constants and temperature dependences of dissociative recombination: CO{sub 2}{sup +}, CF{sub 3}{sup +}, N{sub 2}O{sup +}, C{sub 7}H{sub 8}{sup +}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}{sup +}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{sup +}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 5}H{sub 6}{sup +}, C{sub 4}H{sub 4}{sup +}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Joseph A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Melko, Joshua J.

    A novel technique using a flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatus for measurement of temperature dependences of rate constants for dissociative recombination (DR) is presented. Low ({approx}10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) concentrations of a neutral precursor are added to a noble gas/electron afterglow plasma thermalized at 300-500 K. Charge exchange yields one or many cation species, each of which may undergo DR. Relative ion concentrations are monitored at a fixed reaction time while the initial plasma density is varied between 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. Modeling of the decrease in concentration of each cation relative to the non-recombining noble gas cationmore » yields the rate constant for DR. The technique is applied to several species (O{sub 2}{sup +}, CO{sub 2}{sup +}, CF{sub 3}{sup +}, N{sub 2}O{sup +}) with previously determined 300 K values, showing excellent agreement. The measurements of those species are extended to 500 K, with good agreement to literature values where they exist. Measurements are also made for a range of C{sub n}H{sub m}{sup +} (C{sub 7}H{sub 7}{sup +}, C{sub 7}H{sub 8}{sup +}, C{sub 5}H{sub 6}{sup +}, C{sub 4}H{sub 4}{sup +}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{sup +}) derived from benzene and toluene neutral precursors. C{sub n}H{sub m}{sup +} DR rate constants vary from 8-12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 300 K with temperature dependences of approximately T{sup -0.7}. Where prior measurements exist these results are in agreement, with the exception of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} where the present results disagree with a previously reported flat temperature dependence.« less

  4. Chlorogenic acid analogues from Gynura nepalensis protect H9c2 cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bang-wei; Li, Jin-long; Guo, Bin-bin; Fan, Hui-min; Zhao, Wei-min; Wang, He-yao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chlorogenic acid has shown protective effect on cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced damage. Herein, we evaluated nine caffeoylquinic acid analogues (1–9) isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis for their protective effect against H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to H2O2 (0.3 mmol/L) for 3 h, and cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis. MMPs (mitochondrial membrane potentials) were measured using a JC-1 assay kit, and ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation was measured using CM-H2 DCFDA. The expression levels of relevant proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. Results: Exposure to H2O2 markedly decreased the viability of H9c2 cells and catalase activity, and increased LDH release and intracellular ROS production; accompanied by a loss of MMP and increased apoptotic rate. Among the 9 chlorogenic acid analogues as well as the positive control drug epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) tested, compound 6 (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester) was the most effective in protecting H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with compound 6 (1.56–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently alleviated all the H2O2-induced detrimental effects. Moreover, exposure to H2O2 significantly increased the levels of Bax, p53, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased the level of Bcl-2, resulting in cell apoptosis. Exposure to H2O2 also significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK in the H9c2 cells. Pretreatment with compound 6 (12.5 and 25 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the level of cleaved caspase-9 but not of cleaved caspase-8. It also dose-dependently suppressed the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK but not that of p38. Conclusion: Compound 6 isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis potently protects H9c2

  5. Crystal structure of N-{[3-bromo-1-(phenyl-sulfon-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl]meth-yl}benzene-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Raju, P; Yamuna, R; Mohanakrishnan, A K; Chakkaravarthi, G

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C21H17BrN2O4S2, the indole ring system subtends dihedral angles of 85.96 (13) and 9.62 (16)° with the planes of the N- and C-bonded benzene rings, respectively. The dihedral angles between the benzene rings is 88.05 (17)°. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by intra-molecular N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and an aromatic π-π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.503 (2) Å] inter-action. In the crystal, short Br⋯O [2.9888 (18) Å] contacts link the mol-ecules into [010] chains. The chains are cross-linked by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  6. Photodissociation of van der Waals clusters of isoprene with oxygen, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}, in the wavelength range 213-277 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Vidma, Konstantin V.; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Parker, David H.

    2012-08-07

    The speed and angular distribution of O atoms arising from the photofragmentation of C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}, the isoprene-oxygen van der Waals complex, in the wavelength region of 213-277 nm has been studied with the use of a two-color dissociation-probe method and the velocity map imaging technique. Dramatic enhancement in the O atoms photo-generation cross section in comparison with the photodissociation of individual O{sub 2} molecules has been observed. Velocity map images of these 'enhanced' O atoms consisted of five channels, different in their kinetic energy, angular distribution, and wavelength dependence. Three channels are deduced to be due to themore » one-quantum excitation of the C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2} complex into the perturbed Herzberg III state ({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) of O{sub 2}. This excitation results in the prompt dissociation of the complex giving rise to products C{sub 5}H{sub 8}+O+O when the energy of exciting quantum is higher than the complex photodissociation threshold, which is found to be 41740 {+-} 200 cm{sup -1} (239.6{+-}1.2 nm). This last threshold corresponds to the photodissociation giving rise to an unexcited isoprene molecule. The second channel, with threshold shifted to the blue by 1480 {+-} 280 cm{sup -1}, corresponds to dissociation with formation of rovibrationally excited isoprene. A third channel was observed at wavelengths up to 243 nm with excitation below the upper photodissociation threshold. This channel is attributed to dissociation with the formation of a bound O atom C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}+hv{yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) {yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O + O and/or to dissociation of O{sub 2} with borrowing of the lacking energy from incompletely cooled complex internal degrees of freedom C{sub 5}H{sub 8}{sup *}-O{sub 2}+hv{yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}{sup *}-O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) {yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}+ O + O. The kinetic energy of the O atoms arising in two other observed

  7. Experimental studies on cycling stable characteristics of inorganic phase change material CaCl2·6H2O-MgCl2·6H2O modified with SrCl2·6H2O and CMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Meizhi; Yang, Luwei; Zhang, Zhentao

    2018-01-01

    By means of mass ratio method, binary eutectic hydrated salts inorganic phase change thermal energy storage system CaCl2·6H2O-20wt% MgCl2·6H2O was prepared, and through adding nucleating agent 1wt% SrCl2·6H2O and thickening agent 0.5wt% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), inoganic phase change material (PCM) modified was obtained. With recording cooling-melting curves simultaneously, this PCM was frozen and melted for 100 cycles under programmable temperature control. After per 10 cycles, the PCM was charaterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and density meter, then analysing variation characteristics of phase change temperature, supercooling degree, superheat degree, latent heat, crystal structure and density with the increase of cycle index. The results showed that the average values of average phase change temperature for cooling and heating process were 25.70°C and 27.39°C respectively with small changes. The average values of average supercooling and superheat degree were 0.59°C and 0.49°C respectively, and the maximum value was 1.10°C. The average value and standard deviation of latent heat of fusion were 120.62 J/g and 1.90 J/g respectively. Non-molten white solid sediments resulted from phase separation were tachyhydrite (CaMg2Cl6·12H2O), which was characterized by XRD. Measuring density of the PCM after per 10 cycles, and the results suggested that the total mass of tachyhydrite was limited. In summary, such modified inoganic PCM CaCl2·6H2O-20wt% MgCl2·6H2O-1wt% SrCl2·6H2O-0.5wt% CMC could stay excellent circulation stability within 100 cycles, and providing reference value in practical use.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10356 - Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-. 721.10356 Section 721.10356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10356 - Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-. 721.10356 Section 721.10356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10356 - Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-. 721.10356 Section 721.10356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  11. 2-(3-Cyano-4-{3-[1-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-1,3-di-hydro-indol-2-yl-idene]prop-2-en-yl}-5,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-yl-idene)malono-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Gainsford, Graeme J; Bhuiyan, M Delower H; Kay, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C25H24N4O2, adopts a cisoid configuration and has twofold orientational disorder of the 2-hy-droxy-ethyl group. The mol-ecule is twisted from planarity so that the dihedral angle between the terminating indol-2-yl-idene and the furan-2-yl-idene moiety mean planes is 12.75 (7)°. Conformational disorder occurs at the indol-2-yl-idene N atom, which results in two orientations for the hy-droxy-ethyl group [occupancy ratio = 0.896 (2):0.104 (2)], and the hy-droxy O atom of the 2-hy-droxy-ethyl group is located over three sites [occupancy ratio = 0.548 (2):0.348 (2):0.104 (2)]. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the lowest occupancy hy-droxy O atom is observed. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in parallel dimeric sheets about centres of symmetry, utilizing O-H⋯N(cyano), C-H⋯N(cyano) and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, in two sets parallel to (02-1) and (021) planes.

  12. Structure-Based Discovery of 4-(6-Methoxy-2-methyl-4-(quinolin-4-yl)-9 H -pyrimido[4,5- b ]indol-7-yl)-3,5-dimethylisoxazole (CD161) as a Potent and Orally Bioavailable BET Bromodomain Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yujun; Bai, Longchuan; Liu, Liu

    We have designed and synthesized 9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole-containing compounds to obtain potent and orally bioavailable BET inhibitors. By incorporation of an indole or a quinoline moiety to the 9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole core, we identified a series of small molecules showing high binding affinities to BET proteins and low nanomolar potencies in inhibition of cell growth in acute leukemia cell lines. One such compound, 4-(6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-(quinolin-4-yl)-9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indol-7-yl)-3,5-dimethylisoxazole (31) has excellent microsomal stability and good oral pharmacokinetics in rats and mice. Orally administered, 31 achieves significant antitumor activity in the MV4;11 leukemia and MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer xenograft models in mice. Determination of the cocrystal structure of 31more » with BRD4 BD2 provides a structural basis for its high binding affinity to BET proteins. Testing its binding affinities against other bromodomain-containing proteins shows that 31 is a highly selective inhibitor of BET proteins. Our data show that 31 is a potent, selective, and orally active BET inhibitor.« less

  13. C-O and O-H Bond Activation of Methanole by Lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ruchira; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between methanol (CH_3OH) molecules and laser-vaporized La atoms resulted in the cleavage of C-O and O-H bonds and the formation of three major products, LaH_2O_2, LaCH_4O_2 and LaC_2H_6O_2, in a supersonic molecular beam. These products were identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and their electronic spectra were obtained using mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. From the MATI spectra, adiabatic ionization energies of the three complexes were measured to be 40136 (5), 39366 (5) and 38685 (5) cm-1 for LaH_2O_2, LaCH_4O_2 and LaC_2H_6O_2, respectively. The ionization energies of these complexes decrease as the size of the coordinated organic fragments increases. The most active vibrational transitions of all three complexes were observed to be the M-O stretches in the ionic state. A metal-ligand bending mode with a frequency of 127 cm-1 was also observed for [LaH_2O_2]^+. However, the spectra of the other two complexes were less resolved, due to the existence of a large number of low frequency modes, which could be thermally excited even in the supersonic molecular beams, and of multiple rotational isomers formed by the free rotation of the methyl group in these systems. The electronic transitions responsible for the observed spectra were identified as ^1A_1 (C2v) ← ^2A_1 (C2v) for LaH_2O_2 and ^1A (C_1) ← ^2A (C_1) for LaCH_4O_2 and LaC_2H_6O_2.

  14. Synthesis of methyl 2-O- and 3-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Rana, S S; Matta, K L

    1986-09-01

    Methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-[6-O-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)-alpha-D- mannopyranosyl]-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (2) was synthesized by treatment of methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside with tert-butylchlorodiphenylsilane in the presence of imidazole. Isopropylidenation, followed by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate, and stereoselective reduction with sodium borohydride, converted 2 into methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-[6-O-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)-2,3-O-isopro pylidene- alpha-D-talopyranosyl]-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (5). Treatment of 5 with a molar solution of tetrabutylammonium fluoride in dry oxolane produced a diol which, on O-de-isopropylidenation followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis, afforded the disaccharide glycoside methyl 2-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Synthesis of methyl 3-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was accomplished by a similar reaction-sequence. The structures of the final disaccharides, and of various other intermediates, were established by 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

  15. Characterization of a novel deep-sea microbial esterase EstC10 and its use in the generation of ( R)-methyl2-chloropropionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanhui; Ma, Sanmei; Wang, Yongfei; Xu, Yongkai; Sun, Aijun; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Yunfeng

    2018-03-01

    A novel esterase EstC10 from Bacillus sp. CX01 isolated from the deep sea of the Western Pacific Ocean and the functionalities of EstC10 was characterized. At present, the reports about the kinetic resolution of racemic methyl 2-chloropropionate were quite rare. So we developed deep-sea microbial esterase EstC10 as a novel biocatalyst in the kinetic resolution of racemic methyl 2-chloropropionate and generate ( R)-methyl 2-chloropropionate with high enantiomeric excess (>99%) after the optimization of process parameters such as pH, temperature, organic co-solvents, surfactants, substrate concentration and reaction time. Notably, the optimal substrate concentration (80 mmol/L) of esterase EstC10 was higher than the kinetic resolution of another esterase, Est12-7 (50 mmol/L). The novel microbial esterase EstC10 identified from the deep sea was a promising green biocatalyst in the generation of ( R)-methyl 2-chloropropionate as well of many other valuable chiral chemicals in industry.

  16. Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles via Palladium-Catalyzed One-Pot Reaction of Isonitriles, Oxygen, and N-Tosylhydrazones Derived from 2-Acylanilines.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haoke; Dai, Qiang; Jiang, Yan; Cheng, Jiang

    2017-08-04

    A cyanide-free one-pot procedure was developed to access 2-amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles, which involved: (1) in situ formation of ketenimines by the reaction of N'-(1-(2-aminophenyl)ethylidene)-p-tosylhydrazones with isonitriles; (2) the intramolecular nucleophilic attack of ketenimines by the amino in phenyl furnishing the ring closure leading to 2-aminoindoles; (3) the oxidation of 2-aminoindoles by O 2 leading to 2-amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles. This strategy represents not only a key compliment to the sporadic synthetic methods toward 2-amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles but also progress in N-tosylhydrazone, isonitrile, and ketenimine chemistry.

  17. Di-μ-cyanido-tetra-cyanido(5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa-methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane)[N-(quinolin-8-yl)quinoline-2-carboxamidato]diiron(III)nickel(II) 2.07-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuqi; Zhou, Hongbo; Shen, Xiaoping

    2013-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Fe2Ni(C19H12N3O)2(CN)6(C16H36N4)]·2.07H2O, contains one [Fe(qcq)(CN)3](-) anion, half a [Ni(teta)](2+) cation and two partially occupied inter-stitial water mol-ecules [qcq(-) is the N-(quinolin-8-yl)quinoline-2-carboxamidate anion and teta is 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa-methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne]. In the complex mol-ecule, two [Fe(qcq)(CN)3](-) anions additionally coordinate the central [Ni(teta)](2+) cation through cyanide groups in a trans mode, resulting in a trinuclear structure with the Ni(2+) cation lying on an inversion centre. The two inter-stitial water mol-ecules are partially occupied, with occupancy factors of 0.528 (10) and 0.506 (9). O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonding involving the two lattice water molecules and the carbonyl function and a teta N atom in an adjacent cluster leads to the formation of layers extending parallel to (010).

  18. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of (2E)-(2-oxo-1, 2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ylidene)acetate derivatives as anti-proliferative agents through ROS-induced cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhuang; Chen, Cai-Ping; Liu, Jun; Wen, Xiaoan; Sun, Hongbin; Yuan, Haoliang

    2016-11-29

    A novel class of (2E)-(2-oxo-1, 2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ylidene)acetate derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent anti-proliferative agents. Most of these compounds showed potent anti-proliferative activity against some tumor cell lines, including SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, HCT-116, SW480, Ovcar-3, HL-60, Saos-2 and HepG2. Compounds 8c and 11h were identified as the most potent ones, while HL-60, HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 were the most sensitive cell lines. Mechanistic study revealed that compound 8c enhanced reactive oxygen species level by inhibiting TrxR and then induced apoptosis by activating apoptosis proteins, bax and cleaved-caspase 3 in HCT116 cells. Preliminary SAR analysis indicated that modifications of the double bond and ester group made great effects on the anti-proliferative activity. Our findings suggested that it was worth further studies on the antitumor potency of (2E)-(2-oxo-1, 2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ylidene)acetates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation and infrared absorption of protonated naphthalenes (1-C10H9+ and 2-C10H9+) and their neutral counterparts in solid para-hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Bahou, Mohammed; Wu, Yu-Jong; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2013-02-14

    Protonated naphthalene (C(10)H(9)(+)) and its neutral counterparts (hydronaphthyl radicals, C(10)H(9)) are important intermediates in the reactions of aromatic compounds and in understanding the unidentified infrared (IR) emissions from interstellar media. We report the IR spectra of 1-C(10)H(9)(+), 2-C(10)H(9)(+), 1-C(10)H(9), and 2-C(10)H(9) trapped in solid para-hydrogen (p-H(2)); the latter three are new. These species were produced upon electron bombardment of a mixture of naphthalene (C(10)H(8)) and p-H(2) during matrix deposition. The intensities of IR features of 1-C(10)H(9)(+) decreased after the matrix was maintained in darkness for 19 h, whereas those of 1-C(10)H(9) and 2-C(10)H(9) increased. Irradiation of this matrix sample with light at 365 nm diminished lines of 1-C(10)H(9)(+) and 2-C(10)H(9) and enhanced lines of 1-C(10)H(9) and 2-C(10)H(9)(+); the latter species was unstable and converted to 1-C(10)H(9)(+) in less than 30 min and 2-C(10)H(9) was converted to 1-C(10)H(9) at 365 nm. Observed wavenumbers and relative intensities of these species agree satisfactorily with the anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers and IR intensities predicted with the B3PW91/6-311++G(2d,2p) method. Compared with spectra recorded previously with IR photodissociation of Ar-tagged C(10)H(9)(+) or IR multiphoton dissociation of C(10)H(9)(+), our method has the advantages of producing high-resolution IR spectra with a wide spectral coverage, true IR intensity and excellent ratio of signal to noise; both protonated species and their neutral counterparts are produced with little interference from other fragments. With these advantages, the IR spectra of 1-C(10)H(9)(+), 2-C(10)H(9)(+), 1-C(10)H(9), and 2-C(10)H(9) are here clearly characterized.

  20. A simple hydrogen-bonded chain in (3Z)-3-{1-[(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino]ethylidene}-4,5-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, and a hydrogen-bonded ribbon of centrosymmetric rings in the self-assembled adduct (3Z)-3-{1-[(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino]ethylidene}-4,5-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one-6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one (1/1).

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Jairo; Portilla, Jaime; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    (3Z)-3-{1-[(5-Phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino]ethylidene}-4,5-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, C(15)H(15)N(3)O(2), (I), and the stoichiometric adduct (3Z)-3-{1-[(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino]ethylidene}-4,5-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one-6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one (1/1), C(10)H(13)N(3)O(2).C(10)H(13)N(3)O(2), (II), in which the two components have the same composition but different constitutions, are formed in the reactions of 2-acetyl-4-butyrolactone with 5-amino-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole and 5-amino-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole, respectively. In each compound, the furanone component contains an intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond. The molecules of (I) are linked into a chain by a single intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond, while in (II), a combination of one O-H...N hydrogen bond, within the selected asymmetric unit, and two N-H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecular components into a ribbon containing alternating centrosymmetric R(4)(4)(20) and R(6)(6)(22) rings.

  1. Bradykinin-potentiating PEPTIDE-10C, an argininosuccinate synthetase activator, protects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Querobino, Samyr Machado; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Alberto-Silva, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    Bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs - 5a, 7a, 9a, 10c, 11e, and 12b) of Bothrops jararaca (Bj) were described as argininosuccinate synthase (AsS) activators, improving l-arginine availability. Agmatine and polyamines, which are l-arginine metabolism products, have neuroprotective properties. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of low molecular mass fraction from Bj venom (LMMF) and two synthetic BPPs (BPP-10c, H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress. The neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced were analyzed by reactive oxygen species (ROS - DCFH) production; lipid peroxidation (TBARS); intracellular GSH; AsS, iNOS, and NF-kB expressions; nitrite levels (Griess); mitochondrial membrane potential (TMRM); and antioxidant activity (DPPH). Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc test were calculated for statistical comparisons. Pre-treatment with both BPPs significantly reduced cell death induced by H 2 O 2 , but BPP-10c showed higher protective capacity than BPP-12b. LMMF pretreatment was unable to prevent the reduction of cell viability caused by H 2 O 2 . The neuroprotective mechanism of BPP-10c against oxidative stress was investigated. BPP-10c reduced ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in relation to cells treated only with H 2 O 2 . BBP-10c increased AsS expression and was not neuroprotective in the presence of MDLA, a specific inhibitor of AsS. BPP-10c reduced iNOS expression and nitrate levels but decreased NF-kB expression. Furthermore, BPP-10c protected the mitochondrial membrane against oxidation. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time neuroprotective mechanisms of BPPs against oxidative stress, opening new perspectives to the study and application of these peptides for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infrared absorption of 1-chloro-2-methyl-2-propyl [⋅C(CH3)2CH2Cl] and 2-chloro-2-methylpropyl [⋅CH2C(CH3)2Cl] radicals produced in the addition reactions of Cl with isobutene (i-C4H8) in solid para-hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ching-Yin; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-10-07

    The addition reactions of chlorine atom with isobutene (i-C 4 H 8 ) in solid para-hydrogen (p-H 2 ) were investigated with infrared (IR) absorption spectra. When a p-H 2 matrix containing Cl 2 and isobutene was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm, intense lines in a set at 534.5, 1001.0, 1212.9, 1366.0, 2961.6, and 2934.7 cm -1 , and several weaker others due to the 1-chloro-2-methyl-2-propyl radical, ⋅ C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 Cl, and those in a second set including intense ones at 642.7, 799.2, 1098.2, 1371.8, and 3027.3 cm -1 due to the 2-chloro-2-methylpropyl radical, ⋅ CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 Cl, appeared; the ratio of ⋅ C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 Cl to ⋅ CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 Cl was approximately (3 ± 1):1. The observed wavenumbers and relative intensities agree with the vibrational wavenumbers and IR intensities predicted with the B3PW91/aug-cc-pVTZ method. That the Cl atom adds to both carbons of the C=C bond of isobutene with the terminal site slightly favored is consistent with the energies of products predicted theoretically, but is in contrast to the reaction of Cl + propene in solid p-H 2 in which the addition of Cl to mainly the central C atom was previously reported. The role of the p-H 2 matrix in affecting the reaction paths is discussed. Absorption lines of the complex i-C 4 H 8 ⋅Cl 2 and the dichloro-product anti-1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane, a-CH 2 ClCCl(CH 3 ) 2 , are also characterized.

  3. Removal of H2O2 and generation of superoxide radical: Role of cytochrome c and NADH

    PubMed Central

    Velayutham, Murugesan; Hemann, Craig; Zweier, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    In cells, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and peroxisomes are the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Cytochrome c (cyt c) is known to participate in mitochondrial electron transport and has antioxidant and peroxidase activities. Under oxidative or nitrative stress, the peroxidase activity of Fe3+cyt c is increased. The level of NADH is also increased under pathophysiological conditions such as ischemia and diabetes and a concurrent increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production occurs. Studies were performed to understand the related mechanisms of radical generation and NADH oxidation by Fe3+cyt c in the presence of H2O2. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping studies using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) were performed with NADH, Fe3+cyt c, and H2O2 in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin. An EPR spectrum corresponding to the superoxide radical adduct of DMPO encapsulated in methyl-β-cyclodextrin was obtained. This EPR signal was quenched by the addition of the superoxide scavenging enzyme Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The amount of superoxide radical adduct formed from the oxidation of NADH by the peroxidase activity of Fe3+cyt c increased with NADH and H2O2 concentration. From these results, we propose a mechanism in which the peroxidase activity of Fe3+cyt c oxidizes NADH to NAD•, which in turn donates an electron to O2 resulting in superoxide radical formation. A UV-visible spectroscopic study shows that Fe3+cyt c is reduced in the presence of both NADH and H2O2. Our results suggest that Fe3+cyt c could have a novel role in the deleterious effects of ischemia/reperfusion and diabetes due to increased production of superoxide radical. In addition, Fe3+cyt c may play a key role in the mitochondrial “ROS-induced ROS-release (RIRR)” signaling and in mitochondrial and cellular injury/death. The increased oxidation of NADH and generation of superoxide radical

  4. Novel methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates containing an indole moiety as angiokinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingze; Tian, Ye; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yu, Simiao; Xia, Juanjuan; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Haotian; Zhao, Yanfang

    2017-10-20

    A novel series of methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates bearing an indole moiety were identified as potent angiokinase inhibitors. The most active compound, A8, potently targeted the kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 and 3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors α and β, with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range. In addition, A8 effectively suppressed the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and HT-29 and MCF-7 cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis. Compound A8 is thus a promising candidate for further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Methyl 3-O-α-l-fucopyranosyl β-d-glucopyran­oside tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Lars; Widmalm, Göran

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C13H24O10·4H2O, is the methyl glycoside of a disaccharide structural element present in the backbone of the capsular polysaccharide from Klebsiella K1, which contains only three sugars and a substituent in the polysaccharide repeating unit. The conformation of the title disaccharide is described by the glycosidic torsion angles ϕH = 51.1 (1)° and ψH = 25.8 (1)°. In the crystal, a number of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the methyl glycoside and water mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. One water mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.748 (4) and 0.252 (4). PMID:23284493

  6. 3-Chloro-4-methyl­quinolin-2(1H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Mohamed G.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Ooi, Chin Wei

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C10H8ClNO, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation for the 13 non-H atoms = 0.023 Å). In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) rings. Weak aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7622 (12) Å] also occur. PMID:22589913

  7. Electrical Conductivity of Cancrinite-Type Na8 - 2 x Ca x [Al6Si6O24][CO3] · 2H2O ( x ≤ 0.03) Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    The electrical conductivity of crystals of artificial cancrinite Na8 - 2 x Ca x [Al6Si6O24][CO3] · 2H2O ( x ≤ 0.03) has been studied in the temperature range of 498-604 K. These crystals were grown by hydrothermal synthesis on a seed in the Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system ( t = 380-420°C, P = 3 × 107-9 × 107 Pa). The ionic conductivity of a single-crystal sample (sp. gr. P63), measured along the crystallographic axis c, is low: σ = 8 × 10-7 S/cm at 300°C. The electric transport activation energy is E a = 0.81 ± 0.05 eV. The relationship between the ionic conductivity and specific features of the atomic structure of cancrinites is discussed.

  8. Tuning the conductance of H2O@C60 by position of the encapsulated H2O

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengbo; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    The change of conductance of single-molecule junction in response to various external stimuli is the fundamental mechanism for the single-molecule electronic devices with multiple functionalities. We propose the concept that the conductance of molecular systems can be tuned from inside. The conductance is varied in C60 with encapsulated H2O, H2O@C60. The transport properties of the H2O@C60-based nanostructure sandwiched between electrodes are studied using first-principles calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. Our results show that the conductance of the H2O@C60 is sensitive to the position of the H2O and its dipole direction inside the cage with changes in conductance up to 20%. Our study paves a way for the H2O@C60 molecule to be a new platform for novel molecule-based electronics and sensors. PMID:26643873

  9. Construction of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles via Cobalt(III)-Catalyzed Enaminylation of 1-(Pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with Ketenimines and Subsequent Base-Promoted Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Fan, Zili; Zhang, Zhiyin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2016-09-16

    A cobalt(III)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 1-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with ketenimines is reported. The reaction provided 2-enaminylated indole derivatives in moderate to excellent yields with a broad substrate scope. The prepared 2-enaminylated indoles could be conveniently converted into pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles, which are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry.

  10. NCI calculations for understanding a physical phase transition in (C6H14N2)[Mn(H2O)6](SeO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naïli, Houcine; François, Michel; Norquist, Alexander J.; Rekik, Walid

    2017-12-01

    An organically templated manganese selenate, (C6H14N2)[Mn(H2O)6](SeO4)2, has been synthesized by slow evaporation and crystallographically characterized. The title compound crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic centrosymmetric space group P21/n, with the following unit cell parameters: a = 7.2373(4) Å; b = 12.5600(7) Å; c = 10.1945(7) Å; β = 91.155(4)°, V = 926.50(10) Å3and Z = 2. Its crystal structure is built of manganese(II) cations coordinated by six water molecules in octahedral geometry, disordered dabcodiium cations and selenate anions, resulting in an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement indicated that the precursor undergoes a reversible phase transition at about 216 and 218 K during the cooling and heating processes respectively. Below this temperature the title compound is noncentrosymmetric with space group P21 and lattice parameters a = 7.2033(8) Å; b = 12.4981(13) Å; c = 10.0888(11) Å; β = 91.281(2)°, V = 908.04(17) Å3 and Z = 2. The disorder-order transformation of the C atoms of (C6H14N2)2+ cation may drive the structural phase transition. The low temperature phase obtained by breaking symmetry presents a fully ordered structure. The noncovalent interaction (NCI) method was used not only to locate, quantify, and visualize intermolecular interactions in the high and low temperature phases but also to confirm the phase transition detected by DSC measurement. The thermal decomposition of this new compound proceeds through four stages giving rise to the manganese oxide as final product at 850 °C.

  11. Tulongicin, an Antibacterial Tri-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Topsentia sp. Sponge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Bing; Lauro, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Robert D; Lohith, Katheryn; Kelly, Michelle; Colin, Patrick; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-09-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of an extract of a deep-water Topsentia sp. marine sponge led to the isolation of two new indole alkaloids, tulongicin A (1) and dihydrospongotine C (2), along with two known analogues, spongotine C (3) and dibromodeoxytopsentin (4). Their planar structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Their absolute configurations were determined through a combination of experimental and computational analyses. Tulongicin (1) is the first natural product to contain a di(6-Br-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl group linked to an imidazole core. The coexistence of tri-indole 1 and bis-indole alcohol 2 suggests a possible route to 1. All of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Design and syntheses of hybrid metal–organic materials based on K{sub 3}[M(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·3H{sub 2}O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] metallotectons

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yayong; Zong, Yingxia; Ma, Haoran

    2016-05-15

    By using K{sub 3}[M(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·3H{sub 2}O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] (C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}=oxalate) metallotectons as the starting material, we have synthesized eight novel complexes with formulas [{Fe(C_2O_4)_2(H_2O)_2}{sub 2}]·(H–L{sub 1}){sub 2H{sub 2}O 1, [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}·(L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}·H{sub 2}O 2, [{Fe(C_2O_4)_1_._5Cl_2}{sub 2}]·(H–L{sub 3}){sub 4}3, [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 8}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 4}){sub 22H{sub 2}O 4, K[Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 5})·2H{sub 2}O 5, K[Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H–L{sub 6}){sub 22H{sub 2}O 6, K[Cr(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·2H{sub 2}O 7, Na[Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H–L{sub 6}){sub 22H{sub 2}O 8 (with L{sub 1}=4-dimethylaminopyridine, L{sub 2}=2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, L{sub 3}=2-aminobenzimidazole, L{sub 4}=1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, L{sub 5}=1,4-bis((2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene,more » L{sub 6}=2-methylbenzimidazole). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. Compound 3 is a 2D H-bonded supramolecular architecture. Others are 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 1 shows a [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup −} unit and 3D antionic H-bonded framework. Compound 2 features a [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 2}]{sup -} anion and 1D iron-oxalate-iron chain. Compound 3 features a [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 4−} unit. Compound 4 features distinct [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units, which are mutual linked by water molecules to generated a 2D H-bonded network. Compound 5 features infinite ladder-like chains constructed by [Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3−} units and K{sup +} cations. The 1D chains are further extended into 3D antionic H-bonded framework through O–H···O H-bonds. Compounds 6–8 show 2D [KAl(C

  13. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10557 Section 721.10557 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10557 Section 721.10557 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  15. Radical-molecule reaction C3H+H2O: a mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Ding, Yi-Hong; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2005-02-08

    Despite the importance of the C(3)H radical in both combustion and interstellar space, the reactions of C(3)H toward stable molecules have never been studied. In this paper, we report our detailed mechanistic study on the radical-molecule reaction C(3)H+H(2)O at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP6-311G(d,p) and coupled cluster with single, double, and triple excitations-CCSD(T)6-311G(2d,p) (single-point) levels. It is shown that the C(3)H+H(2)O reaction initially favors formation of the carbene-insertion intermediates HCCCHOH (1a,1b) rather than the direct H- or OH-abstraction process. Subsequently, the isomers (1a,1b) can undergo a direct H- extrusion to form the well-known product propynal HCCCHO (P(5)). Highly competitively, (1a,1b) can take the successive 1,4- and 1,2-H-shift interconversion to isomer H(2)CCCHO(2a,2b) and then to isomer H(2)CCHCO(3a,3b), which can finally take a direct C-C bond cleavage to give product C(2)H(3) and CO (P(1)). The other products are kinetically much less feasible. With the overall entrance barrier 10.6 kcal/mol, the title reaction can be important in postburning processes. Particularly, our calculations suggest that the title reaction may play a role in the formation of the intriguing interstellar molecule, propynal HCCCHO. The calculated results will also be useful for the analogous C(3)H reactions such as with ammonia and alkanes.

  16. Elevated blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations in essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Jiang, Wendy; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Rios, Eileen; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Henchcliffe, Claire; Zheng, Wei

    2008-03-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a widespread late-life neurological disease. Genetic and environmental factors likely play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. In 2002, we demonstrated elevated blood harmane concentrations in an initial sample of 100 ET cases compared to 100 controls. Between 2002 and 2007, we assembled a new and larger sample of ET cases and controls. We now attempt to replicate our previous findings. Cases and controls were frequency-matched on age, gender, and race. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 150 ET cases and 135 controls (mean age 65.3+/-15.5 vs. 65.5+/-14.2 years, p=0.94). Mean log blood harmane concentration was approximately 50% higher in cases than controls (0.50+/-0.54g(-10)/ml vs. 0.35+/-0.62g(-10)/ml, p=0.038). In a logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was associated with ET (OR(adjusted) 1.56, 95% CI 1.01-2.42, p=0.04), and odds of ET was 1.90 (95% CI 1.07-3.39, p=0.029) in the highest versus lowest log blood harmane tertile. Log blood harmane was highest in ET cases with familial ET (0.53+/-0.57g(-10)/ml), intermediate in cases with sporadic ET (0.43+/-0.45g(-10)/ml) and lowest in controls (0.35+/-0.62g(-10)/ml) (test for trend, p=0.026). Blood harmane appears to be elevated in ET. The higher concentrations in familial ET suggests that the mechanism may involve genetic factors.

  17. Growth Oscillatory Zoning in Erythrite, Ideally Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O: Structural Variations in Vivianite-Group Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Dhaliwal, Inayat

    The crystal structure of an oscillatory zoned erythrite sample from Aghbar mine, Bou Azzer, Morocco, was refined using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data, Rietveld refinement, space group C2/m, and Z = 2. The crystal contains two sets of oscillatory zones that appear to have developed during epitaxial growth. The unit-cell parameters obtained are a = 10.24799(3) Å, b = 13.42490(7) Å, c = 4.755885(8) Å, β = 105.1116(3)°, and V = 631.680(4) Å3. The empirical formula for erythrite, obtained with electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), is [Co2.78Zn0.11Ni0.07Fe0.04]Σ3.00(AsO4)2·8H2O. Erythrite belongs to the vivianite-type structure that contains M1O2(H2O)4 octahedra and M22O6(H2O)4 octahedralmore » dimers that are linked by TO4 (T5+ = As or P) tetrahedra to form complex layers parallel to the (010) plane. These layers are connected by hydrogen bonds. The average [6] = 2.122(1) Å and average [6] = 2.088(1) Å. With space group C2/m, there are two solid solutions: M3(AsO4)2·8H2O and M3(PO4)2·8H2O where M2+ = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, or Zn. In these As- and P-series, using data from this study and from the literature, we find that their structural parameters evolve linearly with V and in a nearly parallel manner despite of the large difference in size between P5+ (0.170 Å) and As5+ (0.355 Å) cations. Average [4], [6], and [6] distances increase linearly with V. The average distance is affected by M atoms, whereas the average distance is unaffected because it contains shorter and stronger P–O bonds. Although As- and P-series occur naturally, there is no structural reason why similar V-series vivianite-group minerals do not occur naturally or cannot be synthesized.« less

  18. Are HO radicals produced in the reaction of O(3P) with 1-C4H8 ?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luria, M.; Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reaction of O(3P) with 1-C4H8 was examined in the presence of CO which scavenges HO radicals to produce CO2. From the CO2 quantum yield, an upper limit to the efficiency of HO production in the reaction of O(3P) with 1-C4H8 was found to be 0.020 at both 298 and 473 K.

  19. 5-Amino-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde hemihydrate: a polarized electronic structure within hydrogen-bonded sheets of R(10)(8)(34) rings.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Jairo; Trilleras, Jorge; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C(11)H(11)N(3)O.0.5H(2)O, the water molecule lies across a twofold rotation axis in the space group Pbcn. The bond distances in the organic component provide evidence for polarization of the electronic structure. The molecular components are linked into puckered sheets of R(10)(8)(34) rings by a combination of O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds; adjacent sheets are weakly linked by an aromatic pi-pi stacking interaction. Comparisons are made with some fused-ring analogues.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical investigation and antioxidant activities of a new hybrid cyclohexaphosphate: Cu1.5Li(C2H10N2)P6O18·7H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleymi, Samira; Lahbib, Karima; Rahmouni, Nihed; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Besbes-Hentati, Salma; Abid, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid transition metal phosphate, Cu1.5Li(C2H10N2)P6O18·7H2O, has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, diffuse reflectance and UV-Vis) and thermal analysis (TG). In addition, its electrochemical behaviors, as well as its antioxidant and antibacterial activities, have been investigated. Its structure is built up by the alternate linkages between copper and phosphate polyhedra, forming puckered layers with intersecting 12-membered rings, in which the ethylenediammonium cations reside. This compound is the first framework structure constructed from cyclohexaphosphates and three distinct copper cations. Cyclic voltammetry study in an acetonitrile solution reveals the facile anodic oxidation of its organic part on a platinum disk and a progressive growing of a thin film, though the repetitive cycling of potential. The title compound was tested for its in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), Ferrous chelating ability (FIC) and Ferric Reducing Power (FRP) methods. The antioxidant activity of Cu1.5Li(C2H10N2)P6O18·7H2O was analyzed simultaneously with its antibacterial capacity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus feacium, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans. The tested compound showed significant antioxidant activities with low antibacterial properties.

  1. Varioloid A, a new indolyl-6,10b-dihydro-5aH-[1]benzofuro[2,3-b]indole derivative from the marine alga-derived endophytic fungus Paecilomyces variotii EN-291.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiao-Ming; Mao, Xin-Xin; Mándi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-01-01

    A new indolyl-6,10b-dihydro-5a H -[1]benzofuro[2,3- b ]indole derivative, varioloid A ( 1 ), was isolated from the marine alga-derived endophytic fungus Paecilomyces variotii EN-291. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the absolute configuration was determined by time-dependent density functional theory-electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. A similar compound, whose planar structure was previously described but the relative and absolute configurations and 13 C NMR data were not reported, was also identified and was tentatively named as varioloid B ( 2 ). Both compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against A549, HCT116, and HepG2 cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 2.6 to 8.2 µg/mL.

  2. Polymorph (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 10}){sub 0.5}RE{sub 3}F{sub 10}·xH{sub 2}O (RE = Ho-Lu, Y) and REF{sub 3} nanocrystals: Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Bing, E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn

    Graphical abstract: A hydrothermal system is developed to prepare one new polymorph of (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 10}){sub 0.5}RE{sub 3}F{sub 10}·xH{sub 2}O and known rare earth fluorides involving REF{sub 3} nanocrystals under mild condition. Highlights: ► A new polymorph of (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 10}){sub 0.5}RE{sub 3}F{sub 10}·xH{sub 2}O has been synthesized. ► The RE{sup 3+} radius decides the shape evolution and phase control for REF{sub 3} NCs. ► The RE{sup 3+} radius has influence on the microstructure and morphology of REF{sub 3} NCs. -- Abstract: In this paper, a solvents-thermal system is developed to prepare one new polymorph of (C{sub 2}N{submore » 2}H{sub 10}){sub 0.5}Ho{sub 3}F{sub 10}·xH{sub 2}O and rare earth fluorides REF{sub 3} nanocrystals under mild condition. It is found that the ionic radius of RE{sup 3+} is the key factor responsible for the shape evolution and phase control for rare earth fluorides nanocrystals at selected temperatures, which has an influence on the microstructure and morphology of the products to some extent. With the increase of the atomic number, the shape of fluoride changes from hexagonal REF{sub 3} phase (RE = La, Sm) to orthorhombic REF{sub 3} phase (RE = Eu-Dy), and finally to diamond structure (C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 10}){sub 0.5}Ho{sub 3}F{sub 10}·xH{sub 2}O (RE = Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y). In addition, the characteristic energy level transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 1} of Eu{sup 3+} splits into 585 and 591 nm emission peaks, and the dominant peak is the orange emission at 591 nm.« less

  3. Fluid inclusion volatile analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization micro-thermal conductivity detectors: Applications to magmatic MoS 2 and other H 2O-CO 2 and H 2O-CH 4 fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, C. J.; Spooner, E. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen fluid inclusion volatile peaks have been detected and identified from 1-2 g samples (quartz) by gas chromatography using heated (~105°C) on-line crushing, helium carrier gas, a single porous polymer column (HayeSep R; 10' × 1/8″: 100/120#; Ni alloy tubing), two temperature programme conditions for separate sample aliquots, micro-thermal conductivity (TCD) and photoionization detectors (PID; 11.7 eV lamp), and off-line digital peak processing. In order of retention time these volatile peaks are: N 2, Ar, CO, CH 4, CO 2, C 2H 4, C 2H 6, C 2H 2, COS, C 3H 6, C 3H 8, C 3H 4 (propyne), H 2O (22.7 min at 80°C), SO 2, ± iso- C4H10 ± C4H8 (1-butene) ± CH3SH, C 4H 8 (iso-butylene), (?) C 4H 6 (1,3 butadiene) and ± n- C4H10 ± C4H8 (trans-2-butene) (80 and -70°C temperature programme conditions combined). H 2O is analysed directly. O 2 can be analysed cryogenically between N 2 and Ar, but has not been detected in natural samples to date in this study. H 2S, SO 2, NH 3, HCl, HCN, and H 2 ca nnot be analysed at present. Blanks determined by crushing heat-treated Brazilian quartz (800-900°C/4 h) are zero for 80°C temperature programme conditions, except for a large, unidentified peak at ~64 min, but contain H 2O, CO 2, and some low molecular weight hydrocarbons at -70°C temperature conditions due to cryogenic accumulation from the carrier gas and subsequent elution. TCD detection limits are ~30 ppm molar in inclusions; PID detection limits are ~ 1 ppm molar in inclusions and lower for unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g., ~0.2 ppm for C 2H 4; ~ 1 ppb for C 2H 2; ~0.3 ppb for C 3H 6). Precisions (1σ) are ~ ±1-2% and ~ ± 13% for H 2O in terms of total moles detected; the latter value is equivalent to ±0.6 mol% at the 95 mol% H 2O level. Major fluid inclusion volatile species have been successfully analysed on a ~50 mg fluid inclusion section chip (~7 mm × ~10 mm × ~100 μm). Initial inclusion volatile analyses of fluids of interpreted magmatic origin from

  4. La0.8Sr0.2Co0.8Ni0.2O3-δ impregnated oxygen electrode for H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis in solid oxide electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haoyu; Tian, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lingling; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis through reversible solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) provides potentially a feasible and eco-friendly way to convert electrical energy into chemicals stored in syngas. In this work, La0.8Sr0.2Co0.8Ni0.2O3-δ (LSCN) impregnated Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 (GDC)-(La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3-δ (LSM) composite oxygen electrode is studied as high-performance electrode for H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis. The LSCN impregnated cell exhibits competitive performance with the peak power density of 1057 mW cm-2 at 800 °C in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mode; in co-electrolysis mode, the current density can reach 1.60 A cm-2 at 1.5 V at 800 °C with H2O/CO2 ratio of 2/1. With LSCN nanoparticles dispersed on the surface of GDC-LSM to maximize the reaction active sites, the LSCN impregnated cell shows significant enhanced electrochemical performance at both SOEC and SOFC modes. The influence of feed gas composition (H2O-H2-CO2) and operating voltages on the performance of co-electrolysis are discussed in detail. The cell shows a very stable performance without obvious degradation for more than 100 h. Post-test characterization is analyzed in detail by multiple measurements.

