Science.gov

Sample records for c3 cropping systems

  1. The AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, A. C.; McDermid, S. P.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2013-12-01

    Initial results will be presented from the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an activity mobilizing the international community of crop modelers in a coordinated climate impacts experiment via the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). Crop modelers were invited to run a set of common climate experiments through sites where their models are already calibrated and then submit results to enable coordinated analysis for high-impact publications and data products. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of regional agricultural production to changes in precipitation, temperature, and carbon dioxide concentrations, which in many cases is more robust across crop models and locations than are the absolute yields. By coordinating an investigation into these fundamental sensitivities, C3MP enables an investigation of projected climate impacts across a range of global climate models, regional downscaling approaches, and crop model configurations. More than 150 participants have registered from nearly 45 countries, and coverage will increase in crops, models, farming systems, and locations as more and more crop modelers conduct the experiments. By analyzing carbon, temperature, and water sensitivities with today's climate as the origin, C3MP results will also facilitate the identification of key vulnerabilities and urgent interventions. This presentation will describe the C3MP process and show preliminary results across wheat, maize, rice, soybean, and peanut sites simulated under a variety of crop models. A comparison between results driven by local meteorological observations and those driven by a global gridded historical climate product (AgMERRA) also elucidates the current challenges in providing climate data as a basis for impacts assessments.

  2. The AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP): Methods and Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Sonali P.; Ruane, Alexander Clark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter a multitude of factors important to agricultural systems, including pests, diseases, weeds, extreme climate events, water resources, soil degradation, and socio-economic pressures. Changes to carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water (CTW) will be the primary drivers of change in crop growth and agricultural systems. Therefore, establishing the CTW-change sensitivity of crop yields is an urgent research need and warrants diverse methods of investigation. Crop models provide a biophysical, process-based tool to investigate crop responses across varying environmental conditions and farm management techniques, and have been applied in climate impact assessment by using a variety of methods (White et al., 2011, and references therein). However, there is a significant amount of divergence between various crop models' responses to CTW changes (Rotter et al., 2011). While the application of a site-based crop model is relatively simple, the coordination of such agricultural impact assessments on larger scales requires consistent and timely contributions from a large number of crop modelers, each time a new global climate model (GCM) scenario or downscaling technique is created. A coordinated, global effort to rapidly examine CTW sensitivity across multiple crops, crop models, and sites is needed to aid model development and enhance the assessment of climate impacts (Deser et al., 2012). To fulfill this need, the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) (Ruane et al., 2014) was initiated within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013). The submitted results from C3MP Phase 1 (February 15, 2013-December 31, 2013) are currently being analyzed. This chapter serves to present and update the C3MP protocols, discuss the initial participation and general findings, comment on needed adjustments, and describe continued and future development. AgMIP aims to improve

  3. Enhancing C3 photosynthesis: an outlook on feasible interventions for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jitender; Pandey, Prachi; James, Donald; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Kaul, Tanushri; Tripathy, Baishnab C; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-12-01

    Despite the declarations and collective measures taken to eradicate hunger at World Food Summits, food security remains one of the biggest issues that we are faced with. The current scenario could worsen due to the alarming increase in world population, further compounded by adverse climatic conditions, such as increase in atmospheric temperature, unforeseen droughts and decreasing soil moisture, which will decrease crop yield even further. Furthermore, the projected increase in yields of C3 crops as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is much less than anticipated. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase crop productivity beyond existing yield potentials to address the challenge of food security. One of the domains of plant biology that promises hope in overcoming this problem is study of C3 photosynthesis. In this review, we have examined the potential bottlenecks of C3 photosynthesis and the strategies undertaken to overcome them. The targets considered for possible intervention include RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle enzymes, CO2 and carbohydrate transport, and light reactions among many others. In addition, other areas which promise scope for improvement of C3 photosynthesis, such as mining natural genetic variations, mathematical modelling for identifying new targets, installing efficient carbon fixation and carbon concentrating mechanisms have been touched upon. Briefly, this review intends to shed light on the recent advances in enhancing C3 photosynthesis for crop improvement.

