Science.gov

Sample records for c10h8o 2-methyl indol

  1. Structure-activity relationship of 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole analogues as 5-HT(6) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Cecilia; Svensson, Peder; Boettcher, Henning; Sonesson, Clas

    2013-05-01

    To further investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 6 (5-HT6) receptor agonist 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole (EMD386088, 6), a series of 2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indoles were synthesized, and in vitro affinity to, and functional activity at 5-HT6 receptors was tested. We focused on substituents made at the indole N(1)-, 2- and 5-positions and these were found to not only influence the affinity at 5-HT6 receptors but also the intrinsic activity leading to antagonists, partial agonists and full agonists. In order for a compound to demonstrate potent 5-HT6 receptor agonist properties, the indole N(1) should be unsubstituted, an alkyl group such as 2-methyl is needed and finally halogen substituents in the indole 5-position (fluoro, chloro or, bromo) were essential requirements. However, the introduction of a benzenesulfonyl group at N(1)-position switched the full agonist 6 to be a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (30). A few compounds within the 2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indoles were also screened for off-targets and generally they displayed low affinity for other 5-HT subtypes and serotonin transporter protein (SERT). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure-Based Discovery of 4-(6-Methoxy-2-methyl-4-(quinolin-4-yl)-9 H -pyrimido[4,5- b ]indol-7-yl)-3,5-dimethylisoxazole (CD161) as a Potent and Orally Bioavailable BET Bromodomain Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yujun; Bai, Longchuan; Liu, Liu

    We have designed and synthesized 9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole-containing compounds to obtain potent and orally bioavailable BET inhibitors. By incorporation of an indole or a quinoline moiety to the 9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole core, we identified a series of small molecules showing high binding affinities to BET proteins and low nanomolar potencies in inhibition of cell growth in acute leukemia cell lines. One such compound, 4-(6-methoxy-2-methyl-4-(quinolin-4-yl)-9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indol-7-yl)-3,5-dimethylisoxazole (31) has excellent microsomal stability and good oral pharmacokinetics in rats and mice. Orally administered, 31 achieves significant antitumor activity in the MV4;11 leukemia and MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer xenograft models in mice. Determination of the cocrystal structure of 31more » with BRD4 BD2 provides a structural basis for its high binding affinity to BET proteins. Testing its binding affinities against other bromodomain-containing proteins shows that 31 is a highly selective inhibitor of BET proteins. Our data show that 31 is a potent, selective, and orally active BET inhibitor.« less

  3. (Z)-3-(1-Chloro-prop-1-en-yl)-2-methyl-1-phenyl-sulfonyl-1H-indole.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Saravanan, V; Yamuna, R; Mohanakrishnan, A K; Chakkaravarthi, G

    2013-11-16

    In the title compound, C18H16ClNO2S, the indole ring system forms a dihedral angle of 75.07 (8)° with the phenyl ring. The mol-ecular structure is stabilized by a weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along [10-1]. C-H⋯π inter-actions are also observed, leading to a three-dimensional network.

  4. Ulcer Prevention Effect Of 3,4,5-Tihydroxy-N0-[(2-Methyl-1H-Indol-3yl)Methylidene]Benzohydrazide In HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage In Rats.

    PubMed

    Tayeby, Faezeh; Salman, Abbas Abdul Ameer; Kamran, Sareh; Khaing, Si Lay; Salehen, Nur'ain Binti; Mohan, Gokula Mohan A/L Duchiyanda

    2017-01-01

    The newly synthesized, 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-N 0-[(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methylidene] benzohydrazide (TIBH), is an indole and gallic acid derivative. The aim of this research investigation was to evaluate the acute toxicity and the ulcer prevention potential of TIBH in HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model. Six groups of rats were orally received 5ml/kg of vehicle (1 % Carboxy methyl cellulose) for the normal and ulcer control groups each, Omeprazole (20mg/kg) for positive control, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of TIBH for experimental groups, respectively. After one hour, instead of rats in the normal group which received 5ml/kg of 1% CMC, other groups received 5ml/kg of HCl/Ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after one additional hour. Gastric juice, gastric mucosa, morphologies of gastric ulcers and protein expressions of both control and treatment groups were evaluated. TIBH showed a ulcer prevention potential by increase of the mucus secretion, decrease of the gastric acidity, up-regulation of HSP70 protein, down-regulation of Bax protein, decrease of the lipid peroxidation and the increase of the Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in gastric tissue homogenate. Acute toxicity assay exposed valuable information on the safety of this compound. TIBH had a dose dependent ulcer prevention potential against HCl/Ethanol-triggered gastric ulcer.

  5. Ulcer Prevention Effect Of 3,4,5-Tihydroxy-N0-[(2-Methyl-1H-Indol-3yl)Methylidene]Benzohydrazide In HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tayeby, Faezeh; Salman, Abbas Abdul Ameer; Kamran, Sareh; Khaing, Si Lay; Salehen, Nur'ain Binti; Mohan, Gokula Mohan A/L Duchiyanda

    2017-01-01

    The newly synthesized, 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-N 0-[(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methylidene] benzohydrazide (TIBH), is an indole and gallic acid derivative. The aim of this research investigation was to evaluate the acute toxicity and the ulcer prevention potential of TIBH in HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model. Six groups of rats were orally received 5ml/kg of vehicle (1 % Carboxy methyl cellulose) for the normal and ulcer control groups each, Omeprazole (20mg/kg) for positive control, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of TIBH for experimental groups, respectively. After one hour, instead of rats in the normal group which received 5ml/kg of 1% CMC, other groups received 5ml/kg of HCl/Ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after one additional hour. Gastric juice, gastric mucosa, morphologies of gastric ulcers and protein expressions of both control and treatment groups were evaluated. TIBH showed a ulcer prevention potential by increase of the mucus secretion, decrease of the gastric acidity, up-regulation of HSP70 protein, down-regulation of Bax protein, decrease of the lipid peroxidation and the increase of the Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in gastric tissue homogenate. Acute toxicity assay exposed valuable information on the safety of this compound. TIBH had a dose dependent ulcer prevention potential against HCl/Ethanol-triggered gastric ulcer. PMID:29200945

  6. Crystal structures of three indole derivatives: 3-ethnyl-2-methyl-1-phenyl­sulfonyl-1H-indole, 4-phenyl­sulfonyl-3H,4H-cyclo­penta­[b]indol-1(2H)-one and 1-{2-[(E)-2-(5-chloro-2-nitro­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1-phenyl­sulfonyl-1H-indol-3-yl}ethan-1-one chloro­form monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, S.; Sethusankar, K.; Ramalingam, Bose Muthu; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K.

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds, C17H13NO2S, (I), C17H13NO3S, (II), and C24H17ClN2O5S·CHCl3, (III), are indole derivatives. Compounds (I) and (II) crystalize with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The indole ring systems in all three structures deviate only slightly from planarity, with dihedral angles between the planes of the pyrrole and benzene rings spanning the tight range 0.20 (9)–1.65 (9)°. These indole ring systems, in turn, are almost orthogonal to the phenyl­sulfonyl rings [range of dihedral angles between mean planes = 77.21 (8)–89.26 (8)°]. In the three compounds, the mol­ecular structure is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating S(6) ring motifs with the sulfone O atom. In compounds (I) and (II), the two independent mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions, while in compound (III), the mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating R 2 2(22) inversion dimers. PMID:26396842

  7. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  8. Benzo[g]indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozharskii, A. F.; Kachalkina, S. G.; Gulevskaya, A. V.; Filatova, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The data on the synthesis and properties of benzo[g]indoles accumulated mainly over a period of the past 15-20 years are integrated. Various variants of pyrrole ring and naphthalene nucleus closure are considered. It is demonstrated that, in addition to the expected similarity between benzo[g]indoles and indoles, there are noticeable differences between them as well, especially where the synthesis of the benzoindole system is concerned. Practical applications of benzo[g]indoles are discussed. The bibliography includes 199 references.

  9. 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxyacetic acid ( MCPA ) ; CASRN 94 - 74 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  10. 40 CFR 721.1025 - Benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine, 2-chloro-6-methyl-. 721.1025 Section 721... Benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine, 2-chloro-6...-, hydrochloride (CAS Number 3165-93-3); and benzenamine, 2-chloro-6-methyl- (CAS Number 87-63-8) are subject to...

  11. 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) Chemical Assessment Summary U.S . Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment This IRIS Summary has been removed from the IRIS database and is available for historical reference purposes . ( July 2016 ) 4 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4

  12. 2-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( MCPP ) ; CASRN 93 - 65 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( H

  13. Mechanism of Indole-3-acetic Acid Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Raphael; Bukovac, Martin J.; Flore, James A.

    1974-01-01

    Formation of indole-3-acetic acid-aspartate in detached primary leaves of cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) floating on 14C-indole-3-acetic acid (3 μc; 3.15 μm, phosphate-citrate buffer, pH 4.75), almost doubled when leaves were pretreated with 31.5 μm12C-indole-3-acetic acid for 17 hr and then transferred to 14C-indole-3-acetic acid for 4 hours as compared with leaves preincubated in buffer only. When leaves were preincubated with ethylene (11.0 and 104 μl/l) instead of 12C-indole-3-acetic acid, no induction of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid formation was observed, and the rate of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid formation decreased as compared with control leaves. Rhizobitoxine (1.87 μm) inhibited indole-3-acetic acid-induced ethylene production but did not prevent the formation of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. In view of the similarity of these results and those previously obtained with α-naphthaleneacetic acid, it is concluded that ethylene has no role in the auxin-induced indole-3-acetylaspartic acid formation in cowpea leaves. PMID:16658669

  14. Synthesis and Pharmacology of 1-Alkyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles: Steric and Electronic Effects of 4- and 8-Halogenated Naphthoyl Substituents.

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Smith, Valerie J.; Chen, Jianhong; Martin, Billy R.; Huffman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    To develop SAR at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors for 3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles bearing moderately electron withdrawing substituents at C-4 of the naphthoyl moiety, 1-propyl and 1-pentyl-3-(4-fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl) derivatives were prepared. To study the steric and electronic effects of substituents at the 8-position of the naphthoyl group, the 3-(4-chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl)indoles were also synthesized. The affinities of both groups of compounds for the CB1 and CB2 receptors were determined and several of them were evaluated in vivo in the mouse. The effects of these substituents on receptor affinities and in vivo activity are discussed and structure-activity relationships are presented. Although many of these compounds are selective for the CB2 receptor, only three JWH-423, 1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-422, 2-methyl-1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, the 2-methyl analog of JWH-423 and JWH-417, 1-pentyl-3-(8-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, possess the desirable combination of low CB1 affinity and good CB2 affinity. PMID:22341572

  15. [Central muscle relaxant activities of 2-methyl-3-aminopropiophenone derivatives].

    PubMed

    Kontani, H; Mano, A; Koshiura, R; Yamazaki, M; Shimada, Y; Oshita, M; Morikawa, K; Kato, H; Ito, Y

    1987-02-01

    In this experiment, we synthetized new 2-methyl-3-aminopropiophenone (MP) derivatives, whose structure is known to have central muscle relaxant activities, and quinolizidine and indan . tetralin derivatives derived from MP by cyclization, and we investigated the central muscle relaxant activity. Among the quinolizidine derivatives, there was a very strong central depressant agent, trans (3H, 9aH)-3-(p-chloro) benzoyl-quinolizidine (HSR-740), and among the indan . tetralin derivatives, there was an excitant agents, trans (1H, 2H)-5-methoxy-3, 3-dimethyl-2-piperidinomethyl indan-1-ol (HSR-719). From the results, these derivatives were not considered to be adequate for central muscle relaxant. Among the MP derivatives, (4'-chloro-2'-methoxy-3-piperidino) propiophenone HCl (HSR-733) and (4'-ethyl-2-methyl-3-pyrrolidino) propiophenone HCl (HSR-770) strongly inhibited the cooperative movement in the rotating rod method using mice, and it exerted almost the same depressant activity on the cross extensor reflex using alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats. However, the inhibitory effects of HSR-733 on the anemic decerebrate rigidity and the rigidity induced by intracollicular decerebration in rats were weaker than those of HSR-770 and eperisone. In spinal cats, at a low dose (5 mg/kg, i.v.), HSR-733 depressed monosynaptic and dorsal root reflex potentials as compared with polysynaptic reflex potentials, and inhibitory effects of HSR-733 on these three reflex potentials were more potent than those of eperisone and HSR-770. Although HSR-770 acts on the spinal cord and supraspinal level on which eperisone has been reported to act, HSR-733 may mainly act on the spinal cord. These results indicate that the MP derivative with a 2-methyl group may be suitable as a central muscle relaxant. HSR-770, which has equipotent muscle relaxant activity to eperisone, exerted strong inhibitory effects on oxotremorine-induced tremor and weak inhibitory effects on spontaneous motor activity in the

  16. 40 CFR 721.1070 - Benzenamine, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-N-(3-methylphenyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as benzenamine, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-N-(3-methylphenyl) (PMN P-01-152; CAS No. 93072-06-1) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-N-(3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1070 Benzenamine, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-N-(3-methylphenyl). (a) Chemical...

  17. Disruption of endolysosomal trafficking pathways in glioma cells by methuosis-inducing indole-based chalcones.

    PubMed

    Mbah, Nneka E; Overmeyer, Jean H; Maltese, William A

    2017-06-01

    Methuosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death involving massive vacuolization of macropinosome-derived endocytic compartments, followed by a decline in metabolic activity and loss of membrane integrity. To explore the induction of methuosis as a potential therapeutic strategy for killing cancer cells, we have developed small molecules (indole-based chalcones) that trigger this form of cell death in glioblastoma and other cancer cell lines. Here, we report that in addition to causing fusion and expansion of macropinosome compartments, the lead compound, 3-(5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (MOMIPP), disrupts vesicular trafficking at the lysosomal nexus, manifested by impaired degradation of EGF and LDL receptors, defective processing of procathepsins, and accumulation of autophagosomes. In contrast, secretion of the ectodomain derived from a prototypical type-I membrane glycoprotein, β-amyloid precursor protein, is increased rather than diminished. A closely related MOMIPP analog, which causes substantial vacuolization without reducing cell viability, also impedes cathepsin processing and autophagic flux, but has more modest effects on receptor degradation. A third analog, which causes neither vacuolization nor loss of viability, has no effect on endolysosomal trafficking. The results suggest that differential cytotoxicity of structurally similar indole-based chalcones is related, at least in part, to the severity of their effects on endolysosomal trafficking pathways.

  18. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are a factor of 3-4 higher than model estimates. MEGAN2.1 monoterpene emission estimates were approximately a factor of two higher than REA flux measurements. MEGAN2.1 β-caryophyllene emission estimates were within 60% of growing season REA flux estimates, but were several times higher than REA fluxes during cooler, dormant season periods. The sum of other sesquiterpene emissions estimated by MEGAN2.1 was several times higher than REA estimates throughout the year. Model components are examined to understand these discrepancies. Summertime LAI (and therefore foliar biomass) is a factor of two higher than assumed in MEGAN for the Pinus taeda default. Increasing the canopy mean MBO emission factor from 0.35 to 1.0 mg m-2 hr-1 also reduces MEGAN2.1 vs flux differences. This increase is within current emission factor uncertainties. The algorithm within MEGAN which adjusts isoprene emission estimates as a function of the previous 24 hour’s temperatures and light seems to also improve seasonal MEGAN MBO correlation with REA fluxes. Including the effects of the previous 240 hours, however, seems to degrade temporal model correlation with fluxes. This paper describes an emission inventory and mod

  19. Molecular Characterization of Indolent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Indolent prostate cancers that pose very low risk to aged men occur frequently and may be detected at biopsy, leading...Introduction Indolent prostate cancers that pose very low risk to aged men occur frequently and may be detected at biopsy, leading to the...cancer at the time of biopsy detection and thus meeting the entry criteria for active surveillance. The scope of the proposed research is: 1) to

  20. Novel indole-based inhibitors of IMPDH: introduction of hydrogen bond acceptors at indole C-3.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Scott H; Dhar, T G Murali; Ballentine, Shelley K; Shen, Zhongqi; Barrish, Joel C; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-04-07

    The development of a series of novel indole-based inhibitors of 5'-inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is described. Various hydrogen bond acceptors at C-3 of the indole were explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are outlined.

  1. Indole Alkaloids from Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Bo; He, Gu; Bai, Huan-Huan; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Guo-Lin; Wu, Lin-Wei; Li, Guo-You

    2015-07-24

    Two new indole alkaloids chaetocochin J (1) and chaetoglobinol A (8), along with chetomin (2), chetoseminudin A (3), cochliodinol (9), and semicochliodinol (10), were isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Chaetomium globosum. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Three new epipolythiodioxopiperazines, chaetocochins G-I (5-7), were identified by the combination of UPLC and mass spectrometric analysis. Chaetocochin I contained two sulfur bridges, one formed by three sulfur atoms between C-3 and C-11a, and the other formed by four sulfur atoms between C-3' and C-6'. Chaetocochin I was readily transformed into chetomin (2), chetoseminudin A (3), chaetocochin D (4), chaetocochin G (5), and chaetocochin H (6) by losing sulfur atoms. Compounds 1-3, and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis with MICs of 25, 0.78, 0.78, and 50 μg/mL, respectively, but not against Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli). Compounds 2 and 8 were inactive against Candida albicans, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium vasinfectum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger even at the high concentrations of 200 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 8 showed free radical scavenging capacity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS(+•)), with IC50 values of 143.6 and 45.2 μM, respectively. The free radical scavenging capacity rates of compounds 1-3 on the DPPH and ABTS(+•) were less than 20% at the test concentrations (89.9-108.3 μM). The superoxide anion radical scavenging assay indicated that compounds 1-3, and 8 showed 14.8% (90.9 μM), 18.1% (90.9 μM), 51.5% (88.3 μM), and 30.4% (61.3 μM) superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, respectively.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²-[2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10122 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²-[2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10122 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²-[2... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10122 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1...

  5. Indoles: Industrial, Agricultural and Over-the-Counter Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Timothy C.

    Indole-containing compounds are best known for their medicinal properties in the pharmaceutical industry. Although to a lesser degree, the indole motif none-the-less appears in many significant products across the entire chemical industry. This chapter describes the role that indole plays in a more commodity setting and provides examples illustrating these uses.

  6. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  7. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  8. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  9. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  10. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  11. 78 FR 32157 - Methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... assessment of exposures and risks associated with methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate follows... received and the nature of the adverse effects caused by methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5- oxopentanoate... treatment with methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate. A Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test...

  12. Biotransformation of indole derivatives by mycelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Julio; Cid, Eliseo; Lillo, Luis; Céspedesa, Carlos; Aguila, Sergio; Alderete, Joel B

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of tryptophan to tryptamine and 3-methyl-indole by Psilocybe coprophila was performed. On the other hand, Aspergillus niger was able to transform tryptophan to 5-hydroxy-tryptophan. P. coprophila biotransformed 5-hydroxy-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptamine. These results prove once more that fungi are good tools to establish hydroxyindole derivatives.

  13. Indole Localization in an Explicit Bilayer Revealed via Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Kristen

    2005-11-01

    It is well known that the amino-acid tryptophan is particularly stable in the interfacial region of biological membranes, and this preference is a property of the tryptophan side-chain. Analogues of this side-chain, such as indole, strongly localize in the interfacial region, especially near the glycerol moiety of the lipids in the bilayer. Using molecular dynamics calculations, we determine the potential of mean force (PMF) for indoles in the bilayer. We compare the calculated PMF for indole with that of benzene to show that exclusion from the center of the lipid bilayer does not occur in all aromatics, but is strong in indoles. We find three minima in the PMF. Indole is most stabilized near the glycerol moiety. A weaker binding location is found near the choline groups of the lipid molecules. An even weaker binding side is found near the center of the lipid hydrocarbon core. Comparisions between uncharged, weakly charged, and highly charged indoles demonstrate that the exclusion is caused by the charge distribution on the indole rather than the ``lipo-phobic'' effect. High temperature simulations are used to determine the relative contribution of enthalpy and entropy to indole localization. The orientation of indole is found to be largely charge independent and is a strong function of depth within the bilayer. We find good agreement between simulated SCD order parameters for indole and experimentally determined order parameters.

  14. 40 CFR 721.9005 - 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1â²-(2-methyl-1,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9005 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-. (a) Chemical...-pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis- (PMN P-93-761; CAS No. 146453-62-5) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9005 - 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1â²-(2-methyl-1,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9005 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-. (a) Chemical...-pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis- (PMN P-93-761; CAS No. 146453-62-5) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9005 - 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1â²-(2-methyl-1,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9005 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-. (a) Chemical...-pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis- (PMN P-93-761; CAS No. 146453-62-5) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9005 - 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1â²-(2-methyl-1,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9005 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-. (a) Chemical...-pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis- (PMN P-93-761; CAS No. 146453-62-5) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9005 - 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1â²-(2-methyl-1,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9005 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis-. (a) Chemical...-pyrrolidinone, 1,1′-(2-methyl-1,5-pentanediyl)bis- (PMN P-93-761; CAS No. 146453-62-5) is subject to reporting...

  19. PKM2 methylation by CARM1 activates aerobic glycolysis to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fabao; Ma, Fengfei; Wang, Yuyuan; Hao, Ling; Zeng, Hao; Jia, Chenxi; Wang, Yidan; Liu, Peng; Ong, Irene M; Li, Baobin; Chen, Guojun; Jiang, Jiaoyang; Gong, Shaoqin; Li, Lingjun; Xu, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Herein we discover that the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), but not the related isoform PKM1, is methylated by co-activator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). PKM2 methylation reversibly shifts the balance of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells. Oxidative phosphorylation depends on mitochondrial calcium concentration, which becomes critical for cancer cell survival when PKM2 methylation is blocked. By interacting with and suppressing the expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP 3 Rs), methylated PKM2 inhibits the influx of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria. Inhibiting PKM2 methylation with a competitive peptide delivered by nanoparticles perturbs the metabolic energy balance in cancer cells, leading to a decrease in cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. Collectively, the CARM1-PKM2 axis serves as a metabolic reprogramming mechanism in tumorigenesis, and inhibiting PKM2 methylation generates metabolic vulnerability to InsP 3 R-dependent mitochondrial functions.

  20. Dehydration of 2-Methyl-1-Cyclohexanol: New Findings from a Popular Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent; Schretzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The mineral acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methyl-1-cyclohexanol has been a popular laboratory exercise in second-year organic chemistry for several decades. The dehydration experiment is often performed by organic chemistry students to illustrate Zaitsev's rule. However, sensitive analytical techniques reveal that the results do not entirely…

  1. PKM2 methylation by CARM1 activates aerobic glycolysis to promote tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fabao; Ma, Fengfei; Wang, Yuyuan; Hao, Ling; Zeng, Hao; Jia, Chenxi; Wang, Yidan; Liu, Peng; Ong, Irene M; Li, Baobin; Chen, Guojun; Jiang, Jiaoyang; Gong, Shaoqin; Li, Lingjun; Xu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Herein we discovered that the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), but not the related isoform PKM1, is methylated by co-activator associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). PKM2 methylation reversibly shifts the balance of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells. Oxidative phosphorylation depends on mitochondria calcium concentration, which becomes critical for cancer cell survival when PKM2 methylation is blocked. By interacting with and suppressing the expression of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), methylated PKM2 inhibits the influx of calcium from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Inhibiting PKM2 methylation with a competitive peptide delivered by nanoparticle perturbs metabolic energy balance in cancer cells, leading to decrease of cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Collectively, the CARM1-PKM2 axis serves as a metabolic reprogramming mechanism in tumorigenesis, and inhibiting PKM2 methylation generates metabolic vulnerability to IP3R-dependent mitochondrial functions. PMID:29058718

  2. Inert Reassessment Document for 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol - CAS No. 107-41-5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol is used as a chemical intermediate, a selective solvent in petroleum refining, a component of hydraulic fluids, an additive for cement, a component of industrial coatings, a solvent for inks, an additive for fuel and lubricants

  3. Synthesis and characterization of 3-acetoxy-2-methyl-N-(phenyl)benzamide and 3-acetoxy-2-methyl-N-(4- methylphenyl)benzamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kırca, Başak Koşar; Çakmak, Şükriye; Kütük, Halil; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    This study treats about two successfully synthesized secondary amide compounds 3-Acetoxy-2-methyl-N-(phenyl)benzamide, I and 3-Acetoxy-2-methyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)benzamide, II. Compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses show that while I crystallized in the orthorhombic system with space group Pbca, II crystallized in the triclinic system with space group P-1 and the asymmetric unit of II consists of two crystallographically independent molecules. Lattice constants are a = 7.9713 (3) Å, b = 9.5059 (3) Å, c = 37.1762 (2) Å, Z = 8 for I and a = 7.5579 (8) Å, b = 8.8601 (8) Å, c = 23.363 (3) Å, α = 97.011 (9) °, β = 96.932 (9)°, γ = 90.051 (8)°, Z = 4 for II. Crystallographic studies also show that the supramolecular structures were stabilized by intramolecular, intermolecular hydrogen bonds and Csbnd H … π interactions for both compounds. Characteristic amide bonds were observed in IR and NMR spectra.

  4. Indole compounds may be promising medicines for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-09-01

    Indole compounds are extracted from indigo plants and have been used as blue or purple dyes for hundreds of years. In traditional Chinese medicine, herbal agents in combination with Qing-Dai (also known as indigo naturalis) have been used to treat patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to remedy inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have noted that indole compounds can be biosynthesized from tryptophan metabolites produced by various enzymes derived from intestinal microbiota. In addition to their action on indole compounds, the intestinal microbiota produce various tryptophan metabolites that mediate critical functions through distinct pathways and enzymes. Furthermore, some indole compounds, such as indigo and indirubin, act as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This signaling pathway stimulates mucosal type 3 innate lymphoid cells to produce interleukin-22, which induces antimicrobial peptide and tight junction molecule production, suggesting a role for indole compounds during the mucosal healing process. Thus, indole compounds may represent a novel treatment strategy for UC patients. In this review, we describe the origin and function of this indole compound-containing Chinese herb, as well as the drug development of indole compounds.

  5. Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Bao, Mei-Fen; Liu, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of medicinally relevant indoles.

    PubMed

    Patil, S A; Patil, R; Miller, D D

    2011-01-01

    Indoles represent an important structural class in medicinal chemistry with broad spectrum of biological activities. The synthesis of indoles, therefore, has attracted enormous attention from synthetic chemists. Microwave methods for the preparation of indole analogs have been developed to speed up the synthesis, therefore, microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) in controlled conditions is an invaluable technique for medicinal chemistry. In this review, indole forming classical reactions such as Fischer, Madelung, Bischler-Mohlau, Batcho-Leimgruber, Hemetsberger-Knittel, Graebe-Ullmann, Diels-Alder and Wittig type reactions using microwave radiation has been summarized. In addition, metal mediated cyclizations along with solid phase synthesis of indoles have been discussed. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  7. New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

    1990-01-01

    Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

  8. Electrophilicity: the "dark-side" of indole chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Marco

    2013-08-28

    Indole is by far one of the most popular heterocyclic scaffolds in nature. The intriguing and challenging molecular architectures of polycyclic, naturally occurring indolyl compounds constitute a continuous stimulus for development in organic synthesis. The field had a formidable boom across the new millennium when catalysis started revolutionizing the chemistry of indole, providing always more convincing and sustainable solutions to the selective "decoration" of this pharmacophore. A common guideline of these approaches relies on the intrinsic overexpression of electron density of the indole core. Despite less diffusion, the "dark-side" of indole reactivity, electrophilicity, has been also elegantly documented with direct applications towards the realization of specific interatomic connections that would be difficult to obtain by means of conventional indole reactivity. The present Perspective article summarizes the major findings that brought the research area from the pioneering findings of the 60s to the state of the art.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl... substance identified generically as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products...

  11. Determination of electro-optical coefficients of 2-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Edmond S. S.; Iizuka, Keigo; Freundorfer, Alois P.; Wah, Christopher K. L.

    1991-02-01

    The electro-optical constants of 2-Methyl-4-Nitroaniline crystals are measured at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The results confirm the measurements made by Lipscomb, Garito, and R. S. Narang [J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1509 (1981)] for the first time and settle the descrepency between Tokura, Kurita, and Koda experiment [Phys. Rev. B 31, 2588 (1985)] and Lipscomb, Garito, and R. S. Narang.

  12. Hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Li, Gen-Tao; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Liu, Ji-Kai; Wang, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Five new hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, rauvovertine A (1), 17-epi-rauvovertine A (2), rauvovertine B (3), 17-epi-rauvovertine B (4), and rauvovertine C (5) together with 17 known analogues were isolated from the stems of Rauvolfia verticillata. Compounds 1/2 and 3/4 were obtained as C-17 epimeric mixtures due to rapid hemiacetal tautomerism in solution. The structures of 1-5 were established by spectroscopic analysis and with the aid of molecular modeling. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against human tumor HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480 cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  14. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it; Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali; Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filtermore » as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.« less

  15. Polymers Containing Diphenylvinyl-Substituted Indole Rings as Charge-Transporting Materials for OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigalevicius, S.; Zostautiene, R.; Sipaviciute, D.; Stulpinaite, B.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Liu, L.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.

    2016-02-01

    Monomers and polymers containing electronically isolated diphenylvinyl-substituted indole rings were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopies as well as by gel permeation chromatography. The polymers represent amorphous materials with glass transition temperatures of 91-109°C and thermal decomposition starting above 307°C. Electron photoemission spectra of thin films of the synthesized polymers revealed ionization potentials of 5.54-5.58 eV. The synthesized polymers were tested as hole-transporting materials in simple electroluminescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium (Alq3) as an emitter as well as an electron-transporting layer. A green OLED device containing a hole-transporting layer of poly[1-(2,3-epithiopropyl)-2-methyl-3-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)índole] exhibited the best overall performance with a driving voltage of 4.0 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 2.8 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 4200 cd/m2.

  16. Indole can act as an extracellular signal to regulate biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and other indole-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martino, P Di; Fursy, R; Bret, L; Sundararaju, B; Phillips, R S

    2003-07-01

    We demonstrated previously that genetic inactivation of tryptophanase is responsible for a dramatic decrease in biofilm formation in the laboratory strain Escherichia coli S17-1. In the present study, we tested whether the biochemical inhibition of tryptophanase, with the competitive inhibitor oxindolyl-L-alanine, could affect polystyrene colonization by E. coli and other indole-producing bacteria. Oxindolyl-L-alanine inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, indole production and biofilm formation by strain S17-1 grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Supplementation with indole at physiologically relevant concentrations restores biofilm formation by strain S17-1 in the presence of oxindolyl-L-alanine and by mutant strain E. coli 3714 (S17-1 tnaA::Tn5) in LB medium. Oxindolyl-L-alanine also inhibits the adherence of S17-1 cells to polystyrene for a 3-h incubation time, but mutant strain 3714 cells are unaffected. At 0.5 mg/mL, oxindolyl-L-alanine exhibits inhibitory activity against biofilm formation in LB medium and in synthetic urine for several clinical isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Providencia stuartii, and Morganella morganii but has no affect on indole-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. In conclusion, these data suggest that indole, produced by the action of tryptophanase, is involved in polystyrene colonization by several indole-producing bacterial species. Indole may act as a signalling molecule to regulate the expression of adhesion and biofilm-promoting factors.

  17. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  18. The gut microbiota metabolite indole alleviates liver inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Martin; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Olivares, Marta; Rodriguez, Julie; de Rocca Serra, Audrey; Roumain, Martin; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Evenepoel, Pieter; Muccioli, Giulio G; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-06-15

    The gut microbiota regulates key hepatic functions, notably through the production of bacterial metabolites that are transported via the portal circulation. We evaluated the effects of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from aromatic amino acids (phenylacetate, benzoate, p-cresol, and indole) on liver inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin. Precision-cut liver slices prepared from control mice, Kupffer cell (KC)-depleted mice, and obese mice ( ob/ ob) were treated with or without LPS and bacterial metabolites. We observed beneficial effects of indole that dose-dependently reduced the LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators at both mRNA and protein levels in precision-cut liver slices prepared from control or ob/ ob mice. KC depletion partly prevented the antiinflammatory effects of indole, notably through a reduction of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) pathway activation. In vivo, the oral administration of indole before an LPS injection reduced the expression of key proteins of the NF-κB pathway and downstream proinflammatory gene up-regulation. Indole also prevented LPS-induced alterations of cholesterol metabolism through a transcriptional regulation associated with increased 4β-hydroxycholesterol hepatic levels. In summary, indole appears as a bacterial metabolite produced from tryptophan that is able to counteract the detrimental effects of LPS in the liver. Indole could be a new target to develop innovative strategies to decrease hepatic inflammation.-Beaumont, M., Neyrinck, A. M., Olivares, M., Rodriguez, J., de Rocca Serra, A., Roumain, M., Bindels, L. B., Cani, P. D., Evenepoel, P., Muccioli, G. G., Demoulin, J.-B., Delzenne, N. M. The gut microbiota metabolite indole alleviates liver inflammation in mice.

  19. Secondary organic aerosol from atmospheric photooxidation of indole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Aguilera, Julia; Horne, Jeremy R.; Hinks, Mallory L.; Fleming, Lauren T.; Perraud, Véronique; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Dabdub, Donald; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2017-09-01

    Indole is a heterocyclic compound emitted by various plant species under stressed conditions or during flowering events. The formation, optical properties, and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by low-NOx photooxidation of indole were investigated. The SOA yield (1. 3 ± 0. 3) was estimated from measuring the particle mass concentration with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and correcting it for wall loss effects. The high value of the SOA mass yield suggests that most oxidized indole products eventually end up in the particle phase. The SOA particles were collected on filters and analysed offline with UV-vis spectrophotometry to measure the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of the bulk sample. The samples were visibly brown and had MAC values of ˜ 2 m2 g-1 at λ = 300 nm and ˜ 0. 5 m2 g-1 at λ = 400 nm, comparable to strongly absorbing brown carbon emitted from biomass burning. The chemical composition of SOA was examined with several mass spectrometry methods. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and nanospray desorption electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI-HRMS) were both used to provide information about the overall distribution of SOA compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography, coupled to photodiode array spectrophotometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-HRMS), was used to identify chromophoric compounds that are responsible for the brown colour of SOA. Indole derivatives, such as tryptanthrin, indirubin, indigo dye, and indoxyl red, were found to contribute significantly to the visible absorption spectrum of indole SOA. The potential effect of indole SOA on air quality was explored with an airshed model, which found elevated concentrations of indole SOA during the afternoon hours contributing considerably to the total organic aerosol under selected scenarios. Because of its high MAC values, indole SOA can contribute to decreased visibility and poor air

  20. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  1. Phytotoxicity, structural and computational analysis of 2-methyl-1,5-diarylpentadienones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Zia Ud; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; de Cassia Pereira, Viviane; Gualtieri, Sonia Cristina Juliano; Deflon, Victor Marcelo; da Silva Maia, Pedro Ivo; Kuznetsov, Aleksey E.

    2017-08-01

    In our studies aimed to produce new chemicals used in weed control, 2-methyl-1,5-diarylpentadienones were synthesized by the reaction of p-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-nitrobenzaldehyde and p-N,N-dimethylbenzaldehyde, respectively, with 2-butanone, resulting in four model compounds. The phytotoxicity of these compounds against wheat coleoptiles and Sesame seedling was observed at μM concentrations, indicating good potential for their usage in weed management in the field. Spectroscopic and computational studies were performed in order to gain understanding on their mechanisms of action and to clarify some structural complexities due existence of conformers and substituent effects. These compounds probably act as hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors. The tested compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Solid crystalline state of the compound A (2-Methyl-1-(p-methophyphenyl)-5-(phenyl)-diarylpentadienone) is observed in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unit cell dimensions a = 14.3366(4) Å, b = 11.3788(4) Å, c = 9.6319(3) Å, β = 96.596, V = 1560.88(9) Å3 and Z = 4. Compound C (2-Methyl-1-(p-methophyphenyl)-5-(p-nitrophenyl)-diarylpentadienone) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unit cell dimensions a = 17.8276(9) Å, b = 7.3627(4) Å, c = 12.9740(6) Å, β = 107.6230(10), V = 1623.04(14) Å3 and Z = 4. LC-UV-MS analysis furnished important data helpful for their characterization. The spectroscopic data and computational (DFT) analysis revealed the fact that each of the compounds A-D occurs in solution as four conformers.

  2. Nature of the C2-methylation effect on the properties of imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Lima, Carlos F R A C; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2017-02-15

    Methylation at the C2 position of 1,3-disubstituted imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the structural features that has gained attention due to its drastic impact on thermophysical and transport properties. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this effect but there is still much discrepancy. Aiming for the rationalization of the effects of these structural features on the properties of imidazolium ILs, we present a thermodynamic and computational study of two methylated ILs at the C2 position of imidazolium, [ 1 C 4 2 C 1 3 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [ 1 C 3 2 C 1 3 C 1 im][NTf 2 ]. The phase behaviour (glass transition and vaporization equilibrium) and computational studies of the anion rotation around the cation and ion pair interaction energies for both ILs were explored. The results have shown that C2-methylation has no impact on the enthalpy of vaporization. However, it decreases the entropy of vaporization, which is a consequence of the change in the ion pair dynamics that affects both the liquid and gas phases. In addition, the more hindered dynamics of the ion pair are also reflected in the increase in the glass transition temperature, T g . The entropic contribution of anion-around-cation rotation in the imidazolium [NTf 2 ] ILs was quantified experimentally by the comparative analysis of the entropy of vaporization, and computationally by the calculation of the entropies of hindered internal rotation. The global results exclude the existence of significant H-bonding in the C2-protonated (non-methylated) ILs and explain the C2-methylation effect in terms of reduced entropy of the ion pair in the liquid and gas phases. In light of these results, the C2-methylation effect is intrinsically entropic and originates from the more hindered anion-around-cation rotation as a consequence of the substitution of the -H with a bulkier -CH 3 group.

  3. Indole: An evolutionarily conserved influencer of behavior across kingdoms.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Wu, Guoyao; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Wood, Thomas K; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2017-02-01

    Indole is a key environmental cue that is used by many organisms. Based on its biochemistry, we suggest indole is used so universally, and by such different organisms, because it derives from the metabolism of tryptophan, a resource essential for many species yet rare in nature. These properties make it a valuable, environmental cue for resources almost universally important for promoting fitness. We then describe how indole is used to coordinate actions within organisms, to influence the behavior of conspecifics and can even be used to change the behavior of species that belong to other kingdoms. Drawing on the evolutionary framework that has been developed for understanding animal communication, we show how this is diversely achieved by indole acting as a cue, a manipulative signal, and an honest signal, as well as how indole can be used synergistically to amplify information conveyed by other molecules. Clarifying these distinct functions of indole identifies patterns that transcend different kingdoms of organisms. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Density and viscosity of aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, L.M.; Davis, R.A.

    Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines such as N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) have application in acid gas treatment for the removal of acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The density and kinematic viscosity of aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol were determined from experiments within the temperature range 10--60 C. The composition of the alkanolamines in water ranged from 5% to 50% by mass.

  5. [Specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybenzene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution in the organism of warm-blooded animals].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, B K; Grishenko, V K; Astashkina, A P; Elizarova, M K

    2013-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybezene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution after intragastric administration of these toxicants to warm-blooded animals (rats). They were detected in the unmetabolized form in the internal organs and blood of the animals. The levels of 2-methyl hydroxybezene were especially high in the stomach and blood whereas the maximum content of 3-methyl hydroxybenzene was found in brain, blood, small intestines of the poisoned rats.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylbutanenitrile]- and 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylpropanenitrile]-initiated. 721.10326...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylbutanenitrile]- and 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylpropanenitrile]-initiated. 721.10326...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylbutanenitrile]- and 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylpropanenitrile]-initiated. 721.10326...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2...-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10526 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, telomers with C18-26-alkyl acrylate, 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate and vinylidene chloride, 2...-alkyl acrylate, 1-dodecanethiol, N-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-2-propenamide, polyfluorooctyl methacrylate... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2...

  11. Partial purification and characterization of indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (indoleacetic acid-inositol synthase)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesy, J. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the purification of the enzyme indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (IAA-myo-inositol synthase). This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of indol-3-ylacetate from 1-0-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-d-glucose to myo-inositol to form indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol and glucose. A hexokinase or glucose oxidase based assay system is described. The enzyme has been purified approximately 16,000-fold, has an isoelectric point of pH 6.1 and yields three catalytically inactive bands upon acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the native protein. The enzyme shows maximum transferase activity with myo-inositol but shows some transferase activity with scyllo-inositol and myo-inosose-2. No transfer of IAA occurs with myo-inositol-d-galactopyranose, cyclohexanol, mannitol, or glycerol as acyl acceptor. The affinity of the enzyme for 1-0-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-d-glucose is, Km = 30 micromolar, and for myo-inositol is, Km = 4 millimolar. The enzyme does not catalyze the exchange incorporation of glucose into IAA-glucose indicating the reaction mechanism involves binding of IAA glucose to the enzyme with subsequent hydrolytic cleavage of the acyl moiety by the hydroxyl of myo-inositol to form IAA myo-inositol ester.

  12. RASSF2 methylation is a strong prognostic marker in younger age patients with Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gharanei, Seley; Brini, Anna T; Vaiyapuri, Sumathi; Alholle, Abdullah; Dallol, Ashraf; Arrigoni, Elena; Kishida, Takeshi; Hiruma, Toru; Avigad, Smadar; Grimer, Robert; Maher, Eamonn R; Latif, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Ras-association domain family of genes consist of 10 members (RASSF1-RASSF10), all containing a Ras-association (RA) domain in either the C- or the N-terminus. Several members of this gene family are frequently methylated in common sporadic cancers; however, the role of the RASSF gene family in rare types of cancers, such as bone cancer, has remained largely uninvestigated. In this report, we investigated the methylation status of RASSF1A and RASSF2 in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Quantitative real-time methylation analysis (MethyLight) demonstrated that both genes were frequently methylated in Ewing sarcoma tumors (52.5% and 42.5%, respectively) as well as in ES cell lines and gene expression was upregulated in methylated cell lines after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxcytidine. Overexpression of either RASSF1A or RASSF2 reduced colony formation ability of ES cells. RASSF2 methylation correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.028) and this association was more pronounced in patients under the age of 18 y (p = 0.002). These results suggest that both RASSF1A and RASSF2 are novel epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in Ewing sarcoma and RASSF2 methylation may have prognostic implications for ES patients. PMID:23887284

  13. Low-Dose Radiotherapy in Indolent Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, Christine; Schick, Ulrike; Miralbell, Raymond

    Purpose: To assess the response rate, duration of response, and overall survival after low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods and Materials: Forty-three (24 women, 19 men) consecutive patients with indolent lymphoma or CLL were treated with a total dose of 4 Gy (2 x 2 Gy) using 6- 18-MV photons. The median age was 73 years (range, 39-88). Radiotherapy was given either after (n = 32; 75%) or before (n = 11; 25%) chemotherapy. The median time from diagnosis was 48 months (range, 1-249). The median follow-up period was 20 monthsmore » (range, 1-56). Results: The overall response rate was 90%. Twelve patients (28%) had a complete response, 15 (35%) had a partial response, 11 (26%) had stable disease, and 5 (11%) had progressive disease. The median overall survival for patients with a positive response (complete response/partial response/stable disease) was 41 months; for patients with progressive disease it was 6 months (p = 0.001). The median time to in-field progression was 21 months (range, 0-24), and the median time to out-field progression was 8 months (range, 0-40). The 3-year in-field control was 92% in patients with complete response (median was not reached). The median time to in-field progression was 9 months (range, 0.5-24) in patients with partial response and 6 months (range, 0.6-6) in those with stable disease (p < 0.05). Younger age, positive response to radiotherapy, and no previous chemotherapy were the best factors influencing the outcome. Conclusions: Low-dose involved-field radiotherapy is an effective treatment in the management of patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or CLL.« less

  14. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation of Imidamides and Divergent Couplings with Diazo Compounds: Substrate-Controlled Synthesis of Indoles and 3H-Indoles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunyun; Qi, Zisong; Wang, He; Yang, Xifa; Li, Xingwei

    2016-09-19

    Indoles are an important structural motif that is commonly found in biologically active molecules. In this work, conditions for divergent couplings between imidamides and acceptor-acceptor diazo compounds were developed that afforded NH indoles and 3H-indoles under ruthenium catalysis. The coupling of α-diazoketoesters afforded NH indoles by cleavage of the C(N2 )-C(acyl) bond whereas α-diazomalonates gave 3H-indoles by C-N bond cleavage. This reaction constitutes the first intermolecular coupling of diazo substrates with arenes by ruthenium-catalyzed C-H activation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Gas-phase conformations of 2-methyl-1,3-dithiolane investigated by microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang; Schwell, Martin; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam

    2018-03-01

    The conformational analysis of 2-methyl-1,3-dithiolane using quantum chemical calculations at some levels of theory yielded only one stable conformer with envelope geometry. However, other levels of theory indicated two envelope conformers. Analysis of the microwave spectrum recorded using two molecular jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers covering the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz confirms that only one conformer exists under jet conditions. The experimental spectrum was reproduced using a rigid-rotor model with centrifugal distortion correction within the measurement accuracy of 1.5 kHz, and molecular parameters were determined with very high accuracy. The gas phase structure of the title molecule is compared with the structures of other related molecules studied under the same experimental conditions.

  16. The Limits of Template-Directed Synthesis with Nucleoside-5'-Phosphoro(2-Methyl) Imidazolides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Wu, Taifeng

    1993-01-01

    In earlier work we have shown that C-rich templates containing isolated A, T or G residues and short oligo(G) sequences can be copied effectively using nucleoside-5'-phosphoro(2-methyl)imidazolides as substrates. We now show that isolated A or T residues within an oligo(G) sequence are a complete block to copying and that an isolated C residue is copied inefficiently. Replication is possible only if there are two complementary oligonucleotides each of which acts as a template to facilitate the synthesis of the other. We emphasize the severity of the problems that need to be overcome to make possible non-enzymatic replication in homogeneous aqueous solution. We conclude that an efficient catalyst was involved in the origin of polynucleotide replication.

  17. Interconversion of mechanical and dielectrical relaxation measurements for dicyclohexylmethyl-2-methyl succinate.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Calleja, R; Garcia-Bernabé, A; Sanchis, M J; del Castillo, L F

    2005-11-01

    A comparison between results of dielectrical relaxation and dynamic mechanical spectroscopies is carried out for the alpha-relaxation of the ester dicyclohexyl methyl-2-methyl succinate (DCMMS). The results for the dielectric permittivity and the shear modulus measurements are presented according to the empirical Havriliak-Negami (HN) equation. By using the time-temperature principle a master curve in each case was obtained for several temperatures. The comparative analysis presented here is based on the assumption of a relationship between rotational and shear viscosities. The former one is associated to the dielectrical relaxation, whereas the latter is associated to mechanical relaxation. Both viscosities are not necessarily equal in general, and we assume that the difference between them is an important factor to appropriately compare the dielectrical and mechanical results.

  18. Steric control of the asymmetric synthesis of N-substituted 2-methyl-4-piperidones

    SciTech Connect

    Grishina, G.V.; Potapov, V.M.; Abdulganeeva, S.A.

    Transmission of the iodomethylate of 1,2-dimethyl-4-piperidone by (S)-sec-butylamine gives 1-(S-sec-butyl)-2S-methyl-4-piperidone in 33% optical yield while transamination by (S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethylamine gives a 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of 1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-2-methyl-4-piperidone. The decrease in the optical yield is related to the facile opening of the piperidone ring at the C-N bond with subsequent recyclization. The /sup 13/C NMR data indicate that all the diastereomers of the 4-piperidones obtained are in the chain conformation with predominantly equatorial orientation of the methyl group at C/sub (2)/. The chiral optical properties were studied and the absolution configurations of the 4-piperidones obtained were established.

  19. Regeneration of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol used for carbon dioxide absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Shi, Yao; Wei, Jianwen; Zhao, Wei; Ye, Qing

    2008-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the carbon dioxide cycling process and to reduce the regeneration energy consumption, a sterically hindered amine of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propranol (AMP) was investigated to determine its regeneration behavior as a CO2 absorbent. The CO2 absorption and amine regeneration characteristics were experimentally examined under various operating conditions. The regeneration efficiency increased from 86.2% to 98.3% during the temperature range of 358 to 403 K. The most suitable regeneration temperature for AMP was 383 K, in this experiment condition, and the regeneration efficiency of absorption/regenerationruns descended from 98.3% to 94.0%. A number of heat-stable salts (HSS) could cause a reduction in CO2 absorption capacity and regeneration efficiency. The results indicated that aqueous AMP was easier to regenerate with less loss of absorption capacity than other amines, such as, monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA).

  20. Crystallization of lysozyme with ( R)-, ( S)- and ( RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    DOE PAGES

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; ...

    2015-03-01

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with ( R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with ( R)-MPD and ( RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by ( R)-MPD, demonstrating that there ismore » preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.« less

  1. X-ray diffraction, vibrational and quantum chemical investigations of 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate trichloroacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Marchewka, Mariusz K; Pietraszko, A; Kalaivani, M

    2012-11-01

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline with trichloroacetic acid, namely 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate trichloroacetic acid (C(11)H(10)Cl(6)N(2)O(6)) have been performed by means of single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction method. The complex was formed with accompanying proton transfer from trichloroacetic acid molecule to 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline. The studied crystal is built up of singly protonated 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium cations, trichloroacetate anions and neutral trichloroacetic acid molecules. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, with a=14.947Å, b=6.432Å, c=19.609Å and Z=4. The vibrational assignments and analysis of 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate trichloroacetic acid have also been performed by FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. More support on the experimental findings were added from the quantum chemical studies performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G, cc-pVDZ, 6-31G and 6-31++G basis sets. The structural parameters, energies, thermodynamic parameters and the NBO charges of 2M4NATCA were also determined by the DFT methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. X-ray diffraction, vibrational and quantum chemical investigations of 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate trichloroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, Mariusz K.; Pietraszko, A.; Kalaivani, M.

    2012-11-01

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline with trichloroacetic acid, namely 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate trichloroacetic acid (C11H10Cl6N2O6) have been performed by means of single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction method. The complex was formed with accompanying proton transfer from trichloroacetic acid molecule to 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline. The studied crystal is built up of singly protonated 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium cations, trichloroacetate anions and neutral trichloroacetic acid molecules. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/c, with a = 14.947 Å, b = 6.432 Å, c = 19.609 Å and Z = 4. The vibrational assignments and analysis of 2-methyl-4-nitroanilinium trichloroacetate trichloroacetic acid have also been performed by FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. More support on the experimental findings were added from the quantum chemical studies performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G**, cc-pVDZ, 6-31G and 6-31++G basis sets. The structural parameters, energies, thermodynamic parameters and the NBO charges of 2M4NATCA were also determined by the DFT methods.

  3. Experimental Electronic Spectroscopy of Two PAHs: Naphthalene and 2-METHYL Naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friha, H.; Feraud, G.; Pino, T.; Brechignac, Ph.; Parneix, P.; Dhaoudi, Z.; Jaidane, N.; Galila, H.; Troy, T.; Schmidt, T.

    2011-06-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) was suggested in the mid-80's. Since then, their important role in the physico-chemical evolution of the ISM has been confirmed. Interstellar PAHs have been in particular proposed as possible carriers of some Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs). These absorption bands are seen in the spectra of reddened stars from the visible to the near infrared and constitute a major astrophysical issue. Our purpose is to obtain electronic spectra of gas phase PAHs which will be used to probe their participation to the interstellar extinction curve from the visible (DIBs) to the UV (bump). For this goal PAHs cations represent an excellent set of target species. A new way of forming PAH+-Ar_n clusters cations has been implemented in the experimental set-up 'ICARE' at ISMO (Orsay) giving us the capability to measure the electronic spectra of cold PAH cations in the gas phase through the "Ar tagging" trick. Two molecules have been investigated in this way: naphthalene (C_1_0H_8) and 2- methyl naphthalene (C_1_1H_1_0). Clusters of naphthalene and (or 2-methyl-naphthalene) with Ar atoms are first formed in a supersonic jet, before being hit by a 281 nm laser beam which photo-ionizes the clusters which are then injected in a molecular beam through a skimmer. A tunable laser beam crossing downstream photo-dissociates the cations. The bare PAH fragments are detected using a Time-Of-Flight spectrometer while scanning the visible laser wavelength from 470 to 690 nm.

  4. Toxic effects of brominated indoles and phenols on zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kammann, U; Vobach, M; Wosniok, W

    2006-07-01

    Organobromine compounds in the marine environment have been the focus of growing attention in past years. In contrast to anthropogenic brominated flame retardants, other brominated compounds are produced naturally, e.g., by common polychaete worms and algae. Brominated phenols and indoles assumed to be of biogenic origin have been detected in water and sediment extracts from the German Bight. These substances as well as some of their isomers have been tested with the zebrafish embryo test and were found to cause lethal as well as nonlethal malformations. The zebrafish test was able to detect a log K(OW)-related toxicity for bromophenols, suggesting nonpolar narcosis as a major mode of action. Different effect patterns could be observed for brominated indoles and bromophenols. The comparison of effective concentrations in the zebrafish embryo test with the concentrations determined in water samples suggests the possibility that brominated indoles may affect early life stages of marine fish species in the North Sea.

  5. New zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Xinyu; Si, Xiali; Liang, Hong; Tu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qingying

    2018-01-31

    Four new zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids, rhynchophyllioniums A-D (1-4), together with eight known alkaloids (5-12), were isolated from the hook-bearing stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD, and the zwitterionic forms and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates, including the monoterpene indole alkaloids with free C-22 carboxyl group and those with C-22 carboxyl methyl ester, were proved to be naturally coexisting in the herb by LC-MS analysis. This is the first report of monoterpene indole alkaloids that exist in the form of zwitterion. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of all isolates against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines are reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cascade Annulation of Indole with Propargyl Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Julia; Jäckel, Elisabeth; Haak, Edgar

    2018-05-14

    Cascade transformations forming multiple bonds and one-pot procedures provide rapid access to natural-product-like scaffolds from simple precursors. These atom-economic processes are valuable tools in organic synthesis and drug discovery. Herein, we report on ruthenium-catalyzed cascade annulations of indole with readily available propargyl alcohols. These provide rapid access to diverse carbazoles, cyclohepta[b]indoles, and further fused polycycles with high selectivity. A bifunctional ruthenium complex featuring a redox-coupled cyclopentadienone ligand acts as a common catalyst for the different cascade processes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Novel indole sulfides as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs.