  5. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C3H9NO3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO3·H2O) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ilkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C(3)H(9)NO(3)S and NaHSO(3).H(2)O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C(3)H(9)NO(3)S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO(3). The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO(3)(-) and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO(3)(-) and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO(3)(-), the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. (Z)-3-Methyl-4-[1-(4-methyl­anilino)propyl­idene]-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naresh; Vyas, Komal M.; Jadeja, R. N.; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek K.

    2013-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C20H21N3O, the central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 4.75 (9) and 49.11 (9)°, respectively, with the phenyl and methyl-substituted benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and benzene rings is 51.76 (8)°. The amino group and carbonyl O atom are involved in an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions are observed between benzene rings [centroid–centroid seperation = 3.892 (2) Å] and pyrazole rings [centroid–centroid seperation = 3.626 (2) Å], forming chains along [111]. The H atoms of the methyl group on the p-tolyl substituent were refined as disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.60 (4):0.40 (4) ratio. PMID:24109353

  7. The reaction of indole with the aminoacrylate intermediate of Salmonella typhimurium tryptophan synthase: observation of a primary kinetic isotope effect with 3-[(2)H]indole.

    PubMed

    Cash, Michael T; Miles, Edith W; Phillips, Robert S

    2004-12-15

    The bacterial tryptophan synthase alpha(2)beta(2) complex catalyzes the final reactions in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. Indole is produced at the active site of the alpha-subunit and is transferred through a 25-30 A tunnel to the beta-active site, where it reacts with an aminoacrylate intermediate. Lane and Kirschner proposed a two-step nucleophilic addition-tautomerization mechanism for the reaction of indole with the aminoacrylate intermediate, based on the absence of an observed kinetic isotope effect (KIE) when 3-[(2)H]indole reacts with the aminoacrylate intermediate. We have now observed a KIE of 1.4-2.0 in the reaction of 3-[(2)H]indole with the aminoacrylate intermediate in the presence of monovalent cations, but not when an alpha-subunit ligand, disodium alpha-glycerophosphate (Na(2)GP), is present. Rapid-scanning stopped flow kinetic studies were performed of the reaction of indole and 3-[(2)H]indole with tryptophan synthase preincubated with L-serine, following the decay of the aminoacrylate intermediate at 350 nm, the formation of the quinonoid intermediate at 476 nm, and the formation of the L-Trp external aldimine at 423 nm. The addition of Na(2)GP dramatically slows the rate of reaction of indole with the alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate. A primary KIE is not observed in the reaction of 3-[(2)H]indole with the aminoacrylate complex of tryptophan synthase in the presence of Na(2)GP, suggesting binding of indole with tryptophan synthase is rate limiting under these conditions. The reaction of 2-methylindole does not show a KIE, either in the presence of Na(+) or Na(2)GP. These results support the previously proposed mechanism for the beta-reaction of tryptophan synthase, but suggest that the rate limiting step in quinonoid intermediate formation from indole and the aminoacrylate intermediate is deprotonation.

  8. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    of C-C and C-H bond ruptures, cyclization, decyclization, and complex decompositions are discussed in terms of energetics and structural properties. The pressure dependence of the product yields were computed and dominant reaction paths in this chemically activated system were determined. Both modeling and experiment suggest that the observed pressure dependence of [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] is due to decomposition of the chemically activated combination adduct 1-C4H8* in which the weaker allylic C-C bond is broken: H2C=CHCH2CH3 yields C3H5 + CH3. This reaction occurs even at moderate pressures of approx.200 Torr (26 kPa) and becomes more significant at lower pressures. The additional products detected at lower pressures are formed from secondary radical-radical reactions involving allyl, methyl, ethyl, and vinyl radicals. The modeling studies have extended the predictions of product distributions to different temperatures (200-700 K) and a wider range of pressures (10(exp -3) - 10(exp 5) Torr). These calculations indicate that the high-pressure [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] yield ratio is 1.3 +/- 0.1.

  9. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  10. Regioselective functionalization of iminophosphoranes through Pd-mediated C-H bond activation: C-C and C-X bond formation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, David; Navarro, Rafael; Soler, Tatiana; Urriolabeitia, Esteban P

    2010-11-21

    The orthopalladation of iminophosphoranes [R(3)P=N-C(10)H(7)-1] (R(3) = Ph(3) 1, p-Tol(3) 2, PhMe(2) 3, Ph(2)Me 4, N-C(10)H(7)-1 = 1-naphthyl) has been studied. It occurs regioselectively at the aryl ring bonded to the P atom in 1 and 2, giving endo-[Pd(μ-Cl)(C(6)H(4)-(PPh(2=N-1-C(10)H(7))-2)-κ-C,N](2) (5) or endo-[Pd(μ-Cl)(C(6)H(3)-(P(p-Tol)(2)=N-C(10)H(7)-1)-2-Me-5)-κ-C,N](2) (6), while in 3 the 1-naphthyl group is metallated instead, giving exo-[Pd(μ-Cl)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPhMe(2))-8)-κ-C,N](2) (7). In the case of 4, orthopalladation at room temperature affords the kinetic exo isomer [Pd(μ-Cl)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPh(2)Me)-8)-κ-C,N](2) (11exo), while a mixture of 11exo and the thermodynamic endo isomer [Pd(μ-Cl)(C(6)H(4)-(PPhMe=N-C(10)H(7)-1)-2)-κ-C,N](2) (11endo) is obtained in refluxing toluene. The heating in toluene of the acetate bridge dimer [Pd(μ-OAc)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPh(2)Me)-8)-κ-C,N](2) (13exo) promotes the facile transformation of the exo isomer into the endo isomer [Pd(μ-OAc)(C(6)H(4)-(PPhMe=N-C(10)H(7)-1)-2)-κ-C,N](2) (13endo), confirming that the exo isomers are formed under kinetic control. Reactions of the orthometallated complexes have led to functionalized molecules. The stoichiometric reactions of the orthometallated complexes [Pd(μ-Cl)(C(10)H(6)-(N=PPhMe(2))-8)-κ-C,N](2) (7), [Pd(μ-Cl)(C(6)H(4)-(PPh(2)[=NPh)-2)](2) (17) and [Pd(μ-Cl)(C(6)H(3)-(C(O)N=PPh(3))-2-OMe-4)](2) (18) with I(2) or with CO results in the synthesis of the ortho-halogenated compounds [PhMe(2)P=N-C(10)H(6)-I-8] (19), [I-C(6)H(4)-(PPh(2)=NPh)-2] (21) and [Ph(3)P=NC(O)C(6)H(3)-I-2-OMe-5] (23) or the heterocycles [C(10)H(6)-(N=PPhMe(2))-1-(C(O))-8]Cl (20), [C(6)H(5)-(N=PPh(2)-C(6)H(4)-C(O)-2]ClO(4) (22) and [C(6)H(3)-(C(O)-1,2-N-PPh(3))-OMe-4]Cl (24).

  11. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl] derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane...-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl] derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl] derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane...-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl] derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4...

  13. SSR126768A (4-chloro-3-[(3R)-(+)-5-chloro-1-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl]-N-ethyl-N-(3-pyridylmethyl)-benzamide, hydrochloride): a new selective and orally active oxytocin receptor antagonist for the prevention of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Serradeil-Le Gal, Claudine; Valette, Gérard; Foulon, Loïc; Germain, Guy; Advenier, Charles; Naline, Emmanuel; Bardou, Marc; Martinolle, Jean-Pierre; Pouzet, Brigitte; Raufaste, Danielle; Garcia, Corinne; Double-Cazanave, Eléonore; Pauly, Maxime; Pascal, Marc; Barbier, Alain; Scatton, Bernard; Maffrand, Jean-Pierre; Le Fur, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    4-chloro-3-[(3R)-(+)-5-chloro-1-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-3-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl]-N-ethyl-N-(3-pyridylmethyl)benzamide, hydrochloride (SSR126768A), a new potent and selective, orally active oxytocin (OT) receptor antagonist was characterized in several biochemical and pharmacological models. In binding studies, SSR126768A showed nanomolar affinity for rat and human recombinant and native OT receptors (K(i) = 0.44 nM) and exhibited much lower affinity for V(1a), V(1b), and V(2) receptors. In addition, it did not interact with a large number of other receptors, enzymes, and ion channels (1 microM). In autoradiographic experiments performed on at-term human pregnant uterus sections, SSR126768A dose dependently displaced [I(125)]d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4), Orn(8) (125)I-Tyr-NH(2)(9)]VT in situ labeling to OT receptors highly expressed in these tissues. In functional studies, SSR126768A behaved as a full antagonist and potently antagonized OT-induced intracellular Ca(2+) increase (K(i) = 0.50 nM) and prostaglandin release (K(i) = 0.45 nM) in human uterine smooth muscle cells. In rat isolated myometrium, OT-induced uterine contractions were competitively antagonized by SSR126768A (pA(2) = 8.47). Similarly, in human pregnant myometrial strips, SSR126768A inhibited the contractile uterine response to OT. In conscious telemetrated rats, oral administration of SSR126768A (1-10 mg/kg) produced a competitive inhibition of the dose response to OT on uterine contractions up to 24 h at 3 mg/kg p.o.; no tachyphylaxis was observed after 4-day repeated treatment. Finally, SSR126768A (30 mg/kg p.o.) significantly delayed parturition in pregnant rats in labor similar to ritodrine (10 mg/kg p.o.). Thus, SSR126768A is a potent, highly selective, orally active OT receptor antagonist with a long duration of action. This molecule could find therapeutic application as a tocolytic agent for acute and chronic oral management of preterm labor.

  14. Syntheses and crystal structures of two new hydrated borates, Zn{sub 8}[(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}] and Pb[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)].1.5H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xuean; Zhao Yinghua; Chang Xinan

    Two new hydrated borates, Zn{sub 8}[(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}] and Pb[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)].1.5H{sub 2}O, have been prepared by hydrothermal reactions at 170 {sup o}C. Single-crystal X-ray structural analyses showed that Zn{sub 8}[(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}] crystallizes in a non-centrosymmetric space group R32 with a=8.006(2) A, c=17.751(2) A, Z=3 and Pb[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)].1.5H{sub 2}O in a triclinic space group P1-bar with a=6.656(2) A, b=6.714(2) A, c=10.701(2) A, {alpha}=99.07(2){sup o}, {beta}=93.67(2){sup o}, {gamma}=118.87(1){sup o}, Z=2. Zn{sub 8}[(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}] represents a new structure type in which Zn-centered tetrahedra are connected via common vertices leading to helical ribbons {submore » {infinity}} {sup 1}[Zn{sub 8}O{sub 15}(OH){sub 3}]{sup 17-} that pack side by side and are further condensed through sharing oxygen atoms to form a three-dimensional {sub {infinity}} {sup 3}[Zn{sub 8}O{sub 11}(OH){sub 3}]{sup 9-} framework. The boron atoms are incorporated into the channels in the framework to complete the final structure. Pb[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)].1.5H{sub 2}O is a layered compound containing double ring [B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)]{sup 2-} building units that share exocyclic oxygen atoms to form a two-dimensional layer. Symmetry-center-related layers are stacked along the c-axis and held together by interlayer Pb{sup 2+} ions and water molecules via electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The IR spectra further confirmed the existence of both triangular BO{sub 3} and OH groups in Zn{sub 8}[(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}], and BO{sub 3}, BO{sub 4}, OH groups as well as guest water molecules in Pb[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)].1.5H{sub 2}O. -- Zn{sub 8}[(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}] represents a new structure type in which Zn-centered tetrahedra are connected via common vertices to form a three-dimensional framework. The boron atoms are incorporated into the channels in the framework to

  15. Syntheses, crystal structures and optical spectroscopy of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierczak, Karolina; Hoeppe, Henning A., E-mail: henning@ak-hoeppe.d

    2011-05-15

    The lanthanide sulphate octahydrates Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and the respective tetrahydrate Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O were obtained by evaporation of aqueous reaction mixtures of trivalent rare earth oxides and sulphuric acid at 300 K. Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) crystallise in space group C2/c (Z=4, a{sub Ho}=13.4421(4) A, b{sub Ho}=6.6745(2) A, c{sub Ho}=18.1642(5) A, {beta}{sub Ho}=102.006(1) A{sup 3} and a{sub Tm}=13.4118(14) A, b{sub Tm}=6.6402(6) A, c{sub Tm}=18.1040(16) A, {beta}{sub Tm}=101.980(8) A{sup 3}), Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O adopts space group P2{sub 1}/n (a=13.051(3) A, b=7.2047(14) A, c=13.316(3) A, {beta}=92.55(3) A{sup 3}). The vibrationalmore » and optical spectra of Ho{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O are also reported. -- Graphical abstract: In the lanthanide sulphate octahydrates the cations form slightly undulated layers. Between the layers are voids in which sulphate tetrahedra and water molecules are located. The holmium compound exhibits an Alexandrite effect. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Determination of the optimum conditions for the growth of single-crystals of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O. {yields} Single-crystal structure elucidation of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) including hydrogen bonds. {yields} Single-crystal structure determination of Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O including hydrogen bonds. {yields} UV-vis spectra of Ho{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O recorded and interpreted: Assignation of bands and clarification of the Alexandrite effect of the Ho compound. {yields} IR and Raman spectra of Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.8H{sub 2}O (Ln=Ho, Tm) and Pr{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O recorded and interpreted.« less

  16. 3-methyl-2-phenyl-1-substituted-indole derivatives as indomethacin analogs: design, synthesis and biological evaluation as potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Lamie, Phoebe F; Omar, Hany A

    2016-01-01

    In a new group of 3-methyl-2-phenyl-1-substituted-indole derivatives (10a-f), the indomethacin analogs were prepared via the Fisher indole synthesis reaction of propiophenone with appropriately substituted phenylhydrazine hydrochloride. This is followed by the insertion of the appropriate benzyl or benzoyl fragment. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (in vitro and in vivo) and analgesic activities. The methanesulphonyl derivatives 10d, e and f showed the highest anti-inflammatory (in vitro and in vivo) and analgesic activities. In addition, molecular docking studies were performed on compounds 10a-f and the results were in agreement with that obtained from the in vitro COX inhibition assays. The significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities exhibited by 10d and 10e warrant continued preclinical development as potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

  17. Ulcer Prevention Effect Of 3,4,5-Tihydroxy-N0-[(2-Methyl-1H-Indol-3yl)Methylidene]Benzohydrazide In HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage In Rats.

    PubMed

    Tayeby, Faezeh; Salman, Abbas Abdul Ameer; Kamran, Sareh; Khaing, Si Lay; Salehen, Nur'ain Binti; Mohan, Gokula Mohan A/L Duchiyanda

    2017-01-01

    The newly synthesized, 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-N 0-[(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methylidene] benzohydrazide (TIBH), is an indole and gallic acid derivative. The aim of this research investigation was to evaluate the acute toxicity and the ulcer prevention potential of TIBH in HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model. Six groups of rats were orally received 5ml/kg of vehicle (1 % Carboxy methyl cellulose) for the normal and ulcer control groups each, Omeprazole (20mg/kg) for positive control, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of TIBH for experimental groups, respectively. After one hour, instead of rats in the normal group which received 5ml/kg of 1% CMC, other groups received 5ml/kg of HCl/Ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after one additional hour. Gastric juice, gastric mucosa, morphologies of gastric ulcers and protein expressions of both control and treatment groups were evaluated. TIBH showed a ulcer prevention potential by increase of the mucus secretion, decrease of the gastric acidity, up-regulation of HSP70 protein, down-regulation of Bax protein, decrease of the lipid peroxidation and the increase of the Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in gastric tissue homogenate. Acute toxicity assay exposed valuable information on the safety of this compound. TIBH had a dose dependent ulcer prevention potential against HCl/Ethanol-triggered gastric ulcer.

  18. Ulcer Prevention Effect Of 3,4,5-Tihydroxy-N0-[(2-Methyl-1H-Indol-3yl)Methylidene]Benzohydrazide In HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tayeby, Faezeh; Salman, Abbas Abdul Ameer; Kamran, Sareh; Khaing, Si Lay; Salehen, Nur'ain Binti; Mohan, Gokula Mohan A/L Duchiyanda

    2017-01-01

    The newly synthesized, 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-N 0-[(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methylidene] benzohydrazide (TIBH), is an indole and gallic acid derivative. The aim of this research investigation was to evaluate the acute toxicity and the ulcer prevention potential of TIBH in HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model. Six groups of rats were orally received 5ml/kg of vehicle (1 % Carboxy methyl cellulose) for the normal and ulcer control groups each, Omeprazole (20mg/kg) for positive control, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of TIBH for experimental groups, respectively. After one hour, instead of rats in the normal group which received 5ml/kg of 1% CMC, other groups received 5ml/kg of HCl/Ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after one additional hour. Gastric juice, gastric mucosa, morphologies of gastric ulcers and protein expressions of both control and treatment groups were evaluated. TIBH showed a ulcer prevention potential by increase of the mucus secretion, decrease of the gastric acidity, up-regulation of HSP70 protein, down-regulation of Bax protein, decrease of the lipid peroxidation and the increase of the Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in gastric tissue homogenate. Acute toxicity assay exposed valuable information on the safety of this compound. TIBH had a dose dependent ulcer prevention potential against HCl/Ethanol-triggered gastric ulcer. PMID:29200945

  19. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  20. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance of methyl-substituted acetophenones and methyl benzoates: steric hindrance and inhibited conjugation.

    PubMed

    Budesínský, Milos; Kulhánek, Jirí; Böhm, Stanislav; Cigler, Petr; Exner, Otto

    2004-10-01

    The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of 14 methyl-substituted acetophenones and 14 methyl-substituted methyl benzoates were assigned and interpreted with respect to the conformation of the C(ar)-C(O) bond. The substituent effects are proportional in the two series and can be divided into polar and steric: each has different effects on the 13C SCS of the individual atoms. In the case of C atoms C(O), C(1) and CH3(CO), the steric effects were quantitatively separated by comparing SCS in the ortho and para positions. The steric effects are proportional for the individual C atoms and also to steric effects estimated from other physical quantities. However, they do not depend simply on the angle of torsion phi of the functional group as anticipated hitherto. A better description distinguishes two classes of compounds: sterically not hindered or slightly hindered planar molecules and strongly sterically hindered, markedly non-planar. In order to confirm this reasoning without empirical correlations, the J(C,C) coupling constants were measured for three acetophenone derivatives labeled with 13C in the acetyl methyl group. The constants confirm unambiguously the conformation of 2-methylacetophenone; their zero values are in accord with the conformation of 2,6-dimethylacetophenone. The zero values in the unsubstituted acetophenone are at variance with previous erroneous report but all J(C,C) values are in accord with calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Electronic absorption spectroscopy of matrix-isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations. II. The phenanthrene cation (C14H10+) and its 1-methyl derivative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Joblin, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared absorption spectra of phenanthrene (C14H10), 1-methylphenanthrene [(CH3)C14H9], and their radical ions [C14H10+; (CH3)C14H9+], formed by vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, were measured in neon matrices at 4.2 K. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed. The oscillator strengths were calculated for the phenanthrene ion and found lower than the theoretical predictions. This study presents the first spectroscopic data for phenanthrene and its methyl derivative trapped in a neon matrix where the perturbation of the isolated species by its environment is minimum; a condition crucial to astrophysical applications.

  2. ELEVATED BLOOD HARMANE (1-METHYL-9H-PYRIDO[3,4-B]INDOLE) CONCENTRATIONS IN ESSENTIAL TREMOR

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Jiang, Wendy; Pellegrino, Kathryn M.; Rios, Eileen; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Henchcliffe, Claire; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a widespread late-life neurological disease. Genetic and environmental factors likely play an etiological role. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. In 2002, we demonstrated elevated blood harmane concentrations in an initial sample of 100 ET cases compared to 100 controls. Between 2002 and 2007, we assembled a new and larger sample of ET cases and controls. We now attempt to replicate our previous findings. Cases and controls were frequency-matched on age, gender, and race. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 150 ET cases and 135 controls (mean age 65.3 ± 15.5 vs. 65.5 ± 14.2 years, p = 0.94). Mean log blood harmane concentration was ∼50% higher in cases than controls (0.50 ± 0.54 g -10/ml vs. 0.35 ± 0.62 g-10/ml, p = 0.038). In a logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was associated with ET (ORadjusted 1.56, 95% CI 1.01 - 2.42, p = 0.04), and odds of ET was 1.90 (95% CI 1.07 - 3.39, p = 0.029) in the highest vs. lowest log blood harmane tertile. Log blood harmane was highest in ET cases with familial ET (0.53 ± 0.57 g -10/ml), intermediate in cases with sporadic ET (0.43 ± 0.45 g -10/ml) and lowest in controls (0.35 ± 0.62 g-10/ml) (test for trend, p = 0.026). Blood harmane appears to be elevated in ET. The higher concentrations in familial ET suggests that the mechanism may involve genetic factors. PMID:18242711

  3. Chanabayaite, Cu2(N3C2H2)Cl(NH3,Cl,H2O,□)4, a new mineral containing triazolate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Möhn, G.; Pekov, I. V.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.; Zadov, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    A new mineral, chanabayaite, has been discovered at a guano deposit located at Mt. Pabellón de Pica near the village of Chanabaya, Iquique Province, Tarapacá region, Chile. It is associated with salammoniac, halite, joanneumite, nitratine and earlier chalcopyrite. Chanabayaite occurs as blue translucent imperfect prismatic crystals, up to 0.05 × 0.1 × 0.5 mm in size, and their radial aggregates. Chanabayaite is brittle, with a Mohs' hardness of 2. The cleavage is perfect on (001) and imperfect on (100) and (010). D meas = 1.48(2) g/cm3, D calc = 1.464 g/cm3. The mineral is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.561(2), β = 1.615(3), γ = 1.620(2), 2 V meas = 25(10)°, 2 V calc = 33°. Pleochroism is strong, Z ≈ Y (deep blue) ≫ X (pale blue with gray tint). IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition (electron microprobe data for Cu, Fe and Cl; gas chromatography data for H, N, C and O) is as follows (wt %): 32.23 Cu, 1.14 Fe, 16.13 Cl, 3.1 H, 29.9 N, 12.2 C, 3.4 O, total is 98.1. The empirical formula is ( Z = 4): Cu1.92Fe0.08Cl1.72N8.09C3.85H11.66O0.81. The structural model was based on the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data ( R = 0.1627). Chanabayaite is orthorhombic, space group Imma, a = 19.484(3), b = 7.2136(10), c = 11.999(4) Å, V = 1686.5(7) Å3, Z = 2. In chanabayaite, chains of the corner-sharing Cu(l)-centered octahedra and single Cu(2)-centered octahedra are linked via 1,2,4-triazolate anions C2N3H2 -. NH3 and Cl- are additional ligands coordinating Cu2+. Chanabayaite is a transformational mineral species formed by leaching of Na and one third of Cl and partial dehydration of the protophase Na2Cu2Cl3(N3C2H2)2(NH3)2 • 4H2O. The strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are detected: 10.19 (100) (101), 6.189 (40) (011), 5.729 (23) (301), 5.216 (75) (211, 202), 4.964 (20) (400), 2.830 (20) (602, 413, 503), 2.611 (24) (123, 422, 404).

  4. H-TiO2/C/MnO2 nanocomposite materials for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Jing; Fu, Xincui; Zheng, Huajun; Jia, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Functionalized TiO2 nanotube arrays with decoration of MnO2 nanoparticles (denoted as H-TiO2/C/MnO2) have been synthesized in the application of electrochemical capacitors. To improve both areal and gravimetric capacitance, hydrogen treatment and carbon coating process were conducted on TiO2 nanotube arrays. By scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it is confirmed that the nanostructure is formed by the uniform incorporation of MnO2 nanoparticles growing round the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays. Impedance analysis proves that the enhanced capacitive is due to the decrease of charge transfer resistance and diffusion resistance. Electrochemical measurements performed on this H-TiO2/C/MnO2 nanocomposite when used as an electrode material for an electrochemical pseudocapacitor presents quasi-rectangular shaped cyclic voltammetry curves up to 100 mV/s, with a large specific capacitance (SC) of 299.8 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. More importantly, the electrode also exhibits long-term cycling stability, only 13 % of SC loss after 2000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Based on the concept of integrating active materials on highly ordered nanostructure framework, this method can be widely applied to the synthesis of high-performance electrode materials for energy storage.

  5. Crystal structure and spectroscopic behavior of synthetic novgorodovaite Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·2H2O and its twinned triclinic heptahydrate analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Oscar E.; Echeverría, Gustavo A.; González-Baró, Ana C.; Baran, Enrique J.

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic novgorodovaite analog Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·2H2O is identical to its natural counterpart. It crystallizes in the monoclinic I2/ m space group with a = 6.9352(3), b = 7.3800(4), c = 7.4426(3) Å, β = 94.303(4)°, V = 379.85(3) Å3 and Z = 2. The heptahydrate analog, Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·7H2O, crystallizes as triclinic twins in the P \\overline{1} space group with a = 7.3928(8), b = 8.9925(4), c = 10.484(2) Å, α = 84.070(7), β = 70.95(1), γ = 88.545(7)°, V = 655.3(1) Å3 and Z = 2. The crystal packing of both calcium oxalate-chloride double salts favors the directional bonding of oxalate, C2O4 2-, ligands to calcium ions as do other related calcium oxalate minerals. The π-bonding between C and O atoms of the C2O4 2- oxalate group leaves sp 2-hydridised orbitals of the oxygen atoms available for bonding to Ca. Thus, the Ca-O bonds in both calcium oxalate-chloride double salts are directed so as to lie in the plane of the oxalate group. This behavior is reinforced by the short O···O distances between the oxygens attached to a given carbon atom, which favors them bonding to a shared Ca atom in bidentate fashion. Strong bonding in the plane of the oxalate anion and wide spacing perpendicular to that plane due to repulsion between oxalate π-electron clouds gives rise to a polymerized structural units which are common to both hydrates, explaining the nearly equal cell constants 7.4 Å which are defined by the periodicity of Ca-oxalate chains in the framework (monoclinic b ≈ triclinic a). When compared with novgorodovaite, the higher water content of Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·7H2O leads to some major differences in their structures and ensuing physical properties. While novgorodovaite has a three-dimensional framework structure, in the higher hydrate, the highly polar water molecules displace chloride ions from the calcium coordination sphere and surround them through OwH···Cl hydrogen bonds. As a result, polymerization in Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·7H2O solid is limited to the formation

  6. Crystal structure, quantum mechanical investigation, IR and NMR spectroscopy of two new organic salts: (C8H12NO)·[NO3] (I) and (C8H14N4)·[ClO4]2 (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayar, I.; Khedhiri, L.; Soudani, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Pereira da Silva, P. S.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2018-06-01

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid materials, 4-methoxybenzylammonium nitrate, (C8H12NO)·[NO3] (I), and 2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrimidinium bis(perchlorate), (C8H14N4)·[ClO4]2(II), have been synthesized by an acid/base reaction at room temperature, their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (I) crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and Pnma space group with a = 15.7908 (7), b = 6.8032 (3), c = 8.7091 (4) Å, V = 935.60 (7) Å3 with Z = 4. Full-matrix least-squares refinement converged at R = 0.038 and wR(F2) = 0.115. Compound (II) belongs to the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with the following parameters: a = 10.798(2), b = 7.330(1), c = 21.186(2) Å, β = 120.641 (4)°, V = 1442.7 (3) Å3and Z = 4. The structure was refined to R = 0.044, wR(F2) = 0.132. In the structures of (I) and (II), the anionic and cationic entities are interconnected by hydrogen bonding contacts forming three-dimensional networks. Intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces and the contacts of the four different chloride atoms in (II) were compared. The Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) maps and the HOMO and LUMO energy gaps of both compounds were computed. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. These compounds were also investigated by solid-state 13C, 35Cl and 15N NMR spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the IR and NMR bands.

  7. A Novel Dimeric Ni-Substituted beta-Keggin Silicotungstate: Structure and Magnetic Properties of K(12)[{beta-SiNi(2)W(10)O(36)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)}(2)].20H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Kortz, Ulrich; Jeannin, Yves P.; Tézé, André; Hervé, Gilbert; Isber, Samih

    1999-08-09

    The novel dimeric polyoxometalate [{beta-SiNi(2)W(10)O(36)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)}(2)](12)(-) (1) has been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, polarography, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic measurements. An X-ray single-crystal analysis was carried out on K(12)[{beta-SiNi(2)W(10)O(36)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)}(2)].20H(2)O, which crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/n, with a = 13.701(4) Å, b = 24.448(11) Å, c = 13.995(5) Å, beta = 99.62(3) degrees, and Z = 4. The anion consists of two [beta-SiNi(2)W(10)O(36)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)] Keggin moieties linked via two OH bridging groups, leading to a planar Ni(2)(OH)(2) unit. The two half-units are related by an inversion center and each contain one Ni atom in the rotated triad. The formation of the new anion involves insertion, isomerization, and dimerization. Magnetic measurements show that the central Ni(4) unit exhibits ferromagnetic (J' = 4.14 cm(-)(1)) as well as weak antiferromagnetic (J = -0.65 cm(-)(1)) Ni-Ni exchange interactions.

  8. Reaction products from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and deoxyribonucleic acid containing thymidine residues. Synthesis and identification of a new methylation product, O4-methyl-thymidine

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, P. D.; Orr, D. J.; Shah, S. A.; Farmer, P. B.; Jarman, M.

    1973-01-01

    1. DNA was treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea at pH7–8, 37°C, degraded to yield 3- and 7-methylpurines and deoxyribonucleosides and the reaction products were separated by chromatography on ion-exchange resins. The following methods for identification and determination of products were used: with unlabelled N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, u.v. absorption; use of methyl-14C-labelled N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and use of [14C]thymine-labelled DNA. 2. The synthesis of O4-methylthymidine and its identification by u.v. and mass spectroscopy are reported. 3. 3-Methylthymidine and O4-methylthymidine were found as methylation products from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea with thymidine and with DNA, in relatively small yields. Unidentified products containing thymine were found in enzymic digests of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-treated DNA, which may be phosphotriesters. 4. The possible role of formation of methylthymines in mutagenesis by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea is discussed. PMID:4798180

  9. Cocrystals of 6-methyl-2-thiouracil: presence of the acceptor-donor-acceptor/donor-acceptor-donor synthon.

    PubMed

    Hützler, Wilhelm Maximilian; Egert, Ernst

    2015-03-01

    The results of seven cocrystallization experiments of the antithyroid drug 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS, with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and 6-amino-3H-isocytosine (viz. 2,6-diamino-3H-pyrimidin-4-one) are reported. MTU features an ADA (A = acceptor and D = donor) hydrogen-bonding site, while the three coformers show complementary DAD hydrogen-bonding sites and therefore should be capable of forming an ADA/DAD N-H...O/N-H...N/N-H...S synthon with MTU. The experiments yielded one cocrystal and six cocrystal solvates, namely 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (1/1/2), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)·2C(5)H(9)NO, (I), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine (1/1), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4), (II), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylacetamide (2/1/2), 2C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)·2C(4)H(9)NO, (III), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-2,4-diaminopyrimidine-N,N-dimethylformamide (2/1/2), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·0.5C(4)H(6)N(4)·C(3)H(7)NO, (IV), 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidinium 6-methyl-2-thiouracilate-6-methyl-2-thiouracil-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1/2), C(4)H(8)N(5)(+)·C(5)H(5)N(2)OS(-)·C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·2C(3)H(7)NO, (V), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-6-amino-3H-isocytosine-N,N-dimethylformamide (1/1/1), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)O·C(3)H(7)NO, (VI), and 6-methyl-2-thiouracil-6-amino-3H-isocytosine-dimethyl sulfoxide (1/1/1), C(5)H(6)N(2)OS·C(4)H(6)N(4)O·C(2)H(6)OS, (VII). Whereas in cocrystal (I) an R(2)(2)(8) interaction similar to the Watson-Crick adenine/uracil base pair is formed and a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network is observed, the cocrystals (II)-(VII) contain the triply hydrogen-bonded ADA/DAD N-H...O/N-H...N/N-H...S synthon and show a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network. Although 2,4-diaminopyrimidine possesses only one DAD hydrogen-bonding site, it is, due to orientational disorder, triply connected to two MTU molecules in (III) and (IV).

  10. Direct C-H alkylation and indole formation of anilines with diazo compounds under rhodium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Choi, Miji; Jo, Hyeim; Oh, Yongguk; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Lee, Seok-Yong; Kim, In Su

    2015-12-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct functionalization of aniline C-H bonds with α-diazo compounds is described. These transformations provide a facile construction of ortho-alkylated anilines with diazo malonates or highly substituted indoles with diazo acetoacetates.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10272 - 3′H-Cyclopropa[8,25][5,6]fullerene-C70-D5h(6)-3′-butanoic acid, 3′-phenyl-,methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10272 3′H-Cyclopropa[8,25][5,6]fullerene-C70-D5h(6)-3′-butanoic acid, 3′-phenyl-,methyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 3′H-Cyclopropa[8,25][5,6...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10272 - 3′H-Cyclopropa[8,25][5,6]fullerene-C70-D5h(6)-3′-butanoic acid, 3′-phenyl-,methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10272 3′H-Cyclopropa[8,25][5,6]fullerene-C70-D5h(6)-3′-butanoic acid, 3′-phenyl-,methyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 3′H-Cyclopropa[8,25][5,6...

  13. Calculations of thermal radiation transfer of C2H2 and C2H4 together with H2O, CO2, and CO in a one-dimensional enclosure using LBL and SNB models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chaobo; Zheng, Shu; Zhou, Huaichun

    2017-08-01

    Generally, the involvement of hydrocarbons such as C2H4 and its derivative C2H2 in thermal radiation has not been accounted in the numerical simulation of their flames, which may cause serious error for estimation of temperature in the early stage of combustion. At the first, the Statistical Narrow-Band (SNB) model parameters for C2H2 and C2H4 are generated from line by line (LBL) calculations. The distributions of the concentrations of radiating gases such as H2O, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H4, and the temperature along the centerline of a laminar ethylene/air diffusion flame were chosen to form a one-dimensional, planar enclosure to be tested in this study. Thermal radiation transfer in such an enclosure was calculated using the LBL approach and the SNB model, most of the relative errors are less than 8% and the results of these two models shows an excellent agreement. Below the height of 20 mm, which is the early stage of the flame, the average fraction contributed by C2H2 and C2H4 in the radiative heat source is 33.8%, while that by CO is only 5.8%. This result indicates that the involvement of C2H2 and C2H4 in radiation heat transfer needs to be taken into account in the numerical modeling of the ethylene/air diffusion flame, especially in the early stage of combustion.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and properties of nickel complexes with nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) [Ni(H{sub 2}O)3N(CH2PO{sub 3}H){sub 3}] and Na{sub 4}[Ni(H{sub 2}O)N(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 3}] ∙ 11H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Somov, N. V., E-mail: somov@phys.unn.ru; Chausov, F. F., E-mail: chaus@yandex.ru; Zakirova, R. M.

    2016-03-15

    Nitrilotris(methylenephosphonato)triaquanickel and tetrasodium nitrilotris(methylenephosphonato) aquanickelate undecahydrate were synthesized and characterized. The crystal of [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}N(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}H){sub 3}] is composed of linear coordination polymers and belongs to sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4, a = 9.17120(10) Å, b = 16.05700(10) Å, c = 9.70890(10) Å, β = 115.830(2)°. The Ni atom is in an octahedral coordination formed by two oxygen atoms of one phosphonate ligand, one oxygen atom of another ligand molecule, and three water molecules in a meridional configuration. The crystal of Na{sub 4}[Ni(H{sub 2}O)N(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 3}] ∙ 11H{sub 2}O has an island dimeric chelate structuremore » and belongs to sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 8, a = 18.7152(2) Å, b = 12.05510(10) Å, c = 21.1266(2) Å, β = 104.4960(10)°. The Ni atom has a slightly distorted octahedral coordination involving one nitrogen atom and closes three five-membered N–C–P–O–Ni rings sharing the Ni–N bond.« less

  15. Luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine indole complexes--synthesis, photophysics, electrochemistry, protein-binding properties, cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason Shing-Yip; Lee, Pui-Kei; Tsang, Keith Hing-Kit; Ng, Cyrus Ho-Cheong; Lam, Yun-Wah; Cheng, Shuk-Han; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2009-01-19

    A series of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine indole complexes, [Ir(N--C)(2)(N--N)](PF(6)) (HN--C = 2-phenylpyridine (Hppy), N--N = 4-((2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl)aminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine (bpy-ind) (1a), N--N = 4-((5-((2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl)aminocarbonyl)pentyl)aminocarbonyl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine (bpy-C6-ind) (1b); HN--C = 7,8-benzoquinoline (Hbzq), N--N = bpy-ind (2a), N--N = bpy-C6-ind (2b); and HN--C = 2-phenylquinoline (Hpq), N--N = bpy-ind (3a), N--N = bpy-C6-ind (3b)), have been synthesized, characterized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties and lipophilicity investigated. Photoexcitation of the complexes in fluid solutions at 298 K and in alcohol glass at 77 K resulted in intense and long-lived luminescence (lambda(em) = 540-616 nm, tau(o) = 0.13-5.15 mus). The emission of the complexes has been assigned to a triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) (dpi(Ir) --> pi*(N--N)) excited state, probably with some mixing of triplet intraligand ((3)IL) (pi --> pi*) (pq) character for complexes 3a,b. Electrochemical measurements revealed that all the complexes showed an irreversible indole oxidation wave at ca. +1.1 V versus SCE, a quasi-reversible iridium(IV/III) couple at ca. +1.3 V, and a reversible diimine reduction couple at ca. -1.3 V. The interactions of these complexes with an indole-binding protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been studied by emission titrations, and the K(a) values are on the order of 10(4) M(-1). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the complexes toward human cervix epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cells has been examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC(50) values of the complexes ranged from 1.1 to 6.3 microM, which are significantly smaller than that of cisplatin (30.7 microM) under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, the cellular uptake of the complexes has been investigated by flow cytometry and laser

  16. Preparation of Zr(Mo,W)2O8 with a larger negative thermal expansion by controlling the thermal decomposition of Zr(Mo,W)2(OH,Cl)22H2O.

    PubMed

    Petrushina, Mariya Yu; Dedova, Elena S; Filatov, Eugeny Yu; Plyusnin, Pavel E; Korenev, Sergei V; Kulkov, Sergei N; Derevyannikova, Elizaveta A; Sharafutdinov, Marat R; Gubanov, Alexander I

    2018-03-28

    Solid solutions of Zr(Mo,W) 2 O 7 (OH,Cl) 22H 2 O with a preset ratio of components were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The chemical composition of the solutions was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). For all the samples of ZrMo x W 2-x O 7 (OH,Cl) 22H 2 O (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0), TGA and in situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies (300-1100 K) were conducted. For each case, the boundaries of the transformations were determined: Zr(Mo,W) 2 O 7 (OH,Cl) 22H 2 O → orthorhombic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (425-525 K), orthorhombic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8  → cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (700-850 K), cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8  → trigonal-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (800-1050 K for x > 1) and cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8  → oxides (1000-1075 K for x ≤ 1). The cell parameters of the disordered cubic-ZrMo x W 2-x O 8 (space group Pa-3) were measured within 300-900 K, and the thermal expansion coefficients were calculated: -3.5∙10 -6  - -4.5∙10 -6  K -1 . For the ordered ZrMo 1.8 W 0.2 O 8 (space group P2 1 3), a negative thermal expansion (NTE) coefficient -9.6∙10 -6  K -1 (300-400 K) was calculated. Orthorhombic-ZrW2O 8 is formed upon the decomposition of ZrW 2 O 7 (OH,Cl) 22H 2 O within 500-800 K.

  17. Investigations on the synthesis and pharmacological properties of 4-alkoxy-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(4-aryl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-6-methyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine-1,3(2H)-diones.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, Helena; Filipek, Barbara; Szkatuła, Dominika; Sabiniarz, Aleksandra; Kardasz, Małgorzata; Potoczek, Joanna; Sieklucka-Dziuba, Maria; Rajtar, Grazyna; Kleinrok, Zdzisław; Lis, Tadeusz

    2002-11-01

    Synthesis of 2-[2-hydroxy-3-(4-aryl-1-piperazinyl)propyl] derivatives of 4-alkoxy-6-methyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine-1,3(2H)-diones (8-12) is described. The chlorides used in the above synthesis can exist in two isomeric forms: chain (18-20) and cyclic (19a, 20a). The compounds 8-12 exhibited potent analgesic activity which was superior than that of acetylsalicylic acid in two different tests. Most of the investigated imides suppressed significantly spontaneous locomotor activity in mice.

  18. Degradation and mineralization of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2015-06-01

    This work reports on the removal and mineralization of an endocrine disrupting chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA) at a concentration of 0.22 mM in aqueous solution using inorganic oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8;S2O8(2-)) under UV irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm and 40 W power (Io = 1.26 × 10(-6) E s(-1)) at its natural pH and a temperature of 29 ± 3 °C. With an optimum persulfate concentration of 1.26 mM, the UV/S2O8(2-) process resulted in ∼95% BPA removal after 240 min of irradiation. The optimum BPA removal was found to be ∼85% with a H2O2 concentration of 11.76 mM. At higher concentrations, either of the oxidants showed an adverse effect because of the quenching of the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals in the BPA solution. The sulfate-based oxidation process could be used over a wider initial pH range of 3-12, but the hydroxyl radical-based oxidation of BPA should be carried out in the acidic pH range only. The water matrix components (bicarbonate, chloride and humic acid) showed higher scavenging effect in hydroxyl radical-based oxidation than that in the sulfate radical-based oxidation of BPA. UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation system utilized less energy (307 kWh/m(3)) EE/O in comparison to UV/H2O2 system (509 kWh/m(3)) under optimum operating conditions. The cost of UV irradiation far outweighed the cost of the oxidants in the process. However, the total cost of treatment of persulfate-based system was much lower than that of H2O2-based oxidation system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray crystallographic and tungsten-183 nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies of the [M4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- heteropolyanions (M = COII or Zn, X = P or As)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Tourne, C.M.; Tourne, G.F.; Weakley, T.J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The crystal structures of K10[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O 34)2]??22H2O (1) and isomorphous K10[Zn4(H2O)2(AsW9O 34)2]??23H2O (2) have been determined {Mo-K?? radiation, space group P21/n, Z = 2; (1) a = 15.794(2), b = 21.360(2), c = 12.312(1) A??, ?? = 91.96??, R = 0.084 for 3 242 observed reflections [I ??? 3??(I)]; (2) a = 15.842(4), b = 21.327(5), c = 12.308(4) A??, ?? = 92.42(4)??, R = 0.066 for 4 675 observed reflections [F ??? 3??(F)]}. The anions have crystallographic symmetry 1 and non-crystallographic symmetry very close to 2/m (C2h). Each consists of two [XW9O34]9- moieties [??-B isomers; X = P (1) or As (2)] linked via four CoIIO6 or ZnO6 groups. Two Co or Zn atoms each carry a water ligand. The 183W n.m.r. spectra of the anions [Zn4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- (X = P or As) confirm that the anions retain 2/m symmetry in aqueous solution. Homonuclear coupling constants between 183W atoms are 5.8-9.0 Hz for adjacent WO6 octahedra sharing edges, and 19.6-25.0 Hz for octahedra sharing corners.