  4. C3 Systems Engineering: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    System (AWACS) incorporate a wide assortment of computers , CRT displays, communications equipment and data processing systems. These systems are...Tactical Information Data System (JTIDS) or Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS), incorporate a wide assortment of computers , CRT displays...advances in such areas as microelectronics, computer graphics and superconductivity are being made at an unprecedented rate. These new technologies

  5. Systems Engineering for Air Force C3I Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    filll11111111 ff I!’ 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES systems engineering, command, control, communications , and 204 intelligence (C3 1), 16. PRICE...activities includes national security matters in the area of command, control, communications , and intelligence (C3 I), as well as civil sys- tem areas for...component discussions such as computers, radars, or communications devices. However, some quotations from the earlier books help to establish what

  6. Combination of Evidence in C3 Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    as- vary in thrust of analysis from input-output node sumed to be time-varying. Section 4 is an abridged models (14] to various detailed ( sow’z...COMBINATION OF EVIDENCE IN C-1 SYSTEM In-house funding 6 AUTHOR(S) I. R. Goodman 7 PERFORMNG ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8 PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution Is unlimited. 13 ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This paper has a threefold thrust : (1) a brief

  7. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  8. Biomass allocation and C-N-P stoichiometry in C3 and C4 crops under abiotic stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass allocation to structural, metabolic and reproductive organs as well as their carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C-N-P) profiles and ratios (C:N, C:P, and N:P) were estimated in C3 and C4 crop plants subjected to multiple abiotic stresses (i.e., combination of temperature and water stress level...

  9. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  10. Carbon-temperature-water change analysis for peanut production under climate change: a prototype for the AgMIP coordinated climate-crop modeling project (C3MP).

    PubMed

    Ruane, Alex C; McDermid, Sonali; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Baigorria, Guillermo A; Jones, James W; Romero, Consuelo C; Dewayne Cecil, L

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is projected to push the limits of cropping systems and has the potential to disrupt the agricultural sector from local to global scales. This article introduces the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an initiative of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to engage a global network of crop modelers to explore the impacts of climate change via an investigation of crop responses to changes in carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]), temperature, and water. As a demonstration of the C3MP protocols and enabled analyses, we apply the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO-Peanut crop model for Henry County, Alabama, to evaluate responses to the range of plausible [CO2 ], temperature changes, and precipitation changes projected by climate models out to the end of the 21st century. These sensitivity tests are used to derive crop model emulators that estimate changes in mean yield and the coefficient of variation for seasonal yields across a broad range of climate conditions, reproducing mean yields from sensitivity test simulations with deviations of ca. 2% for rain-fed conditions. We apply these statistical emulators to investigate how peanuts respond to projections from various global climate models, time periods, and emissions scenarios, finding a robust projection of modest (<10%) median yield losses in the middle of the 21st century accelerating to more severe (>20%) losses and larger uncertainty at the end of the century under the more severe representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). This projection is not substantially altered by the selection of the AgMERRA global gridded climate dataset rather than the local historical observations, differences between the Third and Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), or the use of the delta method of climate impacts analysis rather than the C3MP impacts response surface and emulator approach.

  11. Carbon-Temperature-Water Change Analysis for Peanut Production Under Climate Change: A Prototype for the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; McDermid, Sonali; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Baigorria, Guillermo A.; Jones, James W.; Romero, Consuelo C.; Cecil, L. DeWayne

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is projected to push the limits of cropping systems and has the potential to disrupt the agricultural sector from local to global scales. This article introduces the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an initiative of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to engage a global network of crop modelers to explore the impacts of climate change via an investigation of crop responses to changes in carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water. As a demonstration of the C3MP protocols and enabled analyses, we apply the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO-Peanut crop model for Henry County, Alabama, to evaluate responses to the range of plausible [CO2], temperature changes, and precipitation changes projected by climate models out to the end of the 21st century. These sensitivity tests are used to derive crop model emulators that estimate changes in mean yield and the coefficient of variation for seasonal yields across a broad range of climate conditions, reproducing mean yields from sensitivity test simulations with deviations of ca. 2% for rain-fed conditions. We apply these statistical emulators to investigate how peanuts respond to projections from various global climate models, time periods, and emissions scenarios, finding a robust projection of modest (<10%) median yield losses in the middle of the 21st century accelerating to more severe (>20%) losses and larger uncertainty at the end of the century under the more severe representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). This projection is not substantially altered by the selection of the AgMERRA global gridded climate dataset rather than the local historical observations, differences between the Third and Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), or the use of the delta method of climate impacts analysis rather than the C3MP impacts response surface and emulator approach.