    PubMed

    Brigg, Siobhan; Pribut, Nicole; Basson, Adriaan E; Avgenikos, Moscos; Venter, Reinhardt; Blackie, Margaret A; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Pelly, Stephen C

    2016-03-15

    In a previous communication we described a series of indole based NNRTIs which were potent inhibitors of HIV replication, both for the wild type and K103N strains of the virus. However, the methyl ether functionality on these compounds, which was crucial for potency, was susceptible to acid promoted indole assisted SN1 substitution. This particular problem did not bode well for an orally bioavailable drug. Here we describe bioisosteric replacement of this problematic functional group, leading to a series of compounds which are potent inhibitors of HIV replication, and are acid stable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The variation trends of SFRP2 methylation of tissue, feces, and blood detection in colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Sui, Chengguang; Ma, Jianzhong; Chen, Qun; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The susceptibility of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been studied previously. The aim of this study was to determine the risk sizes and variation trends of SFRP2 methylation in CRC development in Chinese populations. Subgroup meta-analysis and the least-squares curve-fitting method were carried out to analyze the risk of SFRP2 methylation in tissue, feces, and blood detection from 2221 samples, including a total of 1103 cases of CRC, 459 cases of adenoma, 257 cases of polyps, and 402 controls. The data showed that odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) between CRC and controls for tissue, feces, and blood detection were 334.01 (104.42-1068.39), 63.76 (20.62-197.63), and 133.75 (18.32-976.32), respectively. There were also significant differences between tissue and feces or blood as well as between feces and blood methylation frequency. These results showed that the risk size in tissue was much greater than that in feces and that in blood. The results pointed out that three curves in tissue, feces, and blood detection described the variation trends of methylation incidence from the control to polyp, to adenoma and to CRC, and that the variation trend of the risk size of SFRP2 methylation was synchronized with the histological evolution process of CRC. The variation trend of the risk size of SFRP2 methylation incidence is consistent with the histological evolution process of CRC. The susceptibility to SFRP2 methylation is an important biomarker in the study of early diagnosis of CRC and high-risk patients.

  9. Indole diterpenoid natural products as the inspiration for new synthetic methods and strategies.

    PubMed

    Corsello, Michael A; Kim, Junyong; Garg, Neil K

    2017-09-01

    Indole terpenoids comprise a large class of natural products with diverse structural topologies and a broad range of biological activities. Accordingly, indole terpenoids have and continue to serve as attractive targets for chemical synthesis. Many synthetic efforts over the past few years have focused on a subclass of this family, the indole diterpenoids. This minireview showcases the role indole diterpenoids have played in inspiring the recent development of clever synthetic strategies, and new chemical reactions.

  10. Solvent-Free Addition of Indole to Aldehydes: Unexpected Synthesis of Novel 1-[1-(1H-Indol-3-yl) Alkyl]-1H-Indoles and Preliminary Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity in Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Graziella; Zedda, Gloria; Casu, Mariano; Simbula, Gabriella; Begala, Michela

    2017-10-17

    New 1-[1-(1 H -indol-3-yl) alkyl]-1 H -indoles, surprisingly, have been obtained from the addition of indole to a variety of aldehydes under neat conditions. CaO, present in excess, was fundamental for carrying out the reaction with paraformaldehyde. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes afforded only classical bis (indolyl) aryl indoles. In this paper, the role of CaO, together with the regiochemistry and the mechanism of the reaction, are discussed in detail. The effect of some selected 3,3'- and 1,3'-diindolyl methane derivatives on cell proliferation of the hepatoma cell line FaO was also evaluated.

  11. Photolysis of Indole-Containing Mycotoxins to Fluorescent Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Photochemical reaction of the non-fluorescent mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) to fluorescent products was recently reported. Because CPA contains an indole moiety, believed to contribute to the fluorescence, it was of interest to determine whether the effect might be more generally applicable to ...

  12. Indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia bahiensis A.DC. (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Kato, Lucilia; Marques Braga, Raquel; Koch, Ingrid; Sumiko Kinoshita, Luiza

    2002-06-01

    Four indole alkaloids, 12-methoxy-N(a)-methyl-vellosimine, demethoxypurpeline, 12-methoxyaffinisine, and 12-methoxy-vellosimine, in addition to picrinine, vinorine, raucaffrinoline, normacusine B, norseredamine, seredamine, 10-methoxynormacusine B, norpurpeline and purpeline, were isolated from the bark or leaf extracts of Rauvolfia bahiensis.

  13. Indole: An evolutionarily conserved influencer of behavior across kingdoms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Indole, which is produced from the breakdown of the essential amino acid tryptophan, is a key environmental cue that is used by many organisms. But why is its use so ubiquitous, and how does it function to modulate interactions among such diverse organisms? Here, we review the literature to addres...

  14. KO(t)Bu-Mediated Coupling of Indoles and [60]Fullerene: Transition-Metal-Free and General Synthesis of 1,2-(3-Indole)(hydro)[60]fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Haj Elhussin, Imad Elddin; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2015-11-06

    Direct coupling of indoles with C60 has been achieved for the first time. Transition-metal-free KO(t)Bu-mediated reaction of indoles to [60]fullerene has been developed as a practical and efficient method for the synthesis of various 1,2-(3-indole)(hydro)[60]fullerenes that are otherwise difficult to direct synthesize in an efficient and selective manner. This methodology tolerates sensitive functionalities such as chloro, ester, and nitro on indole and builds molecular complexity rapidly, with most reactions reaching completion in <1 h. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed to explain the high regioselectivity at the 3-position of the indoles and the formation of 1,2-(3-indole)(hydro)[60]fullerenes.

  15. Aniline Is an Inducer, and Not a Precursor, for Indole Derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mujahid; Ch, Sasikala; Ch, Ramana V.

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway. PMID:24533057

  16. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  17. Organosulfates as Tracers for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation from 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2 ol (MBO) in the Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is an important biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by pine trees and a potential precursor of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in forested regions. In the present study, hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of MBO was exa...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6620 - Alkanaminium, polyalkyl-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate. 721.6620 Section... Substances § 721.6620 Alkanaminium, polyalkyl-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide...-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate (PMN P-87-252) is subject to...

  19. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from a Pinus taeda Experimental Plantation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6620 - Alkanaminium, polyalkyl-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate. 721.6620 Section... Substances § 721.6620 Alkanaminium, polyalkyl-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide...-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate (PMN P-87-252) is subject to...

  1. DFT simulations and vibrational spectra of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuga Devi, T. S.; Sharmi kumar, J.; Ramkumaar, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartee-Fock and density functional method (B3LYP) with the augmented-correlation consistent-polarized valence double zeta (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set. The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined based on this. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) 4 program. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties and Mulliken charges were calculated using both Hartee-Fock and density functional method using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set and compared. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap revealed that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and were compared with experimental results.

  2. DFT simulations and vibrational spectra of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Renuga Devi, T S; Sharmi kumar, J; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-12-10

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol were recorded in the regions 4000-400cm(-1) and 4000-50cm(-1) respectively. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartee-Fock and density functional method (B3LYP) with the augmented-correlation consistent-polarized valence double zeta (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set. The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined based on this. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) 4 program. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties and Mulliken charges were calculated using both Hartee-Fock and density functional method using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set and compared. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap revealed that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and were compared with experimental results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Benzil: 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline binary single crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeho; Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Wang, Wen Shan; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1999-06-01

    Benzil:MNA binary organic single crystals have been grown to overcome decomposition tendency and improve mechanical properties of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) which is known to be one of the best organic NLO material. Single crystals of binary system have grown using a transparent Bridgman- Stockbarger system which has fabricated to monitor the growth process. The growth conditions for the flat solid- liquid interface are optimized for the different dopant concentration of benzil. The melt in the self-sealing ampoule is maintained in liquid state without decomposition up to 2 weeks which allows us to grow 20 mm long single crystals. Hardness of 5wt% benzil:MNA is measured to be 13 Kg/mm2 which is 45% higher than benzil. The conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation is found to be 1.5% with 4.5 mm interaction length. Since MNA is phase-matchable material, this efficiency could be comparable to commercial KDP. Surface quality of binary crystals has maintained its initial condition in air without absorption of water vapor which may be the main cause of surface degradation.

  4. Impedance Spectroscopy and AC Conductivity Studies of Bulk 3-Amino-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shabaan, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) conductivity (σ AC) studies of bulk 3-amino-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-hydrochloride (neutral red, NR) have been carried out over the temperature (T) range from 303 K to 383 K and frequency (f) range from 0.5 kHz to 5 MHz. Dielectric data were analyzed using the complex impedance (Z *) and complex electric modulus (M *) for bulk NR at various temperatures. The impedance loss peaks were found to shift towards high frequencies, indicating an increase in the relaxation time (τ 0) and loss in the material, with increasing temperature. For each temperature, a single depressed semicircle was observed at high frequencies, originating from the bulk transport, and a spike in the low-frequency region, resulting from the electrode effect. Fitting of these curves yielded an equivalent circuit containing a parallel combination of a resistance R and constant-phase element (CPE) Q. The carrier transport in bulk NR is governed by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism, some parameters of which, such as the maximum barrier height (W M), charge density (N), and hopping distance (r), were determined as functions of both temperature and frequency. The frequency dependence of σ AC at different temperatures indicated that the conduction in bulk NR is a thermally activated process. The σ AC value at different frequencies increased linearly with temperature.

  5. Structure and conformation of N-(2-methyl-5-chlorophenyl)salicylaldimine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmali, A.; Elerman, Y.

    1998-02-01

    N-(2-methyl-5-chlorophenyl)salicylaldimine (C 14H 12ClNO) has been studied by X-ray analysis and AM1 molecular orbital methods. It crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 12 12 1 with a = 7.474(1) Å, b = 12.155(1) Å, c = 13.378(1) Å, V = 1215.3(2) Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.343 g cm -3 and μ(Mo Kα) = 0.296 mm -1. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined to R = 0.0374 for 1689 reflections [ I > 2 σ( I)]. The title compound is photochromic and the molecule is not planar. There is a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond of distance 2.604(3) Å between the hydroxyl oxygen atom and imine nitrogen atom, the hydrogen atom essentially being bonded to the oxygen atom. Minimum energy conformations from AM1 were calculated as a function of the three torsion angles θ1(C8N1C7C6), θ2(C9C8N1C7) and θ3(N1C7C6C5), varied every 10°. The optimised geometry of the crystal structure corresponding to a non-planar conformation is the most stable conformation in all calculations.

  6. Cascade multicomponent synthesis of indoles, pyrazoles, and pyridazinones by functionalization of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Matcha, Kiran; Antonchick, Andrey P

    2014-10-27

    The development of multicomponent reactions for indole synthesis is demanding and has hardly been explored. The present study describes the development of a novel multicomponent, cascade approach for indole synthesis. Various substituted indole derivatives were obtained from simple reagents, such as unfunctionalized alkenes, diazonium salts, and sodium triflinate, by using an established straightforward and regioselective method. The method is based on the radical trifluoromethylation of alkenes as an entry into Fischer indole synthesis. Besides indole synthesis, the application of the multicomponent cascade reaction to the synthesis of pyrazoles and pyridazinones is described. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Unveiling the biotransformation mechanism of indole in a Cupriavidus sp. strain.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiao; Liu, Ziyan; Wang, Weiwei; Tang, Hongzhi; Zhou, Jiti; Xu, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Indole, an important signaling molecule as well as a typical N-heterocyclic aromatic pollutant, is widespread in nature. However, the biotransformation mechanisms of indole are still poorly studied. Here, we sought to unlock the genetic determinants of indole biotransformation in strain Cupriavidus sp. SHE based on genomics, proteomics and functional studies. A total of 177 proteins were notably altered (118 up- and 59 downregulated) in cells grown in indole mineral salt medium when compared with that in sodium citrate medium. RT-qPCR and gene knockout assays demonstrated that an indole oxygenase gene cluster was responsible for the indole upstream metabolism. A functional indole oxygenase, termed IndA, was identified in the cluster, and its catalytic efficiency was higher than those of previously reported indole oxidation enzymes. Furthermore, the indole downstream metabolism was found to proceed via the atypical CoA-thioester pathway rather than conventional gentisate and salicylate pathways. This unusual pathway was catalyzed by a conserved 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA gene cluster, among which the 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA ligase initiated anthranilate transformation. This study unveils the genetic determinants of indole biotransformation and will provide new insights into our understanding of indole biodegradation in natural environments and its functional studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Biodegradation of indole at high concentration by persolvent fermentation with Pseudomonas sp. ST-200.

    PubMed

    Doukyu, N; Aono, R

    1997-05-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200 grew on indole as a sole carbon source. The minimal inhibitory concentration of indole was 0.3 mg/ml for ST-200. However, ST-200 grew in a persolvent fermentation system containing a large amount of indole (a medium containing 20% by vol. diphenylmethane and 4 mg/ml indole), because most of the indole was partitioned in the organic solvent layer. When the organism was grown in the medium containing indole at 1 mg/ml in the presence of diphenylmethane, more than 98% of the indole was consumed after 48h. Isatic acid (0.4 mg/ml) and isatin (0.03 mg/ml) were produced as the metabolites in the aqueous medium layer.

  9. Indoles as therapeutics of interest in medicinal chemistry: Bird's eye view.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Navriti; Silakari, Om

    2017-07-07

    Indoles constitute extensively explored heterocyclic ring systems with wide range of applications in pathophysiological conditions that is, cancer, microbial and viral infections, inflammation, depression, migraine, emesis, hypertension, etc. Presence of indole nucleus in amino acid tryptophan makes it prominent in phytoconstituents such as perfumes, neurotransmitters, auxins (plant hormones), indole alkaloids etc. The interesting molecular architecture of indole makes them suitable candidates for the drug development. This review article provides an overview of the chemistry, biology, and toxicology of indoles focusing on their application as drugs. Our effort is to corroborate the information available on the natural indole alkaloids, indole based FDA approved drugs and clinical trial candidates having diverse therapeutic implementations. This compiled information may serve as a benchmark for the alteration of existing ligands to design novel potent molecules with lesser side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Mechanisms of (2-methyl-n-butyl) shikonin induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bing; Ma, Xiao-Qiong

    2012-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of (2-methyl-n-butyl) shikonin (MBS) on inducing apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and the role of ERK1/2 signal pathway in the apoptosis. MTT assay was used to detect SGC-7901 cell proliferation. DNA condensation was measured by DAPI stain. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analyzed by JC-1 staining. The protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-JNK, JNK, p-p38 and p38 were detected by Western blotting. The results showed that MBS reduced the cell viability of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 at 24 h and 48 h for SGC-7901 cells was 10.113 and 4.196 micromolL(-1), respectively. After being treated with MBS, the typical nuclear condensation was observed in SGC-7901 cells by DAPI stain. Apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells was induced by MBS in a dose dependent manner. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, while the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK were up-regulated after MBS treatment. U0126, a specific MAP kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, blocked the ERK1/2 activation by MBS. MMP was decreased by MBS treatment. It can be concluded that MBS could inhibit SGC-7901 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, ERK1/2 signal pathway and JNK signal pathway might be involved in this process.

  11. Reaction Paths and Chemical Activation Reactions of 2-Methyl-5-Furanyl Radical with 3O2.

    PubMed

    Hudzik, Jason M; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2017-10-05

    Interest in high-energy substituted furans has been increasing due to their occurrence in biofuel production and their versatility in conversion to other useful products. Methylfurans are the simplest substituted furans and understanding their reaction pathways, thermochemical properties, including intermediate species stability, and chemical kinetics would aid in the study of larger furans. Furan ring C-H bonds have been shown to be extremely strong, approximately 120 kcal mol -1 , due in part to the placement of the oxygen atom and aromatic-like resonance, both within the ring. The thermochemistry and kinetics of the oxidation of 2-methyfuran radical at position 5 of the furan ring, 2-methyl-5-furanyl radical (2MF5j), is analyzed. The resulting chemically activated species, 2MF5OOj radical, has a well depth of 51 kcal mol -1 below the 2MF5j + O 2 reactants; this is 4-5 kcal mol -1 deeper than that of phenyl and vinyl radical plus O 2 , with both of these reactions known to undergo chain branching. Important, low-energy reaction pathways include chain branching dissociations, intramolecular abstractions, group transfers, and radical oxygen additions. Enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities for the stable molecules, radicals, and transition-state species are analyzed using computational methods. Calculated ΔH ° f 298 values were determined using an isodesmic work reaction from the CBS-QB3 composite method. Elementary rate parameters are from saddle point transition-state structures and compared to variational transition-state analysis for the barrierless reactions. Temperature- and pressure-dependent rate constants which are calculated using QRRK and master equation analysis is used for falloff and stabilization.

  12. The TosMIC approach to 3-(oxazol-5-yl) indoles: application to the synthesis of indole-based IMPDH inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-11-18

    A modified approach to the synthesis of 3-(oxazolyl-5-yl) indoles is reported. This method was applied to the synthesis of series of novel indole based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  13. Degradation of N-heterocyclic indole by a novel endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Xie, Xing-Guang; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2013-02-01

    A broad-spectrum endophytic Phomopsis liquidambari, was used to degrade environmental pollutant indole. In the condition of using indole as sole carbon and nitrogen source, the optimum concentration of indole supplied was determined to be 100 mg L(-1), with 41.7% ratio of indole degradation within 120 h. Exogenous addition of plant litter significantly increased indole degradation to 99.1% within 60 h. Indole oxidation to oxindole and isatin were the key steps limiting indole degradation. Plant litter addition induced fungus to produce laccase and LiP to non-specific oxidize indole. The results of fungal metabolites pathway through HPLC-MS and NMR analysis showed that indole was firstly oxidized to oxindole and isatin, and deoxidated to indolenie-2-dione, then hydroxylated to 2-dioxindole, which pyridine ring were cleaved through C-N position and changed to 2-aminobenzoic acid. Such metabolic pathway was similar with bacterial degradation of indole-3-acetic acid in plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids Obtained as Artifacts from Rauvolfia tetraphylla.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-10-01

    Five new hybrid monoterpenoid indole alkaloids bearing an unusual 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxopiperidin-6-yl moiety, namely rauvotetraphyllines F-H (1, 3, 4), 17-epi-rauvotetraphylline F (2) and 21-epi-rauvotetraphylline H (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against five human cancer cell lines.

  15. Tetracyclic indole alkaloids with antinematode activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fandong; Ma, Qingyun; Huang, Shengzhuo; Yang, Shuang; Fu, Linran; Zhou, Liman; Dai, Haofu; Yu, Zhifang; Zhao, Youxing

    2017-06-01

    A new tetracyclic indole alkaloid, 17-O-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetradehydrogeissoschizine, together with seven known ones, were isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparing with the literature data. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6-8 showed potent to moderate antinematode activities against Panagrellus redivevus at a concentration of 250 μg/mL.

  16. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  17. The reaction of indole with the aminoacrylate intermediate of Salmonella typhimurium tryptophan synthase: observation of a primary kinetic isotope effect with 3-[(2)H]indole.

    PubMed

    Cash, Michael T; Miles, Edith W; Phillips, Robert S

    2004-12-15

    The bacterial tryptophan synthase alpha(2)beta(2) complex catalyzes the final reactions in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan. Indole is produced at the active site of the alpha-subunit and is transferred through a 25-30 A tunnel to the beta-active site, where it reacts with an aminoacrylate intermediate. Lane and Kirschner proposed a two-step nucleophilic addition-tautomerization mechanism for the reaction of indole with the aminoacrylate intermediate, based on the absence of an observed kinetic isotope effect (KIE) when 3-[(2)H]indole reacts with the aminoacrylate intermediate. We have now observed a KIE of 1.4-2.0 in the reaction of 3-[(2)H]indole with the aminoacrylate intermediate in the presence of monovalent cations, but not when an alpha-subunit ligand, disodium alpha-glycerophosphate (Na(2)GP), is present. Rapid-scanning stopped flow kinetic studies were performed of the reaction of indole and 3-[(2)H]indole with tryptophan synthase preincubated with L-serine, following the decay of the aminoacrylate intermediate at 350 nm, the formation of the quinonoid intermediate at 476 nm, and the formation of the L-Trp external aldimine at 423 nm. The addition of Na(2)GP dramatically slows the rate of reaction of indole with the alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate. A primary KIE is not observed in the reaction of 3-[(2)H]indole with the aminoacrylate complex of tryptophan synthase in the presence of Na(2)GP, suggesting binding of indole with tryptophan synthase is rate limiting under these conditions. The reaction of 2-methylindole does not show a KIE, either in the presence of Na(+) or Na(2)GP. These results support the previously proposed mechanism for the beta-reaction of tryptophan synthase, but suggest that the rate limiting step in quinonoid intermediate formation from indole and the aminoacrylate intermediate is deprotonation.

  18. Solubility of nitrous oxide in aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.A.; Pogainis, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines have applications in acid gas treatment for the removal of acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The solubility of nitrous oxide in aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and 2-amino-2-methyl-1 propanol was measured over the temperature range 10--60 C. The total composition of the alkanolamines in water ranged from 30 to 50 mass %. The experimental results were interpreted in terms of Henry`s constants.

  19. Selectivity of substrate binding and ionization of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Luanloet, Thikumporn; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2015-08-01

    2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (EC 1.14.12.4) from Pseudomonas sp. MA-1 is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a hydroxylation and aromatic ring cleavage reaction. The functional roles of two residues, Tyr223 and Tyr82, located ~ 5 Å away from MHPC, were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis, along with ligand binding, product analysis and transient kinetic experiments. Mutation of Tyr223 resulted in enzyme variants that were impaired in their hydroxylation activity and had Kd values for substrate binding 5-10-fold greater than the wild-type enzyme. Because this residue is adjacent to the water molecule that is located next to the 3-hydroxy group of MHPC, the results indicate that the interaction between Tyr223, H2 O and the 3-hydroxyl group of MHPC are important for substrate binding and hydroxylation. By contrast, the Kd for substrate binding of Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. However, only ~ 40-50% of the substrate was hydroxylated in the reactions of both variants, whereas most of the substrate was hydroxylated in the wild-type enzyme reaction. In free solution, MHPC or 5-hydroxynicotinic acid exists in a mixture of monoanionic and tripolar ionic forms, whereas only the tripolar ionic form binds to the wild-type enzyme. The binding of tripolar ionic MHPC would allow efficient hydroxylation through an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. For the Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants, both forms of substrates can bind to the enzymes, indicating that the mutation at Tyr82 abolished the selectivity of the enzyme towards the tripolar ionic form. Transient kinetic studies indicated that the hydroxylation rate constants of both Tyr82 variants are approximately two- to 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our findings suggest that Tyr82 is important for the binding selectivity of MHPC oxygenase towards the tripolar ionic species, whereas the

  20. 1-[6-(1H-Indol-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl]-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ramathilagam, C; Umarani, P R; Venkatesan, N; Rajakumar, P; Gunasekaran, B; Manivannan, V

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, C22H15N3O, the dihedral angle between the two indole units is 33.72 (3)°. The mol-ecular structure features a weak intra-molecular C-H⋯N inter-action. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane.

  1. Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of the nitrate trans-2-amino-2-methyl-N-(4-nitroxycyclohexyl)-propionamide in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pressmar, F; Neidlein, R; Strein, K

    1992-11-01

    The biotransformation and the pharmacokinetic behavior of the organic nitrate trans-2-Amino-2-methyl-N-(4-nitroxycyclohexyl)-propionamide (BM 12.1179, CAS 129795-96-6) were examined in dogs. BM 12.1179 was predominantly eliminated by urinary excretion, and the unchanged molecule prevailed in urine as well as in plasma. By means of various mass spectroscopic methods, the chemical structures of the metabolites were elucidated. As metabolites trans-2-amino-2-methyl-N-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-propionamide and trans-2-amino-2-methyl-N-(4-oxocyclohexyl)-propionamide were formed. Urine levels of the main metabolite were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; plasma and urine levels of BM 12.1179 were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The absolute bioavailability of BM 12.1179 was 80-100%. The plasma protein binding was about 34% which is high in comparison to other organic nitrates. BM 12.1179 represents a long-acting organic nitrate in that it shows a slow reductive denitration, and a long elimination half-life of about 10 h.

  2. Indole-Induced Activities of β-Lactamase and Efflux Pump Confer Ampicillin Resistance in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jisun; Shin, Bora; Park, Chulwoo; Park, Woojun

    2017-01-01

    Indole, which is widespread in microbial communities, has received attention because of its effects on bacterial physiology. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can acquire ampicillin (Amp) resistance during growth on indole-Amp agar. Transcriptome, mutant, and inhibitor studies have suggested that Amp resistance induced by indole can be attributed to increased gene expression of ttgAB encoding two genes of RND-type multidrug efflux operons and an ampC encoding β-lactamase. Expression, enzyme activities, and mutational analyses indicated that AmpC β-lactamase is important for acquiring Amp resistance of P. putida in the presence of indole. Here, we show, for the first time, that volatile indole increased Amp-resistant cells. Consistent with results of the volatile indole assay, a low concentration of indole in liquid culture promoted growth initially, but led to mutagenesis after indole was depleted, which could not be observed at high indole concentrations. Interestingly, ttgAB and ampC gene expression levels correlate with the concentration of indole, which might explain the low number of Amp-mutated cells in high indole concentrations. The expression levels of genes involved in mutagenesis, namely rpoS, recA, and mutS, were also modulated by indole. Our data indicates that indole reduces Amp-induced heterogeneity by promoting expression of TtgABC or MexAB-OprM efflux pumps and the indole-induced β-lactamase in P. putida and P. aeruginosa. PMID:28352264

  3. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Indole is an essential herbivore-induced volatile priming signal in maize

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Matthias; Veyrat, Nathalie; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Xu, Hao; Frey, Monika; Ton, Jurriaan; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds prime non-attacked plant tissues to respond more strongly to subsequent attacks. However, the key volatiles that trigger this primed state remain largely unidentified. In maize, the release of the aromatic compound indole is herbivore-specific and occurs earlier than other induced responses. We therefore hypothesized that indole may be involved in airborne priming. Using indole-deficient mutants and synthetic indole dispensers, we show that herbivore-induced indole enhances the induction of defensive volatiles in neighbouring maize plants in a species-specific manner. Furthermore, the release of indole is essential for priming of mono- and homoterpenes in systemic leaves of attacked plants. Indole exposure markedly increases the herbivore-induced production of the stress hormones jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate and abscisic acid, which represents a likely mechanism for indole-dependent priming. These results demonstrate that indole functions as a rapid and potent aerial priming agent that prepares systemic tissues and neighbouring plants for incoming attacks. PMID:25683900

  5. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): Heavy atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl Cdbnd O, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 μs). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 μs) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 108 M-1 s-1) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 107 M-1 s-1) and I2C (2.3 × 107 M-1 s-1). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide kqT1 is equal to 1 × 104 M-1 s-1; 6 × 103 M-1 s-1 and 2.7 × 104 M-1 s-1 for indole, I2C and I5C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the triplet states has been expressed in

  6. Photophysics of indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C): heavy atom effect.

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2013-12-01

    In this study the effect of carboxylic group substitution in the 2 and 5 position of indole ring on the photophysics of the parent indole chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous indole-2-carboxylic acid (I2C) and indole-5-carboxylic acid (I5C) have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics [Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012]. The determined time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of I2C and I5C are red-shifted as compared to that of the parent indole. This red-shift was especially evident in the case of I2C and may indicate the possibility of hydrogen bonded complex formation incorporating carbonyl CO, the NH group of I2C and, possibly, surrounding water molecules. The possibility of the excited state charge transfer process and the subsequent electronic charge redistribution in such a hydrogen bonded complex may also be postulated. The resulting stabilization of the I2C triplet state is manifested by its relatively long phosphorescence lifetime in aqueous solution (912 μs). The relatively short phosphorescence lifetime of I5C (56 μs) may be the consequence of more effective ground-state quenching of I5 C triplet state. This hypothesis may be strengthened by the significantly larger value of the determined rate constant of I5C triplet state quenching by its ground-state (4.4 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1)) as compared to that for indole (6.8 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)) and I2C (2.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1)). The determined bimolecular rate constant for triplet state quenching by iodide [Formula: see text] is equal to 1 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1); 6 × 10(3)M(-1)s(-1) and 2.7 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for indole, I2 C and I5 C, respectively. In order to obtain a better insight into iodide quenching of I2C and I5C triplet states in aqueous solution, the temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate constants for iodide quenching of the

  7. Indole alkaloids and other constituents of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Atsuko; Kumashiro, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Machiko; Nagakura, Naotaka; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nishi, Toyoyuki; Tanahashi, Takao

    2005-06-01

    From the dried roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were isolated five new indole alkaloids, N(b)-methylajmaline (1), N(b)-methylisoajmaline (2), 3-hydroxysarpagine (3), yohimbinic acid (4), isorauhimbinic acid (5), a new iridoid glucoside, 7-epiloganin (6), and a new sucrose derivative, 6'-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)glomeratose A (7), together with 20 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. The inhibitory activities of the selected alkaloids on topoisomerase I and II and their cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lines were assessed.

  8. Indole RSK inhibitors. Part 1: discovery and initial SAR.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Stephen J; Burke, Jennifer; Guo, Xin; Kirrane, Thomas M; Snow, Roger J; Zhang, Yunlong; Sarko, Chris; Soleymanzadeh, Lida; Swinamer, Alan; Westbrook, John; Dicapua, Frank; Padyana, Anil; Cogan, Derek; Gao, Amy; Xiong, Zhaoming; Madwed, Jeffrey B; Kashem, Mohammed; Kugler, Stanley; O'Neill, Margaret M

    2012-01-01

    A series of inhibitors for the 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) based on an 1-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indole-8-carboxamide scaffold were identified through high throughput screening. An RSK crystal structure and exploratory SAR were used to define the series pharmacophore. Compounds with good cell potency, such as compounds 43, 44, and 55 were identified, and form the basis for subsequent kinase selectivity optimization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Five new indole alkaloids from the leaves of Rauvolfia yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chang-An; Liu, Xi-Kui

    2013-09-01

    Five new indole alkaloids, rauvoloids A-E (1-5), together with two known ones, raucaffrinoline (6) and perakine (7) were isolated from the leaves of Rauvolfia yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Structurally, rauvoloids A (1), B-C (2-3) and D (4) with unusual substitution patterns (no substitution, Cl and (1E)-3-oxo-butenyl, respectively) at C-20, are the first examples of perakine-type alkaloids with C18 and C22 skeletons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles via Cobalt(III)-Catalyzed Enaminylation of 1-(Pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with Ketenimines and Subsequent Base-Promoted Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Fan, Zili; Zhang, Zhiyin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2016-09-16

    A cobalt(III)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 1-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with ketenimines is reported. The reaction provided 2-enaminylated indole derivatives in moderate to excellent yields with a broad substrate scope. The prepared 2-enaminylated indoles could be conveniently converted into pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles, which are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry.

  11. Occurrence of enzymes involved in biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetonitrile in plant-associated bacteria, Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Masuda, M; Shimizu, S

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of a hitherto unknown pathway involving the action of two enzymes, a nitrile hydratase and an amidase for the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid was discovered in phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in leguminous bacteria Rhizobium. The nitrile hydratase acting on indole-3-acetonitrile was purified to homogeneity through only two steps from the cell-free extract of A. tumefaciens. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by HPLC was about 102 kDa, and the enzyme consisted of four subunits identical in molecular mass. The enzyme exhibited a broad absorption spectrum in the visible range with absorption maxima at 408 nm and 705 nm, and it contained cobalt and iron. The enzyme stoichiometrically catalyzed the hydration of indole-3-acetonitrile into indole-3-acetamide with a specific activity of 13.7 mol per min per mg and a Km of 7.9 microM. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607511

  12. Effect of the pasteurization process on the contents of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the pasteurization process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. Pasteurization was run at a temperature of 80 °C for 5-30 min. Significant changes were only observed in contents of ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane. The total content of the compounds analyzed in cabbage pasteurized for 10-30 min was found to be decreased by ca. 20%, and the losses were due to thermal degradation of the predominating ascorbigen. Pasteurization was found not to exert any considerable effect on contents of indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol in cabbage nor did it affect contents of the compounds analyzed in juice.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10556 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. 721.10556 Section 721.10556 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10556 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. 721.10556 Section 721.10556 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10558 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10558 Section 721.10558 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10557 Section 721.10557 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10558 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10558 Section 721.10558 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS No. 675869-05-3...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10557 Section 721.10557 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...

  19. Efficient one-pot synthesis of indol-3-yl-glycines via uncatalyzed Friedel-Crafts reaction in water.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Taheri, Abuzar

    2009-03-05

    The three component reaction of primary aliphatic amines, glyoxalic acid and indole or N-methylindole in water at ambient temperature affords indol-3-yl or N-methylindol-3-yl-glycine in almost quantitative yields.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  1. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of substituted 2-phenyl-1H-indoles.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Cigdem; Kadri, Hachemi; Coban, Tulay; Suzen, Sibel; Westwell, Andrew D

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we report the design, synthesis and antioxidant activity of a series of substituted 2-(4-aminophenyl)-1H-indoles and 2-(methoxyphenyl)-1H-indoles. The new compounds are structurally related to the known indole-based antioxidant lead compound melatonin (MLT), and the antitumour 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole and 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)benzothiazole series. Efficient access to the target 2-phenylindoles was achieved via Fischer indole synthesis between substituted phenylhydrazines and acetophenones. 2-(4-Aminophenyl)indoles (such as the 6-fluoro analogue 3b) in particular showed potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assays (80% and 81% inhibition at 1mM concentration of 3b, respectively), at a level comparable with the reference standard MLT (98% and 75% at 1 mM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The pyruvate kinase of Stigmatella aurantiaca is an indole binding protein and essential for development.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Irmela; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Plaga, Wulf

    2005-06-01

    Myxospore formation of the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca can be uncoupled from the cooperative development i.e. fruiting body formation, by low concentrations of indole. Two putative indole receptor proteins were isolated by their capacity to bind indole and identified as pyruvate kinase (PK) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The PK activity of Stigmatella crude extracts was stimulated by indole. Cloning of the PK gene (pykA) and the construction of a pykA disruption mutant strikingly revealed that PK is essential for multicellular development: Fruiting body formation was abolished in the mutant strain and indole-induced spore formation was delayed. The developmental defects could be complemented by insertion of the pykA gene at the mtaB locus of the Stigmatella genome excluding any polar effects of the pykA disruption.

  3. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SKA2 Methylation is associated with Decreased Prefrontal Cortical Thickness and Greater PTSD Severity among Trauma-Exposed Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Logue, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Smith, Alicia K.; Lusk, Joanna; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Sperbeck, Emily; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Salat, David H.; Carter, Weleetka C.; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A.; Humphries, Donald E.; Miller, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising biomarker of suicide risk. Based on this finding, we examined associations between SKA2 methylation, cortical thickness, and psychiatric phenotypes linked to suicide in trauma-exposed veterans. 200 trauma-exposed white non-Hispanic veterans of the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (91% male) underwent clinical assessment and had blood drawn for genotyping and methylation analysis. 145 participants also had neuroimaging data available. Based on previous research, we examined DNA methylation at the CpG locus cg13989295 as well as DNA methylation adjusted for genotype at the methylation-associated SNP (rs7208505) in relationship to whole-brain cortical thickness, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), and depression symptoms. Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses identified three clusters in prefrontal cortex that were associated with genotype-adjusted SKA2 DNA methylation (methylationadj). Specifically, DNA methylationadj was associated with bilateral reductions of cortical thickness in frontal pole and superior frontal gyrus, and similar effects were found in the right orbitofrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. PTSD symptom severity was positively correlated with SKA2 DNA methylationadj and negatively correlated with cortical thickness in these regions. Mediation analyses showed a significant indirect effect of PTSD on cortical thickness via SKA2 methylation status. Results suggest that DNA methylationadj of SKA2 in blood indexes stress-related psychiatric phenotypes and neurobiology, pointing to its potential value as a biomarker of stress exposure and susceptibility. PMID:26324104

  5. A rapid approach to prepare poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-based antifouling coating by UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haikun; Mumtaz, Fatima; Zhang, Chong; Tan, Lin; Liu, Songtao; Zhang, Yalin; Pan, Chao; Wang, Yanmei

    2017-12-01

    A series of brush copolymers, poly[(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-random-4-vinylpyridine] (PMOXA-r-4VP), with a variety of compositions was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of the poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) methacrylate macromonomer (PMOXA-MA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), and then characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The PMOXA-based coatings on the surfaces of glass, silicon, gold and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were then produced by short-time ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of PMOXA-r-4VP. Water contact angel (WCA), ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ζ-potential techniques were used to characterize the coatings. The results showed that copolymers can be successfully bonded on the surfaces of glass, silicon, gold, and PDMS substrate. Besides, the PMOXA-based coatings displayed a superior resistance to bovine serum albumin, human blood platelets, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells adsorption and good biocompatibility. Finally, stability test indicated that the stability of coatings can be improved with the content of the 4VP segment. Furthermore, PMOXA-r1/2-4VP immobilized surfaces displayed good antifouling property in long-term applications.

  6. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  7. Indole-3-butyric acid induces lateral root formation via peroxisome-derived indole-3-acetic acid and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Markus; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Burbach, Christian; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    2013-10-01

    Controlled plant growth requires regulation through a variety of signaling molecules, including steroids, peptides, radicals of oxygen and nitrogen, as well as the 'classical' phytohormone groups. Auxin is critical for the control of plant growth and also orchestrates many developmental processes, such as the formation of new roots. It modulates root architecture both slowly, through actions at the transcriptional level and, more rapidly, by mechanisms targeting primarily plasma membrane sensory systems and intracellular signaling pathways. The latter reactions use several second messengers, including Ca(2+) , nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the different roles of two auxins, the major auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and another endogenous auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in the lateral root formation process of Arabidopsis and maize. This was mainly analyzed by different types of fluorescence microscopy and inhibitors of NO production. This study revealed that peroxisomal IBA to IAA conversion is followed by peroxisomal NO, which is important for IBA-induced lateral root formation. We conclude that peroxisomal NO emerges as a new player in auxin-induced root organogenesis. In particular, the spatially and temporally coordinated release of NO and IAA from peroxisomes is behind the strong promotion of lateral root formation via IBA. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Biogenetically inspired synthesis and skeletal diversification of indole alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Haruki; Oikawa, Hideaki; Oguri, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    To access architecturally complex natural products, chemists usually devise a customized synthetic strategy for constructing a single target skeleton. In contrast, biosynthetic assembly lines often employ divergent intramolecular cyclizations of a polyunsaturated common intermediate to produce diverse arrays of scaffolds. With the aim of integrating such biogenetic strategies, we show the development of an artificial divergent assembly line generating unprecedented numbers of scaffold variations of terpenoid indole alkaloids. This approach not only allows practical access to multipotent intermediates, but also enables systematic diversification of skeletal, stereochemical and functional group properties without structural simplification of naturally occurring alkaloids. Three distinct modes of [4+2] cyclizations and two types of redox-mediated annulations provided divergent access to five skeletally distinct scaffolds involving iboga-, aspidosperma-, andranginine- and ngouniensine-type skeletons and a non-natural variant within six to nine steps from tryptamine. The efficiency of our approach was demonstrated by successful total syntheses of (±)-vincadifformine, (±)-andranginine and (-)-catharanthine.

  9. Organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles enabled by azo groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang-Wen; Mao, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jian; Tan, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Arylation is a fundamental reaction that can be mostly fulfilled by electrophilic aromatic substitution and transition-metal-catalysed aryl functionalization. Although the azo group has been used as a directing group for many transformations via transition-metal-catalysed aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond activation, there remain significant unmet challenges in organocatalytic arylation. Here, we show that the azo group can effectively act as both a directing and activating group for organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles via formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution of azobenzene derivatives. Thus, a wide range of axially chiral arylindoles have been achieved in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities by utilizing chiral phosphoric acid as catalyst. Furthermore, highly enantioenriched pyrroloindoles bearing two contiguous quaternary chiral centres have also been obtained via a cascade enantioselective formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution-cyclization process. This strategy should be useful in other related research fields and will open new avenues for organocatalytic asymmetric aryl functionalization.

  10. Organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles enabled by azo groups.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang-Wen; Mao, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jian; Tan, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Arylation is a fundamental reaction that can be mostly fulfilled by electrophilic aromatic substitution and transition-metal-catalysed aryl functionalization. Although the azo group has been used as a directing group for many transformations via transition-metal-catalysed aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond activation, there remain significant unmet challenges in organocatalytic arylation. Here, we show that the azo group can effectively act as both a directing and activating group for organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles via formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution of azobenzene derivatives. Thus, a wide range of axially chiral arylindoles have been achieved in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities by utilizing chiral phosphoric acid as catalyst. Furthermore, highly enantioenriched pyrroloindoles bearing two contiguous quaternary chiral centres have also been obtained via a cascade enantioselective formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution-cyclization process. This strategy should be useful in other related research fields and will open new avenues for organocatalytic asymmetric aryl functionalization.

  11. Targeted Isolation of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids from Palicourea sessilis.

    PubMed

    Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Cretton, Sylvian; Allard, Pierre-Marie; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Passos, Carolina S; Salton, Juliana; Bertelli, Pablo; Pupier, Marion; Jeannerat, Damien; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Gasper, André L; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Christen, Philippe; Henriques, Amélia T

    2017-11-22

    Phytochemical investigation of the alkaloid extract of Palicourea sessilis by LC-HRMS/MS using molecular networking and an in silico MS/MS fragmentation approach suggested the presence of several new monoterpene indole alkaloids. These compounds were isolated by semipreparative HPLC, and their structures confirmed by means of HRMS, NMR, and ECD measurements as 4-N-methyllyaloside (3), 4-N-methyl-3,4-dehydrostrictosidine (4), 4β-hydroxyisodolichantoside (6), and 4α-hydroxyisodolichantoside (7), as well as the known alkaloids alline (1), N-methyltryptamine (2), isodolichantoside (5), and 5-oxodolichantoside (8). In addition, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the compounds was evaluated up to 50 μM.

  12. Antichlamydial Dimeric Indole Derivatives from Marine Actinomycete Rubrobacter radiotolerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Lin; Chen, Dandan; Huang, Lei; Ni, Min; Zhao, Yu; Fan, Huizhou; Bao, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-01

    Chlamydiae are widely distributed pathogens of human populations, which can lead to serious reproductive and other health problems. In our search for novel antichlamydial metabolites from marine derived-microorganisms, one new ( 1 ) and two known ( 2, 3 ) dimeric indole derivatives were isolated from the sponge-derived actinomycete Rubrobacter radiotolerans . The chemical structures of these metabolites were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic data as well as CD calculations. All three metabolites suppressed chlamydial growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Among them, compound 1 exhibited the most effective antichlamydial activity with IC 50 values of 46.6 ~ 96.4 µM in the production of infectious progeny. Compounds appeared to target the mid-stage of the chlamydial developmental cycle by interfering with reticular body replication, but not directly inactivating the infectious elementary body. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob A; Winkler, Ilan; Golan, Ezekiel; Nutt, David

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-ol, 5-IT). These compounds were screened as potential second-generation anti-PTSD drugs, against a battery of human and non-human receptors, transporters, and enzymes, and their potencies as 5-HT 2 receptor agonist and monoamine uptake inhibitors determined. All MDMA analogues displayed high binding affinities for 5-HT 2a,b,c and NE α2 receptors, as well as significant 5-HT, DA, and NE uptake inhibition. 5-APB revealed significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,b,c receptors, while 6-MAPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-IT exhibited significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2c receptor. There was a lack of correlation between the results of functional uptake and the monoamine transporter binding assay. MDMA analogues emerged as potent and selective monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Based on 6-MAPB favorable pharmacological profile, it was further subjected to IC 50 determination for monoamine transporters. Overall, all MDMA analogues displayed higher monoamine receptor/transporter binding affinities and agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,c receptors as compared to MDMA.

  14. Brönsted Acid-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Indoles from o-Aminobenzyl Alcohols and Furans

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Makarov, Anton; Rubtsov, Alexandr E.; Butin, Alexander V.; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Brönsted acid-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of indoles from o-aminobenzyl alcohols and furans has been developed. This method operates via the in situ formation of aminobenzylfuran, followed by its recyclization into the indole core. The method proved to be efficient for substrates possessing different functional groups, including -OMe, -CO2Cy, and -Br. The resulting indoles can easily be transformed into diverse scaffolds, including 2,3- and 1,2-fused indoles, and indole possessing an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety at the C-2 position. PMID:24255969

  15. Characterization of a Novel Phenol Hydroxylase in Indoles Biotranformation from a Strain Arthrobacter sp. W1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinliang; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigoids, as popular dyes, can be produced by microbial strains or enzymes catalysis. However, the new valuable products with their transformation mechanisms, especially inter-conversion among the intermediates and products have not been clearly identified yet. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate novel microbial catalytic processes for indigoids production systematically. Findings A phenol hydroxylase gene cluster (4,606 bp) from Arthrobacter sp. W1 (PHw1) was obtained. This cluster contains six components in the order of KLMNOP, which exhibit relatively low sequence identities (37–72%) with known genes. It was suggested that indole and all the tested indole derivatives except for 3-methylindole were transformed to various substituted indigoid pigments, and the predominant color products derived from indoles were identified by spectrum analysis. One new purple product from indole, 2-(7-oxo-1H-indol-6(7H)-ylidene) indolin-3-one, should be proposed as the dimerization of isatin and 7-hydroxylindole at the C-2 and C-6 positions. Tunnel entrance and docking studies were used to predict the important amino acids for indoles biotransformation, which were further proved by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the phenol hydroxylase from genus Arthrobacter could transform indoles to indigoids with new chemical compounds being produced. Our work should show high insights into understanding the mechanism of indigoids bio-production. PMID:23028517

  16. Indole production provides limited benefit to Escherichia coli during co-culture with Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Shelly L; Palmer, Kelli L; McLean, Robert J C

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli lives in the gastrointestinal tract and elsewhere, where it coexists within a mixed population. Indole production enables E. coli to grow with other gram-negative bacteria as indole inhibits N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum regulation. We investigated whether E. coli indole production enhanced competition with gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, wherein quorum signaling is mediated by small peptides. During planktonic co-culture with E. faecalis, the fitness and population density of E. coli tnaA mutants (unable to produce indole) equaled or surpassed that of E. coli wt. During biofilm growth, the fitness of both populations of E. coli stabilized around 100 %, whereas the fitness of E. faecalis declined over time to 85-90 %, suggesting that biofilm and planktonic populations have different competition strategies. Media supplementation with indole removed the competitive advantage of E. coli tnaA in planktonic populations but enhanced it in biofilm populations. E. coli wt and tnaA showed similar growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. However, E. coli growth was inhibited in the presence of filter-sterilized spent LB from E. faecalis, with inhibition being enhanced by indole. Similarly, there was also an inhibition of E. faecalis growth by proteinaceous components (likely bacteriocins) from spent culture media from both E. coli strains. We conclude that E. coli indole production is not a universal competition strategy, but rather works against gram-negative, AHL-producing bacteria.

  17. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  18. Anthranilate deteriorates the structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and antagonizes the biofilm-enhancing indole effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2015-04-01

    Anthranilate and indole are alternative degradation products of tryptophan, depending on the bacterial species. While indole enhances the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we found that anthranilate, the tryptophan degradation product of P. aeruginosa, had an opposite effect on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, in which anthranilate deteriorated the mushroom structure of biofilm. The anthranilate effect on biofilm formation was differentially exerted depending on the developmental stage and the presence of shear force. Anthranilate slightly accelerated the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa at the early stage of biofilm development and appeared to build more biofilm without shear force. But anthranilate weakened the biofilm structure in the late stage, deteriorating the mushroom structure of biofilms with shear force to make a flat biofilm. To investigate the interplay of anthranilate with indole in biofilm formation, biofilms were cotreated with anthranilate and indole, and the results showed that anthranilate antagonized the biofilm-enhancing effect of indole. Anthranilate was able to deteriorate the preformed biofilm. The effect of anthranilate and indole on biofilm formation was quorum sensing independent. AntR, a regulator of anthranilate-degrading metabolism was synergistically activated by cotreatment with anthranilate and indole, suggesting that indole might enhance biofilm formation by facilitating the degradation of anthranilate. Anthranilate slightly but significantly affected the cyclic diguaniylate (c-di-GMP) level and transcription of major extracellular polysaccharide (Psl, Pel, and alginate) operons. These results suggest that anthranilate may be a promising antibiofilm agent and antagonize the effect of indole on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Densities and viscosities of solutions of monoethanolamine + N-Methyldiethanolamine + water and monoethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.H.; Lie, Y.C.

    1994-07-01

    The densities and viscosities of aqueous mixtures of monoethanolamine (MEA) with N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and MEA with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) have been studied at temperatures from 30 to 80 C. For density measurements, four MEA + MDEA (a total of 20 mass %) + H[sub 2]O mixtures and eight MEA + AMP (20 and 30 mass %) + H[sub 2]O mixtures were studied. For viscosity measurements, ten MEA + MDEA + H[sub 2]O mixtures and eight MEA + AMP + H[sub 2]O mixtures were measured. A Redlich-Kister equation of the excess volume was applied to represent the density of the liquid mixtures.more » The equation of Grunberg and Nissan of liquid viscosity was used to correlate the viscosity data. Both density and viscosity calculations show satisfactory results.« less

  20. Synergistic cloud point extraction behavior of aluminum(III) with 2-methyl-8-quinolinol and 3,5-dichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Akira; Tsuguchi, Akira; Imura, Hisanori; Ohashi, Kousaburo

    2004-07-01

    The cloud point extraction behavior of aluminum(III) with 8-quinolinol (HQ) or 2-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMQ) and Triton X-100 was investigated in the absence and presence of 3,5-dichlorophenol (Hdcp). Aluminum(III) was almost extracted with HQ and 4(v/v)% Triton X-100 above pH 5.0, but was not extracted with HMQ-Triton X-100. However, in the presence of Hdcp, it was almost quantitatively extracted with HMQ-Triton X-100. The synergistic effect of Hdcp on the extraction of aluminum(III) with HMQ and Triton X-100 may be caused by the formation of a mixed-ligand complex, Al(dcp)(MQ)2.

  1. Synthesis and antiviral bioactivities of 2-aryl- or 2-methyl-3-(substituted- benzalamino)-4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingwen; Cai, Xuejian; Yan, Kai; Song, Baoan; Gao, Lili; Chen, Zhuo

    2007-12-27

    A simple and general method has been developed for the synthesis of various4(3H)-quinazolinone derivatives by the treatment of the appropriate 3-amino-2-aryl-4(3H)-quinazolinone with a substituted benzaldehyde in ethanol. The structures of the compoundswere characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectra. The title 2-aryl- or 2-methyl-3-(substituted-benzalamino)-4(3H)-quinazolinone compounds III-1~III-31 were found to possess moderate to good antiviral activity. Semi-quantitative PCR andReal Time PCR assays were used to ascertain the target of action of compound III-31against TMV. The studies suggest that III-31 possesses antiviral activity due to inductionof up-regulation of PR-1a and PR-5, thereby inhibiting virus proliferation and movementby enhancement of the activity of some defensive enzyme.

  2. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaglin, Mathilde; Rhimi, Moez; Philippe, Catherine; Pons, Nicolas; Bruneau, Aurélia; Goustard, Bénédicte; Daugé, Valérie; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional behaviors. As our findings

  3. Selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol catalyzed by embedded polymer-protected PdZn nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkova, Lyudmila B.; Matus, Ekaterina V.; Prosvirin, Igor P.; Kerzhentsev, Michail A.; Ismagilov, Zinfer R.

    2015-12-01

    PdZn/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method using a template Pluronic F127. PdZn nanoparticles with the size ranging from 1.7 to 2 nm were prepared by ethylene glycol reduction of ZnCl2 and Pd(CH3COO)2 in the presence of stabilizer and introduced into the matrix by addition into TiO2 sol, followed by different activation procedures. The structure, particles size, and chemical composition of nanoparticles and catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The prepared catalysts have been tested in the selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, and the results have been compared with catalysts prepared by conventional impregnation. The results indicate that bimetallic PdZn nanoparticles-based catalysts show higher selectivity than corresponding monometallic Pd/TiO2. Embedded on titania, bimetallic nanoparticles stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibit good activity (1.1-1.8 mol MBY/mol Pd/s-1) and high selectivity to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (81.5-88.9 % at 95 % conversion). The influence of the nature of the stabilizer, the stabilizer/metal molar ratio, and activation conditions on the catalytic behavior of the samples was analyzed. It is shown that the particle size does not significantly affect the catalytic properties in the range of 4.4-6.5 nm. The nature and amount of stabilizer seem to be crucial to prepare efficient catalyst.

  4. Association of mitofusin 2 methylation and essential hypertension: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fei; Li, Xiao; Wang, Zuoguang; Liu, Ya; Liu, Jielin; Sun, Dongdong; Jin, Yongxin; Wang, Shiqi; Wen, Shaojun; Wei, Yongxiang

    2018-06-07

    Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a gene that negatively regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is expressed at low levels in the VSMCs of hypertensive patients. DNA methylation can inhibit gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Mfn2 methylation and essential hypertension (EH). After bioinformatics analysis, five EH patients and five normal control (NC) subjects were selected for methylation chip screening. Then, bisulfite DNA sequencing was used to analyze the methylation status of differentially methylated fragments of Mfn2 in 40 EH patients and 36 NC subjects. Mfn2 mRNA expression in the blood was detected by RT-qPCR. There were three CpG islands in the full length Mfn2 DNA sequence and some transcription factor binding sites in these regions, including Sp1, Ap2, GATA box, NF-κB, etc. The chip screening showed that only the third CpG island had a significantly high degree of methylation. Subsequent verification experiments found that the EH group had a significantly lower C base rate of methylation than the NC group (2.5% vs. 44.44%, P < 0.0001), but a similar CpG methylation rate (P > 0.05). RT-qPCR detection showed that the level of Mfn2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the EH group than in the NC group (P = 0.013). Further association analysis showed that the level of Mfn2 methylation was associated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.902, r = -0.713, respectively) but not the other indexes. The DNA methylation level of Mfn2 was significantly lower in hypertensive patients than in control subjects, which may be an independent risk factor for EH.

  5. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues. [Citrus sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J.