  20. General and selective C-3 alkylation of indoles with primary alcohols by a reusable Pt nanocluster catalyst.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2013-10-18

    The platinum rule: Heterogeneous, additive-free C-3 selective alkylation of indoles by aliphatic and aromatic alcohols proceeded under transfer hydrogenation conditions with the reusable Pt/θ-Al2 O3 catalyst (see scheme; TON=turnover number). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Isotope ratios of H, C, and O in CO2 and H2O of the martian atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Webster, Chris R; Mahaffy, Paul R; Flesch, Gregory J; Niles, Paul B; Jones, John H; Leshin, Laurie A; Atreya, Sushil K; Stern, Jennifer C; Christensen, Lance E; Owen, Tobias; Franz, Heather; Pepin, Robert O; Steele, Andrew; Achilles, Cherie; Agard, Christophe; Alves Verdasca, José Alexandre; Anderson, Robert; Anderson, Ryan; Archer, Doug; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Arvidson, Ray; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Aubrey, Andrew; Baker, Burt; Baker, Michael; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Baratoux, David; Baroukh, Julien; Barraclough, Bruce; Bean, Keri; Beegle, Luther; Behar, Alberto; Bell, James; Bender, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bentz, Jennifer; Berger, Gilles; Berger, Jeff; Berman, Daniel; Bish, David; Blake, David F; Blanco Avalos, Juan J; Blaney, Diana; Blank, Jen; Blau, Hannah; Bleacher, Lora; Boehm, Eckart; Botta, Oliver; Böttcher, Stephan; Boucher, Thomas; Bower, Hannah; Boyd, Nick; Boynton, Bill; Breves, Elly; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Brinckerhoff, William; Brinza, David; Bristow, Thomas; Brunet, Claude; Brunner, Anna; Brunner, Will; Buch, Arnaud; Bullock, Mark; Burmeister, Sönke; Cabane, Michel; Calef, Fred; Cameron, James; Campbell, John; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carmosino, Marco; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Charpentier, Antoine; Chipera, Steve; Choi, David; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Sam; Cleghorn, Timothy; Cloutis, Ed; Cody, George; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Coscia, David; Cousin, Agnès; Cremers, David; Crisp, Joy; Cros, Alain; Cucinotta, Frank; d'Uston, Claude; Davis, Scott; Day, Mackenzie; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; DeFlores, Lauren; DeLapp, Dorothea; DeMarines, Julia; DesMarais, David; Dietrich, William; Dingler, Robert; Donny, Christophe; Downs, Bob; Drake, Darrell; Dromart, Gilles; Dupont, Audrey; Duston, Brian; Dworkin, Jason; Dyar, M Darby; Edgar, Lauren; Edgett, Kenneth; Edwards, Christopher; Edwards, Laurence; Ehlmann, Bethany; Ehresmann, Bent; Eigenbrode, Jen; Elliott, Beverley; Elliott, Harvey; Ewing, Ryan; Fabre, Cécile; Fairén, Alberto; Farley, Ken; Farmer, Jack; Fassett, Caleb; Favot, Laurent; Fay, Donald; Fedosov, Fedor; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Fisk, Marty; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Floyd, Melissa; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Forni, Olivier; Fraeman, Abby; Francis, Raymond; François, Pascaline; Freissinet, Caroline; French, Katherine Louise; Frydenvang, Jens; Gaboriaud, Alain; Gailhanou, Marc; Garvin, James; Gasnault, Olivier; Geffroy, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Genzer, Maria; Glavin, Daniel; Godber, Austin; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Golovin, Dmitry; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Gondet, Brigitte; Gordon, Suzanne; Gorevan, Stephen; Grant, John; Griffes, Jennifer; Grinspoon, David; Grotzinger, John; Guillemot, Philippe; Guo, Jingnan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Guzewich, Scott; Haberle, Robert; Halleaux, Douglas; Hallet, Bernard; Hamilton, Vicky; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Harpold, Daniel; Harri, Ari-Matti; Harshman, Karl; Hassler, Donald; Haukka, Harri; Hayes, Alex; Herkenhoff, Ken; Herrera, Paul; Hettrich, Sebastian; Heydari, Ezat; Hipkin, Victoria; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Hudgins, Judy; Huntress, Wesley; Hurowitz, Joel; Hviid, Stubbe; Iagnemma, Karl; Indyk, Steve; Israël, Guy; Jackson, Ryan; Jacob, Samantha; Jakosky, Bruce; Jensen, Elsa; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Micah; Johnstone, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Joseph, Jonathan; Jun, Insoo; Kah, Linda; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kasprzak, Wayne; Kauhanen, Janne; Keely, Leslie; Kemppinen, Osku; Keymeulen, Didier; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kinch, Kjartan; King, Penny; Kirkland, Laurel; Kocurek, Gary; Koefoed, Asmus; Köhler, Jan; Kortmann, Onno; Kozyrev, Alexander; Krezoski, Jill; Krysak, Daniel; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Lacour, Jean Luc; Lafaille, Vivian; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lee, Ella Mae; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Lees, David; Lefavor, Matthew; Lemmon, Mark; Lepinette Malvitte, Alain; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin-Carpintier, Éric; Lewis, Kevin; Li, Shuai; Lipkaman, Leslie; Little, Cynthia; Litvak, Maxim; Lorigny, Eric; Lugmair, Guenter; Lundberg, Angela; Lyness, Eric; Madsen, Morten; Maki, Justin; Malakhov, Alexey; Malespin, Charles; Malin, Michael; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gérard; Manning, Heidi; Marchand, Geneviève; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Martín García, César; Martin, Dave; Martin, Mildred; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F Javier; Mauchien, Patrick; Maurice, Sylvestre; McAdam, Amy; McCartney, Elaina; McConnochie, Timothy; McCullough, Emily; McEwan, Ian; McKay, Christopher; McLennan, Scott; McNair, Sean; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Meyer, Michael; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Miller, Hayden; Miller, Kristen; Milliken, Ralph; Ming, Douglas; Minitti, Michelle; Mischna, Michael; Mitrofanov, Igor; Moersch, Jeff; Mokrousov, Maxim; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Moores, John; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Morookian, John Michael; Morris, Richard; Morrison, Shaunna; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Muller, Jan-Peter; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Nachon, Marion; Navarro López, Sara; Navarro-González, Rafael; Nealson, Kenneth; Nefian, Ara; Nelson, Tony; Newcombe, Megan; Newman, Claire; Newsom, Horton; Nikiforov, Sergey; Nixon, Brian; Noe Dobrea, Eldar; Nolan, Thomas; Oehler, Dorothy; Ollila, Ann; Olson, Timothy; de Pablo Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Paillet, Alexis; Pallier, Etienne; Palucis, Marisa; Parker, Timothy; Parot, Yann; Patel, Kiran; Paton, Mark; Paulsen, Gale; Pavlov, Alex; Pavri, Betina; Peinado-González, Verónica; Peret, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Perrett, Glynis; Peterson, Joe; Pilorget, Cedric; Pinet, Patrick; Pla-García, Jorge; Plante, Ianik; Poitrasson, Franck; Polkko, Jouni; Popa, Radu; Posiolova, Liliya; Posner, Arik; Pradler, Irina; Prats, Benito; Prokhorov, Vasily; Purdy, Sharon Wilson; Raaen, Eric; Radziemski, Leon; Rafkin, Scot; Ramos, Miguel; Rampe, Elizabeth; Raulin, François; Ravine, Michael; Reitz, Günther; Rennó, Nilton; Rice, Melissa; Richardson, Mark; Robert, François; Robertson, Kevin; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Romeral-Planelló, Julio J; Rowland, Scott; Rubin, David; Saccoccio, Muriel; Salamon, Andrew; Sandoval, Jennifer; Sanin, Anton; Sans Fuentes, Sara Alejandra; Saper, Lee; Sarrazin, Philippe; Sautter, Violaine; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schieber, Juergen; Schmidt, Mariek; Schmidt, Walter; Scholes, Daniel; Schoppers, Marcel; Schröder, Susanne; Schwenzer, Susanne; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Sengstacken, Aaron; Shterts, Ruslan; Siebach, Kirsten; Siili, Tero; Simmonds, Jeff; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Slavney, Susie; Sletten, Ronald; Smith, Michael; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Spanovich, Nicole; Spray, John; Squyres, Steven; Stack, Katie; Stalport, Fabien; Stein, Thomas; Stewart, Noel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Stoiber, Kevin; Stolper, Ed; Sucharski, Bob; Sullivan, Rob; Summons, Roger; Sumner, Dawn; Sun, Vivian; Supulver, Kimberley; Sutter, Brad; Szopa, Cyril; Tan, Florence; Tate, Christopher; Teinturier, Samuel; ten Kate, Inge; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Lucy; Tokar, Robert; Toplis, Mike; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Trainer, Melissa; Treiman, Allan; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; VanBommel, Scott; Vaniman, David; Varenikov, Alexey; Vasavada, Ashwin; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Vicenzi, Edward; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Voytek, Mary; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Ward, Jennifer; Weigle, Eddie; Wellington, Danika; Westall, Frances; Wiens, Roger Craig; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Williams, Amy; Williams, Joshua; Williams, Rebecca; Williams, Richard B; Wilson, Mike; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Wolff, Mike; Wong, Mike; Wray, James; Wu, Megan; Yana, Charles; Yen, Albert; Yingst, Aileen; Zeitlin, Cary; Zimdar, Robert; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz

    2013-07-19

    Stable isotope ratios of H, C, and O are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes, and for Mars they reveal the record of loss of its atmosphere and subsequent interactions with its surface such as carbonate formation. We report in situ measurements of the isotopic ratios of D/H and (18)O/(16)O in water and (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O, (17)O/(16)O, and (13)C(18)O/(12)C(16)O in carbon dioxide, made in the martian atmosphere at Gale Crater from the Curiosity rover using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)'s tunable laser spectrometer (TLS). Comparison between our measurements in the modern atmosphere and those of martian meteorites such as ALH 84001 implies that the martian reservoirs of CO2 and H2O were largely established ~4 billion years ago, but that atmospheric loss or surface interaction may be still ongoing.

  2. A novel organic–inorganic hybrid with Anderson type polyanions as building blocks: (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[Al(OH){sub 6}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 18}]·6H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Thabet, Safa, E-mail: safathabet@hotmail.fr; Ayed, Brahim, E-mail: brahimayed@yahoo.fr; Haddad, Amor

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of a novel inorganic–organic hybrid compound based on Anderson polyoxomolybdates. ► Characterization by X-ray diffraction, IR and UV–Vis spectroscopies of the new compound. ► Potential applications in catalysis, biochemical analysis and electrical conductivity of the organic–inorganic compound. -- Abstract: A new organic–inorganic hybrid compound based on Anderson polyoxomolybdates, (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[Al(OH){sub 6}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 18}]·6H{sub 2}O (1) have been isolated by the conventional solution method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, ultraviolet spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group P−1, withmore » a = 94.635(1) Å, b = 10.958(1) Å, c = 11.602(1) Å, α = 67.525(1)°, β = 71.049(1)°, γ = 70.124(1)° and Z = 1. The crystal structures of the compounds exhibit three-dimensional supramolecular assembly based on the extensive hydrogen bonding interactions between organic cations, sodium cations, water molecules and Anderson polyoxoanions. The infrared spectrum fully confirms the X-ray crystal structure and the UV spectrum of the title compound exhibits an absorption peak at 210 nm.« less

  3. Blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentration in essential tremor cases in Spain.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julian; Moreno-García, Sara; Vega, Saturio; Romero, Juan Pablo; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Gerbin, Marina; Viner, Amanda S; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Environmental correlates for essential tremor (ET) are largely unexplored. The search for such environmental factors has involved the study of a number of neurotoxins. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing toxin. In two prior case-control studies in New York, we demonstrated that blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET patients vs. controls, and especially in familial ET cases. These findings, however, have been derived from a study of cases ascertained through a single tertiary referral center in New York. Our objective was to determine whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated in familial and sporadic ET cases, ascertained from central Spain, compared to controls without ET. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by a well-established high performance liquid chromatography method. The median harmane concentrations were: 2.09 g(-10)/ml (138 controls), 2.41 g(-10)/ml (68 sporadic ET), and 2.90 g(-10)/ml (62 familial ET). In an unadjusted logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was not significantly associated with diagnosis (familial ET vs. control): odds ratio=1.56, p=0.26. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for evaluation start time, which was an important confounding variable, the odds ratio increased to 2.35, p=0.049. Blood harmane levels were slightly elevated in a group of familial ET cases compared to a group of controls in Spain. These data seem to further extend our observations from New York to a second cohort of ET cases in Spain. This neurotoxin continues to be a source of interest for future confirmatory research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BLOOD HARMANE (1-METHYL-9H-PYRIDO[3,4-B]INDOLE) CONCENTRATION IN ESSENTIAL TREMOR CASES IN SPAIN

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julian; Moreno-García, Sara; Vega, Saturio; Romero, Juan Pablo; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Gerbin, Marina; Viner, Amanda S.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental correlates for essential tremor (ET) are largely unexplored. The search for such environmental factors has involved the study of a number of neurotoxins. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing toxin. In two prior case-control studies in New York, we demonstrated that blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET patients vs. controls, and especially in familial ET cases. These findings, however, have been derived from a study of cases ascertained through a single tertiary referral center in New York. Objective Our objective was to determine whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated in familial and sporadic ET cases, ascertained from central Spain, compared to controls without ET. Methods Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by a well-established high performance liquid chromatography method. Results The median harmane concentrations were: 2.09 g−10/ml (138 controls), 2.41 g−10/ml (68 sporadic ET), and 2.90 g−10/ml (62 familial ET). In an unadjusted logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was not significantly associated with diagnosis (familial ET vs. control): odds ratio = 1.56, p = 0.26. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for evaluation start time, which was an important confounding variable, the odds ratio increased to 2.35, p = 0.049. Conclusions Blood harmane levels were slightly elevated in a group of familial ET cases compared to a group of controls in Spain. These data seem to further extend our observations from New York to a second cohort of ET cases in Spain. This neurotoxin continues to be a source of interest for future confirmatory research. PMID:22981972

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF STEREOCHEMICAL CONFIGURATIONS OF CYCLOPENTA[CD]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG AND C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of Sterochemical Configurations of Cyclopent A[cd]Pyrene DNA Adducts in Strain A/J Mouse Lung and C3H10T1/2CL8 Cells.

    Four major and several minor DNA adducts were resolved by 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA from strain A/J mouse lung and C3H10T1/2CL8 (C3H...

  6. Nucleoside-O-Methyl-(H)-Phosphinates: Novel Monomers for the Synthesis of Methylphosphonate Oligonucleotides Using H-Phosphonate Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kostov, Ondřej; Páv, Ondřej; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2017-09-18

    This unit comprises the straightforward synthesis of protected 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-O-methyl-(H)-phosphinates in both 3'- and 5'-series. These compounds represent a new class of monomers compatible with the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides using H-phosphonate chemistry and are suitable for the preparation of both 3'- and 5'-O-methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. The synthesis of 4-toluenesulfonyloxymethyl-(H)-phosphinic acid as a new reagent for the preparation of O-methyl-(H)-phosphinic acid derivatives is described. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. A polymorphic form of 4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl 3-indolyl ketone, an indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-12-15

    The title compound [systematic name: (4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl)(1H-indol-3-yl)methanone], C20H22N2O, (II), was obtained from mother liquors extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (commonly known as maqui), a native Chilean tree. The compound is a polymorphic form of that obtained from the same source and reported by Watson, Nagl, Silva, Cespedes & Jakupovic [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324], (Ia). The molecule consists of an indolyl ketone fragment and a nested three-ring system, with both groups linked by a C-C bridge. Comparison of both forms shows that they do not differ in their gross features but in the relative orientation of the two ring systems, due to different rotations around the bridge, as measured by the O=C-C=N torsion angle [130.0 (7)° in (Ia) and 161.6 (2)° in (II)]. The resulting slight conformational differences are reflected in a number of intramolecular contacts being observed in (II) but not in (Ia). Regarding intermolecular interactions, both forms share a similar N-H···O synthon but with differing hydrogen-bonding strength, leading in both cases to C(6) catemers with different chain motifs. There are marked differences between the two forms regarding colour and the (de)localization of a double bond, which allows speculation about the possible existence of different variants of this type of molecule.

  8. Development of mRuby2-Transfected C3H10T1/2 Fibroblasts for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts are multipotent, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitor cells that are widely used in musculoskeletal research. In this study, we have established a clonal population of C3H10T1/2 cells stably-transfected with mRuby2, an orange-red fluorescence reporter gene. Flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence imaging confirmed successful transfection of these cells. Cell counting studies showed that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells proliferated at similar rates. Adipogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Oil Red O and showed increased expression of adipogenic genes including adiponectin and lipoprotein lipase. Chondrogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Alcian Blue and showed increased expression of chondrogenic genes including aggrecan. Osteogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as Alizarin Red and showed increased expression of osteogenic genes including alp, ocn and osf-1. When seeded on calcium phosphate-based ceramic scaffolds, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells maintained even fluorescence labeling and osteogenic differentiation. In summary, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells exhibit mRuby2 fluorescence and showed little-to-no difference in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation as untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells. These cells will be available from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; CRL-3268™) and may be a valuable tool for preclinical studies. PMID:26407291

  9. Development of mRuby2-Transfected C3H10T1/2 Fibroblasts for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Sharma, Rashmi; Wang, Evelyna Tsi Hsin; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts are multipotent, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitor cells that are widely used in musculoskeletal research. In this study, we have established a clonal population of C3H10T1/2 cells stably-transfected with mRuby2, an orange-red fluorescence reporter gene. Flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence imaging confirmed successful transfection of these cells. Cell counting studies showed that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells proliferated at similar rates. Adipogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Oil Red O and showed increased expression of adipogenic genes including adiponectin and lipoprotein lipase. Chondrogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Alcian Blue and showed increased expression of chondrogenic genes including aggrecan. Osteogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as Alizarin Red and showed increased expression of osteogenic genes including alp, ocn and osf-1. When seeded on calcium phosphate-based ceramic scaffolds, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells maintained even fluorescence labeling and osteogenic differentiation. In summary, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells exhibit mRuby2 fluorescence and showed little-to-no difference in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation as untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells. These cells will be available from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; CRL-3268™) and may be a valuable tool for preclinical studies.

  10. Turbulence in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Okong'o, Nora

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a study of numerical simulations of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of paired fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 at similar reduced initial pressures (reduced pressure is defined as pressure divided by critical pressure). Thermodynamically, O2/H2 behaves more nearly like an ideal mixture and has greater solubility, relative to C7H16/N2, which departs strongly from ideality. Because of a specified smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16/N2 layers exhibited greater levels of growth, global molecular mixing, and turbulence. However, smaller density gradients at the transitional state for the O2/H2 system were interpreted as indicating that locally, this system exhibits enhanced mixing as a consequence of its greater solubility and closer approach to ideality. These thermodynamic features were shown to affect entropy dissipation, which was found to be larger for O2/H2 and concentrated in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that are distortions of the initial density-stratification boundary. In C7H16/N2, the regions of largest dissipation were found to lie in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that result from mixing of the two fluids.

  11. Crystal structures of NiSO4·9H2O and NiSO4·8H2O: magnetic properties, stability with respect to morenosite (NiSO4·7H2O), the solid-solution series (Mg x Ni1-x )SO4·9H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.; Knight, K. S.; Gibbs, A. S.; Wood, I. G.

    2018-02-01

    Since being discovered initially in mixed-cation systems, a method of forming end-member NiSO4·9H2O and NiSO4·8H2O has been found. We have obtained powder diffraction data from protonated analogues (with X-rays) and deuterated analogues (using neutrons) of these compounds over a range of temperatures, allowing us to determine their crystal structures—including all H-atoms—and to characterise the transitions on warming from 220 to 278 K; glass → 9-hydrate → 8-hydrate + ice → 7-hydrate + ice → partial melt (7-hydrate + liquid). NiSO4·8D2O is triclinic, space-group P\\bar {1} , Z = 2, with unit cell parameters at 150 K, a = 6.12463(8) Å, b = 6.8401(1) Å, c = 12.5339(2) Å, α = 92.846(1)°, β = 97.822(1)°, γ = 96.627(1)° and V = 515.58(1) Å3. The structure consists of two symmetry-inequivalent Ni(D2O)6 octahedra on sites of \\bar {1} symmetry. These are directly joined by a water-water H-bond to form chains of octahedra parallel with the c-axis at x = 0. Two interstitial water molecules serve both to bridge the Ni(D2O)6 octahedral chains in the b-c plane and also to connect with the SO4 2- tetrahedral oxyanion. These tetrahedra are linked by the two interstitial water molecules in a reticular motif to form sheets perpendicular to c. NiSO4·9D2O is monoclinic, space-group P21/c, Z = 4, with unit-cell parameters at 150 K, a = 6.69739(6) Å, b = 11.8628(1) Å, c = 14.5667(1) Å, β = 94.9739(8)° and V = 1152.96(1) Å3. The structure is isotypic with the Mg analogue described elsewhere (Fortes et al., Acta Cryst B 73:47‒64, 2017b). It shares the motif of H-bonded octahedral chains with NiSO4·8D2O, although in the enneahydrate these run parallel with the b-axis at x = 0. Three interstitial water molecules bridge the Ni(D2O)6 octahedra to the SO4 2- tetrahedral oxyanion. The tetrahedra sit at x ≈ 0.5 and are linked by two of the three interstitial water molecules in a pentagonal motif to form ribbons parallel with b. A solid-solution series

  12. Crystal Structures and Thermal Properties of Two Transition-Metal Compounds {[Ni(DNI)2(H2O)3][Ni(DNI)2 (H2O)4]}·6H2O and Pb(DNI)2(H2O)4 (DNI = 2,4-Dinitroimidazolate)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Fang; Cai, Mei-Yu; Jing, Ping; He, Chong; Li, Ping; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Li, Ji-Zhen; Fan, Xue-Zhong; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    Two transition-metal compounds derived from 2,4-dinitroimidazole, {[Ni(DNI)2(H2O)3][Ni(DNI)2 (H2O)4]}·6H2O, 1, and Pb(DNI)2(H2O)4, 2, were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, TG-DSC and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 26.826(3), b = 7.7199(10), c = 18.579(2) Å, β = 111.241(2)° and Z = 4; 2: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 6.5347(6), b = 17.1727(17), c = 14.1011(14) Å, β = 97.7248(10) and Z = 4. Compound 1 contains two isolated nickel centers in its structure, one being six-coordinate and another five-coordinate. The structure of 2 contains a lead (II) center surrounded by two chelating DNI ligands and four water molecules in distorted square-antiprism geometry. The abundant hydrogen bonds in two compounds link the molecules into three-dimensional network and stabilize the molecules. The TG-DSC analysis reveals that the first step is the loss of water molecules and the final residue is the corresponding metal oxides and carbon. PMID:20526419

  13. Phase Equilibria and Transport Properties in the Systems AgNO3/RCN/H2O. R = CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H,, C6H5, and C6H5CH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surjya P.; Wittekopf, Burghard; Weil, Konrad G.

    1988-11-01

    Silver nitrate can form homogeneous liquid phases with some organic nitriles and water, even when there is no miscibility between the pure liquid components. We determined the shapes of the single phase regions in the ternary phase diagram for the following systems: silver nitrate /RCN /H2O with R =CH3, C3H7, C6H5, and C6H5CH2 at room temperature and for R =C6H5 also at 60 °C and O °C. Furthermore we studied kinematic viscosities, electrical conductivities, and densities of mixtures containing silver nitrate, RCN, and water with the mole ratios X /4 /1 (0.2≦ X ≦S 3.4). In these cases also R = C2H5 and C4H9 were studied. The organic nitriles show different dependences of viscosity and conductivity on the silver nitrate content from the aliphatic ones.

  14. Crystal structure of 1,2,3,4-di-O-methyl­ene-α-d-galacto­pyran­ose

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Tussetschläger, Stefan; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C8H12O6, was synthesized by de­acetyl­ation of 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-di-O-methyl­ene-α-d-galactose with sodium methoxide. The central part of the mol­ecule consists of a six-membered C5O pyran­ose ring with a twist-boat conformation. Both fused dioxolane rings adopt an envelope conformation with C and O atoms as the flap. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present between adjacent mol­ecules, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870551

  15. Incorporation of μ3-CO3 into an MnIII/MnIV Mn12 cluster: {[(cyclam)MnIV(μ-O)2MnIII(H2O)(μ-OH)]6(μ3-CO3)2}Cl8·24H2O

    PubMed Central

    Levaton, Ben B.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The centrosymmetric title cluster, hexa­aquadi-μ3-carbonato-hexa­cyclamhexa-μ2-hydroxido-dodeca-μ2-oxido-hexa­mang­an­ese(IV)hexa­manganese(III) octa­chloride tetra­cosa­hydrate, [Mn12(CO3)2O12(OH)6(C10H24N4)6(H2O)6]Cl8·24H2O, has two μ3-CO3 groups that not only bridge octahedrally coordinated MnIII ions but also act as acceptors to two different kinds of hydrogen bonds. The carbonate anion is planar within experimental error and has an average C—O distance of 1.294 (4) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H⋯Cl, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Two of the four independent chloride ions are disordered over five positions, and eight of the 12 independent water mol­ecules are disordered over 21 positions. PMID:21587382

  16. Experimentally determined solidi in the Ca-bearing granite system NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8-KAlSi3O8-SiO2-H2O-CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohlen, S.R.; Eckert, J.O.; Hankins, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The phase relationships of melting of synthetic granite in the presence of an H2O-CO2 fluid were determined. These results provide constraints on the maximum temperatures of regional metamorphism attainable in vapor-saturated metapelitic and quartzofeldspathic rocks that escaped widespread melting. At pressures below 10 kbar, a fluid phase of XH2O = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 limits temperatures to below ~700-725, ~800-825, and ~850-875??C, respectively. As a consequence, the formation of granulite does not require CO2 concentrations in a coexisting fluid to exceed an XCO2 of 0.25-0.5. -from Authors

  17. Crystal structure of poly[di­aqua­(μ2-benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 4)(μ2-benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato-κ4 O 1,O 1′:O 4,O 4′)bis­(μ2-3,3′,5,5′-tetra­methyl-4,4′-bi­pyrazole-κ2 N:N′)dinickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the polymeric title compound, [Ni(C8H4O4)(C10H14N4)(H2O)]n, contains one Ni2+ cation, one coordinating water mol­ecule, one 3,3′,5,5′-tetra­methyl-4,4′-bi­pyrazole ligand and half each of two benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ate anions, the other halves being generated by inversion symmetry. The Ni2+ cation exhibits an octa­hedral N2O4 coordination sphere defined by the O atoms of the water mol­ecule and two different anions and the N atoms of two symmetry-related N-heterocycles. The N-heterocycles and both anions bridge adjacent Ni2+ cations into a three-dimensional network structure, with one of the anions in a bis-bidentate and the other in a bis-monodentate bridging mode. N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the N-heterocycles and water mol­ecules as donor groups and the carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptor groups consolidate the crystal packing. PMID:26090165

  18. Structure-based predictions of 13C-NMR chemical shifts for a series of 2-functionalized 5-(methylsulfonyl)-1-phenyl-1H-indoles derivatives using GA-based MLR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavami, Raouf; Sadeghi, Faridoon; Rasouli, Zolikha; Djannati, Farhad

    2012-12-01

    Experimental values for the 13C NMR chemical shifts (ppm, TMS = 0) at 300 K ranging from 96.28 ppm (C4' of indole derivative 17) to 159.93 ppm (C4' of indole derivative 23) relative to deuteride chloroform (CDCl3, 77.0 ppm) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 39.50 ppm) as internal reference in CDCl3 or DMSO-d6 solutions have been collected from literature for thirty 2-functionalized 5-(methylsulfonyl)-1-phenyl-1H-indole derivatives containing different substituted groups. An effective quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were built using hybrid method combining genetic algorithm (GA) based on stepwise selection multiple linear regression (SWS-MLR) as feature-selection tools and correlation models between each carbon atom of indole derivative and calculated descriptors. Each compound was depicted by molecular structural descriptors that encode constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic, and quantum chemical features. The accuracy of all developed models were confirmed using different types of internal and external procedures and various statistical tests. Furthermore, the domain of applicability for each model which indicates the area of reliable predictions was defined.

  19. Odin observations of H2O and O2 in comets and interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Åke; Odin Team

    2002-11-01

    We here report on results from single-position observations, and in some cases also mapping, of the 557 GHz ortho-H2O line in several comets and in many interstellar molecular clouds by the Odin sub-millimetre wave spectroscopy satellite. The H2O production rates have been accurately determined in four comets, C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), 19P/Borrelly, C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), and 153P/2002 C1 (Ikeya-Zhang). In comet Ikeya-Zhang our detection at a low level of the corresponding H218O emission line verifies the H2O production rate (which depends upon the assumed radiative and collisional excitation and also upon radiative transfer modelling) and is consistent with a nearly terrestrial 16O/18O-isotope ratio. In an astrobiological context, the cometary H2O production rates are especially important as reference levels for comparison with abundances of other molecules simultaneously observed with ground-based telescopes. In interstellar clouds the observed gas-phase H2O abundances (vs H2) range from 5×10-4 in the Orion KL outflow/shock region (where essentially all oxygen is locked up in H2O) to circa 10-8 in quiescent cloud regions (where H2O) is just one of many trace molecules). From an astrobiological point of view, the molecular abundances in star forming clouds are important in terms of initial conditions for the chemistry in proto-planetary disks ("proto-solar nebulae"), the formation sites of new planetary systems. In simultaneous observations, Odin has also detected the 572 GHz ortho-NH3 line in cold and warm clouds as well as in the Orion outflow and Bar/PDR regions (an area of increased ionisation caused by the intense UV flux from newly born massive stars). In other simultaneous observations, we have performed sensitive searches for O2 at 119 GHz. Although no detection can be reported as yet, the resulting very low abundance limits (<10-7) are very intriguing when they are compared with current "standard" model expectations, which fall in the range 10-5-10-4.

  20. Archaeal fibrillarin-Nop5 heterodimer 2'-O-methylates RNA independently of the C/D guide RNP particle.

    PubMed

    Tomkuvienė, Miglė; Ličytė, Janina; Olendraitė, Ingrida; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita; Clouet-d'Orval, Béatrice; Klimašauskas, Saulius

    2017-09-01

    Archaeal fibrillarin (aFib) is a well-characterized S -adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent RNA 2'- O -methyltransferase that is known to act in a large C/D ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex together with Nop5 and L7Ae proteins and a box C/D guide RNA. In the reaction, the guide RNA serves to direct the methylation reaction to a specific site in tRNA or rRNA by sequence complementarity. Here we show that a Pyrococcus abyssi aFib-Nop5 heterodimer can alone perform SAM-dependent 2'- O -methylation of 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs in vitro independently of L7Ae and C/D guide RNAs. Using tritium-labeling, mass spectrometry, and reverse transcription analysis, we identified three in vitro 2'- O -methylated positions in the 16S rRNA of P. abyssi , positions lying outside of previously reported pyrococcal C/D RNP methylation sites. This newly discovered stand-alone activity of aFib-Nop5 may provide an example of an ancestral activity retained in enzymes that were recruited to larger complexes during evolution. © 2017 Tomkuvienė et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  1. Tinnunculite, C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O: Occurrences on the Kola Peninsula and Redefinition and Validation as a Mineral Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Lykova, I. S.; Zubkova, N. V.; Shcherbakova, E. P.; Britvin, S. N.; Chervonnyi, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Based on a study of samples found in the Khibiny (Mt. Rasvumchorr: the holotype) and Lovozero (Mts Alluaiv and Vavnbed) alkaline complexes on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, tinnunculite was approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification as a valid mineral species (IMA no. 2015-02la) and, taking into account a revisory examination of the original material from burnt dumps of coal mines in the southern Urals, it was redefined as crystalline uric acid dihydrate (UAD), C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O. Tinnunculite is poultry manure mineralized in biogeochemical systems, which could be defined as "guano microdeposits." The mineral occurs as prismatic or tabular crystals up to 0.01 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size and clusters of them, as well as crystalline or microglobular crusts. Tinnunculite is transparent or translucent, colorless, white, yellowish, reddish or pale lilac. Crystals show vitreous luster. The mineral is soft and brittle, with a distinct (010) cleavage. D calc = 1.68 g/cm3 (holotype). Tinnunculite is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.503(3), β = 1.712(3), γ = 1.74(1), 2 V obs = 40(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of the holotype sample (electron microprobe data, content of H is calculated by UAD stoichiometry) is as follows, wt %: 37.5 O, 28.4 C, 27.0 N, 3.8 Hcalc, total 96.7. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (C + N+ O) = 14 apfu is: C4.99H8N4.07O4.94. Tinnunculite is monoclinic, space group (by analogy with synthetic UAD) P21/ c. The unit cell parameters of the holotype sample (single crystal XRD data) are a = 7.37(4), b = 6.326(16), c = 17.59(4) Å, β = 90(1)°, V = 820(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the XRD pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are 8.82-84[002], 5.97-15[011], 5.63-24[102̅, 102], 4.22-22[112], 3.24-27[114̅,114], 3.18-100[210], 3.12-44[211̅, 211], 2.576-14[024].

  2. Thermal decomposition of europium sulfates Eu2(SO4)3·8H2O and EuSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, Yu. G.; Khritokhin, N. A.; Andreev, O. V.; Basova, S. A.; Sal'nikova, E. I.; Polkovnikov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Reactions of europium sulfates Eu2(SO4)3·8H2O and EuSO4 complete decomposition were studied by Simultaneous Thermal Analysis. It was revealed that one-step dehydratation of Eu2(SO4)3·8H2O crystallohydrate is accompanied by the formation of amorphous anhydrous europium sulfate Eu2(SO4)3. Crystallization of amorphous europium (III) sulfate occurs at 381.1 °C (in argon) and 391.3 °C (in air). The average enthalpy values for dehydratation reaction of Eu2(SO4)3·8H2O (ΔH° = 141.1 kJ/mol), decomposition reactions of Eu2(SO4)3 (ΔH = 463.1 kJ/mol), Eu2O2SO4 (ΔH = 378.4 kJ/mol) and EuSO4 (ΔH = 124.1 kJ/mol) were determined. The step process mechanisms of thermal decomposition of europium (III) sulfate in air and europium (II) sulfate in inert atmosphere were established and justified. The kinetic parameters of complete thermal decomposition of europium (III) sulfate octahydrate were calculated by Kissinger model. The standard enthalpies of compound formation were calculated using thermal effects and formation enthalpy data for binary compounds.

  3. REMPI detection of singlet oxygen 1O2 arising from UV-photodissociation of van der Waals complex isoprene-oxygen C5H8-O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Alexandr S.; Dozmorov, Nikolay V.; Kochubei, Sergei A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    The one-laser two-color resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization REMPI [(1 + 1‧) + 1] and velocity map imaging have been applied to investigate formation of molecular oxygen in excited singlet O2(a1Δg) and ground O2(X3Σg-) states in the photodissociation of van der Waals complex isoprene-oxygen C5H8-O2. These molecules were found to appear in the different rotational states with translational energy varied from a value as low as ∼1 meV to a distribution with temperature of about 940 K. The observed traces of electron recoil in the images of photoions reveal participation of several ionization pathways of the resonantly excited intermediate states of O2.

  4. Arsenite oxidation by H 2O 2 in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettine, Maurizio; Campanella, Luigi; Millero, Frank J.

    1999-09-01

    The rates of the oxidation of As( III) with H 2O 2 were measured in NaCl solutions as a function of pH (7.5-10.3), temperature (10-50C) and ionic strength ( I = 0.01-4). The rate of the oxidation of As( III) with H 2O 2 can be described by the general expression: d[As( III)]/ dt = k[As( III)] [H 2O 2] where k (mol/L -1 min -1) can be determined from (σ = ±0.12) log k=5.29+1.41 pH-0.57 I+1.40 I0.5-4898/ T. The effect of pH on the rates indicates that the reaction is due to AsO( OH) 2-+ H2O2k 1→productsAsO2( OH) 2-+ H2O2k 2→products, AsO33-+ H2O2k 3→products where k = k1 α AsO(OH) 2- + k2 α AsO 2(OH) 2- + k3 α AsO 3 3- and α i are the molar fraction of species i. The values of k1 = 42 ± 20, k2 = (8 ± 1) × 10 4, and k3 = (72 ± 18) × 10 6 mol/L -1 min -1 were found at 25C and I = 0.01 mol/L. The undissociated As(OH) 3 does not react with H 2O 2. The effect of ionic strength on the rate constants has been attributed to the effect of ionic strength on the speciation of As( III). The rate expression has been shown to be valid for NaClO 4 solutions, northern Adriatic sea waters, and Tiber River waters. The cations Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ were found to exert a catalytic effect on the rates. Cu 2+ plays a role at concentration levels (>0.1 μmol/L) which are typical of polluted aquatic systems, while Fe 2+ is important at levels which may be found in lacustrine environments (>5-10 μmol/L). The reaction of As( III) with H 2O 2 may play a role in marine and lacustrine surface waters limiting the accumulation of As( III) resulting from biologically mediated reduction processes of As( V).

  5. Hygroscopic La[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)]NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O: Insight into the evolution of borate fundamental building blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Biao-Chun, E-mail: zhaobiaochun@sohu.com; Sun, Wei, E-mail: 421221789@qq.com; Ren, Wei-Jian, E-mail: 935428502@qq.com

    2013-10-15

    Borates have exceptionally diverse fundamental building blocks (FBBs), but factors controlling the formation of borate FBBs are poorly understood. The title compound La[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)]NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O crystallizes in the space group P2{sub 1}/n with a=6.5396(12) Å, b=15.550(3) Å, c=10.6719(19) Å, β=90.44(1)° and Z=4 at 173(2) K. Its structure has been refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to R{sub 1}=0.049 (for 2465) and wR{sub 2}=0.173 (for 2459 I>2σ(I)). This structure analysis and first-principles calculations show that the change of the FBB from 3Δ2□ in the title compound to 2Δ3□ in La[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)(H{sub 2}O)]NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O is accompanied by amore » rotation of the NO{sub 3} group. FTIR, Rietveld and thermal analysis results show that the hygroscopic title compound is partially changed to La[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)(H{sub 2}O)]NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, with the conversion of [BO{sub 3}] to [BO{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)] by water absorption. - Graphical abstract: The change of fundamental building blocks from La[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)]NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O to La[B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)(H{sub 2}O)]NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O is accompanied by a rotation of the NO{sub 3} group . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of a new hydrous lanthanum polyborate nitrate. • Single-crystal XRD structure with the 3Δ2⎕ FBB and an oriented NO{sub 3} group. • DFT calculations locate the H positions in three lanthanide polyborate nitrates. • Rietveld, FTIR and DFT results show hygroscopicity changes the FBBs.« less

  6. Synthesis of Spiro Indole-2-Ones Using Three Component Reaction of N-Alkylisatins and Triphenylphosphonium Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali Varasteh

    2017-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure is achieved for the synthesis of indole-2-one derivatives via three-component reaction of N-alkylisatin, activated acetylenic compounds and alkyl bromide in the presence of triphenylphosphine in water under two conditions; room temperature and microwave irradiation. All chemicals used in this work were prepared from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland) and were used without further purification. N-alkylisatin were synthesized in the laboratory in the procedure that is reported in the literature. Electrothermal 9100 apparatus is employed for measuring of melting points of products. Elemental analyses for C, H, and N were performed with Heraeus CHN-O-Rapid analyzer. Mass spectra were recorded on a FINNIGAN-MAT 8430 spectrometer operating at an ionization potential of 70 eV. Measurement of IR spectra was performed by Shimadzu IR-460 spectrometer. 1H, and 13C NMR spectra were evaluated with a BRUKER DRX- 500 AVANCE spectrometer at 500.1 and 125.8 MHz, respectively. The results were demonstrated that simple mixing of N-alkylisatin, dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylate and alkyl bromides in the presence of triphenylphosphine by using of microwave condition is the efficient method for preparation of indole derivatives in good yields. In the optimized reaction conditions, water is solvent and temperature of the mixture of reaction is 80 oC. In this study, the reaction of activated acetylenic compounds with N-alkylisatin and alkyl bromide in the presence of triphenylphosphine is investigated which is led to a facile synthesis of some functionalized indoles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Raman spectroscopic study of the minerals apophyllite-(KF) KCa4Si8O20F·8H2O and apophyllite-(KOH) KCa4Si8O20(F,OH)·8H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei

    2012-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy complimented with infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the variation in molecular structure of two minerals of the apophyllite mineral group, namely apophyllite-(KF) KCa4Si8O20F·8H2O and apophyllite-(KOH) KCa4Si8O20(F,OH)·8H2O. apophyllite-(KF) and apophyllite-(KOH) are different minerals only because of the difference in the percentage of fluorine to hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectra are dominated by a very intense sharp peak at 1059 cm-1. A band at around 846 cm-1 is assigned to the water librational mode. It is proposed that the difference between apophyllite-(KF) and apophyllite-(KOH) is the observation of two Raman bands in the OH stretching region at around 3563 and 3625 cm-1. Multiple water stretching and bending modes are observed showing that there is much variation in hydrogen bonding between water and the silicate surfaces.

  8. Martinandresite, Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, a new zeolite from Wasenalp, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Zubkova, Natalia V.; Meisser, Nicolas; Ansermet, Stefan; Weiss, Stefan; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Pushcharovsky, Dmitry Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The new zeolite martinandresite, ideally Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, was discovered in the armenite locality of Wasenalp near the Isenwegg peak, Ganter valley, Simplon region, Switzerland. The associated minerals are armenite, quartz, dickite, and chlorite. Martinandresite forms tan-coloured blocky crystals up to 8 × 5 × 3.5 mm, their aggregates up to 6 cm across, as well as cruciform twins up to 3.5 mm. The major form is {010}; the subordinate forms are {100} and {001}. Indistinct cleavage is observed, presumably on (010) and in a direction across (010). The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by flotation in heavy liquids is 2.482(5) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.495 g/cm3. Martinandresite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.500(2), β = 1.512(2), γ = 1.515(2) (λ = 589 nm). 2V (meas.) = 55(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of martinandresite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by the modified Penfield method): Na2O 0.37, K2O 0.12, BaO 21.55, Al2O3 15.03, SiO2 49.86, H2O 12.57, total 99.50. The empirical formula based on 16 atoms Si + Al pfu is Na0.17K0.04Ba2.00(Al4.19Si11.81O32)H19.85O9.93. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, with a = 9.4640(5), b = 14.2288(6), c = 6.9940(4) Å, V = 941.82(8) Å3 and Z = 1. The crystal structure of martinandresite is unique and is based on the Al-Si-O tetrahedral framework containing four-, six- and eight-membered rings of tetrahedra. Si and Al are disordered between the two independent tetrahedral sites. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 6.98 (74) (001), 6.26 (83) (011), 5.61 (100) (101), 3.933 (60) (220, 031), 3.191 (50) (112), 3.170 (62) (041), 3.005 (79) (231, 141). Martinandresite is named after Martin Andres (b. 1965), the discoverer of the armenite locality of Wasenalp.