  12. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  13. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification. PMID:28157197

  14. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  15. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  16. Prospects for improving CO2 fixation in C3-crops through understanding C4-Rubisco biogenesis and catalytic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sharwood, Robert E; Ghannoum, Oula; Whitney, Spencer M

    2016-06-01

    By operating a CO2 concentrating mechanism, C4-photosynthesis offers highly successful solutions to remedy the inefficiency of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco. C4-plant Rubisco has characteristically evolved faster carboxylation rates with low CO2 affinity. Owing to high CO2 concentrations in bundle sheath chloroplasts, faster Rubisco enhances resource use efficiency in C4 plants by reducing the energy and carbon costs associated with photorespiration and lowering the nitrogen investment in Rubisco. Here, we show that C4-Rubisco from some NADP-ME species, such as maize, are also of potential benefit to C3-photosynthesis under current and future atmospheric CO2 pressures. Realizing this bioengineering endeavour necessitates improved understanding of the biogenesis requirements and catalytic variability of C4-Rubisco, as well as the development of transformation capabilities to engineer Rubisco in a wider variety of food and fibre crops.

  17. Development of a C3 generic workstation: System overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A command, control, and communications (C3) environment is described which will be applied to the evaluation of performance of aircrews, particularly in situations in which they are subjected to chemical defense protection drugs and antihistamines.

  18. Negative C3 Launch Options for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, S.; Noca, M.

    1998-01-01

    Low thrust trajectory analyses were used to examine the feasibility of using solar electronic propulsion for Earth escape from a negative C3 launch for deep space missions in order to significantly increase the net delivered mass capability of inexpensive launch vehicles.

  19. Integrated forage crop refinery system

    SciTech Connect

    Barrier, J.W.; Broder, J.D.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    The proposed program involves the development of an integrated agricultural-chemical refining system for converting forage crops to useful foods, feeds, fuels, and chemicals. TVA has facilities and resources available to support extensive research and development activities. Modification can easily be made in the existing experimental facility being used to develop acid hydrolysis of corn stover, to include production of products other than fuel ethanol from forages. These products include protein, lignin-derived products, chemicals, single-cell protein, methane, aquaculture feed, and distillers solids. Refining forage crops in this manner has potential to increase the value of that crop and produce an economical integrated system. The results of the program will also be directly applicable to other areas and regions of the US. 11 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Response of photosynthetic characters to CO2 change on C3 and C4 cereal crops grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for Permanent Astrobase Life-support Artificial Closed Ecosystem (P.A.L.A.C.E.), provides a largely closed environment for crop growth tests for Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). In this study, we evaluated the response of photosynthetic characters of two soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merr., ‘Zhonghuang13’and ‘Heihe35’) of C _{3} plants and one maize ( Zea mays L.) of C _{4} plants, which were selected as candidates for cultivation in BLSS. Plants were cultivated in stainless steel pots equipped with the porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) and grew under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1 (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 500 umol m (-2) s (-1) , temperature regime 26/22 (o) C light/dark). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, in which pH was kept at 5.8. A gas exchange/chlorophyII fluorescence analysis was performed to determine their net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal (g _{s}) and mesophyll (g _{m}) conductances, intercellular CO _{2} concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (E) under different elevated CO _{2} concentration. In order to partially describe how leaf physiology responds to the elevated CO _{2}, Chl content and the activity and amount of rubisco were analyzed. This study provides a theoretical basis for the crop selection in BLSS.