    Exogenous ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of themore » mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels.« less

  6. Tulongicin, an Antibacterial Tri-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Topsentia sp. Sponge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Bing; Lauro, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Robert D; Lohith, Katheryn; Kelly, Michelle; Colin, Patrick; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-09-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of an extract of a deep-water Topsentia sp. marine sponge led to the isolation of two new indole alkaloids, tulongicin A (1) and dihydrospongotine C (2), along with two known analogues, spongotine C (3) and dibromodeoxytopsentin (4). Their planar structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Their absolute configurations were determined through a combination of experimental and computational analyses. Tulongicin (1) is the first natural product to contain a di(6-Br-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl group linked to an imidazole core. The coexistence of tri-indole 1 and bis-indole alcohol 2 suggests a possible route to 1. All of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. A facile means for the identification of indolic compounds from plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2014-09-01

    The bulk of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in plants is found in the form of conjugated molecules, yet past research on identifying these compounds has largely relied on methods that were both laborious and inefficient. Using recent advances in analytical instrumentation, we have developed a simple yet powerful liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method for the facile characterization of the small IAA conjugate profile of plants. The method uses the well-known quinolinium ion (m/z 130.0651) generated in MS processes as a signature with high mass accuracy that can be used to screen plant extracts for indolic compounds, including IAA conjugates. We reinvestigated Glycine max (soybean) for its indoles and found indole-3-acetyl-trytophan (IA-Trp) in addition to the already known indole-3-acetyl-aspartic acid (IA-Asp) and indole-3-acetyl-glutamic acid (IA-Glu) conjugates. Surprisingly, several organic acid conjugates of tryptophan were also discovered, many of which have not been reported in planta before. These compounds may have important physiological roles in tryptophan metabolism, which in turn can affect human nutrition. We also demonstrated the general applicability of this method by identifying indolic compounds in different plant tissues of diverse phylogenetic origins. It involves minimal sample preparation but can work in conjunction with sample enrichment techniques. This method enables quick screening of IAA conjugates in both previously characterized as well as uncharacterized species, and facilitates the identification of indolic compounds in general. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Content of indole alkaloids and bufadienolides contained in toad medicines].

    PubMed

    Qu, Ting; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2012-10-01

    To kinds of establish a HPLC method for determining contents of indole alkaloids and bufadienolides contained in toad medicines, and analyze two kinds of components contained in toad venom, toad skin and toad periostracum. As for alkaloids, Nucleosil C18 column was adopted with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate (6: 94, adjust pH to 3.2 with phosphate acid) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 275 nm, and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. As for bufadienolides, Alltima C18 column was adopted with acetonitrile and water containing 0.3% acetic acid (B) as the mobile phase. The gradient process was as follows: a linear gradient from 28% to 54% acetonitrile in the first 15 min, then kept at 54% for additional 20 min. The flow rate was 0.6 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 296 nm, and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. The linear ranges were 0.079 6-0.796 microg for serotonin, 0.097 2-1.945 microg for N-methylserotonin, 0.074 4-0.744 microg for N,N-dimethylserotonin, 0.103-2.05 microg for N,N,N-trimethylserotonin, and 0.067 2-0.672 microg for bufothionine, respectively. The average recoveries of serotonin and N-methylserotonin were 98.6% and 91.3%, respectively. The linear ranges of gamabufotalin, bufotalin, bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 0.004 83-0.614, 0.007 9-1.006, 0.007 95-1.016, 0.009 7-1.24 and 0.009 6-1.22 microg, respectively, and their average recoveries were 101.6%, 102.5%, 101.0%, 99.1% and 98.9%, respectively. Toad venom has the highest contents of indole alkaloids and bufadienolides, followed by toad skin, and toad periostracum showed the lowest contents and even no detection result.

  9. Electric Dipole Transition Moments and Solvent-Dependent Interactions of Fluorescent Boron-Nitrogen Substituted Indole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Saif, Mari; Widom, Julia R; Xu, Senmiao; Abbey, Eric R; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Marcus, Andrew H

    2015-06-25

    Fluorescent analogues of the indole side chain of tryptophan can be useful spectroscopic probes of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Here we present linear dichroism and solvent-dependent spectroscopic studies of two fluorescent analogues of indole, in which the organic C═C unit is substituted with the isosteric inorganic B-N unit. We studied the so-called "external" BN indole, which has C2v symmetry, and the "fused" BN indole with Cs symmetry. We performed a combination of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet linear dichroism (UV-LD) in stretched poly(ethylene) (PE) films, and quantum chemical calculations on both BN indole compounds. Our measurements allowed us to characterize the degree of alignment for both molecules in stretched PE films. We thus determined the orientations and magnitudes of the two lowest energy electric dipole transition moments (EDTMs) for external BN indole, and the two lowest energy EDTMs for fused BN indole within the 30 000-45 000 cm(-1) spectral range. We compared our experimental results to those of quantum chemical calculations using standard density functional theory (DFT). Our theoretical predictions for the low-energy EDTMs are in good agreement with our experimental data. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the external and the fused BN indoles are sensitive to solvent polarity. Our results indicate that the fused BN indole experiences much greater solvation interactions with polar solvents than does the external BN indole.

  10. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of indole to indoxyl, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    BANOGLU, Erden; JHA, Gautam G.; KING, Roberta S.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of our study was to determine which microsomal cytochrome P450 isozyme(s) were responsible for the microsomal oxidation of indole to indoxyl, an important intermediate in the formation of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Indole was incubated together with an NADPH-generating system and rat liver microsomes. Formation of indigo, an auto-oxidation product of indoxyl, was used to determine the indole-3-hydroxylation activity. Apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.85 mM and 1152 pmol min−1 mg−1 were calculated for the formation of indoxyl from indole using rat liver microsomes. The effects of various potential inducers and inhibitors on the metabolism of indole to indoxyl by rat liver microsomes were studied to elucidate the enzymes responsible for metabolism. Studies with general and isozyme-specific P450 inhibitors demonstrated that P450 enzymes and not FMO are responsible for the formation of indoxyl. In the induction studies, rate of indoxyl formation in the microsomes from untreated vs induced rats correlated nearly exactly with the CYP2E1 activity (4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation). These results suggest that CYP2E1 is the major isoform responsible for the rat microsomal oxidation of indole to indoxyl. PMID:11808865

  11. Interactions of Indole Derivatives with β-Cyclodextrin: A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Study

    PubMed Central

    Šoškić, Milan; Porobić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Retention factors for 31 indole derivatives, most of them with auxin activity, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, using bonded β-cyclodextrin as a stationary phase. A three-parameter QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationship) model, based on physico-chemical and structural descriptors was derived, which accounted for about 98% variations in the retention factors. The model suggests that the indole nucleus occupies the relatively apolar cavity of β-cyclodextrin while the carboxyl group of the indole -3-carboxylic acids makes hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of β-cyclodextrin. The length and flexibility of the side chain containing carboxyl group strongly affect the binding of these compounds to β-cyclodextrin. Non-acidic derivatives, unlike the indole-3-carboxylic acids, are poorly retained on the column. A reasonably well correlation was found between the retention factors of the indole-3-acetic acids and their relative binding affinities for human serum albumin, a carrier protein in the blood plasma. A less satisfactory correlation was obtained when the retention factors of the indole derivatives were compared with their affinities for auxin-binding protein 1, a plant auxin receptor. PMID:27124734

  12. Structure–Activity Relationships Comparing N-(6-Methylpyridin-yl)-Substituted Aryl Amides to 2-Methyl-6-(substituted-arylethynyl)pyridines or 2-Methyl-4-(substituted-arylethynyl)thiazoles as Novel Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 Antagonists†

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Santosh S.; Zou, Mu-Fa; Cao, Jianjing; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2010-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in anxiety, depression, pain, mental retardation, and addiction. The potent and selective noncompetitive mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP, 1) has been a critically important tool used to further elucidate the role of mGluR5 in these CNS disorders. In an effort to provide novel and structurally diverse selective mGluR5 antagonists, we previously described a set of analogues with moderate activity wherein the alkyne bond was replaced with an amide group. In the present report, extended series of both amide and alkyne-based ligands were synthesized. MGluR5 binding and functional data were obtained that identified (1) several novel alkynes with comparable affinities to 1 at mGluR5 (e.g., 10 and 20–23), but (2) most structural variations to the amide template were not well tolerated, although a few potent amides were discovered (e.g., 55 and 56). Several of these novel analogues show drug-like physical properties (e.g., cLogP range) 2–5) that support their use for in vivo investigation into the role of mGluR5 in CNS disorders. PMID:19445453

  13. Indolent anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Graus, F; Bonaventura, I; Uchuya, M; Valls-Solé, J; Reñé, R; Leger, J M; Tolosa, E; Delattre, J Y

    1994-12-01

    Paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy (PSN) usually runs a subacute progressive course, leaving the patient with severe sensory dysfunction in weeks to months. We describe five patients with PSN, high titers of anti-Hu antibodies (type 1 antineuronal nuclear autoantibodies), and an indolent clinical course. The patients had a median age of 55 years (range, 41 to 72). Four had small-cell (3) or undifferentiated large-cell (1) lung cancer. Patients presented with mild, asymmetric sensory symptoms; in two, the neuropathy was predominant in the arms. Two patients also had a visceral neuropathy causing gastrointestinal dysfunction. The PSN was stable or progressed very slowly without treatment for a median of 18 months (range, 5 to 32) and remained so after treatment with immunoglobulins (1 patient), chemotherapy (3), or both therapies (1). All patients were ambulatory, leading an independent life up until the time of the last visit or until death from the tumor (2 patients). The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 22 to 52). A paraneoplastic origin should be considered in patients with mild, very slowly progressive sensory neuropathies.

  14. Synthesis of indole analogs as potent β-glucuronidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Baharudin, Mohd Syukri; Taha, Muhammad; Imran, Syahrul; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Rahim, Fazal; Javid, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Natural products are the main source of motivation to design and synthesize new molecules for drug development. Designing new molecules against β-glucuronidase inhibitory is utmost essential. In this study indole analogs (1-35) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques including 1 H NMR and EI-MS and evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. Most compounds were identified as potent inhibitors for the enzyme with IC 50 values ranging between 0.50 and 53.40μM, with reference to standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC 50 =48.4±1.25μM). Structure-activity relationship had been also established. The results obtained from docking studies for the most active compound 10 showed that hydrogen bond donor features as well as hydrogen bonding with (Oε1) of nucleophilic residue Glu540 is believed to be the most importance interaction in the inhibition activity. It was also observed that hydroxyl at fourth position of benzylidene ring acts as a hydrogen bond donor and interacts with hydroxyl (OH) on the side chain of catalysis residue Tyr508. The enzyme-ligand complexed were being stabilized through electrostatic π-anion interaction with acid-base catalyst Glu451 (3.96Å) and thus preventing Glu451 from functioning as proton donor residue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Indole Alkaloids Inhibiting Neural Stem Cell from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Jiang, Li-Ping; Guo, Ying; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Ya-Ping; Yu, Hao-Fei; Wang, Bei; Ding, Cai-Feng; Zhu, Pei-Feng; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Yun-Li; Chen, Yong-Bing; Wang, Yi-Fen; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is commonly recognized as a traditional treatment for dizziness, cerebrovascular diseases, and nervous disorders in China. Previously, the neuro-protective activities of the alkaloids from U. rhynchophylla were intensively reported. In current work, three new indole alkaloids (1-3), identified as geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4 -oxide (2), and 3β-sitsirikine N 4 -oxide (3), as well as 26 known analogues were isolated from U. rhynchophylla. However, in the neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation assay for all isolated compounds, geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4 -oxide (2), isocorynoxeine (6), isorhynchophylline (7), (4S)-akuammigine N-oxide (8), and (4S)-rhynchophylline N-oxide (10) showed unexpected inhibitory activities at 10 μM. Unlike previous neuro-protective reports, as a warning or caution, our finding showcased a clue for possible NSCs toxicity and the neural lesions risk of U. rhynchophylla, while the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds were discussed also.

  16. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be limited to a maximum of 2.0% active ingredient. Contamination of food or food contact surfaces... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.545 Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4...-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate as follows: (2) In or on food...

  17. SOA Formation from the Atmospheric Oxidation of 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol and Its Implications for PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated by irradiating 2-methyl-3-buten-2-01 (MBO) in the presence and/or absence of NOx H2O2, and/or SO2 was examined. Experiments were conducted. in smog chambers operated either in dyna....

  18. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8485 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8485 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. (a) Chemical substance and...

  20. EMISSION OF 2-METHYL-3-BUTEN-2-OL BY PINES: A POTENTIALLY LARGE NATURAL SOURCE OF REACTIVE CARBON TO THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High rates of emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were measured from needles of several pine species. Emissions of MBO in the light were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than emissions of monoterpenes and, in contrast to monoterpene emissions from pines, were absent in the d...

  1. Computational and photoelectron spectroscopic study of the dipole-bound anions, indole(H2O)1,2 (.).

    PubMed

    Buytendyk, A M; Buonaugurio, A M; Xu, S-J; Nilles, J M; Bowen, K H; Kirnosov, N; Adamowicz, L

    2016-07-14

    We report our joint computational and anion photoelectron spectroscopic study of indole-water cluster anions, indole(H2O)1,2 (-). The photoelectron spectra of both cluster anions show the characteristics of dipole-bound anions, and this is confirmed by our theoretical computations. The experimentally determined vertical electron detachment (VDE) energies for indole(H2O)1 (-) and indole(H2O)2 (-) are 144 meV and 251 meV, respectively. The corresponding theoretically determined VDE values for indole(H2O)1 (-) and indole(H2O)2 (-) are 124 meV and 255 meV, respectively. The vibrational features in the photoelectron spectra of these cluster anions are assigned as the vibrations of the water molecule.

  2. Computational and photoelectron spectroscopic study of the dipole-bound anions, indole(H2O)1,2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytendyk, A. M.; Buonaugurio, A. M.; Xu, S.-J.; Nilles, J. M.; Bowen, K. H.; Kirnosov, N.; Adamowicz, L.

    2016-07-01

    We report our joint computational and anion photoelectron spectroscopic study of indole-water cluster anions, indole(H2O)1,2-. The photoelectron spectra of both cluster anions show the characteristics of dipole-bound anions, and this is confirmed by our theoretical computations. The experimentally determined vertical electron detachment (VDE) energies for indole(H2O)1- and indole(H2O)2- are 144 meV and 251 meV, respectively. The corresponding theoretically determined VDE values for indole(H2O)1- and indole(H2O)2- are 124 meV and 255 meV, respectively. The vibrational features in the photoelectron spectra of these cluster anions are assigned as the vibrations of the water molecule.

  3. 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) synthase expression in Nostoc punctiforme leads to over production of phytols.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dinesh; Ip, Tina; Summers, Michael L; Basu, Chhandak

    2015-01-01

    Phytol is a diterpene alcohol of medicinal importance and it also has potential to be used as biofuel. We found over production of phytol in Nostoc punctiforme by expressing a 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) synthase gene. MBO synthase catalyzes the conversion of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) into MBO, a volatile hemiterpene alcohol, in Pinus sabiniana. The result of enhanced phytol production in N. punctiforme, instead of MBO, could be explained by one of the 2 models: either the presence of a native prenyltransferase enzyme with a broad substrate specificity, or appropriation of a MBO synthase metabolic intermediate by a native geranyl diphosphate (GDP) synthase. In this work, an expression vector with an indigenous petE promoter for gene expression in the cyanobacterium N. punctiforme was constructed and MBO synthase gene expression was successfully shown using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Gas chromatography--mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) was performed to confirm phytol production from the transgenic N. punctiforme strains. We conclude that the expression of MBO synthase in N. punctiforme leads to overproduction of an economically important compound, phytol. This study provides insights about metabolic channeling of isoprenoids in cyanobacteria and also illustrates the challenges of bioengineering non-native hosts to produce economically important compounds.

  4. Permeability and toxicity characteristics of L-cysteine and 2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kartal-Hodzic, Alma; Marvola, Tuuli; Schmitt, Mechthild; Harju, Kirsi; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Sivén, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is a known mutagenic substance and has been classified as a group-one carcinogen by the WHO. It is possible to bind acetaldehyde locally in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the semi-essential amino acid l-cysteine, which reacts covalently with acetaldehyde and forms compound 2-methyl-thiozolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA). The Caco-2 cell line was used to determine the permeation of l-cysteine and MTCA, as well as the possible cell toxicity of both substances. Neither of the substances permeated through the Caco-2 cells at the concentrations used in this study, and only the highest concentration of MTCA affected the viability of the cells in the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test. These results showed that when l-cysteine is administered in formulations releasing it locally in the lower parts of GI tract, it is not absorbed but can react with acetaldehyde, and that neither l-cysteine nor MTCA is harmful to the cells when present locally in the upper parts of GI tract. This study also shows that MTCA is sensitive at a lower pH of 5.5. Since stable MTCA is desired in different parts of the GI tract, this observation raises concern over the influence of lower pH on l-cysteine-containing product ability to bind and eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde.

  5. Thermodynamic and mass transfer modeling of carbon dioxide absorption into aqueous 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol

    DOE PAGES

    Sherman, Brent J.; Rochelle, Gary T.

    2016-12-16

    Explanations for the mass transfer behavior of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) are conflicting, despite extensive study of the amine for CO 2 capture. At equilibrium, aqueous AMP reacts with CO 2 to give bicarbonate in a 1:1 ratio. While this is the same stoichiometry as a tertiary amine, the reaction rate of AMP is 100 times faster. This work aims to explain the mass transfer behavior of AMP, specifically the stoichiometry and kinetics. An eNRTL thermodynamic model was used to regress wetted-wall column mass transfer data with two activity-based reactions: formation of carbamate and formation of bicarbonate. Data spanned 40–100 C andmore » 0.15–0.60 mol CO 2/mol alk). The fitted carbamate rate constant is three orders of magnitude greater than the bicarbonate rate constant. Rapid carbamate formation explains the kinetics, while the stoichiometry is explained by the carbamate reverting in the bulk liquid to allow CO 2 to form bicarbonate. Understanding the role of carbamate formation and diffusion in hindered amines enables optimizing solvent amine concentration by balancing viscosity and free amine concentration. Furthermore, this improves absorber design for CO 2 capture.« less

  6. Organosulfates as tracers for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haofei; Worton, David R; Lewandowski, Michael; Ortega, John; Rubitschun, Caitlin L; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Kristensen, Kasper; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A; Jimenez, Jose L; Jaoui, Mohammed; Offenberg, John H; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, William C; de Gouw, Joost; Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W; Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin; Cappellin, Luca; Karl, Thomas; Glasius, Marianne; Guenther, Alex; Goldstein, Allen H; Seinfeld, John H; Gold, Avram; Kamens, Richard M; Surratt, Jason D

    2012-09-04

    2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is an important biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by pine trees and a potential precursor of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in forested regions. In the present study, hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of MBO was examined in smog chambers under varied initial nitric oxide (NO) and aerosol acidity levels. Results indicate measurable SOA from MBO under low-NO conditions. Moreover, increasing aerosol acidity was found to enhance MBO SOA. Chemical characterization of laboratory-generated MBO SOA reveals that an organosulfate species (C(5)H(12)O(6)S, MW 200) formed and was substantially enhanced with elevated aerosol acidity. Ambient fine aerosol (PM(2.5)) samples collected from the BEARPEX campaign during 2007 and 2009, as well as from the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign during 2011, were also analyzed. The MBO-derived organosulfate characterized from laboratory-generated aerosol was observed in PM(2.5) collected from these campaigns, demonstrating that it is a molecular tracer for MBO-initiated SOA in the atmosphere. Furthermore, mass concentrations of the MBO-derived organosulfate are well correlated with MBO mixing ratio, temperature, and acidity in the field campaigns. Importantly, this compound accounted for an average of 0.25% and as high as 1% of the total organic aerosol mass during BEARPEX 2009. An epoxide intermediate generated under low-NO conditions is tentatively proposed to produce MBO SOA.

  7. Biodegradation of diesel fuel by a microbial consortium in the presence of 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Stasiewicz, Monika; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Szulc, Alicja; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Wyrwas, Bogdan

    2009-09-01

    Fast development of ionic liquids as gaining more and more attention valuable chemicals will undoubtedly lead to environmental pollution. New formulations and application of ionic liquids may result in contamination in the presence of hydrophobic compounds, such as petroleum mixtures. We hypothesize that in the presence of diesel fuel low-water-soluble ionic liquids may become more toxic to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. In this study the influence of 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues (side-chain length from C(3) to C(18)) on biodegradation of diesel fuel by a bacterial consortium was investigated. Whereas test performed for the consortium cultivated on disodium succinate showed that toxicity of the investigated ionic liquids decreased with increase in side-chain length, only higher homologues (C(8)-C(18)) caused a decrease in diesel fuel biodegradation. As a result of exposure to toxic compounds also modification in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed (MATH). Disulphine blue active substances method was employed to determine partitioning index of ionic liquids between water and diesel fuel phase, which varied from 1.1 to 51% for C(3) and C(18) homologues, respectively. We conclude that in the presence of hydrocarbons acting as a solvent, the increased bioavailability of hydrophobic homologues is responsible for the decrease in biodegradation efficiency of diesel fuel.

  8. Methyl 3-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-methyl glycidate: an ecstasy precursor seized in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael; Heagney, Aaron; Cordaro, Frank; Odgers, David; Tarrant, Gregory; Stewart, Samantha

    2007-07-01

    Five 44 gallon drums labeled as glycidyl methacrylate were seized by the Australian Customs Service and the Australian Federal Police at Port Botany, Sydney, Australia, in December 2004. Each drum contained a white, semisolid substance that was initially suspected to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis demonstrated that the material was neither glycidyl methacrylate nor MDMA. Because intelligence sources employed by federal agents indicated that this material was in some way connected to MDMA production, suspicion fell on the various MDMA precursor chemicals. Using a number of techniques including proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR), GC/MS, infrared spectroscopy, and total synthesis, the unknown substance was eventually identified as methyl 3-[3',4'(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-methyl glycidate. The substance was also subjected to a published hydrolysis and decarboxylation procedure and gave a high yield of the MDMA precursor chemical, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone, thereby establishing this material as a "precursor to a precursor."

  9. Treatment of taste and odor causing compounds 2-methyl isoborneol and geosmin in drinking water: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rangesh; Sorial, George A

    2011-01-01

    Problems due to the taste and odor in drinking water are common in treatment facilities around the world. Taste and odor are perceived by the public as the primary indicators of the safely and acceptability of drinking water and are mainly caused by the presence of two semi-volatile compounds--2-methyl isoborneol (MIB) and geosmin. A review of these two taste and odor causing compounds in drinking water is presented. The sources for the formation of these compounds in water are discussed along with the health and regulatory implications. The recent developments in the analysis of MIB/geosmin in water which have allowed for rapid measurements in the nanogram per liter concentrations are also discussed. This review focuses on the relevant treatment alternatives, that are described in detail with emphasis on their respective advantages and problems associated with their implementation in a full-scale facility. Conventional treatment processes in water treatment plants, such as coagulation, sedimentation and chlorination have been found to be ineffective for removal of MIB/geosmin. Studies have shown powdered activated carbon, ozonation and biofiltration to be effective in treatment of these two compounds. Although some of these technologies are more effective and show more promise than the others, much work remains to be done to optimize these technologies so that they can be retrofitted or installed with minimal impact on the overall operation and effectiveness of the treatment system.

  10. Theoretical investigation of the oxidation pathways of the Cl-initiated reaction of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weichao; Zhang, Dongju

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism and products of the reaction of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) with Cl atoms in the presence of O2 have been elucidated by performing high-level quantum chemistry calculations. The geometries of the reactants, intermediates, transition states, and products are optimized at the MP2(full)/6-311G(d, p) level, and their single-point energies are refined at the CCSD(T)/6-311 + G(d, p) level. The potential energy surface profiles have been constructed at the CCSD(T)/6-311 + G(d, p)//MP2(full)/6-311G(d, p) + 0.95 × ZPE level of theory, and the possible channels involved in the reaction are also discussed. The calculations indicate that the reaction predominantly proceeds via the addition of Cl atoms to the double bond rather than the direct abstraction of the H atoms in MBO232. The nascent adducts (CH3)2C(OH)CHCH2Cl (IM1) and (CH3)2C(OH)CHClCH2 (IM2) do not undergo subsequent isomerization and dissociation reactions, but rather react with O2. The theoretical results show that the major products are CH2ClCHO and CH3C(O)CH3 for the reaction of MBO232 + Cl in the presence of O2, which is in good agreement with the experimental finding.

  11. DPPC/poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-grad-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) chimeric nanostructures as potential drug nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippa, Natassa; Kaditi, Eleni; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we report on the self assembly behavior and on stability studies of mixed (chimeric) nanosystems consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-grad-poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (MPOx) gradient copolymer in aqueous media and in fetal bovine serum (FBS). A gamut of light scattering techniques and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in order to extract information on the size and morphological characteristics of the nanoassemblies formed, as a function of gradient block copolymer content, as well as temperature. The hydrodynamic radii ( R h) of nanoassemblies decreased in the process of heating up to 50 °C, while the fractal dimension ( d f) values, also increased. Indomethacin was successfully incorporated into these chimeric nanocarriers. Drug release was depended on the components ratio. The present studies show that there are a number of parameters that can be used in order to alter the properties of chimeric nanosystems, and this is advantageous to the development of "smart" nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  12. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  13. Synthesis, growth, structure, mechanical and optical properties of a new semi-organic 2-methyl imidazolium dihydrogen phosphate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Nagapandiselvi, P., E-mail: nagapandiselvip@ssn.edu.in; Baby, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • 2MIDP crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. • Single crystal XRD revealed self-assembled supramolecular framework. • Z scan technique is employed for third order nonlinear optical susceptibility. • Structure-property correlation is established. - Abstract: A new semi-organic compound, 2-methyl imidazolium dihydrogen phosphate (2MIDP), was prepared and good quality single crystals of 2MIDP were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Crystal structure elucidated using Single crystal XRD showed that 2MIDP crystallizes in monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR, Fluorescence and FT-NMR spectra confirm the molecular structure of 2MIDP. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra establishedmore » the suitability of the compound for NLO applications. TG-DSC showed that 2MIDP is thermally stable up to 200 °C. Mechanical characteristics like hardness number (H{sub v}), stiffness constant (C{sub 11}), yield strength (σ{sub v}), fracture toughness (K{sub c}) and brittleness index (B{sub i}) were assessed using Vicker’s microhardness tester. Third order nonlinear optical properties determined from Z-scan measurement using femto and picosecond lasers showed two photon reverse saturable absorption. The enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in femto second laser, revealed the suitability of 2MIDP for optical limiting applications.« less

  14. Anticonvulsant actions of LY 367385 ((+)-2-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine) and AIDA ((RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Chapman, A G; Yip, P K; Yap, J S; Quinn, L P; Tang, E; Harris, J R; Meldrum, B S

    1999-02-26

    We have studied the effects in three rodent models of generalised convulsive or absence epilepsy of two antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors that are selective for the mGlu1 receptor. LY 367385 ((+)-2-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine) and AIDA ((RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid) have been administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to DBA/2 mice and lethargic mice (lh/lh), and focally into the inferior colliculus of genetically epilepsy prone rats (GEPR). In DBA/2 mice both compounds produce a rapid, transient suppression of sound-induced clonic seizures (LY 367385: ED50 = 12 nmol, i.c.v., 5 min; AIDA: ED50 = 79 nmol, i.c.v., 15 min). In lethargic mice both compounds significantly reduce the incidence of spontaneous spike and wave discharges on the electroencephalogram, from <30 to >150 min after the administration of AIDA, 500 nmol, i.c.v., and from 30 to >150 min after the administration of LY 367385, 250 nmol, i.c.v. LY 367385, 50 nmol, suppresses spontaneous spike and wave discharges from 30 to 60 min. In genetically epilepsy prone rats both compounds reduce sound-induced clonic seizures. LY 367385, 160 nmol bilaterally, fully suppresses clonic seizures after 2-4 h. AIDA is fully effective 30 min after 100 nmol bilaterally. It is concluded that antagonists of mGlu1 receptors are potential anticonvulsant agents and that activation of mGlu1 receptors probably contributes to a variety of epileptic syndromes.

  15. The microbiota metabolite indole inhibits Salmonella virulence: Involvement of the PhoPQ two-component system.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Nandita; Crisp, Zeni; Riordan, Rebekah; Li, Michael; Alaniz, Robert C; Jayaraman, Arul

    2018-01-01

    The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells. Indole-exposed Salmonella colonized mice less effectively compared to solvent-treated controls, as evident by competitive index values less than 1 in multiple organs. Indole-exposed Salmonella demonstrated 160-fold less invasion of HeLa epithelial cells and 2-fold less invasion of J774A.1 macrophages compared to solvent-treated controls. However, indole did not affect Salmonella intracellular survival in J774A.1 macrophages suggesting that indole primarily affects Salmonella invasion. The decrease in invasion was corroborated by a decrease in expression of multiple Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 (SPI-1) genes. We also identified that the effect of indole was mediated by both PhoPQ-dependent and independent mechanisms. Indole also synergistically enhanced the inhibitory effect of a short chain fatty acid cocktail on SPI-1 gene expression. Lastly, indole-treated HeLa cells were 70% more resistant to Salmonella invasion suggesting that indole also increases resistance of epithelial cells to colonization. Our results demonstrate that indole is an important microbiota metabolite that has direct anti-infective effects on Salmonella and host cells, revealing novel mechanisms of pathogen colonization resistance.

  16. The microbiota metabolite indole inhibits Salmonella virulence: Involvement of the PhoPQ two-component system

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Nandita; Crisp, Zeni; Riordan, Rebekah; Li, Michael; Alaniz, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells. Indole-exposed Salmonella colonized mice less effectively compared to solvent-treated controls, as evident by competitive index values less than 1 in multiple organs. Indole-exposed Salmonella demonstrated 160-fold less invasion of HeLa epithelial cells and 2-fold less invasion of J774A.1 macrophages compared to solvent-treated controls. However, indole did not affect Salmonella intracellular survival in J774A.1 macrophages suggesting that indole primarily affects Salmonella invasion. The decrease in invasion was corroborated by a decrease in expression of multiple Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 (SPI-1) genes. We also identified that the effect of indole was mediated by both PhoPQ-dependent and independent mechanisms. Indole also synergistically enhanced the inhibitory effect of a short chain fatty acid cocktail on SPI-1 gene expression. Lastly, indole-treated HeLa cells were 70% more resistant to Salmonella invasion suggesting that indole also increases resistance of epithelial cells to colonization. Our results demonstrate that indole is an important microbiota metabolite that has direct anti-infective effects on Salmonella and host cells, revealing novel mechanisms of pathogen colonization resistance. PMID:29342189

  17. Induction of Biofilm Formation in the Betaproteobacterium Burkholderia unamae CK43B Exposed to Exogenous Indole and Gallic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongyeop; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia unamae CK43B, a member of the Betaproteobacteria that was isolated from the rhizosphere of a Shorea balangeran sapling in a tropical peat swamp forest, produces neither indole nor extracellular polymeric substances associated with biofilm formation. When cultured in a modified Winogradsky's medium supplemented with up to 1.7 mM indole, B. unamae CK43B maintains its planktonic state by cell swelling and effectively degrades exogenous indole. However, in medium supplemented with 1.7 mM exogenous indole and 1.0 mM gallic acid, B. unamae CK43B produced extracellular polymeric substances and formed a biofilm. The concentration indicated above of gallic acid alone had no effect on either the growth or the differentiation of B. unamae CK43B cells above a certain concentration threshold, whereas it inhibited indole degradation by B. unamae CK43B to 3-hydroxyindoxyl. In addition, coculture of B. unamae CK43B with indole-producing Escherichia coli in nutrient-rich Luria-Bertani medium supplemented with 1.0 mM gallic acid led to the formation of mixed cell aggregates. The viability and active growth of B. unamae CK43B cells in a coculture system with Escherichia coli were evidenced by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our data thus suggest that indole facilitates intergenus communication between indole-producing gammaproteobacteria and some indole-degrading bacteria, particularly in gallic acid-rich environments. PMID:23747701

  18. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  19. Polarized two-photon fluorescence excitation spectra of indole and benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Jones, Richard D.; Rehms, Aden A.; Ilich, Predrag; Callis, Patrik R.

    1986-03-01

    Polarized two-photon fluorescence excitation spectra of indole in hexane, benzimidazole in isopropanol, and benzimidazole cation in methanol-H 2SO 4, all at 0.2 M and 25°C are reported for the excitation range 470-600 nm, the region of their L b, and L a bands. Relative two-photon absorptivities are deduced by correcting for different fluorescence response and are compared to toluene's L b band. The indole integrated absorptivity is about 10 times greater than that of toluene. The L a band of indole appears less dominant than in one-photon but still outweighs the L b band by a factor of 4. The two-photon polarization spectrum for indole indicates that the L a origin lies ≈500-1000 cm -1 above the L b origin in hexane. The benzimidazoles absorb only about twice as strongly as toluene and show strong vibronic peaks; the L a, bands are only faintly seen. Two-photon properties calculated from INDO/S CI wavefunctions with doubly excited configurations are in good agreement with those of indole, but predict the benzimidazole TPA to be several times stronger than observed. For the cation, the predicted results are nearly two orders of magnitude too high.

  20. Design and synthesis of novel 2-(indol-5-yl)thiazole derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Uk; Choi, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Hun; Jung, Cheol-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Youn; Jung, Sang-Hun; Kim, Geun Tae

    2015-03-15

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors have been widely used for the treatment of gout. Indole rings are frequently used as active scaffold in designing inhibitors for enzymes. Herein, we describe the structure-activity relationship for novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors based on indole scaffold. A series of novel tri-substituted 2-(indol-5-yl)thiazole derivatives were synthesized, and their in vitro inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase and in vivo efficacy lowering uric acid level in blood were measured. Among them, 2-(3-cyano-2-isopropylindol-5-yl)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid exhibits the most potent XO inhibitory activity (IC50 value: 3.5nM) and the excellent plasma uric acid lowering activity. Study of structure activity relationship indicated that hydrophobic moiety (e.g., isopropyl) at 1-position and electron withdrawing group (e.g., CN) at 3-position of indole ring and small hydrophobic group (CH3) at 4-position of the thiazole ring enhanced the XO inhibitory activity. Hydrophobic substitution such as isopropyl at 1-position of the indole moiety without any substitution at 2-position has an essential role for enhancing bioavailability and therefore for high in vivo efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of 4-aminophenyl substituted indole derivatives for the instrumental analysis and molecular docking evaluation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navneet; Kumar, Keshav

    2017-07-01

    The Indole has been known to maintain celebrity status since so many decades and has been a centre point at the spectrum of pharmacological research. The present work stimulates an idea of generating a pool of library of lead compounds. The data collected can be used for the mapping of biologically active compounds. The reported derivatives of 4-aminophenyl substituted Indole were prepared by the methods of Fischer Indole synthesis and Vilsemeier reaction followed by screening for instrumental analysis and molecular docking studies. The synthesized compounds 4-(1-(2-phenylhydrazono)ethyl)aniline, 1, 4-(1H-indol-2-yl)aniline, 2 and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde, 3 were found to have remarkable yield and instrumental data analysis and also showed remarkable docked characteristic. The molecular docking studies revealed that ligand (amino acids) of comp. 1, 2 and 3 had been docked successfully on the binding site of the 3JUS protein selected from PDB with H bonding. The molecular docking data showed that compound 1, would possess remarkable biological activity and compd. 2 and 3 would possess mild to moderate biological activity. Thus this research work paves the way to synthesize new derivatives and thus to develop new compounds in future with accurate prediction.

  2. A Family of Indoles Regulate Virulence and Shiga Toxin Production in Pathogenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Bhatt, Shantanu; Cartwright, Emily; Wang, Wei; Swimm, Alyson I.; Benian, Guy M.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Kalman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) are intestinal pathogens that cause food and water-borne disease in humans. Using biochemical methods and NMR-based comparative metabolomics in conjunction with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we developed a bioassay to identify secreted small molecules produced by these pathogens. We identified indole, indole-3-carboxaldehyde (ICA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as factors that only in combination are sufficient to kill C. elegans. Importantly, although lethal to C. elegans, these molecules downregulate several bacterial processes important for pathogenesis in mammals. These include motility, biofilm formation and production of Shiga toxins. Some pathogenic E. coli strains are known to contain a Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors that cause “attaching and effacing” (A/E) lesions in mammals, including formation of actin pedestals. We found that these indole derivatives also downregulate production of LEE virulence factors and inhibit pedestal formation on mammalian cells. Finally, upon oral administration, ICA inhibited virulence and promoted survival in a lethal mouse infection model. In summary, the C. elegans model in conjunction with metabolomics has facilitated identification of a family of indole derivatives that broadly regulate physiology in E. coli, and virulence in pathogenic strains. These molecules may enable development of new therapeutics that interfere with bacterial small-molecule signaling. PMID:23372726

  3. Enhanced Photoreduction of Nitro-aromatic Compounds by Hydrated Electrons Derived from Indole on Natural Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haoting; Guo, Yong; Pan, Bo; Gu, Cheng; Li, Hui; Boyd, Stephen A

    2015-07-07

    A new photoreduction pathway for nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) and the underlying degradation mechanism are described. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene was reduced to 3-nitroaniline by the widely distributed aromatic molecule indole; the reaction is facilitated by montmorillonite clay mineral under both simulated and natural sunlight irradiation. The novel chemical reaction is strongly affected by the type of exchangeable cation present on montmorillonite. The photoreduction reaction is initiated by the adsorption of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and indole in clay interlayers. Under light irradiation, the excited indole molecule generates a hydrated electron and the indole radical cation. The structural negative charge of montmorillonite plausibly stabilizes the radical cation hence preventing charge recombination. This promotes the release of reactive hydrated electrons for further reductive reactions. Similar results were observed for the photoreduction of nitrobenzene. In situ irradiation time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies provided direct evidence for the generation of hydrated electrons and the indole radical cations, which supported the proposed degradation mechanism. In the photoreduction process, the role of clay mineral is to both enhance the generation of hydrated electrons and to provide a constrained reaction environment in the galley regions, which increases the probability of contact between NACs and hydrated electrons.

  4. White light generation by carbonyl based indole derivatives due to proton transfer: an efficient fluorescence sensor.

    PubMed

    Singla, Nidhi; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Chowdhury, Papia

    2013-04-04

    The motivation of the present work is to understand the optical, chemical, and electrical aspects of the proton transfer mechanism of indole (I) and some carbonyl based indole derivatives: indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3C) and indole-7-carboxaldehyde (I7C) for both powder form and their liquid solution. Structural information for indole derivatives (isolated molecule and in solution) is obtained with density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods. Calculated transition energies are used to generate UV-vis, FTIR, Raman, and NMR spectra which are later verified with the experimental spectra. The occurrence of different conformers [cis (N(c)), trans (N(t)), and zwitterion (Z*)] have been interpreted by Mulliken charge, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and polarization versus electric field (P-E loop) studies. (1)H and (13)C NMR and molecular vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes established the stability of Nc due to the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) in the ground state (S0). Computed/experimental UV-vis absorption/emission studies reveal the creation of new species: zwitterion (Z*) and anion (A*) in the excited state (S1) due to excited state intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer (ESI(ra)PT and ESI(er)PT). Increased electrical conductivity (σ(ac)) with temperature and increased ferroelectric polarization at higher field verifies proton conduction in I7C.

  5. A high temperature and atmospheric pressure experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2-methyl furan oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Kieran P.; Simmie, John M.; Gillespie, Fiona; Burke, Ultan; Connolly, Jessica; Metcalfe, Wayne K.; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Curran, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental ignition delay time study for the promising biofuel 2-methyl furan (2MF) was performed at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 for mixtures of 1% fuel in argon in the temperature range 1200–1800 K at atmospheric pressure. Laminar burning velocities were determined using the heat-flux method for mixtures of 2MF in air at equivalence ratios of 0.55–1.65, initial temperatures of 298–398 K and atmospheric pressure. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of 2059 reactions and 391 species has been constructed to describe the oxidation of 2MF and is used to simulate experiment. Accurate reproduction of the experimental data has been obtained over all conditions with the developed mechanism. Rate of production and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to identify important consumption pathways of the fuel and key kinetic parameters under these conditions. The reactions of hydrogen atom with the fuel are highlighted as important under all experimental conditions studied, with abstraction by the hydrogen atom promoting reactivity and hydrogen atom addition to the furan ring inhibiting reactivity. This work, to the authors knowledge, is the first to combine theoretical and experimental work to describe the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should also function as a sub-mechanism to describe the oxidation of 2,5-dimethyl furan whilst also providing key insights into the oxidation of this similar biofuel candidate. PMID:23814505

  6. A Role for 2-Methyl Pyrrole in the Browning of 4-Oxopentanal and Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Aiona, Paige K.; Lee, Hyun Ji; Lin, Peng

    “Brown Carbon” (BrC) is a type of organic particulate matter that absorbs visible and near ultraviolet radiation. Reactions of carbonyls in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from limonene with ammonia (NH3) or ammonium sulfate (AS) are known to produce BrC with a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Although the general mechanism for this process has been proposed in previous studies, the specific molecular structures of the light-absorbing species remain unclear. This study examined the browning processes occurring in aqueous solutions of AS and 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), which has a 1,4-dicarbonyl structural motif present in many limonene SOA compounds. The reactionmore » of 4-OPA with AS in a bulk aqueous solution produces a 2-methyl pyrrole (2-MP) intermediate, which is not a strong light absorber by itself, but can react further with carbonyl compounds leading to the eventual formation of BrC chromophores. The direct involvement of 2-MP in the browning process was demonstrated by reacting 2-MP with 4-OPA and with limonene SOA, both of which produced BrC chromophores with distinctive absorption bands at visible wavelengths. The formation of BrC in reaction of 4-OPA with AS and ammonium nitrate (AN) was found to be accelerated by evaporation of the solution suggesting an important role of the dehydration processes in BrC formation from 1,4- dicarbonyls. 4-OPA was also found to produce BrC in aqueous reactions with a broad spectrum of amino acids and amines. The results suggest that 4-OPA may be the smallest atmospherically relevant compound capable of browning by the same mechanism as limonene SOA.« less

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading Enterobacter sp. strain SE08.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lin; Hu, Qiulong; Xiong, Xingyao; Su, Xiaojun; Huang, Yanning; Jiang, Ziwei; Zhou, Qingming; Zhao, Songyi; Zeng, Wei-ai

    2013-10-01

    A bacterial strain (SE08) capable of utilizing 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth was isolated by continuous enrichment culturing in minimal salt medium (MSM) from a long term MCPA exposed soil. This bacterial strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Its ability to degrade MCPA was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The strain SE08 can tolerate unusually high MCPA concentrations (125-2000mg/L). The influences of culturing factors (initial concentration, pH, and temperature) on the bacterial growth and substrate degradation were studied. The results showed that the optimal MCPA degradation occurred at an MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, 30°C and pH 6.0. Under these conditions, 68.5 percent of MCPA in MSM was degraded by SE08, and the OD600nm reached 0.64 after culturing for 72h. The degradation of MCPA could be enhanced by addition of both carbon and nitrogen sources. At an initial MCPA concentration of 500mg/L, when 5g/L glucose and 2.5g/L yeast extract were added into the MSM media, the MCPA degradation was significantly increased to 83.8 percent, and OD600nm was increased to 1.09 after incubation at 30°C and pH 6.0 for 72h. This is the first study showing that an Enterobacter sp. strain is capable of degrading MCPA, which might provide a new approach for the remediation of MCPA contaminated soil and contribute to the limited knowledge about the function of Enterobacter species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ToF-SIMS analysis of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) ultrathin adlayers.

    PubMed

    Pidhatika, Bidhari; Chen, Yin; Coullerez, Geraldine; Al-Bataineh, Sameer; Textor, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    Understanding of the interfacial chemistry of ultrathin polymeric adlayers is fundamentally important in the context of establishing quantitative design rules for the fabrication of nonfouling surfaces in various applications such as biomaterials and medical devices. In this study, seven poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PLL-PMOXA) copolymers with grafting density (number of PMOXA chains per lysine residue) 0.09, 0.14, 0.19, 0.33, 0.43, 0.56, and 0.77, respectively, were synthesized and characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The copolymers were then adsorbed on Nb2O5 surfaces. Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy method was used to monitor the surface adsorption in situ of these copolymers and provide information on adlayer masses that were then converted into PLL and PMOXA surface densities. To investigate the relationship between copolymer bulk architecture (as shown by NMR data) and surface coverage as well as surface architecture, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis was performed. Furthermore, ToF-SIMS method combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used to verify the protein resistant properties of PLL-PMOXA adlayers, by thorough characterization before and after adlayer exposure to human serum. ToF-SIMS analysis revealed that the chemical composition as well as the architecture of the different PLL-PMOXA adlayers indeed reflects the copolymer bulk composition. ToF-SIMS results also indicated a heterogeneous surface coverage of PLL-PMOXA adlayers with high grafting densities higher than 0.33. In the case of protein resistant surface, PCA results showed clear differences between protein resistant and nonprotein-resistant surfaces. Therefore, ToF-SIMS results combined with PCA confirmed that the PLL-PMOXA adlayer with brush architecture resists protein adsorption. However, low increases of some amino acid signals in ToF-SIMS spectra were detected after the adlayer has

  9. Experimental and computational study on the molecular energetics of indoline and indole.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Manuel A V Ribeiro; Cabral, Joana I T A; Gomes, José R B

    2008-11-27

    Static bomb calorimetry, Calvet microcalorimetry and the Knudsen effusion technique were used to determine the standard molar enthalpy of formation in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K, of the indole and indoline heterocyclic compounds. The values obtained were 164.3 +/- 1.3 kJ x mol(-1) and 120.0 +/- 2.9 kJ x mol(-1), respectively. Several different computational approaches and different working reactions were used to estimate the gas-phase enthalpies of formation for indole and indoline. The computational approaches support the experimental results reported. The calculations were further extended to the determination of other properties such as bond dissociation enthalpies, gas-phase acidities, proton and electron affinities and ionization energies. The agreement between theoretical and experimental data for indole is very good supporting the data calculated for indoline.

  10. Peculiarity of methoxy group-substituted phenylhydrazones in Fischer indole synthesis

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Yasuoki

    2012-01-01

    We found that the Fischer indole synthesis of ethyl pyruvate 2-methoxyphenylhydrazone (5) with HCl/EtOH gave an abnormal product, ethyl 6-chloroindole-2-carboxylate (7), as the main product, with a smaller amount of ethyl 7-methoxyindole-2-carboxylate (6) as the normal product. This abnormal reaction was the result of a cyclization on the side with the substituent (methoxy group) of a benzene ring on phenylhydrazone, which was not previously observed. In this initial investigation, we focused on 1) the application of the above-mentioned abnormal Fischer indole synthesis, 2) the details of this reaction of phenylhydrazone with other kinds of substituents, 3) the mechanism of the first step of the Fischer indole synthesis, 4) the abnormal reaction in methoxydiphenylhydrazones, and 5) a synthetic device to avoid an abnormal reaction. The results of these studies are summarized herein. PMID:22241067

  11. Indole Compounds Related to Auxins and Goitrogens of Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Malcolm C.; Stowe, Bruce B.

    1971-01-01

    Five conspicuous indole derivatives are present in leaves and other tissues of woad (Isatis tinctoria L.). They were identified as tryptophan, isatan B, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate. The latter three indole glucosinolates are present at levels of at least 260, 69, and 200 milligrams per kilogram fresh weight and were isolated as crystalline salts. Comparison of physical and chemical properties, particularly NMR spectral analysis, confirms that the 1-methoxyglucobrassicin structure suggested for neoglucobrassicin is correct, whereas further evidence for the even more unusual sulfonation of the ring nitrogen in glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate was obtained. Glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate has an enzymic degradation pattern identical to that of glucobrassicin. As it too releases thiocyanate, it must be added to the list of known plant goitrogens. These studies and the techniques described establish woad as exceptionally suitable higher plant material for metabolic studies of indoles related to goitrogens and auxins. PMID:16657624

  12. Indole Compounds Related to Auxins and Goitrogens of Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.).

    PubMed

    Elliott, M C; Stowe, B B

    1971-03-01

    Five conspicuous indole derivatives are present in leaves and other tissues of woad (Isatis tinctoria L.). They were identified as tryptophan, isatan B, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate. The latter three indole glucosinolates are present at levels of at least 260, 69, and 200 milligrams per kilogram fresh weight and were isolated as crystalline salts. Comparison of physical and chemical properties, particularly NMR spectral analysis, confirms that the 1-methoxyglucobrassicin structure suggested for neoglucobrassicin is correct, whereas further evidence for the even more unusual sulfonation of the ring nitrogen in glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate was obtained. Glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate has an enzymic degradation pattern identical to that of glucobrassicin. As it too releases thiocyanate, it must be added to the list of known plant goitrogens. These studies and the techniques described establish woad as exceptionally suitable higher plant material for metabolic studies of indoles related to goitrogens and auxins.

  13. Identification and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R G; Lim, E K; Li, Y; Kowalczyk, M; Sandberg, G; Hoggett, J; Ashford, D A; Bowles, D J

    2001-02-09

    Biochemical characterization of recombinant gene products following a phylogenetic analysis of the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) multigene family of Arabidopsis has identified one enzyme (UGT84B1) with high activity toward the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and three related enzymes (UGT84B2, UGT75B1, and UGT75B2) with trace activities. The identity of the IAA conjugate has been confirmed to be 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester. A sequence annotated as a UDP-glucose:IAA glucosyltransferase (IAA-UGT) in the Arabidopsis genome and expressed sequence tag data bases given its similarity to the maize iaglu gene sequence showed no activity toward IAA. This study describes the first biochemical analysis of a recombinant IAA-UGT and provides the foundation for future genetic approaches to understand the role of 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester in Arabidopsis.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed reactions in the synthesis of 3- and 4-substituted indoles. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, L.S.; Sestrick, M.R.; Michaelson, E.T.

    1989-08-18

    4-Bromo-1-tosylindole (1) was converted to tricyclic indole enone 11, a potential intermediate in the synthesis of tetracyclic ergot alkaloids, by a series of palladium-catalyzed processes. Attempts to construct the ergot D ring by the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of enone 11 and 1-azabutadiene 12 produced not the expected (4 + 2) adduct 13 but the benz(cd)indoline derivative 14 resulting from attack of the aza diene at the indole 2-position. The thermodynamic stability of the naphthol nucleus makes enone 11 generally susceptible to attack at the indole 2-position, as evidenced by the attack of hydride and methyl cuprate nucleophiles at this portion formingmore » indolines 16 and 17, respectively.« less

  15. Synthesis and conformational study of 3,4-carbocyclic bridged indole melatonin and serotonin analogues.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Annalida; Di Giacomo, Barbara; Gatti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Gilberto

    2005-08-01

    Tetrahydrobenz[cd]indole, has been usually assumed to be a rigid scaffold of arylethylamines of pharmaceutical interest, such as melatonin and serotonin. A series of molecules containing this scaffold has been synthesized and their conformation in solution has been determined by 1H NMR. The values of the coupling constants show that the carbocycle fused with the indole ring is a mixture of the two conformers with substituent in equatorial or axial orientation. The molar fraction of the conformers appears to be sensibly affected by the bulkiness of the C-2 indole substituent. A pseudo-axial orientation of the C-3 alkylamido side chain is important for melatonin ligands to access the binding site and exhibit potent in vitro affinity, as illustrated for melatonin ligand 1 (pK(i)=9.32).

  16. Genome Sequence of an Efficient Indole-Degrading Bacterium, Cupriavidus sp. Strain IDO, with Potential Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiao; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhaojing; Li, Pengpeng; Tang, Hongzhi

    2015-03-12

    Cupriavidus sp. strain IDO has been shown to efficiently transform indole, and the genus of Cupriavidus has been described as a promising cell factory for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis from low-cost wastes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain IDO, which may provide useful genetic information on indole metabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate production. Copyright © 2015 Ma et al.

  17. Discovery of novel indole derivatives as allosteric inhibitors of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bie, Jianbo; Liu, Shuainan; Li, Zhanmei; Mu, Yongzhao; Xu, Bailing; Shen, Zhufang

    2015-01-27

    A series of novel indole derivatives was designed and synthesized as inhibitors of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). The most potent compound 14c was identified with an IC50 value of 0.10 μM by testing the inhibitory activity against recombinant human FBPase. The structure-activity relationships were investigated on the substitution at 4- and 5-position of the indole scaffold. The binding interactions of the title compounds at AMP binding site of FBPase were predicted using CDOCKER algorithm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-03-22

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives.

  19. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of indole-based sigma receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Mésangeau, Christophe; Amata, Emanuele; Alsharif, Walid; Seminerio, Michael J.; Robson, Matthew J.; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Poupaert, Jacques H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel indole-based analogues were prepared and their affinities for sigma receptors were determined using in vitro radioligand binding assays. The results of this study identified several compounds with nanomolar sigma-2 affinity and significant selectivity over sigma-1 receptors. In particular, 2-(4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-1-yl)butyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (9f) was found to display high affinity at sigma-2 receptors with good selectivity (σ-1/σ-2 = 395). The pharmacological binding profile for this compound was established with other relevant nonsigma sites. PMID:21899931

  20. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives. PMID:28327529

  1. Vinylation of nitro-substituted indoles, quinolinones, and anilides with grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Egris, Riccardo; Villacampa, Mercedes; Menéndez, J Carlos

    2009-10-19

    The reaction of vinyl Grignard reagents with o-methoxynitroarenes containing an electron-releasing substituent para to the nitro group proceeds through a pathway that is different from the initially expected Bartoli indole synthesis. Thus, instead of giving fused indole derivatives, these reactions provide a very mild and efficient new procedure for the synthesis of synthetically relevant aromatic systems containing an o-nitrovinyl moiety, such as 5-nitro-4-vinylindoles, 6-nitro-7-vinylindoles, 6-nitro-5-vinyl-2(1H)quinolinones, and 4-nitro-3-vinylanilines.