  9. Martinandresite, Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, a new zeolite from Wasenalp, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Zubkova, Natalia V.; Meisser, Nicolas; Ansermet, Stefan; Weiss, Stefan; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitriy I.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Pushcharovsky, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The new zeolite martinandresite, ideally Ba2(Al4Si12O32)·10H2O, was discovered in the armenite locality of Wasenalp near the Isenwegg peak, Ganter valley, Simplon region, Switzerland. The associated minerals are armenite, quartz, dickite, and chlorite. Martinandresite forms tan-coloured blocky crystals up to 8 × 5 × 3.5 mm, their aggregates up to 6 cm across, as well as cruciform twins up to 3.5 mm. The major form is {010}; the subordinate forms are {100} and {001}. Indistinct cleavage is observed, presumably on (010) and in a direction across (010). The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by flotation in heavy liquids is 2.482(5) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.495 g/cm3. Martinandresite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.500(2), β = 1.512(2), γ = 1.515(2) ( λ = 589 nm). 2 V (meas.) = 55(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of martinandresite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by the modified Penfield method): Na2O 0.37, K2O 0.12, BaO 21.55, Al2O3 15.03, SiO2 49.86, H2O 12.57, total 99.50. The empirical formula based on 16 atoms Si + Al pfu is Na0.17K0.04Ba2.00(Al4.19Si11.81O32)H19.85O9.93. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, with a = 9.4640(5), b = 14.2288(6), c = 6.9940(4) Å, V = 941.82(8) Å3 and Z = 1. The crystal structure of martinandresite is unique and is based on the Al-Si-O tetrahedral framework containing four-, six- and eight-membered rings of tetrahedra. Si and Al are disordered between the two independent tetrahedral sites. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are: 6.98 (74) (001), 6.26 (83) (011), 5.61 (100) (101), 3.933 (60) (220, 031), 3.191 (50) (112), 3.170 (62) (041), 3.005 (79) (231, 141). Martinandresite is named after Martin Andres (b. 1965), the discoverer of the armenite locality of Wasenalp.

  10. Isopycnic Phases and Structures in H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactant Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulaitis, Michael E.; Zielinski, Richard G.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(i)E(j)) surfactants can form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have the same density (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing the surfactants C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or CgE3. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this isopycnic three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. As a preliminary to measuring the microstructure in isopycnic three component mixtures, phase behavior and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on mixtures of D2O/CO2/ n-hexaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether (C12E6) as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%). Parameters extracted from model fits of the SANS spectra indicate that, while micellar structure remains essentially unchanged, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached.

  11. Nevadaite, (Cu2+, Al, V3+)6 [Al8 (PO4)8 F8] (OH 2 (H2O)22, a new phosphate mineral species from the Gold Quarry mine, Carlin, Eureka County, Nevada: description and crystal structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Foord, E.E.; Erd, Richard C.; Evans, H.T.; Jensen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Nevadaite, (Cu2+, ???, Al, V3+)6 (PO4)8 F8 (OH)2 (H2O)22, is a new supergene mineral species from the Gold Quarry mine, near Carlin, Eureka County, Nevada, U.S.A. Nevadaite forms radiating clusters to 1 mm of prismatic crystals, locally covering surfaces more that 2 cm across; individual crystals are elongate on [001] with a length:width ratio of > 10:1 and a maximum diameter of ???30 ??m. It also occurs as spherules and druses associated with colorless to purple-black fluellite, colorless wavellite, strengitevariscite, acicular maroon-to-red hewettite, and rare anatase, kazakhstanite, tinticite, leucophosphite, torbernite and tyuyamunite. Nevadaite is pale green to turquoise blue with a pale powder-blue streak and a vitreous luster; it does not fluoresce under ultra-violet light. It has no cleavage, a Mohs hardness of ???3, is brittle with a conchoidal fracture, and has measured and calculated densities of 2.54 and 2.55 g/cm3, respectively. Nevadaite is biaxial negative, with ?? 1.540, ?? 1.548, ?? 1.553, 2V(obs.) = 76??, 2V(calc.) = 76??, pleochroic with X pale greenish blue, Y very pale greenish blue, Z blue, and with absorption Z ??? X > Y and orientation X = c, Y = a, Z = b. Nevadaite is orthorhombic, space group P21mn, a 12.123(2), b 18.999(2), c 4.961(1) A?? , V 1142.8(2) A??3, Z = 1, a:b:c = 0.6391:1:0.2611. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are: 6.077(10)(200), 5.618(9)(130), 9.535(8)(020), 2.983(6)(241), 3.430(4)(041), 2.661(4)(061 , and 1.844(4)(352). A chemical analysis with an electron microprobe gave P2O5 32.54, Al2O3 27.07, V2O3 4.24, Fe2O3 0.07, CuO 9.24, ZnO 0.11, F 9.22, H2O (calc.) 23.48, OH ??? F -3.88, sum 102.09 wt.%; the valence states of V and Fe, and the amount of H2O, were determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 63.65 anions (including 21.65 H2O pfu) is (CU2+2.00 Zn0.02 V3+0.98 Fe3+0.01 Al1.15)??4.16 Al8 P7.90 O32 [F8.37 (OH 1.63]??10 (H2O

  12. Spin-forbidden and spin-allowed cyclopropenone (c-H{sub 2}C{sub 3}O) formation in interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadvand, Seyedsaeid; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A., E-mail: svarganov@unr.edu

    2014-11-10

    Three proposed mechanisms of cyclopropenone (c-H{sub 2}C{sub 3}O) formation from neutral species are studied using high-level electronic structure methods in combination with nonadiabatic transition state and collision theories to deduce the likelihood of each reaction mechanism under interstellar conditions. The spin-forbidden reaction involving the singlet electronic state of cyclopenylidene (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}) and the triplet state of atomic oxygen is studied using nonadiabatic transition state theory to predict the rate constant for c-H{sub 2}C{sub 3}O formation. The spin-allowed reactions of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} with molecular oxygen and acetylene with carbon monoxide were also investigated. The reaction involving the ground electronicmore » states of acetylene and carbon monoxide has a very large reaction barrier and is unlikely to contribute to c-H{sub 2}C{sub 3}O formation in interstellar medium. The spin-forbidden reaction of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} with atomic oxygen, despite the high probability of nonadiabatic transition between the triplet and singlet states, was found to have a very small rate constant due to the presence of a small (3.8 kcal mol{sup –1}) reaction barrier. In contrast, the spin-allowed reaction between c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} and molecular oxygen is found to be barrierless, and therefore can be an important path to the formation of c-H{sub 2}C{sub 3}O molecule in interstellar environment.« less

  13. Aqua­(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)bis­(trimethyl­acetato)-κ2 O,O′;κO-cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Hong-Xian; Li, Zhong-Shu; Zhang, Huai-Hong; Sun, Bai-Wang

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C5H9O2)2(C12H8N2)(H2O)], the CoII atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral environment by three carboxyl O atoms of two trimethyl­acetate ligands, one aqua O atom and two N atoms from 1,10-phen­anthroline. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions [inter­planar distance between inter­digitating 1,10-phenanthroline ligands = 3.378 (2) Å]. PMID:21583436

  14. Hydrazinium lanthanide oxalates: synthesis, structure and thermal reactivity of N2H5[Ln2(C2O4)4(N2H5)]·4H2O, Ln = Ce, Nd.

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Lucie; Grandjean, Stéphane; Rivenet, Murielle; Patisson, Fabrice; Abraham, Francis

    2014-03-28

    New hydrazinium lanthanide oxalates N2H5[Ln2(C2O4)4(N2H5)]·4H2O, Ln = Ce (Ce-HyOx) and Nd (Nd-HyOx), were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 °C between lanthanide nitrate, oxalic acid and hydrazine solutions. The structure of the Nd compound was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, space group P2₁/c with a = 16.315(4), b = 12.127(3), c = 11.430(2) Å, β = 116.638(4)°, V = 2021.4(7) Å(3), Z = 4, and R1 = 0.0313 for 4231 independent reflections. Two distinct neodymium polyhedra are formed, NdO9 and NdO8N, an oxygen of one monodentate oxalate in the former being replaced by a nitrogen atom of a coordinated hydrazinium ion in the latter. The infrared absorption band at 1005 cm(-1) confirms the coordination of N2H5(+) to the metal. These polyhedra are connected through μ2 and μ3 oxalate ions to form an anionic three-dimensional neodymium-oxalate arrangement. A non-coordinated charge-compensating hydrazinium ion occupies, with water molecules, the resulting tunnels. The N-N stretching frequencies of the infrared spectra demonstrate the existence of the two types of hydrazine ions. Thermal reactivity of these hydrazinium oxalates and of the mixed isotypic Ce/Nd (CeNd-HyOx) oxalate were studied by using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses coupled with gas analyzers, and high temperature X-ray diffraction. Under air, fine particles of CeO2 and Ce(0.5)Nd(0.5)O(1.75) are formed at low temperature from Ce-HyOx and CeNd-HyOx, respectively, thanks to a decomposition/oxidation process. Under argon flow, dioxymonocyanamides Ln2O2CN2 are formed.

  15. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  16. Reduced Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults via Regulation of SUV39H2 and KDM4C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Aims . Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an autoimmune disease of which the mechanism is not clear. Emerging evidence suggests that histone methylation contributes to autoimmunity. Methods . Blood CD4 + T lymphocytes from 26 LADA patients and 26 healthy controls were isolated to detect histone H3 lysine 4 and H3 lysine 9 methylation status. Results . Reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients' CD4 + T lymphocytes, compared to healthy controls ( P < 0.05). H3 lysine 4 methylation was not statistically different. The reduced H3 lysine 9 methylation was associated with GADA titer but not correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). When the LADA patient group was divided into those with complication and those without, relatively reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients with complication ( P < 0.05). The expression of histone methyltransferase SUV39H2 for H3 lysine 9 methylation was downregulated in LADA patients, and the expression of histone demethylase KDM4C which made H3 lysine 9 demethylation was upregulated. Conclusion . The reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation which may due to the downregulation of methyltransferase SUV39H2 and the upregulation of demethylase KDM4C was found in CD4 + T lymphocytes of LADA patients.

  17. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures and catecholase activity investigation of new chalcone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabti, Salima; Djedouani, Amel; Rahmouni, Samra; Touzani, Rachid; Bendaas, Abderrahmen; Mousser, Hénia; Mousser, Abdelhamid

    2015-12-01

    The reaction of dehydroacetic acid DHA carboxaldehyde and RCHO derivatives (R = quinoleine-8-; indole-3-; pyrrol-2- and 4-(dimethylamino)phenyl - afforded four new chalcone ligands (4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(2E)-3-quinolin-8-ylprop-2-enoyl]-2H-pyran-2-one) L1, (4-hydroxy-3-[(2E)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-enoyl]-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one) L2, (4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(2E)-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)prop-2-enoyl]-2H-pyran-2-one) L3, and (3-{(2E)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]prop-2-enoyl}-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one) L4. L3 and L4 were characterized by X-ray crystallography. Molecules crystallize with four and two molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively and adopt an E conformation about the Cdbnd C bond. Both structures are stabilized by an extended network O-HO. Furthermore, N-HO and C-HO hydrogen bonds are observed in L3 and L4 structures, respectively. The in situ generated copper (II) complexes of the four compounds L1, L2, L3 and L4 were examined for their catalytic activities and were found to catalyze the oxidation reaction of catechol to o-quinone under atmospheric dioxygen. The rates of this oxidation depend on three parameters: ligand, ion salts and solvent nature and the combination L2[Cu (CH3COO)2] leads to the faster catalytic process.

  18. Di-μ-cyanido-tetra­cyanido(5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa­methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane)[N-(quinolin-8-yl)quinoline-2-carboxamidato]diiron(III)nickel(II) 2.07-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuqi; Zhou, Hongbo; Shen, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Fe2Ni(C19H12N3O)2(CN)6(C16H36N4)]·2.07H2O, contains one [Fe(qcq)(CN)3]− anion, half a [Ni(teta)]2+ cation and two partially occupied inter­stitial water mol­ecules [qcq− is the N-(quinolin-8-yl)quinoline-2-carboxamidate anion and teta is 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexa­methyl-1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­deca­ne]. In the complex mol­ecule, two [Fe(qcq)(CN)3]− anions additionally coordinate the central [Ni(teta)]2+ cation through cyanide groups in a trans mode, resulting in a trinuclear structure with the Ni2+ cation lying on an inversion centre. The two inter­stitial water mol­ecules are partially occupied, with occupancy factors of 0.528 (10) and 0.506 (9). O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding involving the two lattice water molecules and the carbonyl function and a teta N atom in an adjacent cluster leads to the formation of layers extending parallel to (010). PMID:23723777

  19. Calcinaksite, KNaCa(Si4O10) H2O, a new mineral from the Eifel volcanic area, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Blass, Günter; Varlamov, Dmitry A.; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitry I.; Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.

    2015-08-01

    The new mineral calcinaksite, ideally KNaCa(Si4O10) · H2O, the first hydrous and Ca-dominant member of the litidionite group, is found in a xenolith of metamorphosed carbonate-rich rock from the southern lava flow of the Bellerberg volcano, Eastern Eifel region, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. It is associated with wollastonite, gehlenite, brownmillerite, Ca2SiO4 (larnite or calcio-olivine), quartz, aragonite, calcite, jennite, tobermorite and ettringite. Calcinaksite occurs as clusters of colourless to light-grey subhedral prismatic crystals. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hardness of 5; Dmeas is 2.62(2) g/cm3 and Dcalc is 2.623 g/cm3. The IR spectrum shows the presence of H2O molecules forming three different H-bonds. Calcinaksite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.542(2), β = 1.550(2), γ = 1.565(3), 2 V meas = 75(10). The chemical composition (electron-microprobe data, H2O determined by the Alimarin method, wt%) is: Na2O 6.69, K2O 12.01, CaO 15.04, FeO 0.59, SiO2 61.46, H2O 4.9, total 100.69. The empirical formula is H2.11 K0.99Na0.84Ca1.04Fe0.03Si3.98O11. The crystal structure was solved and refined to R 1 = 0.053, wR 2 = 0.075 based upon 3057 reflections having I > 3σ( I). Calcinaksite is triclinic, space group P , a = 7.021(2), b = 8.250(3), c = 10.145(2) Å. α = 102.23(2)°, β = 100.34(2)°, γ = 115.09(3)°, V = 495.4(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections of the X-ray powder pattern [ d, Å ( I,%) ( hkl)] are: 3.431 (70) (-121, -211, -210, 012, 0-22), 3.300 (67) (-031), 3.173 (95) (-103, -201, -220, 003, 111), 3.060 (100) (-212, 2-11, -221, 200, -1-13, 021, -202), 2.851 (83) (0-23, -122, 1-13, 1-31), 2.664 (62) (1-23, -222, 201).

  20. Phase relations among K-feldspar, muscovite and H2O at 1.0 GPa and 800°C: Implications for metasediment dissolution and melting at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineman, D.; Manning, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Melting and solubility of K-feldspar (ksp) and muscovite (mus) were investigated in the system KSi3O6.5 -Al2O3 - H2O at 1.0 GPa and 800 °C with rapid-quench piston-cylinder techniques. Equilibrium assemblages of ksp, mus, silicate liquid (L) and aqueous fluid (V) were deduced from optical and scanning electron microscopy. Quenched silicate liquids and aqueous fluids were distinguished using the methodology of Burnham and Jahns (1962, Am J Sci, 260, 721) and Makhluf et al. (2016, CMP, in press). Experiments on a range of bulk compositions constrain the locations of the V, ksp+V, ms+V, and ksp+L+V fields. This allowed geometrical constraints to be placed on additional phase boundaries in the ternary system. The results show that ksp dissolves incongruently in H2O, with residual liquid or ms depending on the fluid-rock ratio. In contrast, ms dissolves congruently in H2O and KSi3O6.5 -H2O solutions with up to 25 wt% KSi3O6.5. Results indicate that stable hydrous liquid at these conditions has an Al content intermediate between ksp and ms. There is no stable liquid along the ksp-H2O join, consistent with results of Goldsmith and Peterson (1990, Am Min, 75, 1362). All data are consistent with the stability of a supercritical fluid on the KAlSi3O8 -H2O join, with 5-10 wt% dissolved Al2O3. Compositional constraints imply that the liquid phase contains 25 wt% H2O and coexists with a V phase containing 25 wt% dissolved solutes. This in turn implies critical mixing of the fluid phases at higher temperature, which is similar to the systems NaAlSi3O8-H2O and simple granite-H2O. Our results help constrain the conditions of production of supercritical granitic-H2O fluids systems in deep crustal and subduction zone settings.

  1. Simple preparations of Pd6Cl12, Pt6Cl12, and Qn[Pt2Cl8+n], n=1, 2 (Q=TBA+, PPN+) and structural characterization of [TBA][Pt2Cl9] and [PPN]2[Pt2Cl10].C7H8.

    PubMed

    Dell'Amico, Daniela Belli; Calderazzo, Fausto; Marchetti, Fabio; Ramello, Stefano; Samaritani, Simona

    2008-02-04

    The hexanuclear Pd6Cl12, i.e., the crystal phase classified as beta-PdCl2, was obtained by reacting [TBA]2[Pd2Cl6] with AlCl3 (or FeCl3) in CH2Cl2. The action of AlCl3 on PtCl42-, followed by digestion of the resulting solid in 1,2-C2H4Cl2 (DCE), CHCl3, or benzene, produced Pt6Cl12.DCE, Pt6Cl12.CHCl3, or Pt6Cl12.C6H6, respectively. Treating [TBA]2[PtCl6] with a slight excess of AlCl3 afforded [TBA][Pt2Cl9], whose anion was established crystallographically to be constituted by two "PtCl6" octahedra sharing a face. Dehydration of H2PtCl6.nH2O with SOCl2 gave an amorphous compound closely analyzing as PtCl4, reactive with [Q]Cl in SOCl2 to yield [Q][Pt2Cl9] or [Q]2[Pt2Cl10], depending on the [Q]Cl/Pt molar ratio (Q=TBA+, PPN+). A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study has shown [PPN]2[Pt2Cl10].C7H8 to contain dinuclear anions formed by two edge-sharing PtCl6 octahedra.

  2. ZrO2/MoS2 heterojunction photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, Surya Veerendra; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata

    2016-10-01

    We report a simple solution-chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid photocatalysts, which contain MoS2 as a cocatalyst. The material is usually obtained by a wet chemical method using ZrO(NO3)2 or (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and C8H6S as precursors. The structural features of obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, and photoluminescence (PL). The influence on the photocatalytic activity of the MoS2 cocatalyst concentration with ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied. The MZr-2 hybrid sample had the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 8.45 times higher than that of pristine ZrO2 ascribed to high specific surface area and absorbance efficiency. Recycling experiments revealed that the reusability of the MZr-2 hybrid was due to the low photocorrosive effect and good catalytic stability. PL spectra confirmed the electronic interaction between ZrO2 and MoS2. The photoinduced electrons could be easily transferred from CB of ZrO2 to the MoS2 cocatalyst, which facilitate effective charge separation and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation in the UV region. A photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. It is believed that the ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid structure has promise as a photocatalyst with low cost and high efficiency for photoreactions.

  3. Crystal structure, quantum mechanical investigation, IR and NMR spectroscopy of two new organic perchlorates: (C6H18N3)·(ClO4)3H2O (I) and (C9H11N2)·ClO4(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayar, I.; Khedhiri, L.; Soudani, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Ferretti, V.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2018-06-01

    The reaction of perchloric acid with 1-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine or 5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazole results in the formation of 1-(2-amonioethyl)piperazine-1,4-dium triperchlorate hydrate (C6H18N3)·(ClO4)3·H2O (I) or 5,6-dimethyl-benzylimidazolium perchlorate (C9H11N2)·ClO4(II). Both compounds were fully structurally characterized including single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound (I) crystallizes in the centrosymmetric triclinic space group P 1 bar with the lattice parameters a = 7.455 (2), b = 10.462 (2), c = 10.824 (2) Å, α = 80.832 (2), β = 88.243 (2), γ = 88.160 (2) °, Z = 2 and V = 832.77 (3) Å3. Compound (II) has been found to belong to the P21/c space group of the monoclinic system, with a = 7.590 (3), b = 9.266 (3), c = 16.503 (6) Å, β = 107.38 (2) °, V = 1107.69 (7) Å3 and Z = 4. The structures of (I) and (II) consist of slightly distorted [ClO4]- tetrahedra anions and 1-(2-amonioethyl)piperazine-1,4-dium trication (I) or 5,6-dimethyl-benzylimidazolium cations (II) and additionally a lattice water in (I). The crystal structures of (I) and (II) exhibit complex three-dimensional networks of H-bonds connecting all their components. In the atomic arrangement of (I), the ClO4- anions form corrugated chains, while in (II) the atomic arrangement exhibits wide pseudo-hexagonal channels of ClO4 tetrahedra including the organic entities. The lattice water serves as a link between pairs of cations and pairs of anions via several Osbnd H⋯O and N-H⋯O interactions in compound (I). The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. These compounds were also investigated by solid-state 13C, 35Cl and 15N NMR spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the IR and NMR bands. Intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces. Electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were derived.

  4. Biosynthesis of 8-O-methylated benzoxazinoid defense compounds in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Benzoxazinoids are important defense compounds in grasses. Here, we investigated the biosynthesis and biological roles of the 8-O-methylated benzoxazinoids, DIM2BOA-Glc and HDM2BOA-Glc. Using quantitative trait locus mapping and heterologous expression, we identified a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxy...

  5. Characterization of a distonic isomer C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 of methyl benzoate radical cation by associative ion-molecule reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechamps, Noémie; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Nam, Pham-Cam; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2006-03-01

    The C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 radical cation, formally a distonic isomer of ionized methyl benzoate, has been prepared by dissociative ionization of neopentyl benzoate, as earlier suggested by Audier et al. [H.E. Audier, A. Milliet, G. Sozzi, S. Hammerum, Org. Mass. Spectrom. 25 (1990) 44]. Its distonic character has now been firmly established by its high reactivity towards neutral methyl isocyanide (ionized methylene transfer) producing N-methyl ketenimine ions. Other mass spectrometric experiments and ab initio quantum chemical calculations also concur with each other pointing toward the existence of a stable distonic radical cation.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen speciation in nitrogen-rich C-O-H-N fluids at 5.5-7.8 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Alexander G.; Palyanov, Yury N.; Tomilenko, Anatoly A.; Bul'bak, Taras A.; Palyanova, Galina A.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon and nitrogen speciation has been studied in high-pressure experiments in the C-O-H-N and C-O-H-N-Fe3C systems at 5.5 to 7.8 GPa and 1100 to 1500 °C using a split-sphere multi-anvil apparatus. Oxygen fugacity in the samples was either buffered by the Mo-MoO2 (MMO) and Fe-FeO (IW) equilibria using a double-capsule technique or left unbuffered. fO2 varied from 2 log units below to +4 log units above the iron-wüstite oxygen buffer (IW) depending on water contents in the charges and buffering. Ultra-reduced fluids contained NH3 as the dominant species, but its concentration was slightly lower, while CH4 was higher at higher temperatures. As oxygen fugacity and temperature increased to fO2 0.7 log units above IW and T ≥ 1400 °C, N2 became the predominant nitrogen species; the dominance among carbon species changed from CH4 and C2-C5 alkanes to oxygenated hydrocarbons and higher alkanes. It has been found out for the first time that the N2-rich fluid lacks methane at fO2 4 log units above IW but may bear a few percent of C2H6, C3H8, and C15-C18 alkanes and within one percent of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and furans. Thus, the NH3 enrichment of fluids and the nitrogen storage capacity of silicates at depths ∼200 km are expected to be the greatest in cold (1100-1200 °C) and reduced continental lithospheric mantle. In a hotter lithosphere of ∼1400 °C, the concentrations of NH3 and N2 in fluids are similar, and the nitrogen storage capacity of silicates should be relatively low. The stability of some higher alkanes and oxygenated hydrocarbons in nitrogen-rich fluids near the enstatite-magnesite-olivine-diamond/graphite (EMOG/D) equilibrium suggest that these carbon species, together with N2, can survive at the redox barrier, where silicate or silicate-carbonate melts capture them and entrain to shallow mantle.

  7. Prediction of the PVTx and VLE properties of natural gases with a general Helmholtz equation of state. Part I: Application to the CH4-C2H6-C3H8-CO2-N2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shide; Lü, Mengxin; Shi, Zeming

    2017-12-01

    A general equation of state (EOS) explicit in Helmholtz free energy has been developed to predict the pressure-volume-temperature-composition (PVTx) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) properties of the CH4-C2H6-C3H8-CO2-N2 fluid mixtures (main components of natural gases). This EOS, which is a function of temperature, density and composition, with four mixing parameters used, is based on the improved EOS of Sun and Ely (2004) for the pure components (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, CO2 and N2) and contains a simple generalized departure function presented by Lemmon and Jacobsen (1999). Comparison with the experimental data available indicates that the EOS can calculate the PVTx and VLE properties of the CH4-C2H6-C3H8-CO2-N2 fluid mixtures within or close to experimental uncertainties up to 623 K and 1000 bar within full range of composition. Isochores of the CH4-C2H6-C3H8-CO2-N2 system can be directly calculated from this EOS to interpret the corresponding microthermometric and Raman analysis data of fluid inclusions. The general EOS can calculate other thermodynamic properties if the ideal Helmholtz free energy of fluids is combined, and can also be extended to the multi-component natural gases including the secondary alkanes (carbon number above three) and none-alkane components such as H2S, SO2, O2, CO, Ar and H2O. This part of work will be finished in the near future.

  8. Crystal structure of 1-ferrocenyl-2-(4-methyl-benzo-yl)spiro-[11H-pyrrolidizine-3,11'-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline].

    PubMed

    Chandralekha, Kuppan; Gavaskar, Deivasigamani; Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Lakshmi, Srinivasakannan

    2014-09-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C34H28N3O)], the four-fused-rings system of the 11H-indeno-[1,2-b]quinoxaline unit is approximately planar [maximum deviation = 0.167 (4) Å] and forms a dihedral angle of 37.25 (6)° with the plane of the benzene ring of the methyl-benzoyl group. Both pyrrolidine rings adopt a twist conformation. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming double chains extending parallel to the c axis.

  9. Interaction of Corundum, Wollastonite and Quartz With H2O-NaCl Solutions at 800 C and 10 Kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    Aqueous fluids are potentially important transport agents in subduction zones and other high-P metamorphic environments. Recent studies indicate that at high P and T, the solubilities of major rock-forming elements are strongly enhanced by the formation of metal-chloride complexes, metal-hydroxide complexes and polynuclear metal-hydroxide clusters. However, the relative abundances of these species and the energetics of their interactions in high-pressure environments remains largely unknown. We measured the solubilities of corundum (Al2O3) and wollastonite (CaSiO3) at 800 °C and 10 kbar in H2O-NaCl solutions to halite saturation (XNaCl = 0.6) . Both minerals show marked enhancement of solubility with increasing salinity. Al2O3 mol fraction rises rapidly to XNaCl = 0.1, and then declines slowly towards halite saturation. Quenched experimental fluids have neutral pH. Modeling based on ideal solution of ions and molecules leads to a simple dissolution reaction and corresponding molality (m=mol/kg H2O) expression: Al2O3(cor) + Na+ + 3H2O = NaAl(OH)4 + Al(OH)2+ and mAl2O3 = [0.0232(aNaCl)1/4(aH2O)3/2+0.00123][1+2XNaCl/(1-XNaCl)] where H2O and NaCl activities are given by aH2O = (2-XNaCl)/(2+XNaCl) and aNaCl = 4(XNaCl)2/(1 + XNaCl)2. Wollastonite solubility in NaCl solutions is accurately described by: mCaSiO3 = 0.6734XNaCl + 0.1183(XNaCl)1/2 + 0.0204. There is a roughly 50-fold enhancement of dissolved wollastonite at halite saturation. Quenched experimental fluids are strongly basic (pH=11). A consistent dissolution reaction must therefore be similar to: CaSiO3(wo) + Na+ + Cl- = CaCl+ + OH- + HNaSiO3 Quartz solubility declines monotonically from mSiO2 = 1.248 in pure H2O to 0.20 at halite saturation. Quenched fluids are neutral, indicating that quartz does not react with solvent NaCl. The only salinity control on solubility is decrease of H2O activity. The simple dissolution behaviors to be deduced from measurements on these minerals suggest that fluid

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of the oxalato-bridged mixed-valence complexes (FeII(bpm)3]2[FeIII2(ox)5].8H2O and FeII(bpm)3Na(H2O)2Fe(ox)(3).4H2O (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine).

    PubMed

    Armentano, D; De Munno, G; Faus, J; Lloret, F; Julve, M

    2001-02-12

    The preparation and crystal structures of two oxalato-bridged FeII-FeIII mixed-valence compounds, [FeII(bpm)3]2[FeIII2(ox)5].8H2O (1) and FeII(bpm)3Na(H2O)2FeIII(ox)(3).4H2O (2) (bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; ox = oxalate dianion) are reported here. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1, with a = 10.998(2) A, b = 13.073(3) A, c = 13.308(3) A, alpha = 101.95(2) degrees, beta = 109.20(2) degrees, gamma = 99.89(2) degrees, and Z = 1. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c, with a = 12.609(2) A, b = 19.670(5) A, c = 15.843(3) A, beta = 99.46(1) degrees, and Z = 4. The structure of complex 1 consists of centrosymmetric oxalato-bridged dinuclear high-spin iron(III) [Fe2(ox)5]2- anions, tris-chelated low-spin iron(II) [Fe(bpm)3]2+ cations, and lattice water molecules. The iron atoms are hexacoordinated: six oxygen atoms (iron(III)) from two bidentate and one bisbidentate oxalato ligands and six nitrogen atoms (iron(II)) from three bidentate bpm groups. The Fe(III)-O(ox) and Fe(II)-N(bpm) bond distances vary in the ranges 1.967(3)-2.099(3) and 1.967(4)-1.995(3) A, respectively. The iron(III)-iron(III) separation across the bridging oxalato is 5.449(2) A, whereas the shortest intermolecular iron(III)-iron(II) distance is 6.841(2) A. The structure of complex 2 consists of neutral heterotrinuclear Fe(bpm)2Na(H2O)2Fe(ox)3 units and water molecules of crystallization. The tris-chelated low-spin iron(II) ([Fe(bpm)3]2+) and high-spin iron(III) ([Fe(ox)3]3-) entities act as bidentate ligands (through two bpm-nitrogen and two oxalato-oxygen atoms, respectively) toward the univalent sodium cation, yielding the trinuclear (bpm)2Fe(II)-bpm-Na(I)-ox-Fe(III)(ox)2 complex. Two cis-coordinated water molecules complete the distorted octahedral surrounding of the sodium atom. The ranges of the Fe(II)-N(bpm) and Fe(III)-O(ox) bond distances [1.968(6)-1.993(5) and 1.992(6)-2.024(6) A, respectively] compare well with those observed in 1. The Na

  11. CYP2C8 activity recovers within 96 hours after gemfibrozil dosing: estimation of CYP2C8 half-life using repaglinide as an in vivo probe.

    PubMed

    Backman, Janne T; Honkalammi, Johanna; Neuvonen, Mikko; Kurkinen, Kaisa J; Tornio, Aleksi; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2009-12-01

    Gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C8. We studied the recovery of CYP2C8 activity after discontinuation of gemfibrozil treatment using repaglinide as a probe drug, to estimate the in vivo turnover half-life of CYP2C8. In a randomized five-phase crossover study, nine healthy volunteers ingested 0.25 mg of repaglinide alone or after different time intervals after a 3-day treatment with 600 mg of gemfibrozil twice daily. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity of repaglinide was 7.6-, 2.9-, 1.4- and 1.0-fold compared with the control phase when it was administered 1, 24, 48, or 96 h after the last gemfibrozil dose, respectively (P < 0.001 versus control for 1, 24, and 48 h after gemfibrozil). Thus, a strong CYP2C8 inhibitory effect persisted even after gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil 1-O-beta-glucuronide concentrations had decreased to less than 1% of their maximum (24-h dosing interval). In addition, the metabolite to repaglinide AUC ratios indicated that significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of repaglinide metabolism continued up to 48 h after gemfibrozil administration. Based on the recovery of repaglinide oral clearance, the in vivo turnover half-life of CYP2C8 was estimated to average 22 +/- 6 h (mean +/- S.D.). In summary, CYP2C8 activity is recovered gradually during days 1 to 4 after gemfibrozil discontinuation, which should be considered when CYP2C8 substrate dosing is planned. The estimated CYP2C8 half-life will be useful for in vitro-in vivo extrapolations of drug-drug interactions involving induction or mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8.

  12. Observations of CH4, C2H6, and C2H2 in the stratosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sada, P. V.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Jennings, D. E.; McCabe, G. H.; Romani, P. N.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed high-resolution spectral observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of CH4 (8.14 micrometers), C2H6 (12.16 micrometers), and C2H2 (13.45 micrometers) on Jupiter. These emission features probe the stratosphere of the planet and provide information on the carbon-based photochemical processes taking place in that region of the atmosphere. The observations were performed using our cryogenic echelle spectrometer CELESTE, in conjunction with the McMath-Pierce 1.5-m solar telescope between November 1994 and February 1995. We used the methane observations to derive the temperature profile of the jovian atmosphere in the 1-10 mbar region of the stratosphere. This profile was then used in conjunction with height-dependent mixing ratios of each hydrocarbon to determine global abundances for ethane and acetylene. The resulting mixing ratios are 3.9(+1.9)(-1.3) x 10(-6) for C2H6 (5 mbar pressure level), and 2.3 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8) for C2H2 (8 mbar pressure level), where the quoted uncertainties are derived from model variations in the temperature profile which match the methane observation uncertainties. c1998 Academic Press.

  13. Cerocene Revisited: The Electronic Structure of and Interconversion Between Ce2(C8H8)3 and Ce(C8H8)2

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Marc D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Lukens, Wayne W.

    2009-02-02

    New synthetic procedures for the preparation of Ce(cot)2, cerocene, from [Li(thf)4][Ce(cot)2], and Ce2(cot)3 in high yield and purity are reported. Heating solid Ce(cot)2 yields Ce2(cot)3 and COT while heating Ce2(cot)3 with an excess of COT in C6D6 to 65oC over four months yields Ce(cot)2. The solid state magnetic susceptibility of these three organocerium compounds shows that Ce(cot)2 behaves as a TIP (temperature independent paramagnet) over the temperature range of 5-300 K, while that of Ce2(cot)3 shows that the spin carriers are antiferromagnetically coupled below 10 K; above 10 K, the individual spins are uncorrelated, and [Ce(cot)2]- behaves as an isolatedmore » f1 paramagnet. The EPR at 1.5K for Ce2(cot)3 and [Ce(cot)2]- have ground state of MJ= +- 1/2. The LIII edge XANES of Ce(cot)2 (Booth, C.H.; Walter, M.D.; Daniel, M.; Lukens, W.W., Andersen, R.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, 267202) and 2Ce2(cot)3 over 30-500 K are reported; the Ce(cot)2 XANES spectra show Ce(III) and Ce(IV) signatures up to a temperature of approximately 500 K, whereupon the Ce(IV) signature disappears, consistent with the thermal behavior observed in the melting experiment. The EXAFS of Ce(cot)2 and Ce2(cot)3 are reported at 30 K; the agreement between the molecular parameters for Ce(cot)2 derived from EXAFS and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are excellent. In the case of Ce2(cot)3 no X-ray diffraction data are known to exist, but the EXAFS are consistent with a"triple-decker" sandwich structure. A molecular rationalization is presented for the electronic structure of cerocene having a multiconfiguration ground state that is an admixture of the two configurations Ce(III, 4f1)(cot1.5-)2 and Ce(IV, 4f0)(cot2-)2; the multiconfigurational ground state has profound effects on the magnetic properties and on the nature of the chemical bond in cerocene and, perhaps, other molecules.« less

  14. Brönsted Acid-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Indoles from o-Aminobenzyl Alcohols and Furans

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Makarov, Anton; Rubtsov, Alexandr E.; Butin, Alexander V.; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Brönsted acid-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of indoles from o-aminobenzyl alcohols and furans has been developed. This method operates via the in situ formation of aminobenzylfuran, followed by its recyclization into the indole core. The method proved to be efficient for substrates possessing different functional groups, including -OMe, -CO2Cy, and -Br. The resulting indoles can easily be transformed into diverse scaffolds, including 2,3- and 1,2-fused indoles, and indole possessing an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety at the C-2 position. PMID:24255969

  15. 1-(4-Chloro-2-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-difluoro-methyl-3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dong-Mei; Wang, Yong-Yi

    2012-04-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C(10)H(7)ClF(3)N(3)O, pairs of mol-ecules are connected into dimers via pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and attached triazolone ring is 53.2 (1)°.

  16. Why Do Enolate Anions Favor O-Alkylation over C-Alkylation in the Gas Phase? The Roles of Resonance and Inductive Effects in the Gas-Phase SN2 Reaction between the Acetaldehyde Enolate Anion and Methyl Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Christian G; Zhang, Huaiyu; Mo, Yirong; Karty, Joel M

    2016-05-06

    Contributions by resonance and inductive effects toward the net activation barrier were determined computationally for the gas-phase SN2 reaction between the acetaldehyde enolate anion and methyl fluoride, for both O-methylation and C-methylation, in order to understand why this reaction favors O-methylation. With the use of the vinylogue extrapolation methodology, resonance effects were determined to contribute toward increasing the size of the barrier by about 9.5 kcal/mol for O-methylation and by about 21.2 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Inductive effects were determined to contribute toward increasing the size of the barrier by about 1.7 kcal/mol for O-methylation and 4.2 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Employing our block-localized wave function methodology, we determined the contributions by resonance to be 12.8 kcal/mol for O-methylation and 22.3 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Thus, whereas inductive effects have significant contributions, resonance is the dominant factor that leads to O-methylation being favored. More specifically, resonance serves to increase the size the barrier for C-methylation significantly more than it does for O-methylation.

  17. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine, redetermined at 120 K: a three-dimensional framework built from N-H...O, N-H...(O)2, N-H...pi(arene) and C-H...O hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Wardell, James L; Low, John N; Glidewell, Christopher

    2006-06-01

    In the title compound, C6H6N4O4, the bond distances indicate significant bond fixation, consistent with charge-separated polar forms. The molecules are almost planar and there is an intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond. The molecules are linked into a complex three-dimensional framework structure by a combination of N-H...O, N-H...(O)2, N-H...pi(arene) and C-H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. C6, C7, and C8 perfluoroalkyl-substituted phosphinic acids.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Shreeve, J M

    2000-04-17

    Reaction of red phosphorus with RfI in a 1:2 molar ratio at 230 degrees C led to the formation of a mixture of (Rf)2PI and (Rf)PI2 (Rf = C6F13, C7F15, C8F17) in about a 70:30 ratio, respectively. These mixtures were separated by vacuum distillation. (Rf)2PI (Rf = C6F13, C7F15) are yellow liquids whereas (C8F17)2PI is a yellow solid. Oxidation of (Rf)2PI with excess NO2 led to (Rf)2P(O)OH (Rf = C6F13, C7F15, C8F17) in > 90% isolated yields after aqueous hydrolysis of the anhydride intermediates. These highly fluorinated phosphinic acids are white solids with sharp melting points and are highly soluble in methyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane. However, solubility in chloroform and methylene dichloride is low. These perfluoroalkylphosphinic acids were characterized by IR, NMR (1H, 19F, and 31P), and mass spectra and elemental analysis.

  19. Adsorption of H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO, and CO2 on graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite investigated by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Bandaru, Sateesh; Liu, Jin; Li, Li-Li; Wang, Zhenling

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the photocatalytic reactions of small molecules on g-C3N4 by these insights, we sought to explore the adsorption of H2O and CO2 molecules on the graphene side and H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO, and CO2 molecules on the g-C3N4 side of hybrid g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposite using first-principles calculations. The atomic structure and electronic properties of hybrid g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposite is explored. The adsorption of small molecules on graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite is thoroughly investigated. The computational studies revels that all small molecules on graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite are the physisorption. The adsorption characteristics of H2O and CO2 molecules on the graphene side are similar to that on graphene. The adsorption of H2O, H2, O2, CO, NO, and CO2 molecules on the g-C3N4 side always leads to a buckle structure of graphene/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. Graphene as a substrate can significantly relax the buckle degree of g-C3N4 in g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposite.

  20. Reaction mechanisms at 4H-SiC/SiO2 interface during wet SiC oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Toru; Hori, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Kageshima, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Masashi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    The reaction processes at the interface between SiC with 4H structure (4H-SiC) and SiO2 during wet oxidation are investigated by electronic structure calculations within the density functional theory. Our calculations for 4H-SiC/SiO2 interfaces with various orientations demonstrate characteristic features of the reaction depending on the crystal orientation of SiC: On the Si-face, the H2O molecule is stable in SiO2 and hardly reacts with the SiC substrate, while the O atom of H2O can form Si-O bonds at the C-face interface. Two OH groups are found to be at least necessary for forming new Si-O bonds at the Si-face interface, indicating that the oxidation rate on the Si-face is very low compared with that on the C-face. On the other hand, both the H2O molecule and the OH group are incorporated into the C-face interface, and the energy barrier for OH is similar to that for H2O. By comparing the calculated energy barriers for these reactants with the activation energies of oxide growth rate, we suggest the orientation-dependent rate-limiting processes during wet SiC oxidation.

  1. Synthesis, structural and conformational study of some esters derived from 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8(α and β)-ols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriepa, I.; Bellanato, J.

    2014-09-01

    A series of α and β-esters bearing a 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety as well as methyl and aryl substituents were synthesized and studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. In CDCl3 solution, at room temperature, a chair-envelope conformation for the bicycle moiety with the N-CH3 group in equatorial position with respect to the chair ring is proposed for both, α and β-esters. The chair conformation of the piperidine ring is puckered at C8 in the α-epimers and it is flattened at N3, in the β-epimers. Free rotation of the acyloxy group around the C8sbnd O bond has also been deduced. Analgesic activity of four of these substances was studied. 8β-Benzoyloxy-3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane demonstrated significant analgesic activity in the hot plate test compared to morphine. By measuring the rectal temperature in mice, results also showed a significant antipyretic activity of this compound.