  1. Effect of the ionosphere on C3I systems

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1988-05-03

    Geomagnetic and auroral disturbances cause significant interference on communications, navigation, and radar systems. Therefore, it is essential to develop a geomagnetic and auroral storm prediction scheme which can provide necessary information in evaluating the interference well before a major geomagnetic storm. The prediction of auroral disturbances and of the F-layer trough development is especially significant for the operation of HF systems at mid and high latitudes. For these reasons, the author has been developing a practical numerical prediction scheme, that can predict storm characteristics, oval diameter, and trough parameters with a 6-12 hour lead time.

  2. In silico analysis of decomposed reflectances of C3 and C4 plants aiming at the effective assessment of crop needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer; Chen, Tenn F.

    2017-04-01

    By separating the surface and subsurface components of foliar hyperspectral signatures using polarization optics, it is possible to enhance the remote discrimination of different plant species and optimize the assessment of different factors associated with their health status. These initiatives, in turn, can lead to higher crop yield and lower environmental impact. It is important to consider, however, that the main varieties of crops, represented by C3 (e.g., soy) and C4 (e.g., maize) plants, have markedly distinct morphological characteristics. Accordingly, the influence of these characteristics on their interactions with impinging light may affect the selection of optimal probe wavelengths for specific applications making use of combined hyperspectral and polarization measurements. In this paper, we compare the sensitivity of the total (including surface and subsurface components) and subsurface reflectance responses of C3 and C4 plants to different spectral and geometrical light incidence conditions. This investigation is supported by measured biophysical data and predictive light transport simulations. The results of our comparisons indicate that the total and subsurface reflectance responses of C3 and C4 plants depict well-defined patterns of sensitivity for varying illumination conditions. We believe that these patterns should be considered in the design of high-fidelity crop discrimination and monitoring procedures.

  3. Fuelling genetic and metabolic exploration of C3 bioenergy crops through the first reference transcriptome of Arundo donax L.

    PubMed Central

    Sablok, Gaurav; Fu, Yuan; Bobbio, Valentina; Laura, Marina; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Allavena, Andrea; Velikova, Violeta; Viola, Roberto; Loreto, Francesco; Li, Mingai; Varotto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The development of inexpensive and highly productive biomass sources of biofuel is a priority in global climate change biology. Arundo donax, also known as the giant reed, is recognized as one of the most promising nonfood bioenergy crops in Europe. Despite its relevance, to date no genomic resources are available to support the characterization of the developmental, adaptive and metabolic traits underlying the high productivity of this nonmodel species. We hereby present the first report on the de novo assembly of bud, culm, leaf and root transcriptomes of A. donax, which can be accessed through a customized BLAST server (http://ecogenomics.fmach.it/arundo/) for mining and exploring the genetic potential of this species. Based on functional annotation and homology comparison to 19 prospective biofuel Poaceae species, we provide the first genomic view of this so far unexplored crop and indicate the model species with highest potential for comparative genomics approaches. The analysis of the transcriptome reveals strong differences in the enrichment of the Gene Ontology categories and the relative expression among different organs, which can guide future efforts for functional genomics or genetic improvement of A. donax. A set of homologs to key genes involved in lignin, cellulose, starch, lipid metabolism and in the domestication of other crops is discussed to provide a platform for possible enhancement of productivity and saccharification efficiency in A. donax.

  4. The Role of the Operational Command in Acquiring C3 (Communication Command and Control) Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    systems in the Air Force. When he transferred to the Directorate of Command and Contrcl and Telecomunication s i n the Pentagon he .as responsible for...and articulate the changing requirements for these systems, can manage and integrate the system within the overall system, and can insure that the C3

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of projected impacts of climate change on the major C3 and C4 crop yield under representative concentration pathway 4.5: Insight from the coasts of Tamil Nadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    A, Ramachandran; Praveen, Dhanya; R, Jaganathan; D, RajaLakshmi; K, Palanivelu