  2. Rauvomines A and B, Two Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids from Rauvolfia vomitoria.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Zhang, Dong-Bo; Zhou, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Qi-Li; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Jian-Jun; Gao, Kun

    2017-08-04

    Two unusual normonoterpenoid indole alkaloids rauvomine A (1) and rauvomine B (2), together with two known compounds peraksine (3) and alstoyunine A (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia vomitoria. The structures with absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compound 2 is a novel C 18 normonoterpenoid indole alkaloid with a substituted cyclopropane ring that forms an unusual 6/5/6/6/3/5 hexcyclic rearranged ring system. The plausible biogenetic pathways of 1 and 2 were proposed. Compound 2 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Extending the versatility of the Hemetsberger-Knittel indole synthesis through microwave and flow chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Nadeesha; Jones, Graham B

    2013-03-15

    Microwave, flow and combination methodologies have been applied to the synthesis of a number of substituted indoles. Based on the Hemetsberger-Knittel (HK) process, modifications allow formation of products rapidly and in high yield. Adapting the methodology allows formation of 2-unsubstituted indoles and derivatives, and a route to analogs of the antitumor agent PLX-4032 is demonstrated. The utility of the HK substrates is further demonstrated through bioconjugation and subsequent ring closure and via Huisgen type [3+2] cycloaddition chemistry, allowing formation of peptide adducts which can be subsequently labeled with fluorine tags. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A review on indole alkaloids isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla and their pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Ndagijimana, Andre; Wang, Xiaoming; Pan, Guixiang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Hong; Olaleye, Olajide

    2013-04-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks, Rubiaceae, is one of the original plants of the important Chinese crude drug, Gou-teng, mainly used for the treatment of convulsion, hypertension, epilepsy, eclampsia, and cerebral diseases. The pharmacological activities of this plant are related to the presence of active compounds predominantly indole alkaloids. In this article, we have reviewed some reports about the pharmacological activities of the main indole alkaloids isolated from U. rhynchophylla. This review paper will contribute to the studies on the chemistry, safety and quality control of medicinal preparations containing Uncaria species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AMT (3-(2-aminopropyl)indole) and 5-IT (5-(2-aminopropyl)indole): an analytical challenge and implications for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon P; Brandt, Simon D; Freeman, Sally; Archer, Roland P

    2013-03-01

    5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) and 3-(2-aminopropyl)indole (α-methyltryptamine, AMT) are isomeric substances and their differentiation can be a challenge under routine analytical conditions, especially when reference material is unavailable. 5-IT represents a very recent addition to the battery of new psychoactive substances that are commercially available from online retailers. This report illustrates how subtle differences observed under mass spectral and UV conditions can help to facilitate the differentiation between the two isomers. Analyses included (1)  H and (13) C NMR, GC-EI/CI ion trap MS, applications of several U/HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods. Investigations currently underway also highlight the confirmation that AMT was detected in a number of fatal intoxications. These findings also demonstrate that there is a potential risk of misidentification when dealing with both substances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. SKA2 Methylation is Involved in Cortisol Stress Reactivity and Predicts the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) After Military Deployment.

    PubMed

    Boks, Marco P; Rutten, Bart P F; Geuze, Elbert; Houtepen, Lotte C; Vermetten, Eric; Kaminsky, Zachary; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-04-01

    Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=-173.40, t=-2.324, p-value=0.023). Next, we observed that longitudinal decreases in SKA2 methylation after deployment were associated with the emergence of post-deployment PTSD symptoms in a Dutch military cohort (N=93; B=-0.054, t=-3.706, p-value=3.66 × 10(-4)). In contrast, exposure to traumatic stress during deployment by itself resulted in longitudinal increases in SKA2 methylation (B=0.037, t=4.173, p-value=6.98 × 10(-5)). Using pre-deployment SKA2 methylation levels and childhood trauma exposure, we found that the previously published suicide prediction rule significantly predicted post-deployment PTSD symptoms (AUC=0.66, 95% CI: 0.53-0.79) with an optimal sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.91. Permutation analysis using random methylation loci supported these findings. Together, these data establish the importance of SKA2 for cortisol stress responsivity and the development of PTSD and provide further evidence that SKA2 is a promising biomarker for stress-related disorders including PTSD.

  7. iRNA-2methyl: Identify RNA 2'-O-methylation Sites by Incorporating Sequence-Coupled Effects into General PseKNC and Ensemble Classifier.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wang-Ren; Jiang, Shi-Yu; Sun, Bi-Qian; Xiao, Xuan; Cheng, Xiang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Being a kind of post-transcriptional modification (PTCM) in RNA, the 2'-Omethylation modification occurs in the processes of life development and disease formation as well. Accordingly, from the angles of both basic research and drug development, we are facing a challenging problem: given an uncharacterized RNA sequence formed by many nucleotides of A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), and U (uracil), which one can be of 2-O'-methylation modification, and which one cannot? Unfortunately, so far no computational method whatsoever has been developed to address such a problem. To fill this empty area, we propose a predictor called iRNA-2methyl. It is formed by incorporating a series of sequence-coupled factors into the general PseKNC (pseudo nucleotide composition), followed by fusing 12 basic random forest classifier into four ensemble predictors, with each aimed to identify the cases of A, C, G, and U along the RNA sequence concerned, respectively. Rigorous jackknife cross-validations have indicated that the success rates are very high (>93%). For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a user-friendly web-server for iRNA-2methyl has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iRNA-2methyl, by which users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematical equations involved. The proposed predictor iRNA-2methyl will become a very useful bioinformatics tool for medicinal chemistry, helping to design effective drugs against the diseases related to the 2'-Omethylation modification. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol as an acetylene precursor in the Mannich reaction. A new synthesis of suicide inactivators of monoamine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.

    A two-step reaction process is reported for the synthesis of /sup 11/C, /sup 13/C, or /sup 14/C-labelled propargylamines in moderate yields. The propargylamines were prepared by a modified Mannich scheme without the use of acetylene. The reaction scheme involved the use of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol followed by KOH-catalyzed elimination of acetone from the acetylenic carbinols. (BLM)

  9. Quantitative weaknesses of the Marcus-Hush theory of electrode kinetics revealed by Reverse Scan Square Wave Voltammetry: The reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane at mercury microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborda, Eduardo; Wang, Yijun; Henstridge, Martin C.; Martínez-Ortiz, Francisco; Molina, Angela; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-08-01

    The Marcus-Hush and Butler-Volmer kinetic electrode models are compared experimentally by studying the reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane in acetonitrile at mercury microelectrodes using Reverse Scan Square Wave Voltammetry. This technique is found to be very sensitive to the electrode kinetics and to permit critical comparison of the two models. The Butler-Volmer model satisfactorily fits the experimental data whereas Marcus-Hush does not quantitatively describe this redox system.

  10. SKA2 Methylation is Involved in Cortisol Stress Reactivity and Predicts the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) After Military Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Boks, Marco P; Rutten, Bart P F; Geuze, Elbert; Houtepen, Lotte C; Vermetten, Eric; Kaminsky, Zachary; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-01-01

    Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=−173.40, t=−2.324, p-value=0.023). Next, we observed that longitudinal decreases in SKA2 methylation after deployment were associated with the emergence of post-deployment PTSD symptoms in a Dutch military cohort (N=93; B=−0.054, t=−3.706, p-value=3.66 × 10−4). In contrast, exposure to traumatic stress during deployment by itself resulted in longitudinal increases in SKA2 methylation (B=0.037, t=4.173, p-value=6.98 × 10−5). Using pre-deployment SKA2 methylation levels and childhood trauma exposure, we found that the previously published suicide prediction rule significantly predicted post-deployment PTSD symptoms (AUC=0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.79) with an optimal sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.91. Permutation analysis using random methylation loci supported these findings. Together, these data establish the importance of SKA2 for cortisol stress responsivity and the development of PTSD and provide further evidence that SKA2 is a promising biomarker for stress-related disorders including PTSD. PMID:26361058

  11. Murine T cell activation is regulated by surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide)

    SciTech Connect

    Warford, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.warford@dal.ca; Doucette, Carolyn D., E-mail: carolyn.doucette@dal.ca; Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Surfen is the first inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan function to be studied in murine T cells. •Surfen reduces T cell proliferation stimulated in vitro and in vivo. •Surfen reduces CD25 expression in T cells activated in vivo but not in vitro. •Surfen increases T cell proliferation when T cell receptor activation is bypassed. •Surfen’s effects are blocked by co-administration of heparin sulfate. -- Abstract: Surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide) binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and has been shown to influence their function, and the function of proteoglycans (complexes of GAGs linked to a core protein). T cells synthesize, secrete and express GAGs and proteoglycansmore » which are involved in several aspects of T cell function. However, there are as yet no studies on the effect of GAG-binding agents such as surfen on T cell function. In this study, surfen was found to influence murine T cell activation. Doses between 2.5 and 20 μM produced a graduated reduction in the proliferation of T cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated T cell expander beads. Surfen (20 mg/kg) was also administered to mice treated with anti-CD3 antibody to activate T cells in vivo. Lymphocytes from surfen-treated mice also showed reduced proliferation and lymph node cell counts were reduced. Surfen reduced labeling with a cell viability marker (7-ADD) but to a much lower extent than its effect on proliferation. Surfen also reduced CD25 (the α-subunit of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor) expression with no effect on CD69 expression in T cells treated in vivo but not in vitro. When receptor activation was bypassed by treating T cells in vitro with phorbyl myristate acetate (10 ng/ml) and ionomycin (100 ng/ml), surfen treatment either increased proliferation (10 μM) or had no effect (2.5, 5 and 20 μM). In vitro treatment of T cells with surfen had no effect on IL-2 or interferon-γ synthesis and did not alter proliferation of the IL-2

  12. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP) reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Réno M; Kogan, Cary S; Messier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W) mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioral deficits in fragile X mental retardation 1 knock-out (Fmr1 KO) mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP; n = 11) or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11) prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed, which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioral deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin) remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in

  13. Characterization of a nitrilase and a nitrile hydratase from Pseudomonas sp. strain UW4 that converts indole-3-acetonitrile to indole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Duca, Daiana; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-08-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a fundamental phytohormone with the ability to control many aspects of plant growth and development. Pseudomonas sp. strain UW4 is a rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacterium that produces and secretes IAA. While several putative IAA biosynthetic genes have been reported in this bacterium, the pathways leading to the production of IAA in strain UW4 are unclear. Here, the presence of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and indole-3-acetaldoxime/indole-3-acetonitrile (IAOx/IAN) pathways of IAA biosynthesis is described, and the specific role of two of the enzymes (nitrilase and nitrile hydratase) that mediate these pathways is assessed. The genes encoding these two enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes were isolated and characterized. Substrate-feeding assays indicate that the nitrilase produces both IAM and IAA from the IAN substrate, while the nitrile hydratase only produces IAM. The two nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes have very different temperature and pH optimums. Nitrilase prefers a temperature of 50°C and a pH of 6, while nitrile hydratase prefers 4°C and a pH of 7.5. Based on multiple sequence alignments and motif analyses, physicochemical properties and enzyme assays, it is concluded that the UW4 nitrilase has an aromatic substrate specificity. The nitrile hydratase is identified as an iron-type metalloenzyme that does not require the help of a P47K activator protein to be active. These data are interpreted in terms of a preliminary model for the biosynthesis of IAA in this bacterium.

  14. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  15. Frequent disruption of the RB pathway in indolent follicular lymphoma suggests a new combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oricchio, Elisa; Ciriello, Giovanni; Jiang, Man; Boice, Michael H.; Schatz, Jonathan H.; Heguy, Adriana; Viale, Agnes; de Stanchina, Elisa; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Bouska, Alyssa; McKeithan, Tim; Sander, Chris; Tam, Wayne; Seshan, Venkatraman E.; Chan, Wing-Chung; Chaganti, R.S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of cell cycle controls is a hallmark of cancer and has a well-established role in aggressive B cell malignancies. However, the role of such lesions in indolent follicular lymphoma (FL) is unclear and individual lesions have been observed with low frequency. By analyzing genomic data from two large cohorts of indolent FLs, we identify a pattern of mutually exclusive (P = 0.003) genomic lesions that impair the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway in nearly 50% of FLs. These alterations include homozygous and heterozygous deletions of the p16/CDKN2a/b (7%) and RB1 (12%) loci, and more frequent gains of chromosome 12 that include CDK4 (29%). These aberrations are associated with high-risk disease by the FL prognostic index (FLIPI), and studies in a murine FL model confirm their pathogenic role in indolent FL. Increased CDK4 kinase activity toward RB1 is readily measured in tumor samples and indicates an opportunity for CDK4 inhibition. We find that dual CDK4 and BCL2 inhibitor treatment is safe and effective against available models of FL. In summary, frequent RB pathway lesions in indolent, high-risk FLs indicate an untapped therapeutic opportunity. PMID:24913233

  16. Identification of indole diterpenes in Ipomoea asarifolia and Ipomoea muelleri, plants tremorgenic to livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ipomoea asarifolia has been associated with a tremorgenic syndrome in livestock in Brazil and was recently reported to contain tremorgenic indole diterpenes. Ipomoea muelleri has been reported to cause a similar tremorgenic syndrome in livestock in Australia. Ipomoea asarifolia and I. muelleri were ...

  17. High resolution mass spectrometry studies of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Kokotou, Maroula G; Revelou, Panagiota-Kyriaki; Pappas, Christos; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta

    2017-12-15

    Broccoli is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Among them, sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol have attracted a lot of attention, since their consumption is associated with reduced risk of cancer. In this work, the development of an efficient and direct method for the simultaneous determination of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol in broccoli using UPLC-HRMS/MS is described. The correlation coefficient, and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.993, 0.77mg/L and 2.35mg/L for sulforaphane and 0.997, 0.42mg/L, 1.29mg/L for indole-3-carbinol, respectively. The content of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol varied between 72±9-304±2mg and 77±1-117±3mg per 100g of fresh florets, respectively. Taking into consideration the differences in cultivar, geography, season and environmental factors, the results agreed with values published in the literature using other techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A microwave assisted intramolecular-furan-Diels-Alder approach to 4-substituted indoles.

    PubMed

    Petronijevic, Filip; Timmons, Cody; Cuzzupe, Anthony; Wipf, Peter

    2009-01-07

    The key steps of a versatile new protocol for the convergent synthesis of 3,4-disubstituted indoles are the addition of an alpha-lithiated alkylaminofuran to a carbonyl compound, a microwave-accelerated intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition and an in situ double aromatization reaction.

  19. Indole-3-acetic acid in Fusarium graminearum: Identification of biosynthetic pathways and characterization of physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Rocheleau, Hélène; Qi, Peng-Fei; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a devastating pathogenic fungus causing fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat. This fungus can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a very large amount of IAA accumulates in wheat head tissues during the first few days of infection by F. graminearum. Using liquid culture conditions, we have determined that F. graminearum can use tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as biosynthetic intermediates to produce IAA. It is the first time that F. graminearum is shown to use the l-tryptophan-dependent TAM and IAN pathways rather than the indole-3-acetamide or indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways to produce IAA. Our experiments also showed that exogenous IAA was metabolized by F. graminearum. Exogenous IAA, TAM, and IAN inhibited mycelial growth; IAA and IAN also affected the hyphae branching pattern and delayed macroconidium germination. IAA and TAM had a small positive effect on the production of the mycotoxin 15-ADON while IAN inhibited its production. Our results showed that IAA and biosynthetic intermediates had a significant effect on F. graminearum physiology and suggested a new area of exploration for fungicidal compounds. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Binary stress induces an increase in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Yang, Bingxian; Komatsu, Setsuko; Lu, Xiaoping; Li, Ximin; Tian, Jingkui

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus using proteomic technique. The contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in C. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that the abundance of proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall was largely increased; while, that of proteins related to tetrapyrrole synthesis and photosynthesis was decreased. Of note, 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloid was two-fold more abundant in treated group compared to the control. In addition, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway indicated an up-regulation in their transcription in C. roseus under UV-B irradiation. These results suggest that binary stress might negatively affect the process of photosynthesis in C. roseus. In addition, the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis appears to be responsive to binary stress. PMID:26284098

  1. Exogenous Indole Regulates Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Antarctic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lianshuai; Zhang, Song; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-05-28

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3 was isolated from Antarctic seawater with antifungal activity. In order to investigate the metabolic regulation mechanism in the biosynthesis of lipopeptides in B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3, GC/MS-based metabolomics was used when exogenous indole was added. The intracellular metabolite profiles showed decreased asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, threonine, valine, isoleucine, hexadecanoic acid, and octadecanoic acid in the indole-treated groups, which were involved in the biosynthesis of lipopeptides. B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3 exhibited a growth promotion, bacterial total protein increase, and lipopeptide biosynthesis inhibition upon the addition of indole. Besides this, real-time PCR analysis further revealed that the transcription of lipopeptide biosynthesis genes ituD, fenA , and srfA-A were downregulated by indole with 22.4-, 21.98-, and 26.0-fold, respectively. It therefore was speculated that as the metabolic flux of most of the amino acids and fatty acids were transferred to the synthesis of proteins and biomass, lipopeptide biosynthesis was weakened owing to the lack of precursor amino acids and fatty acids.

  2. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  3. Direct C-H alkylation and indole formation of anilines with diazo compounds under rhodium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Choi, Miji; Jo, Hyeim; Oh, Yongguk; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Lee, Seok-Yong; Kim, In Su

    2015-12-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct functionalization of aniline C-H bonds with α-diazo compounds is described. These transformations provide a facile construction of ortho-alkylated anilines with diazo malonates or highly substituted indoles with diazo acetoacetates.

  4. Chemical oxidation of a malodorous compound, indole, using iron entrapped in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Ben Hammouda, Samia; Adhoum, Nafaâ; Monser, Lotfi

    2016-01-15

    Iron-alginate beads (Fe-ABs) were successfully prepared by the ion-gelation method, and applied as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the removal of a malodorous compound 'indole'. Similarly, copper-enriched alginate beads (Cu-ABs) were synthesized and tested as like-Fenton catalyst, however, their application proved not to be effective for this purpose. Fe-ABs catalysts were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDS and AAS spectroscopy. Results pointed out that the parameters affecting Fenton catalysis must be carefully chosen to avoid excessive iron release. Under optimal conditions, complete indole removal and considerably high reduction of TOC, without significant leaching was achieved. Indole decay followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The absolute rate constant for indole hydroxylation was 3.59×10(9) M(-1) s(-1), as determined by the competition kinetics method. Four reaction intermediates (Isatin, Dioxindole, Oxindole and Anthralinic acid) were identified by ULC/MS/MS analysis. Short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids like formic, acetic, oxalic, maleic, oxamic and pyruvic acids were identified by ion exclusion chromatography and as end-products. Based on the identified by-products, a plausible mineralization pathway was proposed. Moreover, the catalyst was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for several times without significant loss of activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nosiheptide Biosynthesis Featuring a Unique Indole Side Ring Formation on the Characteristic Thiopeptide Framework

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Qi; Liao, Rijing; Ding, Ying; Pan, Haixue; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Tang, Gongli; Shen, Ben; Liu, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Nosiheptide (NOS), belonging to the e series of thiopeptide antibiotics that exhibit potent activity against various bacterial pathogens, bears a unique indole side ring system and regiospecific hydroxyl groups on the characteristic macrocyclic core. Here, cloning, sequencing and characterization of the nos gene cluster from Streptomyces actuosus ATCC 25421 as a model for this series of thiopeptides has unveiled new insights into their biosynthesis. Bioinformatics-based sequence analysis and in vivo investigation into the gene functions show that NOS biosynthesis shares a common strategy with recently characterized b or c series thiopeptides for forming the characteristic macrocyclic core, which features a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide with conserved posttranslational modifications. However, it apparently proceeds via a different route for tailoring the thiopeptide framework, allowing the final product to exhibit the distinct structural characteristics of e series thiopeptides, such as the indole side ring system. Chemical complementation supports the notion that the S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent protein NosL may play a central role in converting Trp to the key 3-methylindole moiety by an unusual carbon side chain rearrangement, most likely via a radical-initiated mechanism. Characterization of the indole side ring-opened analog of NOS from the nosN mutant strain is consistent with the proposed methyltransferase activity of its encoded protein, shedding light into the timing of the individual steps for indole side ring biosynthesis. These results also suggest the feasibility of engineering novel thiopeptides for drug discovery by manipulating the NOS biosynthetic machinery. PMID:19678698

  6. An indole-deficient Escherichia coli strain improves screening of cytochromes P450 for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Hannemann, Frank; Ringle, Michael; Khatri, Yogan; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-05-01

    Escherichia coli has developed into an attractive organism for heterologous cytochrome P450 production, but, in some cases, was restricted as a host in view of a screening of orphan cytochromes P450 or mutant libraries in the context of molecular evolution due to the formation of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor indole by the enzyme tryptophanase (TnaA). To overcome this effect, we disrupted the tnaA gene locus of E. coli C43(DE3) and evaluated the new strain for whole-cell substrate conversions with three indole-sensitive cytochromes P450, myxobacterial CYP264A1, and CYP109D1 as well as bovine steroidogenic CYP21A2. For purified CYP264A1 and CYP21A2, the half maximal inhibitory indole concentration was determined to be 140 and 500 μM, which is within the physiological concentration range occurring during cultivation of E. coli in complex medium. Biotransformations with C43(DE3)_∆tnaA achieved a 30% higher product formation in the case of CYP21A2 and an even fourfold increase with CYP264A1 compared with C43(DE3) cells. In whole-cell conversion based on CYP109D1, which converts indole to indigo, we could successfully avoid this reaction. Results in microplate format indicate that our newly designed strain is a suitable host for a fast and efficient screening of indole-influenced cytochromes P450 in complex medium. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Further brominated bis- and tris-indole alkaloids from the deep-water New Caledonian marine sponge Orina Sp.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Bruno, I; Riccio, R; Lavayre, J; Bourdy, G

    1995-08-01

    Two tris-indole alkaloids, (+/-) gelliusines A and B [1], have been isolated for the first time from a marine source, the New Caledonian sponge, Orina sp. (or Gellius sp.), along with five further indole constituents [2-6]. Compound 6 has been identified as 2,2-bis-(6'-bromo-3'-indolyl(-ethylamine, previously isolated from the tunicate Didemnum candidum, but the remaining four indoles [2-5] are novel compounds. These showed anti-serotonin activity and a strong affinity for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y receptors in receptor-binding assays.

  8. The interaction of radiation-generated radicals with myoglobin in aqueous solution—V. The indirect action of 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals on oxymyoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, Kevin D.; Hoffman, Morton Z.

    The interaction of radiation-generated 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals (derived from t-butyl alcohol) with oxymyoglobin has been examined at pH 7.3. In N 2O-saturated solutions, oxymyoglobin is converted to the ferri and ferryl derivatives of myoglobin; the production of ferrylmyoglobin is essentially eliminated when catalase is present in solution during irradiation. In deaerated solutions containing catalase, oxymyoglobin is converted to both ferro- and ferrimyoglobin during irradiation. When added O 2 is initially present, all compositional changes occur after irradiation; the presence of catalase diminishes, but does not eliminate, the extent of these postirradiation conversions of oxymyoglobin to the ferri and ferryl derivatives. These observations are interpreted in terms of the scavenging of the 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals by O 2 to generate their peroxy analogs, which causes a displacement of the equilibrium between oxy- and ferromyoglobin. The peroxy radicals decay to produce H 2O 2, an organic peroxide, and other products. These peroxides subsequently react with ferromyoglobin to produce the ferryl form; the rate of the reaction increases with decreasing [O 2] as [ferromyoglobin] increases. This reaction is sufficiently fast in deaerated solution that substantial conversion of ferromyoglobin to ferrylmyoglobin occurs during the time of irradiation. The formation of the ferryl derivative in the presence of unconverted ferromyoglobin drives a concurrent synproportion reaction which produces ferrimyoglobin. Overall, no direct interaction of 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals, nor their peroxy analogs, with myoglobin is indicated; all reactivity is accountable by the peroxide products of these radicals.

  9. Rotational spectrum of 13C{2}-methyl formate (HCOO13CH{3}) and detection of the two 13C-methyl formate in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, M.; Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; Demyk, K.; Kleiner, I.; Guillemin, J. C.; Lattanzi, V.; Walters, A.; Demaison, J.; Wlodarczak, G.; Huet, T. R.; Møllendal, H.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Cernicharo, J.

    2009-06-01

    Context: Laboratory measurements and analysis of the microwave and millimeter-wave spectra of potential interstellar molecules are a prerequisite for their subsequent identification by radioastronomical techniques. The spectral analysis provides spectroscopic parameters that are used in the assignment procedure of the laboratory spectra, and that also predict the frequencies of transitions not measured in the laboratory with a high degree of precision. Aims: An experimental laboratory study and its theoretical analysis is presented for 13C2-methyl formate (HCOO13CH3) allowing a search for this isotopologue in the Orion molecular cloud. The 13C1-methyl formate (H13COOCH3) molecule was also searched for in this interstellar cloud, using previously published spectroscopic data. Methods: The experimental spectra of 13C2-methyl formate were recorded in the microwave and sub-mm energy ranges (4-20 GHz, 8-80 GHz, 150-700 GHz). The spectra were analyzed using the Rho-Axis Method (RAM), which takes the CH3 internal rotation and the coupling between internal rotation and global rotation into account. Results: Twenty-seven spectroscopic constants of 13C2-methyl formate have been obtained from a fit of 936 transitions of the ground torsional state with a standard (unitless) deviation of 1.08. A prediction of line positions and intensities is also produced. This prediction allowed us to identify 230 13C2-methyl formate lines in the Orion interstellar molecular cloud. We refitted all previously published ground state transitions of the 13C1-methyl formate molecule in order to provide a prediction of its ground state spectrum. 234 lines of 13C1-methyl formate were detected in the Orion interstellar cloud using that prediction. Tables A.1-A.5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/500/1109

  10. Molecular modelling, synthesis and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of ethyl 5-amino-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridine-3-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Elena; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; de los Ríos, Cristóbal; Marco-Contelles, José

    2010-05-01

    In silico analysis of ethyl 5-amino-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridine-3-carboxylate (2) predicts that this molecule should be successfully docked in the PAS, and easily accommodated in the CAS of AChE. The synthesis and the AChE/BuChE inhibition studies are reported, confirming that compound 2 is a potent and selective AChE inhibitor, and consequently, a new lead compound for further development into new dual CAS/PAS cholinergic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships of Brominated Indoles from a Marine Mollusc

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Tarek B.; Rudd, David; Smith, Joshua; Kotiw, Michael; Mouatt, Peter; Seymour, Lisa M.; Liu, Lei; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Marine molluscs are rich in biologically active natural products that provide new potential sources of anti-inflammatory agents. Here we used bioassay guided fractionation of extracts from the muricid Dicathais orbita to identify brominated indoles with anti-inflammatory activity, based on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in calcium ionophore-stimulated 3T3 ccl-92 fibroblasts. Muricid brominated indoles were then compared to a range of synthetic indoles to determine structure-activity relationships. Both hypobranchial gland and egg extracts inhibited the production of NO significantly with IC50 of 30.8 and 40 μg/mL, respectively. The hypobranchial gland extract also inhibited the production of TNFα and PGE2 with IC50 of 43.03 µg/mL and 34.24 µg/mL, respectively. The purified mono-brominated indole and isatin compounds showed significant inhibitory activity against NO, TNFα, and PGE2, and were more active than dimer indoles and non-brominated isatin. The position of the bromine atom on the isatin benzene ring significantly affected the activity, with 5Br > 6Br > 7Br. The mode of action for the active hypobranchial gland extract, 6-bromoindole, and 6-bromoisatin was further tested by the assessment of the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage. The extract (40 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the translocation of NFκB in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by 48.2%, whereas 40 µg/mL of 6-bromoindole and 6-bromoistain caused a 60.7% and 63.7% reduction in NFκB, respectively. These results identify simple brominated indoles as useful anti-inflammatory drug leads and support the development of extracts from the Australian muricid D. orbita, as a new potential natural remedy for the treatment of inflammation. PMID:28481239

  12. A wavelength dependent investigation of the indole photophysics via ionization and fragmentation pump-probe spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, T J; Yu, Hui; Biddle, Michael S; Ullrich, Susanne

    2015-10-14

    A wavelength dependent study investigating the low-lying (1)La and (1)Lb states, both possessing (1)ππ* character, and the (1)πσ* state in the deactivation process of indole is presented here. Relaxation dynamics following excitation at 241, 250, 260, 270, 273, and 282 nm are examined using three gas-phase, pump-probe spectroscopic techniques: (1) hydrogen atom (H-atom) time-resolved kinetic energy release (TR-KER), (2) time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), and (3) time-resolved ion yield (TR-IY). Applied in combination, a more complete picture of the indole relaxation dynamics may be gleaned. For instance, TR-PES experiments directly observe all relaxation pathways by probing the evolution of the excited states following photoexcitation; whereas, TR-KER measurements indirectly, yet specifically, probe for (1)πσ*-state activity through the detection of H-atoms eliminated along the indole nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) stretch coordinate-a possible outcome of (1)πσ*-state relaxation in indole. In addition, mass information obtained via TR-IY monitors fragmentation dynamics that may occur within the neutral electronically excited and/or cationic states. The work herein assesses the onset and importance of the (1)πσ* state at various pump wavelengths by systematically tuning across the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of indole with a particular focus on those pump wavelengths longer than 263 nm, where the involvement of the (1)πσ* state is under current debate. As far as this experimental work is concerned, there does not appear to be any significant involvement by the (1)πσ* state in the indole relaxation processes following excitation at 270, 273, or 282 nm. This investigation also evaluates the primary orbital promotions contributing to the (1)La, (1)Lb, and (1)πσ* transitions based on ionization preferences observed in TR-PES spectra. Relaxation time constants associated with dynamics along these states are also reported for excitation at all

  13. Ni(ClO4)(2)-catalysed regio- and diastereoselective [3+2] cycloaddition of indoles and aryl oxiranyl-dicarboxylates/diketones: a facile access to furo[3,4-b]indoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jieming; Chen, Zuliang; Wu, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Junliang

    2012-02-07

    Ni(ClO(4))(2)·6H(2)O-catalysed regioselective and diastereoselective [3+2]-annulations of aryl oxiranyl-dicarboxylates and indoles via selective C-C bond cleavage of oxirane were revealed. The cycloadditions proceed smoothly with high regio- and diastereoselectivity under mild conditions leading to 1H-furo[3,4-b]indoles in good to excellent yields. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Structure-based design and biological evaluation of novel 2-(indol-2-yl) thiazole derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Uk; Jang, Jae Wan; Kim, Tae Hun; Park, Heuisul; Park, Wan Su; Jung, Sang-Hun; Kim, Geun Tae

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) has obviously been a central concept for controlling hyperuricemia, which causes serious and painful inflammatory arthritis disease such as gout. We discovered a series of novel 2-(indol-2-yl)thiazole derivatives as XO inhibitors at the level of nanomolar activity. Structure-guided design using molecular modeling program (Accelrys Software program) provided an excellent basis for optimization of 2-(indol-2-yl)thiazole compounds. Structure-activity relationship indicated that hydrophobic alkoxy group (isopropoxy, cyclopentoxy) at 5-position and hydrogen binding acceptor (NO2, CN) at 7-position of indole ring appear as critical functional groups. Among the compounds, 2-(7-nitro-5-isopropoxy-indol-2-yl)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid (9m) exhibits the most potent XO inhibitory activity (IC50 value: 5.1 nM) and the excellent uric acid lowering activity in potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemic rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An efficient protocol for the synthesis of highly sensitive indole imines utilizing green chemistry: optimization of reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Bushra; Rubab, Syeda Laila; Raza, Abdul Rauf; Tariq, Sobia; Sultan, Ayesha; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2018-04-11

    Novel and highly sensitive indole-based imines have been synthesized. Their synthesis has been compared employing a variety of protocols. Ultimately, a convenient, economical and high yielding set of conditions employing green chemistry have been designed for their synthesis.

  16. Biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing natural products, C7N aminocyclitols and bis-indoles, from actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Asamizu, Shumpei

    2017-05-01

    Actinomycetes are a major source of bioactive natural products with important pharmaceutical properties. Understanding the natural enzymatic assembly of complex small molecules is important for rational metabolic pathway design to produce "artificial" natural products in bacterial cells. This review will highlight current research on the biosynthetic mechanisms of two classes of nitrogen-containing natural products, C 7 N aminocyclitols and bis-indoles. Validamycin A is a member of C 7 N aminocyclitol natural products from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Here, two important biosynthetic steps, pseudoglycosyltranferase-catalyzed C-N bond formation, and C 7 -sugar phosphate cyclase-catalyzed divergent carbasugar formation, will be reviewed. In addition, the bis-indolic natural products indolocarbazole, staurosporine from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274, and rearranged bis-indole violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum are reviewed including the oxidative course of the assembly pathway for the bis-indolic scaffold. The identified biosynthesis mechanisms will be useful to generating new biocatalytic tools and bioactive compounds.

  17. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  18. Synthesis, spectral and structural characterization of isobutyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-cyano-6-(((dimethylamino)methylene)amino)-2-methyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udhaya Kumar, C.; Velayutham Pillai, M.; Gokula Krishnan, K.; Ramalingan, C.

    2017-09-01

    A fascinating selectivity in the direction of the formation of the formamidine was observed upon the reaction of isobutyl 6-amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-cyano-2-methyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylate with N,N-dimethyl formamide. A development in selectivity is explored and a probable mechanism for the reaction is also proposed. The formamidine has been analyzed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, LC-MS and NMR (1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY and HMBC)) spectra. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical data calculated by using DFT-B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical data. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of isobutyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-cyano-6-(((dimethylamino)methylene)amino)-2-methyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylate (PDMF), evidences the conformation of pyran ring as "flattened-boat".

  19. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Afrizal,, E-mail: rizalunj04@yahoo.com; Nurdelima,; Umeir

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-Cmore » double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.« less

  20. Positional isomerization of trans-3-hexadecenoic acid employing 2-amino-2-methyl-propanol as a derivatizing agent for ethylenic bond location by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamberto, M; Ackman, R G

    1995-09-20

    The effect of derivatization with 2-amino-2-methyl-propanol on trans-3-hexadecenoic acid was investigated as part of the identification of the trans-3-hexadecenoic acid in two Nova Scotian seaweeds. After the extraction of the total fatty acids and their methylation, the monoenoic trans fraction was isolated by thin-layer chromatography on silica gels impregnated with silver nitrate. This fraction was first analyzed by gas chromatography and showed the presence of the trans-3-hexadecenoic acid; other fatty acids were not present. The isolated fraction was derivatized with 2-amino-2-methyl-propanol prior to analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatogram obtained showed the presence of a positional isomer formed during the derivatization of the trans-3-hexadecenoic acid. The mass spectrum showed a prominent [M+H] and diagnostic ions for the identification of the unknown isomer, corresponding to the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivative of a presumed 2-hexadecenoic acid. Definitive confirmation of the ethylenic bond position was obtained by oxidative ozonolysis of the DMOX derivatives of the fatty acids under investigation. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the artifact formed during the DMOX derivatization of trans-3-hexadecenoic acid was the DMOX derivative of cis-2-hexadecenoic acid.

  1. Improved Potency of Indole-Based NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitors: From Serendipity toward Rational Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Federica; Lepri, Susan; Goracci, Laura; Schindler, Bryan D; Seo, Susan M; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2017-01-12

    The NorA efflux pump is a potential drug target for reversal of resistance to selected antibacterial agents, and recently we described indole-based inhibitor candidates. Herein we report a second class of inhibitors derived from them but with significant differences in shape and size. In particular, compounds 13 and 14 are very potent inhibitors in that they demonstrated the lowest IC 50 values (2 μM) ever observed among all indole-based compounds we have evaluated.

  2. Mutations of Toluene-4-Monooxygenase That Alter Regiospecificity of Indole Oxidation and Lead to Production of Novel Indigoid Pigments

    PubMed Central

    McClay, Kevin; Boss, Corinne; Keresztes, Ivan; Steffan, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Broad-substrate-range monooygenase enzymes, including toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO), can catalyze the oxidation of indole. The indole oxidation products can then condense to form the industrially important dye indigo. Site-directed mutagenesis of T4MO resulted in the creation of T4MO isoforms with altered pigment production phenotypes. High-pressure liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the indole oxidation products generated by the mutant T4MO isoforms revealed that the phenotypic differences were primarily due to changes in the regiospecificity of indole oxidation. Most of the mutations described in this study changed the ratio of the primary indole oxidation products formed (indoxyl, 2-oxindole, and isatin), but some mutations, particularly those involving amino acid G103 of tmoA, allowed for the formation of additional products, including 7-hydroxyindole and novel indigoid pigments. For example, mutant G103L converted 17% of added indole to 7-hydroxyindole and 29% to indigoid pigments including indigo and indirubin and two other structurally related pigments. The double mutant G103L:A107G converted 47% of indole to 7-hydroxyindole, but no detectable indigoid pigments were formed, similar to the product distribution observed with the toluene-2-monooxygenase (T2MO) of Burkholderia cepacia G4. These results demonstrate that modification of the tmoA active site can change the products produced by the enzyme and lead to the production of novel pigments and other indole oxidation products with potential commercial and medicinal utility. PMID:16151140

  3. Indole-3-Carbonitriles as DYRK1A Inhibitors by Fragment-Based Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Meine, Rosanna; Becker, Walter; Falke, Hannes; Preu, Lutz; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Kunick, Conrad

    2018-01-24

    Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a potential drug target because of its role in the development of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. The selective DYRK1A inhibitor 10-iodo-11 H -indolo[3,2- c ]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid (KuFal194), a large, flat and lipophilic molecule, suffers from poor water solubility, limiting its use as chemical probe in cellular assays and animal models. Based on the structure of KuFal194, 7-chloro-1 H -indole-3-carbonitrile was selected as fragment template for the development of smaller and less lipophilic DYRK1A inhibitors. By modification of this fragment, a series of indole-3-carbonitriles was designed and evaluated as potential DYRK1A ligands by molecular docking studies. Synthesis and in vitro assays on DYRK1A and related protein kinases identified novel double-digit nanomolar inhibitors with submicromolar activity in cell culture assays.

  4. Strategies for the capillary electrophoretic separation of indole alkaloids in Psilocybe semilanceata.

    PubMed

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S; Rasmussen, K E; Sannes, E

    1998-01-01

    While the hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata have previously been analyzed for the indole alkaloids psilocybin and baeocystin by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 11.5, the present work focused on the development of an alternative and complementary capillary electrophoretic method for their identification. Owing to their structural similarity and zwitterionic nature, the compounds were difficult to resolve based on different interactions with cationic or anionic micelles. However, while the attempts with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) were unsuccessful, rapid derivatization with propyl chloroformate and reanalysis by CZE at pH 11.5 was effective to support identification of the two indole alkaloids. Psilocin was difficult to analyze by CZE at pH 11.5 owing to comigration with the electroosmotic flow. For this compound, the pH of the running buffer was reduced to 7.2 to effectively enhance the electrophoretic mobility.

  5. Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, J.A.

    Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with themore » hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates.« less

  6. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    PubMed

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Indole synthesis by palladium-catalyzed tandem allylic isomerization - furan Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Wipf, Peter

    2017-08-30

    A Pd(0)-catalyzed elimination of an allylic acetate generates a π-allyl complex that is postulated to initiate a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition to a tethered furan (IMDAF). Under the reaction conditions, this convergent, microwave-accelerated cascade process provides substituted indoles in moderate to good yields after Pd-hydride elimination, aromatization by dehydration, and in situ N-Boc cleavage.

  8. Elaboration of 2-(trifluoromethyl)indoles via a cascade coupling/condensation/deacylation process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yuji; Sun, Zheming; Ma, Dawei

    2008-02-21

    CuI/l-proline-catalyzed coupling of 2-halotrifluoroacetanilides with beta-keto esters in anhydrous DMSO under the action of Cs2CO3 at 40-80 degrees C produces polysubstituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)indoles in good to excellent yields. This reaction is suggested to occur via a novel coupling/condensation/deacylation mechanism, and many functional groups are tolerated under these conditions.

  9. Hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid from Erythrina velutina, induced sleep on normal mice.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Masaaki; Honda, Kazuki; Nakai, Izumi; Kishida, Akio; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2008-07-15

    An indole alkaloid (hypaphorine (1)) was isolated from Brazilian medicinal plant, Erythrina velutina (Leguminosae). This compound was investigated for sleep promoting effects in mice, and the results showed that it significantly increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time during the first hour after its administration. The NREM sleep time was enhanced by 33% in the experimental mice when compared to that of the controls. This study therefore confirmed its sleep promoting property.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Indole, Pyrrole, and Furan Arylation by Aryl Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Nadres, Enrico T.; Lazareva, Anna; Daugulis, Olafs

    2011-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of indoles, pyrroles, and furans by aryl chlorides has been demonstrated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, 2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)-biphenyl ligand, and an inorganic base. Electron-rich and electron-poor aryl chlorides as well as chloropyridine coupling partners can be used and arylated heterocycles are obtained in moderate to good yields. Optimization of base, ligand, and solvent is required for achieving best results. PMID:21192652

  11. Antihypoxants, thiasolo[5,4-b]indole derivatives, increase exercise performance in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Marysheva, V V; Shabanov, P D

    2009-01-01

    The actoptrotective activity of 12 new antihypoxants of the thiasolo[5,4-b]indole series was studied on the model of treadmill running until exhaustion 1 and 24 h after intraperitoneal injection. Highly active compounds more effective than the reference drugs bemithyl and phenamine were found. They increased exercise performance 1 or 24 h after injection or maintained high performance throughout 24 h.

  12. Divergent Reactivity of Rhodium(I) Carbenes Derived from Indole Annulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxun; Li, Hui; Song, Wangze; Tseng, Po-Sen; Liu, Lingyan; Guzei, Ilia A; Tang, Weiping

    2015-10-26

    Rhodium(I) carbenes were generated from propargylic alcohol derivatives as the result of a dehydrative indole annulation. Depending on the choice of the electron-withdrawing group on the aniline nitrogen nucleophile, either a cyclopropanation product or dimerization product was obtained chemoselectively. Intramolecular hydroamidation occurred for the same type of propargylic alcohol derivatives when other transition-metal catalysts were employed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. New indole, aminoindole and pyranoindole derivatives with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Nakkady, S S; Fathy, M M; Hishmat, O H; Mahmond, S S; Ebeid, M Y

    2000-01-01

    6-Methoxy-1-methyl-2,3-diphenyl indol-5-carboxaldehyde (2) was demethylated to give the 6-hydroxy derivative (3) which was cyclized to the pyrano[3,2-f]indole derivatives (4a-d) by the action of ethyl acetoacetate, diethyl malonate, malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate. When 4c was boiled in acetic acid, it gave 4d. Reduction of 4c by sodium borohydride yielded the orthoaminonitrile (5). Friedel Craft's acetylation of 1b yielded the 5-acetyl derivative (6), which reacted with hydrazine hydrate, o-toluidine and o-aminophenol to afford (7a-c). Demethylation of (1b) yielded the hydroxyl derivative (8), which differs from compound (9) obtained by demethylation of 6-methoxy-2,3-diphenyl-indole (1a). Friedel Craft's acetylation of 9 gave the 7-acetyl compound (10) which yielded the hydrazone (11). The reaction of primary aromatic amines, (i.e. p-nitroaniline, p-anisidine and p-bromo aniline) with 6-methoxy-1-methyl-2,3-diphenyl-indol-5-carboxaldehyde (2) gave the Schiff bases (12a-c). The latter compounds were reduced by sodium borohydride to yield the corresponding Mannich bases (13a-c). Treatment of 12a-c with thioglycolic acid led to the thiazolidin-4-one-derivatives (14a-c). When (12a-c) reacted with cyanoacetamide, the amino group was replaced by the active methylene to form the cyano compound (15). The structure was confirmed by reacting the carboxaldehyde (2) with cyanoacetamide to yield (15). Pharmacological screening was has been carried out to test the anti-inflammatory activity, ulcerogenecity, effect on the isolated rabbit intestine and the antispasmodic activity.

  14. Exceptionally strong hydrogels through self-assembly of an indole-capped dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam D; Robinson, Andrew B; Mason, Alexander F; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P; Thordarson, Pall

    2014-12-21

    The synthesis of a new hydrogelator with an indole capping group, 1, is reported. 1 forms exceptionally strong hydrogels in a variety of environments, with values for the storage modulus G' amongst the highest reported for supramolecular hydrogels. These gels exhibit strong bundling characteristics, which gives the high values for G' observed. Cell viability studies show that at low concentrations, 1 is biocompatible, however upon self-assembly at higher concentrations, cytotoxic effects are observed.

  15. Gold-Containing Indoles as Anti-Cancer Agents that Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Sandra; Gao, Lei; Lee, Irene; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the design and application of several distinct gold-containing indoles as anti-cancer agents. When used individually, all gold-bearing compounds display cytostatic effects against leukemia and adherent cancer cell lines. However, two gold-bearing indoles show unique behavior by increasing the cytotoxic effects of clinically relevant levels of ionizing radiation. Quantifying the amount of DNA damage demonstrates that each gold-indole enhances apoptosis by inhibiting DNA repair. Both Au(I)-indoles were tested for inhibitory effects against various cellular targets including thioredoxin reductase, a known target of several gold compounds, and various ATP-dependent kinases. While neither compound significantly inhibits the activity of thioreoxin reductase, both showed inhibitory effects against several kinases associated with cancer initiation and progression. The inhibition of these kinases provides a possible mechanism for the ability of these Au(I)-indoles potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Clinical applications of combining Au(I)-indoles with ionizing radiation are discussed as a new strategy to achieve chemosensitization of cancer cells. PMID:22289037

  16. Indole-diterpenoid profiles of Claviceps paspali and Claviceps purpurea from high-resolution Fourier transform Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Vrålstad, Trude; Miles, Christopher O

    2014-07-30

    The biological activities most commonly associated with indole-diterpenoids are tremorgenicity in mammals and toxicity in insects through modulation of ion channels. The neurotoxic effects of some analogues are the cause of syndromes such as 'ryegrass staggers' and 'Paspalum staggers' in cattle and sheep. Our purpose was to obtain and interpret mass spectra of some pure Claviceps-related indole-diterpenoids (paspaline, paspalinine, paxilline, paspalitrems A and B) to facilitate identification of related compounds for which standards were not available. C. paspali-infected Paspalum dilatatum as well as C. purpurea sclerotia obtained from infected Phalaris arundinacea were extracted and the extracts separated via liquid chromatography. Low- and high-resolution mass spectra were then obtained of known and potentially unknown indole-diterpenoids. At least 20 different indole-diterpenoids were detected in the C. paspali extract with molecular masses ranging from 405 Da (C28H40NO) to 517 Da (C32H40NO5). The C. purpurea sclerotia were shown to contain several indole-diterpenoids with molecular masses ranging from 405 Da (C28H40NO) to 419 Da (C28H38NO2). This study demonstrates for the first time that C. purpurea may also produce indole-diterpenoids. This might explain why grazing of Phalaris spp. is occasionally connected with a tremorgenic syndrome in cattle, called 'phalaris staggers'. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Indolic uremic solutes enhance procoagulant activity of red blood cells through phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-10-28

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process.

  18. Enzymic Synthesis of Indole-3-Acetyl-1-O-β-d-Glucose 1

    PubMed Central

    Leznicki, Antoni J.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-β-d-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as ρ-coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed. PMID:11537439

  19. Enhancement of broccoli indole glucosinolates by methyl jasmonate treatment and effects on prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann G; Juvik, John A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2014-11-01

    Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 μM MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P < .05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n = 99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ∼ 15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.

  20. Enzymic Synthesis of Indole-3-Acetyl-1-O-β-d-Glucose 1

    PubMed Central

    Leznicki, Antoni J.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-β-d-glucose from uridine-5′-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss. Images Fig. 4 PMID:11537438

  1. Photoinduced transformations of indole and 3-formylindole monomers isolated in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Nowak, Maciej J.

    2017-11-01

    Photochemical transformations were studied for monomers of indole and 3-formylindole isolated in low-temperature noble-gas matrices. Upon UV (λ > 270 nm) irradiation of indole trapped in argon and neon matrices, the initial 1H-form of the compound converted into the 3H-tautomer. Alongside this photoinduced hydrogen-atom transfer, an indolyl radical was also generated by photodetachment of the hydrogen atom from the N1-H bond. Excitation of 3-formylindole isolated in an argon matrix with UV (λ > 335 nm) light led to interconversion between the two conformers of the 1H-tautomer, differing from each other in the orientation of the formyl group (cis or trans). Parallel to this conformational phototransformation, the 3H-form of the compound was generated in the 1H → 3H phototautomeric conversion. The photoproducts emerging upon UV irradiation of indole and 3-formylindole were identified by comparison of their infrared spectra with the spectra calculated for candidate structures.

  2. Indole-based novel small molecules for the modulation of bacterial signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nripendra Nath; Kutty, Samuel K; Barraud, Nicolas; Iskander, George M; Griffith, Renate; Rice, Scott A; Willcox, Mark; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-01-21

    Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa use N-acylated L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers (AIs) for quorum sensing (QS), a major regulatory and cell-to-cell communication system for social adaptation, virulence factor production, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Some bacteria use indole moieties for intercellular signaling and as regulators of various bacterial phenotypes important for evading the innate host immune response and antimicrobial resistance. A range of natural and synthetic indole derivatives have been found to act as inhibitors of QS-dependent bacterial phenotypes, complementing the bactericidal ability of traditional antibiotics. In this work, various indole-based AHL mimics were designed and synthesized via the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) mediated coupling reactions of a variety of substituted or unsubstituted aminoindoles with different alkanoic acids. All synthesized compounds were tested for QS inhibition using a P. aeruginosa QS reporter strain by measuring the amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) production. Docking studies were performed to examine their potential to bind and therefore inhibit the target QS receptor protein. The most potent compounds 11a, 11d and 16a showed 44 to 65% inhibition of QS activity at 250 μM concentration, and represent promising drug leads for the further development of anti-QS antimicrobial compounds.

  3. Distribution and Variation of Indole Glucosinolates in Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Malcolm C.; Stowe, Bruce B.

    1971-01-01

    The exceptionally high levels in woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) of three indolic goitrogens, namely glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate, permit the facile study of their distribution in the plant and their changes during its development. Woad seeds contain as much as 0.23% fresh weight of glucobrassicin but no other indole glucosinolate, while 1-week-old seedlings also contain substantial amounts of neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate in their shoots whether grown in the light or dark. The sulfonate is not found in roots, and light depresses neoglucobrassicin levels in shoots. Sterile root cultures synthesize glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin, and significant quantities of these were even found to be excreted by the roots of intact sterile seedlings in culture. This may explain the long known deleterious effect of woad and other cruciferous crops on subsequent plantings and the observation could be of ecological importance. Long term changes in levels of all three substances in the plant are similar and are compatible with earlier suggestions that the compounds could be auxin precursors at the time of flower stem elongation. Since sterile seedlings readily incorporate 35SO42− into indole glucosinolates and relative specific radioactivities suggest that glucobrassicin is the precursor of the other two compounds, pathways of goitrogen biosynthesis should be relatively easily determined in this material. PMID:16657825

  4. Distribution and Variation of Indole Glucosinolates in Woad (Isatis tinctoria L.).

    PubMed

    Elliott, M C; Stowe, B B

    1971-10-01

    The exceptionally high levels in woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) of three indolic goitrogens, namely glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate, permit the facile study of their distribution in the plant and their changes during its development. Woad seeds contain as much as 0.23% fresh weight of glucobrassicin but no other indole glucosinolate, while 1-week-old seedlings also contain substantial amounts of neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin-1-sulfonate in their shoots whether grown in the light or dark. The sulfonate is not found in roots, and light depresses neoglucobrassicin levels in shoots. Sterile root cultures synthesize glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin, and significant quantities of these were even found to be excreted by the roots of intact sterile seedlings in culture. This may explain the long known deleterious effect of woad and other cruciferous crops on subsequent plantings and the observation could be of ecological importance. Long term changes in levels of all three substances in the plant are similar and are compatible with earlier suggestions that the compounds could be auxin precursors at the time of flower stem elongation. Since sterile seedlings readily incorporate (35)SO(4) (2-) into indole glucosinolates and relative specific radioactivities suggest that glucobrassicin is the precursor of the other two compounds, pathways of goitrogen biosynthesis should be relatively easily determined in this material.

  5. A photoelectron imaging and quantum chemistry study of the deprotonated indole anion.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Michael A; Crellin, Jonathan; Henley, Alice; Fielding, Helen H

    2018-05-29

    Indole is an important molecular motif in many biological molecules and exists in its deprotonated anionic form in the cyan fluorescent protein, an analogue of green fluorescent protein. However, the electronic structure of the deprotonated indole anion has been relatively unexplored. Here, we use a combination of anion photoelectron velocity-map imaging measurements and quantum chemistry calculations to probe the electronic structure of the deprotonated indole anion. We report vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of 2.45 ± 0.05 eV and 3.20 ± 0.05 eV, respectively. The value for D0 is in agreement with recent high-resolution measurements whereas the value for D1 is a new measurement. We find that the first electronically excited singlet state of the anion, S1(ππ*), lies above the VDE and has shape resonance character with respect to the D0 detachment continuum and Feshbach resonance character with respect to the D1 continuum.

  6. PI3Kδ Inhibition by Idelalisib in Patients with Relapsed Indolent Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ajay K.; Kahl, Brad S.; de Vos, Sven; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Schuster, Stephen J.; Jurczak, Wojciech J.; Flinn, Ian W.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Martin, Peter; Viardot, Andreas; Blum, Kristie A.; Goy, Andre H.; Davies, Andrew J.; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Dreyling, Martin; Johnson, Dave; Miller, Langdon L.; Holes, Leanne; Li, Daniel; Dansey, Roger D.; Godfrey, Wayne R.; Salles, Gilles A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) mediates B-cell receptor signaling and microenvironmental support signals that promote the growth and survival of malignant B lymphocytes. In a phase 1 study, idelalisib, an orally active selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, showed antitumor activity in patients with previously treated indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods In this single-group, open-label, phase 2 study, 125 patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas who had not had a response to rituximab and an alkylating agent or had had a relapse within 6 months after receipt of those therapies were administered idelalisib, 150 mg twice daily, until the disease progressed or the patient withdrew from the study. The primary end point was the overall rate of response; secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. Results The median age of the patients was 64 years (range, 33 to 87); patients had received a median of four prior therapies (range, 2 to 12). Subtypes of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma included follicular lymphoma (72 patients), small lymphocytic lymphoma (28), marginal-zone lymphoma (15), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with or without Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (10). The response rate was 57% (71 of 125 patients), with 6% meeting the criteria for a complete response. The median time to a response was 1.9 months, the median duration of response was 12.5 months, and the median progression-free survival was 11 months. Similar response rates were observed across all subtypes of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, though the numbers were small for some categories. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (in 27% of the patients), elevations in aminotransferase levels (in 13%), diarrhea (in 13%), and pneumonia (in 7%). Conclusions In this single-group study, idelalisib showed antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile in patients with indolent non

  7. Measuring urinary N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (IPMA3) as a potential biomarker of isoprene exposure.