  2. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS

    Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  3. Diarylhalotelluronium(IV) cations [(8-Me2NC10H6)2TeX]+ (X = Cl, Br, I) stabilized by intramolecularly coordinating N-donor substituents.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Jens; Bolsinger, Jens; Duthie, Andrew; Finke, Pamela

    2013-09-14

    The stoichiometrically controlled halogenation of the intramolecularly coordinated diaryltelluride (8-Me2NC10H6)2Te using SO2Cl2, Br2 and I2 was studied. At an equimolar ratio, the diarylhalotelluronium cations [(8-Me2NC10H6)2TeX](+) (1, X = Cl; 2, X = Br; 3, X = I) formed and were isolated as 1·Cl(-)·H2O·1/2THF, 2·Br(-), and 3·I(-), respectively. When the same reactions were carried out in the presence of KPF6, 1·PF6(-) and 22·Br(-)·PF6(-) were obtained. The chlorination of (8-Me2NC10H6)2Te with an excess of SO2Cl2 occurred with a double electrophilic substitution at the 8-dimethylaminonaphthyl residues (in the ortho- and para-positions) and afforded the diaryltellurium dichloride (5,7-Cl2-8-Me2NC10H4)2TeCl2 (4). The bromination of (8-Me2NC10H6)2Te with three equivalents of Br2 took place with a single electrophilic substitution at the 8-dimethylaminonaphthyl residues (in the para-positions) and provided the diaryltellurium dibromide (5-Br-8-Me2NC10H5)2TeBr2 (5), while an excess of Br2 produced the diarylbromotelluronium cation [(5-Br-8-Me2NC10H5)2TeBr](+) (6) that was isolated as 6·Br3(-). The reaction of (8-Me2NC10H6)2Te with two or three equivalents of iodine provided 3·I3(-) and 3·I3(-)·I2, respectively. In the presence of water, 1·Cl(-)·H2O·1/2THF, 2·Br(-), 3·I(-) and 3·I3(-) hydrolyzed to give the previously known diarylhydroxytelluronium cation [(8-Me2NC10H6)2TeOH](+) (7) that was isolated as 7·Cl(-), 7·Br(-)·H2O·THF, 7·I(-) and 7·I3(-)·H2O, respectively. The molecular structures of 1-7 were investigated in the solid-state by (125)Te MAS NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography and in solution by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, (125)Te), electrospray mass spectrometry and conductivity measurements. The stabilization of cations 1-3 by the intramolecular coordination was estimated by DFT calculations at the B3PW91/TZ level of theory.

  4. Synthesis, DFT calculations of structure, vibrational and thermal decomposition studies of the metal complex Pb[Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Gil, Diego M; Carbonio, Raúl E; Gómez, María Inés

    2015-04-15

    The metallo-organic complex Pb[Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2] was synthesized and characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The cell parameters for the complex were determined from powder X-ray diffraction using the autoindexing program TREOR, and refined by the Le Bail method with the Fullprof program. A hexagonal unit cell was determined with a=b=13.8366(7)Å, c=9.1454(1)Å, γ=120°. The DFT calculated geometry of the complex anion [Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2](2-) is very close to the experimental data reported for similar systems. The IR and Raman spectra and the thermal analysis of the complex indicate that only one type of water molecules is present in the structure. The thermal decomposition of Pb[Mn(C3H2O4)2(H2O)2] at 700 °C in air produces PbO and Pb2MnO4 as final products. The crystal structure of the mixed oxide is very similar to that reported for Pb3O4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Marine Inspired 2-(5-Halo-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamines as Modulators of Serotonin Receptors: An Example Illustrating the Power of Bromine as Part of the Uniquely Marine Chemical Space.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; El-Alfy, Abir T; Ezel, Kelly; Radwan, Mohamed O; Shilabin, Abbas G; Kochanowska-Karamyan, Anna J; Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Otsuka, Masami; Hamann, Mark T

    2017-08-09

    In previous studies, we have isolated several marine indole alkaloids and evaluated them in the forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test, revealing their potential as antidepressant and sedative drug leads. Amongst the reported metabolites to display such activities was 5-bromo- N , N -dimethyltryptamine. Owing to the importance of the judicious introduction of halogens into drug candidates, we synthesized two series built on a 2-(1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethylethanamine scaffold with different halogen substitutions. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo antidepressant and sedative activities using the mouse forced swim and locomotor activity tests. Receptor binding studies of these compounds to serotonin (5-HT) receptors were conducted. Amongst the prepared compounds, 2-(1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethyl-2-oxoacetamide ( 1a ), 2-(5-bromo-1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethyl-2-oxoacetamide ( 1d ), 2-(1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethylethanamine ( 2a ), 2-(5-chloro-1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethylethanamine ( 2c ), 2-(5-bromo-1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethylethanamine ( 2d ), and 2-(5-iodo-1 H -indol-3-yl)- N , N -dimethylethanamine ( 2e ) have been shown to possess significant antidepressant-like action, while compounds 2c , 2d , and 2e exhibited potent sedative activity. Compounds 2a , 2c , 2d , and 2e showed nanomolar affinities to serotonin receptors 5-HT 1A and 5-HT₇. The in vitro data indicates that the antidepressant action exerted by these compounds in vivo is mediated, at least in part, via interaction with serotonin receptors. The data presented here shows the valuable role that bromine plays in providing novel chemical space and electrostatic interactions. Bromine is ubiquitous in the marine environment and a common element of marine natural products.

  6. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Synthesis of N-Unprotected Indoles from Imidamides and Diazo Ketoesters via C-H Activation and C-C/C-N Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Yu, Songjie; Li, Xingwei

    2016-02-19

    The synthesis of N-unprotected indoles has been realized via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation of imidamides with α-diazo β-ketoesters. The reaction occurs with the release of an amide coproduct, which originates from both the imidamide and the diazo as a result of C═N cleavage of the imidamide and C-C(acyl) cleavage of the diazo. A rhodacyclic intermediate has been isolated and a plausible mechanism has been proposed.

  7. Electronic absorption spectroscopy of matrix-isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations. I - The naphthalene cation (C10H8/+/)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    The ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared absorption spectra of naphthalene (C10H8) and its radical ion (C10H8/+/), formed by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, were measured in argon and neon matrices at 4.2 K. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion production in the solid phase. The absorption coefficients were calculated for the ion and found lower than previous values, presumably due to the low polarizability of the neon matrix.

  8. Synthesis and X-ray Crystallography of [Mg(H2O)6][AnO2(C2H5COO)3]2 (An = U, Np, or Pu).

    PubMed

    Serezhkin, Viktor N; Grigoriev, Mikhail S; Abdulmyanov, Aleksey R; Fedoseev, Aleksandr M; Savchenkov, Anton V; Serezhkina, Larisa B

    2016-08-01

    Synthesis and X-ray crystallography of single crystals of [Mg(H2O)6][AnO2(C2H5COO)3]2, where An = U (I), Np (II), or Pu (III), are reported. Compounds I-III are isostructural and crystallize in the trigonal crystal system. The structures of I-III are built of hydrated magnesium cations [Mg(H2O)6](2+) and mononuclear [AnO2(C2H5COO)3](-) complexes, which belong to the AB(01)3 crystallochemical group of uranyl complexes (A = AnO2(2+), B(01) = C2H5COO(-)). Peculiarities of intermolecular interactions in the structures of [Mg(H2O)6][UO2(L)3]2 complexes depending on the carboxylate ion L (acetate, propionate, or n-butyrate) are investigated using the method of molecular Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra. Actinide contraction in the series of U(VI)-Np(VI)-Pu(VI) in compounds I-III is reflected in a decrease in the mean An═O bond lengths and in the volume and sphericity degree of Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra of An atoms.

  9. Kasatkinite, Ba2Ca8B5Si8O32(OH)3 · 6H2O6, a new mineral from the Bazhenovskoe deposit, the Central Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Filinchuk, Ya. E.; Zadov, A. E.; Kononkova, N. N.; Epanchintsev, S. G.; Kaden, P.; Kutzer, A.; Göttlicher, J.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, kasatkinite, Ba2Ca8B5Si8O32(OH)3 · 6H2O, has been found at the Bazhenovskoe chrysotile asbestos deposit, the Central Urals, Russia in the cavities in rhodingite as a member of two assemblages: (l) on prehnite, with pectolite, calcite, and clinochlore; and (2) on grossular, with diopside and pectolite. Kasatkinite occurs as spherulites or bunches up to 3 mm in size, occasionally combined into crusts. Its individuals are acicular to hair-like, typically split, with a polygonal cross section, up to 0.5 mm (rarely, to 6 mm) in length and to 20 μm in thickness. They consist of numerous misoriented needle-shaped subindividuals up to several dozen μm long and no more than 1 μm thick. Kasatkinite individuals are transparent and colorless; its aggregates are snow white. The luster is vitreous or silky. No cleavage was observed; the fracture is uneven or splintery for aggregates. Individuals are flexible and elastic. The Mohs' hardness is 4-4.5. D meas = 2.95(5), D calc = 2.89 g/cm3. Kasatkinite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.600(5), β = 1.603(2), γ = 1.626(2), 2 V meas = 30(20)°, 2 V calc = 40°. The IR spectrum is given. The 11B MAS NMR spectrum shows the presence of BO4 in the absence of BO3 groups. The chemical composition of kasatkinite (wt %; electron microprobe, H2O by gas chromatography) is as follows: 0.23 Na2O, 0.57 K2O, 28.94 CaO, 16.79 BaO, 11.57 B2O3, 0.28 Al2O3, 31.63 SiO2, 0.05 F, 9.05 H2O, -0.02 -O=F2; the total is 99.09. The empirical formula (calculated on the basis of O + F = 41 apfu, taking into account the TGA data) is: Na0.11K0.18Ba1.66Ca7.84B5.05Al0.08Si8.00O31.80(OH)3.06F0.04 · 6.10H2O. Kasatkinite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c, P2/ c, or Pc; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 5.745(3), b = 7.238(2), c = 20.79 (1) Å, β = 90.82(5)°, V = 864(1) Å3, Z = 1. The strongest reflections ( d Å- I[ hkl]) in the X-ray powder diffractions pattern are: 5.89-24[012], 3.48-2.1[006], 3.36-24[114]; 3.009-100[, 121, ], 2

  10. Sol-gel synthesis of K{sub 3}InF{sub 6} and structural characterization of K{sub 2}InC{sub 10}O{sub 10}H{sub 6}F{sub 9}, K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 14}H{sub 4}F{sub 18} and K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 12}F{sub 18}

    SciTech Connect

    Labeguerie, Jessica; Gredin, Patrick; Marrot, Jerome

    2005-10-15

    K{sub 3}InF{sub 6} is synthesized by a sol-gel route starting from indium and potassium acetates dissolved in isopropanol in the stoichiometry 1:3, with trifluoroacetic acid as fluorinating agent. The crystal structures of the organic precursors were solved by X-ray diffraction methods on single crystals. Three organic compounds were isolated and identified: K{sub 2}InC{sub 10}O{sub 10}H{sub 6}F{sub 9}, K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 14}H{sub 4}F{sub 18} and K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 12}F{sub 18}. The first one, deficient in potassium in comparison with the initial stoichiometry, is unstable. In its crystal structure, acetate as well as trifluoroacetate anions are coordinated to the indium atom. Themore » two other precursors are obtained, respectively, by quick and slow evaporation of the solution. They correspond to the final organic compounds, which give K{sub 3}InF{sub 6} by decomposition at high temperature. The crystal structure of K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 14}H{sub 4}F{sub 18} is characterized by complex anions [In(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 4}(OH{sub x}){sub 2}]{sup (5-2x)-} and isolated [CF{sub 3}COOH{sub 2-x}]{sup (x-1)-} molecules with x=2 or 1, surrounded by K{sup +} cations. The crystal structure of K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 12}F{sub 18} is only constituted by complex anions [In(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}]{sup 3-} and K{sup +} cations. For all these compounds, potassium cations ensure only the electroneutrality of the structure. IR spectra of K{sub 2}InC{sub 10}O{sub 10}H{sub 6}F{sub 9} and K{sub 3}InC{sub 12}O{sub 12}F{sub 18} were also performed at room temperature on pulverized crystals.« less

  11. Absence of PDGF-induced, PKC-independent c-fos expression in a chemically transformed C3H/10T1/2 cell clone.

    PubMed

    Vassbotn, F S; Skar, R; Holmsen, H; Lillehaug, J R

    1992-09-01

    The effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on c-fos mRNA transcription was studied in the immortalized mouse embryo fibroblast C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 (10T1/2) cells and the chemically transformed, tumorigenic subclone C3H/10T1/2 Cl 16 (Cl 16). In the 10T1/2 cells as well as the Cl 16 subclone, the dose-dependent PDGF stimulation of c-fos mRNA synthesis was similar in both logarithmically growing and confluent cultures. c-fos mRNA was induced severalfold by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in both 10T1/2 and Cl 16. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by TPA pretreatment inhibited PDGF-stimulated c-fos mRNA expression in Cl 16 cells but did not affect this induction in the 10T1/2 cells. This inhibition was not a general phenomenon of 3-methylcholanthrene-mediated transformation of 10T1/2 cells since experiments with another transformed 10T1/2 cell clone, C3H/10T1/2 TPA 482, gave qualitatively the same results as the 10T1/2 cells. Receptor binding experiments showed that the nontransformed and transformed cells had a comparable number of PDGF receptors, 1.3 x 10(5) and 0.7 x 10(5) receptors per cell, respectively. Furthermore, cAMP-induced c-fos expression induced by forskolin is formerly shown to be independent of PKC down-regulation. In our experiments, forskolin induced c-fos expression in both clones. However, PKC down-regulation inhibited the forskolin-induced c-fos expression in Cl 16 cells. This apparently demonstrates cross talk between PKC and PKA in the c-fos induction pathway. The present results provide evidence for an impaired mechanism for activating c-fos expression through PKC-independent, PDGF-induced signal transduction in the chemically transformed Cl 16 fibroblasts compared to that in nontransformed 10T1/2 cells.

  12. Energetics of CO2 and H2O adsorption on zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, Douglas; Ushakov, Sergey V; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-08-05

    Adsorption of H2O and CO2 on zinc oxide surfaces was studied by gas adsorption calorimetry on nanocrystalline samples prepared by laser evaporation in oxygen to minimize surface impurities and degassed at 450 °C. Differential enthalpies of H2O and CO2 chemisorption are in the range -150 ±10 kJ/mol and -110 ±10 kJ/mol up to a coverage of 2 molecules per nm(2). Integral enthalpy of chemisorption for H2O is -96.8 ±2.5 kJ/mol at 5.6 H2O/nm(2) when enthalpy of water condensation is reached, and for CO2 is -96.6 ±2.5 kJ/mol at 2.6 CO2/nm(2) when adsorption ceases. These values are consistent with those reported for ZnO prepared by other methods after similar degas conditions. The similar energetics suggests possible competition of CO2 and H2O for binding to ZnO surfaces. Exposure of bulk and nanocrystalline ZnO with preadsorbed CO2 to water vapor results in partial displacement of CO2 by H2O. In contrast, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) indicates that a small fraction of CO2 is retained on ZnO surfaces up to 800 °C, under conditions where all H2O is desorbed, with adsorption energies near -200 kJ/mol. Although molecular mechanisms of adsorption were not studied, the thermodynamic data are consistent with dissociative adsorption of H2O at low coverage and with several different modes of CO2 binding.

  13. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2- 11C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [ 11C]cyanation and RANEY® Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization

    DOE PAGES

    So Jeong Lee; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; ...

    2015-09-21

    We developed a rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [ 11C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (2), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide (1) was evaluated for nucleophilic [ 11C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1- 11C]acetonitrile ([ 11C]-2) while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1- 11C]propanenitrile ([ 11C]-3). Next, a Raney Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2- 11C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening ofmore » basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required to overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide (1) over [ 11C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the Raney Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2- 11C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 ± 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18 – 24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was > 98% and specific activity was 176 ± 24.8 GBq/μmol (n = 5, ranging from 141 – 204 GBq/μmol). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50 – 55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment.« less

  14. An efficient and practical synthesis of [2- 11C]indole via superfast nucleophilic [ 11C]cyanation and RANEY® Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization

    SciTech Connect

    So Jeong Lee; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David

    We developed a rapid method for the synthesis of carbon-11 radiolabeled indole using a sub-nanomolar quantity of no-carrier-added [ 11C]cyanide as radio-precursor. Based upon a reported synthesis of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetonitrile (2), a highly reactive substrate 2-nitrobenzyl bromide (1) was evaluated for nucleophilic [ 11C]cyanation. Additionally, related reaction conditions were explored with the goal of obtaining of highly reactive 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-[1- 11C]acetonitrile ([ 11C]-2) while inhibiting its rapid conversion to 2,3-bis(2-nitrophenyl)-[1- 11C]propanenitrile ([ 11C]-3). Next, a Raney Nickel catalyzed reductive cyclization method was utilized for synthesizing the desired [2- 11C]indole with hydrazinium monoformate as the active reducing agent. Extensive and iterative screening ofmore » basicity, temperature and stoichiometry was required to overcome the large stoichiometry bias that favored 2-nitrobenzylbromide (1) over [ 11C]cyanide, which both caused further alkylation of the desired nitrile and poisoned the Raney Nickel catalyst. The result is an efficient two-step, streamlined method to reliably synthesize [2- 11C]indole with an entire radiochemical yield of 21 ± 2.2% (n = 5, ranging from 18 – 24%). The radiochemical purity of the final product was > 98% and specific activity was 176 ± 24.8 GBq/μmol (n = 5, ranging from 141 – 204 GBq/μmol). The total radiosynthesis time including product purification by semi-preparative HPLC was 50 – 55 min from end of cyclotron bombardment.« less

  15. 4-Methyl-N-(1-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)benzene-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Chicha, Hakima; Oulemda, Bassou; Rakib, El Mostapha; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3O2S, the fused ring system is close to planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.030 (2) Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 48.84 (9)° with the benzene ring belonging to the methyl-benzene-sulfonamide moiety. In the crystal, mol-ecules are -connected through N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O contacts, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001).

  16. The reaction of O(1 D) with H2O and the reaction of OH with C3H6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The N2O was photolyzed at 2139 A to produce O(1 D) atoms in the presence of H2O and CO. The O(1 D) atoms react with H2O to produce HO radicals, as measured by CO2 production from the reaction of OH with CO. The relative rate constant for O(1 D) removal by H2O compared to that by N2O is 2.1. In the presence of C3H6, the OH can be removed by reaction with either CO or C3H6.

  17. Quantification of Hemoglobin and White Blood Cell DNA Adducts of the Tobacco Carcinogens 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-Aminobiphenyl Formed in Humans by Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tingting; Bellamri, Medjda; Ming, Xun; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C; Turesky, Robert J

    2017-06-19

    Aromatic amines covalently bound to hemoglobin (Hb) as sulfinamide adducts at the cysteine 93 residue of the Hb β chain have served as biomarkers to assess exposure to this class of human carcinogens for the past 30 years. In this study, we report that 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), an abundant carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in tobacco smoke and charred cooked meats, also reacts with Hb to form a sulfinamide adduct. A novel nanoflow liquid chromatography/ion trap multistage mass spectrometry (nanoLC-IT/MS 3 ) method was established to assess exposure to AαC and the tobacco-associated bladder carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) through their Hb sulfinamide adducts. Following mild acid hydrolysis of Hb in vitro, the liberated AαC and 4-ABP were derivatized with acetic anhydride to form the N-acetylated amines, which were measured by nanoLC-IT/MS 3 . The limits of quantification (LOQ) for AαC- and 4-ABP-Hb sulfinamide adducts were ≤7.1 pg/g Hb. In a pilot study, the mean level of Hb sulfinamide adducts of AαC and 4-ABP were, respectively, 3.4-fold and 4.8-fold higher in smokers (>20 cigarettes/day) than nonsmokers. In contrast, the major DNA adducts of 4-ABP, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl, and AαC, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, were below the LOQ (3 adducts per 10 9 bases) in white blood cell (WBC) DNA of smokers and nonsmokers. These findings reaffirm that tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to AαC. Hb sulfinamide adducts are suitable biomarkers to biomonitor 4-ABP and AαC; however, neither carcinogen binds to DNA in WBC, even in heavy smokers, at levels sufficient for biomonitoring.

  18. A pure inorganic 1D chain based on {Mo8O28} clusters and Mn(II) ions: [Mn(H2O)2Mo8O28 ] n 6 n -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Lizhou; Yu, Chengxin; Dong, Xinbo; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin

    2016-01-01

    A new pure inorganic polymer, (NH4)6n[Mn(H2O)2Mo8O28)]n(H2O)2n(1), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectrum, UV-vis absorption spectra, TG-DSC and electrochemical studies. In 1, [Mo8O28]8- anions act as tetradentate ligands and are alternately linked by Mn(H2O)2 2 + ions into a one-dimensional chain structure. It is interesting that 1 represents the first example of pure inorganic-inorganic hybrid based on octamolybdate and transition metal ions. Moreover, it was indicated that 1 had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde with H2O2.

  19. Spectral Dissimilarities Between AZULENE(C10H_8) and NAPHTHALENE(C10H_8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Masaaki

    2010-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great interest in the molecular structure and excited-state dynamics, and there have been extensive spectroscopic and theoretical studies. Azulene and naphthalene are bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of odd- and even-membered rings, respectively. First, they were discriminated by a theory of mutual polarizability. Naphthalene is an alternant hydrocarbon, but azulene is not. In contrast, spectral resemblances were found by John Platt et al., and were explained by their simple model of molecular orbital. However, the absorption and emission feature of the S_1 and S_2 states is completely different each other. We have investigated each rotational and vibrational structures, and radiative and nonradiative processes by means of high-resolution spectroscopy and ab initio calculation. The equilibrium structures in the S_0, S_1, and S_2 states are similar. This small structural change upon electronic excitation is common to PAH molecules composed of six-membered rings. The fluorescence quantum yield is high because radiationless transitions such as intersystem crossing (ISC) to the triplet state and internal conversion (IC) to the S_0 state are very slow in the S_1 state. In contrast, the S_1 state of azulene is nonfluorescent and the S_1 ← S_0 excitation energy is abnormally small. We consider that the potential energy curve of a b_2 vibration is shallower in the S_1 state, and therefore the vibronic coupling with the S_0 state is strong to enhance the IC process remarkably. This situation is, of course, due to its peculiar characteristics of odd-membered rings and molecular symmetry, which are completely different from the naphthalene molecule. C. A. Coulson and H. C. Longuet-Higgins, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 191, 39 (1947) D. E. Mann, J. R. Platt, and H. B. Klevens, J. Chem. Phys., 17, 481 (1949) Y. Semba, M. Baba, et al., J. Chem. Phys., 131, 024303 (2009) K. Yoshida, M. Baba, et al., J. Chem. Phys., 130, 194304 (2009)

  20. The cocrystal rac-1-[(N,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonamido)methyl]-2-(diphenylphosphoryl)ferrocene-rac-1-[(N,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonamido)methyl]-2-(diphenylphosphanyl)ferrocene (0.45/0.55).

    PubMed

    Wei, Muh Mei; Audin, Catherine; Manoury, Eric; Deydier, Eric; Daran, Jean Claude

    2014-03-01

    As part of our interest in the synthesis and catalytic applications of chiral (diphenylphosphanyl)ferrocene ligands, we designed a number of P,N-containing ligands for use in asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH). During the synthetic procedure to obtain rac-1-[(N,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonamido)methyl]-2-(diphenylphosphanyl)ferrocene, the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C26H25NO2PS)]0.55 · [Fe(C5H5)(C26H25NO3PS)]0.45, was obtained as a by-product. It is composed of a ferrocene group disubstituted by a partially oxidized diphenylphosphanyl group, as confirmed by (31)P NMR analysis, and an (N,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonamido)methyl substituent. Owing to the partially oxidized diphenylphosphanyl group, it is best to view the crystal as being composed of a mixture of non-oxidized and oxidized phosphane, so it can be regarded as a cocrystal. It is also a racemate. To the best of our knowledge, the P=O distance [1.344 (4) Å] is the shortest observed for related (diphenylphosphoryl)ferrocene compounds. The packing is stabilized by weak C-H...O interactions, forming R2(2)(10) hydrogen-bonding motifs, which build up a chain along the c axis.

  1. KO(t)Bu-Mediated Coupling of Indoles and [60]Fullerene: Transition-Metal-Free and General Synthesis of 1,2-(3-Indole)(hydro)[60]fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Haj Elhussin, Imad Elddin; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2015-11-06

    Direct coupling of indoles with C60 has been achieved for the first time. Transition-metal-free KO(t)Bu-mediated reaction of indoles to [60]fullerene has been developed as a practical and efficient method for the synthesis of various 1,2-(3-indole)(hydro)[60]fullerenes that are otherwise difficult to direct synthesize in an efficient and selective manner. This methodology tolerates sensitive functionalities such as chloro, ester, and nitro on indole and builds molecular complexity rapidly, with most reactions reaching completion in <1 h. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed to explain the high regioselectivity at the 3-position of the indoles and the formation of 1,2-(3-indole)(hydro)[60]fullerenes.

  2. Total reaction cross sections of electronic state-specified transition metal cations: V + +C2H6, C3H8, and C2H4 at 0.2 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Lary; Hanton, Scott D.; Weisshaar, James C.

    1990-03-01

    We describe a crossed beam experiment which measures total cross sections for reaction of electronic state-specified V+ with small hydrocarbons at well-defined collision energy E=0.2 eV. The V+ state distribution created at each ionizing wavelength is directly measured by angle-integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (preceding paper). Reactant and product ions are collected and analyzed by pulsed time-of-flight mass spectrometry following a reaction time of 6 μs. Tests of the performance of the apparatus are described in detail. Our experiment defines the reactant V+ electronic state distribution and the collision energy much more precisely than previous work. For all three hydrocarbons C2H6, C3H8, and C2H4, H2 elimination products dominate at 0.2 eV. We observe a dramatic dependence of cross section on the V+ electronic term. The second excited term 3d34s(3F) is more reactive than either lower energy quintet term 3d4(5D) or 3d34s(5F) by a factor of ≥270, 80, and ≥6 for the C2H6, C3H8, and C2H4 reactions, respectively. The 3d34s(3F) reaction cross sections at 0.2 eV are 20±11 Å2, 37±19 Å2, and 2.7±1.6 Å2, respectively, compared with Langevin cross sections of ˜80 Å2. For the C2H6 and C3H8 reactions, cross sections are independent of initial spin-orbit level J within the 3F term to the limits of our accuracy. Comparison with earlier work by Armentrout and co-workers shows that electronic excitation to d3s(3F) is far more effective at promoting H2 elimination than addition of the same total kinetic energy to reactants. Electron spin is clearly a key determinant of V+ reactivity with small hydrocarbons. We suggest that triplet V+ reacts much more efficiently than quintet V+ because of its ability to conserve total electron spin along paths to insertion in a C-H bond of the hydrocarbon.

  3. Thiocarbonyl induced heterocumulenic Pauson-Khand type reaction: expedient synthetic method for thieno[2,3-b]indol-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takao; Nihei, Hiroshi; Otani, Takashi; Suyama, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Naoki; Saito, Masatoshi

    2008-01-14

    The first examples of C[double bond, length as m-dash]S induced Pauson-Khand type reactions are described; 2-alkynylphenyl isothiocyanates were converted to 3-substituted-2H-thieno[2,3-b]indol-2-ones in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of Mo(CO)(6) or Co(2)(CO)(8), or a catalytic amount of Rh catalyst under an atmospheric pressure of carbon monoxide.

  4. 2-[3-Furyl(hydroxy)methyl]-2,3-dimethylcyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    García, Esther; Mendoza, Virgilio; Guzmán, José Agustín; Maldonado Graniel, Luis Angel; Hernández-Ortega, Simón

    2002-06-01

    Contribution No. 1750 of the Instituto de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico. In the molecule of the title compound, C(13)H(18)O(3), there is a syn relationship between the two vicinal methyl groups. The six-membered ring adopts a chair conformation, with one equatorial and two axial groups, and the furyl group is almost parallel to the ketone group. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds [O[bond]H...O[double bond]C 2.814 (3) A] form chains along [100].

  5. Vigrishinite, Zn2Ti4 - x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bryzgalov, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral vigrishinite, epistolite-group member and first layer titanosilicate with species-defining Zn, was found at Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, in the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It occurs in a hydrothermally altered peralkaline pegmatite and is associated with microcline, ussingite, aegirine, analcime, gmelinite-Na, and chabazite-Ca. Vigrishinite forms rectangular or irregularly shaped lamellae up to 0.05 × 2 × 3 cm flattened on [001]. They are typically slightly split and show blocky character. The mineral is translucent to transparent and pale pink, yellowish-pinkish or colorless. The luster is vitreous. The Mohs' hardness is 2.5-3. Vigrishinite is brittle. Cleavage is {001} perfect. D meas = 3.03(2), D calc = 2.97 g/cm3. The mineral is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.755(5), β = 1.82(1), γ = 1.835(8), 2 V meas = 45(10)°, 2 V calc = 50°. IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition (wt %; average of 9 point analyses, H2O is determined by modified Penfield method) is as follows: 0.98 Na2O, 0.30 K2O, 0.56 CaO, 0.05 SrO, 0.44 BaO, 0.36 MgO, 2.09 MnO, 14.39 ZnO, 2.00 Fe2O3, 0.36 Al2O3, 32.29 SiO2, 29.14 TiO2, 2.08 ZrO2, 7.34 Nb2O5, 0.46 F, 9.1 H2O, -0.19 O=F2, total is 101.75. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al = 4 is: H7.42(Zn1.30Na0.23Mn0.22Ca0.07Mg0.07K0.05Ba0.02)Σ1.96(Ti2.68Nb0.41Fe{0.18/3+}Zr0.12)Σ3.39(Si3.95Al0.05)Σ4 20.31F0.18. The simplified formula is: Zn2Ti4- x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8 ( x < 1). Vigrishinite is triclinic, space group P , a = 8.743(9), b = 8.698(9), c = 11.581(11)Å, α = 91.54(8)°, β = 98.29(8)°, γ = 105.65(8)°, V = 837.2(1.5) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å, - I[ hkl]) are: 11.7-67[001], 8.27-50[100], 6.94-43[01, 10], 5.73-54[11, 002], 4.17-65[020, 2, 200], and 2.861-100[30, 22, 004, 11]. The crystal structure model was obtained on a single crystal, R = 0.171. Vigrishinite and murmanite are close in the structure of the TiSiO motif, but

  6. Expanding the remarkable structural diversity of uranyl tellurites: hydrothermal preparation and structures of K[UO(2)Te(2)O(5)(OH)], Tl(3)[(UO(2))(2)[Te(2)O(5)(OH)](Te(2)O(6))].2H(2)O, beta-Tl(2)[UO(2)(TeO(3))(2)], and Sr(3)[UO(2)(TeO(3))(2)](TeO(3))(2).

    PubMed

    Almond, Philip M; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2002-10-21

    The reactions of UO(2)(C(2)H(3)O(2))(2).2H(2)O with K(2)TeO(3).H(2)O, Na(2)TeO(3) and TlCl, or Na(2)TeO(3) and Sr(OH)(2).8H(2)O under mild hydrothermal conditions yield K[UO(2)Te(2)O(5)(OH)] (1), Tl(3)[(UO(2))(2)[Te(2)O(5)(OH)](Te(2)O(6))].2H(2)O (2) and beta-Tl(2)[UO(2)(TeO(3))(2)] (3), or Sr(3)[UO(2)(TeO(3))(2)](TeO(3))(2) (4), respectively. The structure of 1 consists of tetragonal bipyramidal U(VI) centers that are bound by terminal oxo groups and tellurite anions. These UO(6) units span between one-dimensional chains of corner-sharing, square pyramidal TeO(4) polyhedra to create two-dimensional layers. Alternating corner-shared oxygen atoms in the tellurium oxide chains are protonated to create short/long bonding patterns. The one-dimensional chains of corner-sharing TeO(4) units found in 1 are also present in 2. However, in 2 there are two distinct chains present, one where alternating corner-shared oxygen atoms are protonated, and one where the chains are unprotonated. The uranyl moieties in 2 are bound by five oxygen atoms from the tellurite chains to create seven-coordinate pentagonal bipyramidal U(VI). The structures of 3 and 4 both contain one-dimensional [UO(2)(TeO(3))(2)](2-) chains constructed from tetragonal bipyramidal U(VI) centers that are bridged by tellurite anions. The chains differ between 3 and 4 in that all of the pyramidal tellurite anions in 3 have the same orientation, whereas the tellurite anions in 4 have opposite orientations on each side of the chain. In 4, there are also additional isolated TeO(3)(2-) anions present. Crystallographic data: 1, orthorhombic, space group Cmcm, a = 7.9993(5) A, b = 8.7416(6) A, c = 11.4413(8) A, Z = 4; 2, orthorhombic, space group Pbam, a = 10.0623(8) A, b = 23.024(2) A, c = 7.9389(6) A, Z = 4; 3, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 5.4766(4) A, b = 8.2348(6) A, c = 20.849(3) A, beta = 92.329(1) degrees, Z = 4; 4, monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 20.546(1) A, b = 5.6571(3) A, c = 13.0979(8) A, beta

  7. Bulk Kosterlitz-Thouless Type Molecular Superconductor β″-(BEDT-TTF)2[(H2O)(NH4)2Cr(C2O4)3]·18-crown-6.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lee; Lopez, Jordan R; Akutsu, Hiroki; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Imajo, Shusaku

    2017-11-20

    A new molecular superconductor, β″-(BEDT-TTF) 2 [(H 2 O)(NH 4 ) 2 Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 ]·18-crown-6, has been synthesized from the organic donor molecule BEDT-TTF with the anion Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- . The crystal structure consists of conducting organic layers of BEDT-TTF molecules which adopt the β″ packing motif (layer A), layers of NH 4 + and Λ-Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- (layer B), layers of (H 2 O)(NH 4 )18-crown-6 (layer C), and layers of NH 4 + and Δ-Cr(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- (layer D) which produce a superstructure with a repeating pattern of ABCDABCDA. As a result of this packing arrangement, this is the 2D superconductor with the widest gap between conducting layers where only a single donor packing motif is present (β″). Superconducting critical temperatures at ambient pressure observed by electrical transport and magnetic measurements are 4.0-4.9 and 2.5 K, respectively. The strong 2D nature of this system, the broad transition to T zero at 1.8K, and the transition of α of V ∝ I α from 1 to 3 on I-V curves strongly suggest that the superconducting transition is very close to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. The magnetic field dependence of the superconducting critical temperature parallel to the conducting plane gives an upper critical field μ 0 H c2∥ > 8 T, which is over the calculated Pauli-Clogston limit for this material.

  8. Detailed Analysis of Near-IR Water (H2O) Emission in Comet C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) with the GIANO/TNG Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faggi, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Brucato, J.R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1-2.5 micron region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [Q(H2O), (3.11+/- 0.14) x 10(exp 29)/s] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H2O. The production rates of ortho-water [Q(H2O)ORTHO, (2.33+/- 0.11) x 10(exp 29)/s] and para-water [Q(H2O)PARA, (0.87+/-0.21) x 10(exp 29)/s] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70+/- 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  9. Obtaining a Low and Wide Atomic Layer Deposition Window (150-275 °C) for In2 O3 Films Using an InIII Amidinate and H2 O.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Bok; Jayaraman, Ashwin; Chua, Danny; Davis, Luke M; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Zhao, Xizhu; Lee, Sunghwan; Gordon, Roy G

    2018-06-05

    Indium oxide is a major component of many technologically important thin films, most notably the transparent conductor indium tin oxide (ITO). Despite being pyrophoric, homoleptic indium(III) alkyls do not allow atomic layer deposition (ALD) of In 2 O 3 using water as a co-precursor at substrate temperatures below 200 °C. Several alternative indium sources have been developed, but none allows ALD at lower temperatures except in the presence of oxidants such as O 2 or O 3 , which are not compatible with some substrates or alloying processes. We have synthesized a new indium precursor, tris(N,N'-diisopropylformamidinato)indium(III), compound 1, which allows ALD of pure, carbon-free In 2 O 3 films using H 2 O as the only co-reactant, on substrates in the temperature range 150-275 °C. In contrast, replacing just the H of the anionic iPrNC(H)NiPr ligand with a methyl group (affording the known tris(N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinato)indium(III), compound 2) results in a considerably higher and narrower ALD window in the analogous reaction with H 2 O (225-300 °C). Kinetic studies demonstrate that a higher rate of surface reactions in both parts of the ALD cycle gives rise to this difference in the ALD windows. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Ph(3)PCH(2)Ph](2)[Zn(3)(tp)(3)Cl(2)] and Ni(3)(tma)(2)(H(2)O)(8): two unusual claylike frameworks of metal-polycarboxylate coordination polymers (tp = terephthalate, tma = trimesate).

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Dong; Dai, Jing-Cao; Lian, Yun-Xia; Wu, Wen-Shi; Lin, Jian-Ming; Hu, Sheng-Min; Sheng, Tian-Lu; Fu, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Xin-Tao

    2007-09-17

    Two new compounds, [Ph3PCH2Ph]2[Zn3(tp)3Cl2] (1) and Ni3(tma)2(H2O)8 (2) (tp = terephthalate, tma = trimesate), are metal-polycarboxylate coordination polymers prepared by similar hydrothermal synthesis techniques. X-ray single-crystal structural analysis shows that both compounds crystallize in the 2D claylike lamellar architectures, in which 1 possesses the interlayer [Ph3PCH2Ph]+ exchangeable cation and has been confirmed by PXRD patterns. 1 (C74H56Cl2O12P2Zn3) belongs to monoclinic P21/c, Z = 2 (a = 18.956(1) A, b = 10.2697(5) A, c = 17.067(1) A, beta = 99.486(4) degrees ). 2 (C18H22O20Ni3) is attributed to triclinic P, Z = 1 (a = 6.6643(8) A, b = 9.622(1) A, c = 10.089(1) A, alpha = 112.675(2) degrees , beta = 94.007(1) degrees, gamma = 106.411(2) degrees ). Linear metal trinuclear clusters bridged by rigid linear tp ligands for 1 and trigonal tma ligands for 2 give rise to a novel 2D 6-linked (3,6) topological anionic network in 1 and an interesting 2D 3,6-linked molybdenite topological neutral network in 2, respectively. Both compounds exhibit intense fluorescent emission bands at 410 nm (lambda(exc) = 355 nm) for 1 and 398 nm (lambda(exc) = 300 nm) for 2 in the solid state at room temperature.

  11. Stability of methane in reduced C-O-H fluid at 6.3 GPa and 1300-1400°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, A. G.; Tomilenko, A. A.; Bul'bak, T. A.; Palyanova, G. A.; Palyanov, Yu. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2017-06-01

    The composition of a reduced C-O-H fluid was studied by the method of chromatography-mass spectrometry under the conditions of 6.3 GPa, 1300-1400°C, and fO2 typical of the base of the subcratonic lithosphere. Fluids containing water (4.4-96.3 rel. %), methane (37.6-0.06 rel. %), and variable concentrations of ethane, propane, and butane were obtained in experiments. With increasing fO2, the proportion of the CH4/C2H6 peak areas on chromatograms first increases and then decreases, whereas the CH4/C3H8 and CH4/C4H10 ratios continually decrease. The new data show that ethane and heavier HCs may be more stable to oxidation, than previously thought. Therefore, when reduced fluids pass the "redox-front," carbon is not completely released from the fluid and may be involved in diamond formation.

  12. Solvent-Dependent Delamination, Restacking, and Ferroelectric Behavior in a New Charge-Separated Layered Compound: [NH4 ][Ag3 (C9 H5 NO4 S)2 (C13 H14 N2 )2 ]⋅8H2 O.

    PubMed

    Sushrutha, Sringeri Ramesh; Mohana, Shivanna; Pal, Somnath; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2017-01-03

    A new anionic coordination polymer, [NH 4 ][Ag 3 (C 9 H 5 NO 4 S) 2 (C 13 H 14 N 2 ) 2 ]⋅8H 2 O, with a two-dimensional structure, has been synthesized by a reaction between silver nitrate, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS), and 4,4'-trimethylene dipyridine (TMDP). The compound stabilizes in a noncentrosymmetric space group, and the lattice water molecules and the charge-compensating [NH 4 ] + group occupy the inter-lamellar spaces. The lattice water molecules can be fully removed and reinserted, which is accompanied by a crystalline-amorphous-crystalline transformation. This transformation resembles the collapse/delamination and restacking of the layers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of delamination and restacking in an inorganic coordination polymer that contains silver. The presence of a natural dipole (the anionic framework and cationic ammonium ions) along with the noncentrosymmetric space group gives rise to the room-temperature ferroelectric behavior of the compound. The ferroelectric behavior is also water-dependent and exhibits a ferroelectric-paraelectric transformation. The temperature-dependent dielectric measurements indicate that the ferroelectric/ paraelectric transformation occurs at 320 K. This transformation has also been investigated by using in-situ IR spectroscopy and PXRD studies. The second-harmonic generation (SHG) study indicated values that are comparable to some of the known SHG solids, such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and urea. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. X-ray diffraction analysis of 4- and 4'-substituted C n H2 n + 1O-C6H3(OH)-CH=N-C6H4-C m H2 m + 1 ( n/ m = 2/1 and 3/4) salicylideneanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'mina, L. G.; Navasardyan, M. A.; Mikhailov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    X-ray diffraction study of two crystalline modifications of C2H5O-C6H3(OH)-CH=N-C6H4-CH3 ( 1a, sp. gr. P21/ n, and 1b, sp. gr. C2/c) and C3H7O-C6H3(OH)-CH=N-C6H4-C4H9 ( 2, sp. gr. P212121) has been performed. The 1a crystal structure contains two independent molecules. The molecules are conformationally nonrigid with respect to the mutual rotation of benzene rings; the dihedral angles between their planes are 29.19° and 26.00° in the independent molecules of 1a, 18.72° in the molecule of 1b, and 50.35° in the molecule of 2. The crystal packing of the compounds is discussed.

  14. On the Formation of the C2H6O Isomers Ethanol (C2H5OH) and Dimethyl Ether (CH3OCH3) in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantini, Alexandre; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2017-06-01

    The structural isomers ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) were detected in several low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star-forming regions, including Sgr B2, Orion, and W33A, with the relative abundance ratios of ethanol/dimethyl ether varying from about 0.03 to 3.4. Until now, no experimental data regarding the formation mechanisms and branching ratios of these two species in laboratory simulation experiments could be provided. Here, we exploit tunable photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) to detect and analyze the production of complex organic molecules (COMs) resulting from the exposure of water/methane (H2O/CH4) ices to energetic electrons. The main goal is to understand the formation mechanisms in star-forming regions of two C2H6O isomers: ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3). The results show that the experimental branching ratios favor the synthesis of ethanol versus dimethyl ether (31 ± 11:1). This finding diverges from the abundances observed toward most star-forming regions, suggesting that production routes on interstellar grains to form dimethyl ether might be missing; alternatively, ethanol can be overproduced in the present simulation experiments, such as via radical-radical recombination pathways involving ethyl and hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the PI-ReTOF-MS data suggest the formation of methylacetylene (C3H4), ketene (CH2CO), propene (C3H6), vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), and methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH), in addition to ethane (C2H6), methanol (CH3OH), and CO2 detected from infrared spectroscopy. The yield of all the confirmed species is also determined.