    2017-01-01

    India's dependence on a climate sensitive sector like agriculture makes it highly vulnerable to its impacts. However, agriculture is highly heterogeneous across the country owing to regional disparities in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. It is essential to know and quantify the possible impacts of changes in climate on crop yield for successful agricultural management and planning at a local scale. The Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System (HadGEM-ES) was employed to generate regional climate projections for the study area using the Regional Climate Model (RCM) RegCM4.4. The dynamics in potential impacts at the sub-district level were evaluated using the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCPs). The aim of this study was to simulate the crop yield under a plausible change in climate for the coastal areas of South India through the end of this century. The crop simulation model, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) 4.5, was used to understand the plausible impacts on the major crop yields of rice, groundnuts, and sugarcane under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. The findings reveal that under the RCP 4.5 scenario there will be decreases in the major C3 and C4 crop yields in the study area. This would affect not only the local food security, but the livelihood security as well. This necessitates timely planning to achieve sustainable crop productivity and livelihood security. On the other hand, this situation warrants appropriate adaptations and policy intervention at the sub-district level for achieving sustainable crop productivity in the future. PMID:28753605

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of projected impacts of climate change on the major C3 and C4 crop yield under representative concentration pathway 4.5: Insight from the coasts of Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    A, Ramachandran; Praveen, Dhanya; R, Jaganathan; D, RajaLakshmi; K, Palanivelu

    2017-01-01

    India's dependence on a climate sensitive sector like agriculture makes it highly vulnerable to its impacts. However, agriculture is highly heterogeneous across the country owing to regional disparities in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. It is essential to know and quantify the possible impacts of changes in climate on crop yield for successful agricultural management and planning at a local scale. The Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System (HadGEM-ES) was employed to generate regional climate projections for the study area using the Regional Climate Model (RCM) RegCM4.4. The dynamics in potential impacts at the sub-district level were evaluated using the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCPs). The aim of this study was to simulate the crop yield under a plausible change in climate for the coastal areas of South India through the end of this century. The crop simulation model, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) 4.5, was used to understand the plausible impacts on the major crop yields of rice, groundnuts, and sugarcane under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. The findings reveal that under the RCP 4.5 scenario there will be decreases in the major C3 and C4 crop yields in the study area. This would affect not only the local food security, but the livelihood security as well. This necessitates timely planning to achieve sustainable crop productivity and livelihood security. On the other hand, this situation warrants appropriate adaptations and policy intervention at the sub-district level for achieving sustainable crop productivity in the future.

  7. Spin-forbidden c 3Sigma1+<--X 1Sigma+ band system of YF.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Ramya; Morse, Michael D

    2007-04-14

    Optical spectra of jet-cooled diatomic YF have been recorded using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. A vibrational progression corresponding to the c 3Sigma1+<--X 1Sigma+ system has been identified. The vibrational frequency omegae' and anharmonicity omegae'xe' of the c 3Sigma+ state are 546.70 and 2.45 cm-1, respectively. The 0-0, 1-0, and 2-0 bands of the c 3Sigma1+<--X 1Sigma+ system were rotationally resolved and analyzed, allowing the v'=0, 1, and 2 levels of the c 3Sigma1+ substate to be characterized. From these studies, Be'=0.269 81(3) cm-1, alphae'=0.001 72(3) cm-1, and re'=1.9979(1) A were obtained (1sigma error limits). For these levels the spin-spin coupling constant lambdav is identical within experimental error, as lambda=-22.5 cm-1. The spin-forbidden c 3Sigma1+<--X 1Sigma+ transition is made allowed by spin-orbit interaction between the c 3Sigma1+ and the B 1Pi states. Excited state lifetimes of the c 3Sigma1+ and the B 1Pi states have been measured as 7.11(41) and 0.133(15) micros, respectively. A spin-orbit analysis shows that the c 3Sigma1+ state is contaminated with 2% B 1Pi character, which is approximately sufficient to explain the 7 micros lifetime of the c 3Sigma1+ state.