    PubMed

    Alwis, K Udeni; Bailey, T Liz; Patel, Dhrusti; Wang, Liqun; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-10-19

    Isoprene, the 2-methyl analog of 1,3-butadiene, is identified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Isoprene is ubiquitous in the environment with numerous natural and anthropogenic sources. Tobacco smoke is the main exogenous source of isoprene exposure in indoor environments. Among smoke constituents, isoprene is thought to contribute significantly to cancer risk; however, no selective urinary biomarkers of isoprene exposure have been identified for humans. In this manuscript, we measured the minor isoprene metabolite IPMA1 (mixture of N-acetyl-S-(1-[hydroxymethyl]-2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine), and we identified IPMA3 (N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine) as a major isoprene metabolite and novel isoprene exposure biomarker for humans. Urinary isoprene metabolites were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quad tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MSMS). The detection rates of IPMA1 and IPMA3 are <20% and 82%, respectively. The selectivity and abundance of IPMA3 make it a useful urinary biomarker of isoprene exposure. The limit of detection of IPMA3 in urine was 0.5 ng mL -1 . IPMA3 was stable under different storage temperatures and following ten freeze-thaw cycles. The average recovery of urine spiked with IPMA3 at three different levels was 99%. IPMA3 was measured in urine samples received from 75 anonymous subjects; the median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) IPMA3 level in smokers was 36.2 (18.2, 56.8) ng mL -1 and non-smokers 2.31 (2.31, 4.38) ng mL -1 . Application of this method to large population studies will help to characterize isoprene exposure and assess potential health impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. GC-MS and GC-IR Analyses of the Methoxy-1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indoles: Regioisomeric Designer Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Thaxton-Weissenfluh, Amber; Belal, Tarek S; DeRuiter, Jack; Smith, Forrest; Abiedalla, Younis; Neel, Logan; Abdel-Hay, Karim M; Clark, C Randall

    2018-06-16

    The indole ring regioisomeric methoxy-1-n-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indoles represent indole ring-substituted analogs of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018. The electron ionization mass spectra show equivalent regioisomeric major fragments resulting from cleavage of the groups attached to the central indole nucleus. The characteristic (M-17)+ fragment ion at m/z 354 resulting from the loss of OH group is significant in the mass spectra of all four compounds. Fragmentation of the naphthoyl and/or pentyl groups yields the cations at m/z 314, 300, 244 and 216. The vapor-phase infrared spectra provide a number of characteristic absorption bands to identify the individual isomers. Gas chromatographic separations on a capillary column containing a film of trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane (Rtx-200) provided excellent resolution of these compounds, their precursor indoles and intermediate pentylindoles. The elution order appears related to the degree of crowding of indole ring substituents.

  9. Preparation of Benzo[c]carbazol-6-amines via Manganese-Catalyzed Enaminylation of 1-(Pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with Ketenimines and Subsequent Oxidative Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Li, Zhenmin; Zhang, Zhiyin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2018-03-02

    Manganese-catalyzed C 2 -H enaminylation of 1-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indoles with ketenimines is reported. The reaction provided 2-enaminylated indole derivatives in moderate to excellent yields with a broad substrate scope. A migration of the directing group pyrimidinyl occurred during this process. The synthesized 2-enaminyl indoles could be conveniently converted into 5-aryl-7H-benzo[c]carbazol-6-amines.

  10. EPR study of gamma-irradiated N-methyl-L-alanine, DL-2-methyl glutamic acid hemihydrate and Di-leucine hydrochloride in solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sütçü, Kerem; Osmanoğlu, Y. Emre

    2017-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate ɣ-irradiated powders of N-methyl-L-alanine (NMLA), DL-2-methyl glutamic acid hemihydrate (DL2MGAH), and Di-leucine hydrochloride (DLHCl) at room temperature by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. After the γ-irradiation the samples indicated the existence of the CH3ĊNHCH3COOH, HOOCCH3NH2CĊHCH2COOH·1/2H2O and (CH3)2ĊCH2CH NHCOOHCOCH (NH2HCl) CH2CH (CH3)2 radicals, respectively. The spectral parameters of the radicals were determined. The results were compared with the earlier studies and discussed accordingly.

  11. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and 3D QSAR study of 2-methyl-4-oxo-3-oxetanylcarbamic acid esters as N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ponzano, Stefano; Berteotti, Anna; Petracca, Rita; Vitale, Romina; Mengatto, Luisa; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cavalli, Andrea; Piomelli, Daniele; Bertozzi, Fabio; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-12-11

    N-(2-Oxo-3-oxetanyl)carbamic acid esters have recently been reported to be noncompetitive inhibitors of the N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) potentially useful for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, we further explored the structure-activity relationships of the carbamic acid ester side chain of 2-methyl-4-oxo-3-oxetanylcarbamic acid ester derivatives. Additional favorable features in the design of potent NAAA inhibitors have been found together with the identification of a single digit nanomolar inhibitor. In addition, we devised a 3D QSAR using the atomic property field method. The model turned out to be able to account for the structural variability and was prospectively validated by designing, synthesizing, and testing novel inhibitors. The fairly good agreement between predictions and experimental potency values points to this 3D QSAR model as the first example of quantitative structure-activity relationships in the field of NAAA inhibitors.

  12. Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol emitted from needles of Pinus ponderosa via the non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP pathway of isoprenoid formation.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, J; Lichtenthaler, H K

    2001-06-01

    The volatile hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is emitted from the needles of several pine species from the Western United States and contributes to ozone formation in the atmosphere. It is synthesised enzymatically from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). We show here that needles of Pinus ponderosa Laws. incorporated [1-2H1]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose (d-DOX) into the emitted MBO, but not D,L-[2-13C]mevalonic acid lactone. Furthermore, MBO emission was inhibited by fosmidomycin, a specific inhibitor of the second enzyme of the mevalonate-independent pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate and DMAPP formation, i.e. the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway. We thus prove that MBO emitted from needles of P. ponderosa is primarily formed via the DOXP/MEP pathway.

  13. Optical resolution by preferential crystallization of (RS)-2-benzoylamino-2-benzyl-3-hydroxypropanoic acid and its use in synthesizing optically active 2-amino-2-methyl-3-phenylpropanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Tadashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakai, Yoshio; Nagasawa, Hisashi; Takatani, Kazuhiro; Noshi, Daisuke; Yamanashi, Kenji

    2002-10-01

    To synthesize optically active 2-amino-2-methyl-3-phenylpropanoic acid (1), (RS)-2-benzoylamino-2-benzyl-3-hydroxypropanoic acid [(RS)-2] was first optically resolved using cinchonidine as a resolving agent to yield optically pure (S)- and (R)-2 in yields of about 70%, based on half of the starting amount of (RS)-2. Next, the racemic structure of (RS)-2 was examined based on melting point, solubility, IR spectrum, and binary and ternary phase diagrams, with the aim of optical resolution by preferential crystallization of (RS)-2. Results indicated that the (RS)-2 exists as a conglomerate at room temperature, although it forms a racemic compound at the melting point. The optical resolution by preferential crystallization yielded (S)- and (R)-2 with optical purities of about 90%, which were fully purified by recrystallization. After O-tosylation of (S)- and (R)-2, reduction by zinc powder and sodium iodide gave (R)- and (S)-1, respectively.

  14. Increased targeting of adenine-rich sequences by (2-amino-2-methyl-3-butanone oxime)dichloroplatinum(II) and investigations into its low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hambley, T W; Ling, E C; O'Mara, S; McKeage, M J; Russell, P J

    2000-12-01

    Using assays based on the inhibition of restriction enzyme cleavage of plasmid and synthetic DNA, the complex (2-amino-2-methyl-3-butanone oxime)dichloroplatinum(II), [PtCl2(ambo)], has been shown to have an increased tendency for binding to adenine-rich sequences when compared to cis[PtCl2(NH3)2] (cisplatin). [PtCl2(ambo)] was found to form substantially fewer interstrand adducts than does cisplatin. The in vitro cytotoxicity of [PtCl2(ambo)] against a human bladder cancer cell line was determined and found to be more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of cisplatin, yet it was also found to be equally effective at passing into cells and binding to isolated DNA.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Esters of Indole-3-Acetic Acid from the Liquid Endosperm of the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus species) 1

    PubMed Central

    Domagalski, Wojciech; Schulze, Aga; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A.pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose. PMID:11539676

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-Amino-1,1-diarylalkanes Bearing a Carbocyclic Ring Substituted Indole through Asymmetric Catalytic Reaction of Hydroxyindoles with Nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Vila, Carlos; Rostoll-Berenguer, Jaume; Sánchez-García, Rubén; Blay, Gonzalo; Fernández, Isabel; Muñoz, M Carmen; Pedro, José R

    2018-06-07

    An asymmetric catalytic reaction of hydroxyindoles with nitroalkenes leading to the Friedel-Crafts alkylation in the carbocyclic ring of indole is presented. The method is based on the activating/directing effects of the hydroxy group situated in the carbocyclic ring of the indole providing nitroalkylated indoles functionalizated at the C-4, C-5, and C-7 positions with high yield, regio-, and enantioselectivity. The optically enriched nitroalkanes were transformed efficiently in optically enriched 2-amino-1,1-diarylalkanes bearing a carbocyclic ring substituted indole.

  17. Total Synthesis of (±)-Cis-Trikentrin B via Intermolecular 6,7-Indole Aryne Cycloaddition and Stille Cross-Coupling.

    PubMed

    Chandrasoma, Nalin; Brown, Neil; Brassfield, Allen; Nerurkar, Alok; Suarez, Susana; Buszek, Keith R

    2013-02-20

    An efficient total synthesis of the annulated indole natural product (±)- cis -trikentrin B was accomplished by means of a regioselectively generated 6,7-indole aryne cycloaddition via selective metal-halogen exchange from a 5,6,7-tribromoindole. The unaffected C-5 bromine was subsequently used for a Stille cross-coupling to install the butenyl side chain and complete the synthesis. This strategy provides rapid access into the trikentrins and the related herbindoles, and represents another application of this methodology to natural products total synthesis. The required 5,6,7-indole aryne precursor was prepared using the Leimgruber-Batcho indole synthesis.

  18. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  19. The new psychoactive substances 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) and 6-(2-aminopropyl)indole (6-IT) interact with monoamine transporters in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Antonazzo, Kateland R; Blough, Bruce E; Brandt, Simon D; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, use of psychoactive synthetic stimulants has grown rapidly. 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) is a synthetic drug associated with a number of fatalities, that appears to be one of the newest 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) replacements. Here, the monoamine-releasing properties of 5-IT, its structural isomer 6-(2-aminopropyl)indole (6-IT), and MDMA were compared using in vitro release assays at transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET), and serotonin (SERT) in rat brain synaptosomes. In vivo pharmacology was assessed by locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) in mice. 5-IT and 6-IT were potent substrates at DAT, NET, and SERT. In contrast with the non-selective releasing properties of MDMA, 5-IT displayed greater potency for release at DAT over SERT, while 6-IT displayed greater potency for release at SERT over DAT. 5-IT produced locomotor stimulation and typical stimulant effects in the FOB similar to those produced by MDMA. Conversely, 6-IT increased behaviors associated with 5-HT toxicity. 5-IT likely has high abuse potential, which may be somewhat diminished by its slow onset of in vivo effects, whereas 6-IT may have low abuse liability, but enhanced risk for adverse effects. Results indicate that subtle differences in the chemical structure of transporter ligands can have profound effects on biological activity. The potent monoamine-releasing actions of 5-IT, coupled with its known inhibition of MAO A, could underlie its dangerous effects when administered alone, and in combination with other monoaminergic drugs or medications. Consequently, 5-IT and related compounds may pose substantial risk for abuse and serious adverse effects in human users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The new psychoactive substances 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) and 6-(2-aminopropyl)indole (6-IT) interact with monoamine transporters in brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marusich, Julie A.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Blough, Bruce E.; Brandt, Simon D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, use of psychoactive synthetic stimulants has grown rapidly. 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) is a synthetic drug associated with a number of fatalities, that appears to be one of the newest 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) replacements. Here, the monoamine-releasing properties of 5-IT, its structural isomer 6-(2-aminopropyl)indole (6-IT), and MDMA were compared using in vitro release assays at transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET), and serotonin (SERT) in rat brain synaptosomes. In vivo pharmacology was assessed by locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) in mice. 5-IT and 6-IT were potent substrates at DAT, NET, and SERT. In contrast with the non-selective releasing properties of MDMA, 5-IT displayed greater potency for release at DAT over SERT, while 6-IT displayed greater potency for release at SERT over DAT. 5-IT produced locomotor stimulation and typical stimulant effects in the FOB similar to those produced by MDMA. Conversely, 6-IT increased behaviors associated with 5-HT toxicity. 5-IT likely has high abuse potential, which may be somewhat diminished by its slow onset of in vivo effects, whereas 6-IT may have low abuse liability, but enhanced risk for adverse effects. Results indicate that subtle differences in the chemical structure of transporter ligands can have profound effects on biological activity. The potent monoamine-releasing actions of 5-IT, coupled with its known inhibition of MAO A, could underlie its dangerous effects when administered alone, and in combination with other monoaminergic drugs or medications. Consequently, 5-IT and related compounds may pose substantial risk for abuse and serious adverse effects in human users. PMID:26362361

  1. Effects of indole-3-carbinol on steroid hormone profile and tumor progression in a mice model of canine inflammatory mammarycancer.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ruiz, Asunción; Peña, Laura; González-Gil, Alfredo; Díez-Córdova, Lucía Teresa; Cáceres, Sara; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2018-06-04

    Indole-3-carbinol, derived from Cruciferous vegetables is an estrogen receptor antagonist considered a preventive agent that is naturally present in diet. There are no previous studies on its effects in human inflammatory breast cancer or canine inflammatory mammary cancer that is the most aggressive type of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of indole-3-carbinol on a SCID mice xenograft model of canine inflammatory mammary cancer, using equivalent human oral dose as a preventive therapy in humans for 3 weeks. Indole-3-carbinol treatment decreased tumor proliferation and increased apoptosis, although tumor embolization and liver metastasis were observed in some animals. There was a characteristic subpopulation of lipid-rich cells and increased contents of select steroid hormones in tumor homogenates and serum. Our data reveal for the first time that the ingestion of indole-3-carbinol, as administered, diminishes proliferation and increases apoptosis of tumor cells in an experimental model of inflammatory breast cancer, although this effect could not be enough to avoid the appearance of tumor embolization and metastasis. Future clinical trials will be needed to clarify the usefulness of indole-3-carbinol in this cancer and to understand the molecular mechanisms involved.

  2. [Auxin synthesis by the higher fungus Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing in the presence of low concentrations of indole compounds].

    PubMed

    Tsivileva, O M; Loshchinina, E A; Makarov, O E; Nikitina, V E

    2012-01-01

    The auxin formation in a submerged culture of the xylotrophic basidiomycete Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) (shiitake) is studied. Biologically active substances of an indole nature are identified, "the effect of small doses" of which lies in not only the stimulation of growth of the mycelium (indole-3-acetic acid, 2 x 10(-7)-2 x 10(-4) g/l), but also in the induction of tryptophan-independent paths of auxin biosynthesis. The above-mentioned path is realized in the presence of exogenous indole (1 x 10(-3)-1 x 10(-4) g/l), as well as while inducing the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by its microadditives (1 x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-8) g/l), and is accompanied by the formation of anthranilic acid (up to 1.5 mg/l). Induction of the generative development stage ofshiitake by indole derivatives is revealed. It was found that among the studied compounds only indoleacetamide at a concentration of an order of x 10(-4) g/l in the culture fluid of L. edodes had a pronounced stimulatory effect on the formation of shiitake's brown mycelial film.

  3. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  4. Metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid by orange (Citrus sinensis) flavedo tissue during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chamarro, J; Ostin, A; Sandberg, G

    2001-05-01

    [5-3H, 1'-14C, 13C6, 12C] Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), was applied to the flavedo (epicarp) of intact orange fruits at different stages of development. After incubation in the dark, at 25 degrees C, the tissue was extracted with MeOH and the partially purified extracts were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC-RC. Six major metabolite peaks were detected and subsequently analyzed by combined HPLC-frit-FAB MS. The metabolite peak 6 contained oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA), indole-3-acetyl-N-aspartic acid (IAAsp) and also indole-3-acetyl-N-glutamic acid (IAGlu). The nature of metabolite 5 remains unknown. Metabolites 3 and 4 were diastereomers of oxindole-3-acetyl-N-aspartic acid (OxIAAsp). Metabolite 2 was identified as dioxindole-3-acetic acid and metabolite 1 as a DiOx-IAA linked in position three to a hexose, which is suggested to be 3-(-O-beta-glucosyl) dioxindole-3-acetic acid (DiOxIAGlc). Identification work as well as feeding experiments with the [5-3H]IAA labeled metabolites suggest that IAA is metabolized in flavedo tissue mainly through two pathways, namely IAA-OxIAA-DiOxIAA-DiOxIAGlc and IAA-IAAsp-OxIAAsp. The flavedo of citrus fruit has a high capacity for IAA catabolism until the beginning of fruit senescence, with the major route having DiOxIAGlc as end product. This capacity is operative even at high IAA concentrations and is accelerated by pretreatment with the synthetic auxins 2,4-D, NAA and the gibberellin GA3.

  5. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)indole positional isomers in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kenneth R; Power, John D; McDermott, Seán D; O'Brien, John E; Talbot, Brian N; Barry, Michael G; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API, 5-IT) was reported by Norwegian authorities to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) via the Early Warning System (EWS). The 3- isomer, 3-(2-aminopropyl)indole (3-API, AMT, alpha-methyltryptamine), has been available on the recreational drugs market for a somewhat longer time, having first been reported to the EMCDDA by Finnish authorities in 2001. Both isomers are available from online vendors of 'legal highs'. Recently, three forensic drug cases (two tablets and one powder) were presented for routine analysis and the active constituent was tentatively identified as an API isomer. The six positional isomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-(2-aminopropyl)indoles) were synthesized and analyses by a combination gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that these could be readily discriminated thus facilitating the identification of 3-API in the tablets and 5-API in the powder. With exception of 5- and 6-APIs, which co-eluted, it was found possible to separate the isomers by GC without derivatization. LC separation also proved to be a feasible method for the discrimination of the isomers. Although the 2- and 7- isomers were not fully resolved by LC, it was found possible to distinguish them using their product ion spectra as the 2- isomer produced the m/z 132 fragment ion formed by loss of vinylamine, whereas the 7- isomer formed m/z 158 through loss of methylamine. In the synthesis 2-API, a novel tricyclic by-product was formed in an annulation reaction where the reaction solvent, tetrahydrofuran, was incorporated into the molecule. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Bis-indolic compounds as potential new therapeutic alternatives for tularaemia

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Yvan; Sutera, Vivien; Boisset, Sandrine; Denis, Jean-Noël; Maurin, Max

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of tularaemia and a CDC class A biological threat agent. Few antibiotic classes are currently useful in treating tularaemia, including the aminoglycosides gentamicin and streptomycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. However, treatment failures and relapses remain frequent and F. tularensis strains resistant to antibiotics have been easily selected in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the activity of new synthetic bis-indole derivatives against this pathogen. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four compounds (dcm01 to dcm04) were determined for the reference strains F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS NCTC10857, F. tularensis subsp. novicida CIP56.12 and F. philomiragia ATCC25015, and for 41 clinical strains of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolated in France. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined for the dcm02 and dcm04 compounds for the LVS and two clinical strains. Killing curves were also determined for the same three strains exposed to dcm04. All tested bis-indole compounds were bacteriostatic against F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains, with a MIC90 of 8 μg/mL for dcm01, dcm02, and dcm03, and 2 μg/mL for dcm04. Only one strain was resistant to both dcm01 and dcm03, with MICs > 32 μg/mL. In contrast, F. tularensis subsp. novicida was resistant to all derivatives and F. philomiragia was only susceptible to dcm02 and dcm04, with MICs of 16 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. MBC and killing curve experiments revealed significant bactericidal activity (i.e., 3-log reduction of the bacterial inoculum) of the dcm02 and dcm04 compounds only for the LVS strain. In conclusion, we have identified novel synthetic bis-indole compounds that are active against F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. They may be drug candidates for the development of new therapeutic alternatives for tularaemia treatment. Their further characterization is needed, especially identification of their bacterial targets

  7. Bis-indolic compounds as potential new therapeutic alternatives for tularaemia.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Yvan; Sutera, Vivien; Boisset, Sandrine; Denis, Jean-Noël; Maurin, Max

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of tularaemia and a CDC class A biological threat agent. Few antibiotic classes are currently useful in treating tularaemia, including the aminoglycosides gentamicin and streptomycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. However, treatment failures and relapses remain frequent and F. tularensis strains resistant to antibiotics have been easily selected in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the activity of new synthetic bis-indole derivatives against this pathogen. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four compounds (dcm01 to dcm04) were determined for the reference strains F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS NCTC10857, F. tularensis subsp. novicida CIP56.12 and F. philomiragia ATCC25015, and for 41 clinical strains of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolated in France. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined for the dcm02 and dcm04 compounds for the LVS and two clinical strains. Killing curves were also determined for the same three strains exposed to dcm04. All tested bis-indole compounds were bacteriostatic against F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains, with a MIC90 of 8 μg/mL for dcm01, dcm02, and dcm03, and 2 μg/mL for dcm04. Only one strain was resistant to both dcm01 and dcm03, with MICs > 32 μg/mL. In contrast, F. tularensis subsp. novicida was resistant to all derivatives and F. philomiragia was only susceptible to dcm02 and dcm04, with MICs of 16 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. MBC and killing curve experiments revealed significant bactericidal activity (i.e., 3-log reduction of the bacterial inoculum) of the dcm02 and dcm04 compounds only for the LVS strain. In conclusion, we have identified novel synthetic bis-indole compounds that are active against F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. They may be drug candidates for the development of new therapeutic alternatives for tularaemia treatment. Their further characterization is needed, especially identification of their bacterial targets.

  8. New Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia Reflexa and their Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Basiri, Alireza; Kia, Yalda; Karimian, Hamed; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2015-01-01

    Rauvolfia reflexa is a member of the Apocynaceae family. Plants from the Apocynaceae family have been traditionally used in the treatment of age-related brain disorders Methods and Results: Two new indole alkaloids, rauvolfine C (1) and 3-methyl-10,11-dimethoxy-6-methoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (2), along with five known, macusine B (3), vinorine (4), undulifoline (5), isoresrpiline (6) and rescinnamine (7) were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. Cholinesterase inhibitory assay and molecular docking were performed to get insight of the inhibitory activity and molecular interactions of the compounds. The compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 µM. Compound 7 was found to be the most potent inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 were found to be selective towards BChE, while compounds 3, 4 and 7 were dual inhibitors, having almost equal inhibitory activity on both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking revealed that compounds 6 and 7 interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. In AChE, the indole moiety of both compounds interacted with the residues lining the peripheral anionic site, whereas in BChE, their methoxy groups are primarily responsible for the strong inhibitory activity via interactions with residues at the active site of the enzyme. Two new and five known indole alkaloids were isolated from R. reflexa. Among the compounds, 7 and 6 showed the most potent and promising cholinesterase inhibitory activity, worthy for further investigations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Interaction of indole-papaverine with DNA in solutions of various ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkina, V. I.; Moroshkina, E. B.; Osinnikova, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    Interaction of synthetic alkaloid of isoquinoline series, which is an analogue of the biologically active compound papaverine, was studied by spectral, microcalorimetric, optical and hydrodynamic methods at different ionic strengths of medium. It was found that the investigated compound may interact with DNA in various ways depending on the ratio of ligand - DNA concentrations and ionic strength of solution (μ). When μ = 0.001, indole-papaverine intercalates into the double helix of DNA. The increase of μ resulted in a decrease of the affinity of the compound to DNA and a change its binding method.

  10. Novel methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates containing an indole moiety as angiokinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingze; Tian, Ye; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yu, Simiao; Xia, Juanjuan; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Haotian; Zhao, Yanfang

    2017-10-20

    A novel series of methyl indolinone-6-carboxylates bearing an indole moiety were identified as potent angiokinase inhibitors. The most active compound, A8, potently targeted the kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 and 3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors α and β, with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range. In addition, A8 effectively suppressed the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and HT-29 and MCF-7 cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis. Compound A8 is thus a promising candidate for further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Structure determination of two new indole-diterpenoids from Penicillium sp. CM-7 by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hong; Huang, Sheng-Dong; Pan, Hua-Qi; Bian, Xi-Qing; Wang, Zai-Ying; Han, Ai-Hong; Bai, Jiao

    2014-06-01

    Two new indole-diterpenoids 4b-deoxy-1'-O-acetylpaxilline (1) and 4b-deoxypenijanthine A (2) were isolated from the fermentation broth and the mycelia of the soil fungus Penicillium sp. CM-7, along with three known structurally related compounds, 1'-O-acetylpaxilline (3), paspaline (4) and 3-deoxo-4b-deoxypaxilline (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were suggested on the basis of the circular dichroism spectral analysis and the NOESY data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Kounis Syndrome During Anesthesia: Presentation of Indolent Systemic Mastocytosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Tornero, Elena; Vega Castro, Arantza; de Sierra Hernández, Pedro Álvarez; Balaguer Recena, Javier; Zaragoza Casares, Sofía Carmen; Serrano Baylin, Francisco Miguel; Gallardo Culebradas, Paloma; Amorós Alfonso, Beatriz; Rodríguez Fraile, Jose Ramón

    2017-05-01

    Mastocytosis comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by mast cell accumulation and proliferation in distinct organs. Kounis syndrome is defined as the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with mast cell activation in a setting of allergic or hypersensitivity reactions. This is the first reported case of an intraoperative Kounis syndrome as the onset of an indolent systemic mastocytosis probably triggered by succinylated gelatin infusion during general anesthesia. The presentation of this case is intended to contribute to the knowledge of mastocytosis and Kounis syndrome at the time of diagnostic workup during intraoperative anaphylaxis or myocardial ischemia.

  13. Fischer Indole Synthesis in the Gas Phase, the Solution Phase, and at the Electrospray Droplet Interface.

    PubMed

    Bain, Ryan M; Ayrton, Stephen T; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-07-01

    Previous reports have shown that reactions occurring in the microdroplets formed during electrospray ionization can, under the right conditions, exhibit significantly greater rates than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reactions. The observed acceleration under electrospray ionization could result from a solution-phase, a gas-phase, or an interfacial reaction. This study shows that a gas-phase ion/molecule (or ion/ion) reaction is not responsible for the observed rate enhancement in the particular case of the Fischer indole synthesis. The results show that the accelerated reaction proceeds in the microdroplets, and evidence is provided that an interfacial process is involved. Graphical Abstract .

  14. A New Benzofuran Glycoside and Indole Alkaloids from a Sponge-Associated Rare Actinomycete, Amycolatopsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Shin, Yoonho; Bae, Munhyung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Three new secondary metabolites, amycofuran (1), amycocyclopiazonic acid (2), and amycolactam (3), were isolated from the sponge-associated rare actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. Based on combined spectroscopic analyses, the structures of 1–3 were determined to be a new benzofuran glycoside and new indole alkaloids related to cyclopiazonic acids, a class that has previously only been reported in fungi. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were deduced by ECD calculations, whereas that of 2 was determined using the modified Mosher method. Amycolactam (3) displayed significant cytotoxicity against the gastric cancer cell line SNU638 and the colon cancer cell line HCT116. PMID:24759001

  15. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, R.; Armbrust, V.

    2016-02-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a major plant growth hormone and a common mediator of plant-bacterial interactions. Recently, IAA has also been found to play a role in interactions between diatoms and bacteria, with IAA production by an associated Sulfitobacter leading to increased growth rates in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. It is unclear, however, if diatoms themselves are able to synthesize IAA and whether this capability is widespread throughout Bacillariophyta. Four major tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways have been identified in plants and bacteria, each denoted by the first intermediate downstream of tryptophan: the indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA), tryptamine (TAM), indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) and indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathways. To investigate the possibility of IAA biosynthesis in diatoms, we first analyzed publicly available genomes of raphid pennates P. multiseries, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Fragilariopsis cylindrus and centric Thalassiosira pseudonana for potential homologs to plant and bacterial IAA biosynthesis genes. The P. multiseries, F. cylindrus and P. tricornutum genomes encode downstream enzymes for bacterial TAM and IAM and plant IPyA pathways. The more evolutionarily ancient T. pseudonana encodes one TAM enzyme in its genome. To investigate the potential distribution of these pathways more broadly, we surveyed the transcriptomes of 11 diatom species that include representatives from all four Bacillariophyta classes. Datasets used were sequenced as part of the Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project (MMETSP) and obtained from cultures maintained axenically. Transcripts associated with the TAM pathway were most frequently detected, with potential homologs to required enzymes identified in 10 of the 11 species examined. Transcripts homologous to rate-limiting IPyA enzymes were detected in six species. Only two centric and araphid pennate species expressed transcripts associated with enzymes in the

  16. Synthesis of some N-substituted indole derivatives and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    el-Diwani, H; Nakkady, S S; Hishmat, O H; el-Shabrawy, O A; Mahmoud, S S

    1992-03-01

    Acylation of 2,3-diphenyl-5-methoxy-indole using ethyl chloroformate or chloroacetyl chloride in dimethylformamide and sodium hydride yielded the N-substituted derivatives 1 and 2, respectively. While Friedel-Crafts acylation using chloroacetyl chloride afforded di-4,6-chloroacetyl derivative 3, the reaction of the N-chloroacetyl derivative 2 with amines, hydrazines, urea, semicarbazide hydrochloride, thiophenol, benzimidazole-2-thiol, thiosemicarbazide, 2-mercaptoethanol and thioglycolic acid was studied. Several of the compounds were tested for their effect on arterial blood pressure, antiinflammatory and ulcerogenic activities.

  17. Novel 2-step synthetic indole compound 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane inhibits cancer cell growth in lung cancer cells and xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Yao, Ching-Fa; Huang, Sin-Ming; Ko, Shengkai; Tan, Yi-Hung; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2008-08-15

    The clinical responses to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients are unsatisfactory. Thus, the development of more effective anticancer drugs for lung cancer is urgently needed. A 2-step novel synthetic compound, referred to as 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane (3-indole), was generated in high purity and yield. 3-Indole was tested for its biologic activity in A549, H1299, H1435, CL1-1, and H1437 lung cancer cells. Animal studies were also performed. The data indicate that 3-indole induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cells. Increased cytochrome-c release from mitochondria to cytosol, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, and increased expression of proapoptotic Bax were observed. In addition, 3-indole stimulated caspases-3, -9, and to a lesser extent caspase-8 activities in cancer cells, suggesting that the intrinsic mitochondria pathway was the potential mechanism involved in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. 3-Indole-induced a concentration-dependent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and triggering of DNA damage were also apparent. Note that 3-indole-induced JNK activation and DNA damage can be partially suppressed by an ROS inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by 3-indole could be abrogated by ROS or JNK inhibitors, suggesting the importance of ROS and JNK stress-related pathways in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. Moreover, 3-indole showed in vivo antitumor activities against human xenografts in murine models. On the basis of its potent anticancer activity in cell and animal models, the data suggest that this 2-step synthetic 3-indole compound of high purity and yield is a potential candidate to be tested as a lead pharmaceutical compound for cancer treatment. 2008 American Cancer Society

  18. An experimental comparison of the Marcus-Hush and Butler-Volmer descriptions of electrode kinetics applied to cyclic voltammetry. The one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane studied at a mercury microhemisphere electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henstridge, Martin C.; Wang, Yijun; Limon-Petersen, Juan G.; Laborda, Eduardo; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-11-01

    We present a comparative experimental evaluation of the Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush models using cyclic voltammetry at a microelectrode. Numerical simulations are used to fit experimental voltammetry of the one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane, in water and acetonitrile, respectively, at a mercury microhemisphere electrode. For Eu (III) very accurate fits to experiment were obtained over a wide range of scan rates using Butler-Volmer kinetics, whereas the Marcus-Hush model was less accurate. The reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane was well simulated by both models, however Marcus-Hush required a reorganisation energy lower than expected.

  19. Effects of Organic Solvents on Indigo Formation by Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200 Grown with High Levels of Indole.

    PubMed

    Doukyu, N; Arai, T; Aono, R

    1998-01-01

    The indole tolerance level of Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200 was 0.25 mg/ml. The level was raised to 4 mg/ml when diphenylmethane was added to the medium to 20% by volume. ST-200 grown in this two-phase culture system containing indole (1 mg/ml) and diphenylmethane (0.2 ml/ml) produced a water-soluble yellow pigment, isatic acid, and two water-insoluble and diphenylmethane-soluble pigments, blue indigo and purple indirubin. The amounts of the water-insoluble pigments corresponded to 0.5% (indigo) and 0.2% (indirubin) of the indole added to the medium. Of the conditions tried, indigo and indirubin were formed only when ST-200 was grown in the two-phase system overlaid with organic solvents with appropriate polarity.

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in Fusarium delphinoides strain GPK, a causal agent of Wilt in Chickpea.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Guruprasad B; Sanjeevkumar, S; Kirankumar, B; Santoshkumar, M; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium delphinoides (Ascomycota; Nectriaceae) is an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing plant pathogen and a causal agent of wilt in chickpea. The IAA biosynthetic pathway in F. delphinoides strain GPK (FDG) was examined by analyzing metabolic intermediates and by feeding experiments. Gas chromatograph (GC) analysis of FDG culture filtrates showed the presence of metabolic intermediates of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), indole-3-acetamide (IAM), and tryptamine (TRA) pathways. The different IAA biosynthetic pathways were further confirmed by identifying the presence of different enzymes of these pathways. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase revealed that the enzyme is highly specific for tryptophan (Trp) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg) as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. Furthermore, the concentration-dependent effect of exogenous IAA on fungal growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA increases the fungal growth and at high concentration it decreases the growth of FDG.

  1. The microbiota-derived metabolite indole decreases mucosal inflammation and injury in a murine model of NSAID enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan M.; Cohen, Noah D.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Weeks, Brad R.; Davidson, Laurie A.; Goldsby, Jennifer S.; Hunt, Carrie L.; Steinmeyer, Shelby H.; Menon, Rani; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Jayaraman, Arul; Alaniz, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently used classes of medications in the world. Unfortunately, NSAIDs induce an enteropathy associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology of this condition involves the interaction of the gut epithelium, microbiota, and NSAIDs, the precise mechanisms by which microbiota influence NSAID enteropathy are unclear. One possible mechanism is that the microbiota may attenuate the severity of disease by specific metabolite-mediated regulation of host inflammation and injury. The microbiota-derived tryptophan-metabolite indole is abundant in the healthy mammalian gut and positively influences intestinal health. We thus examined the effects of indole administration on NSAID enteropathy. Mice (n = 5 per group) were treated once daily for 7 days with an NSAID (indomethacin; 5 mg/kg), indole (20 mg/kg), indomethacin plus indole, or vehicle only (control). Outcomes compared among groups included: microscopic pathology; fecal calprotectin concentration; proportion of neutrophils in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes; fecal microbiota composition and diversity; small intestinal mucosal transcriptome; and, fecal tryptophan metabolites. Co-administration of indole with indomethacin: significantly reduced mucosal pathology scores, fecal calprotectin concentrations, and neutrophilic infiltration of the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes induced by indomethacin; modulated NSAID-induced perturbation of the microbiota, fecal metabolites, and inferred metagenome; and, abrogated a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile in the small intestinal mucosa induced by indomethacin. The microbiota-derived metabolite indole attenuated multiple deleterious effects of NSAID enteropathy, including modulating inflammation mediated by innate immune responses and altering indomethacin-induced shift of the microbiota. PMID:27007819

  2. Cloning and characterization of indole synthase (INS) and a putative tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) genes from Polygonum tinctorium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhehao; Kim, Jin-Hee; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Soo-Un

    2016-12-01

    Two cDNAs for indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase homolog were cloned from Polygonum tinctorium. One encoded cytosolic indole synthase possibly in indigoid synthesis, whereas the other encoded a putative tryptophan synthase α-subunit. Indigo is an old natural blue dye produced by plants such as Polygonum tinctorium. Key step in plant indigoid biosynthesis is production of indole by indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (IGL). Two tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) homologs, PtIGL-short and -long, were isolated by RACE PCR from P. tinctorium. The genome of the plant contained two genes coding for IGL. The short and the long forms, respectively, encoded 273 and 316 amino acid residue-long proteins. The short form complemented E. coli ΔtnaA ΔtrpA mutant on tryptophan-depleted agar plate signifying production of free indole, and thus was named indole synthase gene (PtINS). The long form, either intact or without the transit peptide sequence, did not complement the mutant and was tentatively named PtTSA. PtTSA was delivered into chloroplast as predicted by 42-residue-long targeting sequence, whereas PtINS was localized in cytosol. Genomic structure analysis suggested that a TSA duplicate acquired splicing sites during the course of evolution toward PtINS so that the targeting sequence-containing pre-mRNA segment was deleted as an intron. PtINS had about two to fivefolds higher transcript level than that of PtTSA, and treatment of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole caused the relative transcript level of PtINS over PtTSA was significantly enhanced in the plant. The results indicate participation of PtINS in indigoid production.

  3. An indole-linked C8-deoxyguanosine nucleoside acts as a fluorescent reporter of Watson-Crick versus Hoogsteen base pairing.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Katherine M; Millen, Andrea L; Wetmore, Stacey D; Manderville, Richard A

    2011-03-07

    Pyrrole- and indole-linked C(8)-deoxyguanosine nucleosides act as fluorescent reporters of H-bonding specificity. Their fluorescence is quenched upon Watson-Crick H-bonding to dC, while Hoogsteen H-bonding to G enhances emission intensity. The indole-linked probe is ∼ 10-fold brighter and shows promise as a fluorescent reporter of Hoogsteen base pairing.

  4. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  5. Facile Iodine-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Indoles to α,α′-Bis(arylmethylene)cyclopentanones: An Efficient Synthesis of E-2-(3-Indolylphenylmethyl)-5-phenylmethylenecyclopentanones

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rammohan; Das Gupta, Arpita; Mallik, Asok K.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine-catalyzed reaction of indoles with α,α′-bis(arylmethylene)cyclopentanones afforded one diastereomer of the corresponding Michael adducts, namely, E-2-(3-indolylphenylmethyl)-5-phenylmethylenecyclopentanones, in a good yield. The products form a new group of indole derivatives. PMID:24052849

  6. Mechanisms of Idelalisib-Associated Diarrhea in Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Indolent Non-hodgkin Lymphoma, or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-11

    Absence of Signs or Symptoms; B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Digestive System Signs and Symptoms; Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Indolent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  7. Dragmacidin G, a Bioactive Bis-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Sponge of the Genus Spongosorites.

    PubMed

    Wright, Amy E; Killday, K Brian; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Guzmán, Esther A; Harmody, Dedra; McCarthy, Peter J; Pitts, Tara; Pomponi, Shirley A; Reed, John K; Roberts, Bracken F; Rodrigues Felix, Carolina; Rohde, Kyle H

    2017-01-11

    A deep-water sponge of the genus Spongosorites has yielded a bis-indole alkaloid which we have named dragmacidin G. Dragmacidin G was first reported by us in the patent literature and has recently been reported by Hitora et al. from a sponge of the genus Lipastrotheya . Dragmacidin G is the first in this series of compounds to have a pyrazine ring linking the two indole rings. It also has a rare N -(2-mercaptoethyl)-guanidine side chain. Dragmacidin G shows a broad spectrum of biological activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Plasmodium falciparum, and a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines.

  8. Dragmacidin G, a Bioactive Bis-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Sponge of the Genus Spongosorites

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Amy E.; Killday, K. Brian; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Guzmán, Esther A.; Harmody, Dedra; McCarthy, Peter J.; Pitts, Tara; Pomponi, Shirley A.; Reed, John K.; Roberts, Bracken F.; Rodrigues Felix, Carolina; Rohde, Kyle H.

    2017-01-01

    A deep-water sponge of the genus Spongosorites has yielded a bis-indole alkaloid which we have named dragmacidin G. Dragmacidin G was first reported by us in the patent literature and has recently been reported by Hitora et al. from a sponge of the genus Lipastrotheya. Dragmacidin G is the first in this series of compounds to have a pyrazine ring linking the two indole rings. It also has a rare N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-guanidine side chain. Dragmacidin G shows a broad spectrum of biological activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum, and a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. PMID:28085024

  9. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  10. Scalable Total Syntheses of N-Linked Tryptamine Dimers by Direct Indole-Aniline Coupling: Psychotrimine and Kapakahines B & F

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Timothy; Lewis, Chad A.; Eastman, Kyle J.; Baran, Phil S.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the invention of a method to enable syntheses of psychotrimine, 1, and the kapakahines F and B, 2 & 3, on a gram scale and in a minimum number of steps. Mechanistic inquiries are presented for the key enabling quaternization of indole at the C3 position by electrophilic attack of an activated aniline species. Excellent chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselectivities are observed for reactions with o-iodoaniline, an indole cation equivalent. Additionally, the scope of this reaction is broad with respect to the tryptamine and aniline components. The anti-cancer profiles of psychotrimine, 1, and kapakahines F and B, 2 & 3, have also been evaluated. PMID:20426477

  11. Synthesis, biological activity and molecular modeling study of new Schiff bases incorporated with indole moiety.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Ahmed H; El-Gilil, Shimaa Mohamed Abd; Bedair, Ahmed H; Shaaban, Mohamed; Frese, Marcel; Sewald, Norbert; Eliwa, Essam M; El-Agrody, Ahmed M

    2017-10-26

    A new series of heterocyclic Schiff bases 2-9 containing indole moiety were synthesized by facile and efficient condensation of indole-3/2/5-carboxaldehyde (1a/1b/1c) with different aromatic and heterocyclic primary amines using conventional and/or microwave irradiation methods. The structures of the obtained compounds were assigned by sophisticated spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS). The synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities. In vitro cytotoxicity screening revealed that compound 5 exhibited moderate activity against KB-3-1 cell line (IC50=57.7 μM) while 5-indolylimino derivative 7 indicated close to the activity (IC50=19.6 μM) in comparison with the positive control (+)-Griseofulvin (IC50=19.2 μM), while the tested compounds 5, 6b, 7 and 9 revealed good or moderate antibacterial activity. In addition, molecular docking study of Schiff bases 2-9 was performed by Molecular Operating Environment (MOE 2014.09) program on the matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) (Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 1MNC) in an attempt to explore their mode of action as anticancer drugs.

  12. Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Peat, Thomas S; Böttcher, Christine; Newman, Janet; Lucent, Del; Cowieson, Nathan; Davies, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Auxins are important for plant growth and development, including the control of fruit ripening. Conjugation to amino acids by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases is an important part of auxin homeostasis. The structure of the auxin-conjugating Gretchen Hagen3-1 (GH3-1) enzyme from grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in complex with an inhibitor (adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate), is presented. Comparison with a previously published benzoate-conjugating enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that grapevine GH3-1 has a highly similar domain structure and also undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis. Mutational analyses and structural comparisons with other proteins have identified residues likely to be involved in acyl group, amino acid, and ATP substrate binding. Vv GH3-1 is a monomer in solution and requires magnesium ions solely for the adenlyation reaction. Modeling of IAA and two synthetic auxins, benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), into the active site indicates that NAA and BTOA are likely to be poor substrates for this enzyme, confirming previous enzyme kinetic studies. This suggests a reason for the increased effectiveness of NAA and BTOA as auxins in planta and provides a tool for designing new and effective auxins.

  13. A cluster of deaths involving 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT).

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, Robert; Roman, Markus; Dahlgren, Maria; Thelander, Gunilla; Wikström, Maria; Druid, Henrik

    2013-10-01

    During 2012, the designer drug 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole emerged in Sweden, and became available at different web sites under the name 5-IT or 5-API. This compound is an indole derivative and a positional isomer of alpha-methyltryptamine. In this paper, we report the pathology and toxicology from 15 deaths involving 5-IT. Routine postmortem toxicology was performed in femoral blood, using a targeted screening for pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse with liquid chromatography time-of-flight technology, and positive results were quantified using chromatographic techniques. For 5-IT, a new method was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In 11 cases, intoxication was the cause of death. Two cases were signed out as causa ignota, and they were considered to be natural deaths. All determinations of 5-IT were performed in femoral blood and the concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 18.6 µg/g. Two cases had 5-IT as the only drug identified, while the others presented with other psychotropic drugs or medications in the blood as well. Shortly after this series of deaths, 5-IT was scheduled as a hazardous substance according to the regulation Certain Goods Dangerous to Health on 18 September 2012 prohibiting the handling and selling of the drug. Since then, no positive cases have been found.

  14. Inhibitory effect of indole analogs against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Israel; Margotta, Joseph W; Aoki, Mai M; Flores, Fernando; Agudelo, Fresia; Michel, Guillermo; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2017-09-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive bacterium, causes American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera Linnaeus [Hymenoptera: Apidae]). P. larvae spores exit dormancy in the gut of bee larvae, the germinated cells proliferate, and ultimately bacteremia kills the host. Hence, spore germination is a required step for establishing AFB disease. We previously found that P. larvae spores germinate in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid in vitro. Additionally, we determined that indole and phenol blocked spore germination. In this work, we evaluated the antagonistic effect of 35 indole and phenol analogs and identified strong inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We further tested the most promising candidate, 5-chloroindole, and found that it significantly reduced bacterial proliferation. Finally, feeding artificial worker jelly containing anti-germination compounds to AFB-exposed larvae significantly decreased AFB infection in laboratory-reared honey bee larvae. Together, these results suggest that inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination could provide another method to control AFB. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Indolent peritoneal mesothelioma: PI3K-mTOR inhibitors as a novel therapeutic strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dolly, Saoirse O; Migali, Cristina; Tunariu, Nina; Della-Pepa, Chiara; Khakoo, Shelize; Hazell, Steve; de Bono, Johann S; Kaye, Stanley B; Banerjee, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a scarce abdominal-pelvic malignancy that presents with non-specific features and exhibits a wide clinical spectrum from indolent to aggressive disease. Due to it being a rare entity, there is a lack of understanding of its molecular drivers. Most treatment data are from limited small studies or extrapolated from pleural mesothelioma. Standard treatment includes curative surgery or pemetrexed-platinum palliative chemotherapy. To date, the use of novel targeted agents has been disappointing. Described is the management of two young women with papillary peritoneal mesothelioma with widespread recurrence having received platinum-pemetrexed chemotherapy. Both patients obtained symptomatic and disease benefit with apitolisib, a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-mTOR) inhibitor for subsequent relapses, with one patient having a partial response for almost 3 years. Both are alive and well 10–13 years from diagnosis. Conclusion These case presentations highlight a subgroup of rare MPeM that behave indolently that is compatible with long-term survival. This series identifies the use of targeted therapies with PI3K-mTOR-based inhibitors as a novel approach, warranting further clinical assessment. Development of prognostic biomarkers is essential to aid identify tumour aggressiveness, help stratify patients and facilitate treatment decisions. PMID:28761723

  16. Identification of novel indole based heterocycles as selective estrogen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Singla, Ramit; Prakash, Kunal; Bihari Gupta, Kunj; Upadhyay, Shishir; Dhiman, Monisha; Jaitak, Vikas

    2018-04-24

    In the present study, we have designed and synthesized indole derivatives by coalescing the indole nucleus with chromene carbonitrile and dihydropyridine nucleus. Two compounds 5c and 6d were selected from series I and II after sequential combinatorial library generation, docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) filtering, anti-proliferative activity, cytotoxicity, and ER-α competitor assay kit by utilizing estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) dominant T47D BC cells line and PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells). Cell imaging experiment suggested that both the compounds successfully cross cellular biomembrane and accumulate in nuclear, cytoplasmic and plasma membrane region. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting experiments further supported that both compounds reduced the expression of mRNA and receptor protein of ER-α, thereby preventing downstream transactivation and signaling pathway in T47D cells line. Current findings imply that 5c and 6d represent novel ER-α antagonists and may be used in the development of chemotherapy for the management of BC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic analysis of indole-3-butyric acid responses in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals four mutant classes.

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, B K; Yoder, A; Bartel, B

    2000-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is widely used in agriculture because it induces rooting. To better understand the in vivo role of this endogenous auxin, we have identified 14 Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to the inhibitory effects of IBA on root elongation, but that remain sensitive to the more abundant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). These mutants have defects in various IBA-mediated responses, which allowed us to group them into four phenotypic classes. Developmental defects in the absence of exogenous sucrose suggest that some of these mutants are impaired in peroxisomal fatty acid chain shortening, implying that the conversion of IBA to IAA is also disrupted. Other mutants appear to have normal peroxisomal function; some of these may be defective in IBA transport, signaling, or response. Recombination mapping indicates that these mutants represent at least nine novel loci in Arabidopsis. The gene defective in one of the mutants was identified using a positional approach and encodes PEX5, which acts in the import of most peroxisomal matrix proteins. These results indicate that in Arabidopsis thaliana, IBA acts, at least in part, via its conversion to IAA. PMID:11063705

  18. Photoreaction of thioxanthone with indolic and phenolic derivatives of biological relevance: magnetic field effect study.

    PubMed

    Das, Doyel; Nath, Deb Narayan

    2008-11-20

    The photoinduced reaction of thioxanthone (TX) with various indolic and phenolic derivatives and amino acids like tryptophan and tyrosine has been monitored in sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar medium. Laser flash photolysis and magnetic field effect (MFE) experiments have been used to study the dynamics of the radical pairs. The quenching rate constant with different quenchers in SDS micellar solution has been measured. For indoles the electron-transfer reaction has been found to be followed by proton transfer from the donor molecule, which gives rise to the TX ketyl radical. On the other hand, the electron-transfer reaction in the case of phenols is preceded with formation of a hydrogen-bonded exciplex. The extent of the MFE and magnitude of the magnetic field corresponding to one-half of the saturation value of MFE ( B 1/2) support the fact that hyperfine mechanism plays the primary role. Quenching of MFE in the presence of gadolinium ions confirms that the radical pair is located near the micellar interface. MFE study has been further extended to protein-like bovine serum albumin in micellar solution. The results indicate loss in mobililty of radical pairs in the protein surfactant complex.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of functionalized indoles as antimycobacterial and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Cihan-Üstündağ, Gökçe; Capan, Gültaze

    2012-08-01

    A new series of 5-fluoro-N(2)-(cyclohexylidene)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-2-carbohydrazides (6a-6e) and their cyclization products 5-fluoro-N-(3-oxo-1-thia-4-azaspiro [4.5]dec-4-yl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamides (7a-7e, 8a-8e) have been synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). Compounds showed moderate to good inhibitory activity at 6.25 μg/mL. Among them, 7b, 7d, 8b, and 8d were the most potent analogs with an inhibition range of 91-95 %. Additionally, compounds 6a, 7a, 7e, 8a, and 8e were subjected to the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) in vitro disease-oriented antitumor screening to be evaluated for antitumor activity. 8e, the most potent compound examined, displayed broad spectrum antiproliferative activity with particular selectivity against four leukemia cell lines (CCRF-CEM, HL-60 (TB), K-562, and RPMI-8226) with log (10) GI (50) values between -5.68 and -6.09.

  20. Natural indoles, indole-3-carbinol and 3,3′-diindolymethane, inhibit T cell activation by staphylococcal enterotoxin B through epigenetic regulation involving HDAC expression

    SciTech Connect

    Busbee, Philip B.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S., E-mail: prakash@mailbox.sc.edu

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent exotoxin produced by the Staphylococcus aureus. This toxin is classified as a superantigen because of its ability to directly bind with MHC-II class molecules followed by activation of a large proportion of T cells bearing specific Vβ-T cell receptors. Commonly associated with classic food poisoning, SEB has also been shown to induce toxic shock syndrome, and is also considered to be a potential biological warfare agent because it is easily aerosolized. In the present study, we assessed the ability of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and one of its byproducts, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), found in cruciferous vegetables,more » to counteract the effects of SEB-induced activation of T cells in mice. Both I3C and DIM were found to decrease the activation, proliferation, and cytokine production by SEB-activated Vβ8{sup +} T cells in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, inhibitors of histone deacetylase class I (HDAC-I), but not class II (HDAC-II), showed significant decrease in SEB-induced T cell activation and cytokine production, thereby suggesting that epigenetic modulation plays a critical role in the regulation of SEB-induced inflammation. In addition, I3C and DIM caused a decrease in HDAC-I but not HDAC-II in SEB-activated T cells, thereby suggesting that I3C and DIM may inhibit SEB-mediated T cell activation by acting as HDAC-I inhibitors. These studies not only suggest for the first time that plant-derived indoles are potent suppressors of SEB-induced T cell activation and cytokine storm but also that they may mediate these effects by acting as HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • I3C and DIM reduce SEB-induced T cell activation and inflammatory cytokines. • Inhibiting class I HDACs reduces T cell activation and inflammatory cytokines. • Inhibiting class II HDACs increases T cell activation and inflammatory cytokines. • I3C and DIM selectively reduce mRNA expression of class I HDACs. • Novel use and mechanism to

  1. Indole-3-butyric acid promotes adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, L; Veloccia, A; Della Rovere, F; D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2017-07-11

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), control adventitious root (AR) formation in planta. Adventitious roots are also crucial for propagation via cuttings. However, IBA role(s) is/are still far to be elucidated. In Arabidopsis thaliana stem cuttings, 10 μM IBA is more AR-inductive than 10 μM IAA, and, in thin cell layers (TCLs), IBA induces ARs when combined with 0.1 μM kinetin (Kin). It is unknown whether arabidopsis TCLs produce ARs under IBA alone (10 μM) or IAA alone (10 μM), and whether they contain endogenous IAA/IBA at culture onset, possibly interfering with the exogenous IBA/IAA input. Moreover, it is unknown whether an IBA-to-IAA conversion is active in TCLs, and positively affects AR formation, possibly through the activity of the nitric oxide (NO) deriving from the conversion process. Revealed undetectable levels of both auxins at culture onset, showing that arabidopsis TCLs were optimal for investigating AR-formation under the total control of exogenous auxins. The AR-response of TCLs from various ecotypes, transgenic lines and knockout mutants was analyzed under different treatments. It was shown that ARs are better induced by IBA than IAA and IBA + Kin. IBA induced IAA-efflux (PIN1) and IAA-influx (AUX1/LAX3) genes, IAA-influx carriers activities, and expression of ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -alpha1 (ASA1), a gene involved in IAA-biosynthesis. ASA1 and ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -beta1 (ASB1), the other subunit of the same enzyme, positively affected AR-formation in the presence of exogenous IBA, because the AR-response in the TCLs of their mutant wei2wei7 was highly reduced. The AR-response of IBA-treated TCLs from ech2ibr10 mutant, blocked into IBA-to-IAA-conversion, was also strongly reduced. Nitric oxide, an IAA downstream signal and a by-product of IBA-to-IAA conversion, was early detected in IAA- and IBA-treated TCLs, but at higher levels in the latter explants. Altogether, results showed that IBA induced

  2. Synthesis, Cytotoxic and Contraceptive Activity of 6,8,9-Trihydroxy-2-methyl-2H-naphtho[2,3-b]pyran-5,10-dione, a Pigment of Echinothrix diadema, and its Analogs.