  15. Energetics of the O-H bond and of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in HOC6H4C(O)Y (Y = H, CH3, CH2CH=CH2, C[triple bond]CH, CH2F, NH2, NHCH3, NO2, OH, OCH3, OCN, CN, F, Cl, SH, and SCH3) compounds.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Carlos E S; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E

    2008-10-09

    The energetics of the phenolic O-H bond in a series of 2- and 4-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y (Y = H, CH3, CH 2CH=CH2, C[triple bond]CH, CH2F, NH2, NHCH 3, NO2, OH, OCH3, OCN, CN, F, Cl, SH, and SCH3) compounds and of the intramolecular O...H hydrogen bond in 2-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y, was investigated by using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2HBA), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HBA), 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (2HAP), 2-hydroxybenzamide (2HBM), and 4-hydroxybenzamide (4HBM), at 298.15 K, were determined by micro- or macrocombustion calorimetry. The corresponding enthalpies of vaporization or sublimation were also measured by Calvet drop-calorimetry and Knudsen effusion measurements. The combination of the obtained experimental data led to Delta f H m (o)(2HBA, g) = -238.3 +/- 2.5 kJ.mol (-1), DeltafHm(o)(4HBA, g) = -220.3 +/- 2.0 kJ.mol(-1), Delta f H m (o)(2HAP, g) = -291.8 +/- 2.1 kJ.mol(-1), DeltafHm(o)(2HBM, g) = -304.8 +/- 1.5 kJ.mol (-1), and DeltafHm(o) (4HBM, g) = -278.4 +/- 2.4 kJ.mol (-1). These values, were used to assess the predictions of the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p), B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ, B3P86/6-31G(d,p), B3P86/6-311+G(d,p), B3P86/aug-cc-pVDZ, and CBS-QB3 methods, for the enthalpies of a series of isodesmic gas phase reactions. In general, the CBS-QB3 method was able to reproduce the experimental enthalpies of reaction within their uncertainties. The B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method, with a slightly poorer accuracy than the CBS-QB3 approach, achieved the best performance of the tested DFT models. It was further used to analyze the trends of the intramolecular O...H hydrogen bond in 2-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y evaluated by the ortho-para method and to compare the energetics of the phenolic O-H bond in 2- and 4-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y compounds. It was concluded that the O-H bond "strength" is systematically larger for 2-hydroxybenzoyl than for the corresponding 4-hydroxybenzoyl isomers mainly due to the presence of

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of the molecular structure of 7-Methyl-3-[(3-methyl-3-mesityl-cyclobutyl]-5-phenyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-α]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Betül; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Çalışkan, Nezihe; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the title molecule, 7-Methyl-3-[(3-methyl-3-mesityl-cyclobutyl]-5-phenyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-α]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (C30H34N2O2S1), was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P21/c. with Z = 4, a = 14.1988(6), b = 19.0893(5), c = 10.1325(4) Å, V = 2674.56(17) A3. The optimized structure parameters of the studied molecule was determined theoretically using HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d) methods for ground state, and compared with previously reported experimental findings. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled and they are compared with experimental frequencies obtained by FT-IR spectra. The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) are also performed.

  17. N-(1-Allyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)-4-methyl-benzene-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Chicha, Hakima; Rakib, El Mostapha; Abderrafia, Hafid; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-11-30

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C17H17N3O2S, contains two independent mol-ecules linked by an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The mol-ecules show different conformations. In the first mol-ecule, the fused five- and six-membered ring system is almost perpendicular to the plane through the atoms forming the allyl group, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 85.1 (4)°. The dihedral angle with the methyl-benzene-sulfonamide group is 78.8 (1)°. On the other hand, in the second mol-ecule, the dihedral angles between the indazole plane and the allyl and methyl-benzene-sulfonamide groups are 80.3 (3) and 41.5 (1)°, respectively. In the crystal, mol-ecules are further linked by N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  18. Identification and analysis of a mercapturic acid conjugate of indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate in the urine of humans who consumed cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Pramod; Zarth, Adam T; Fujioka, Naomi; Fritz, Vincent A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2018-01-01

    Glucobrassicin, a quantitatively significant constituent of Brassica vegetables, gives rise to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer di-indolylmethane (DIM) when the vegetables are chewed. I3C and DIM have been extensively studied with respect to their anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the presumed intermediate isothiocyanate in their formation, indole-3-methyl isothiocyanate (IMITC), has to our knowledge never been observed, despite the fact that isothiocyanates derived from cruciferous vegetables are known to have anti-carcinogenic properties. Therefore, we investigated the formation and presence in human urine of IMITC by analyzing for its N-acetylcysteine conjugate, IMITC-NAC, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the biochemical pathways leading to formation of I3C and DIM upon consumption of vegetables rich in glucobrassicin. Standard IMITC-NAC was synthesized and its structure confirmed by NMR and MS. IMITC-NAC was identified in extracts of Brussels sprouts chopped in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. An LC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM method for analysis of IMITC-NAC, with [ 13 C, 15 N]IMITC-NAC as internal standard, was developed and validated. Then, ten subjects (7 females) consumed a salad of Brussels sprouts and cabbage (containing 100-500μmol glucobrassicin) once daily for 3days. Urine was collected at intervals up to 24h after vegetable consumption. Levels of IMITC-NAC in the urine of these 10 subjects ranged from 0.2 to 30.2pmol/mL urine. These results provide the first evidence for the presumed intermediacy of IMITC in the formation of I3C and DIM in humans who consumed Brussels sprouts and cabbage as a source of glucobrassicin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of neutron irradiation on the London penetration depth for polycrystalline Bi(1.8)Pb(0.3)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossandon, J. G.; Thompson, J. R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Christen, D. K.; Chakoumakos, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetization studies of polycrystalline Bi(1.8)Pb(0.3)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductor, prior to and after neutron irradiation, showed an increase in J(sub c) due to irradiation damage. Analysis of the equilibrium magnetization revealed significant increases in other more fundamental properties. In particular, the London penetration depth increased by approximately 15 percent following irradiation with 8 x 10(exp 16) neutrons/sq cm. Corresponding changes were observed in the upper critical magnetic field H(sub c2). However, the most fundamental thermodynamic property, the superconductive condensation energy F(sub c), was unaffected by the moderate level of neutron-induced damage.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polymer eight-coordinate (enH 2)[Y III(pdta)(H 2O)] 2·10H 2O as well as the interaction of [Y III(pdta)(H 2O)] 22- with BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bing-Mi; He, Ling-Ling; Xu, Shu-Kun

    2010-12-01

    The eight-coordinate (enH 2)[Y III(pdta)(H 2O)] 2·10H 2O (en = ethylenediamine and H 4pdta = 1,3-propylenediamine- N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid) was synthesized, meanwhile its molecular and crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technology. The interaction between [Y III(pdta)(H 2O)] 22- and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results indicate that [Y III(pdta)(H 2O)] 22- quenched effectively the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process with the binding constant ( Ka) of the order of 10 4. Meanwhile, the binding and damaging sites to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Results indicate that the hydrophobic environments around Trp and Tyr residues were all slightly changed. The thermodynamic parameters (Δ G = -25.20 kJ mol -1, Δ H = -26.57 kJ mol -1 and Δ S = -4.58 J mol -1 K -1) showed that the reaction was spontaneous and exothermic. What is more, both Δ H and Δ S were negative values indicated that hydrogen bond and Van der Waals forces were the predominant intermolecular forces between [Y III(pdta)(H 2O)] 22- and BSA.

  1. H2O Paradox and its Implications on H2O in Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youxue

    2017-04-01

    The concentration of H2O in the mantle of a planetary body plays a significant role in the viscosity and partial melting and hence the convection and evolution of the planetary body. Even though the composition of the primitive terrestrial mantle (PTM) is thought to be well known [1-2], the concentration of H2O in PTM remains paradoxial because different methods of estimation give different results [3]: Using H2O/Ce ratio in MORB and OIB and Ce concentration in PTM, the H2O concentration in PTM would be (300÷×1.5) ppm; using mass balance by adding surface water to the mantle [3-4], H2O concentration in PTM would be (900÷×1.3) ppm [2-3]. The inconsistency based on these two seemingly reliable methods is referred to as the H2O paradox [3]. For Moon, H2O contents in the primitive lunar mantle (PLM) estimated from H2O in plagioclase in lunar anorthosite and that from H2O/Ce ratio in melt inclusions are roughly consistent at ˜110 ppm [5-6] even though there is still debate about the volatile depletion trend [7]. One possible solution to the H2O paradox in PTM is to assume that early Earth experienced whole mantle degassing, which lowered the H2O/Ce ratio in the whole mantle but without depleting Ce in the mantle. The second possible solution is that some deep Earth reservoirs with high H2O/Ce ratios have not been sampled by MORB and OIB. Candidates include the transition zone [8] and the D" layer. The third possible solution is that ocean water only partially originated from mantle degassing, but partially from extraterrestrial sources such as comets [9-10]. At present, there is not enough information to determine which scenario is the answer to the H2O paradox. On the other hand, each scenario would have its own implications to H2O in PLM. If the first scenario applies to Moon, because degassed H2O or H2 would have escaped from the lunar surface, the very early lunar mantle could have much higher H2O [11] than that obtained using the H2O/Ce ratio method. The

  2. Protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on H2O2-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dou, Mengmeng; Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Duoduo; Huang, Chengzhi

    2017-10-01

    The preliminary studies have shown that Dendrobium officinale possessed therapeutic effects on hypertension and atherosclerosis. Studies also reported that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides showed antioxidant capabilities. However, little is known about its effects on myocardial cells under oxidative stress. The present study was designed to study the protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. MTT assay was carried out to determine the cell viability of H9c2 cells when pretreated with Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides. Fluorescent microscopy measurements were performed for evaluating the apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on the activities of antioxidative indicators (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels were analyzed. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, as determined by the MTT assay. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides decreased malondialdehyde levels, increased superoxide dismutase activities, and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS. Moreover, pretreatment with Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides also inhibited apoptosis and increased the MMP levels in H9c2 cells. These results suggested the protective effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in H9c2 cells. The results also indicated the anti-oxidative capability of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Suggestion for search of cyclopropenone (c-C3H2O) in a cosmic object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, M.; Chandra, S.

    2017-03-01

    Following Minimum Energy Principle, out of the three isomers of chemical formula C3H2O, the cyclopropenone (c-C3H2O) is the most stable and therefore may be the most abundant and easily detectable in a cosmic object. The cyclopropenone is detected in Sgr B2(N). Owing to half-spin of each of two hydrogen atoms, the c-C3H2O has two distinct ortho and para species. Using the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants along with the electric dipole moment, we have calculated energies of 100 rotational levels of each of the ortho and para species of c-C3H2O and the Einstein A-coefficients for radiative transitions between the levels. The values of Einstein A-coefficients along with the scaled values for collisional rate coefficients are used for solving a set of statistical equilibrium equations coupled with the equations of radiative transfer. Brightness temperatures of seven rotational transitions of each of the ortho and para species of c-C3H2O are investigated. Out of fourteen transitions, seven are found to show anomalous absorption and rest seven are found to show emission feature. We find that the transitions 110 -111 (1.544 GHz) may play important role in identification of cyclopropenone in a cosmic object.

  4. Fe3O4@SiO2@KIT-6 as an Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Synthesis of Novel Derivatives of 3,3'-((Aryl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)methylene)bis (1H-indole).

    PubMed

    Nikpassand, Mohammad; Fekri, Leila Zare; Nabatzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2017-01-01

    Korea advanced institute of science and technology cubic ordered mesoporous silica (KIT-6 mesoporous) silica coated magnetite nanoparticles, is an effective, ecobenign and recyclable catalyst for the electrophilic substitution reactions of indoles with various synthetized aldehydes to afford the corresponding novel diindolylmethanes in high yields and short reaction times. The catalyst can be recovered and reused without loss of activity. The work-up of the reaction consists of a simple separation, followed by concentration of the crude product and purification. The present methodology offers several advantages such as aqueous media, excellent yields, simple procedure, mild conditions and reduced environmental consequences. All of synthesized compounds are new and were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analyses. A mixture of synthetized pyrazolecarbaldehydes [24] (2.0mmol), indole (4.0mmol) and Fe3O4@SiO2@KIT-6 (0.04mmol) and H2O (10mL) were stirred at room temperature for the required reaction time according to Table 2. After completion of the reaction, the product was solved in CHCl3 (3×10 mL) and insoluble catalyst was removed by filtration in the presence of an efficient magnetic bar. The organic phase including the product and CHCl3 was evaporated under vacuum. The resulting crude material was purified by recrystallization from EtOH to afford pure products. As part of our on interest for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly procedures for the synthesis of heterocyclic and pharmaceutical compounds, an efficient, facile and aqueous media was introduced for the synthesis of novel derivatives of diindolylmethanes containing pyrazole moiety. A variety of synthetized aldehyde compounds reacted smoothly with indoles to produce diindolylmethanes under these reaction conditions. The electron deficiency and the nature of the substituents on the aromatic ring show some effects on this conversion. All the reactions were run with catalytic

  5. Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties of two salts with 2-((1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Tao; Lü, Lin-Rui; Tang, Gui-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Two new benzimidazole salts, namely, [H2IBI]2+ 2X (X = NO3- (1), ClO4- (2) [IBI = 2-((1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-benzimidazole], were grown through reacting IBI and two different inorganic acids by slow evaporation method, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, UV-Vis, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). In both compounds, a set of hydrogen bonds (C/Nsbnd H⋯O) can be clearly observed, through which a three-dimensional framework will be generated. The luminescent spectra show the emission peaks in compounds 1 and 2 are found at 375 and 371 nm, respectively. By comparison with the free IBI, the emission maxima of compounds 1 and 2 are obviously red-shifted about 67 and 63 nm, respectively.

  6. [{(Mo)Mo5O21(H2O)3(SO4)}12(VO)30(H2O)20]36-: a molecular quantum spin icosidodecahedron.

    PubMed

    Botar, Bogdan; Kögerler, Paul; Hill, Craig L

    2005-07-07

    Self-assembly of aqueous solutions of molybdate and vanadate under reducing, mildly acidic conditions results in a polyoxomolybdate-based {Mo72V30} cluster compound Na8K16(VO)(H2O)5[K10 subset{(Mo)Mo5O21(H2O)3(SO4)}12(VO)30(H2O)20].150H2O, 1, a quantum spin-based Keplerate structure.

  7. 8,9-dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene is a potent morphological cell-transforming agent in C3H10T(1)/(2)Cl8 mouse embryo fibroblasts in the absence of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, S; Davis, C; Padgett, W T; Adams, L; Yacopucci, M; King, L C

    2000-06-01

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9-dihydroxy-8, 9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def, p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3H10T(1)/(2)Cl8 (C3H10T(1)/(2)) fibroblasts was investigated. The C3H10T(1)/(2) mouse embryo morphological cell-transforming activities of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assayed using concentration-response studies. At concentrations of 33 nM and above both trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol and DB[a,l]P produced significant (and similar) numbers of type II and III foci per dish and numbers of dishes with type II and II foci. Concomitant cytotoxicity studies revealed a reduction in colony survival of approximately 25% up to 198 nM for both PAHs. DNA adducts of trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol and DB[a,l]P in C3H10T(1)/(2) cells were analyzed by a (32)P-post-labeling TLC/HPLC method. No adducts were observed in the DNA of C3H10T(1)/(2) cells treated with trans-DB[a, l]P-8,9-diol at concentrations that induced morphological cell transformation. Under the same exposure and chromatographic conditions, DNA adducts of deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine derived from the fjord region anti-DB[a,l]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide and syn-DB[a,l]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide were observed in the DNA of DB[a,l]P-treated cells. These results indicate that trans-DB[a,l]P-8, 9-diol has intrinsic genotoxic activity equal to that of DB[a,l]P, based on morphological cell transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The activity of trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol is apparently not associated with the formation of observable stable covalent DNA adducts. These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol may serve as an intermediate in the genotoxicity of DB[a,l]P.

  8. UV and VUV photolysis vs. UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2, treatment for removal of clofibric acid from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2011-07-01

    Clofibric acid (CA), a metabolite of lipid regulators, was investigated in ultra-pure water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent at 10 degrees C under UV, vacuum UV (VUV), UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes. The influences of NO3-, HCO3- and humic acid (HA) on CA photolysis in all processes were examined. The results showed that all the experimental data well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the apparent rate constant (k(ap)) and half-life time (t(1/2)) were calculated accordingly. Direct photolysis of CA through UV irradiation was the main process, compared with the indirect oxidation of CA due to the slight generation of hydroxyl radicals dissociated from water molecules under UV irradiation below 200 nm monochromatic wavelength emission. In contrast, indirect oxidation was the main CA degradation mechanism in UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2, and VUV/H2O2 was the most effective process for CA degradation. The addition of 20 mg L(-1) HA could significantly inhibit CA degradation, whereas, except for UV irradiation, the inhibitive effects of NO3- and HCO3- (1.0 x 10(-3) and 0.1 mol L(-1), respectively) on CA degradation were observed in all processes, and their adverse effects were more significant in UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes, particularly at the high NO3- and HCO3- concentrations. The degradation rate decreased 1.8-4.9-fold when these processes were applied to a real STP effluent owing to the presence of complex constituents. Of the four processes, VUV/H2O2 was the most effective, and the CA removal efficiency reached over 99% after 40 min in contrast to 80 min in both the UV/H2O2 and VUV processes and 240 min in the UV process.

  9. Blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentration in dystonia cases vs. controls.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Michalec, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) (HA) is a potent neurotoxin that has been linked to two neurological diseases, essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. Blood harmane concentrations [HA] are elevated in patients with both diseases. An important question is whether HA is specifically linked with these diseases or alternatively, is a non-specific marker of neurological illness. We assessed whether blood [HA] was elevated in patients with a third neurological disease, dystonia, comparing them to controls. Blood [HA] was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 104 dystonia cases and 107 controls. Mean log blood [HA] in dystonia cases was similar to that of controls (0.41±0.51g(-10)/ml vs. 0.38±0.61g(-10)/ml, t=0.42, p=0.68). In unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses, log blood [HA] was not associated with the outcome (diagnosis of dystonia vs. control): odds ratio (OR)unadjusted=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69-1.79, p=0.68; ORadjusted=1.07, 95% CI=0.58-1.97, p=0.84. In contrast to the elevated blood [HA] that has been reported in patients with essential tremor and Parkinson's disease, our data demonstrate that blood [HA] was similar in patients with dystonia and controls. These findings provide the first support for the notion that an elevated blood [HA] is not a broad feature of neurological disease, and may be a specific feature of certain tremor disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) Concentration in Dystonia Cases vs. Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Michalec, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) (HA) is a potent neurotoxin that has been linked to two neurological diseases, essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. Blood harmane concentrations [HA] are elevated in patients with both diseases. An important question is whether HA is specifically linked with these diseases or alternatively, is a non-specific marker of neurological illness. Objectives We assessed whether blood [HA] was elevated in patients with a third neurological disease, dystonia, comparing them to controls. Methods Blood [HA] were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Subjects comprised 104 dystonia cases and 107 controls. Results Mean log blood [HA] in dystonia cases was similar to that of controls (0.41 ± 0.51 g −10/ml vs. 0.38 ± 0.61 g−10/ml, t = 0.42, p = 0.68). In unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses, log blood [HA] was not associated with the outcome (diagnosis of dystonia vs. control): odds ratio (OR) unadjusted = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69 – 1.79, p = 0.68; OR adjusted = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.58 – 1.97, p = 0.84. Conclusions In contrast to the elevated blood [HA] that has been reported in patients with essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease, our data demonstrate that blood [HA] was similar in patients with dystonia and controls. These findings provide the first support for the notion that an elevated blood [HA] is not a broad feature of neurological disease, and may be a specific feature of certain tremor disorders. PMID:24968164

  11. Magnetically Recyclable Cufe2o4 Nanoparticles as an Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Green Synthesis of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexabenzyl-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane as CL-20 Explosive Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizkhani, Vahid; Montazeri, Faezeh; Molashahi, Ebrahim; Ramazani, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4 MNPs) have been simply prepared and applied as an efficient recyclable and reusable catalyst for the green synthesis of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexabenzyl-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane (HBIW). The structure of the synthesized pure HBIW (recrystallization from ethanol) was confirmed by using various spectral techniques like infrared (IR), 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and some of its physical properties. The prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). In addition, CuFe2O4 MNPs could be reused up to seven runs without any significant loss of activity. Finally, the remarkable advantages of this method are the simple experimental procedure, shorter reaction times, simple workup, and green aspects by avoiding toxic catalysts and high yield of product.

  12. Special hydrogen bonds observed in two monovalent metal carboxylate-phosphinates: {NaH(Phsbnd PO2sbnd C2H4sbnd COOH)2}∞ and {[KH(Phsbnd PO2sbnd C2H4sbnd COOH)2H2O}∞

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Zhou, Zhong-Gao; Du, Zi-Yi

    2013-02-01

    The addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to the aqueous solution of (2-carboxyethyl)(phenyl)phosphinic acid afforded two novel monovalent metal carboxylate-phosphinates, namely, {NaH(Phsbnd PO2sbnd C2H4sbnd COOH)2}∞ (1) and {[KH(Phsbnd PO2sbnd C2H4sbnd COOH)2H2O}∞ (2). They represent the first examples of phosphinate containing short, symmetric or almost symmetric O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  13. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-02

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy.

  14. Preparation, Characterization, and Structure of Two Layered Molybdenum(VI) Phosphates: KMo(H 2O)O 2PO 4 and NH 4Mo(H 2O)O 2PO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millini, Roberto; Carati, Angela

    1995-08-01

    New layered Mo(VI) compounds, KMo(H 2O)O 2PO 4 (I) and NH 4Mo(H 2O)O 2PO 4 (II), were synthesized hydrothermally and their structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray analysis. Compounds (I) and (II) are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2 1/ n space group with a = 12.353(3), b = 8.623(2), c = 5.841(1) Å, β = 102.78(1)°, V = 606.8(2) Å 3, Z = 4, and R = 0.027 ( Rw = 0.030) for compound (I) and a = 12.435(3), b = 8.761(2), c = 6.015(1), β = 103.45(1)°, V = 637.3(2) Å 3, Z = 4, and R = 0.040 ( Rw = 0.041) for compound (II). The structure consists of layers built up of eight- and four-membered rings resulting from the alternation of corner-sharing [MoO 6] octahedra and [PO 4] tetrahedra. The layers stack along the (1¯01) direction by intercalating K and NH 4 ions.

  15. Nqrs Data for C26H38N2O3 (Subst. No. 1607)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C26H38N2O3 (Subst. No. 1607)

  16. Histone H3K9 Demethylase JMJD2B Activates Adipogenesis by Regulating H3K9 Methylation on PPARγ and C/EBPα during Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that tri- or di-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3/me2) on the promoter of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) contribute to the repression of PPARγ and C/EBPα and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The balance of histone methylation is regulated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases. However, it is poorly understood which demethylases are responsible for removing H3K9me3/me2 on the promoter of PPARγ and C/EBPα. JMJD2B is a H3K9me3/me2 demethylase that was previously shown to activate adipogenesis by promoting mitotic clonal expansion. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether JMJD2B plays a role in the regulation of adipogenesis by removing H3K9me3/me2 on the promoter of PPARγ and C/EBPα and subsequently activating PPARγ and C/EBPα expression. Here, we showed that JMJD2B decreased H3K9me3/me2 on the promoter of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which in turn stimulated the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα. JMJD2B knockdown using siRNA in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes repressed the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, resulting in inhibition of adipogenesis. This was accompanied by increased enrichment of H3K9me3/me2 on the promoter of PPARγ and C/EBPα. In contrast, overexpression of JMJD2B increased the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which was accompanied by decreased enrichment of H3K9me3/me2 on the promoter and activated adipogenesis. Together, these results indicate that JMJD2B regulates PPARγ and C/EBPα during adipogenesis. PMID:28060835

  17. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers

    PubMed Central

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects. PMID:27013768

  18. Dynamics of C2H 2 3 +→H++H++C 2 + investigated by 50-keV/u Ne8 + impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Feng, W. T.; Guo, D. L.; Zhao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, D. M.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, S. F.; Yang, J.; Ma, X.

    2018-06-01

    Breakup dynamics of C2H 2 3 + → H++H++C 2 + induced by 50-keV/u Ne8 + ion impact is investigated employing a reaction microscope. All three ionic fragments in the final state are detected in coincidence, and their momentum vectors as well as the kinetic energies are determined. The kinetic-energy correlation spectrum of the two protons displays very rich structures. Utilizing the Newton diagrams and the Dalitz plots, different dissociation mechanisms corresponding to these structures are identified. It was found that, besides the concerted and sequential breakup, fragmentation mechanisms associated with different vibration modes including molecular bending and asymmetric stretching also make significant contributions. We analyzed the correlation between different fragmentation mechanisms and the kinetic-energy release (KER) and found that the sequential process occurs with higher KER while, in contrast, the concerted process mainly contributes to the lower KER. This behavior is entirely opposite to the breakup of the CO2 molecule.

  19. A 2:1 co-crystal of 2-methyl-benzoic acid and N,N'-bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)ethanedi-amide: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sabrina; Jotani, Mukesh M; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title 2:1 co-crystal, 2C8H8O2·C14H14N4O2, comprises an acid mol-ecule in a general position and half a di-amide mol-ecule, the latter being located about a centre of inversion. In the acid, the carb-oxy-lic acid group is twisted out of the plane of the benzene ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 28.51 (8)°] and the carbonyl O atom and methyl group lie approximately to the same side of the mol-ecule [hy-droxy-O-C-C-C(H) torsion angle = -27.92 (17)°]. In the di-amide, the central C4N2O2 core is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å), and the pyridyl rings are perpendicular, lying to either side of the central plane [central residue/pyridyl dihedral angle = 88.60 (5)°]. In the mol-ecular packing, three-mol-ecule aggregates are formed via hy-droxy-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds. These are connected into a supra-molecular layer parallel to (12[Formula: see text]) via amide-N-H⋯O(carbon-yl) hydrogen bonds, as well as methyl-ene-C-H⋯O(amide) inter-actions. Significant π-π inter-actions occur between benzene/benzene, pyrid-yl/benzene and pyrid-yl/pyridyl rings within and between layers to consolidate the three-dimensional packing.

  20. Elevated Brain Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) in Essential Tremor Cases vs. Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Liu, Xinhua; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G.; Galecki, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]indole), a potent neurotoxin that has tremor-producing properties in animal models, is present in many foods; Although we have demonstrated a difference in tissue harmane concentrations in ET cases vs. controls, all work to date has involved blood samples. Objectives We quantified harmane concentrations in human cerebellum, a brain region of particular pathogenic interest in essential tremor (ET), comparing ET to control brains. Methods Cerebellar cortex was snap frozen and stored at -80ºC in aliquots for biochemical analyses. Harmane concentration was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Geometric mean brain harmane concentrations (adjusted for postmortem interval [PMI] and freezer time) were higher in ET cases than controls: 1.0824 (95% confidence interval = 0.9405 – 1.2457) vs. 0.8037 (0.6967 – 0.9272), p = 0.004. Geometric mean of brain harmane concentrations (adjusting for PMI and freezer time) was highest in ET cases who reported other relatives with tremor (1.2005 [0.8712 – 1.6541]), intermediate in ET cases without family history (1.0312 ([0.8879 – 1.1976]), and both were significantly higher than controls (p= 0.02). Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of a possible etiological importance of this toxin in some cases of the human disease ET. PMID:23911942

  1. Elevated brain harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) in essential tremor cases vs. controls.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Liu, Xinhua; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Galecki, Monika; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]indole), a potent neurotoxin that has tremor-producing properties in animal models, is present in many foods; although we have demonstrated a difference in tissue harmane concentrations in ET cases vs. controls, all work to date has involved blood samples. We quantified harmane concentrations in human cerebellum, a brain region of particular pathogenic interest in essential tremor (ET), comparing ET to control brains. Cerebellar cortex was snap frozen and stored at -80°C in aliquots for biochemical analyses. Harmane concentration was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Geometric mean brain harmane concentrations (adjusted for postmortem interval [PMI] and freezer time) were higher in ET cases than controls: 1.0824 (95% confidence interval=0.9405-1.2457) vs. 0.8037 (0.6967-0.9272), p=0.004. Geometric mean of brain harmane concentrations (adjusting for PMI and freezer time) was highest in ET cases who reported other relatives with tremor (1.2005 [0.8712-1.6541]), intermediate in ET cases without family history (1.0312 ([0.8879-1.1976]), and both were significantly higher than controls (p=0.02). This study provides additional evidence of a possible etiological importance of this toxin in some cases of the human disease ET. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-k SiOCH Film Etching Process and Its Diagnostics Employing Ar/C5F10O/N2 Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Mikio; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Okamoto, Hidekazu

    2006-09-01

    We proposed an environmental harmonic etching gas of C5F10O (CF3CF2CF2OCFCF2), and demonstrated the etching of low-k SiOCH films employing a dual-frequency capacitively coupled etching system. Dissociative ionization cross sections for the electron impact ionizations of C5F10O and c-C4F8 gases have been measured by quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS). The dissociative ionization cross section of CF3+ from C5F10O gas was much higher than those of other ionic species, and 10 times higher than that of CF3+ from C4F8 gas. CF3+ is effective for increasing the etching rate of SiO2. As a result, the etching rate of SiOCH films using Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma was about 1000 nm/min, which is much higher than that using Ar/C4F8/N2 plasma. The behaviours of fluorocarbon radicals in Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma, which were measured by infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy, were similar to those in Ar/C4F8/N2 plasma. The densities of CF and CF3 radicals were markedly decreased with increasing N2 flow rate. Etching rate was controlled by N2 flow rate. A vertical profile of SiOCH with a high etching rate and less microloading was realized using Ar/C5F10O/N2 plasma chemistry.

  3. (C6N2H16)[Co(H2O)6](SO4)2.2H2O: A new hybrid material based on sulfate templated by diprotonated trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, N.; Ngopoh, F. A. I.; da Silva, I.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M.

    2018-03-01

    Employing trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) as template, the new hybrid sulphate (C6N2H16)[Co(H2O)6](SO4)2.2H2O was prepared in solution. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that it crystallizes in the monoclinic system (S.G.: P 21/n), with the following unit-cell parameters (Å,°): a = 6.2897(2), b = 12.3716(6), c = 13.1996(4), β = 98.091(3) V = 1016.89(7) Å3, Z = 4. Its 3D crystal structure is made upon isolated [Co(H2O)6] octahedra, regular [SO4] tetrahedra, protonated DACH and free H2O molecules, which interact through N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds. The Fourier transform infrared result exhibits bands corresponding to the vibrations of DACH, sulfate group and water molecules. The thermal decomposition of the phase consists mainly in the loss of the organic moiety and one sulfate group, leading thus to the formation of anhydrous cobalt sulfate.

  4. Combined UV-C/H2O2-VUV processes for the treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Kambiz Vaezzadeh; Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar

    2017-05-04

    In this study, a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology were used to maximize the TOC removal and minimize the H 2 O 2 residual in the effluent of the combined UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV system for the treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) collected from one of the meat processing plants in Ontario, Canada. The irradiation time and the initial concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC o ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2o ) were the three predictors, as independent variables, studied in the design of experiments. The multiple response approach was used to obtain desirability response surfaces at the optimum factor settings. Subsequently, the optimum conditions to achieve the maximum percentage TOC removal of 46.19% and minimum H 2 O 2 residual of 1.05% were TOC o of 213 mg L -1 , H 2 O 2o of 450 mg L -1 , and irradiation time of 9 min. The attained optimal operating conditions were validated with a complementary test. Consequently, the TOC removal of 45.68% and H 2 O 2 residual of 1.03% were achieved experimentally, confirming the statistical model reliability. Three individual processes, VUV alone, VUV/H 2 O 2 , and UV-C/H 2 O 2 , were also evaluated to compare their performance for the treatment of the actual SWW using the optimum parameters obtained in combined UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV processes. Results confirmed that an adequate combination of the UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV processes is essential for an optimized TOC removal and H 2 O 2 residual. Finally, respirometry analyses were also performed to evaluate the biodegradability of the SWW and the BOD removal efficiency of the combined UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV processes.

  5. Thermal Decomposition of Potential Ester Biofuels. Part I: Methyl Acetate and Methyl Butanoate

    SciTech Connect

    Porterfield, Jessica P.; Bross, David H.; Ruscic, Branko

    2017-06-09

    Two methyl esters have been examined as models for the pyrolysis of biofuels. Dilute samples (0.06 - 0.13%) of methyl acetate (CH 3COOCH 3) and methyl butanoate (CH 3CH 2CH 2COOCH 3) were entrained in (He, Ar) carrier gas and decomposed in a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from the methyl esters were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the pulsed micro-reactor were roughly 20 Torr and residence times through the reactors were approximately 25 - 150 µs. Reactor temperatures ofmore » 300 – 1600 K were explored. Decomposition of CH 3COOCH 3 commences at 1000 K and the initial products are (CH 2=C=O and CH 3OH). As the micro-reactor is heated to 1300 K, a mixture of (CH 2=C=O and CH 3OH, CH 3, CH 2=O, H, CO, CO 2) appears. The thermal cracking of CH 3CH 2CH 2COOCH 3 begins at 800 K with the formation of (CH 3CH 2CH=C=O, CH 3OH). By 1300 K, the pyrolysis of methyl butanoate yields a complex mixture of (CH 3CH 2CH=C=O, CH 3OH, CH 3, CH 2=O, CO, CO 2, CH 3CH=CH 2, CH 2CHCH 2, CH 2=C=CH 2, HCCCH 2, CH 2=C=C=O, CH 2=CH 2, HCΞCH, CH 2=C=O). Based on the results from the thermal cracking of methyl acetate and methyl butanoate, we predict several important decomposition channels for the pyrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, R CH 2-COOCH 3. The lowest energy fragmentation will be a 4-center elimination of methanol to form the ketene, RCH=C=O. At higher temperatures, concerted fragmentation to radicals will ensue to produce a mixture of species: (RCH 2 + CO 2 + CH 3) and (RCH 2 + CO + CH 2=O + H). Thermal cracking of the β C-C bond of the methyl ester will generate the radicals (R and H) as well as CH 2=C=O + CH 2=O. The thermochemistry of methyl acetate and its fragmentation products have been obtained via the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, resulting in

  6. (2-{[2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl-κN 3)phen­yl]imino­methyl-κN}-5-methyl­phenolato-κO)chloridozinc(II)

    PubMed Central

    Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Teoh, Siang Guan; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2011-01-01

    In the title mononuclear complex, [Zn(C21H16N3O)Cl], the ZnII ion is coordinated in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry by two benzimidazole N atoms and one phenolate O atom from the tridentate Schiff base ligand and a chloride ligand. The benzimidazole ring system forms dihedral angles of 26.68 (9) and 56.16 (9)° with the adjacent benzene ring and the methyl­phenolate group benzene ring, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into chains along [100]. Furthermore, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, in addition to π–π inter­actions with centroid–centroid distances in the range 3.5826 (13)–3.9681 (13) Å, are also observed. PMID:22065469

  7. Melting and subsolidus reactions in the system K2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Wilhelm

    1980-09-01

    Beginning of melting and subsolidus relationships in the system K2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O have been experimentally investigated at pressures up to 20 kbars. The equilibria discussed involve the phases anorthite, sanidine, zoisite, muscovite, quartz, kyanite, gas, and melt and two invariant points: Point [Ky] with the phases An, Or, Zo, Ms, Qz, Vapor, and Melt; point [Or] with An, Zo, Ms, Ky, Qz, Vapor, and Melt. The invariant point [Ky] at 675° C and 8.7 kbars marks the lowest solidus temperature of the system investigated. At pressures above this point the hydrated phases zoisite and muscovite are liquidus phases and the solidus temperatures increase with increasing pressure. At 20 kbars beginning of melting occurs at 740 °C. The solidus temperatures of the quinary system K2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O are almost 60° C (at 20 kbars) and 170° C (at 2kbars) below those of the limiting quaternary system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. The maximum water pressure at which anorthite is stable is lowered from 14 to 8.7 kbars in the presence of sanidine. The stability limits of anorthite+ vapor and anorthite+sanidine+vapor at temperatures below 700° C are almost parallel and do not intersect. In the wide temperature — pressure range at pressures above the reaction An+Or+Vapor = Zo+Ms+Qz and temperatures below the melting curve of Zo+Ms+Ky+Qz+Vapor, the feldspar assemblage anorthite+sanidine is replaced by the hydrated phases zoisite and muscovite plus quartz. CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Knowledge of the melting relationships involving the minerals zoisite and muscovite contributes to our understanding of the melting processes occuring in the deeper parts of the crust. Beginning of melting in granites and granodiorites depends on the composition of plagioclase. The solidus temperatures of all granites and granodiorites containing plagioclases of intermediate composition are higher than those of the Ca-free alkali feldspar granite system and below those of the Na-free system discussed in this

  8. Fabrication and mechanical properties of Al2O3/SiC/ZrO2 functionally graded material by electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Askari, E; Mehrali, M; Metselaar, I H S C; Kadri, N A; Rahman, Md M

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the synthesis of Al(2)O(3)/SiC/ZrO(2) functionally graded material (FGM) in bio-implants (artificial joints) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). A suitable suspension that was based on 2-butanone was applied for the EPD of Al(2)O(3)/SiC/ZrO(2), and a pressureless sintering process was applied as a presintering. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was used to densify the deposit, with beneficial mechanical properties after 2 h at 1800 °C in Ar atmosphere. The maximum hardness in the outer layer (90 vol.% Al(2)O(3)+10 vol.% SiC) and maximum fracture toughness in the core layer (75 vol.% Al(2)O(3)+10 vol.% SiC + 15 vol.% ZrO(2)) composite were 20.8±0.3 GPa and 8±0.1 MPa m(1/2), respectively. The results, when compared with results from Al(2)O(3)/ZrO(2) FGM, showed that SiC increased the compressive stresses in the outer layers, while the inner layers were under a residual tensile stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel routes to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines and 5,6,9,10,11,11a-hexahydro-8H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrrolo[2,1-c]pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Jain, Ritu; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Steel, Peter J

    2002-11-15

    Condensation reactions of benzotriazole and 2-(pyrrol-1-yl)-1-ethylamine (1) with formaldehyde and glutaric dialdehyde, respectively, afforded intermediates 2 and 6. Subsequent nucleophilic substitutions of the benzotriazole group in 2 and 6 with Grignard reagents, sodium cyanide, and sodium borohydride gave 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines 3a-e, 4, 5 and 5,6,9,10,11,11a-hexahydro-8H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrrolo[2,1-c]pyrazines 7a-c, 8, 9, respectively, in good yields.

  10. Crystal structure of fac-[2-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-pyridin-2-yl)phenyl-κ2C1,N]bis-[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl-κ2C1,N]iridium(III).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Heon; Moon, Suk-Hee; Park, Ki-Min; Kang, Youngjin

    2016-12-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C 11 H 8 N) 2 (C 18 H 14 N)], the Ir III ion adopts a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment defined by three C , N -chelating ligands, one stemming from a 2-(4-phenyl-5-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)phenyl ligand and two from 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl ligands, arranged in a facial manner. The Ir III ion lies almost in the equatorial plane [deviation = 0.0069 (15) Å]. In the crystal, inter-molecular π-π stacking inter-actions, as well as inter-molecular C-H⋯π inter-actions, are present, leading to a three-dimensional network.

  11. 3-Ethyl-2-methyl-5-methyl­ene-6,7-di­hydroindol-4(5H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N.; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C12H15NO, a degradation product of molindone hydro­chloride, was prepared by the reaction of molindone with methyl iodide and subsequent reaction of the resulting quaternary ammonium salt with 2N aqueous sodium hydroxide. The newly formed double bond is exocyclic in nature and the carbonyl group is conjugated with the π-electrons of the pyrrole ring. The six-membered ring is in the half-chair conformation. The H atom attached to the N atom is involved in an inter­molecular hydrogen bond with the O atom of a screw-related mol­ecule, thus forming a continuous chain. PMID:21200723

  12. Crystal structures of two 6-(2-hy-droxy-benzo-yl)-5H-thia-zolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-07-01

    The title compounds, 6-(2-hy-droxy-benz-yl)-5H-thia-zolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-one, C13H8N2O3S, (1), and 6-(2-hy-droxy-benz-yl)-3-methyl-5H-thia-zolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-one, C14H10N2O3S, (2), were synthesized when a chromone-3-carb-oxy-lic acid, activated with (benzotriazol-1-yl-oxy)tripyrrolidinyl-phospho-nium hexa-fluorido-phosphate (PyBOP), was reacted with a primary heteromamine. Instead of the expected amidation, the unusual title thia-zolo-pyrimidine-5-one derivatives were obtained serendipitously and a mechanism of formation is proposed. Both compounds present an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6) ring. The dihedral angles between the heterocyclic moiety and the 2-hydroxybenzoyl ring are 55.22 (5) and 46.83 (6)° for (1) and (2), respectively. In the crystals, the mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking inter-actions.

  13. Theoretical kinetics of O + C 2H 4

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiaohu; Jasper, Ahren W.; Zádor, Judit; ...

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of atomic oxygen with ethylene is a fundamental oxidation step in combustion and is prototypical of reactions in which oxygen adds to double bonds. For 3O+C 2H 4 and for this class of reactions generally, decomposition of the initial adduct via spin-allowed reaction channels on the triplet surface competes with intersystem crossing (ISC) and a set of spin-forbidden reaction channels on the ground-state singlet surface. The two surfaces share some bimolecular products but feature different intermediates, pathways, and transition states. In addition, the overall product branching is therefore a sensitive function of the ISC rate. The 3O+C 2Hmore » 4 reaction has been extensively studied, but previous experimental work has not provided detailed branching information at elevated temperatures, while previous theoretical studies have employed empirical treatments of ISC. Here we predict the kinetics of 3O+C 2H 4 using an ab initio transition state theory based master equation (AITSTME) approach that includes an a priori description of ISC. Specifically, the ISC rate is calculated using Landau–Zener statistical theory, consideration of the four lowest-energy electronic states, and a direct classical trajectory study of the product branching immediately after ISC. The present theoretical results are largely in good agreement with existing low-temperature experimental kinetics and molecular beam studies. Good agreement is also found with past theoretical work, with the notable exception of the predicted product branching at elevated temperatures. Above ~1000 K, we predict CH 2CHO+H and CH 2+CH 2O as the major products, which differs from the room temperature preference for CH 3+HCO (which is assumed to remain at higher temperatures in some models) and from the prediction of a previous detailed master equation study.« less

  14. How Does Lithiation Affect Electro-Optical Features of Corannulene (C20H10) and Quadrannulene (C16H8) Buckybowls?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerzadeh, Ehsan; Kazemimoghadam, Fatemeh; Anota, Ernesto Chigo

    2018-04-01

    The influence of lithiation process on the HOMO-LUMO gap and the first hyperpolarizability values of corannulene (C20H10) and quadrannulene (C16H8) buckybowls are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Lithiation is performed at the bridging position of the C-C bond of benzene rings of quadrannulene and corannulene. The HOMO-LUMO gap of lithiated buckybowls is reduced with respect to pristine ones. The results indicate that the lithiation process causes the remarkable enhancement of the first hyperpolarizability. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are also performed to understand how lithiation affects the first hyperpolarizability values. The present results might be valuable for further theoretical and experimental studies on the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of buckybowl compounds.

  15. Comparison of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and O-methyl EGCG bioavailability in rats.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Yukihiro; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (EGCG3″Me) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)gallate (EGCG4″Me) are O-methyl derivatives of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) present in tea cultivars such as Benifuuki. Although O-methyl EGCGs have various bioactivities, their bioavailabilities have not been determined. In this study, we compared the bioavailability of EGCG and O-methyl EGCGs in rats, and clarified the pharmacokinetics of O-methyl EGCGs. Following oral administration (100 mg/kg), the areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) for EGCG, EGCG3″Me, and EGCG4″Me were 39.6 ± 14.2 µg·h/L, 317.2 ± 43.7 µg·h/L, and 51.9 ± 11.0 µg·h/L, respectively. The AUC after intravenous administration (10 mg/kg) was 2772 ± 480 µg·h/L for EGCG, 8209 ± 549 µg·h/L for EGCG3″Me, and 2465 ± 262 µg·h/L for EGCG4″Me. The bioavailability of EGCG3″Me (0.38%) was the highest (EGCG: 0.14% and EGCG4″Me: 0.21%). The distribution volume of EGCG3″Me (0.26 ± 0.02 L/kg) was the lowest (EGCG: 0.94 ± 0.16 L/kg and EGCG4″Me: 0.93 ± 0.14 L/kg). These results suggested that the higher AUC of EGCG3″Me after oral administration was related to its high bioavailability and low distribution volume. These findings supported the stronger bioactivity of EGCG3″Me in vivo.