  8. Leaf Vascular Systems in C3 and C4 Grasses: A Two-dimensional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    UENO, OSAMU; KAWANO, YUKIKO; WAKAYAMA, MASATAKA; TAKEDA, TOMOSHIRO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is well documented that C4 grasses have a shorter distance between longitudinal veins in the leaves than C3 grasses. In grass leaves, however, veins with different structures and functions are differentiated: large longitudinal veins, small longitudinal veins and transverse veins. Thus, the densities of the three types of vein in leaves of C3 and C4 grasses were investigated from a two-dimensional perspective. • Methods Vein densities in cleared leaves of 15 C3 and 26 C4 grasses representing different taxonomic groups and photosynthetic subtypes were analysed. • Key Results The C4 grasses had denser transverse veins and denser small longitudinal veins than the C3 grasses (1·9 and 2·1 times in interveinal distance), but there was no significant difference in large longitudinal veins. The total length of the three vein types per unit area in the C4 grasses was 2·1 times that in the C3 grasses. The ratio of transverse vein length to total vein length was 14·3 % in C3 grasses and 9·9 % in C4 grasses. The C3 grasses generally had greater species variation in the vascular distances than the C4 grasses. The bambusoid and panicoid C3 grasses tended to have a denser vascular system than the festucoid C3 grasses. There were no significant differences in the interveinal distances of the three vein types between C4 subtypes, although the NADP-malic enzyme grasses tended to have a shorter distance between small longitudinal veins than the NAD-malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase grasses. • Conclusions It seems that C4 grasses have structurally a superior photosynthate translocation and water distribution system by developing denser networks of small longitudinal and transverse veins, while keeping a constant density of large longitudinal veins. The bambusoid and panicoid C3 grasses have a vascular system that is more similar to that in C4 grasses than to that in the festucoid C3 grasses. PMID:16464879

  9. Erythrocyte C3d and C4d for Monitoring Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Amy H.; Navratil, Jeannine S.; Ruffing, Margie J.; Liu, Chau-Ching; Hawkins, Douglas; McKinnon, Kathleen M.; Danchenko, Natalya; Ahearn, Joseph M.; Manzi, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is typically monitored by measuring serum C3 and C4. However, these proteins have limited utility as lupus biomarkers, because they are substrates rather than products of complement activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, erythrocyte-bound C3d (E-C3d) and E-C4d, compared with that of serum C3 and C4 for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. Methods The levels of E-C3d and E-C4d were measured by flow cytometry in 157 patients with SLE, 290 patients with other diseases, and 256 healthy individuals. The patients with SLE were followed up longitudinally. Disease activity was measured at each visit, using the validated Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results At baseline, patients with SLE had higher median levels of E-C3d and E-C4d (P < 0.0001) in addition to higher within-patient and between-patient variability in both E-C3d and E-C4d when compared with the 2 non-SLE groups. In a longitudinal analysis of patients with SLE, E-C3d, E-C4d, serum C3, and anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were each significantly associated with the SLAM and SELENA–SLEDAI. In a multivariable analysis, E-C4d remained significantly associated with these SLE activity measures after adjusting for serum C3, C4, and anti-dsDNA antibodies; however, E-C3d was associated with the SLAM but not with the SELENA–SLEDAI. Conclusion Determining the levels of the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, especially E-C4d, is an informative measure of SLE disease activity as compared with assessing serum C4 levels and should be considered for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:20187154

  10. The LspC3-41I restriction-modification system is the major determinant for genetic manipulations of Lysinibacillus sphaericus C3-41.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pan; Ge, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Zhao, Ni; Yuan, Zhiming; Hu, Xiaomin

    2017-05-19

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L. sphaericus C3-41 genome. It was found that the cell free extracts (CFE) from this strain shown similar restriction and methylation activity on exogenous Bacillus/Escherichia coli shuttle vector pBU4 as the HaeIII, which is an isoschizomer of BspRI. The Bsph_0498 (encoding the predicted LspC3-41IR) knockout mutant Δ0498 and the complement strain RC0498 were constructed. It was found that the unmethylated pBU4 can be digested by the CFE of C3-41 and RC0498, but not by that of Δ0498. Furthermore, the exogenous plasmid pBU4 can be transformed at very high efficacy into Δ0498, low efficacy into RC0498, but no transformation into C3-41, indicating that LspC3-41I might be a major determinant for the genetic restriction barrier of strain C3-41. Besides, lspC3-41IR and lspC3-41IM genes are detected in other two strains besides C3-41 of the tested 16 L. sphaericus strains, which all belonging to serotype H5 and MLST sequence type (ST) 1. Furthermore, the three strains are not horizontal transferred, and this restriction could be overcome by in vitro methylation either by the host CFE or by commercial methytransferase M. HaeIII. The results provide an insight to further study the genetic restriction, modification and evolution of mosquitocidal L. sphaericus, also a theoretical basis and a method for the genetic manipulations of L. sphaericus. LspC3-41I is identified as the major determinant for the restriction barrier of L. sphaericus C3-41. Only three strains of the tested 16 L. sphaericus strains

  11. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  12. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it.