    PubMed

    Pokhilo, Natalia D; Melman, Galina I; Kiseleva, Marina I; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Anufriev, Victor Ph

    2015-07-01

    6,8,9-Trihydroxy-2-methyl-2H-naphtho[2,3-b]pyran-5,10-dion, a pigment of the sea urchin Echinothrix diadema, and six analogs were synthesized. The cytotoxic activity and contraceptive properties of the synthesized pyranonaphthazarins have been investigated using the sperm and eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

  3. Prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone using high-level Gaussian-4 composite theoretical methods.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2014-09-19

    The air-water partition coefficient (Kaw) of perfluoro-2-methyl-3-pentanone (PFMP) was estimated using the G4MP2/G4 levels of theory and the SMD solvation model. A suite of 31 fluorinated compounds was employed to calibrate the theoretical method. Excellent agreement between experimental and directly calculated Kaw values was obtained for the calibration compounds. The PCM solvation model was found to yield unsatisfactory Kaw estimates for fluorinated compounds at both levels of theory. The HENRYWIN Kaw estimation program also exhibited poor Kaw prediction performance on the training set. Based on the resulting regression equation for the calibration compounds, the G4MP2-SMD method constrained the estimated Kaw of PFMP to the range 5-8 × 10(-6) M atm(-1). The magnitude of this Kaw range indicates almost all PFMP released into the atmosphere or near the land-atmosphere interface will reside in the gas phase, with only minor quantities dissolved in the aqueous phase as the parent compound and/or its hydrate/hydrate conjugate base. Following discharge into aqueous systems not at equilibrium with the atmosphere, significant quantities of PFMP will be present as the dissolved parent compound and/or its hydrate/hydrate conjugate base.

  4. Growth, optical, luminescence, thermal and mechanical behavior of an organic single crystal: 3-Acetyl-2-methyl-4-phenylquinolin-1-ium chloride.

    PubMed

    Nirosha, M; Kalainathan, S; Sarveswari, S; Vijayakumar, V

    2014-04-05

    A single crystal of 3-acetyl-2-methyl-4-phenylquinolin-1-ium chloride has grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol as solvent. The structural, thermal, optical and mechanical property has studied for the grown crystal. Single crystal XRD revealed that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The presences of Functional groups in the crystallized material have confirmed using the FTIR vibrational spectrum. The optical absorbance spectrum recorded from 190 to 1100nm shows the cut-off wavelength occurs at 371nm. The material shows its transparency in the entire region of the visible spectrum. The photoluminescence spectrum shows the ultraviolet and blue emission in the crystal. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis reveal the thermal stability of the grown crystal. Etching study shows the grown mechanism and surface features of the crystal. Vickers microhardness studies have carried out on the (01-1) plane to understand the mechanical properties of the grown crystal. The hardness of the title compound increases on increasing the load. The Meyer's index number (n), and the stiffness constants for different loads has calculated and reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of indium oxide thin film from a liquid indium complex containing 1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-propoxy ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Eun Ae; Kim, Hyo Yeon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Son, Seung Uk; Chung, Taek-Mo

    2016-10-01

    In2O3 thin films were grown from a newly developed, liquid, homoleptic, In-based complex, tris(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-propoxy)indium [In(dmamp)3], and O3 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at growth temperatures of 150-200 °C. In(dmamp)3 exhibited single-step evaporation with negligible residue and excellent thermal stability between 30 and 250 °C. The self-limiting surface reaction of In2O3 during ALD was demonstrated by varying the In(dmamp)3 and O3 pulse lengths, with a growth rate of 0.027 nm/cycle achieved at 200 °C. The In2O3 films grown at temperatures over 175 °C exhibited negligible concentrations of impurities, whereas that grown below 175 °C had concentrations of residual C of 6-8 at.%. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the In2O3 films were polycrystalline in nature when the deposition temperature was greater than 200 °C. The In2O3 films grown at 150-200 °C exhibited carrier concentrations of 1.5 × 1018-6.6 × 1019 cm-3, resistivities of 15.1-2 × 10-3 Ω cm, and Hall mobilities of 0.8-42 cm2/(V s).

  6. Development of a new analytical tool for assessing the mutagen 2-methyl-1,4-dinitro-pyrrole in meat products by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; Daguer, Heitor; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Yotsuyanagi, Suzana Eri; da Silva Correa Lemos, Ana Lucia; Joussef, Antonio Carlos; De Dea Lindner, Juliano

    2018-08-01

    The use of sorbate and nitrite in meat processing may lead to the formation of 2-methyl-1,4-dinitro-pyrrole (DNMP), a mutagenic compound. This work was aimed at developing and validating an analytical method for the quantitation of DNMP by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Full validation was performed in accordance to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and method applicability was checked in several samples of meat products. A simple procedure, with low temperature partitioning solid-liquid extraction, was developed. The nitrosation during the extraction was monitored by the N-nitroso-DL-pipecolic acid content. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 8 min with di-isopropyl-3-aminopropyl silane bound to hydroxylated silica as stationary phase. Samples of bacon and cooked sausage yielded the highest concentrations of DNMP (68 ± 3 and 50 ± 3 μg kg -1 , respectively). The developed method proved to be a reliable, selective, and sensitive tool for DNMP measurements in meat products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Density functional theory study on carbon dioxide absorption into aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol using a continuum solvation model.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetaka; Matsuzaki, Yoichi; Higashii, Takayuki; Kazama, Shingo

    2011-04-14

    We used density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the latest continuum solvation model (SMD/IEF-PCM) to determine the mechanism of CO(2) absorption into aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP). Possible absorption process reactions were investigated by transition-state optimization and intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations in the aqueous solution at the SMD/IEF-PCM/B3LYP/6-31G(d) and SMD/IEF-PCM/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory to determine the absorption pathways. We show that the carbamate anion forms by a two-step reaction via a zwitterion intermediate, and this occurs faster than the formation of the bicarbonate anion. However, we also predict that the carbamate readily decomposes by a reverse reaction rather than by hydrolysis. As a result, the final product is dominated by the thermodynamically stable bicarbonate anion that forms from AMP, H(2)O, and CO(2) in a single-step termolecular reaction.

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol Photooxidation: Evidence of Acid-Catalyzed Reactive Uptake of Epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haofei; Zhang, Zhenfa; Cui, Tianqu

    2014-04-08

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) photooxidation has recently been observed in both field and laboratory studies. Similar to isoprene, MBO-derived SOA increases with elevated aerosol acidity in the absence of nitric oxide; therefore, an epoxide intermediate, (3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methanol (MBO epoxide) was synthesized and tentatively proposed here to explain this enhancement. In the present study, the potential of the synthetic MBO epoxide to form SOA via reactive uptake was systematically examined. SOA was observed only in the presence of acidic aerosols. Major SOA constituents, 2,3-dihydroxyisopentanol (DHIP) and MBO-derived organosulfate isomers, were chemically characterized in both laboratory-generated SOA and inmore » ambient fine aerosols collected from the BEACHON-RoMBAS field campaign during summer 2011, where MBO emissions are substantial. Our results support epoxides as potential products of MBO photooxidation leading to formation of atmospheric SOA and suggest that reactive uptake of epoxides may generally explain acid enhancement of SOA observed from other biogenic hydrocarbons.« less

  9. Synthesis and in vivo anticonvulsant activity of 2-methyl-2-[3-(5-piperazin-1-yl-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-propionitrile derivatives.

    PubMed

    Harish, Kikkeri P; Mohana, Kikkeri N; Mallesha, Lingappa; Veeresh, Bantal

    2014-04-01

    A series of new 2-methyl-2-[3-(5-piperazin-1-yl-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-propionitrile derivatives 8a-o, 9a-c, 10a-d, and 11a-d were synthesized to meet the structural requirements essential for anticonvulsant property. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and mass spectral studies. The purity of the novel compounds was confirmed by elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock (MES) seizure method and their neurotoxic effects were determined by rotorod test. Compounds 8d, 8e, and 8f were found to be the most potent of this series. The same compounds showed no neurotoxicity at the maximum dose administered (100 mg/kg). The efforts were also made to establish the structure-activity relationships among the synthesized compounds. The pharmacophore model was used to validate the anticonvulsant activity of the synthesized molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inhibitory effect of 2-methyl-naphtho[1,2,3-de]quinolin-8-one on melanosome transport and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ha Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-07-06

    Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles with specialized capabilities of melanin synthesis and movement mediated by the Rab27a-Melanophilin-MyosinVa protein complex. In this study, we found that 2-methyl-naphtho[1,2,3-de]quinolin-8-one (MNQO) induced melanosome aggregation around the nucleus in melan-a melanocytes and in melan-a melanocytes/SP-1 keratinocyte co-cultures without inducing toxicity or changing the melanin content. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that MNQO decreased expression of the Rab27a, Melanophilin and MyosinVa proteins and mRNAs, respectively, in melan-a melanocytes. In a reconstituted human epidermis model, treatment with 0.001% MNQO reduced skin pigmentation. Also, MNQO reduced skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs induced by UVB irradiation. These results indicated that regulation of melanosome transport may serve as a good target for new skin depigmenting agents and MNQO itself could be a candidate.

  11. Optical and electrochemical characteristics of Ir(III) complexes with metalated 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2-methyl-1,3-thiazole and isocyanide, ethylenediamine, and diethyldithiocarbamate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlenok, E. A.; Kinzhalov, M. A.; Eremina, A. A.; Balashev, K. P.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of donor-acceptor properties of tert-butyl-, 2.6-dimethylphenyl-, and 4-bromophenyl-isocyanides (BuNC, XylNC, BpNC), ethylenediamine (En), and diethyldithiocarbamate ions (Dtc-) on the 1H and 13C NMR, IR, optical, and electrochemical characteristics of Ir(III) complexes with metalated 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2-methyl-1,3-thiazole is studied. Enhancement of the donor properties of BpNC, XylNC, BuNC, En, and Dtc- ligands leads to a bathochromic shift of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands and to a decrease in the difference between the one-electron oxidation and reduction potentials of complexes. The bathochromic shift of the low-temperature phosphorescence of complexes in frozen (77 K) solutions with increasing donor properties of BpNC, XylNC, BuNC, En, and Dtc-ligands is caused by a decrease in the admixture of MLCT to the intraligand excited state of {Ir(bptz)2}. Quenching of the phosphorescence of complexes in liquid solutions is attributed to the thermally-induced population of excited d- d* states with subsequent nonradiative deactivation.

  12. Continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate to γ-valerolactone and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran over alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst: the potential of commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Junlin; Zhu, Junhua; Xu, Xuan; Wang, Wanmin; Li, Jiwen; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Kangjian; Song, Qi; Qi, Xiaolan; Kong, Dejin; Tang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) and its esters to produce γ-valerolactone (GVL) and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) is a key step for the utilization of cellulose derived LA. Aiming to develop a commercially feasible base metal catalyst for the production of GVL from LA, with satisfactory activity, selectivity, and stability, Al2O3 doped Cu/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 catalysts were fabricated by co-precipitation routes in parallel. The diverse physio-chemical properties of these two catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, dissociative N2O chemisorptions, and Py-IR methods. The catalytic properties of these two catalysts were systematically assessed in the continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate (EL) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of acidic property of the SiO2 substrate on the catalytic properties was investigated. To justify the potential of its commercialization, significant attention was paid on the initial activity, proper operation window, by-products control, selectivity, and stability of the catalyst. The effect of reaction conditions, such as temperature and pressure, on the performance of the catalyst was also thoroughly studied. The development of alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst strengthened the value-chain from cellulose to industrially important chemicals via LA and GVL.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (S)-Amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic Acid (BrVAIB) for Brain Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Jennifer L; Huang, Chaofeng; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2015-11-12

    The novel compound, (S)-amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic acid (BrVAIB, [(76)Br]5), was characterized against the known system A tracer, IVAIB ([(123)I]8). [(76)Br]5 was prepared in a 51% ± 19% radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity (≥98%). The biological properties of [(76)Br]5 were compared with those of [(123)I]8. Results showed that [(76)Br]5 undergoes mixed amino acid transport by system A and system L transport, while [(123)I]8 had less uptake by system L. [(76)Br]5 demonstrated higher uptake than [(123)I]8 in DBT tumors 1 h after injection (3.7 ± 0.4% ID/g vs 1.5 ± 0.3% ID/g) and also showed higher uptake vs [(123)I]8 in normal brain. Small animal PET studies with [(76)Br]5 demonstrated good tumor visualization of intracranial DBTs up to 24 h with clearance from normal tissues. These results indicate that [(76)Br]5 is a promising PET tracer for brain tumor imaging and lead compound for a mixed system A and system L transport substrate.

  14. Proton conducting gel polyelectrolytes based on 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) copolymers with polyfunctional monomers. Part I. Anhydrous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygadło-Monikowska, Ewa; Florjańczyk, Zbigniew; Wielgus-Barry, Edyta; Paśniewski, Jarosław

    The synthesis of crosslinked gel polyelectrolytes in polar aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF) and a DMF and propylene carbonate (PC) mixture has been carried out in the copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) and polyfunctional monomers. N, N‧-Methylene-bis-acrylamide, trioxyethylene dimethacrylate (M n ∼ 330) and trimethylolpropane ethoxylate (14/3 EO/OH) triacrylate were used as crosslinking monomers. The reactions were initiated thermally or by UV irradiation in the presence of Irgacure 184 or methyl benzoin ether. The crosslinking monomer was used in an amount of 0.5-13 wt.%. The effect of the type and concentration of the polyfunctional comonomer and type of solvent on the optical (color, transparency) and mechanical properties as well as the ability to conduct electrical charges have been studied. The application of a DMF and PC mixture enables to obtain transparent systems of good mechanical properties and high ambient temperature ionic conductivity of the order of 10 -3 to 10 -4 S cm -1, slightly lowered as compared with that of gels comprising DMF alone. The conducting properties of crosslinked gels have been compared with that of the AMPSA homopolymer solutions in analogous solvents.

  15. Continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate to γ-valerolactone and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran over alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst: the potential of commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Junlin; Zhu, Junhua; Xu, Xuan; Wang, Wanmin; Li, Jiwen; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Kangjian; Song, Qi; Qi, Xiaolan; Kong, Dejin; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) and its esters to produce γ-valerolactone (GVL) and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) is a key step for the utilization of cellulose derived LA. Aiming to develop a commercially feasible base metal catalyst for the production of GVL from LA, with satisfactory activity, selectivity, and stability, Al2O3 doped Cu/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 catalysts were fabricated by co-precipitation routes in parallel. The diverse physio-chemical properties of these two catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, dissociative N2O chemisorptions, and Py-IR methods. The catalytic properties of these two catalysts were systematically assessed in the continuous hydrogenation of ethyl levulinate (EL) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of acidic property of the SiO2 substrate on the catalytic properties was investigated. To justify the potential of its commercialization, significant attention was paid on the initial activity, proper operation window, by-products control, selectivity, and stability of the catalyst. The effect of reaction conditions, such as temperature and pressure, on the performance of the catalyst was also thoroughly studied. The development of alumina doped Cu/SiO2 catalyst strengthened the value-chain from cellulose to industrially important chemicals via LA and GVL. PMID:27377401

  16. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Ann-Caroline; Jacobs, Fernando Alvarado; Eliasson, Lennart

    1991-01-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  17. Palliation by Low-Dose Local Radiation Therapy for Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Elisa K.; Fung, Sharon; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy (total dose, 4 Gy) palliative radiation therapy (RT) regimen for treating patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in terms of response rate, response duration, and symptom relief. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted. Between 2003 and 2007, 54 patients with NHL were treated to 85 anatomical sites with a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy palliative regimen. Local response was assessed by clinical and/or radiographic data. Symptoms before and after treatment for each site treated were obtained from clinical notes in patientmore » medical records. Median follow-up time was 1.3 years. Results: For the 54 patients, the median age at time of treatment was 71.1 years old, and 57% of them were male. Of the 85 disease sites treated, 56% of sites had indolent histology, 28% of sites were diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 13% of sites had aggressive histology, and 2% of sites were shown to have other histology. Overall response rate (ORR) was 81% (49% complete response [CR], 32% partial response [PR]). The 2-year rate for freedom from local progression was 50% (95% CI, 37%-61%). The ORR for follicular lymphoma, Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) histology was 88%, compared with a 59% rate for CLL histology (p = 0.005). While the ORR was similar for tumors of different sizes, the CR rate for patients with tumors <5 cm tended to be higher than those with tumors >10 cm (CR rate of 57% vs. 27%, respectively; p = 0.06). For the 48 sites with clearly documented symptoms at pretreatment, 92% of sites improved after low-dose RT. Conclusions: Short-course low-dose palliative radiotherapy (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) is an effective treatment that results in high response rates for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This treatment regimen provides effective symptomatic relief for tumor bulk of all sizes.« less

  18. Hamacanthins A and B, new antifungal bis indole alkaloids from the deep-water marine sponge, Hamacantha sp.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, S P; McCarthy, P J; Kelly-Borges, M

    1994-10-01

    Hamacanthin A [1] and hamacanthin B [2] are two bioactive dihydropyrazinonediylbis(indole) alkaloids isolated from a new species of deep-water marine sponge, Hamacantha sp. The hamacanthins are growth inhibitors of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Isolation and structure elucidation of 1 and 2 by nmr spectroscopy are described.

  19. A novel indole-diterpenoid, JBIR-03 with anti-MRSA activity from Dichotomomyces cejpii var. cejpii NBRC 103559.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masahiro; Ueda, Jun-ya; Hoshi, Midori; Hashimoto, Junko; Nakashima, Takuji; Anzai, Kozue; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2007-10-01

    A new indole-diterpene, JBIR-03 (1), was isolated from the fungus Dichotomomyces cejpii var. cejpii NBRC 103559 and its structure was determined based on the spectroscopic data. 1 exhibited anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) activity and antifungal activity against apple Valsa canker-causing fungus, Valsa ceratosperma, while it exhibited no toxicity towards human cancer cells.

  20. General and selective C-3 alkylation of indoles with primary alcohols by a reusable Pt nanocluster catalyst.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2013-10-18

    The platinum rule: Heterogeneous, additive-free C-3 selective alkylation of indoles by aliphatic and aromatic alcohols proceeded under transfer hydrogenation conditions with the reusable Pt/θ-Al2 O3 catalyst (see scheme; TON=turnover number). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Substrate-controlled Rh(II)-catalyzed single-electron-transfer (SET): divergent synthesis of fused indoles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Liu, Jia-Xin; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2016-01-07

    Rh(II)-catalyzed diversified ring expansions controlled by single-electron-transfer (SET) have been disclosed in this communication, producing a series of indole-fused azetidines and 1H-carbazoles or related derivatives in moderate to good yields via Rh2(III,II) nitrene radical intermediates. The direction of ring expansion branches according to different ring sizes of methylenecycloalkanes.

  2. Arabidopsis Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase 71A13 Catalyzes the Conversion of Indole-3-Acetaldoxime in Camalexin Synthesis[W

    PubMed Central

    Nafisi, Majse; Goregaoker, Sameer; Botanga, Christopher J.; Glawischnig, Erich; Olsen, Carl E.; Halkier, Barbara A.; Glazebrook, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Camalexin (3-thiazol-2-yl-indole) is an indole alkaloid phytoalexin produced by Arabidopsis thaliana that is thought to be important for resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, such as Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea. It is produced from Trp, which is converted to indole acetaldoxime (IAOx) by the action of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CYP79B2 and CYP79B3. The remaining biosynthetic steps are unknown except for the last step, which is conversion of dihydrocamalexic acid to camalexin by CYP71B15 (PAD3). This article reports characterization of CYP71A13. Plants carrying cyp71A13 mutations produce greatly reduced amounts of camalexin after infection by Pseudomonas syringae or A. brassicicola and are susceptible to A. brassicicola, as are pad3 and cyp79B2 cyp79B3 mutants. Expression levels of CYP71A13 and PAD3 are coregulated. CYP71A13 expressed in Escherichia coli converted IAOx to indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). Expression of CYP79B2 and CYP71A13 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in conversion of Trp to IAN. Exogenously supplied IAN restored camalexin production in cyp71A13 mutant plants. Together, these results lead to the conclusion that CYP71A13 catalyzes the conversion of IAOx to IAN in camalexin synthesis and provide further support for the role of camalexin in resistance to A. brassicicola. PMID:17573535

  3. Rhodium Carbenoid Approach for Introduction of 4-Substituted (Z)-Pent-2-enoates into Sterically Encumbered Pyrroles and Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An unusual rhodium-carbenoid approach for introduction of 4-substituted (Z)-pent-2-enoates into sterically encumbered pyrroles and indoles is described. These studies show that (Z)-vinylcarbenoids have a greater tendency than (E)-vinylcarbenoids to react at the vinylogous position of the carbenoid rather than at the carbenoid center. PMID:20121078

  4. Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

  5. 3-oxo-rhazinilam: a new indole alkaloid from Rauvolfia serpentina x Rhazya stricta hybrid plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, I; Sheludko, Y; Stöckigt, J

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 3-oxo-rhazinilam (1), was isolated from intergeneric somatic hybrid cell cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina and Rhazya stricta, and the structure was determined by detailed 1D and 2D NMR analysis. It was also proved that 3-oxo-rhazinilam (1) is a natural constituent of the hybrid cells.

  6. E. coli and water quality: Reevaluation of mug tests and development of radical new indole test. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    The project was undertaken to address the problem of MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl-B-D-glucuronide)-negative E. coli in water testing, and to develop a new, more reliable indole-based test for E. coli. In a study involving 39 healthy human volunteers, it was found that 1/3 of E. coli isolated from fresh human fecal samples tested MUG-negative in lauryl tryptose broth with MUG. It was further discovered: (1) The presence of simple sugars can cause catabolite repression of beta-GUR in a small percentage of E coli. (2) In gene probe studies, almost all E. coli isolates have portions of the uidA (GUR) gene sequence. Basedmore » on these two findings, catabolite repression can only be a partial explanation for the high-rate of GUR-negative E. coli. The authors improved the E. coli confirmatory medium, EC + MUG by removing the lactose, which allows for a stronger MUG test and the inclusion of the more reliable indole test. They called this newly improved medium INDEC, for Indole and EC medium. They later developed Colitag 3, a one-day, single tube indole-based test for E. coli.« less

  7. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-04-28

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability.

  8. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-01-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  9. Long Noncoding RNAs AC009014.3 and Newly Discovered XPLAID Differentiate Aggressive and Indolent Prostate Cancers.

    PubMed

    Cesnik, Anthony J; Yang, Bing; Truong, Andrew; Etheridge, Tyler; Spiniello, Michele; Steinbrink, Maisie I; Shortreed, Michael R; Frey, Brian L; Jarrard, David F; Smith, Lloyd M

    2018-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying aggressive versus indolent disease are not fully understood. Recent research has implicated a class of molecules known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. Our objective was to discover lncRNAs that differentiate aggressive and indolent prostate cancers. We analyzed paired tumor and normal tissues from six aggressive Gleason score (GS) 8-10 and six indolent GS 6 prostate cancers. Extracted RNA was split for poly(A)+ and ribosomal RNA depletion library preparations, followed byRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. We developed an RNA-Seq data analysis pipeline to discover and quantify these molecules. Candidate lncRNAs were validated using RT-qPCR on 87 tumor tissue samples: 28 (GS 6), 28 (GS 3+4), 6 (GS 4+3), and 25 (GS 8-10). Statistical correlations between lncRNAs and clinicopathologic variables were tested using ANOVA. The 43 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs between aggressive and indolent prostate cancers included 12 annotated and 31 novel lncRNAs. The top six DE lncRNAs were selected based on large, consistent fold-changes in the RNA-Seq results. Three of these candidates passed RT-qPCR validation, including AC009014.3 (P < .001 in tumor tissue) and a newly discovered X-linked lncRNA named XPLAID (P = .049 in tumor tissue and P = .048 in normal tissue). XPLAID and AC009014.3 show promise as prognostic biomarkers. We discovered several dozen lncRNAs that distinguish aggressive and indolent prostate cancers, of which four were validated using RT-qPCR. The investigation into their biology is ongoing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections.

    PubMed

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J; Buckner, Lyndsey R; Sherchand, Shardulendra P; Chang, Theresa L; Zea, Arnold H; Martin, David H; Belland, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis.

  11. Oxidative stress and production of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids: biotechnological implications.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hélio Nitta; Rau, Mariana Ritter; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2014-02-01

    Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) encompass plant natural products with important pharmacological relevance. They include the anti-tumoral MIAs found in Catharanthus roseus and Camptotheca acuminata. The often low yields of bioactive alkaloids in plants has prompted research to identify the factors regulating MIA production. Oxidative stress is a general response associated with biotic and abiotic stresses leading to several secondary responses, including elicitation of MIA production. These changes in secondary metabolism may take place directly or via second messengers, such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). H2O2 is the main ROS that participates in MIA biosynthesis. This review analyzes the links between oxidative stress, elicitation of bioactive MIA production and their potential roles in antioxidant defense, as well as exploring the implications to developing biotechnological strategies relevant for alkaloid supply.

  12. Distance-dependent energy transfer between indole and anthracene moieties in Langmuir Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D. C.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Misra, T. N.

    1998-09-01

    1,2-Diphenyl indole (DPI) and 9,10-diphenyl anthracene (DPA) are non-amphiphilic molecules but form excellent LB films when mixed with stearic acid (SA). Spectroscopic investigations of these films indicate formation of aggregates of DPI and DPA in the mixed LB films. DPA has been used as the quencher of the fluorescence of the DPI donor. Distance-dependent energy transfer between donor and acceptor monolayers in the LB film, where they can be precisely separated by inert spacers of stearic acid layers of varied thickness, is shown to satisfy Khun's quadratic equation. This suggests that the donor excitations are delocalized. The large critical transfer distance estimated from the experimental results has been attributed to the formation of aggregates of the molecules in a LB monolayer.

  13. MR-based trabecular bone microstructure is not altered in subjects with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Brockow, Knut; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Jungmann, Pia M; Biedermann, Tilo; Rummeny, Ernst J; Bauer, Jan S; Müller, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Subjects with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) have an increased risk for osteoporosis. It has been demonstrated that trabecular bone microstructure analysis improves the prediction of bone strength beyond dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to obtain Magnetic Resonance (MR)-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters as advanced imaging biomarkers in subjects with ISM (n=18) and compare them with those of normal controls (n=18). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were not significantly (P>.05) different between subjects with ISM and controls. These findings revealed important pathophysiological information about ISM-associated osteoporosis and may limit the use of trabecular bone microstructure analysis in this clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Indole diterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Drechmeria sp. as natural antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Chao; Wang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Mei; Wu, Ying-Ying; Sun, Cheng-Peng; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Zhang, Yi-Xuan

    2018-04-01

    A fungal strain, Drechmeria sp., was isolated from the root of Panax notoginseng. Totally, seven new indole diterpenoids, drechmerins A-G (1-7), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Drechmeria sp. together with four known analogues (8-11). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic analyses as well as theoretical calculations. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtillis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia, respectively. Drechmerin B (2) displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL. Molecular docking was used to investigate interactions of peptide deformylase with compounds 1-3, 5-7, 9, and 10. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic patent analysis in plant biotechnology: terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolic engineering as a case study.

    PubMed

    Miralpeix, Bruna; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The do-it-yourself patent search is a useful alternative to professional patent analysis particularly in the context of publicly funded projects where funds for IP activities may be limited. As a case study, we analysed patents related to the engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) metabolism in plants. We developed a focused search strategy to remove redundancy and reduce the workload without missing important and relevant patents. This resulted in the identification of approximately 50 key patents associated with TIA metabolic engineering in plants, which could form the basis of a more detailed freedom-to-operate analysis. The structural elements of this search strategy could easily be transferred to other contexts, making it a useful generic model for publicly funded research projects. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland: Not so indolent a neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Raveendran Nair, Anila Kunjulekshmi Amma; George, Nebu A; Kumar, Rejnish; Sreekumar, A; Jayasree, K

    2018-01-01

    A 58-year-old female, a known diabetic and hypertensive, presented with left-sided swelling on the anterior aspect of the neck of 1-year duration, which was rapidly increasing in size for the past 6 months. She was on Eltroxin for hypothyroidism for the past 1 year. Computed tomography study of the neck showed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid which on fine-needle aspiration was suspicious for malignancy. Total thyroidectomy with left posterolateral lymph node dissection was done. Histopathological examination showed sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) of the thyroid gland with lymph node metastasis. SMECE of the thyroid was initially thought to be a low-grade malignancy with indolent clinical behavior. However, our case showed extra thyroidal spread with lymph node metastasis, necessitating adjuvant therapy for our patient. Such aggressive behavior has been noted in few earlier case reports also.

  17. New targeted therapies for indolent B-cell malignancies in older patients.

    PubMed

    Krem, Maxwell M; Gopal, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly targeted agents have become an established component of the treatment of indolent B-cell malignancies (iNHL). iNHL disproportionately affects older adults, so treatments that have excellent tolerability and efficacy across multiple lines of therapy are in demand. The numbers and classes of targeted therapies for iNHL have proliferated rapidly in recent years; classes of agents that show promise for older patients with iNHL include anti-CD20 antibodies, phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway inhibitors, immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors, epigenetic modulators, and immunotherapies. Here, we review the proposed mechanisms of action, efficacy, and tolerability of novel agents for iNHL, with an emphasis on their applicability to older patients.

  18. Indole-3-acetic acid: A widespread physiological code in interactions of fungi with other organisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Yu; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Plants as well as microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development. Thus, research is underway globally to exploit the potential for developing IAA-producing fungi for promoting plant growth and protection for sustainable agriculture. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that IAA biosynthesis evolved independently in bacteria, microalgae, fungi, and plants. Present studies show that IAA regulates the physiological response and gene expression in these microorganisms. The convergent evolution of IAA production leads to the hypothesis that natural selection might have favored IAA as a widespread physiological code in these microorganisms and their interactions. We summarize recent studies of IAA biosynthetic pathways and discuss the role of IAA in fungal ecology. PMID:26179718

  19. Indole alkaloids from the Marquesan plant Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and their effects on ion channels.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas J; Ferreiro, Sara F; Barbault, Florent; Nicolas, Mael; Lecellier, Gaël; Paetz, Christian; Gaysinski, Marc; Alonso, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P; Botana, Luis M; Raharivelomanana, Phila

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the already reported nukuhivensiums 1 and 2, 11 indole alkaloids were isolated from the bark of the plant Rauvolfia nukuhivensis, growing in the Marquesas archipelago. The known sandwicine (3), isosandwicine (4), spegatrine (8), lochneram (9), flavopereirine (13) have been found in this plant together with the norsandwicine (5), isonorsandwicine (6), Nb-methylisosandwicine (7), 10-methoxypanarine (10), nortueiaoine (11), tueiaoine (12). The structure elucidation was performed on the basis of a deep exploration of the NMR and HRESIMS data as well as comparison with literature data for similar compounds. Norsandwicine, 10-methoxypanarine, tueiaoine, and more importantly nukuhivensiums, were shown to significantly induce a reduction of IKr amplitude (HERG current). Molecular modelling through docking was performed in order to illustrate this result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. L-Tryptophan on Cu(111): engineering a molecular labyrinth driven by indole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Yitamben, E. N.; Clayborne, A.; Darling, Seth B.

    2015-05-21

    The present article investigates the adsorption and molecular orientation of L-Tryptophan, which is both an essential amino acid important for protein synthesis and of particular interest for the development of chiral molecular electronics and biocompatible processes and devices, on Cu(111) using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at 55 K and at room temperature. The arrangement of chemisorbed L-Tryptophan on the copper surface varies with both temperature and surface coverage. At low coverage, small clusters form on the surface irrespective of temperature, while at high coverage an ordered chain structure emerges at room temperature, and a tightly packed structure forms amore » molecular labyrinth at low temperature. The dominating superstructure of the adsorbates arises from intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and pi-bonding interactions between the indole groups of neighboring molecules and the Cu surface.« less

  1. Modification of indole by electron-rich atoms and their application in novel electron donor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Maolin; Qin, Guangjiong; Liu, Jialei; Zhen, Zhen; Fedorchuk, A. A.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Albassam, A. A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Ozga, Katarzyna; Kityk, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Novel nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore based on 6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1H-indole as the electron donor group was designed and synthesized. The molecular structure of this chromophore was characterized by 1H NMR spectra, 13C NMR spectra, and MS spectra. The delocalized energy level was estimated by UV-Vis. spectra. The thermal property was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The poled films containing chromophores ZML-1 with a loading density of 10 wt% in amorphous polycarbonate (APC) afford an average electro-optic (EO) coefficient (r33) of 19 pm/V at 1310 nm. Compared to the reported aniline-based chromophore (r33 = 12 pm/V) analogues, chromophore ZML-1 exhibits enhanced electro-optical activity.

  2. Discovery of Ecopladib, an indole inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Katherine L; Foley, Megan A; Chen, Lihren; Behnke, Mark L; Lovering, Frank E; Kirincich, Steven J; Wang, Weiheng; Shim, Jaechul; Tam, Steve; Shen, Marina W H; Khor, Soopeang; Xu, Xin; Goodwin, Debra G; Ramarao, Manjunath K; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Donahue, Frances; Ku, M Sherry; Clark, James D; McKew, John C

    2007-03-22

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a series of indole inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha, type IVA phospholipase) are described. Inhibitors of cPLA2alpha are predicted to be efficacious in treating asthma as well as the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and pain. The introduction of a benzyl sulfonamide substituent at C2 was found to impart improved potency of these inhibitors, and the SAR of these sulfonamide analogues is disclosed. Compound 123 (Ecopladib) is a sub-micromolar inhibitor of cPLA2alpha in the GLU micelle and rat whole blood assays. Compound 123 displayed oral efficacy in the rat carrageenan air pouch and rat carrageenan-induced paw edema models.

  3. A novel approach to isoindolo[2,1-a]indol-6-ones.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Philip; Cheong, Yuen-Ki; Motevalli, Majid; Griffiths, D Vaughan

    2012-06-07

    A convenient route to isoindolo[2,1-a]indol-6-ones has been developed starting from the appropriate 2-(N-phthaloyl)benzoic acids. Formation of the acid chlorides with thionyl chloride followed by heating with triethyl phosphite in a suitable solvent resulted in a multistep reaction giving tetracyclic β-ketophosphonates that on reduction with sodium borohydride gave the required indolones in good overall yields. Analogous β-ketophosphonates were also prepared starting with N,N-(1,8-naphthaloyl)-2-aminobenzoic acid and 2-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzoic acids although of these only the naphthaloyl product could be reduced with sodium borohydride without cleaving the amide bond in the ring system.

  4. Substituent effects on photosensitized splitting of thymine cyclobutane dimer by an attached indole.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenjian; Zhou, Hongmei; Wang, Jing; Pan, Chunxiao; Shi, Jingbo; Song, Qinhua

    2012-12-21

    In chromophore-containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) model systems, solvent effects on the splitting efficiency may depend on the length of the linker, the molecular conformation, and the oxidation potential of the donor. To further explore the relationship between chromophore structure and splitting efficiency, we prepared a series of substituted indole-T< >T model compounds 2 a-2 g and measured their splitting quantum yields in various solvents. Two reverse solvent effects were observed: an increase in splitting efficiency in solvents of lower polarity for models 2 a-2 d with an electron-donating group (EDG), and vice versa for models 2 e-2 g with an electron-withdrawing group (EWG). According to the Hammett equation, the negative value of the slope of the Hammett plot indicates that the indole moiety during the T< >T-splitting reaction loses negative charge, and the larger negative value implies that the repair reaction is more sensitive to substituent effects in low-polarity solvents. The EDGs of the models 2 a-2 d can delocalize the charge-separated state, and low-polarity solvents make it more stable, which leads to higher splitting efficiency in low-polarity solvents. Conversely, the EWGs of models 2 e-2 g favor destabilization of the charge-separated state, and high-polarity solvents decrease the destabilization and hence lead to more efficient splitting in high-polarity solvents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Occurrence and in Vivo Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Corn (Zea mays L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Epstein, Ephraim

    1991-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was identified as an endogenous compound in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) var Inrakorn by thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its presence was also confirmed in the variety Hazera 224. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was metabolized to IBA in vivo by seedlings of the two maize varieties. The reaction product was identified by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after incubating the corn seedlings with [14C]IAA and [13C6]IAA. The in vivo conversion of IAA to IBA and the characteristics of IBA formation in two different maize varieties of Zea mays L. (Hazera 224 and Inrakorn) were investigated. IBA-forming activity was examined in the roots, leaves, and coleoptiles of both maize varieties. Whereas in the variety Hazera 224, IBA was formed mostly in the leaves, in the variety Inrakorn, IBA synthesis was detected in the roots as well as in the leaves. A time course study of IBA formation showed that maximum activity was reached in Inrakorn after 1 hour and in Hazera after 2 hours. The pH optimum for the uptake of IAA was 6.0, and that for IBA formation was 7.0. The Km value for IBA formation was 17 micromolar for Inrakorn and 25 micromolar for Hazera 224. The results are discussed with respect to the possible functions of IBA in the plant. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:16668464

  6. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  7. Investigation of electronically excited indole relaxation dynamics via photoionization and fragmentation pump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, T J; Yu, Hui; Ullrich, Susanne

    2014-07-28

    The studies herein investigate the involvement of the low-lying (1)La and (1)Lb states with (1)ππ(*) character and the (1)πσ(*) state in the deactivation process of indole following photoexcitation at 201 nm. Three gas-phase, pump-probe spectroscopic techniques are employed: (1) Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), (2) hydrogen atom (H-atom) time-resolved kinetic energy release (TR-KER), and (3) time-resolved ion yield (TR-IY). Each technique provides complementary information specific to the photophysical processes in the indole molecule. In conjunction, a thorough examination of the electronically excited states in the relaxation process, with particular focus on the involvement of the (1)πσ(*) state, is afforded. Through an extensive analysis of the TR-PES data presented here, it is deduced that the initial excitation of the (1)Bb state decays to the (1)La state on a timescale beyond the resolution of the current experimental setup. Relaxation proceeds on the (1)La state with an ultrafast decay constant (<100 femtoseconds (fs)) to the lower-lying (1)Lb state, which is found to possess a relatively long lifetime of 23 ± 5 picoseconds (ps) before regressing to the ground state. These studies also manifest an additional component with a relaxation time of 405 ± 76 fs, which is correlated with activity along the (1)πσ(*) state. TR-KER and TR-IY experiments, both specifically probing (1)πσ(*) dynamics, exhibit similar decay constants, further validating these observations.

  8. 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine derivatives as potent Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hequet, Arnaud; Burchak, Olga N; Jeanty, Matthieu; Guinchard, Xavier; Le Pihive, Emmanuelle; Maigre, Laure; Bouhours, Pascale; Schneider, Dominique; Maurin, Max; Paris, Jean-Marc; Denis, Jean-Noël; Jolivalt, Claude

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of 37 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine derivatives, including 12 new compounds, was achieved through a series of simple and efficient chemical modifications. These indole derivatives displayed modest or no intrinsic anti-staphylococcal activity. By contrast, several of the compounds restored, in a concentration-dependent manner, the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus strains that were resistant to fluoroquinolones due to overexpression of the NorA efflux pump. Structure-activity relationships studies revealed that the indolic aldonitrones halogenated at position 5 of the indole core were the most efficient inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA efflux pump. Among the compounds, (Z)-N-benzylidene-2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-1-(5-iodo-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine oxide led to a fourfold decrease of the ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration against the SA-1199B strain when used at a concentration of 0.5 mg L(-1) . To the best of our knowledge, this activity is the highest reported to date for an indolic NorA inhibitor. In addition, a new antibacterial compound, tert-butyl (2-(3-hydroxyureido)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)carbamate, which is not toxic for human cells, was also found. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Molecular insights into the enhanced rate of CO2 absorption to produce bicarbonate in aqueous 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Haley M; Hwang, Gyeong S

    2017-12-06

    2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), a sterically hindered amine, exhibits a much higher CO 2 absorption rate relative to tertiary amine diethylethanolamine (DEEA), while both yield bicarbonate as a major product in aqueous solution, despite their similar basicity. We present molecular mechanisms underlying the significant difference of CO 2 absorption rate based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations combined with metadynamics. Our calculations predict the free energy barrier for base-catalyzed CO 2 hydration to be lower in aqueous AMP compared to DEEA. Further molecular analysis suggests that the difference in free energy barrier is largely attributed to entropic effects associated with reorganization of H 2 O molecules adjacent to the basic N site. Stronger hydrogen bonding of H 2 O with N of DEEA than AMP, in addition to the presence of bulky ethyl groups, suppresses the thermal rearrangement of adjacent H 2 O molecules, thereby leading to lower stability of the transition state involving OH - creation and CO 2 polarization. Moreover, the hindered reorganization of adjacent H 2 O molecules is found to facilitate migration of OH - (created via proton abstraction by DEEA) away from the N site while suppressing CO 2 approach. This leads us to speculate that catalyzed CO 2 hydration in aqueous DEEA may involve OH - migration through multiple hydrogen-bonded H 2 O molecules prior to reaction with CO 2 , whereas in aqueous AMP it seems to preferentially follow the one H 2 O-mediated mechanism. This study highlights the importance of entropic effects in determining both mechanisms and rates of CO 2 absorption into aqueous sterically hindered amines.

  10. Inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoyi; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Husnu Can Baser, K; Kirimer, Nese; Pasco, David S; Khan, Ikhlas A; Khan, Shabana I

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent woman cancers. Genomic instability, accumulative mutations, and subsequent changes in intracellular signaling cascades play key roles in the development of human breast cancers. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in oncogenesis of breast cancers and is known to be associated with resistance to anticancer agents and apoptosis. Blocking NF-kappaB signaling may represent a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer therapy. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro effects of epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methyl butyrate (EPB), a phenylpropranoid isolated from Pimpinella corymbosa, on the activation of NF-kappaB, cell growth, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in MCF-7 (estrogen-dependent) and BT-549 (estrogen-independent) breast cancer cells. Transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was measured by cell based reporter gene assay. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry and apoptosis was observed by DAPI staining assy. EPB inhibited the NF-kappaB-mediated transcription activity induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in MCF-7 cells. EPB also inhibited constitutive NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in BT-549 cells. EPB inhibited the proliferation of both MCF-7 and BT-549 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. EPB induced cell cycle arrest in G(1)/G(0) phase and apoptosis in both MCF-7 and BT 549 cells. These in vitro results indicated that EPB has a potential for use against both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent breast cancers and its effects seem to be mediated by inhibiting the NF-kappaB activity.

  11. Design and construction of new potentiometric sensors for determination of Al3+ ion based on (Z)-2-(2-methyl benzylidene)-1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Mizani, F; Salmanzadeh Ardabili, S; Ganjaliab, M R; Faridbod, F; Payehghadr, M; Azmoodeh, M

    2015-04-01

    (Z)-2-(2-methyl benzylidene)-1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazine (L) was used as an active component of PVC membrane electrode (PME), coated graphite electrode (CGE) and coated silver wire electrode (CWE) for sensing Al(3+) ion. The electrodes exhibited linear Nernstian responses to Al(3+) ion in the concentration range of 1.0×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-1)M (for PME, LOD=8.8×10(-7)M), 5.5×10(-7) to 2.0×10(-1)M (for CWE, LOD=3.3×10(-7)M) and 1.5×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1)M (for CGE, LOD=9.2×10(-8)M). The best performances were observed with the membranes having the composition of L:PVC:NPOE:NaTPB in the ratio of 5:35:57:3 (w/w; mg). The electrodes have a response time of 6s and an applicable pH range of 3.5-9.1. The sensors have a lifetime of about 15weeks and exhibited excellent selectivity over a number of mono-, bi-, and tri-valent cations including alkali, alkaline earth metal, heavy and transition metal ions. Analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been further tested by using it as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Al(3+) with EDTA. The electrode was also successfully applied for the determination of Al(3+) ion in real and pharmaceutical samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol by pines: A potentially large natural source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, Peter; Fridd-Stroud, Verity; Greenberg, James; Guenther, Alex; Vasconcellos, PéRola

    1998-10-01

    High rates of emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were measured from needles of several pine species. Emissions of MBO in the light were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than emissions of monoterpenes and, in contrast to monoterpene emissions from pines, were absent in the dark. MBO emissions were strongly dependent on incident light, behaving similarly to net photosynthesis. Emission rates of MBO increased exponentially with temperature up to approximately 35°C. Above approximately 42°C, emission rates declined rapidly. Emissions could be modeled using existing algorithms for isoprene emission. We propose that emissions of MBO from lodgepole and ponderosa pine are the primary source of high concentrations of this compound, averaging 1-3 ppbv, found in ambient air samples collected in Colorado at an isolated mountain site approximately 3050 m above sea level. Subsequent field studies in a ponderosa pine plantation in California confirmed high MBO emissions, which averaged 25 μg C g-1 h-1 for 1-year-old needles, corrected to 30°C and photon flux of 1000 μmol m-2 s-1. A total of 34 pine species growing at Eddy Arboretum in Placerville, California, were investigated, of which 11 exhibited high emissions of MBO (>5 μg C g-1 h-1), and 6 emitted small but detectable amounts. All the emitting species are of North American origin, and most are restricted to western North America. These results indicate that MBO emissions from pines may constitute a significant source of reactive carbon and a significant source of acetone, to the atmosphere, particularly in the western United States.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXYPROPYL METHYLCELLULOSE-GRAFT-POLY (ACRYLIC ACID/2-ACRYLAMIDO-2-METHYL-1-PROPANESULFONIC ACID) POLYMERIC NETWORK FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF CAPTOPRIL.

    PubMed

    Furqan Muhammad, Iqbal; Mahmood, Ahmad; Aysha, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    A super-absorbent hydrogel was developed by crosslinking of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) for controlled release drug delivery of captopril, a well known antihypertensive drug. Acrylic acid and AMPS were polymerized and crosslinked with HPMC by free radical polymerization, a widely used chemical crosslinking method. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate (KPS) were added as cross-linker and initiator, respectively. The hydrogel formulation was loaded with captopril (as model drug). The concentration of captopril was monitored at 205 nm using UV spectrophotometer. Equilibrium swelling ratio was determined at pH 2, 4.5 and 7.4 to evaluate the pH responsiveness of the formed hydrogel. The super-absorbent hydrogels were evaluated by FTIR, SEM, XRD, and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA). The formation of new copolymeric network was determined by FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC analysis. The hydrogel formulations with acrylic acid and AMPS ratio of 4: 1 and lower amounts of crosslinker had shown maximum swelling. Moreover, higher release rate of captopril was observed at pH 7.4 than at pH 2, because of more swelling capacity of copolymer with increasing pH of the aqueous medium. The present research work confirms the development of a stable hydrogel comprising of HPMC with acrylic acid and AMPS. The prepared hydrogels exhibited pH sensitive behav-ior. This superabsorbent composite prepared could be a successful drug carrier for treating hypertension.

  14. C1q-Mediated Complement Activation and C3 Opsonization Trigger Recognition of Stealth Poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-Coated Silica Nanoparticles by Human Phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Gabrielli, Luca; Lubian, Elisa; Fedeli, Chiara; Visentin, Silvia; Polverino De Laureto, Patrizia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Geffner-Smith, Alessandra; Chen, Fangfang; Simberg, Dmitri; Morgese, Giulia; Benetti, Edmondo M; Wu, Linping; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Mancin, Fabrizio; Papini, Emanuele

    2018-05-23

    Poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA) is an alternative promising polymer to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for design and engineering of macrophage-evading nanoparticles (NPs). Although PMOXA-engineered NPs have shown comparable pharmacokinetics and in vivo performance to PEGylated stealth NPs in the murine model, its interaction with elements of the human innate immune system has not been studied. From a translational angle, we studied the interaction of fully characterized PMOXA-coated vinyltriethoxysilane-derived organically modified silica NPs (PMOXA-coated NPs) of approximately 100 nm in diameter with human complement system, blood leukocytes, and macrophages and compared their performance with PEGylated and uncoated NP counterparts. Through detailed immunological and proteomic profiling, we show that PMOXA-coated NPs extensively trigger complement activation in human sera exclusively through the classical pathway. Complement activation is initiated by the sensing molecule C1q, where C1q binds with high affinity ( K d = 11 ± 1 nM) to NP surfaces independent of immunoglobulin binding. C1q-mediated complement activation accelerates PMOXA opsonization with the third complement protein (C3) through the amplification loop of the alternative pathway. This promoted NP recognition by human blood leukocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. The macrophage capture of PMOXA-coated NPs correlates with sera donor variability in complement activation and opsonization but not with other major corona proteins, including clusterin and a wide range of apolipoproteins. In contrast to these observations, PMOXA-coated NPs poorly activated the murine complement system and were marginally recognized by mouse macrophages. These studies provide important insights into compatibility of engineered NPs with elements of the human innate immune system for translational steps.

  15. Placental surface area mediates the association between FGFR2 methylation in placenta and full-term low birth weight in girls.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fu-Ying; Wang, Xi-Meng; Xie, Chuanbo; Zhao, Bo; Niu, Zhongzheng; Fan, Lijun; Hivert, Marie-France; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 ( FGFR2 ) gene encodes a protein of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. FGFR2 gene expression is associated with the regulation of implantation process of placenta which plays a vital role in fetal growth. DNA methylation is widely known as a mechanism of fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether and how DNA methylation of FGFR2 gene in the placenta is associated with full-term low birth weight. This case-control study aims to explore the links between FGFR2 methylation in placenta and full-term low birth weight and to further examine the mediation effect of placental surface area on this association. We conducted analyses for each of the five valid CpG sites at FGFR2 in 165 mother-baby pairs (86 FT-LBW vs. 79 FT-NBW) and found that per one standard deviation increase in the DNA methylation of CpG 11 at FGFR2 was associated with 1.64-fold higher risk of full-term low birth weight (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = [1.07, 2.52]) and 0.18 standard deviation decrease in placental surface area ( β  = - 0.18; standard error = 0.08, p  = 0.02). The mediation effect of placental surface area on the association between DNA methylation and full-term low birth weight was significant in girls (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = [1.05, 1.80]) but not in boys. The estimated mediation proportion was 48.38%. Our findings suggested that placental surface area mediated the association between DNA methylation of FGFR2 in placenta and full-term low birth weight in a sex-specific manner. Our study supported the importance of placental epigenetic changes in placental development and fetal growth.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Methyl-4,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles as a Novel Class of Highly Potent Antitubulin Agents

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Prencipe, Filippo; Oliva, Paola; Baraldi, Stefania; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Lopez-Cara, Luisa Carlota; Brancale, Andrea; Ferla, Salvatore; Hamel, Ernest; Ronca, Roberto; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Mariotto, Elena; Porcù, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Antimitotic agents that interfere with microtubule formation are one of the major classes of cytotoxic drugs for cancer treatment. Multiple 2-methyl-4-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-substituted oxazoles and their related 4-substituted-5-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyphenyl) regioisomeric derivatives designed as cis-constrained combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines and, for selected highly active compounds, interaction with tubulin, cell cycle effects and in vivo potency. Both these series of compounds were characterized by the presence of a common 3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyphenyl ring at either the C-4 or C-5 position of the 2-methyloxazole ring. Compounds 4g and 4i, bearing a m-fluoro-p-methoxyphenyl or p-ethoxyphenyl moiety at the 5-position of 2-methyloxazole nucleus, respectively, exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 0.35-4.6 nM (4g) and 0.5–20.2 nM (4i), which are similar to those obtained with CA-4. These compounds bound to the colchicine site of tubulin and inhibited tubulin polymerization at submicromolar concentrations. Furthermore, 4i strongly induced apoptosis that follows the mitochondrial pathway. In vivo, 4i in a mouse syngeneic model demonstrated high antitumor activity which significantly reduced the tumor mass at doses ten times lower than that required for CA-4P, suggesting that 4i warrants further evaluation as a potential anticancer drug. PMID:28406191

  17. Low-Temperature Synchrotron Photoionization Study of 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) Oxidation Initiated by O(3P) Atoms in the 298-650 K Range.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Yasmin; Price, Chelsea; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-04-20

    This work studies the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol initiated by O( 3 P) atoms. The oxidation was investigated at room temperature, 550, and 650 K. Using the synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, reaction intermediates and products were studied by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. Mass-to-charge ratios, kinetic time traces, photoionization spectra, and adiabatic ionization energies for each primary reaction species were obtained and used to characterize their identity. Using electronic structure calculations, potential energy surface scans of the different species produced throughout the oxidation were examined and presented in this paper to further validate the primary chemistry occurring. Branching fractions of primary products at all three temperatures were also provided. At room temperature only three primary products formed: ethenol (26.6%), acetaldehyde (4.2%), and acetone (53.4%). At 550 and 650 K the same primary products were observed in addition to propene (5.1%, 11.2%), ethenol (18.1%, 2.8%), acetaldehyde (8.9%, 5.7%), cyclobutene (1.6%, 10.8%), 1-butene (2.0%, 10.9%), trans-2-butene (3.2%, 23.1%), acetone (50.4%, 16.8%), 3-penten-2-one (1.0%, 11.5%), and 3-methyl-2-butenal (0.9%, 2.5%), where the first branching fraction value in parentheses corresponds to the 550 K data. At the highest temperature, a small amount of propyne (1.0%) was also observed.

  18. Attenuation of behavioral effects of cocaine by the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Antagonist 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine in squirrel monkeys: comparison with dizocilpine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Buyean; Platt, Donna M; Rowlett, James K; Adewale, Adepero S; Spealman, Roger D

    2005-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the behavioral effects of cocaine related to its abuse. The mGluR5 subtype, in particular, has come under scrutiny due to its distribution in brain regions associated with drug addiction. This study investigated interactions between the selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and cocaine in squirrel monkeys whose lever-pressing behavior was 1) maintained under a second-order schedule of cocaine self-administration, 2) extinguished and then reinstated by cocaine priming, and 3) controlled by the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of cocaine. Additional studies determined the effects of MPEP on unconditioned behaviors, coordination, and muscle resistance. In each experiment, the effects of MPEP were compared with those of the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist dizocilpine. MPEP attenuated cocaine self-administration, cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and the DS effects of cocaine at doses that did not markedly impair motor function or operant behavior in the context of drug discrimination. Dizocilpine also attenuated cocaine self-administration, but it did not significantly alter cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and it enhanced rather than attenuated the DS effects of cocaine. The findings point to a significant contribution of mGluR5 mechanisms in the behavioral effects of cocaine related to its abuse and suggest that MPEP has properties of a functional cocaine antagonist, which are not secondary to antagonism at NMDA receptors. The contrasting interactions of MPEP and dizocilpine with cocaine imply that glutamate acting through different metabotropic and ionotropic receptors may modulate the behavioral effects of cocaine in qualitatively different ways.