  16. Two mixed-ligand lanthanide–hydrazone complexes: [Pr(NCS)3(pbh)2H2O and [Nd(NCS)(NO3)(pbh)2(H2O)]NO3·2.33H2O [pbh is N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzo­hydrazide, C13H11N3O

    PubMed Central

    Paschalidis, Damianos G.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The gel-mediated syntheses and crystal structures of [N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κN)benzohydrazide-κ2 N′,O]tris(thiocyanato-κN)praseodymium(III) mono­hydrate, [Pr(NCS)3(C13H11N3O)2H2O, (I), and aqua(nitrato-κ2 O,O′)[N′-(pyri­din-2-ylmethylidene-κN)benzohydrazide-κ2 N′,O](thiocyanato-κN)neo­dym­ium(III) nitrate 2.33-hydrate, [Nd(NCS)(NO3)(C13H11N3O)2(H2O)]NO3·2.33H2O, (II), are reported. The Pr3+ ion in (I) is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzohydrazide (pbh) ligands and three N-bonded thio­cyanate ions to generate an irregular PrN7O2 coordination polyhedron. The Nd3+ ion in (II) is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate pbh ligands, an N-bonded thio­cyanate ion, a bidentate nitrate ion and a water mol­ecule to generate a distorted NdN5O5 bicapped square anti­prism. The crystal structures of (I) and (II) feature numerous hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of three-dimensional networks in each case. PMID:26958385

  17. Rotational spectrum of 13C{2}-methyl formate (HCOO13CH{3}) and detection of the two 13C-methyl formate in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, M.; Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; Demyk, K.; Kleiner, I.; Guillemin, J. C.; Lattanzi, V.; Walters, A.; Demaison, J.; Wlodarczak, G.; Huet, T. R.; Møllendal, H.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Cernicharo, J.

    2009-06-01

    Context: Laboratory measurements and analysis of the microwave and millimeter-wave spectra of potential interstellar molecules are a prerequisite for their subsequent identification by radioastronomical techniques. The spectral analysis provides spectroscopic parameters that are used in the assignment procedure of the laboratory spectra, and that also predict the frequencies of transitions not measured in the laboratory with a high degree of precision. Aims: An experimental laboratory study and its theoretical analysis is presented for 13C2-methyl formate (HCOO13CH3) allowing a search for this isotopologue in the Orion molecular cloud. The 13C1-methyl formate (H13COOCH3) molecule was also searched for in this interstellar cloud, using previously published spectroscopic data. Methods: The experimental spectra of 13C2-methyl formate were recorded in the microwave and sub-mm energy ranges (4-20 GHz, 8-80 GHz, 150-700 GHz). The spectra were analyzed using the Rho-Axis Method (RAM), which takes the CH3 internal rotation and the coupling between internal rotation and global rotation into account. Results: Twenty-seven spectroscopic constants of 13C2-methyl formate have been obtained from a fit of 936 transitions of the ground torsional state with a standard (unitless) deviation of 1.08. A prediction of line positions and intensities is also produced. This prediction allowed us to identify 230 13C2-methyl formate lines in the Orion interstellar molecular cloud. We refitted all previously published ground state transitions of the 13C1-methyl formate molecule in order to provide a prediction of its ground state spectrum. 234 lines of 13C1-methyl formate were detected in the Orion interstellar cloud using that prediction. Tables A.1-A.5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/500/1109

  18. Synthesis and structure of heptaaqua(nitrilotris(methylenephosphonato))(dibarium)sodium monohydrate [Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(μ{sup 6}-NH(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 3})(μ-H{sub 2}O){sub 3}Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] · H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Somov, N. V., E-mail: somov@phys.unn.ru; Chausov, F. F., E-mail: xps@ftiudm.ru; Zakirova, R. M., E-mail: ftt@udsu.ru

    Crystals of the monohydrate form of heptaaqua(nitrilotris(methylenephosphonato))(dibarium) sodium [Na(H{sub 2}O{sub )3}(µ{sup 6}-NH(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}){sub 3})(µ-H{sub 2}O){sub 3}Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] · H{sub 2}O are obtained; space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4; a = 13.9117(10) Å, b = 11.54030(10) Å, and c = 24.1784(17) Å, ß = 148.785(18)°. The Na atom is coordinated octahedrally by one oxygen atom of a phosphonate group and five water molecules, including two bridging molecules. Ba atoms occupy two inequivalent crystallographic positions with coordination number eight and nine. The coordination spheres of both Ba atoms include two water molecules. Each ligand is bound to one Namore » atom and five Ba atoms forming three Ba–O–P–O and five Ba–O–P–C–N–C–P–O chelate cycles. In addition to the coordination bonds, molecules, including the solvate water molecule, are involved in hydrogen bonds in the crystal packing.« less

  19. Laser induced fluorescence of HCCO (DCCO) radical formed in O+C2H2 (C2D2) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Gen; Suzuki, Makoto

    1986-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence of HCCO (DCCO) radical have been obtained in the reaction of O(3P)+C2H2(C2D2) for the first time (X 2A'-2A`). The laser excitation spectra have been obtained over the wavelength region from 310 to 370 nm. The collision-free lifetimes for HCCO and DCCO are 0.14 and 3.8 μs, respectively. From the excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra, some vibrational energies have been obtained in cm-1 unit: 1762 (1727), 150-140 (n.a.), and 2334 (1901) for the ground state HCCO (DCCO), and 1183 (1167), 866 (607), and 2862 (2075) for the excited state HCCO (DCCO). The band origin ν00 is 28 296.7 cm-1.

  20. Molecular identification for epigallocatechin-3-gallate-mediated antioxidant intervention on the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Cheng; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Chiu, Chun-Hwei; Hsu, Ban-Dar; Liou, Ying-Ming

    2014-06-09

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been documented for its beneficial effects protecting oxidative stress to cardiac cells. Previously, we have shown the EGCG-mediated cardiac protection by attenuating reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ in cardiac cells during oxidative stress and myocardial ischemia. Here, we aimed to seek a deeper elucidation of the molecular anti-oxidative capabilities of EGCG in an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemia injury using H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. Proteomics analysis was used to determine the differential expression of proteins in H9c2 cells cultured in the conditions of control, 400 μM H2O2 exposure for 30 min with and/or without 10 to 20 μM EGCG pre-treatment. In this model, eight proteins associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial electron transfer, redox regulation, signal transduction, and RNA binding were identified to take part in EGCG-ameliorating H2O2-induced injury in H9c2 cells. H2O2 exposure increased oxidative stress evidenced by increases in reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ overload, increases in glycolytic protein, α-enolase, decreases in antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin-4, as well as decreases in mitochondrial proteins, including aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, ornithine aminotransferase, and succinate dehydrogenase ubiquinone flavoprotein subunit. All of these effects were reversed by EGCG pre-treatment. In addition, EGCG attenuated the H2O2-induced increases of Type II inositol 3, 4-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase and relieved its subsequent inhibition of the downstream signalling for Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/cyclin D1 in H9c2 cells. Pre-treatment with EGCG or GSK-3β inhibitor (SB 216763) significantly improved the H2O2-induced suppression on cell viability, phosphorylation of pAkt (S473) and pGSK-3β (S9), and level of cyclin D1 in cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that EGCG blunts the H2O2-induced oxidative effect on the Akt activity

  1. Molecular identification for epigallocatechin-3-gallate-mediated antioxidant intervention on the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been documented for its beneficial effects protecting oxidative stress to cardiac cells. Previously, we have shown the EGCG-mediated cardiac protection by attenuating reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ in cardiac cells during oxidative stress and myocardial ischemia. Here, we aimed to seek a deeper elucidation of the molecular anti-oxidative capabilities of EGCG in an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemia injury using H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. Results Proteomics analysis was used to determine the differential expression of proteins in H9c2 cells cultured in the conditions of control, 400 μM H2O2 exposure for 30 min with and/or without 10 to 20 μM EGCG pre-treatment. In this model, eight proteins associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial electron transfer, redox regulation, signal transduction, and RNA binding were identified to take part in EGCG-ameliorating H2O2-induced injury in H9c2 cells. H2O2 exposure increased oxidative stress evidenced by increases in reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca2+ overload, increases in glycolytic protein, α-enolase, decreases in antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin-4, as well as decreases in mitochondrial proteins, including aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, ornithine aminotransferase, and succinate dehydrogenase ubiquinone flavoprotein subunit. All of these effects were reversed by EGCG pre-treatment. In addition, EGCG attenuated the H2O2-induced increases of Type II inositol 3, 4-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase and relieved its subsequent inhibition of the downstream signalling for Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/cyclin D1 in H9c2 cells. Pre-treatment with EGCG or GSK-3β inhibitor (SB 216763) significantly improved the H2O2-induced suppression on cell viability, phosphorylation of pAkt (S473) and pGSK-3β (S9), and level of cyclin D1 in cells. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest that EGCG blunts the H2O2-induced oxidative

  2. GaAs micromachining in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system. From anisotropy to simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, C. R.

    2011-02-01

    The bulk micromachining on (010), (110) and (111)A GaAs substrates in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system is investigated. Focus is placed on anisotropy of 3D etching shapes with a special emphasis on convex and concave undercuts which are of prime importance in the wet micromachining of mechanical structures. Etched structures exhibit curved contours and more and less rounded sidewalls showing that the anisotropy is of type 2. This anisotropy can be conveniently described by a kinematic and tensorial model. Hence, a database composed of dissolution constants is further determined from experiments. A self-elaborated simulator which works with the proposed database is used to derive theoretical 3D shapes. Simulated shapes agree well with observed shapes of microstructures. The successful simulations open up two important applications for MEMS: CAD of mask patterns and meshing of simulated shapes for FEM simulation tools.

  3. Tetracyclic indole alkaloids with antinematode activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fandong; Ma, Qingyun; Huang, Shengzhuo; Yang, Shuang; Fu, Linran; Zhou, Liman; Dai, Haofu; Yu, Zhifang; Zhao, Youxing

    2017-06-01

    A new tetracyclic indole alkaloid, 17-O-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetradehydrogeissoschizine, together with seven known ones, were isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparing with the literature data. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6-8 showed potent to moderate antinematode activities against Panagrellus redivevus at a concentration of 250 μg/mL.

  4. Synthesis and structure determination of La{sub 8}Ti{sub 10}S{sub 24}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Cario, L.; Deudon, C.; Meerschaut, A.

    1998-02-15

    The new compound La{sub 8}Ti{sub 10}S{sub 24}O{sub 4} has been prepared from a mixture of La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in a 5:1 ratio) heated at 1,200 C under a H{sub 2}S gas flow. This new quaternary phase was obtained due to an incomplete sulfidizing process. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that La{sub 8}Ti{sub 10}S{sub 24}O{sub 4} crystallizes in space group P4/mmm, with Z = 1, in a cell of dimensions a = b = 10.421 {angstrom} and c = 8.384 {angstrom}. Least-squares refinement converged to values of R - 0.045 and R{sub w} = 0.048. Themore » structure can be viewed as a stacking of two types of layers along the {rvec c} axis. These layers are built up from infinite rutile-like chains (Ti octahedra) that cross perpendicularly. La atoms, in a tricapped prismatic coordination, are located in tunnels that develop parallel to the {rvec c} direction.« less

  5. N.m.r. studies of the conformation of analogues of methyl beta-lactoside in methyl sulfoxide-d6.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Sagredo, A; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M

    1991-12-16

    The 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. spectra of solutions of methyl beta-lactoside (1), all of its monodeoxy derivatives (2, 3, 6-10), the 3-O-methyl derivative (4), and methyl 4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-xylopyranoside (5) in methyl sulfoxide-d6 have been analysed. The n.O.e.'s and specific desheildings indicate similar distributions of low-energy conformers, comparable to those in aqueous solution. The major conformer has torsion angles phi H and psi H of 49 degrees and 5 degrees, respectively, with contributions of conformers with phi/psi 24 degrees/-59 degrees, 22 degrees/32 degrees, and 6 degrees/44 degrees.

  6. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    PubMed

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  7. The Relationship of HCN, C2H6, & H2O in Comets: A Key Clue to Origins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin; Paganini, Lucas; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis

    2017-10-01

    Background: HCN, C2H6, and H2O are three of the best characterized volatiles in comets. It is often assumed that all three are primary volatiles, native to the nucleus. Here, we compare their properties in 26 comets (9 JFC and 17 Oort-cloud), making 6 points:1. Both HCN and C2H6 are poor proxies for water production. The production rate ratio (Q-ratio) of each trace gas relative to water varies by a factor of six among these comets.2. All 26 comets have Q-ratios HCN/C2H6 > 0.1. In 18 comets the Q-ratios HCN/H2O and C2H6/H2O are correlated, with a mean ratio of 0.33. In 6 comets undergoing complete disruption, this Q-ratio exceeds 0.5.3. Q-ratios HCN/C2H6 are not correlated with Q(H2O), nor are they correlated with dynamical class (Oort cloud vs. JFC).4. The nucleus-centered rotational temperatures measured for H2O and other primary species (C2H6, CH3OH) usually agree within error, but those for HCN are often slightly cooler. Could this mean that HCN is not fully developed in the warm near-nucleus region, and instead is at least in part a product species?5. With its strong dipole moment and H-bonding character, HCN should be linked more strongly in the nuclear ice to other molecules with similar properties (H2O, CH3OH), but instead its spatial release in some comets seems strongly coupled to volatiles that lack a dipole moment and thus do not form H-bonds (methane, ethane). Is HCN produced in part from an apolar precursor?6. ALMA maps of HCN and the dust continuum show a slight displacement in their centroids. Is this the signature of extended production of HCN?HCN as a product species: Points 4-6 suggest that HCN may have a significant distributed source. The astrochemical species ammonium cyanide is a strong candidate for this HCN precursor; at moderately low temperatures (< 200K) NH4CN is a stable solid, but it dissociates into HCN and NH3 when warmed. Disruption could eject macroscopic solid NH4CN into the coma where subsequent warming and release could augment

  8. Trichlorido(tetra­hydro­furan){(1,2,3,3a,7a-η)-1-[2-(1-trimethyl­silyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-κN 3)-1-methyl­prop­yl]inden­yl}zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shengzhou; Nie, Wanli; Borzov, Maxim V.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [ZrCl3(C19H25N2Si)(C4H8O)], was prepared from bis­(N,N-dimethyl­amido-κN)(2-{2-[(1,2,3,3a,7a-η)-inden­yl]-2-methyl­prop­yl}-1H-imidazolido-κN 1)zirconium(IV) [(C16H16N2)Zr(NMe2)] by reaction with excess Me3SiCl in tetra­hydro­furan (THF) at elevated temperature. The crystal studied contained a minor non-merohedral twin contaminant [6.3 (4)%] which was taken into account during the refinement. The coordination polyhedron of the ZrIV atom is a distorted octa­hedron [assuming that the five-membered ring of the indenyl group (Cp) occupies one coordination site], with the Cp group and a THF O atom at the apical positions and the three Cl and ligating N atoms at the equatorial positions. The Zr, Si and the methyl­ene C atoms deviate noticeably from the imidazole ring plane [by −0.197 (5), −0.207 (5) and 0.119 (6) Å, respectively]. The THF ligand adopts an envelope conformation. PMID:21754279

  9. Synthesis of Nanoscale CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O Using the Hydrothermal Method and Their Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingbin; Li, Dongxu; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    C-A-S-H (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) and N-A-S-H (Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) have a wide range of chemical compositions and structures and are difficult to separate from alkali-activated materials. Therefore, it is difficult to analyze their microscopic properties directly. This paper reports research on the synthesis of C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H particles with an average particle size smaller than 300 nm by applying the hydrothermal method. The composition and microstructure of the products with different CaO(Na2O)/SiO2 ratios and curing conditions were characterized using XRD, the RIR method, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and laser particle size analysis. The results showed that the C-A-S-H system products with a low CaO/SiO2 ratio were mainly amorphous C-A-S-H gels. With an increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio, an excess of Ca(OH)2 was observed at room temperature, while in a high-temperature reaction system, katoite, C4AcH11, and other crystallized products were observed. The katoite content was related to the curing temperature and the content of Ca(OH)2 and it tended to form at a high-temperature and high-calcium environment, and an increase in the temperature renders the C-A-S-H gels more compact. The main products of the N-A-S-H system at room temperature were amorphous N-A-S-H gels and a small amount of sodalite. An increase in the curing temperature promoted the formation of the crystalline products faujasite and zeolite-P. The crystallization products consisted of only zeolite-P in the high-temperature N-A-S-H system and its content were stable above 70%. An increase in the Na2O/SiO2 ratio resulted in more non-bridging oxygen and the TO4 was more isolated in the N-A-S-H structure. The composition and microstructure of the C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H system products synthesized by the hydrothermal method were closely related to the ratio of the raw materials and the curing conditions. The results of this study increase our understanding of the hydration products of alkali-activated materials. PMID

  10. 5-(4-Chloro­phen­oxy)-1-methyl-3-tri­fluoro­methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde O-[(2-chloro­pyridin-5-yl)meth­yl]oxime

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong; Zhu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Yu-Jun; Fang, Jian-Xin; Shi, Yu-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C18H13Cl2F3N4O2, the intra­molecular distance between the centroids of the benzene and pyridine rings is 3.953 (3) Å, and the trifluoro­methyl group is rotationally disordered over two orientations in a 0.678 (19):0.322 (19) ratio. The crystal packing exhibits weak inter­molecular C—H⋯F inter­actions. PMID:22199756

  11. C-C bond formation and related reactions at the CNC backbone in (smif)FeX (smif = 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl): dimerizations, 3 + 2 cyclization, and nucleophilic attack; transfer hydrogenations and alkyne trimerization (X = N(TMS)2, dpma = (di-(2-pyridyl-methyl)-amide)).

    PubMed

    Frazier, Brenda A; Williams, Valerie A; Wolczanski, Peter T; Bart, Suzanne C; Meyer, Karsten; Cundari, Thomas R; Lobkovsky, Emil B

    2013-03-18

    Molecular orbital analysis depicts the CNC(nb) backbone of the smif (1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) ligand as having singlet diradical and/or ionic character where electrophilic or nucleophilic attack is plausible. Reversible dimerization of (smif)Fe{N(SiMe3)2} (1) to [{(Me3Si)2N}Fe]2(μ-κ(3),κ(3)-N,py2-smif,smif) (2) may be construed as diradical coupling. A proton transfer within the backbone-methylated, and o-pyridine-methylated smif of putative ((b)Me2(o)Me2smif)FeN(SiMe3)2 (8) provides a route to [{(Me3Si)2N}Fe]2(μ-κ(4),κ(4)-N,py2,C-((b)Me,(b)CH2,(o)Me2(smif)H))2 (9). A 3 + 2 cyclization of ditolyl-acetylene occurs with 1, leading to the dimer [{2,5-di(pyridin-2-yl)-3,4-di-(p-tolyl-2,5-dihydropyrrol-1-ide)}FeN(SiMe3)2]2 (11), and the collateral discovery of alkyne cyclotrimerization led to a brief study that identified Fe(N(SiMe3)2(THF) as an effective catalyst. Nucleophilic attack by (smif)2Fe (13) on (t)BuNCO and (2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)NCO afforded (RNHCO-smif)2Fe (14a, R = (t)Bu; 14b, 2,6-(i)PrC6H3). Calculations suggested that (dpma)2Fe (15) would favorably lose dihydrogen to afford (smif)2Fe (13). H2-transfer to alkynes, olefins, imines, PhN═NPh, and ketones was explored, but only stoichiometric reactions were affected. Some physical properties of the compounds were examined, and X-ray structural studies on several dinuclear species were conducted.

  12. Luminescence Spectroscopy and Crystal Field Simulations of Europium Propylenediphosphonate EuH[O 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3] and Europium Glutarate [Eu(H 2O)] 2[O 2C(CH 2) 3CO 2] 3·4H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpaggi, F.; Férey, G.; Antic-Fidancev, E.

    1999-12-01

    The results of investigations on the photoluminescence of two europium hybrid compounds, EuH[O3P(CH2)3PO3] (Eu[diph]) and [Eu(H2O)]2[O2C(CH2)3CO2]3·4H2O (Eu[glut]), are presented. In both compounds one local environment is found for the rare earth (Re) ion and the symmetry of the Re polyhedron is low (Cs) as evidenced by the Eu3+ luminescence studies. The electrostatic crystal field (cf) parameters of the 7F multiplet are obtained by the application of the phenomenological cf theory. The simulations using C2v symmetry for the rare earth ion give good agreement between the calculated and the experimental 7F0-4 energy level schemes. The observed optical data are discussed in relation to the crystal structure of the compounds.

  13. Oxothiomolybdenum derivatives of the superlacunary crown heteropolyanion {P8W48}: structure of [K4{Mo4O4S4(H2O)3(OH)2}2(WO2)(P8W48O184)]30– and studies in solution.

    PubMed

    Korenev, Vladimir S; Floquet, Sébastien; Marrot, Jérôme; Haouas, Mohamed; Mbomekallé, Israël-Martyr; Taulelle, Francis; Sokolov, Maxim N; Fedin, Vladimir P; Cadot, Emmanuel

    2012-02-20

    Reaction of the cyclic lacunary [H(7)P(8)W(48)O(184)](33-) anion (noted P(8)W(48)) with the [Mo(2)S(2)O(2)(H(2)O)(6)](2+) oxothiocation led to two compounds, namely, [K(4){Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(WO(2))(P(8)W(48)O(184))](30-) (denoted 1) and [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(P(8)W(48)O(184))](36-) (denoted 2), which were characterized in the solid state and solution. In the solid state, the structure of [K(4){Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(WO(2))(P(8)W(48)O(184))](30-) reveals the presence of two disordered {Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2+) "handles" connected on both sides of the P(8)W(48) ring. Such a disorder is consistent with the presence of two geometrical isomers where the relative disposition of the two {Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2+) handles are arranged in a perpendicular or parallel mode. Such an interpretation is fully supported by (31)P and (183)W NMR solution studies. The relative stability of both geometrical isomers appears to be dependent upon the nature of the internal alkali cations, i.e., Na(+) vs K(+), and increased lability of the two {Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2+) handles, compared to the oxo analogous, was clearly identified by significant broadening of the (31)P and (183)W NMR lines. Solution studies carried out by UV-vis spectroscopy showed that formation of the adduct [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(P(8)W(48)O(184))](36-) occurs in the 1.5-4.7 pH range and corresponds to a fast and quantitative condensation process. Furthermore, (31)P NMR titrations in solution reveal formation of the "monohandle" derivative [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(P(8)W(48)O(184))](38-) as an intermediate prior to formation of the "bishandle" derivatives. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of [{Mo(4)O(4)S(4)(H(2)O)(3)(OH)(2)}(2)(P(8)W(48)O(184))](36-) was studied in aqueous medium and compared with the parent anion P(8)W(48).

  14. Laboratory Studies on the Formation of Three C2H4O Isomers-Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), Ethylene Oxide (c-C2H4O), and Vinyl Alcohol (CH2CHOH)-in Interstellar and Cometary Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Chris J.; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Lebar, Matt D.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2005-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to unravel synthetic routes to form three C2H4O isomers-acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O), and vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH)-in extraterrestrial ices via electronic energy transfer processes initiated by electrons in the track of MeV ion trajectories. Here we present the results of electron irradiation on a 2:1 mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4). Our studies suggest that suprathermal oxygen atoms can add to the carbon-carbon π bond of an ethylene molecule to form initially an oxirene diradical (addition to one carbon atom) and the cyclic ethylene oxide molecule (addition to two carbon atoms) at 10 K. The oxirene diradical can undergo a [1, 2]-H shift to the acetaldehyde molecule. Both the ethylene oxide and the acetaldehyde isomers can be stabilized in the surrounding ice matrix. To a minor amount, suprathermal oxygen atoms can insert into a carbon-hydrogen bond of the ethylene molecule, forming vinyl alcohol. Once these isomers have been synthesized inside the ice layers of the coated grains in cold molecular clouds, the newly formed molecules can sublime as the cloud reaches the hot molecular core stage. These laboratory investigations help to explain astronomical observations by Nummelin et al. and Ikeda et al. toward massive star-forming regions and hot cores, where observed fractional abundances of these isomers are higher than can be accounted for by gas-phase reactions alone. Similar synthetic routes could help explain the formation of acetaldehyde and ethylene oxide in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and also suggest a presence of both isomers in Titan's atmosphere.

  15. Synthesis, DFT calculations, electronic structure, electronic absorption spectra, natural bond orbital (NBO) and nonlinear optical (NLO) analysis of the novel 5-methyl-8H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-b][1,6] naphthyridine-6(5H),8-dione (MBCND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Ibrahim, Magdy A.

    2017-02-01

    New derivative of heteroannulated chromone identified as 5-methyl-8H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-b][1,6]naphthyridine-6(5H),8-dione (5, MBCND) was easily and efficiently synthesized from DBU catalyzed condensation reaction of 2-aminochromone-3-carboxaldehyde (1) with 4-hydroxy-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (2). The same product 5 was isolated from condensation reaction of aldeyde 1 with 3-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-3-oxopropanoic acid (3) or ethyl 4-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate (4). Structure of compound (5, MBCND) was deduced based on their elemental analyses and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra). Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the novel compound (5, MBCND). Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, the dipole moment, theoretical study of the electronic structure, nonlinear optical properties (NLO), and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and orientation have been performed and discussed. Also the electronic absorption spectra were measured in polar (methanol) as well as non polar (dioxane) solvents and the assignment of the observed bands has been discussed by TD-DFT calculations. The correspondences between calculated and experimental transitions energies are satisfactory.

  16. DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogens 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-aminobiphenyl are formed at environmental exposure levels and persist in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-09-16

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25-100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ∼5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a 10,000-fold concentration range (1 nM-10 μM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes suggest that AαC can contribute to DNA damage

  17. Real-Time in Vivo Detection of H2O2 Using Hyperpolarized 13C-Thiourea.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Arif; Park, Jae Mo; Liu, Shie-Chau; Khosla, Chaitan; Spielman, Daniel M

    2017-07-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential cellular metabolites widely implicated in many diseases including cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, ROS signaling remains poorly understood, and their measurements are a challenge due to high reactivity and instability. Here, we report the development of 13 C-thiourea as a probe to detect and measure H 2 O 2 dynamics with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution using hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. In particular, we show 13 C-thiourea to be highly polarizable and to possess a long spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ), which enables real-time monitoring of ROS-mediated transformation. We also demonstrate that 13 C-thiourea reacts readily with H 2 O 2 to give chemically distinguishable products in vitro and validate their detection in vivo in a mouse liver. This study suggests that 13 C-thiourea is a promising agent for noninvasive detection of H 2 O 2 in vivo. More broadly, our findings outline a viable clinical application for H 2 O 2 detection in patients with a range of diseases.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal study of the hybrid nickel sulfate: C6N2H16[Ni(H2O)6(SO4)2].2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngopoh, F. A. I.; Hamdi, N.; Chaouch, S.; Lachkar, M.; da Silva, I.; El Bali, B.

    2018-03-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid open framework nickel sulfate C6N2H16[Ni(H2O)6(SO4)2].2H2O has been synthesized by slow evaporation in aqueous solution using trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane as structure-directing agent. It was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analyzed by TGA-DSC. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n, with the unit cell parameters of a = 6.2586 Å, b = 12.3009 Å, c = 13.2451 Å, β = 98,047°, Z = 4. Its crystal structure consists of isolated polyhedrons [Ni(H2O)6]2+ and [SO4]2- and free water which connects through hydrogen bonds. This association results in the porous framework where the protonated organic molecule trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane is located as a counter ion. The IR spectra Shows the bands corresponding to the sulfate anion, water molecule and diprotonated trans-1-4-diaminocyclohexane. Thermal study indicates the loss of water molecules and the degradation of trans-1-4-diaminocyclohexane.

  19. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P < .05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n = 99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  20. Nqrs Data for C26H34N2O3V (Subst. No. 1601)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C26H34N2O3V (Subst. No. 1601)

  1. N(4)-Methyl-N(4)-(2-methylphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diamine-ethanol-hydrazine (1/0.865/0.135): hydrogen-bonded ribbons containing four independent ring types.

    PubMed

    Trilleras, Jorge; Quiroga, Jairo; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-06-01

    N(4)-Methyl-N(4)-(2-methylphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diamine crystallizes from ethanol as a mixed solvate, C(13)H(14)N(6).0.865C(2)H(6)O.0.135N(2)H(4), (I), where the hydrazine has been carried through from the initial preparation. Within the heterocyclic component, the 2-methylphenyl substituent is disordered over two sets of sites. There is an intramolecular C-H...pi(arene) hydrogen bond, which may control the molecular conformation of the heterocycle. The heterocyclic molecules are linked by two independent N-H...N hydrogen bonds in a chain containing two types of R(2)(2)(8) ring. The ethanol component is linked to this chain by a combination of O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds and the hydrazine component by two N-H...N hydrogen bonds, so generating two R(3)(3)(9) rings and thus forming a ribbon containing four distinct ring types.

  2. The cause of ‘weak-link’ grain boundary behaviour in polycrystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanmei; Raine, Mark J.; Hampshire, Damian P.

    2018-02-01

    The detrimental effects of grain boundaries have long been considered responsible for the low critical current densities ({J}{{c}}) in high temperature superconductors. In this paper, we apply the quantitative approach used to identify the cause of the ‘weak-link’ grain boundary behaviour in YBa2Cu3O7 (Wang et al 2017 Supercond. Sci Technol. 30 104001), to the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 materials that we have fabricated. Magnetic and transport measurements are used to characterise the grain and grain boundary properties of micro- and nanocrystalline materials. Magnetisation measurements on all nanocrystalline materials show non-Bean-like behaviour and are consistent with surface pinning. Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8: our microcrystalline material has very low grain boundary resistivity ({ρ }{{GB}}), which is similar to that of the grains ({ρ }{{G}}) such that {ρ }{{GB}}≈ {ρ }{{G}}=2× {10}-5 {{Ω }}{{m}} (assuming a grain boundary thickness (d) of 1 nm) equivalent to an areal resistivity of {ρ }{{G}}=2× {10}-14 {{{Ω }}{{m}}}2. The transport {J}{{c}} values are consistent with well-connected grains and very weak grain boundary pinning. However, unlike low temperature superconductors (LTS) in which decreasing grain size increases the pinning along the grain boundary channels, any increase in pinning produced by making the grains in our Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 materials nanocrystalline was completely offset by a decrease in the depairing current density of the grain boundaries caused by their high resistivity. We suggest a different approach to increasing {J}{{c}} from that used in LTS materials, namely incorporating additional strong grain and grain boundary pinning sites in microcrystalline materials to produce high {J}{{c}} values. Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10: both our micro- and nanocrystalline samples have {ρ }{{GB}}/{ρ }{{G}} of at least 103. This causes strong suppression of {J}{{c}} across the grain boundaries, which explains the low transport {J}{{c}} values we find

  3. Speciated Monitoring of Gas-Phase Organic Peroxy Radicals by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Cross-Reactions between CH3O2, CH3(CO)O2, (CH3)3CO2, and c-C6H11O2.

    PubMed

    Nozière, Barbara; Hanson, David R

    2017-11-09

    Organic peroxy radicals ("RO 2 ", with R organic) are key intermediates in most oxygen-rich systems, where organic compounds are oxidized (natural environment, flames, combustion engines, living organisms, etc). But, until recently, techniques able to monitor simultaneously and distinguish between RO 2 species ("speciated" detection) have been scarce, which has limited the understanding of complex systems containing these radicals. Mass spectrometry using proton transfer ionization has been shown previously to detect individual gas-phase RO 2 separately. In this work, we illustrate its ability to speciate and monitor several RO 2 simultaneously by investigating reactions involving CH 3 O 2 , CH 3 C(O)O 2 , c-C 6 H 11 O 2 , and (CH 3 ) 3 CO 2 . The detection sensitivity of each of these radicals was estimated by titration with NO to between 50 and 1000 Hz/ppb, with a factor from 3 to 5 of uncertainties, mostly due to the uncertainties in knowing the amounts of added NO. With this, the RO 2 concentration in the reactor was estimated between 1 × 10 10 and 1 × 10 12 molecules cm -3 . When adding a second radical species to the reactor, the kinetics of the cross-reaction could be studied directly from the decay of the first radical. The time-evolution of two and sometimes three different RO 2 was followed simultaneously, as the CH 3 O 2 produced in further reaction steps was also detected in some systems. The rate coefficients obtained are (in molecule -1 cm 3 s -1 ): k CH3O2+CH3C(O)O2 = 1.2 × 10 -11 , k CH3O2+t-butylO2 = 3.0 × 10 -15 , k c-hexylO2+CH3O2 = 1.2 × 10 -13 , k t-butylO2+CH3C(O)O2 = 3.7 × 10 -14 , and k c-hexylO2+t-butylO2 = 1.5 × 10 -15 . In spite of their good comparison with the literature and good reproducibility, large uncertainties (×5/5) are recommended on these results because of those in the detection sensitivities. This work is a first illustration of the potential applications of this technique for the investigation of organic radicals in

  4. Fabrication of low thermal expansion SiC/ZrW2O8 porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poowancum, A.; Matsumaru, K.; Juárez-Ramírez, I.; Torres-Martínez, L. M.; Fu, Z. Y.; Lee, S. W.; Ishizaki, K.

    2011-03-01

    Low or zero thermal expansion porous ceramics are required for several applications. In this work near zero thermal expansion porous ceramics were fabricated by using SiC and ZrW2O8 as positive and negative thermal expansion materials, respectively, bonded by soda lime glass. The mixture of SiC, ZrW2O8 and soda lime glass was sintered by Pulsed Electric Current Sintering (PECS, or sometimes called Spark Plasma Sintering, SPS) at 700 °C. Sintered samples with ZrW2O8 particle size smaller than 25 μm have high thermal expansion coefficient, because ZrW2O8 has the reaction with soda lime glass to form Na2ZrW3O12 during sintering process. The reaction between soda lime glass and ZrW2O8 is reduced by increasing particle size of ZrW2O8. Sintered sample with ZrW2O8 particle size 45-90 μm shows near zero thermal expansion.

  5. Morphology-defined interaction of copper phthalocyanine with O2/H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muckley, Eric S.; Miller, Nicholas; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Gredig, Thomas; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-10-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is an important hole transport layer for organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but interaction with ambient gas/vapor may lead to changes in its electronic properties and limit OPV device lifetimes. CuPc films of thickness 25 and 100 nm were grown by thermal sublimation at 25°C, 150°C, and 250°C in order to vary morphology. We measured electrical resistance and film mass in situ during exposure to controlled pulses of O2 and H2O vapor. CuPc films deposited at 250°C showed a factor of 5 higher uptake of O2 as detected by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), possibly due to the formation of β-CuPc at T>200°C which allows higher O2 mobility between stacked molecules. While weight-based measurements stabilize after ˜10 min of gas exposure, resistance response stabilizes over times >1 h, suggesting that mass change occurs by rapid adsorption at active surface sites whereas resistive response is dominated by slow diffusion of adsorbates into the bulk film. The 25 nm films exhibit higher resistive response than 100 nm films after an hour of O2/H2O exposure due to fast analyte diffusion down to the film/electrode interface. We found evidence of decoupling of CuPc from the gold-coated QCM crystal due to preferential adsorption of O2/H2O molecules on gold.

  6. Photo degradation of methyl orange by attapulgite-SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Lv, Fujian; Zhang, Weiguang; Li, Rongqing; Zhong, Hui; Zhao, Yijiang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xin

    2009-11-15

    Photocatalytic removal of methyl orange under ultraviolet radiation has been studied using attapulgite (ATT) composites, which were synthesized by depositing SnO(2)-TiO(2) hybrid oxides on the surface of ATT to form a composite photocatalyst (denoted ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2)) using an in situ sol-gel technique. Results showed that SnO(2)-TiO(2) nanocomposite particles with average size of about 10nm were loaded successfully on to the surface of ATT fibers and were widely dispersed. Correspondingly, the photocatalytic activity of ATT was improved significantly by loading SnO(2)-TiO(2). The photoactivity of the composite photocatalyst decreased in the sequence ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2)>ATT-SnO(2)>ATT-TiO(2)>ATT. In order to achieve the best photocatalyst, the molar ratio of SnO(2) and TiO(2) in the ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2) composites was adjusted to give a series with proportions r=n(Ti)/(n(Ti)+n(Sn))=0.0, 0.25, 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, 0.75, 0.80, 0.82, 0.86, 1.0. Results indicated that the proportion of SnO(2) and TiO(2) had a critical effect on the photocatalytic activity, which increased as the content of TiO(2) increased to r0.82. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was 99% within 30 min obtained by using ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2) with r=0.82. The repeated use of the composite photocatalyst was also confirmed.

  7. Highly efficient extraction and oxidative desulfurization system using Na7H2LaW10O36⋅32 H2O in [bmim]BF4 at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junhua; Zhao, Shen; Chen, Wei; Wang, Miao; Song, Yu-Fei

    2012-04-10

    Highly efficient, deep desulfurization of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzothiophene (BT), or 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) has been achieved under mild conditions by using an extraction and catalytic oxidative desulfurization system (ECODS) in which a lanthanide-containing polyoxometalate Na(7)H(2)LnW(10)O(36)⋅32 H(2)O (LnW(10); Ln = Eu, La) acts as catalyst, [bmim]BF(4) (bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) as extractant, and H(2)O(2) as oxidant. Sulfur removal follows the order DBT>4,6-DMDBT>BT at 30 °C. DBT can be completely oxidized to the corresponding sulfone in 25 min under mild conditions, and the LaW(10)/[bmim]BF(4) system could be recycled for ten times with only slight decrease in activity. Thus, LaW(10) in [bmim]BF(4) is one of the most efficient systems for desulfurization using ionic liquids as extractant reported so far. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. New vanadium tellurites: Syntheses, structures, optical properties of noncentrosymmetric VTeO{sub 4}(OH), centrosymmetric Ba{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10})

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ming-Li; State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002; Marsh, Matthew

    Two new vanadium tellurites, VTeO{sub 4}(OH) (1) and Ba{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10}) (2), have been synthesized successfully with the use of hydrothermal reactions. The crystal structures of the two compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the polar space group Pca2{sub 1} (No. 29) while compound 2 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group C2/c (No. 15). The topography of compound 1 reveals a two-dimensional, layered structure comprised of VO{sub 6} octahedral chains and TeO{sub 3}(OH) zig-zag chains. Compound 2, on the contrary, features a three-dimensional [V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10})]{sup 4-} anionic framework withmore » Ba{sup 2+} ions filled into the 10-member ring helical tunnels. The [V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10})]{sup 4-} anionic network is the first 3D vanadium tellurite framework to be discovered in the alkaline-earth vanadium tellurite system. Powder second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements indicate that compound 1 shows a weak SHG response of about 0.3×KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) under 1064 nm laser radiation. Infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, and dipole moment calculations have also been carried out. - Graphical abstract: VTeO{sub 4}(OH) (1) crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Pca2{sub 1} (No. 29) while Ba{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10}) (2) crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group C2/c (No. 15). - Highlights: • VTeO{sub 4}(OH) (1) and Ba{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10}) (2) have been synthesized successfully with the use of hydrothermal reactions. • VTeO{sub 4}(OH) (1) crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Pca2{sub 1} and displays a weak SHG response. • VTeO{sub 4}(OH) (1) represents only the fourth SHG-active material found in vanadium tellurite systems. • Ba{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O{sub 10}) (2) exhibits a novel three-dimensional [V{sub 4}O{sub 8}(Te{sub 3}O

  9. Novel 2-step synthetic indole compound 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane inhibits cancer cell growth in lung cancer cells and xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Yao, Ching-Fa; Huang, Sin-Ming; Ko, Shengkai; Tan, Yi-Hung; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2008-08-15

    The clinical responses to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients are unsatisfactory. Thus, the development of more effective anticancer drugs for lung cancer is urgently needed. A 2-step novel synthetic compound, referred to as 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane (3-indole), was generated in high purity and yield. 3-Indole was tested for its biologic activity in A549, H1299, H1435, CL1-1, and H1437 lung cancer cells. Animal studies were also performed. The data indicate that 3-indole induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cells. Increased cytochrome-c release from mitochondria to cytosol, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, and increased expression of proapoptotic Bax were observed. In addition, 3-indole stimulated caspases-3, -9, and to a lesser extent caspase-8 activities in cancer cells, suggesting that the intrinsic mitochondria pathway was the potential mechanism involved in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. 3-Indole-induced a concentration-dependent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and triggering of DNA damage were also apparent. Note that 3-indole-induced JNK activation and DNA damage can be partially suppressed by an ROS inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by 3-indole could be abrogated by ROS or JNK inhibitors, suggesting the importance of ROS and JNK stress-related pathways in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. Moreover, 3-indole showed in vivo antitumor activities against human xenografts in murine models. On the basis of its potent anticancer activity in cell and animal models, the data suggest that this 2-step synthetic 3-indole compound of high purity and yield is a potential candidate to be tested as a lead pharmaceutical compound for cancer treatment. 2008 American Cancer Society

  10. Effect of ENaC Modulators on Rat Neural Responses to NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Heck, Gerard L.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The effects of small molecule ENaC activators N,N,N-trimethyl-2-((4-methyl-2-((4-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)thio)pentanoyl)oxy)ethanaminium iodide (Compound 1) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-((4-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)thio)pentanamide (Compound 2), were tested on the benzamil (Bz)-sensitive NaCl chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve response under open-circuit conditions and under ±60 mV applied lingual voltage-clamp, and compared with the effects of known physiological activators (8-CPT-cAMP, BAPTA-AM, and alkaline pH), and an inhibitor (ionomycin+Ca2+) of ENaC. The NaCl CT response was enhanced at −60 mV and suppressed at +60 mV. In every case the CT response (r) versus voltage (V) curve was linear. All ENaC activators increased the open-circuit response (ro) and the voltage sensitivity (κ, negative of the slope of the r versus V curve) and ionomycin+Ca2+ decreased ro and κ to zero. Compound 1 and Compound 2 expressed a sigmoidal-saturating function of concentration (0.25–1 mM) with a half-maximal response concentration (k) of 0.49 and 1.05 mM, respectively. Following treatment with 1 mM Compound 1, 8-CPT-cAMP, BAPTA-AM and pH 10.3, the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response to 100 mM NaCl was enhanced and was equivalent to the Bz-sensitive CT response to 300 mM NaCl. Plots of κ versus ro in the absence and presence of the activators or the inhibitor were linear, suggesting that changes in the affinity of Na+ for ENaC under different conditions are fully compensated by changes in the apical membrane potential difference, and that the observed changes in the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response arise exclusively from changes in the maximum CT response (rm). The results further suggest that the agonists enhance and ionomycin+Ca2+ decreases ENaC function by increasing or decreasing the rate of release of Na+ from its ENaC binding site to the receptor cell cytosol, respectively. Irrespective of agonist type, the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response demonstrated a maximum response enhancement

  11. New zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Xinyu; Si, Xiali; Liang, Hong; Tu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qingying

    2018-01-31

    Four new zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids, rhynchophyllioniums A-D (1-4), together with eight known alkaloids (5-12), were isolated from the hook-bearing stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD, and the zwitterionic forms and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates, including the monoterpene indole alkaloids with free C-22 carboxyl group and those with C-22 carboxyl methyl ester, were proved to be naturally coexisting in the herb by LC-MS analysis. This is the first report of monoterpene indole alkaloids that exist in the form of zwitterion. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of all isolates against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines are reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solvent-free synthesis of C10 and C11 branched alkanes from furfural and methyl isobutyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfan; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Cong, Yu; Zhang, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Our best results jet: C10 and C11 branched alkanes, with low freezing points, are synthesized through the aldol condensation of furfural and methyl isobutyl ketone from lignocellulose, which is then followed by hydrodeoxygenation. These jet-fuel-range alkanes are obtained in high overall yields (≈90%) under solvent-free conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Experimental, DFT and molecular docking studies on 2-(2-mercaptophenylimino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    A new coumarin derivative 2-(2-mercaptophenylimino)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-7-ol (COMSB) was synthesized and characterized with the help of 1H,13C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman and mass spectrometry. All quantum calculations were performed at DFT level of theory using B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d,p) as basis set. The UV-Vis spectrum studied by TD-DFT theory, with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional using Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) in solvent phase gives similar pattern of bands, at energies and is consistent with that of experimental findings. The detailed analysis of vibrational (IR and Raman) spectra and their assignments has been done by computing Potential Energy Distribution (PED) using Gar2ped. Intra-molecular interactions were analyzed by 'Atoms in molecule' (AIM) approach. Computed first static hyperpolarizability (β0 = 8.583 × 10-30 esu) indicates non-linear optical (NLO) response of the molecule. Molecular docking studies show that the title molecule may act as potential acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor.