  13. Using cover crops and cropping systems for nitrogen management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The reasons for using cover crops and optimized cropping sequences to manage nitrogen (N) are to maximize economic returns, improve soil quality and productivity, and minimize losses of N that might adversely impact environmental quality. Cover crops and cropping systems’ effects on N management are...

  14. Comparing cropping system productivity of fixed rotations and a flexible fallow system using Aqua-Crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Central High Plains, the predominant crop rotation is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow. Producers are looking to add diversity and intensity to their cropping systems and improve water use efficiency by adding summer crops, however, the elimination of summer fallow may increase the ...

  15. Advanced Concurrent Interfaces for High-Performance Multi-Media Distributed C3 Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    RL-TR-93-17 Final Technical Report AD-A267 051 "March 1993i II l IIII I H ’PeIle ADVANCED CONCURRENT INTERFACES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE MULTI- MEDIA ...DISTRIBUTED C3 SYSTEMS MIT Media Lab Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency JJo DARPA Order No. 8474 APPR9OVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...that it be returned. ADVANCED CONCURRENT INTERFACES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE MULTI- MEDIA DISTRIBUTED C3 SYSTEMS Nicholas P. Negroponte Dr. Richard A

  16. Sustainability of Switchgrass Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is native to the eastern two thirds of temperate North America. It has been used for conservation purposes and as a pasture grass since the 1940’s. It is currently being developed as a cellulosic biomass energy crop because it can produ...

  17. Bypass-activation of the complement system starting with C3

    PubMed Central

    Bitter-Suermann, D.; Dierich, M.; König, W.; Hadding, U.

    1972-01-01

    Antibody independent activation of the complement system starting with C3 can be achieved by means of a purified factor from cobra venom (VF), which interacts with a purified serum factor (SF). The latter is a normal constituent of guinea-pig and human serum (C3-proactivator). The interaction between VF and SF is Mg+ + dependent and leads to the formation of a complex. Immunological analysis reveals that both VF- and SF-antigens are contained in the complex. The VF—SF complex activates enzymatically isolated C3, which in the presence of the subsequent components yields all effects of the normal complement sequence. Purified C5 is not affected by the complex. Its activation is mediated by activated C3. The VF—SF system represents a model for direct activation of C3 to C9 independent of antibody, C1, C4 and C2. An analogous pathway of alternate complement activation might be used by other substances, e.g. endotoxin, guinea-pig γ1-immune aggregates and zymosan. The corresponding serum factors are under investigation. ImagesFIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4214761

  18. How seasonal temperature or water inputs affect the relative response of C3 crops to elevated [CO2]: A global analysis of open top chamber and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) has the potential to positively impact C3 food crop production by directly stimulating photosynthetic carbon gain (A), which feeds forward to increase crop biomass and yield. Further stimulation of A and yield can result from an indirect mechan...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unenforceable; (6) Procedures are in place to identify and address any deficiencies in the operating systems and... control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. 240.15c3-4 Section 240.15c3-4 Commodity and Securities...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An...

  20. Expert systems for C3I. Volume 1. A user's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, J. A.; Hockett, S. M.; Prelle, M. J.; Tallant, A. M.; Triant, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    There has been a tremendous burgeoning of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) over the last few years. Investments of commercial and government sponsors reflect a widespread belief that AI is now ready for practical applications. The area of AI currently receiving the greatest attention and investment is expert system technology. Most major high tech corporations have begun to develop expert systems, and many software houses specializing in expert system tools and applications have recently appeared. The defense community is one of the heaviest investors in expert system technology, and within this community one of the application areas receiving greatest attention is C3I. Many ESD programs are now beginning to ask whether expert system applications for C3I are ready for incorporation into ESD-developed systems, and, if so, what are the potential benefits and risks of doing so. This report was prepared to help ESD and MITRE personnel working on acquisition programs to address these issues and to gain a better understanding of what expert systems are all about. The primary intention of this report is to investigate what expert systems are and the advances that are being made in expert system technology for C3I applications. The report begins with a brief tutorial on expert systems, emphasizing how they differ from conventional software systems and what they are best at doing.