  19. Phthalocyanines functionalized with 2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolylethoxy and 1,4,7-trioxanonyl moieties and the effect of metronidazole substitution on photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, Marcin; Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Kruk, Justyna; Jusiak, Weronika; Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Tykarska, Ewa; Gdaniec, Maria; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    Four novel magnesium(II) and zinc(II) phthalocyanines bearing 1,4,7-trioxanonyl, polyether and/or (2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy, heterocyclic substituents at their non-peripheral positions were synthesized and assessed in terms of physicochemical and biological properties. Magnesium phthalocyanine derivatives bearing polyether substituents (Pc-1), a mixed system of polyether and heterocyclic substituents (Pc-3), and four heterocyclic substituents (Pc-4), respectively, were synthesized following the Linstead macrocyclization reaction procedure. Zinc phthalocyanine (Pc-2) bearing polyether substituents at non-peripheral positions was synthesized following the procedure in n-pentanol with the zinc acetate, and DBU. Novel phthalocyanines were purified by flash column chromatography and characterized using NMR, MS, UV-Vis and HPLC. Moreover, two precursors in macrocyclization reaction phthalonitriles were characterized using X-ray. Photophysical properties of the novel macrocycles were evaluated, including UV-Vis spectra analysis and aggregation study. All macrocycles subjected to singlet oxygen generation and the oxidation rate constant measurements exhibited lower quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation in DMSO than in DMF. In addition, the Pc-2 molecule was found to be the most efficient singlet oxygen generator from the group of macrocycles studied. The photocytotoxicity evaluated on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, HSC-3, for Pc-3 was significantly higher than that for Pc-1, Pc-2, and Pc-4. Interestingly, Pc-3 was found to be the most active macrocycle in vitro although its ability to generate singlet oxygen was significantly lower than those of Pc-1 and Pc-2. However, attempts to encapsulate phthalocyanines Pc-1-Pc-3 in liposomal membranes were unsuccessful. The phthalocyanine-nitroimidazole conjugate, Pc-4 was encapsulated in phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes and subjected to photocytotoxicity study.

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Methyl-4,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles as a Novel Class of Highly Potent Antitubulin Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Prencipe, Filippo; Oliva, Paola; Baraldi, Stefania; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Lopez-Cara, Luisa Carlota; Brancale, Andrea; Ferla, Salvatore; Hamel, Ernest; Ronca, Roberto; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Mariotto, Elena; Porcù, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2017-04-01

    Antimitotic agents that interfere with microtubule formation are one of the major classes of cytotoxic drugs for cancer treatment. Multiple 2-methyl-4-(3‧,4‧,5‧-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-substituted oxazoles and their related 4-substituted-5-(3‧,4‧,5‧-trimethoxyphenyl) regioisomeric derivatives designed as cis-constrained combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines and, for selected highly active compounds, interaction with tubulin, cell cycle effects and in vivo potency. Both these series of compounds were characterized by the presence of a common 3‧,4‧,5‧-trimethoxyphenyl ring at either the C-4 or C-5 position of the 2-methyloxazole ring. Compounds 4g and 4i, bearing a m-fluoro-p-methoxyphenyl or p-ethoxyphenyl moiety at the 5-position of 2-methyloxazole nucleus, respectively, exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 0.35-4.6 nM (4g) and 0.5-20.2 nM (4i), which are similar to those obtained with CA-4. These compounds bound to the colchicine site of tubulin and inhibited tubulin polymerization at submicromolar concentrations. Furthermore, 4i strongly induced apoptosis that follows the mitochondrial pathway. In vivo, 4i in a mouse syngeneic model demonstrated high antitumor activity which significantly reduced the tumor mass at doses ten times lower than that required for CA-4P, suggesting that 4i warrants further evaluation as a potential anticancer drug.

  1. Analytical methods for the determination of urinary 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid in occupationally exposed subjects and in the general population.

    PubMed

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Bozzi, N

    1997-01-01

    Two methods for the quantitative analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in urine were compared. The first was an high-performance liquid chromatography method using a C8 column with ion suppression and diode array detection. The urine extracts were first purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on silica capillary columns. The detection limit of the method was 15 micrograms/L for both compounds. The percentage coefficient of variation of the whole analysis evaluated at a concentration of 125.0 micrograms/L was 6.2% for 2,4-D and 6.8% for MCPA. The mean recovery of analysis was 81% for 2,4-D and 85% for MCPA. The second was a gas chromatographic (GC) method in which the compounds were first derivatized with pentafluorobenzylbromide to pentafluorobenzyl esters, which were determined with a slightly polar capillary column and electron capture detection. Before GC analysis, the urine extracts were purified by SPE on silica capillary columns. This method had a detection limit of 1 microgram/L for both compounds and a percentage coefficient of variation of the whole analysis, evaluated at a concentration of 30.0 micrograms/L, of 8% for 2,4-D, and of 5.5% for MCPA. the mean recovery was 87% for 2,4-D and 94% for MCPA. The low detection limit made the second method suitable for assaying the two herbicides in the general population. Duplicate analysis of ten urine samples from occupationally exposed subjects by the two methods gave identical results for a wide range of concentrations.

  2. The metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine decreases striatal VGlut2 expression in association with an attenuation of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Aguilar, E; Jiménez, A

    2011-10-01

    The striatal glutamatergic hyperactivity is considered critical in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pharmacological antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), in particular, the subtype mGluR5, can inhibit the expression of dyskinesia in both rodent and nonhuman primate models of PD. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the mGluR5 antagonism effects are not completely known. The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluts) are localized in the synaptic vesicles of the striatal glutamatergic axonal terminals. The effects of mGluR5 antagonism modulating VGlut1 and VGlut2, as selective markers for the corticostriatal and thalamostriatal pathways, respectively, are still unknown. We investigated the effects of the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP) on the striatal expression of VGlut1 and VGlut2 in levodopa-treated hemiparkinsonian rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Rats were treated with: (a) levodopa (12 mg/kg/day with benserazide 15 mg/kg, ip) + vehicle; (b) MPEP (1.5 mg/kg/day, ip) + vehicle; (c) levodopa + MPEP, or (d) saline for 10 days. Levodopa treatment induced dyskinesias and did not modify the striatal expression of either VGlut1 or VGlut2. The administration of MPEP significantly attenuated LID and decreased the levels of VGlut2, but not the VGlut1, in the striatum ipsilateral to the lesion (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the effects of MPEP on LID might be mediated by a modulating effect on VGlut 2 expression. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Indole alkaloid marine natural products: An established source of cancer drug leads with considerable promise for the control of parasitic, neurological and other diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Waseem; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment produces natural products from a variety of structural classes exhibiting activity against numerous disease targets. Historically marine natural products have largely been explored as anticancer agents. The indole alkaloids are a class of marine natural products that show unique promise in the development of new drug leads. This report reviews the literature on indole alkaloids of marine origin and also highlights our own research. Specific biological activities of indole alkaloids presented here include: cytotoxicity, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, serotonin antagonism, Ca-releasing, calmodulin antagonism, and other pharmacological activities. PMID:16236327

  4. Synthesis and in vitro antiproliferative activity of 2-methyl-3-(2-piperazin-1-yl-ethyl)-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mallesha, Lingappa; Mohana, Kikkeri N; Veeresh, Bantal; Alvala, Ravi; Mallika, Alvala

    2012-01-01

    A series of new 2-methyl-3-(2-piperazin-1-yl-ethyl)-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives 6a-j were synthesized by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 2-methyl-3-(2-piperazin-1-ylethyl)-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one with various sulfonyl chlorides. The compounds were characterized by different spectral studies. All the compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method against four human cancer cell lines (K562, Colo-205, MDA-MB 231, IMR-32) for the time period of 24 h. Among the series, compounds 6d, 6e and 6i showed good activity on all cell lines except K562, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity. Compound 6d could be a potential anticancer agent and therefore deserves further research.

  5. 1-Pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole and 2-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-1 H-indol-3-yl)-ethanone: X-ray structures and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nycz, Jacek E.; Malecki, Grzegorz; Zawiazalec, Marcin; Pazdziorek, Tadeusz; Skop, Patrycja

    2010-12-01

    1-Pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (shortly named JWH-081) ( 1) and 2-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-1 H-indol-3-yl)-ethanone (shortly named JWH-250) ( 2), are examples of cannabinoids which were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The geometries of the studied compounds were optimized in singlet states using the density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP functional. Electronic spectra were calculated by TDDFT method. In general, the predicted bond lengths and angles are in a good agreement with the values based on the X-ray crystal structure data.

  6. Synthesis and spectral studies of some 4H-pyran derivatives: Crystal and molecular structure of isobutyl 6-amino-5-cyano-2-methyl-4-phenyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udhaya Kumar, C.; Sethukumar, A.; Arul Prakasam, B.

    2013-03-01

    A series of isobutyl 6-amino-4-aryl-5-cyano-2-methyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylates (1-9) have been synthesized by the multicomponent reaction (MCR) between isobutyl ethylacetoacetate, aryl aldehydes and malononitrile using BF3:OEt2 as catalyst. The derived compounds have been analyzed by IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectra. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1, evidences the flattened-boat conformation of pyran ring.

  7. The physiological disposition of the uricosuric-saluretic agent (6,7-dichloro-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-phenyl-5-indanyloxy)acetic acid (MK-196) in the rat, dog, and monkey.

    PubMed

    Zacchei, A G; Wishousky, T I

    1976-01-01

    The physiological disposition of a new saluretic-uricosuric agent, (6,7-dichloro-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-phenyl-5-indanyloxy)acetic acid (MK-196), was studied in the rat, dog, and monkey. MK-196 was well absorbed and showed minimal metabolism in these species. Peak plasma levels of radioactivity and drug occurred 0.5-2 hr after oral administration at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Essentially all of the radioactivity present in the plasma during the first day was intact MK-196. Following a single dose, a long terminal half-life for plasma radioactivity was observed in the dog (approximately 68 hr) and monkey (approximately 105 hr). The chronic administration of MK-196 to dogs resulted in a dose-related plasma profile and showed no tendency to increase or decrease with dosing. However, upon repeated drug administration to monkeys, the plasma levels of drug increased and then decreased, possibly due to hypochloremia and secondary metabolic alkalosis. Fecal excretion was the predominant route of tracer elimination in the dog (approximately 80%) and rat (approximately 94%), whereas the monkey eliminated the majority of the dose (approximately 60%) via the urine. Minimal metabolism was noted in the three lower species; most of the urinary, plasma, and fecal radioactivity was accounted for as intact drug and its glucuronide conjugate. Three minor metabolites, which were present in dog bile, plasma, and urine, were characterized as: (l,7-dichloro-1alpha-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-phenyl-5-indanyloxy)acetic acid, I; (6,7-dichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-2-oxo-5-indanyloxy)acetic acid, II; and 2-methyl-2-phenyl-5-hydroxy-6,7-dichloro-1-indanone, III. The monkey urine and plasma also contained small amounts of II.

  8. Rotational diffusion of nondipolar and charged solutes in alkyl-substituted imidazolium triflimides: effect of C2 methylation on solute rotation.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sugosh R; Dutt, G B

    2014-08-07

    Rotational diffusion of a nondipolar solute 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and a charged solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been investigated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Tf2N]) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMMIM][Tf2N]) to understand the influence of the C2 methylation on solute rotation. The measured reorientation times of the nondipolar solute DMDPP are similar in both the ionic liquids and follow Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory with slip hydrodynamics. In contrast, rotational diffusion of the charged solute R110 in [BMIM][Tf2N] obeys stick hydrodynamics due to specific interactions with the anion of the ionic liquid. Nevertheless, the intriguing result of this study is that the reorientation times of R110 in [BMMIM][Tf2N] deviate significantly from the predictions of stick hydrodynamics, especially at ambient temperatures. The solute-solvent boundary condition parameter Cobs, which is defined as the ratio of the measured reorientation time to the one calculated using the SED theory with stick boundary condition, for R110 is lower by a factor of 2 in [BMMIM][Tf2N] compared to [BMIM][Tf2N] at 298 K. Upon increasing the temperature, Cobs gradually increases and eventually matches with that obtained in [BMIM][Tf2N] at 348 K. It has been well established that methylation of the C2 position in [BMMIM][Tf2N] switches off the main hydrogen-bonding interaction between the anion and the cation, but increases the Coulombic interactions. As a consequence of the enhanced interionic interactions between the cation and anion of the ionic liquid, specific interactions between R110 and [Tf2N] diminish leading to the faster rotation of the solute. However, such an influence is not apparent in case of DMDPP as it does not experience specific interactions with either the cation or the anion of these ionic liquids.

  9. Solubility and diffusivity of N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in (diethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and in (diethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.H.; Lee, W.C.

    1996-05-01

    Acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are frequently removed from natural gas, synthetic natural gas, and other process gas streams by means of absorption into aqueous alkanol-amine solutions. The solubility and diffusivity of N{sub 2}O in (diethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and in (diethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water) were measured at (30, 35, and 40)C and at atmospheric pressure. Five (diethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and four (diethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water) systems were studied. The total amine mass percent in all cases was 30. A solubility apparatus was used to measure the solubility of N{sub 2}Omore » in amine solutions. The diffusivity was measured by a wetted wall column absorber. The N{sub 2}O analogy was used to estimate the solubility and diffusivity of CO{sub 2} in (diethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and in (diethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water).« less

  10. Solubility and diffusivity of N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in (monoethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and in (monoethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + water)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.H.; Lai, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    Solutions of amines are frequently used in gas-treating processes to remove acid gases, such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S, from gas streams in the natural gas and synthetic ammonia industries and petroleum chemical plants. The solubility and diffusivity of N{sub 2}O in (monoethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and in (monoethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol + water) were measured at 30, 35, and 40 C and at atmospheric pressure. Six (monoethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and five (monoethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol + water) systems were studied. The total amine mass percent in all cases was 30. The solubilities were measured by a solubilitymore » apparatus similar to that of Haimour and Sandall (1984). A wetted wall column absorber was used to obtain the diffusivity of N{sub 2}O in amines. The N{sub 2}O solubilities in amine solutions have been correlated on the basis of the excess Henry constant correlation of Wang et al. (1992). The N{sub 2}O analogy was used to estimate the solubility and diffusivity of CO{sub 2} in (monoethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine + water) and in (monoethanolamine + 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol + water).« less

  11. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Baker, Andrew; Chen, Pei

    2011-09-30

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine or ajmalicine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized and reduced species, were characterized. Common fragments and mass differences are described. It was shown that the use of IMS could provide another molecular descriptor, i.e. molecular shape by rotationally averaged collision cross-section; this is of great value for identification of constituents when reference materials are usually not available. Using the combination of high resolution (~40000) accurate mass measurement with time-aligned parallel (TAP) fragmentation, MS(E) (where E represents collision energy), ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) and UPLC chromatography, a total 55 indole alkaloids were characterized and a few new indole alkaloids are reported for the first time. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Iridium-catalyzed direct synthesis of tryptamine derivatives from indoles: exploiting n-protected β-amino alcohols as alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mari, Michele; Bedini, Annalida; Piersanti, Giovanni; Spadoni, Gilberto

    2015-03-20

    The selective C3-alkylation of indoles with N-protected ethanolamines involving the "borrowing hydrogen" strategy is described. This method provides convenient and sustainable access to several tryptamine derivatives.

  13. Ag(I)-Promoted Dehydroxylation and Site-Selective 1,7-Disulfonylation of Diaryl(1 H-indol-2-yl)methanols.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Cao, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2018-06-01

    A novel dehydroxylation and site-selective 1,7-disulfonylation reaction of diaryl(1 H-indol-2-yl)methanols with sodium sulfinates was described. The protocol provided an efficient strategy for the synthesis of disulfonylated 2-(diarylmethyl)indoles by exploring a range of substrates. The mechanistic studies revealed that silver nitrate served as both a Lewis acid and an oxidant for the sequential 1,7-disulfonylation process leading to the formation of final products.

  14. A new method for rapid determination of indole-3-carbinol and its condensation products in nutraceuticals using core-shell column chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Fibigr, Jakub; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-20

    Indole-3-carbinol is a natural glucosinolate known for prevention of human breast, prostate and other types of cancer and it started to be used in commercial preparations, as food supplements. However no analytical method has been proposed for quality control of nutraceuticals with this substance yet. In this paper a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using core-shell column for separation of indole-3-carbinol and its condensation/degradation products was developed and used for the quantitative determination of indole-3-carbinol in nutraceuticals. Separation of indole-3-carbinol, its condensation/degradation products and internal standard ethylparaben was performed on the core-shell column Kinetex 5μ XB-C18 100A (100×4.6mm), particle size 5.0μm, with mobile phase acetonitrile/water according to the gradient program at a flow rate of 1.25mLmin(-1) and at temperature 50°C. The detection wavelength was set at 270nm. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions good linearity of determination was achieved. Available commercial samples of nutraceuticals were extracted with 100% methanol using ultrasound bath. A 5-μL sample volume of the supernatant was directly injected into the HPLC system. The developed method provided rapid and accurate tool for quality control of nutraceuticals based on cruciferous vegetable extracts with indole-3-carbinol content. The presented study showed that the declared content of indole-3-carbinol significantly varied in the different nutraceuticals available on the market. Two analyzed preparations showed the presence of condensation/degradation products of indole-3-carbinol which were not officially declared by the manufacturer. Moreover, further two analyzed nutraceutical preparations showed absolutely no content of declared amount of indole-3-carbinol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new indole alkaloid from Rauvolfia serpentina hairy root culture: the first naturally occurring alkaloid of the raumacline group.

    PubMed

    Sheludko, Yuri; Gerasimenko, Irina; Kolshorn, Heinz; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-05-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 10-hydroxy- N(alpha)-demethyl-19,20-dehydroraumacline ( 1), was isolated as a mixture of E- and Z-isomers from hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz (Apocynaceae) and the structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The new indole alkaloid represents the first naturally occurring alkaloid of the raumacline group and its putative biosynthetical pathway is discussed.

  16. Study of the relaxation rate of photoexcited indole molecules by the interferometric pump-and-probe method at picosecond resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, A. L.; Il'ina, A. D.; Sukharev, A. A.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2017-09-01

    We present a new interferometric method that can be used for studying the dynamics of photoinduced processes in biologically important molecules at ultrahigh temporal resolution. The method is based upon the detection of changes in the refractive index of a substance excited by pulsed radiation of a femtosecond laser, which are measured by the pump-and-probe technique using time-delayed pulses of the same laser. The high sensitivity and stability of the interferometer allow this method to be used for monitoring variation of the concentration of short-lived excited states of biomolecules in solution. The proposed method has been verified by application to indole solutions in propylene glycol. The upper estimate of the lifetime of photoexcited indole molecules in solution amounted to about 40 ps.

  17. Hairy root biotechnology of Rauwolfia serpentina: a potent approach for the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Goel, Manoj K; Srivastava, Vikas; Rahman, Laiq Ur

    2015-02-01

    Hairy root cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes have been investigated extensively for the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids. Various biotechnological developments, such as scaling up in bioreactors, pathway engineering etc., have been explored to improve their metabolite production potential. These hairy roots are competent for regenerating into complete plants and show survival and unaltered biosynthetic potential during storage at low temperature. This review provides a comprehensive account of the hairy root cultures of R. serpentina, their biosynthetic potential and various biotechnological methods used to explore the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids. The review also indicates how biotechnological endeavors might improve the future progress of research for production of alkaloids using Rauwolfia hairy roots.

  18. Understanding the NMR properties and conformational behavior of indole vs. azaindole group in protoberberines: NICS and NCS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Shivaji S.; Toušek, Jaromír; Maier, Lukáš; Pipíška, Matej; Sklenář, Vladimír; Marek, Radek

    2012-11-01

    We report here the preparation and the structural investigation into a series of 8-(indol-1-yl)-7,8-dihydroprotoberberine derivatives derived from berberine, palmatine, and coptisine. Structures of these new compounds were characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and the conformational behavior was investigated by using methods of density-functional theory (DFT). PBE0/6-311+G** calculated NMR chemical shifts for selected derivatives correlate excellently with the experimental NMR data and support the structural conclusions drawn from the NMR experiments. An interesting role of the nitrogen atom in position N7' of the indole moiety in 8-(7-azaindol-1-yl)-7,8-dihydroprotoberberines as compared to other 8-indolyl derivatives is investigated in detail. The experimentally observed trends in NMR chemical shifts are rationalized by DFT calculations and analysis based on the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs).

  19. From indole to pyrrole, furan, thiophene and pyridine: Search for novel small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription initiation complex formation.

    PubMed

    Thach, Oscar; Mielczarek, Marcin; Ma, Cong; Kutty, Samuel K; Yang, Xiao; Black, David StC; Griffith, Renate; Lewis, Peter J; Kumar, Naresh

    2016-03-15

    The search for small molecules capable of inhibiting transcription initiation in bacteria has resulted in the synthesis of N,N'-disubstituted hydrazines and imine-carbohydrazides comprised of indole, pyridine, pyrrole, furan and thiophene using the respective trichloroacetyl derivatives, carbohydrazides and aldehydes. Replacement of the indole moiety by smaller heterocycles linked by CONHNC linkers afforded a broad variety of compounds efficiently targeting the RNA polymerase-σ(70)/σ(A) interaction as determined by ELISA and exhibiting increased inhibition of the growth of Escherichia coli compared to Bacillus subtilis in culture. The structural features of the synthesized transcription initiation inhibitors needed for antibacterial activity were identified employing molecular modelling and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide as TNF-α Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Shen, Qi; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2018-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Dysregulation of TNF can lead to a variety of disastrous pathological effects, including auto-inflammatory diseases. Antibodies that directly targeting TNF-α have been proven effective in suppressing symptoms of these disorders. Compared to protein drugs, small molecule drugs are normally orally available and less expensive. Till now, peptide and small molecule TNF-α inhibitors are still in the early stage of development, and much more efforts should be made. In a previously study, we reported a TNF-α inhibitor, EJMC-1 with modest activity. Here, we optimized this compound by shape screen and rational design. In the first round, we screened commercial compound library for EJMC-1 analogs based on shape similarity. Out of the 68 compounds tested, 20 compounds showed better binding affinity than EJMC-1 in the SPR competitive binding assay. These 20 compounds were tested in cell assay and the most potent compound was 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[ cd ]indole-6-sulfonamide ( S10 ) with an IC 50 of 14 μM, which was 2.2-fold stronger than EJMC-1 . Based on the docking analysis of S10 and EJMC-1 binding with TNF-α, in the second round, we designed S10 analogs, purchased seven of them, and synthesized seven new compounds. The best compound, 4e showed an IC 50 -value of 3 μM in cell assay, which was 14-fold stronger than EJMC-1 . 4e was among the most potent TNF-α organic compound inhibitors reported so far. Our study demonstrated that 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[ cd ]indole-6-sulfonamide analogs could be developed as potent TNF-α inhibitors. 4e can be further optimized for its activity and properties. Our study provides insights into designing small molecule inhibitors directly targeting TNF-α and for protein-protein interaction inhibitor design.

  1. Loop-loop interactions govern multiple steps in indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaccardi, Margot J; O'Rourke, Kathleen F; Yezdimer, Eric M; Loggia, Laura J; Woldt, Svenja; Boehr, David D

    2014-01-01

    Substrate binding, product release, and likely chemical catalysis in the tryptophan biosynthetic enzyme indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) are dependent on the structural dynamics of the β1α1 active-site loop. Statistical coupling analysis and molecular dynamic simulations had previously indicated that covarying residues in the β1α1 and β2α2 loops, corresponding to Arg54 and Asn90, respectively, in the Sulfolobus sulfataricus enzyme (ssIGPS), are likely important for coordinating functional motions of these loops. To test this hypothesis, we characterized site mutants at these positions for changes in catalytic function, protein stability and structural dynamics for the thermophilic ssIGPS enzyme. Although there were only modest changes in the overall steady-state kinetic parameters, solvent viscosity and solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects indicated that these amino acid substitutions change the identity of the rate-determining step across multiple temperatures. Surprisingly, the N90A substitution had a dramatic effect on the general acid/base catalysis of the dehydration step, as indicated by the loss of the descending limb in the pH rate profile, which we had previously assigned to Lys53 on the β1α1 loop. These changes in enzyme function are accompanied with a quenching of ps-ns and µs-ms timescale motions in the β1α1 loop as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Altogether, our studies provide structural, dynamic and functional rationales for the coevolution of residues on the β1α1 and β2α2 loops, and highlight the multiple roles that the β1α1 loop plays in IGPS catalysis. Thus, substitution of covarying residues in the active-site β1α1 and β2α2 loops of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase results in functional, structural, and dynamic changes, highlighting the multiple roles that the β1α1 loop plays in enzyme catalysis and the importance of regulating the structural dynamics of this loop through noncovalent

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide as TNF-alpha Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Shen, Qi; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2018-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Dysregulation of TNF can lead to a variety of disastrous pathological effects, including auto-inflammatory diseases. Antibodies that directly targeting TNF-α have been proven effective in suppressing symptoms of these disorders. Compared to protein drugs, small molecule drugs are normally orally available and less expensive. Till now, peptide and small molecule TNF-α inhibitors are still in the early stage of development, and much more efforts should be made. In a previously study, we reported a TNF-α inhibitor, EJMC-1 with modest activity. Here, we optimized this compound by shape screen and rational design. In the first round, we screened commercial compound library for EJMC-1 analogs based on shape similarity. Out of the 68 compounds tested, 20 compounds showed better binding affinity than EJMC-1 in the SPR competitive binding assay. These 20 compounds were tested in cell assay and the most potent compound was 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide (S10) with an IC50 of 14 M, which was 2.2-fold stronger than EJMC-1. Based on the docking analysis of S10 and EJMC-1 binding with TNF-α, in the second round, we designed S10 analogues, purchased 7 of them and synthesized 7 new compounds. The best compound, 4e showed an IC50 value of 3 M in cell assay, which was 14-fold stronger than EJMC-1. 4e was among the most potent TNF-α organic compound inhibitors reported so far. Our study demonstrated that 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide analogues could be developed as potent TNF-α inhibitors. 4e can be further optimized for its activity and properties. Our study provides insights into designing small molecule inhibitors directly targeting TNF-α and for protein-protein interaction inhibitor design.

  3. Indole-3-acetic acid UDP-glucosyltransferase from immature seeds of pea is involved in modification of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Hetmann, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The glycosylation of auxin is one of mechanisms contributing to hormonal homeostasis. The enzyme UDPG: indole-3-ylacetyl-β-D-glucosyltransferase (IAA glucosyltransferase, IAGlc synthase) catalyzes the reversible reaction: IAA+UDPG↔1-O-IA-glucose+UDP, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of IAA-ester conjugates in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, we report IAA-glucosyltransferase isolated using a biochemical approach from immature seed of pea (Pisum sativum). The enzyme was purified by PEG fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography and preparative PAGE. LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides of the enzyme revealed the high identity with maize IAGlc synthase, but lack of homology with other IAA-glucosyltransferases from dicots. Biochemical characterization showed that of several acyl acceptors tested, the enzyme had the highest activity on IAA as the glucosyl acceptor (Km=0.52 mM, Vmax=161 nmol min(-1), kcat/Km=4.36 mM s(-1)) and lower activity on indole-3-propionic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Whereas indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-propionic acid were competitive inhibitors of IAGlc synthase, D-gluconic acid lactone, an inhibitor of β-glucosidase activity, potentiated the enzyme activity at the optimal concentration of 0.3mM. Moreover, we demonstrated that the 1-O-IA-glucose synthesized by IAGlc synthase is the substrate for IAA labeling of glycoproteins from pea seeds indicating a possible role of this enzyme in the covalent modification of a class of proteins by a plant hormone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expedient preparation of nazlinine and a small library of indole alkaloids using flow electrochemistry as an enabling technology.

    PubMed

    Kabeshov, Mikhail A; Musio, Biagia; Murray, Philip R D; Browne, Duncan L; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-05

    An expedient synthesis of the indole alkaloid nazlinine is reported. Judicious choice of flow electrochemistry as an enabling technology has permitted the rapid generation of a small library of unnatural relatives of this biologically active molecule. Furthermore, by conducting the key electrochemical Shono oxidation in a flow cell, the loading of electrolyte can be significantly reduced to 20 mol % while maintaining a stable, broadly applicable process.

  5. Indole-3-carbinol protects against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity: role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N; Mahran, Yasmen F

    2016-07-15

    Nephrotoxicity associated with the clinical use of the anticancer drug cisplatin is a limiting problem. Thus, searching for new protective measures is required. Indole-3-carbinol is a powerful anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of indole-3-carbinol against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were pre-treated with 20 mg/kg indole-3-carbinol orally before giving cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity was demonstrated where relative kidney weight, BUN and serum creatinine were significantly increased. Increased oxidative stress was evident in cisplatin group where GSH and SOD tissue levels were significantly depleted. Also, lipid peroxidation and NOX-1 were increased as compared to the control. Additionally, renal expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was induced by cisplatin. Cisplatin-induced cell death was shown by increased caspase-3 and decreased expression of EGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor. Nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic effects induced by cisplatin were significantly ameliorated by indole-3-carbinol pre-treatment. Besides, the role of CGRP in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was explored. Furthermore, cisplatin cytotoxic activity was significantly enhanced by indole-3-carbinol pre-treatment in vitro. In conclusion, indole-3-carbinol provides protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Also, reduced expression of CGRP may play a role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced renal injury.

  6. Indole-3-carbinol protects against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity: role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and insulin-like growth factor-1

    PubMed Central

    El-Naga, Reem N.; Mahran, Yasmen F.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity associated with the clinical use of the anticancer drug cisplatin is a limiting problem. Thus, searching for new protective measures is required. Indole-3-carbinol is a powerful anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of indole-3-carbinol against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were pre-treated with 20 mg/kg indole-3-carbinol orally before giving cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity was demonstrated where relative kidney weight, BUN and serum creatinine were significantly increased. Increased oxidative stress was evident in cisplatin group where GSH and SOD tissue levels were significantly depleted. Also, lipid peroxidation and NOX-1 were increased as compared to the control. Additionally, renal expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was induced by cisplatin. Cisplatin-induced cell death was shown by increased caspase-3 and decreased expression of EGF, IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor. Nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic effects induced by cisplatin were significantly ameliorated by indole-3-carbinol pre-treatment. Besides, the role of CGRP in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was explored. Furthermore, cisplatin cytotoxic activity was significantly enhanced by indole-3-carbinol pre-treatment in vitro. In conclusion, indole-3-carbinol provides protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Also, reduced expression of CGRP may play a role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced renal injury. PMID:27417335

  7. Characterization and Selection of 3-(1-Naphthoyl)-Indole Derivative-Specific Alpaca VHH Antibodies Using a Phage Display Library.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yoshida, Maiko; Muraoka, Jin; Wakai, Junko; Kenjyou, Noriko; Ito, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    A new alpaca VHH antibody library against 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives was developed from alpaca immunized with 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Hep-KLH) protein conjugates as the immunogen. From this library, two 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivative-specific clones, named NN01 and NN02, were isolated using biopanning technology. The binding specificity of these clones was confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Based on the results of c-ELISA, a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these two VHH antibodies, NN01 and NN02, in the case of 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid (Hep; one of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives) as an inhibitor exhibited an approximate 3 × 10(-7) M and 6 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Thus, VHH antibodies produced in this study could be considered a useful tool for the detection of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives.

  8. [Co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Martirosian, Gayane; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Cieślik, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by C. trachomatis. The swabs from vagina and cervical canal have been obtained from 122 women (aged 18-40). The presence of C. trachomatis antigen had been detected and diagnosed with the help of direct immunofluorescence, BV with Amesl and Nugent criteria, whereas the AV with Donders criteria. The identification of the bacterial strains isolated from vagina has been performed according to classical microbiological diagnostics. Disruption of vaginal microflora (4-10 in Nugent score) was determined in 11,5% of observed women. AV was diagnosed in 4.5% women with chlamydial cervicitis, BV was diagnosed in 10.9% and 5.45% of these women, on the basis of Amsel and Nugent criteria respectively. Indole-producing bacterial strains connected with BV and AV (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli) have been isolated significantly more often from vagina of women infected with C trachomatis (p = 0.0405, chi2 = 4.20) and these findings confirm co-importance of indole-producing bacterial strains in cervicitis caused by C trachomatis .

  9. Rhizovarins A-F, Indole-Diterpenes from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Mucor irregularis QEN-189.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Williams, Katherine; Proksch, Peter; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-26

    Genome mining of the fungus Mucor irregularis (formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis) revealed the presence of various gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including several terpene-based clusters. Investigation into the chemical diversity of M. irregularis QEN-189, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh inner tissue of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the discovery of 20 structurally diverse indole-diterpenes including six new compounds, namely, rhizovarins A-F (1-6). Among them, compounds 1-3 represent the most complex members of the reported indole-diterpenes. The presence of an unusual acetal linked to a hemiketal (1) or a ketal (2 and 3) in an unprecedented 4,6,6,8,5,6,6,6,6-fused indole-diterpene ring system makes them chemically unique. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and chemical calculations. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antitumor activity against HL-60 and A-549 cell lines.

  10. New 6- and 7-heterocyclyl-1H-indole derivatives as potent tubulin assembly and cancer cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Naccarato, Valentina; Famiglini, Valeria; Nalli, Marianna; Masci, Domiziana; Verrico, Annalisa; Rovella, Paola; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Cavallini, Chiara; Martini, Claudia; Vultaggio, Stefania; Dondio, Giulio; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2018-05-25

    We designed new 3-arylthio- and 3-aroyl-1H-indole derivatives 3-22 bearing a heterocyclic ring at position 5, 6 or 7 of the indole nucleus. The 6- and 7-heterocyclyl-1H-indoles showed potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin and growth of MCF-7 cancer cells. Compounds 13 and 19 inhibited a panel of cancer cells and the NCI/ADR-RES multidrug resistant cell line at low nanomolar concentrations. Compound 13 at 50 nM induced 77% G2/M in HeLa cells, and at 20 nM caused 50% stable arrest of mitosis. As an inhibitor of HepG2 cells (IC 50  = 20 nM), 13 was 4-fold superior to 19. Compound 13 was a potent inhibitor of the human U87MG glioblastoma cells at nanomolar concentrations, being nearly one order of magnitude superior to previously reported arylthioindoles. The present results highlight 13 as a robust scaffold for the design of new anticancer agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluorescence anisotropy of indole molecules under two-photon excitation in the spectral range of 485-510 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasin, M. E.; Tushkanov, V. I.; Smolin, A. G.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2017-10-01

    Decay of polarized fluorescence in indole dissolved in propylene glycol under two-photon excitation by femtosecond laser pulses in the wavelength range of 485-510 nm has been studied. It is shown that under the experimental conditions used the fluorescence decay signal can be well described by a single excited state lifetime τf and a single rotation diffusion time τrot. By processing the data obtained, the times τf and τrot as well as anisotropy parameter r 0 characterizing the symmetry of two-photon excitation of indole molecules have been determined. Decreasing of the anisotropy parameter r0 down to zero under two-photon excitation energy higher than 5.1 eV has been observed. Interpretation of the obtained results have been done on the basis of ab initio quantum-mechanical computations. A model of energy relaxation under the condition of twophoton excitation of indole in a polar solvent has been discussed.

  12. In Vitro Effects of Serotonin, Melatonin, and Other Related Indole Compounds on Amyloid-β Kinetics and Neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Da Costa, Grégory; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; Richard, Tristan; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid-β peptide is the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition of amyloid-β peptide assembly, the destabilization of amyloid-β peptide aggregates, and the decrease of its cytotoxicity for the prevention of neuronal death are considered neuroprotective effects. In this work, the protective effects against amyloid-β peptide aggregation and cytotoxicity of eight indolic compounds are evaluated: tryptophan, tryptamine, serotonin, tryptophol, N-acetylserotonin, 3-indoleacetic acid, tryptophan ethyl ester, and melatonin. Thioflavin T spectroscopic assay, transmission electron microscopy, western blotting, circular dichroism, NMR, cell viability (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay), quantitative PCR, and heme oxygenase activity are used. Serotonin is the most effective compound for inhibiting amyloid-β peptide aggregation. Almost all the indolic compounds tested prevent amyloid-β peptide-induced and increase cell viability, being between 9 and 25%. Melatonin and serotonin are the most active. Moreover, serotonin increased the expression of SIRT-1 and 2, heat shock protein 70, and heme oxygenase activity, this being a possible mechanism underlying the observed neuroprotective effect. Melatonin and other related indolic compounds, mainly serotonin, show an inhibitory and destabilizing effect on amyloid-β peptide fibril formation and they possess neuroprotective properties related to the vitagenes system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. II. Metabolic characteristics of the enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as rho-coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed.

  14. Indolent small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity with unique biologic and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Margolskee, Elizabeth; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Lewis, Suzanne K; Alobeid, Bachir; Green, Peter H R; Bhagat, Govind

    2013-01-01

    Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphomas (EATL) are rare and generally aggressive types of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Rare cases of primary, small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphomas with indolent behavior have been described, but are not well characterized. We describe morphologic, phenotypic, genomic and clinical features of 3 cases of indolent primary small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphomas. All patients presented with diarrhea and weight loss and were diagnosed with celiac disease refractory to a gluten free diet at referring institutions. Small intestinal biopsies showed crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy and a dense lamina propria infiltrate of small-sized CD4+ T-cells often with CD7 downregulation or loss. Gastric and colonic involvement was also detected (n = 2 each). Persistent, clonal TCRβ gene rearrangement products were detected at multiple sites. SNP array analysis showed relative genomic stability, early in disease course, and non-recurrent genetic abnormalities, but complex changes were seen at disease transformation (n = 1). Two patients are alive with persistent disease (4.6 and 2.5 years post-diagnosis), despite immunomodulatory therapy; one died due to bowel perforation related to large cell transformation 11 years post-diagnosis. Unique pathobiologic features warrant designation of indolent small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphoma as a distinct entity, greater awareness of which would avoid misdiagnosis as EATL or an inflammatory disorder, especially celiac disease.

  15. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  16. Reverse saturable absorption studies in polymerized indole - Effect of polymerization in the phenomenal enhancement of third order optical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.

  17. Diurnal Profiles of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles, Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in the Duck Pineal Organ

    PubMed Central

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime. PMID:25032843

  18. Serum Tryptase Monitoring in Indolent Systemic Mastocytosis: Association with Disease Features and Patient Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Matito, Almudena; Morgado, José Mario; Álvarez-Twose, Iván; Laura Sánchez-Muñoz; Pedreira, Carlos Eduardo; Jara-Acevedo, María; Teodosio, Cristina; Sánchez-López, Paula; Fernández-Núñez, Elisa; Moreno-Borque, Ricardo; García-Montero, Andrés; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum baseline tryptase (sBT) is a minor diagnostic criterion for systemic mastocytosis (SM) of undetermined prognostic impact. We monitored sBT levels in indolent SM (ISM) patients and investigated its utility for predicting disease behaviour and outcome. Methods In total 74 adult ISM patients who were followed for ≥48 months and received no cytoreductive therapy were retrospectively studied. Patients were classified according to the pattern of evolution of sBT observed. Results Overall 16/74 (22%) cases had decreasing sBT levels, 48 (65%) patients showed increasing sBT levels and 10 (13%) patients showed a fluctuating pattern. Patients with significantly increasing sBT (sBT slope ≥0.15) after 48 months of follow-up showed a slightly greater rate of development of diffuse bone sclerosis (13% vs. 2%) and hepatomegaly plus splenomegaly (16% vs. 5%), as well as a significantly greater frequency of multilineage vs. mast cells (MC)-restricted KIT mutation (p = 0.01) together with a greater frequency of cases with progression of ISM to smouldering and aggressive SM (p = 0.03), and a shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.03). Conclusions Monitoring of sBT in ISM patients is closely associated with poor prognosis disease features as well as with disease progression, pointing out the need for a closer follow-up in ISM patients with progressively increasing sBT values. PMID:24155887

  19. Serum tryptase monitoring in indolent systemic mastocytosis: association with disease features and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Matito, Almudena; Morgado, José Mario; Álvarez-Twose, Iván; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Pedreira, Carlos Eduardo; Jara-Acevedo, María; Teodosio, Cristina; Sánchez-López, Paula; Fernández-Núñez, Elisa; Moreno-Borque, Ricardo; García-Montero, Andrés; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Serum baseline tryptase (sBT) is a minor diagnostic criterion for systemic mastocytosis (SM) of undetermined prognostic impact. We monitored sBT levels in indolent SM (ISM) patients and investigated its utility for predicting disease behaviour and outcome. In total 74 adult ISM patients who were followed for ≥48 months and received no cytoreductive therapy were retrospectively studied. Patients were classified according to the pattern of evolution of sBT observed. Overall 16/74 (22%) cases had decreasing sBT levels, 48 (65%) patients showed increasing sBT levels and 10 (13%) patients showed a fluctuating pattern. Patients with significantly increasing sBT (sBT slope ≥0.15) after 48 months of follow-up showed a slightly greater rate of development of diffuse bone sclerosis (13% vs. 2%) and hepatomegaly plus splenomegaly (16% vs. 5%), as well as a significantly greater frequency of multilineage vs. mast cells (MC)-restricted KIT mutation (p = 0.01) together with a greater frequency of cases with progression of ISM to smouldering and aggressive SM (p = 0.03), and a shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.03). Monitoring of sBT in ISM patients is closely associated with poor prognosis disease features as well as with disease progression, pointing out the need for a closer follow-up in ISM patients with progressively increasing sBT values.

  20. Strategies for engineering plant natural products: the iridoid-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    The manipulation of pathways to make unnatural variants of natural compounds, a process often termed combinatorial biosynthesis, has been robustly successful in prokaryotic systems. The development of approaches to generate new-to-nature compounds from plant-based pathways is, in comparison, much less advanced. Success will depend on the specific chemistry of the pathway, as well as on the suitability of the plant system for transformation and genetic manipulation. As plant pathways are elucidated, and can be heterologously expressed in hosts that are more amenable to genetic manipulation, biosynthetic production of new-to-nature compounds from plant pathways will become more widespread. In this chapter, some of the key strategies that have been developed for metabolic engineering of plant pathways, namely directed biosynthesis, mutasynthesis, and pathway incorporation of engineered enzymes are highlighted. The iridoid-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids from C. roseus, which are the focus of this chapter, provide an excellent system for developing these strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryptic indole hydroxylation by a non-canonical terpenoid cyclase parallels bacterial xenobiotic detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, Susann; Baunach, Martin; Baer, Philipp; Ishida-Ito, Mie; Sundaram, Srividhya; Xu, Zhongli; Groll, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis. The crystal structure of XiaF with bound FADH2 (at 2.4 Å resolution) and phylogenetic analyses reveal that XiaF is, surprisingly, most closely related to xenobiotic-degrading enzymes. Biotransformation assays show that XiaF is a designated indole hydroxylase that can be used for the production of indigo and indirubin. We unveil a cryptic hydroxylation step that sets the basis for terpenoid cyclization and suggest that the cyclase has evolved from xenobiotics detoxification enzymes.

  2. GluCl a target of indole alkaloid okaramines: a 25 year enigma solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, Shogo; Nakatani, Yuri; Miura, Yuka; Ihara, Makoto; Kai, Kenji; Hayashi, Hideo; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    In 1989, indole alkaloid okaramines isolated from the fermentation products of Penicillium simplicissimum were shown to be insecticidal, yet the mechanism of their toxicity to insects remains unknown. We therefore examined the action of okaramine B on silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Okaramine B induced inward currents which reversed close to the chloride equilibrium potential and were blocked by fipronil. Thus it was tested on the silkworm RDL (resistant-to-dieldrin) γ-aminobutyric-acid-gated chloride channel (GABACl) and a silkworm L-glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Okaramine B activated GluCl, but not RDL. GluCl activation by okaramines correlated with their insecticidal activity, offering a solution to a long-standing enigma concerning their insecticidal actions. Also, unlike ivermectin, okaramine B was inactive at 10 μM on human α1β2γ2 GABACl and α1β glycine-gated chloride channels and provides a new lead for the development of safe insect control chemicals.

  3. Nitric oxide metabolism and indole acetic acid biosynthesis cross-talk in Azospirillum brasilense SM.

    PubMed

    Koul, Vatsala; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-04-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) and the presence of NO metabolism genes, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrous oxide reductase regulator (nosR) and nitric oxide reductase (norB) were identified in the plant-associated bacterium (PAB) Azospirillum brasilense SM. NO presence was confirmed in all overexpressing strains, while improvement in the plant growth response of these strains was mediated by increased NO and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the strains. Electron microscopy showed random distribution to biofilm, with surface colonization of pleiomorphic Azospirilla. Quantitative IAA estimation highlighted a crucial role of nosR and norBC in regulating IAA biosynthesis. The NO quencher and donor reduced/blocked IAA biosynthesis by all strains, indicating their common regulatory role in IAA biosynthesis. Tryptophan (Trp) and l-Arginine (Arg) showed higher expression of NO genes tested, while in the case of ipdC, only Trp and IAA increased expression, while Arg had no significant effect. The highest nosR expression in SMnosR in the presence of IAA and Trp, along with its 2-fold IAA level, confirmed the relationship of nosR overexpression with Trp in increasing IAA. These results indicate a strong correlation between IAA and NO in A. brasilense SM and suggest the existence of cross-talk or shared signaling mechanisms in these two growth regulators. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of indole derivatives as α-amylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Imran, Syahrul; Taha, Muhammad; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Mohammad, Jahidul Islam

    2017-08-01

    A series of twenty indole hydrazone analogs (1-21) were synthesized, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques such as 1 H NMR and EI-MS, and screened for α-amylase inhibitory activity. All analogs showed a variable degree of α-amylase inhibition with IC 50 values ranging between 1.66 and 2.65μM. Nine compounds that are 1 (2.23±0.01μM), 8 (2.44±0.12μM), 10 (1.92±0.12μM), 12 (2.49±0.17μM), 13 (1.66±0.09μM), 17 (2.25±0.1μM), 18 (1.87±0.25μM), 20 (1.83±0.63μM), and 19 (1.97±0.02μM) showed potent α-amylase inhibition when compared with the standard acarbose (1.05±0.29μM). Other analogs showed good to moderate α-amylase inhibition. The structure activity relationship is mainly focusing on difference of substituents on phenyl part. Molecular docking studies were carried out to understand the binding interaction of the most active compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  6. Binding of ring-substituted indole-3-acetic acids to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Soskić, Milan; Magnus, Volker

    2007-07-01

    The plant hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its ring-substituted derivatives have recently attracted attention as promising pro-drugs in cancer therapy. Here we present relative binding constants to human serum albumin for IAA and 34 of its derivatives, as obtained using the immobilized protein bound to a support suitable for high-performance liquid chromatography. We also report their octanol-water partition coefficients (logK(ow)) computed from retention data on a C(18) coated silica gel column. A four-parameter QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationships) model, based on physico-chemical properties, is put forward, which accounts for more than 96% of the variations in the binding affinities of these compounds. The model confirms the importance of lipophilicity as a global parameter governing interaction with serum albumin, but also assigns significant roles to parameters specifically related to the molecular topology of ring-substituted IAAs. Bulky substituents at ring-position 6 increase affinity, those at position 2 obstruct binding, while no steric effects were noted at other ring-positions. Electron-withdrawing substituents at position 5 enhance binding, but have no obvious effect at other ring positions.

  7. [Enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soil by chelating agents and auxin indole-3-acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-min; Dang, Zhi; Chen, Neng-chang; Xu, Sheng-guang; Xie, Zhi-yi

    2007-09-01

    The environmental risk of chelating agents such as EDTA application to the heavy metals polluted soils and the stress on plant roots due to the abrupt increase metals concentration limit the wide commercial use of chelate-induced phytoextraction. Chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used for enhancing heavy metals uptake from soils by Zea mays L. (corn) in pot experiments. The metals content in plant tissues was quantified using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results showed that the combination of IAA and EDTA increased the biomass by about 40.0% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 27.0%, 26.8%, 27.5% and 32.8% respectively, as compared to those in EDTA treatment. While NTA&IAA treatment increased the biomass by about 29.9% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 31.8%, 27.6%, 17.0% and 26.9% respectively, as compared to those in NTA treatment. These results indicated that corn growth was promoted, and the biomass and the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoots were increased significantly with the addition of IAA, which probably helps to change the cell membrane properties and the biomass distribution, resulting in the alleviation of the phytotoxicity of metals and the chelating agents.

  8. Structural, vibrational spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies on indole-3-carboxaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, R.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2017-05-01

    The potential energy surface (PES) scan was performed for indole-3-carboxaldehyde (ICA) and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31G basis set. The vibrational frequencies of ICA were theoretically calculated by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set using Gaussian 09 program. The vibrational spectra were experimentally recorded by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier transform-Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman). The computed vibrational frequencies were scaled by scaling factors to yield a good agreement with observed vibrational frequencies. The theoretically calculated and experimentally observed vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. The molecular interaction, stability and intramolecular charge transfer of ICA were studied using frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis and Mulliken atomic charge distribution shows the distribution of the atomic charges. The presence of intramolecular charge transfer was studied using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  9. Total synthesis of complestatin: development of a Pd(0)-mediated indole annulation for macrocyclization.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Breazzano, Steven P; Garfunkle, Joie; Kimball, F Scott; Trzupek, John D; Boger, Dale L

    2010-06-09

    Full details of the initial development and continued examination of a powerful intramolecular palladium(0)-mediated indole annulation for macrocyclization closure of the strained 16-membered biaryl ring system found in complestatin (1, chloropeptin II) and the definition of factors impacting its intrinsic atropodiastereoselectivity are described. Its examination and use in an alternative, second-generation total synthesis of complestatin are detailed in which the order of the macrocyclization reactions was reversed from our first-generation total synthesis. In this approach and with the ABCD biaryl ether ring system in place, the key Larock cyclization was conducted with substrate 36 (containing four phenols, five secondary amides, one carbamate, and four labile aryl chlorides) and provided the product 37 (56%) exclusively as a single atropisomer (>20:1, detection limits) possessing the natural (R)-configuration. In this instance, the complexity of the substrate and the reverse macrocyclization order did not diminish the atropodiastereoselectivity; rather, it provided an improvement over the 4:1 selectivity that was observed with the analogous substrate used to provide the isolated DEF ring system in our first-generation approach. Just as significant, the atroposelectivity represents a complete reversal of the diasteroselectivity observed with analogous macrocyclizations conducted using a Suzuki biaryl coupling.

  10. Indole-3- carbinol enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: A mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Abdelmageed, Mai M; El-Naga, Reem N; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Elmazar, Mohamed M

    2016-09-09

    Sorafenib is the only chemotherapeutic agent currently approved for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, poor response rates have been widely reported. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a potential chemopreventive phytochemical. The present study aimed to explore the potential chemomodulatory effects of I3C on sorafenib in HCC cells as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. I3C exhibited a greater cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells compared to Huh-7 cells (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the co-treatment of HepG2 cells with I3C and sorafenib was more effective (p = 0.002). Accordingly, subsequent mechanistic studies were carried on HepG2 cells. The results show that the ability of I3C to enhance sorafenib cytotoxicity in HCC cells could be partially attributed to increasing the apoptotic activity and decreasing the angiogenic potentials. The combination had a negative effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increased NOX-1 expression was also observed which may indicate the involvement of NOX-1 in I3C chemomodulatory effects. Additionally, the combination induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that I3C enhances sorafenib anti-cancer activity in HCC cells.

  11. Indole-3- carbinol enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: A mechanistic study

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmageed, Mai M.; El-Naga, Reem N.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Elmazar, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Sorafenib is the only chemotherapeutic agent currently approved for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, poor response rates have been widely reported. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a potential chemopreventive phytochemical. The present study aimed to explore the potential chemomodulatory effects of I3C on sorafenib in HCC cells as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. I3C exhibited a greater cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells compared to Huh-7 cells (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the co-treatment of HepG2 cells with I3C and sorafenib was more effective (p = 0.002). Accordingly, subsequent mechanistic studies were carried on HepG2 cells. The results show that the ability of I3C to enhance sorafenib cytotoxicity in HCC cells could be partially attributed to increasing the apoptotic activity and decreasing the angiogenic potentials. The combination had a negative effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increased NOX-1 expression was also observed which may indicate the involvement of NOX-1 in I3C chemomodulatory effects. Additionally, the combination induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that I3C enhances sorafenib anti-cancer activity in HCC cells. PMID:27612096

  12. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae).

    PubMed

    Helm, Rebecca R; Dunn, Casey W

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  13. Free and Conjugated Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Developing Bean Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Bialek, Krystyna; Cohen, Jerry D.

    1989-01-01

    The changes in conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels compared to the levels of free IAA have been analyzed during the development of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed using quantitative mass spectrometry. Free and ester-linked IAA levels are both relatively high in the early stages of seed development but drop during seed maturation. Concomitantly, the amide-linked IAA becomes the major form of IAA present as the seed matures. In fully mature seed, amide IAA accounts for 80% of the total IAA. The total IAA pool in the seed is maintained at approximately the same level (150-170 nanograms/seed) once the level of free IAA has attained its maximum. Thus, the amount of amide IAA conjugates that accumulate in mature seed is closely related to the amounts of free and ester-linked IAA that disappeared from the rapidly growing seed. Analysis of developing bean pods, from which the seeds were taken for analysis, showed very low levels of both ester and amide-linked IAA conjugates. The pattern of changes seen in the levels of free and conjugated IAA in developing bean seed supports our prior hypothesis suggesting a role of IAA conjugates in the storage of the phytohormone in the seed. PMID:16667099

  14. Hydrolysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Esters Exposed to Mild Alkaline Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Bruce G.; Maher, Barbara R.; Cohen, Jerry D.