  14. Kinetic study of Bi 1.8Pb 0.4Ca 2Sr 2Cu 3O y superconductor in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. M.; Wei, T. P.; Kao, H.-C. I.

    1993-10-01

    The reaction of Bi 1.8Pb 0.4Ca 2Sr 2Cu 3O y powder in water was studied quantitatively. It was found that the [H 3O +] ion would act as a catalyst in this reaction and the initial rate equation was R 0 = - {d[A] 0}/{dt } = k[A] 0[ H3O+] 0.20, where [ A] represented the surface area of the superconducting powder. The rate constant, k, obtained at 10, 25 and 40°C was 3.98, 8.8 and 19.6 × 10 -4 mol min -1 cm -2 M 0.8, respectively. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor calculated from the Arrhenius equation were respectively 39.1 kJ mol -1 and 6.4 × 10 3 mol min -1 cm -2 M 0.8.

  15. Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Conrath, B. J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P. D.; Romani, P. N.; Abbas, M.; LeClair, A.; Strobel, D.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrocarbons such as acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are important tracers in Jupiter's atmosphere, constraining our models of the chemical and dynamical processes. However, our knowledge of the vertical and meridional variations of their abundances has remained sparse. During the flyby of the Cassini spacecraft in December 2000, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument was used to map the spatial variation of emissions from 10-1400 cm(sup -1) (1000-7 microns). In this paper we analyze a zonally-averaged set of CIRS spectra taken at the highest (0.5 cm(sup -1)) resolution, to infer atmospheric temperatures in the stratosphere at 0.5-20 mbar via the v4 band of CH4, and in the troposphere at 150-400 mbar, via the H2 absorption at 600-800 cm(sup -1). Simultaneously, we retrieve the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 via the v5 and vg bands respectively. Tropospheric absorption and stratospheric emission are highly anti-correlated at the CIRS resolution, introducing a non-uniqueness into the retrievals, such that vertical gradient and column abundance cannot both be found without additional constraints. Assuming profile gradients from photochemical calculations, we show that the column abundance of C2H2 decreases sharply towards the poles by a factor approximately 4, while C2H6 is unchanged in the north and increasing in the south, by a factor approximately 1.8. An explanation for the meridional trends is proposed in terms of a combination of photochemistry and dynamics. Poleward, the decreasing UV flux is predicted to decrease the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 by factors 2.7 and 3.5 respectively at a latitude 70 deg. However, the lifetime of C2H6 in the stratosphere (5 x 10(exp 9)) is much longer than the dynamical timescale for meridional motions inferred from SL-9 debris (5 x 10(exp 8 s)), and therefore the constant or rising abundance towards high latitudes likely indicates that meridional mixing dominates over photochemical effects. For C2H2, the opposite

  16. Two conformers of 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene spiro-linked with homobenzoquinone epoxide.

    PubMed

    Asahara, Haruyasu; Koizumi, Takuya; Mochizuki, Eiko; Oshima, Takumi

    2006-03-01

    The crystal structures of the two thermally equilibrated conformational isomers of the epoxide 1',5'-dimethylspiro[10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene-5,8'-4'-oxatricyclo[5.1.0.0(3,5)]octane]-2',6'-dione, C23H20O3, have been determined by X-ray diffraction. In the tricyclic dione skeleton, the oxirane and cyclopropane rings adopt an anti structure with respect to the conjunct quinone frame. The spiro-linked 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene ring of the major isomer has a fairly twisted boat form, folding opposite to the adjoining cyclopropane methyl substituent, whereas the seven-membered ring of the minor isomer has an almost ideal twist-boat form, inversely folding to the side of the relevant methyl group. The conformational structures of these isomers have been compared with those of the corresponding isomers of the unepoxidized homobenzoquinone.

  17. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-C2H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigoto, J. M. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ion mobility measurements made in gaseous mixtures of xenon (Xe) with ethane (C2H6) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr (8-10.6 mbar) and for low reduced electric fields in the 10 Td to 25 Td range (2.4-6.1 kVṡcm-1ṡ bar-1), at room temperature. The time of arrival spectra revealed two peaks throughout the entire range studied which were attributed to ion species with 3-carbons (C3H5+, C3H6+ C3H8+ and C3H9+) and with 4-carbons (C4H7+, C4H9+ and C4H10+). Besides these, and for Xe concentrations above 70%, a bump starts to appear at the right side of the main peak for reduced electric fields higher than 20 Td, which was attributed to the resonant charge transfer of C2H6+ to C2H6 that affects the mobility of its ion products (C3H8+ and C3H9+). The time of arrival spectra for Xe concentrations of 20%, 50%, 70% and 90% are presented, together with the reduced mobilities as a function of the Xe concentration calculated from the peaks observed for the low reduced electric fields and pressures studied.

  18. Dynamic response performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack with Pt/C-RuO2·xH2O electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lu; Xu, Hongfeng; Zhao, Hong; Sun, Xin; Dong, Yiming; Ren, Ruiming

    2013-11-01

    The dynamic response performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) significantly affects its durability and reliability. Thus, the improvement of the dynamic performance of PEMFC has become the key for prolonging the PEMFC life in fuel cell vehicle applications. In this study, RuO2·xH2O is prepared by sol-gel method, and then sprayed onto catalyst layers to promote PEMFC dynamic response performance. The prepared RuO2·xH2O is characterized by TEM, which shows that the average particle size of RuO2·xH2O is 8 nm and that the particulates are uniformly distributed. A 10-cell stack is assembled using membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with and without RuO2·xH2O. This stack is studied under various loading cycles and operating conditions, including different air stoichiometries, relative humidities, and loading degrees. Results show that the steady-state performance of the MEA with RuO2·xH2O is better than that in the MEA without RuO2·xH2O with a decreasing relative humidity from 80% to 20%. A slower and more unstable dynamic response of the MEA without RuO2·xH2O is observed as air stoichiometry and relative humidity decrease as well as the loading increase. Thus, RuO2·xH2O improves the dynamic response performance, indicating that RuO2·xH2O can buffer the voltage undershoot, improve the stability, and prolong the lifetime of the PEMFC stack.

  19. Attikaite, Ca3Cu2Al2(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 2H2O, a new mineral species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Zadov, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    Attikaite, a new mineral species, has been found together with arsenocrandalite, arsenogoyazite, conichalcite, olivenite, philipsbornite, azurite, malachite, carminite, beudantite, goethite, quartz, and allophane at the Christina Mine No. 132, Kamareza, Lavrion District, Attiki Prefecture (Attika), Greece. The mineral is named after the type locality. It forms spheroidal segregations (up to 0.3 mm in diameter) consisting of thin flexible crystals up to 3 × 20 × 80 μm in size. Its color is light blue to greenish blue, with a pale blue streak. The Mohs’ hardness is 2 to 2.5. The cleavage is eminent mica-like parallel to {001}. The density is 3.2(2) g/cm3 (measured in heavy liquids) and 3.356 g/cm3 (calculated). The wave numbers of the absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of attikaite are (cm-1; sh is shoulder; w is a weak band): 3525 sh, 3425, 3180, 1642, 1120 w, 1070 w, 1035 w, 900 sh, 874, 833, 820, 690 w, 645 w, 600 sh, 555, 486, 458, and 397. Attikaite is optically biaxial, negative, α = 1.642(2), β = γ = 1.644(2) ( X = c) 2 V means = 10(8)°, and 2 V calc = 0°. The new mineral is microscopically colorless and nonpleochroic. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average over 4 point analyses, wt %) is: 0.17 MgO, 17.48 CaO, 0.12 FeO, 16.28 CuO, 10.61 Al2O3, 0.89 P2O5, 45.45 As2O5, 1.39 SO3, and H2O (by difference) 7.61, where the total is 100.00. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (O,OH,H2O)22 is: Ca2.94Cu{1.93/2+} Al1.97Mg0.04Fe{0.02/2+} [(As3.74S0.16P0.12)Σ4.02O16.08](OH)3.87 · 2.05H2 O. The simplified formula is Ca3Cu2Al2(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 2H2O. Attikaite is orthorhombic, space group Pban, Pbam or Pba2; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 10.01(1), b = 8.199(5), c = 22.78(1) Å, V = 1870(3) Å3, and Z = 4. In the result of the ignition of attikaite for 30 to 35 min at 128 140°, the H2O bands in the IR spectrum disappear, while the OH-group band is not modified; the weight loss is 4.3%, which approximately corresponds to two H2O

  20. Ab initio studies on Al(+)(H(2)O)(n), HAlOH(+)(H(2)O)(n-1), and the size-dependent H(2) elimination reaction.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chi-Kit; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Tse, John S

    2002-09-11

    We report computational studies on Al(+)(H(2)O)(n), and HAlOH(+)(H(2)O)(n-1), n = 6-14, by the density functional theory based ab initio molecular dynamics method, employing a planewave basis set with pseudopotentials, and also by conventional methods with Gaussian basis sets. The mechanism for the intracluster H(2) elimination reaction is explored. First, a new size-dependent insertion reaction for the transformation of Al(+)(H(2)O)(n), into HAlOH(+)(H(2)O)(n-1) is discovered for n > or = 8. This is because of the presence of a fairly stable six-water-ring structure in Al(+)(H(2)O)(n) with 12 members, including the Al(+). This structure promotes acidic dissociation and, for n > or = 8, leads to the insertion reaction. Gaussian based BPW91 and MP2 calculations with 6-31G* and 6-31G** basis sets confirmed the existence of such structures and located the transition structures for the insertion reaction. The calculated transition barrier is 10.0 kcal/mol for n = 9 and 7.1 kcal/mol for n = 8 at the MP2/6-31G** level, with zero-point energy corrections. Second, the experimentally observed size-dependent H(2) elimination reaction is related to the conformation of HAlOH(+)(H(2)O)(n-1), instead of Al(+)(H(2)O)(n). As n increases from 6 to 14, the structure of the HAlOH(+)(H(2)O)(n-1) cluster changes into a caged structure, with the Al-H bond buried inside, and protons produced in acidic dissociation could then travel through the H(2)O network to the vicinity of the Al-H bond and react with the hydride H to produce H(2). The structural transformation is completed at n = 13, coincident approximately with the onset of the H(2) elimination reaction. From constrained ab initio MD simulations, we estimated the free energy barrier for the H(2) elimination reaction to be 0.7 eV (16 kcal/mol) at n = 13, 1.5 eV (35 kcal/mol) at n = 12, and 4.5 eV (100 kcal/mol) at n = 8. The existence of transition structures for the H(2) elimination has also been verified by ab initio calculations

  1. The DNA methylation profile of liver tumors in C3H mice and identification of differentially methylated regions involved in the regulation of tumorigenic genes.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Junya; Okamura, Kazuyuki; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Takehiro; Horibe, Yu; Kawai, Tomoko; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Higami, Yoshikazu; Ichihara, Gaku; Hata, Kenichiro; Nohara, Keiko

    2018-03-22

    C3H mice have been frequently used in cancer studies as animal models of spontaneous liver tumors and chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, are among pivotal control mechanisms of gene expression leading to carcinogenesis. Although information on somatic mutations in liver tumors of C3H mice is available, epigenetic aspects are yet to be clarified. We performed next generation sequencing-based analysis of DNA methylation and microarray analysis of gene expression to explore genes regulated by DNA methylation in spontaneous liver tumors of C3H mice. Overlaying these data, we selected cancer-related genes whose expressions are inversely correlated with DNA methylation levels in the associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs) located around transcription start sites (TSSs) (promoter DMRs). We further assessed mutuality of the selected genes for expression and DNA methylation in human HCC using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We obtained data on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in the normal and tumor livers of C3H mice. We identified promoter DMRs of genes which are reported to be related to cancer and whose expressions are inversely correlated with the DNA methylation, including Mst1r, Slpi and Extl1. The association between DNA methylation and gene expression was confirmed using a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) in Hepa1c1c7 cells and Hepa1-6 cells. Overexpression of Mst1r in Hepa1c1c7 cells illuminated a novel downstream pathway via IL-33 upregulation. Database search indicated that gene expressions of Mst1r and Slpi are upregulated and the TSS upstream regions are hypomethylated also in human HCC. These results suggest that DMRs, including those of Mst1r and Slpi, are involved in liver tumorigenesis in C3H mice, and also possibly in human HCC. Our study clarified genome wide DNA methylation landscape of C3H mice. The data provide useful information

  2. Synthesis, structure and physicochemical characterization of the hybrid material [C6H16N2O]2 SnCl6·2Cl·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaj Salah, S.; Pereira da Silva, P. S.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.; Ammar, S.; Mrad, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    The current study reports the chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel compound [C6H16N2O]2SnCl6·2Cl·2H2O. This compound crystallizes in the triclinic system (space group P - 1, Z = 1) with the following unit cell dimensions: a = 7.9764(9), b = 8.2703(9), c = 12.1103(14)Å, α = 84.469(6), β = 75.679(6), and γ = 64.066(5)°. The structure was solved using 3093 independent reflections down to R = 0.020. The atomic arrangement shows alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is ensured by Nsbnd H…Cl and Osbnd H…Cl hydrogen bonds that build a three-dimensional network. The 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and the associated 2D fingerprint plots were investigated for intermolecular interactions. The 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the IR and NMR bands. X-ray powder, XPS and UV spectrum have been carried out. The DSC profile shows that the title material exhibits dehydration at 339 K.

  3. Effects of micro-water on decomposition of the environment-friendly insulating medium C5F10O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Song; Li, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tian, Shuangshuang; Deng, Zaitao; Tang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    SF6 is widely used in all kinds of high-voltage electrical equipment because of its excellent insulation and arc-extinguishing performance. However, this compound leads to serious greenhouse effect, which harms the environment. Many research institutions are now actively in search of SF6 alternative gas. C5F10O has attracted much attention as an alternative gas with low global warming potential (GWP) and excellent dielectric strength. In this paper, we analyzed the possible decomposition paths of C5F10O under micro-water environment through density functional theory. We also evaluated the ionization parameters and toxicity of the decomposition products. The results show that OH• and H• produced by H2O exhibited a catalytic effect on the decomposition of C5F10O. CF4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C3F7COH, C3F7OH, CF3COH, C3F7H, and CF3OH were produced in the micro-water environment. Based on molecular configuration calculation, the ionization parameters of these products were inferior to perfluorocarbons, such as C3F8, leading to reduced insulation performance of the system. Moreover, CF2O and HF are hazardous to human health and equipment safety. Results will provide a basis for further study of the insulation characteristic of the C5F10O gas mixture under micro-water condition to guide the formulation of their relevant international standards prior to engineering applications.

  4. Influence of annealing environment on the ALD-Al2O3/4H-SiC interface studied through XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Saveda Suvanam, Sethu; Hallén, Anders

    2018-03-01

    The instability of Al2O3/4H-SiC interface at various process temperatures and ambient is investigated by the annealing of Al2O3/4H-SiC in low vacuum conditions as well as in N2 environments. Atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on a 4H-SiC substrate with 3, 6 and 10 nm of thicknesses is treated at 300, 500, 700 and 900 °C under the vacuum level of 10-1 torr. The as-deposited and annealed structures are analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is hypothesized that the minute quantity of oxygen present in low vacuum conditions diffuses through thin layers of Al2O3 and helps in forming SiO2 at the interface even at low temperatures (i.e. 300 °C), which plays a pivotal role in determining the electrical properties of the interface. It is also proved that the absence of oxygen in the ambient prevents the formation of SiO2 at low temperatures. Additionally, it is observed that Al-OH is present in as-deposited layers, which gradually reduces after annealing. However, at around 700 °C, the concentration of oxygen in the whole structure increases to maximum and reduces at 900 °C.

  5. A Designed ZnO@ZIF-8 Core-Shell Nanorod Film as a Gas Sensor with Excellent Selectivity for H2 over CO.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Xiong, Shunshun; Mao, Zhenghao; Hu, Sheng; Long, Xinggui

    2017-06-12

    The development of H 2 gas sensors is important for H 2 production as a fuel. In this work, a ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell nanorod film is designed and synthesized as a gas sensor through a facile solution deposition process. This film shows an excellent selective response for H 2 over CO. By fine-tuning the reaction conditions, a ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell structure with a thin, fine-grain, porous ZIF-8 shell is obtained. Owing to the facile H 2 penetration through the ZIF-8 thin shell (≈110 nm) and the increased oxygen vacancies for the complex film, the ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod film shows a higher H 2 sensitivity than a raw ZnO nanorod film. More importantly, the ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod film shows no response for CO at 200 °C. Because of the fine-grain confinement of the porous ZIF-8 shell (<140 nm), the molecular sieving effect is strengthened, which allows the effective separation of H 2 over CO. This work provides a promising strategy for the design of high-performance H 2 sensors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Pathways to Oxygen-Bearing Molecules in the Interstellar Medium and in Planetary Atmospheres: Cyclopropenone (c-C3H2O) and Propynal (HCCCHO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Gao, Li Gyun; Chang, Agnes H. H.; Liang, Mao-Chang; Yung, Yuk L.

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the formation of two C3H2O isomers, i.e., cyclopropenone (c-C3H2O) and propynal (HCCCHO), in binary ice mixtures of carbon monoxide (CO) and acetylene (C2H2) at 10 K in an ultrahigh vacuum machine on high-energy electron irradiation. The chemical evolution of the ice samples was followed online and in situ via a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The temporal profiles of the cyclopropenone and propynal isomers suggest (pseudo-) first-order kinetics. The cyclic structure (c-C3H2O) is formed via an addition of triplet carbon monoxide to ground-state acetylene (or vice versa); propynal (HCCCHO) can be synthesized from a carbon monoxide-acetylene complex via a [HCO...CCH] radical pair inside the matrix cage. These laboratory studies showed for the first time that both C3H2O isomers can be formed in low-temperature ices via nonequilibrium chemistry initiated by energetic electrons as formed in the track of Galactic cosmic ray particles penetrating interstellar icy grains in cold molecular clouds. Our results can explain the hitherto unresolved gas phase abundances of cyclopropenone in star-forming regions via sublimation of c-C3H2O as formed on icy grains in the cold molecular cloud stage. Implications for the heterogeneous oxygen chemistry of Titan and icy terrestrial planets and satellites suggest that the production of oxygen-bearing molecules such as C3H2O may dominate on aerosol particles compared to pure gas phase chemistry.

  7. Selective inhibition of CYP2C8 by fisetin and its methylated metabolite, geraldol, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Riya; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Nam, Wongshik; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Jae-Mok; Lee, Sangkyu

    2018-04-01

    Fisetin is a flavonol compound commonly found in edible vegetables and fruits. It has anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Geraldol, the O-methyl metabolite of fisetin in mice, is reported to suppress endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Although the in vivo and in vitro effects of fisetin and its metabolites are frequently reported, studies on herb-drug interactions have not yet been performed. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of fisetin and geraldol on eight isoforms of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) by using cocktail assay and LC-MS/MS analysis. The selective inhibition of CYP2C8-catalyzed paclitaxel hydroxylation by fisetin and geraldol were confirmed in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). In addition, an IC 50 shift assay under different pre-incubation conditions confirmed that fisetin and geraldol shows a reversible concentration-dependent, but not mechanism-based, inhibition of CYP2C8. Moreover, Michaelis-Menten, Lineweaver-burk plots, Dixon and Eadie-Hofstee showed a non-competitive inhibition mode with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 4.1 μM for fisetin and 11.5 μM for geraldol, determined from secondary plot of the Lineweaver-Burk plot. In conclusion, our results indicate that fisetin showed selective reversible and non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C8 more than its main metabolite, geraldol, in HLMs. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SO2-tolerant and H2O-promoting Pt/C catalysts for efficient NO removal via fixed-bed H2-SCR.

    PubMed

    Tu, Baosheng; Shi, Nian; Sun, Wei; Cao, Limei; Yang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Pt supports on carbon black powder (Vulcan XC-72) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with H 2 in the presence of 2 vol% O 2 over a wide temperature of 20-300 °C. The results showed that the 3 and 5 wt% Pt/C catalysts resulted in high NO conversion (>90 %) over a temperature range of 120 to 300 °C, and the maximum NO conversion of 98.6 % was achieved over 5 wt% Pt/C at 120 °C. Meanwhile, the influence of SO 2 and H 2 O on the catalyst performance of 3 wt% Pt/C was investigated. The catalysts exhibited good SO 2 poisoning resistance when the SO 2 concentration was lower than 260 ppm. Moreover, a positive effect on NO conversion was detected with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% H 2 O in the feed gas stream. Graphical abstract TEM image and good NO conversion performance of the Pt/C catalysts.

  9. Synthesis, structure, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of K2[Co(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narsimhulu, M.; Hussain, K. A.

    2018-06-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic behaviour of potassium bis(oxalato)cobaltate(II)tertrahydrate{K2[Co(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·4H2O} are described. The compound was grown at room temperature from mixture of aqueous solutions by slow evaporation method. The X-ray crystallographic data showed that the compound belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group and Z = 4. The UV-visible diffuse absorbance spectra exhibited bands at 253, 285 and 541 nm in the visible and ultraviolet regions. The optical band gap of the compound was estimated as 3.4 eV. At room temperature, an intense photoluminescence was observed from this material around 392 nm when it excited at 254 nm. The variable temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements exposed paramagnetic behaviour at high temperatures and antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin HCl-2H2O (ENRO-C) in dogs and PK/PD Monte Carlo simulations against Leptospira sp.

    PubMed

    Sumano, Hector; Ocampo, Luis; Tapia, Graciela; Mendoza, C de Jesus; Gutierrez, Lilia

    2018-04-12

    Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios of reference enrofloxacin (Enro-R) and enrofloxacin as HCl-2H 2 O (Enro-C), as well as Monte Carlo simulations based on composite MIC 50 and MIC 90 vs. Leptospira sp., were carried out in dogs after their IM and oral administration (10 mg/kg). Plasma determination of enrofloxacin was achieved by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maximum plasma concentration values after oral administration were 1.47 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 5.3 ± 0.84 µg/mL for Enro-R and Enro-C, respectively, and 1.6 ± 0.12 µg/mL and 7.6 ± 0.93 µg/mL after IM administration. Area under the plasma vs. time concentrations in 24 h (AUC 0-24 ) were 8.02 µg/mL/h and 36.2 µg/mL/h for Enro-R oral and Enro-C oral , respectively, and 8.55 ± 0.85 µg/mL/h and 56.4 ± 6.21 µg/mL/h after IM administration of these drugs. Only PK/PD ratios and Monte Carlo simulations obtained with Enro-C, anticipate that its IM administration to dogs will result in therapeutic concentrations to treat leptospirosis. This is the first time enrofloxacin has been recommended to treat this disease in dogs.

  11. 1-Pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole and 2-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-1 H-indol-3-yl)-ethanone: X-ray structures and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nycz, Jacek E.; Malecki, Grzegorz; Zawiazalec, Marcin; Pazdziorek, Tadeusz; Skop, Patrycja

    2010-12-01

    1-Pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (shortly named JWH-081) ( 1) and 2-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-1 H-indol-3-yl)-ethanone (shortly named JWH-250) ( 2), are examples of cannabinoids which were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The geometries of the studied compounds were optimized in singlet states using the density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP functional. Electronic spectra were calculated by TDDFT method. In general, the predicted bond lengths and angles are in a good agreement with the values based on the X-ray crystal structure data.

  12. [The effect of Foxc2 overexpression on the osteogenic properties of C3H10T1/2 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Jiao; Si, Jia-Wen; Li, Hong-Liang; Ouyang, Ning-Juan; Shen, Guo-Fang

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Foxc2 overexpression on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. C3H10T1/2 cells were transfected with plenti-Foxc2 and selected with puromycin for stable clones. The expression of Foxc2 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 kit. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The level of osteogenic biomarkers Runx2, OPN, OCN and adipogenic biomarker PPARγ were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and oil red staining were conducted to evaluate the effect of Foxc2 overexpression on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. C3H10T1/2-Foxc2 cell line was successfully constructed and verified by direct sequencing and Foxc2 overexpression in vitro. Cell proliferation was reduced and cell cycle was blocked in G1/G0 phase. Enhanced ALP staining and reduced oil red staining were observed in C3H10T1/2-Foxc2 cells as compared with the control. Foxc2 overexpression up-regulated Runx2, OPN, OCN during osteogenic differentiation and down-regulated PPARγduring adipogenic differentiation. C3H10T1/2 cell line stably expressing Foxc2 gene was successfully established, cell proliferation was reduced, osteogenesis biomarkers were up-regulated during the osteogenesis by overexpression Foxc2, PPARγwas down-regulated during adipogenesis.

  13. Abatement of Polychoro-1,3-butadienes in Aqueous Solution by Ozone, UV Photolysis, and Advanced Oxidation Processes (O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2).

    PubMed

    Lee, Minju; Merle, Tony; Rentsch, Daniel; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2017-01-03

    The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O 3 /H 2 O 2 and UV/H 2 O 2 ) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (k O 3 ) (<0.1-7.9 × 10 3 M -1 s -1 ) or with hydroxyl radicals (k • OH ) (0.9 × 10 9 - 6.5 × 10 9 M -1 s -1 ), photon fluence-based rate constants (k') (210-2730 m 2 einstein -1 ), and quantum yields (Φ) (0.03-0.95 mol einstein -1 ). During ozonation of CBDs in a natural groundwater, appreciable abatements (>50% at specific ozone doses of 0.5 gO 3 /gDOC to ∼100% at ≥1.0 gO 3 /gDOC) were achieved for tetra-CBDs followed by (Z)-1,1,2,3,4-penta-CBD and hexa-CBD. This is consistent with the magnitude of the determined k O 3 and k • OH . The formation of bromate, a potentially carcinogenic ozonation byproduct, could be significantly reduced by addition of H 2 O 2 . For a typical UV disinfection dose (400 J/m 2 ), various extents of phototransformations (10-90%) could be achieved. However, the efficient formation of photoisomers from CBDs with E/Z configuration must be taken into account because of their potential residual toxicity. Under UV-C(254 nm) photolysis conditions, no significant effect of H 2 O 2 addition on CBDs abatement was observed due to an efficient direct phototransformation of CBDs.

  14. Synthesis of methyl 3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside and methyl 3-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Dubey, R; Jain, R K; Abbas, S A; Matta, K L

    1987-08-01

    Methyl 2-O-benzyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha- D-mannopyranoside (4) and methyl 2-O-benzyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (6) were prepared from a common intermediate, namely, methyl 2-O-benzyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. On treatment with tert-butylchlorodiphenylsilane, in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of imidazole, 4 and 6 afforded methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl -alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (7), and methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(6-O-tert- butyldiphenylsilyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (8), respectively. Compound 8 was converted into its 2,3-O-isopropylidene derivative (9), and oxidation of 7 and 9 with pyridinium chlorochromate, and reduction of the resulting carbonyl intermediates gave methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl -alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-talopyranoside and methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(6-O-tert-butyldiphe nylsilyl- 2,3-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-talopyranosyl)-alpha-D-talopyranoside , respectively. Removal of the protecting groups furnished the title disaccharides.

  15. Development of [3H]2-Carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic Acid ([3H]PSB-12150): A Useful Tool for Studying GPR17

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recently described synthetic GPR17 agonist 2-carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic acid (1) was prepared in tritium-labeled form by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding propenoic acid derivative 8 with tritium gas. The radioligand [3H]PSB-12150 (9) was obtained with a specific activity of 17 Ci/mmol (629 GBq/mmol). It showed specific and saturable binding to a single binding site in membrane preparations from Chinese hamster ovary cells recombinantly expressing the human GPR17. A competition assay procedure was established, which allows the determination of ligand binding affinities. PMID:24900835

  16. Development of [(3)H]2-Carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic Acid ([(3)H]PSB-12150): A Useful Tool for Studying GPR17.

    PubMed

    Köse, Meryem; Ritter, Kirsten; Thiemke, Katharina; Gillard, Michel; Kostenis, Evi; Müller, Christa E

    2014-04-10

    The recently described synthetic GPR17 agonist 2-carboxy-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-3-propionic acid (1) was prepared in tritium-labeled form by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding propenoic acid derivative 8 with tritium gas. The radioligand [(3)H]PSB-12150 (9) was obtained with a specific activity of 17 Ci/mmol (629 GBq/mmol). It showed specific and saturable binding to a single binding site in membrane preparations from Chinese hamster ovary cells recombinantly expressing the human GPR17. A competition assay procedure was established, which allows the determination of ligand binding affinities.

  17. 4-Methyl-N-(1-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)benzene­sulfonamide

    PubMed Central

    Chicha, Hakima; Oulemda, Bassou; Rakib, El Mostapha; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3O2S, the fused ring system is close to planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.030 (2) Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 48.84 (9)° with the benzene ring belonging to the methyl­benzene­sulfonamide moiety. In the crystal, mol­ecules are ­connected through N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O contacts, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). PMID:24427093

  18. Theoretical Prediction on [5]Radialene Sandwich Complexes (CpM)2(C10H10) (Cp = η5-C5H5; M = Fe, Co, Ni): Geometry, Spin States, and Bonding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan-Nan; Xue, Ying-Ying; Ding, Yi-Hong

    2017-02-09

    [5]Radialene, the missing link for synthesis of radialene family, has been finally obtained via the preparation and decomplexation of the [5]radialene-bis-Fe(CO) 3 complex. The stability of [5]radialene complex benefits from the coordination with Fe(CO) 3 by losing free 1,3-butadiene structures to avoid polymerization. In light of the similar coordination ability of half-sandwiches CpM(Cp = η 5 -C 5 H 5 ; M = Fe, Co, Ni), there is a great possibility that the sandwiched complexes of [5]radialene with CpM are available. Herein, we present the first theoretical prediction on the geometry, spin states and bonding of (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) and (CpM) 2 (C 10 H 10 ). For M = Fe, Co, Ni, the ground states of (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) and (CpM) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) are doublet and triplet, singlet and singlet, and doublet and triplet states, where each Fe, Co, and Ni adopts 17, 18, and 19 electron-configuration, respectively. In particular, (CpFe) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) and (CpNi) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) have considerable open-shell singlet features. Generally the trans isomers of (CpM) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) with two CpM fragments on the opposite sides of the [5]radialene plane are apparently more stable than the cis ones with CpM fragments on the same side. However, for the singlet and triplet isomers of (CpNi) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) (both cis and trans isomers), the energy differences are relatively small, indicating that these isomers all have the opportunity to exist. Besides, the easy Diels-Alder (DA) dimerization between the [3]dendralene-like fragments of (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) suggests the great difficulty in isolating the (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) monomer.

  19. Helicity in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a study of databases produced by direct numerical simulation of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of two fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence, with emphasis on helicity. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs -- O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 -- at similar values of reduced pressure.

  20. Infrared predissociation spectroscopy of M+ (C6H6)(1-4)(H2O)(1-2)Ar(0-1) cluster ions, M = Li, Na.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jordan P; Lisy, James M

    2011-05-05

    Infrared predissociation (IRPD) spectra of Li(+)(C(6)H(6))(1-4)(H(2)O)(1-2)Ar(0-1) and Na(+)(C(6)H(6))(2-4)(H(2)O)(1-2)Ar(1) are presented along with ab initio calculations. The results indicate that the global minimum energy structure for Li(+)(C(6)H(6))(2)(H(2)O)(2) has each water forming a π-hydrogen bond with the same benzene molecule. This bonding motif is preserved in Li(+)(C(6)H(6))(3-4)(H(2)O)(2)Ar(0-1) with the additional benzene ligands binding to the available free OH groups. Argon tagging allows high-energy Li(+)(C(6)H(6))(2-4)(H(2)O)(2)Ar isomers containing water-water hydrogen bonds to be trapped and detected. The monohydrated, Li(+) containing clusters contain benzene-water interactions with varying strength as indicated by shifts in OH stretching frequencies. The IRPD spectra of M(+)(C(6)H(6))(1-4)(H(2)O)(1-2)Ar are very different for lithium-bearing versus sodium-bearing cluster ions emphasizing the important role of ion size in determining the most favorable balance of competing noncovalent interactions.

  1. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF NEAR-IR WATER (H{sub 2}O) EMISSION IN COMET C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) WITH THE GIANO/TNG SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Faggi, S.; Brucato, J. R.; Tozzi, G. P.

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1–2.5 μ m region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H{sub 2}O were detected, sixmore » of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [ Q (H{sub 2}O), (3.11 ± 0.14) × 10{sup 29} s{sup −1}] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H{sub 2}O. The production rates of ortho-water [ Q (H{sub 2}O){sup ORTHO}, (2.33 ± 0.11) × 10{sup 29} s{sup −1}] and para-water [ Q (H{sub 2}O){sup PARA}, (0.87 ± 0.21) × 1029 s{sup −1}] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70 ± 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.« less

  2. Experimental determination of liquidus H2O contents of haplogranite at deep-crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhluf, A. R.; Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2017-09-01

    The liquidus water content of a haplogranite melt at high pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) is important, because it is a key parameter for constraining the volume of granite that could be produced by melting of the deep crust. Previous estimates based on melting experiments at low P (≤0.5 GPa) show substantial scatter when extrapolated to deep crustal P and T (700-1000 °C, 0.6-1.5 GPa). To improve the high-P constraints on H2O concentration at the granite liquidus, we performed experiments in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 1.0 GPa using a range of haplogranite compositions in the albite (Ab: NaAlSi3O8)—orthoclase (Or: KAlSi3O8)—quartz (Qz: SiO2)—H2O system. We used equal weight fractions of the feldspar components and varied the Qz between 20 and 30 wt%. In each experiment, synthetic granitic composition glass + H2O was homogenized well above the liquidus T, and T was lowered by increments until quartz and alkali feldspar crystalized from the liquid. To establish reversed equilibrium, we crystallized the homogenized melt at the lower T and then raised T until we found that the crystalline phases were completely resorbed into the liquid. The reversed liquidus minimum temperatures at 3.0, 4.1, 5.8, 8.0, and 12.0 wt% H2O are 935-985, 875-900, 775-800, 725-775, and 650-675 °C, respectively. Quenched charges were analyzed by petrographic microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). The equation for the reversed haplogranite liquidus minimum curve for Ab36.25Or36.25Qz27.5 (wt% basis) at 1.0 GPa is T = - 0.0995 w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}}^{ 3} + 5.0242w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}}^{ 2} - 88.183 w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}} + 1171.0 for 0 ≤ w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}} ≤ 17 wt% and T is in °C. We present a revised P - T diagram of liquidus minimum H2O isopleths which integrates data from previous determinations of vapor-saturated melting and the lower pressure vapor-undersaturated melting studies conducted by other workers on

  3. Phosphinodi(benzylsilane) PhP{(o-C6H4CH2)SiMe2H}2: a versatile "PSi2Hx" pincer-type ligand at ruthenium.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Palma, Virginia; Muñoz-Hernández, Miguel A; Cuevas-Chávez, Cynthia A; Vendier, Laure; Grellier, Mary; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane

    2013-09-03

    The synthesis of the new phosphinodi(benzylsilane) compound PhP{(o-C6H4CH2)SiMe2H}2 (1) is achieved in a one-pot reaction from the corresponding phenylbis(o-tolylphosphine). Compound 1 acts as a pincer-type ligand capable of adopting different coordination modes at Ru through different extents of Si-H bond activation as demonstrated by a combination of X-ray diffraction analysis, density functional theory calculations, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Reaction of 1 with RuH2(H2)2(PCy3)2 (2) yields quantitatively [RuH2{[η(2)-(HSiMe2)-CH2-o-C6H4]2PPh}(PCy3)] (3), a complex stabilized by two rare high order ε-agostic Si-H bonds and involved in terminal hydride/η(2)-Si-H exchange processes. A small free energy of reaction (ΔrG298 = +16.9 kJ mol(-1)) was computed for dihydrogen loss from 3 with concomitant formation of the 16-electron species [RuH{[η(2)-(HSiMe2)-CH2-o-C6H4]PPh[CH2-o-C6H4SiMe2]}(PCy3)] (4). Complex 4 features an unprecedented (29)Si NMR decoalescence process. The dehydrogenation process is fully reversible under standard conditions (1 bar, 298 K).

  4. Deep extractive and oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with C5H9NO·SnCl2 coordinated ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Li, Fa-tang; Kou, Cheng-guang; Sun, Zhi-min; Hao, Ying-juan; Liu, Rui-hong; Zhao, Di-shun

    2012-02-29

    A new C5H9NO·SnCl2 coordinated ionic liquid (IL) was prepared by reacting N-methyl-pyrrolidone with anhydrous SnCl2. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via extraction and oxidation with C5H9NO·SnCl2 IL as extractant, H2O2 and equal mol of CH3COOH as oxidants was investigated. The Nernst partition coefficients k(N) of C5H9NO·SnCl2 IL for the DBT in n-octane was above 5.0, showing its excellent extraction ability. During the oxidative desulfurization process, the optimal molar ratio of H2O2/DBT was six. Sulfur removal of DBT in n-octane was 94.8% in 30 min at 30 °C under the conditions of H2O2/DBT molar ratio of six and V (IL):V (oil)=1:3. Moreover, the sulfur removal increased with increasing temperature because of the high reaction rate constant, low viscosity, and high solubility of dibenzothiophene-sulfone in the IL. The kinetics of oxidative desulfurization of DBT was also investigated, and the apparent activation energy was found to be 32.5 kJ/mol. The IL could be recycled six times without a significant decrease in activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal structures of isomeric 3,5-di-chloro-N-(2,3-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide, 3,5-di-chloro-N-(2,6-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide and 3,5-di-chloro-N-(3,5-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Shakuntala, K; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A

    2017-05-01

    The crystal structures of three isomeric compounds of formula C 14 H 13 Cl 2 NO 2 S, namely 3,5-di-chloro- N -(2,3-di-methyl-phen-yl)-benzene-sulfonamide (I), 3,5-di-chloro- N -(2,6-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide (II) and 3,5-di-chloro- N -(3,5-di-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide (III) are described. The mol-ecules of all the three compounds are U-shaped with the two aromatic rings inclined at 41.3 (6)° in (I), 42.1 (2)° in (II) and 54.4 (3)° in (III). The mol-ecular conformation of (II) is stabilized by intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions. The crystal structure of (I) features N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2 (8) loops inter-connected via C (7) chains of C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. The structure also features π-π inter-actions [ Cg ⋯ Cg = 3.6970 (14) Å]. In (II), N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2 (8) loops are inter-connected via π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.606 (3) Å] to form a one-dimensional architecture running parallel to the a axis. In (III), adjacent C (4) chains of N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonded mol-ecules running parallel to [010] are connected via C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming sheets parallel to the ab plane. Neighbouring sheets are linked via offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.8303 (16) Å] to form a three-dimensional architecture.

  6. 2′-O Methylation of Internal Adenosine by Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongping; Chang, David C.; Hua, Maggie Ho Chia; Lim, Siew Pheng; Chionh, Yok Hian; Hia, Fabian; Lee, Yie Hou; Kukkaro, Petra; Lok, Shee-Mei; Dedon, Peter C.; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2012-01-01

    RNA modification plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interaction. Flavivirus NS5 protein encodes N-7 and 2′-O methyltransferase activities that are required for the formation of 5′ type I cap (m7GpppAm) of viral RNA genome. Here we reported, for the first time, that flavivirus NS5 has a novel internal RNA methylation activity. Recombinant NS5 proteins of West Nile virus and Dengue virus (serotype 4; DENV-4) specifically methylates polyA, but not polyG, polyC, or polyU, indicating that the methylation occurs at adenosine residue. RNAs with internal adenosines substituted with 2′-O-methyladenosines are not active substrates for internal methylation, whereas RNAs with adenosines substituted with N6-methyladenosines can be efficiently methylated, suggesting that the internal methylation occurs at the 2′-OH position of adenosine. Mass spectroscopic analysis further demonstrated that the internal methylation product is 2′-O-methyladenosine. Importantly, genomic RNA purified from DENV virion contains 2′-O-methyladenosine. The 2′-O methylation of internal adenosine does not require specific RNA sequence since recombinant methyltransferase of DENV-4 can efficiently methylate RNAs spanning different regions of viral genome, host ribosomal RNAs, and polyA. Structure-based mutagenesis results indicate that K61-D146-K181-E217 tetrad of DENV-4 methyltransferase forms the active site of internal methylation activity; in addition, distinct residues within the methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) pocket, GTP pocket, and RNA-binding site are critical for the internal methylation activity. Functional analysis using flavivirus replicon and genome-length RNAs showed that internal methylation attenuated viral RNA translation and replication. Polymerase assay revealed that internal 2′-O-methyladenosine reduces the efficiency of RNA elongation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that flavivirus NS5 performs 2′-O methylation of internal adenosine of

  7. The influence of co-sintering Bi2O3 on Yb0.2Ce0.8O2-δ ceramic SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiana, B.; Suasmoro, S.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic Yb-doped CeO2 were prepared through two ways. First, sintering of mixed 20 mol % Yb2O3 and 80 mol % CeO2 at 1350 °C for 20 h and second sintering of mixed 96 mol % calcined Yb-doped CeO2 with 4 mol % Bi2O3 as a co-sintering agent at 1100 °C for 8h. Phase identification revealed that for the first sample was a cubic phase (a=5,3939Å) while the second sample showed three phases, CeO2 (cubic a=5,4254Å), YbxCe1-xO2-δ (cubic a=5,3980Å) and Bi5Yb3O12 (cubic a=10,5343Å). Cole-cole plot of impedance revealed 3 semicircles as marked of grain, grain boundary and electrode responses for B1 while for B2 showed two semicircles as marked of grain, grain boundary+electrode responses. Plot of log (σt) versus 1/T for both samples possed 2 activation energy regime, for the Sample B1 at T>650 °C Ea grain =1,01±0,04 eV and T<650 °C Ea grain =0,76±0,06 eV while for the sample B2 at T>650 °C, Ea grain =0,99±0,03 eV and T<650 °C Ea grain=0,70±0,09 eV.