    1989-01-01

    Ester conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid are hydrolyzed easily in basic solutions; however, quantitative data have not been available on the relationship between pH and rate of hydrolysis of the known ester conjugates. The use of basic conditions during extraction or purification of IAA by several laboratories suggested that a more systematic analysis of this process was needed. In this report we present data indicating: (a) that measurable hydrolysis of IAA-glucose (from standard solutions) and IAA-esters (from maize kernel extracts) occurs with only a few hours of treatment at pH 9 or above; (b) that the lability of some ester conjugates is even greater than that of IAA-glucose; and (c) that ester hydrolysis of standard compounds, IAA-glucose and IAA-p-nitrophenol, occurs in the `three phase extraction system' proposed by Liu and Tillberg ([1983] Physiol Plant 57: 441-447). These data indicate that the potential for problems with inadvertent hydrolysis of ester conjugates of IAA exists even at moderate pH values and in the multiphase system where exposure to basic conditions was thought to be limited. PMID:16667049

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of indole derivatives as Vif inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pu, Chunlan; Luo, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Mengqi; Hou, Xueyan; Yan, Guoyi; Luo, Jiang; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Li, Rui

    2017-09-01

    The crystal structure of viral infectivity factor (Vif) was reported recently, which makes it possible to design new inhibitors against Vif by structure-based drug design. Through analysis of the protein surface of Vif, the C2 pocket located in the N-terminal was found, which is suit for developing small molecular inhibitors. Then, in our article, fragment-based virtual screening (FBVS) was conducted and a series of fragments was obtained, among which, Zif-1 bearing indole scaffold and pyridine ring can form H-bonds with Tyr148 and Ile155. Subsequently, 19 derivatives of Zif-1 were synthesized. Through the immune-fluorescence staining and Western blot assays, Zif-15 shows potent activity in inhibiting Vif-mediated A3G degradation. Further docking experiment shows that Zif-15 form H-bond interactions with residues His139, Tyr148 and Ile155. Therefore, Zif-15 is a promising lead compound against Vif that can be used to treat AIDS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hirsutine, an indole alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla, inhibits inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwan Yong; Nam, Kyong Nyon; Woo, Byung-Choel; Kim, Kyoo-Pil; Kim, Sung-Ok; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation endangers neuronal survival through the release of various pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic factors. As such, negative regulators of microglial activation have been considered as potential therapeutic candidates to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration associated with inflammation. Uncaria rhynchophylla (U. rhynchophylla) is a traditional oriental herb that has been used for treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Hirsutine (HS), one of the major indole alkaloids of U. rhynchophylla, has demonstrated neuroprotective potential. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of HS in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial cell activation. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, HS blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related hippocampal cell death and production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β. HS was demonstrated to effectively inhibit LPS-induced NO release from cultured rat brain microglia. The compound reduced the LPS-stimulated production of PGE2 and intracellular reactive oxygen species. HS significantly decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling proteins. In conclusion, HS reduces the production of various neurotoxic factors in activated microglial cells and possesses neuroprotective activity in a model of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity.

  17. Hirsutine, an Indole Alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla, Inhibits Late Step in Dengue Virus Lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Hishiki, Takayuki; Kato, Fumihiro; Tajima, Shigeru; Toume, Kazufumi; Umezaki, Masahito; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Miura, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes and is a public health issue worldwide. No antiviral drugs specific for treating dengue infection are currently available. To identify novel DENV inhibitors, we analyzed a library of 95 compounds and 120 extracts derived from crude drugs (herbal medicines). In the primary screening, A549 cells infected with DENV-1 were cultured in the presence of each compound and extract at a final concentration of 10 μM (compound) and 100 μg/mL (extract), and reduction of viral focus formation was assessed. Next, we eliminated compounds and extracts which were cytotoxic using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hirsutine, an indole alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla , was identified as a potent anti-DENV compound exhibiting high efficacy and low cytotoxicity. Hirsutine showed antiviral activity against all DENV serotypes. Time-of-drug-addition and time-of-drug-elimination assays indicated that hirsutine inhibits the viral particle assembly, budding, or release step but not the viral translation and replication steps in the DENV lifecycle. A subgenomic replicon system was used to confirm that hirsutine does not restrict viral genome RNA replication. Hirsutine is a novel DENV inhibitor and potential candidate for treating dengue fever.

  18. Hirsutine, an Indole Alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla, Inhibits Late Step in Dengue Virus Lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Hishiki, Takayuki; Kato, Fumihiro; Tajima, Shigeru; Toume, Kazufumi; Umezaki, Masahito; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Miura, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes and is a public health issue worldwide. No antiviral drugs specific for treating dengue infection are currently available. To identify novel DENV inhibitors, we analyzed a library of 95 compounds and 120 extracts derived from crude drugs (herbal medicines). In the primary screening, A549 cells infected with DENV-1 were cultured in the presence of each compound and extract at a final concentration of 10 μM (compound) and 100 μg/mL (extract), and reduction of viral focus formation was assessed. Next, we eliminated compounds and extracts which were cytotoxic using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hirsutine, an indole alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla, was identified as a potent anti-DENV compound exhibiting high efficacy and low cytotoxicity. Hirsutine showed antiviral activity against all DENV serotypes. Time-of-drug-addition and time-of-drug-elimination assays indicated that hirsutine inhibits the viral particle assembly, budding, or release step but not the viral translation and replication steps in the DENV lifecycle. A subgenomic replicon system was used to confirm that hirsutine does not restrict viral genome RNA replication. Hirsutine is a novel DENV inhibitor and potential candidate for treating dengue fever. PMID:28912773

  19. Metabolites of hirsuteine and hirsutine, the major indole alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla, in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Banba, Koh-ichi; Hata, Kazumasa; Nihei, Yutaka; Hoshikawa, Ayumi; Ohsawa, Keisuke

    2006-08-01

    The metabolic fate of hirsuteine (HT) and hirsutine (HS), the major indole alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla, was investigated using rats. On HPLC analysis, urine from rats orally administered HT were found to contain two metabolites (HT1 and HT2) together with unchanged HT. Similarly HS also was metabolized to two compounds (HS1 and HS2). Metabolite structures were determined to be 11-hydroxyhirsuteine-11-O-beta-D-glucuronide (HT1), 11-hydroxyhirsuteine (HT2), 11-hydroxyhirsutine-11-O-beta-D-glucuronide (HS1) and 11-hydroxyhirsutine (HS2), based on spectroscopic and chemical data. HT1 and HS1 were also detected in bile from rats administered HT and HS, respectively. Total cumulative urinary excretion within 72 h of oral administration was approximately 14% and 26% of the HT and HS doses, respectively, while total cumulative biliary excretion was 35% and 46%, respectively. HT and HS 11-hydroxylation were catalyzed by rat liver microsomes. This 11-hydroxylation activity was inhibited by addition of SKF-525A (a nonselective CYP inhibitor) or cimetidine (a CYP2C inhibitor). These results indicate that orally administered HT and HS are converted to 11-hydroxy metabolites in rats, and that the metabolites are predominantly excreted in bile rather than urine following glucuronidation. Furthermore, the results suggest that CYP2C enzymes are involved, at least in part, in the specific 11-hydroxylation of HT and HS.

  20. Isomerization of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 1-O, 4-O, and 6-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and the enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl glycerol by a hormone metabolizing complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalczyk, S.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    The first compound in the series of reactions leading to the ester conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in kernels of Zea mays sweet corn is the acyl alkyl acetal, 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose (1-O-IAGlu). The enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of this compound is UDP-glucose:indol-3-ylacetate glucosyl-transferase (IAGlu synthase). The IAA moiety of the high energy compound 1-O-IAGlu may be enzymatically transferred to myo-inositol or to glycerol or the 1-O-IAGlu may be enzymatically hydrolyzed. Alternatively, nonenzymatic acyl migration may occur to yield the 2-O, 4-O, and 6-O esters of IAA and glucose. The 4-O and 6-O esters may then be enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield free IAA and glucose. This work reports new enzymatic activities, the transfer of IAA from 1-O-IAGlu to glycerol, and the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-O and 6-O-IAGlu. Data is also presented on the rate of non-enzymatic acyl migration of IAA from the 1-O to the 4-O and 6-O positions of glucose. We also report that enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of 1-O-IAGlu and the hydrolysis of 1-O, 4-O, and 6-O-IAGlu fractionate as a hormone metabolizing complex. The association of synthetic and hydrolytic capabilities in enzymes which cofractionate may have physiological significance.

  1. Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kema, I P; Meijer, W G; Meiborg, G; Ooms, B; Willemse, P H; de Vries, E G

    2001-10-01

    Profiling of the plasma indoles tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with carcinoid tumors. We describe an automated method for the profiling of these indoles in protein-containing matrices as well as the plasma indole concentrations in healthy controls and patients with carcinoid tumors. Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue homogenates were prepurified by automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in Hysphere Resin SH SPE cartridges containing strong hydrophobic polystyrene resin. Analytes were eluted from the SPE cartridge by column switching. Subsequent separation and detection were performed by reversed-phase HPLC combined with fluorometric detection in a total cycle time of 20 min. We obtained samples from 14 healthy controls and 17 patients with metastasized midgut carcinoid tumors for plasma indole analysis. In the patient group, urinary excretion of 5-HIAA and serotonin was compared with concentrations of plasma indoles. Within- and between-series CVs for indoles in platelet-rich plasma were 0.6-6.2% and 3.7-12%, respectively. Results for platelet-rich plasma serotonin compared favorably with those obtained by single-component analysis. Plasma 5-HIAA, but not 5-HTP was detectable in 8 of 17 patients with carcinoid tumors. In the patient group, platelet-rich plasma total tryptophan correlated negatively with platelet-rich plasma serotonin (P = 0.021; r = -0.56), urinary 5-HIAA (P = 0.003; r = -0.68), and urinary serotonin (P <0.0001; r = -0.80). The present chromatographic approach reduces analytical variation and time needed for analysis and gives more detailed information about metabolic deviations in indole metabolism than do manual, single-component analyses.

  2. Intestinal lymphangiectasis and lipidosis in rats following subchronic exposure to indole-3-carbinol via oral gavage.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael C; Crabbs, Torrie A; Wyde, Michael E; Painter, J Todd; Hill, Georgette D; Malarkey, David E; Lieuallen, Warren G; Nyska, Abraham

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the toxicity and carcinogenic potential of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), the National Toxicology Program has conducted 13-week subchronic studies in Fisher 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice, and chronic 2-year bioassays in Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice. While the chronic study results are not yet available, subchronic study results and short-term special evaluations of interim sacrifices in the 2-year rat bioassay are presented. F344 rats were orally gavaged ≤300 mg I3C/kg body weight 5 days a week for 13 weeks. Rats treated with ≥150 mg/kg demonstrated a dose-related dilation of lymphatics (lymphangiectasis) of the duodenum, jejunum, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Material within dilated lacteals stained positively for Oil Red O and Sudan Black, consistent with lipid. Electron microscopic evaluation confirmed extracellular lipid accumulation within the villar lamina propria, lacteals, and within villar macrophages. Analyses of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes demonstrated dose-dependent I3C induction of CYP1A1 and 1A2. B6C3F1 mice orally gavaged ≤250 mg I3C/kg body weight did not demonstrate histopathological changes; however, hepatic CYP induction was similar to that in rats. The histopathologic changes of intestinal lymphangiectasis and lipidosis in this study share similarities with intestinal lymphangiectasia as observed in humans and dogs. However, the resultant clinical spectrum of protein-losing enteropathy was not present.

  3. Serotonin Receptor Binding Characteristics of Geissoschizine Methyl Ether, an Indole Alkaloid in Uncaria Hook

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Yasushi; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Mizoguchi, Kazushige

    2018-01-01

    Background: Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) is one of the indole alkaloids in Uncaria hook, and an active ingredient of yokukansan (YKS) that improves behavioral and psychological symp-toms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with several types of dementia. The pharmacological action of GM has been related to various serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes. Objective: The aim of this article is to review the binding characteristics of GM to the 5-HT receptor sub-types in the brains using our own data and previous findings. Methods: Competitive receptor-binding and agonist/antagonist activity assays for several 5-HT receptor subtypes were performed. Moreover, the articles describing pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of GM were searched in PubMed. Results: GM bound the following 5-HT receptor subtypes: 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. Among these receptors, GM had partial agonistic activity for 5-HT1A receptors and antagonistic activity for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT7 receptors. Also, GM was me-tabolized by various CYP isoforms, mainly CYP3A4. Parent/unchanged GM was detected in both the blood and brain of rats after oral administration of YKS. In the brains, GM was presumed to bind to 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT7 receptors on neuron-like large cells mainly in the frontal cor-tex. Conclusion: These results suggest that GM is a pharmacologically important alkaloid that regulates vari-ous serotonergic activities or functions by binding to multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes. Thus, this review provides recent 5-HT receptor-related evidence that GM is partly responsible for pharmacological effects of YKS. PMID:28322152

  4. Toxic indole alkaloids avrainvillamide and stephacidin B produced by a biocide tolerant indoor mold Aspergillus westerdijkiae.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Hautaniemi, Maria; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2015-06-01

    Toxic Aspergillus westerdijkiae were present in house dust and indoor air fall-out from a residence and a kindergarten where the occupants suffered from building related ill health. The A. westerdijkiae isolates produced indole alkaloids avrainvillamide (445 Da) and its dimer stephacidin B (890 Da). It grew and sporulated in presence of high concentrations of boron or polyguanidine (PHMB, PHMG) based antimicrobial biocides used to remediate mold infested buildings. The boar sperm cells were used as sensor cells to purify toxins from HPLC fractions of the fungal biomass. Submicromolar concentrations (EC50 0.3-0.4 μM) blocked boar spermatozoan motility and killed porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells (PK-15). Plate grown hyphal mass of the A. westerdijkiae isolates contained 300-750 ng of avrainvillamide and 30-300 ng of stephacidin B per mg (wet weight). The toxins induced rapid (30 min) loss of boar sperm motility, followed (24 h) by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Apoptotic cell death was observed in PK-15 cell monolayers, prior to cessation of glucose uptake or loss of ΔΨm. Avrainvillamide and stephacidin B were 100-fold more potent towards the porcine cells than the mycotoxins stephacidin A, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin and citrinin. The high toxicity of stephacidin B indicates a role of nitrone group in the mechanism of toxicity. Avrainvillamide and stephacidin B represent a new class of toxins with possible a threat to human health in buildings. Furthermore, the use of biocides highly enhanced the growth of toxigenic A. westerdijkiae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Transcriptomic Resources for Interrogating the Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Medicinal Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Childs, Kevin L.; Fedewa, Greg; Hamilton, John P.; Liscombe, David K.; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Mandadi, Kranthi K.; Nims, Ezekiel; Runguphan, Weerawat; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Varbanova-Herde, Marina; DellaPenna, Dean; McKnight, Thomas D.; O’Connor, Sarah; Buell, C. Robin

    2012-01-01

    The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin), hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine), malaria (quinine), and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine). Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource for

  6. Gene expression analysis predicts insect venom anaphylaxis in indolent systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Niedoszytko, M; Bruinenberg, M; van Doormaal, J J; de Monchy, J G R; Nedoszytko, B; Koppelman, G H; Nawijn, M C; Wijmenga, C; Jassem, E; Elberink, J N G Oude

    2011-05-01

    Anaphylaxis to insect venom (Hymenoptera) is most severe in patients with mastocytosis and may even lead to death. However, not all patients with mastocytosis suffer from anaphylaxis. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in gene expression between patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) and a history of insect venom anaphylaxis (IVA) compared to those patients without a history of anaphylaxis, and to determine the predictive use of gene expression profiling. Whole-genome gene expression analysis was performed in peripheral blood cells. Twenty-two adults with ISM were included: 12 with a history of IVA and 10 without a history of anaphylaxis of any kind. Significant differences in single gene expression corrected for multiple testing were found for 104 transcripts (P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were involved in pathways responsible for the development of cancer and focal and cell adhesion suggesting that the expression of genes related to the differentiation state of cells is higher in patients with a history of anaphylaxis. Based on the gene expression profiles, a naïve Bayes prediction model was built identifying patients with IVA. In ISM, gene expression profiles are different between patients with a history of IVA and those without. These findings might reflect a more pronounced mast cells dysfunction in patients without a history of anaphylaxis. Gene expression profiling might be a useful tool to predict the risk of anaphylaxis on insect venom in patients with ISM. Prospective studies are needed to substantiate any conclusions. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Transcriptional Regulation and Transport of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid in Catharanthus roseus: Exploration of New Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Cai, Junjun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Shihai

    2016-01-01

    As one of the model medicinal plants for exploration of biochemical pathways and molecular biological questions on complex metabolic pathways, Catharanthus roseus synthesizes more than 100 terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) used for clinical treatment of various diseases and for new drug discovery. Given that extensive studies have revealed the major metabolic pathways and the spatial-temporal biosynthesis of TIA in C. roseus plant, little is known about subcellular and inter-cellular trafficking or long-distance transport of TIA end products or intermediates, as well as their regulation. While these transport processes are indispensable for multi-organelle, -tissue and -cell biosynthesis, storage and their functions, great efforts have been made to explore these dynamic cellular processes. Progress has been made in past decades on transcriptional regulation of TIA biosynthesis by transcription factors as either activators or repressors; recent studies also revealed several transporters involved in subcellular and inter-cellular TIA trafficking. However, many details and the regulatory network for controlling the tissue-or cell-specific biosynthesis, transport and storage of serpentine and ajmalicine in root, catharanthine in leaf and root, vindoline specifically in leaf and vinblastine and vincristine only in green leaf and their biosynthetic intermediates remain to be determined. This review is to summarize the progress made in biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and transport of TIAs. Based on analysis of organelle, tissue and cell-type specific biosynthesis and progresses in transport and trafficking of similar natural products, the transporters that might be involved in transport of TIAs and their synthetic intermediates are discussed; according to transcriptome analysis and bioinformatic approaches, the transcription factors that might be involved in TIA biosynthesis are analyzed. Further discussion is made on a broad context of transcriptional and

  8. Original mechanisms of antipsychotic action by the indole alkaloid alstonine (Picralima nitida).

    PubMed

    Linck, Viviane M; Ganzella, Marcelo; Herrmann, Ana P; Okunji, Christopher O; Souza, Diogo O; Antonelli, Marta C; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2015-01-15

    Alstonine is the major component of plant based remedies that traditional psychiatrists use in Nigeria. Alstonine is an indole alkaloid that has an antipsychotic experimental profile comparable with that of clozapine and is compatible with the alleged effects in mental patients. Representing a desirable innovation in the pharmacodynamics of antipsychotic medications, the evidence indicates that alstonine does not bind to D2 dopamine receptors (D2R) and differentially regulates dopamine in the cortical and limbic areas. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the effects of alstonine on D2R binding in specific brain regions using quantitative autoradiography (QAR) and its effects on dopamine (DA) uptake in mouse striatal synaptosomes. The effects of alstonine on D2R binding were determined in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen using QAR in mice treated with alstonine doses that have antipsychotic effects. The effects of alstonine [3H]DA uptake were assessed in synaptosomes prepared from striatal tissue obtained from mice treated acutely or for 7 days with alstonine. Alstonine did not change the D2R binding densities in the studied regions. DA uptake was increased after acute (but not after 7 days) treatment with alstonine. Consistent with the alstonine behavioral profile, these results indicate that alstonine indirectly modulates DA receptors, specifically by modulating DA uptake. This unique mechanism for DA transmission modulation contributes to the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine and is compatible with its behavioral profile in mice and alleged effects in patients. These results may represent an innovation in the antipsychotic development field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Indole alkaloids of Psychotria as multifunctional cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Passos, Carolina S; Simões-Pires, Claudia A; Nurisso, Alessandra; Soldi, Tatiane C; Kato, Lucilia; de Oliveira, Cecilia M A; de Faria, Emiret O; Marcourt, Laurence; Gottfried, Carmem; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Henriques, Amélia T

    2013-02-01

    Thirteen Psychotria alkaloids were evaluated regarding their interactions with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B), which are enzymatic targets related with neurodegenerative diseases. Two quaternary β-carboline alkaloids, prunifoleine and 14-oxoprunifoleine, inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO-A with IC(50) values corresponding to 10 and 3.39 μM for AChE, 100 and 11 μM for BChE, and 7.41 and 6.92 μM for MAO-A, respectively. Both compounds seem to behave as noncompetitive AChE inhibitors and time-dependent MAO-A inhibitors. In addition, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) angustine, vallesiachotamine lactone, E-vallesiachotamine and Z-vallesiachotamine inhibited BChE and MAO-A with IC(50) values ranging from 3.47 to 14 μM for BChE inhibition and from 0.85 to 2.14 μM for MAO-A inhibition. Among the tested MIAs, angustine is able to inhibit MAO-A in a reversible and competitive way while the three vallesiachotamine-like alkaloids display a time-dependent inhibition on this target. Docking calculations were performed in order to understand the binding mode between the most active ligands and the selected targets. Taken together, our findings established molecular details of AChE, BChE and MAO-A inhibition by quaternary β-carboline alkaloids and MIAs from Psychotria, suggesting these secondary metabolites are scaffolds for the development of multifunctional compounds against neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Indentification of vincamine indole alkaloids producing endophytic fungi isolated from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae.

    PubMed

    Na, Ren; Jiajia, Liu; Dongliang, Yang; Yingzi, Peng; Juan, Hong; Xiong, Liu; Nana, Zhao; Jing, Zhou; Yitian, Luo

    2016-11-01

    Vincamine, a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid which had been marketed as nootropic drugs for the treatment of cerebral insufficiencies, is widely found in plants of the Apocynaceae family. Nerium indicum is a plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family. So, the purpose of this research was designed to investigate the vincamine alkaloids producing endophytic fungi from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae. 11 strains of endophytic fungi, isolated from the stems and roots of the plant, were grouped into 5 genera on the basis of morphological characteristics. All fungal isolates were fermented and their extracts were preliminary screened by Dragendorff's reagent and thin layer chromatography (TLC). One isolated strain CH1, isolated from the stems of Nerium indicum, had the same Rf value (about 0.56) as authentic vincamine. The extracts of strain CH1 were further analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and the results showed that the strain CH1 could produce vincamine and vincamine analogues. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity assays using Ellman's method revealed that the metabolites of strain CH1 had significant AchE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 5.16μg/mL. The isolate CH1 was identified as Geomyces sp. based on morphological and molecular identification, and has been deposited in the China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCCM 2014676). This study first reported the natural compounds tabersonine and ethyl-vincamine from endophytic fungi CH1, Geomyces sp. In conclusion, the fungal endophytes from Nerium indicum can be used as alternative source for the production of vincamine and vincamine analogues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Transport of Indole-3-Acetic Acid during Gravitropism in Intact Maize Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen E.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the transport of tritiated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in intact, red light-grown maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles during gravitropic induction and the subsequent development of curvature. This auxin is transported down the length of gravistimulated coleoptiles at a rate comparable to that in normal, upright plants. Transport is initially symmetrical across the coleoptile, but between 30 and 40 minutes after plants are turned horizontal a lateral redistribution of the IAA already present in the transport stream occurs. By 60 minutes after the beginning of the gravitropic stimulus, the ratio of tritiated tracer auxin in the lower half with respect to the upper half is approximately 2:1. The redistribution of growth that causes gravitropic curvature follows the IAA redistribution by 5 or 10 minutes at the minimum in most regions of the coleoptile. Immobilization of tracer auxin from the transport stream during gravitropism was not detectable in the most apical 10 millimeters. Previous reports have shown that in intact, red light-grown maize coleoptiles, endogenous auxin is limiting for growth, the tissue is linearly responsive to linearly increasing concentrations of small amounts of added auxin, and the lag time for the stimulation of straight growth by added IAA is approximately 8 or 9 minutes (TI Baskin, M Iino, PB Green, WR Briggs [1985] Plant Cell Environ 8: 595-603; TI Baskin, WR Briggs, M Iino [1986] Plant Physiol 81: 306-309). We conclude that redistribution of IAA in the transport stream occurs in maize coleoptiles during gravitropism, and is sufficient in degree and timing to be the immediate cause of gravitropic curvature. PMID:16667914

  12. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae)

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Casey W.

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms—in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa. PMID:29281657

  13. Indole-3-acetic acid: a potential new photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Na, Jung-Im; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hye; Youn, Sang-Woong; Huh, Chang-Hun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2011-03-01

    ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment option for acne. However, it needs a relatively long incubation period and adverse effects are common. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not toxic by itself but produces free radicals with ultraviolet B. In this study we examined the potential of IAA as a photosensitizer for acne treatment. Free radical formation was measured after visible light irradiation of IAA. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated by assessing growth suppression of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus after IAA PDT. To evaluate the histological changes, skin biopsies were performed on nude mice skin after IAA PDT. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of IAA PDT, 14 acne patients were treated with the following IAA PDT regimen: three times each with a 15 minutes incubation period and a 2-week interval. The number of inflammatory lesions and the amount of sebum secretion were then assessed. IAA produced free radicals with green light irradiation. Importantly, IAA lost its photosensitizing ability after exposure to certain amount of light. This implies IAA PDT would not require post-procedure photo-protection. The growth of P. acnes and S. aureus were significantly suppressed with IAA PDT. In addition, IAA PDT treated skin showed destruction of follicular ostia epithelium. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between a 4 hours and a 30 minutes incubation, which means that longer absorption time is not necessary for IAA PDT. In the clinical study, inflammatory lesions and sebum secretion were significantly reduced. The procedure was painless and no adverse effect was observed. Photo-protection was not performed and there were no further phototoxic responses. IAA PDT has therapeutic effects on acne via its antimicrobial activities, its sebum-reducing effect and through relieving follicular occlusion. It is a very simple and safe treatment option for acne. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Antiedematogenic activity of the indole derivative N-salicyloyltryptamine in animal models.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Neto, Benedito P; Gomes, Bruno S; Cunha, Francisco V M; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Gutierrez, Stanley J C; Souza, Maria F V; Almeida, Fernanda R C; Oliveira, Francisco A

    2018-01-01

    The N-salicyloyltryptamine (NST) is an indole derivative compound analogue to the alkaloid N-benzoyltryptamine. In the present study, the antiedematogenic activity of NST was investigated in animal models. Firstly, the acute toxicity for NST was assessed according to the OECD Guideline no. 423. The potential NST-induced antiedematogenic activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, as well as by dextran-, compound 48/80-, histamine-, serotonin-, capsaicine-, and prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema in mice. The effect of NST on compound 48/80-induced ex vivo mast cell degranulation on mice mesenteric bed was investigated. No death or alteration of behavioral parameters was observed after administration of NST (2000 mg/kg, i.p.) during the observation time of 14 days. The NST (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the carrageenan-induced edema from the 1st to the 5th hour (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The edematogenic activity induced by dextran, compound 48/80, histamine, serotonin, capsaicin, and prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by NST (100 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout the observation period (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The pretreatment with NST (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) attenuates the compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). Thus, the inhibition of both mast cell degranulation and release of endogenous mediators are probably involved in the NST-induced antiedematogenic effect.

  15. Mechanism of hERG channel block by the psychoactive indole alkaloid ibogaine.

    PubMed

    Thurner, Patrick; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Gafar, Hend; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S; Kudlacek, Oliver; Zezula, Juergen; Hilber, Karlheinz; Boehm, Stefan; Sandtner, Walter; Koenig, Xaver

    2014-02-01

    Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid. Its use as an antiaddictive agent has been accompanied by QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmias, which are most likely caused by human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel inhibition. Therefore, we studied in detail the interaction of ibogaine with hERG channels heterologously expressed in mammalian kidney tsA-201 cells. Currents through hERG channels were blocked regardless of whether ibogaine was applied via the extracellular or intracellular solution. The extent of inhibition was determined by the relative pH values. Block occurred during activation of the channels and was not observed for resting channels. With increasing depolarizations, ibogaine block grew and developed faster. Steady-state activation and inactivation of the channel were shifted to more negative potentials. Deactivation was slowed, whereas inactivation was accelerated. Mutations in the binding site reported for other hERG channel blockers (Y652A and F656A) reduced the potency of ibogaine, whereas an inactivation-deficient double mutant (G628C/S631C) was as sensitive as wild-type channels. Molecular drug docking indicated binding within the inner cavity of the channel independently of the protonation of ibogaine. Experimental current traces were fit to a kinetic model of hERG channel gating, revealing preferential binding of ibogaine to the open and inactivated state. Taken together, these findings show that ibogaine blocks hERG channels from the cytosolic side either in its charged form alone or in company with its uncharged form and alters the currents by changing the relative contribution of channel states over time.

  16. Hydrogen bonded 2-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, a new optical crystal: Evaluation of properties by structural, spectral, quantum chemical calculations, Z-scan and Hirshfeld studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya, K.; Dhamodharan, P.; Dhandapani, M.

    2018-03-01

    A new hydrgen bonded proton transfer complex, 2-methyl imidazolium 3, 5-dinitrobenzoate 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid (MIDB) was synthesized by the reaction between 2-methyl imidazole with 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid (1:2) in methanol solvent at room temperature. The crystals were subjected to FT-IR spectral analysis to confirm the functional groups of the new compound. Single crystal XRD analysis reveals that MIDB belongs to monoclinic system with P21/c space group. The asymmetric unit consists of one 2-methyl imidazolium cation, one 3, 5-dinitrobenzoate anion and one uncharged 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid moiety. Experimental NMR spectroscopic data and theoretically calculated NMR data correlated very well to estabilish the exact carbon skeleton and hydrogen environment in the molecular structure of MIDB. The thermal stability of the compound was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Computational studies such as optimization of molecular geometry, natural bond analysis (NBO), Mulliken population analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis were performed using Gaussian 09 software by B3LYP method at 6-31 g basis set level. The calculated first-order polarizability (β) of MIDB from computational studies is 4.1752 × 10-30 esu, which is 32 times greater than that of urea. UV-vis-NIR spectral studies revealed that the MIDB has a large optical transparency window. The optical nonlinearities of MIDB have been investigated by Z-scan technique with Hesbnd Ne laser radiation of wavelength 632.8 nm. Hirshfeld analysis indicate O⋯H/H⋯O interactions are the superior interactions confirming excessive hydrogen bond net work in the molecular structure.

  17. Natural Indoles, Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (DIM), Attenuate Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Mediated Liver Injury by Downregulating miR-31 Expression and Promoting Caspase-2-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Busbee, Philip B.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent superantigen capable of inducing inflammation characterized by robust immune cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine release. Exposure to SEB can result in food poisoning as well as fatal conditions such as toxic shock syndrome. In the current study, we investigated the effect of natural indoles including indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) on SEB-mediated liver injury. Injection of SEB into D-galactosamine-sensitized female C57BL/6 mice resulted in liver injury as indicated by an increase in enzyme aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and massive infiltration of immune cells into the liver. Administration of I3C and DIM (40mg/kg), by intraperitonal injection, attenuated SEB-induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by decrease in AST levels, inflammatory cytokines and cellular infiltration in the liver. I3C and DIM triggered apoptosis in SEB-activated T cells primarily through activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. In addition, inhibitor studies involving caspases revealed that I3C and DIM-mediated apoptosis in these activated cells was dependent on caspase-2 but independent of caspase-8, 9 and 3. In addition, I3C and DIM caused a decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Both compounds also down-regulated miR-31, which directly targets caspase-2 and influences apoptosis in SEB-activated cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that indoles can effectively suppress acute hepatic inflammation caused by SEB and that this may be mediated by decreased expression of miR-31 and consequent caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in T cells. PMID:25706292

  18. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and N-methyldiethanolamine and their mixtures in the temperature range of 313 to 353 K and pressures up to 2.7 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Silkenbaeumer, D.; Lichtenthaler, R.N.; Rumpf, B.

    1998-08-01

    The solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions containing 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) was measured in the temperature range from 313 to 353 K at total pressures up to 2.7 MPa using an analytical method. A model taking into account chemical reactions in the liquid phase as well as physical interactions is used to correlate the new data. To test the predictive capability of the model, the solubility of carbon dioxide in an aqueous solution containing AMP and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was measured at 313 K. Experimental results are reported and compared to literature data and calculations.

  19. Surface tension of binary mixtures of water + N-methyldiethanolamine and ternary mixtures of this amine and water with monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol from 25 to 50 C

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, E.; Rendo, R.; Sanjurjo, B.

    1998-11-01

    The surface tension of aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine, monoethanolamine + N-methyldiethanolamine and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol + N-methyldiethanolamine was measured at temperatures from 25 C to 50 C. For binary mixtures the concentration range was 0--50 mass % N-methyldiethanolamine, and for the tertiary mixtures the concentration range for each amine was 0--50 mass %. The experimental values were correlated with temperature and mole fraction. The maximum deviation in both cases was always less than 0.5%.

  20. Determination of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in mung bean sprouts using high performance liquid chromatography with immobilized Ru(bpy)3(2+)-KMnO4 chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhijun; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua; Shi, Zuolong; Tian, Wei

    2009-07-15

    A novel method for determination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in an extract from mung bean sprouts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection is described. The method is based on the CL reaction of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid) with acidic potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II), which was immobilized on the cationic ion-exchange resin. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Nucleosil RP-C18 column (i.d.: 250 mm x 4.6 mm, particle size: 5 microm, pore size: 100) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:1, v/v/v). At a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), the total run time was 20 min. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were 5.0x10(-8) to 5.0x10(-6)g mL(-1) and 5.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-5)g mL(-1) for IAA and IBA, respectively. The detection limits were 2.0x10(-8)g mL(-1) and 2.0x10(-7)g mL(-1) for IAA and IBA, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day were 3.1% and 2.3% (n=11) for 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IAA and 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IBA; The relative standard deviations of inter-day precision were 6.9% and 4.9% for 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IAA and 2x10(-6)g mL(-1) IBA. The proposed method had been successfully applied to the determination of auxin in mung bean sprouts.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Gene Clusters for the Biosynthesis of Indole-Diterpenes in Penicillium crustosum and P. janthinellum

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Matthew J.; Eaton, Carla J.; Stärkel, Cornelia; Tapper, Brian A.; Cox, Murray P.; Scott, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The penitremane and janthitremane families of indole-diterpenes are abundant natural products synthesized by Penicillium crustosum and P. janthinellum. Using a combination of PCR, cosmid library screening, and Illumina sequencing we have identified gene clusters encoding enzymes for the synthesis of these compounds. Targeted deletion of penP in P. crustosum abolished the synthesis of penitrems A, B, D, E, and F, and led to accumulation of paspaline, a key intermediate for paxilline biosynthesis in P. paxilli. Similarly, deletion of janP and janD in P. janthinellum abolished the synthesis of prenyl-elaborated indole-diterpenes, and led to accumulation in the latter of 13-desoxypaxilline, a key intermediate for the synthesis of the structurally related aflatremanes synthesized by Aspergillus flavus. This study helps resolve the genetic basis for the complexity of indole-diterpene natural products found within the Penicillium and Aspergillus species. All indole-diterpene gene clusters identified to date have a core set of genes for the synthesis of paspaline and a suite of genes encoding multi-functional cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, FAD dependent monooxygenases, and prenyl transferases that catalyse various regio- and stereo- specific oxidations that give rise to the diversity of indole-diterpene products synthesized by this group of fungi. PMID:26213965

  2. Indole-diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Botha, Christo J; Vrålstad, Trude; Rolén, Elin; Miles, Christopher O

    2009-12-09

    Tremorgenic syndromes in mammals are commonly associated with indole-diterpenoid alkaloids of fungal origin. Cattle are sometimes affected by tremors (also called "staggers") when they graze on toxic grass pastures, and Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , kweek) has been known to be associated with tremors for several decades. This study reports the identification of paspalitrems and paspaline-like indole-diterpenes in the seedheads of Claviceps cynodontis -infected Bermuda grass collected from a pasture that had caused a staggers syndrome in cattle in South Africa and thereby links the condition to specific mycotoxins. The highest concentration (about 150 mg/kg) was found for paspalitrem B. Ergonovine and ergine (lysergic acid amide), together with their C-8 epimers, were found to co-occur with the indole-diterpenes at concentrations of about 10 microg/kg. The indole-diterpene profile of the extract from the ergotized Bermuda grass was similar to that of Claviceps paspali sclerotia. However, the C. paspali sclerotia contained in addition agroclavine and elymoclavine. This is the first study linking tremors associated with grazing of Bermuda grass to specific tremorgenic indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins.

  3. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jyh-Ching; Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusivelymore » high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  4. Synthesis of Spiro Indole-2-Ones Using Three Component Reaction of N-Alkylisatins and Triphenylphosphonium Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali Varasteh

    2017-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure is achieved for the synthesis of indole-2-one derivatives via three-component reaction of N-alkylisatin, activated acetylenic compounds and alkyl bromide in the presence of triphenylphosphine in water under two conditions; room temperature and microwave irradiation. All chemicals used in this work were prepared from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland) and were used without further purification. N-alkylisatin were synthesized in the laboratory in the procedure that is reported in the literature. Electrothermal 9100 apparatus is employed for measuring of melting points of products. Elemental analyses for C, H, and N were performed with Heraeus CHN-O-Rapid analyzer. Mass spectra were recorded on a FINNIGAN-MAT 8430 spectrometer operating at an ionization potential of 70 eV. Measurement of IR spectra was performed by Shimadzu IR-460 spectrometer. 1H, and 13C NMR spectra were evaluated with a BRUKER DRX- 500 AVANCE spectrometer at 500.1 and 125.8 MHz, respectively. The results were demonstrated that simple mixing of N-alkylisatin, dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylate and alkyl bromides in the presence of triphenylphosphine by using of microwave condition is the efficient method for preparation of indole derivatives in good yields. In the optimized reaction conditions, water is solvent and temperature of the mixture of reaction is 80 oC. In this study, the reaction of activated acetylenic compounds with N-alkylisatin and alkyl bromide in the presence of triphenylphosphine is investigated which is led to a facile synthesis of some functionalized indoles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Metabolism of the tropine indole-3-carboxylate ICS 205-930 by differentiated rat and human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, V; Baldeck, J P; Wiebel, F J

    The metabolism of the tropine indole-3-carboxylate ICS 205-930 (ICS), a highly potent and selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, was investigated in continuous cell lines derived from rat or human liver and compared to the in vivo metabolism in rat and human. The well-differentiated rat hepatoma line 2sFou extensively metabolized ICS by hydroxylation of the indole moiety and subsequent conjugation to form the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates. The 2sFou cells also oxidized ICS at the tropinyl moiety to form both N-demethyl and N-oxide derivatives. The relative amount of the various metabolites was dependent on the substrate concentration. Pretreatment of the cells with dexamethasone increased the rate of metabolism for all pathways, while benz[a]anthracene caused an increase in hydroxylation at the indole moiety at the expense of N-oxidation. Phenobarbital pretreatment had no effect on ICS metabolism. The pattern of metabolites formed in 2sFou cells was qualitatively similar to that formed in rat urine. The human hepatoma line HepG2 metabolized ICS only to a small extent. The HepG2 cells failed to form detectable amounts of ICS conjugates found in human urine. The N-oxide-ICS was not found in HepG2 cells or in human urine. Virtually no ICS metabolites were found in human lung adenocarcinoma lines NCI-H358 or NCI-H322. The results suggest that continuous cell lines such as the differentiated rat hepatoma cells 2sFou might be used to mimic the metabolism of xenobiotics in rat and to clarify their complex metabolic pathways.

  6. Chiral Brønsted Base-Promoted Nitroalkane Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis of sec-Alkyl-3-Substituted Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Dobish, Mark C.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    A Brønsted base-catalyzed reaction of nitroalkanes with alkyl electrophiles provides indole heterocycles substituted at C3 bearing a sec-alkyl group with good enantioselectivity (up to 90% ee). Denitration by hydrogenolysis provides a product with equally high ee. An indolenine intermediate is implicated in the addition step, and surprisingly, water cosolvent was found to have a beneficial effect in this step, leading to a one-pot protocol for elimination/enantioselective addition using PBAM, a bis(amidine) chiral nonracemic base. PMID:21090654

  7. Rhodium enalcarbenoids: direct synthesis of indoles by rhodium(II)-catalyzed [4+2] benzannulation of pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Dawande, Sudam Ganpat; Kanchupalli, Vinaykumar; Kalepu, Jagadeesh; Chennamsetti, Haribabu; Lad, Bapurao Sudam; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2014-04-14

    Disclosed herein is the design of an unprecedented electrophilic rhodium enalcarbenoid which results from rhodium(II)-catalyzed decomposition of a new class of enaldiazo compounds. The synthetic utility of these enalcarbenoids has been successfully demonstrated in the first transition-metal-catalyzed [4+2] benzannulation of pyrroles, thus leading to substituted indoles. The new benzannulation has been applied to the efficient synthesis of the natural product leiocarpone as well as a potent adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein inhibitor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Indole-3-Butyric Acid Induces Ectopic Formation of Metaxylem in the Hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana without Conversion into Indole-3-Acetic Acid and with a Positive Interaction with Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Laura; Della Rovere, Federica; Andreini, Eleonora; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2017-11-21

    The role of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and of the auxin-interacting phytohormone ethylene, on the ectopic formation of primary xylem (xylogenesis in planta) is still little known. In particular, auxin/ethylene-target tissue(s), modality of the xylary process (trans-differentiation vs. de novo formation), and the kind of ectopic elements formed (metaxylem vs. protoxylem) are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether IBA may act on the process independently of conversion into IAA. To investigate these topics, histological analyses were carried out in the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis wild type seedlings and ech2ibr10 and ein3eil1 mutants, which are blocked in IBA-to-IAA conversion and ethylene signalling, respectively. The seedlings were grown under darkness with either IAA or IBA, combined or not with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Adventitious root formation was also investigated because this process may compete with xylogenesis. Our results show that ectopic formation of protoxylem and metaxylem occurred as an indirect process starting from the pericycle periclinal derivatives of the hypocotyl basal part. IAA favoured protoxylem formation, whereas IBA induced ectopic metaxylem with ethylene cooperation through the EIN3EIL1 network. Ectopic metaxylem differentiation occurred independently of IBA-to-IAA conversion as mediated by ECH2 and IBR10, and in the place of IBA-induced adventitious root formation.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of novel N-H and N-substituted indole-2- and 3-carboxamide derivatives as antioxidants agents.

    PubMed

    Olgen, Süreyya; Kiliç, Zuhal; Ada, Ahmet O; Coban, Tulay

    2007-08-01

    We have previously reported on the synthesis of novel indole derivatives where some compounds showed significant antioxidant activity. Here, we report the synthesis of novel N-H and N-substituted indole-2- and 3-carboxamide derivatives and investigated their antioxidant role in order to identify structural characteristics responsible for activity. Although all compounds showed a strong inhibitory (95-100%) effect on superoxide anion (SOD) only compounds 4, 5 and 6 showed simliar potency for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation (81-94%) which revealed that compounds 4, 5 and 6 possessed highly potent antioxidant properties. Substitution in the 1-position of the indole ring caused the significant differences between the activity results regarding lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  10. Total Synthesis of Acremoauxin A and Oxazinin 3: Scope and Mechanism of Direct Indole and Pyrrole Couplings Adjacent to Carbonyl Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Jeremy M.; Whitefield, Brandon W.; Maimone, Thomas J.; Lin, David W.; Castroviejo, M. Pilar; Baran, Phil S.

    2008-01-01

    Full details are provided for a recently invented method to couple indoles and pyrroles to carbonyl compounds. The reaction is ideally suited for structurally complex substrates and exhibits high levels of chemoselectivity (functional group tolerability), regioselectivity (coupling occurs exclusively at C–3 of indole or C–2 of pyrrole), stereoselectivity (substrate control), and practicality (amenable to scale-up). In addition, quaternary stereocenters are easily and predictably generated. The reaction has been applied to a number of synthetic problems including total syntheses of members of the hapalindole family of natural products, ketorolac, acremoauxin A, and oxazinin 3. Mechanistically, this coupling protocol appears to operate by a single electron transfer process requiring generation of an electron-deficient radical adjacent to a carbonyl which is then intercepted by an indole or pyrrole anion. PMID:17900115

  11. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. I. Partial purification and characterization of the enzyme from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss.

  12. Cytotoxicity of the indole alkaloid reserpine from Rauwolfia serpentina against drug-resistant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Abdelfatah, Sara A A; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    The antihypertensive reserpine is an indole alkaloid from Rauwolfia serpentina and exerts also profound activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The present investigation was undertaken to investigate possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Sensitive and drug-resistant tumor cell lines overexpressing P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP), mutation-activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), wild-type and p53-knockout cells as well as the NCI panel of cell lines from different tumor origin were analyzed. Reserpine's cytotoxicity was investigated by resazurin and sulforhodamine assays, flow cytometry, and COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of transcriptome-wide microarray-based RNA expressions. P-glycoprotein- or BCRP overexpressing tumor cells did not reveal cross-resistance to reserpine. EGFR-overexpressing cells were collateral sensitive and p53- Knockout cells cross-resistant to this drug compared to their wild-type parental cell lines. Reserpine increased the uptake of doxorubicin in P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cells, indicating that reserpine inhibited the efflux function of P-glycoprotein. Using molecular docking, we found that reserpine bound with even higher binding energy to P-glycoprotein and EGFR than the control drugs verapamil (P-glycoprotein inhibitor) and erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor). COMPARE and cluster analyses of microarray data showed that the mRNA expression of a panel of genes predicted the sensitivity or resistance of the NCI tumor cell line panel with statistical significance. The genes belonged to diverse pathways and biological functions, e.g. cell survival and apoptosis, EGFR activation, regulation of angiogenesis, cell mobility, cell adhesion, immunological functions, mTOR signaling, and Wnt signaling. The lack of cross-resistance to most resistance mechanisms and the collateral sensitivity in EGFR-transfectants compared to wild

  13. Endophytic Fungi from Frankincense Tree Improves Host Growth and Produces Extracellular Enzymes and Indole Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Farsi, Zainab; Al-Mamari, Aza; Waqas, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Elyassi, Ali; Mabood, Fazal; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia sacra, an economically important frankincense-producing tree found in the desert woodlands of Oman, is least known for its endophytic fungal diversity and the potential of these fungi to produce extracellular enzymes and auxins. We isolated various fungal endophytes belonging to Eurotiales (11.8%), Chaetomiaceae (17.6%), Incertae sadis (29.5%), Aureobasidiaceae (17.6%), Nectriaceae (5.9%) and Sporomiaceae (17.6%) from the phylloplane (leaf) and caulosphere (stem) of the tree. Endophytes were identified using genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions, whereas a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the same gene fragment was made with homologous sequences. The endophytic colonization rate was significantly higher in the leaf (5.33%) than the stem (0.262%). The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H′ 0.8729, while Simpson index was higher in the leaf (0.583) than in the stem (0.416). Regarding the endophytic fungi’s potential for extracellular enzyme production, fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone standards and substrates were used to determine the presence of cellulases, phosphatases and glucosidases in the pure culture. Among fungal strains, Penicillum citrinum BSL17 showed significantly higher amounts of glucosidases (62.15±1.8 μM-1min-1mL) and cellulases (62.11±1.6 μM-1min-1mL), whereas Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher secretion of glucosidases (69.4±0.79 μM-1min-1mL) and phosphatases (3.46±0.31μM-1min-1mL) compared to other strains. Aureobasidium sp. BSS6 and Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher potential for indole acetic acid production (tryptophan-dependent and independent pathways). Preussia sp. BSL10 was applied to the host B. sacra tree saplings, which exhibited significant improvements in plant growth parameters and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. The current study concluded that endophytic microbial resources producing extracellular enzymes and auxin

  14. GTF2I mutation frequently occurs in more indolent thymic epithelial tumors and predicts better prognosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanfen; Lei, Yiyan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuhua; Rao, Huilan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Fang

    2017-08-01

    A missense mutation in GTF2I was previously identified in thymic epithelioid tumor (TET). However, the clinicopathological relevance of GTF2I mutation has not been illustrated. We studied the prognostic importance of GTF2I mutation as well as its relation to histological subtypes in a large number of TETs. TET samples from 296 patients with clinical and follow-up data were collected, and histological subtypes were classified. Analysis of the GTF2I (chromosome 7 c.74146970T>A) mutation was undertaken by using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and direct sequencing. The association of GTF2I mutation with clinicopathological features as well as prognosis was analyzed. One hundred twenty-four out of 296 (41.9%) patients harbored the GTF2I mutation (chromosome 7 c.74146970T>A). GTF2I mutation was observed in 20 (87.0%) cases of type A thymoma, 70 (78.7%) of type AB thymoma, and the frequency decreased with the degree of histological subtype aggressiveness, with the lowest rate in thymic carcinoma (7.7%). The difference of GTF2I mutation distribution in histological subtypes was statistically significant (p<0.001). The GTF2I mutation was found more frequently in patients with early Masaoka stage (I-II, n=112, 90.3%) than in those with advanced stage (III-IV) disease (n=12, 9.6%, p<0.001). However, only histological subtype significantly predicted the presence of the GTF2I mutation in patients with TETs. The presence of the GTF2I mutation correlated with better prognosis (90.0% compared to 72.0% 5-year survival, and 86% compared to 56% 10-year survival, respectively; log-rank p=0.001). Moreover, it was an independent prognostic factor [hazard ratio (HR), 0.35; 95% confidential interval (CI), 0.15-0.81; p=0.014)]. The frequency of the GTF2I mutation is higher in more indolent TETs, and correlates with better prognosis. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of the GTF2I mutation in TETs and its clinical application. Copyright © 2017

  15. Endophytic Fungi from Frankincense Tree Improves Host Growth and Produces Extracellular Enzymes and Indole Acetic Acid.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Farsi, Zainab; Al-Mamari, Aza; Waqas, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Elyassi, Ali; Mabood, Fazal; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia sacra, an economically important frankincense-producing tree found in the desert woodlands of Oman, is least known for its endophytic fungal diversity and the potential of these fungi to produce extracellular enzymes and auxins. We isolated various fungal endophytes belonging to Eurotiales (11.8%), Chaetomiaceae (17.6%), Incertae sadis (29.5%), Aureobasidiaceae (17.6%), Nectriaceae (5.9%) and Sporomiaceae (17.6%) from the phylloplane (leaf) and caulosphere (stem) of the tree. Endophytes were identified using genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions, whereas a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the same gene fragment was made with homologous sequences. The endophytic colonization rate was significantly higher in the leaf (5.33%) than the stem (0.262%). The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H' 0.8729, while Simpson index was higher in the leaf (0.583) than in the stem (0.416). Regarding the endophytic fungi's potential for extracellular enzyme production, fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone standards and substrates were used to determine the presence of cellulases, phosphatases and glucosidases in the pure culture. Among fungal strains, Penicillum citrinum BSL17 showed significantly higher amounts of glucosidases (62.15±1.8 μM-1min-1mL) and cellulases (62.11±1.6 μM-1min-1mL), whereas Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher secretion of glucosidases (69.4±0.79 μM-1min-1mL) and phosphatases (3.46±0.31μM-1min-1mL) compared to other strains. Aureobasidium sp. BSS6 and Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher potential for indole acetic acid production (tryptophan-dependent and independent pathways). Preussia sp. BSL10 was applied to the host B. sacra tree saplings, which exhibited significant improvements in plant growth parameters and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. The current study concluded that endophytic microbial resources producing extracellular enzymes and auxin could

  16. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by monoterpene indole alkaloids and fractions obtained from Psychotria suterella and Psychotria laciniata.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Soldi, Tatiane Cristina; Torres Abib, Renata; Anders Apel, Miriam; Simões-Pires, Cláudia; Marcourt, Laurence; Gottfried, Carmem; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2013-06-01

    Alkaloid fractions of Psychotria suterella (SAE) and Psychotria laciniata (LAE) as well as two monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) isolated from these fractions were evaluated against monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and -B) obtained from rat brain mitochondria. SAE and LAE were analysed by HPLC-PDA and UHPLC/HR-TOF-MS leading to the identification of the compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, whose identity was confirmed by NMR analyses. Furthermore, SAE and LAE were submitted to the enzymatic assays, showing a strong activity against MAO-A, characterized by IC(50) values of 1.37 ± 1.05 and 2.02 ± 1.08 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts were also able to inhibit MAO-B, but in higher concentrations. In a next step, SAE and LAE were fractionated by RP-MPLC affording three and four major fractions, respectively. The RP-MPLC fractions were subsequently tested against MAO-A and -B. The RP-MPLC fractions SAE-F3 and LAE-F4 displayed a strong inhibition against MAO-A with IC(50) values of 0.57 ± 1.12 and 1.05 ± 1.15 μg/mL, respectively. The MIAs 1 and 2 also inhibited MAO-A (IC(50) of 50.04 ± 1.09 and 132.5 ± 1.33 μg/mL, respectively) and -B (IC(50) of 306.6 ± 1.40 and 162.8 ± 1.26 μg/mL, respectively), but in higher concentrations when compared with the fractions. This is the first work describing the effects of MIAs found in neotropical species of Psychotria on MAO activity. The results suggest that species belonging to this genus could consist of an interesting source in the search for new MAO inhibitors.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives as allosteric inhibitors of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bie, Jianbo; Liu, Shuainan; Zhou, Jie; Xu, Bailing; Shen, Zhufang

    2014-03-15

    A series of novel indole derivatives was synthesized as inhibitors of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). Extensive structure-activity relationships were conducted and led to a potent FBPase inhibitor 3.9 with an IC₅₀ of 0.99 μM. The binding mode of this series of indoles was predicted using CDOCKER algorithm. The results of this research will shed light on the further design and optimization of novel small molecules as FBPase inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of Thieno[3,2-b]indoles via Halogen Dance and Ligand-Controlled One-Pot Sequential Coupling Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuki; Okano, Kentaro; Mori, Atsunori

    2018-02-16

    A two-pot synthesis of thieno[3,2-b]indole from 2,5-dibromothiophene is described. A halogen dance of 2,5-dibromothiophene was performed with LDA, and subsequent Negishi coupling was performed with 2-iodoaniline derivatives to provide the corresponding coupling products. The resulting two bromo groups have different reactivities, which were utilized for the one-pot Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/intramolecular Buchwald-Hartwig amination to produce thieno[3,2-b]indole via an assisted tandem catalysis that involved in situ ligand exchange.

  19. Rh-Catalyzed [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of 1-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles: Access to the Framework of Aspidosperma and Kopsia Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Qingyu; Du, Qiucheng; Zhai, Hongbin

    2016-08-19

    A Rh(II)-catalyzed dearomative intramolecular [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition involving the indolic C2-C3 carbon-carbon double bond has been developed. The reaction was launched from the triazole moiety within the substrate and proceeded efficiently under mild conditions. A wide range of functional groups could be tolerated. These features render the current reaction a highly useful tool for the synthesis of polycyclic indole alkaloids, as showcased by a rapid assembly of the core structure of Aspidosperma and the related alkaloids.

  20. Two-color two-photon excited fluorescence of indole: Determination of wavelength-dependent molecular parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrich, Sebastian; Al-Hadhuri, Tawfik; Gericke, Karl-Heinz; Shternin, Peter S.; Smolin, Andrey G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of two-color two-photon excited fluorescence in indole dissolved in propylene glycol. Femtosecond excitation pulses at effective wavelengths from 268 to 293.33 nm were used to populate the two lowest indole excited states 1La and 1Lb and polarized fluorescence was then detected. All seven molecular parameters and the two-photon polarization ratio Ω containing information on two-photon absorption dynamics, molecular lifetime τf, and rotation correlation time τrot have been determined from experiment and analyzed as a function of the excitation wavelength. The analysis of the experimental data has shown that 1Lb-1La inversion occurred under the conditions of our experiment. The two-photon absorption predominantly populated the 1La state at all excitation wavelengths but in the 287-289 nm area which contained an absorption hump of the 1Lb state 0-0 origin. The components of the two-photon excitation tensor S were analyzed giving important information on the principal tensor axes and absorption symmetry. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the results reported by other groups. The lifetime τf and the rotation correlation time τrot showed no explicit dependence on the effective excitation wavelength. Their calculated weighted average values were found to be τf = 3.83 ± 0.14 ns and τrot = 0.74 ± 0.06 ns.