  1. [Immunoturbidimetric determination of C-3 components of complement systems using nonlinear calibration].

    PubMed

    Rohácek, J; Semrád, V; Klierová, E; Zápotocná, M

    1991-01-01

    A method for the immunoturbidimetric analysis of the C-3-component in the complement system was elaborated by means of the antiserum Q-SwAHu/C3 USOL (SEVAG) Praha. A diluted human control serum USOL (SEVAG) Praha with declared values of plasma proteins was applied as a standard solution. The relation between concentration and absorption in an eight step calibration series is well described by a parabola of the 2nd degree. The precision in series and the accuracy of the method are mentioned. The proposed technique is in a relatively good correlation with the radial immunodiffusion according to MANCINI.

  2. Systems of multifunction information distribution and for command, control and communications-C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, E. W.

    1982-04-01

    The areas where communication systems in support of command, control, and communications (C3) are used are indicated along with the fundamental characteristics of those systems. Presently, C3 systems heavily rely on voice transmission. The future data processing environment requirements demand highly sophisticated digital C3-systems. In this area the multifunction information distribution system (MIDS) is the best developed system concept. The different features a MIDS can offer to the user are described. These are information transmission, navigation, and identification. These features impose certain requirements upon the propagation path which result in limitations in frequency range, signal, and equipment design of the system. The joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS) with both variants TDMA and DTDMA and the systeme integre d'identification, de navigation, de trafic control, d'anticollision, de communication (SINTAC) are described as representative examples of MIDS. The points emphasized are link protocols and hardware implementation. The capabilities of these systems are checked against user requirements and the limits within which these general requirements can be fulfilled are shown.

  3. C3I Systems Acquisition and Maintenance in Relation to the use of COTS Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    the NATO C3 Agency and crypto equipment. * the GFE STARGATE Software subsystem (the prototyped version of which, developed by IAF, Surveillance fctid...been increasing and dual-use systems (ACCAM, ICC, AOIS, STARGATE and re-use potentials have been enhanced. WAN connections) Use of COTS information

  4. A Framework for Improving Integrative Factors in C3I Systems of the Argentine Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    improving integrative factors in C3I systems of the Argentine Army by Eduardo Alfredo Trotta Major, Argentine Army Ingeniero Militar, Escuela...commander’s intelligence, not as substitute of it. 39 Decision Aids can help military personnel by reducing stress, information overload and manual ...its antijamming characteristics. The system design goals include a manual -mode interface with the ACUS, and in the near future, an automated-mode

  5. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  6. Soil quality and the solar corridor crop system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  7. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  8. Development of DoD C3I Systems Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    N 192-10000009 DTIC AD-A249 679 S AY 6190 Development of DOD CaI Systems Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products iU Dr. Barry NI. Horowitz -. lie 9I...34’ ’ -. I " ’ "’ ’ ’"--,-- 91 2023(11 %192-BO00Q00Q9 Development of DOD C3I Systems Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products Dr. Barry N. Horowitz o...on Software- 2 Intensive Systems 2 Issues and Judgments Regarding Commercially Available 3 Equipment and Software vi INTRODUCTIO N comme ncrc ial x

  9. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; ...

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  10. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  11. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    PubMed

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems (e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  12. JPSS CGS C3S McMurdo Multimission Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C.; Urbano, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation civilian environmental satellite system, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) developed by NASA, will supply the afternoon orbit & ground system of the restructured NPOESS program. JPSS will replace NOAA's current POES system and ground processing part of both POES & DoD's Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS). JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical data. The command & data distribution part of the JPSS Common Ground System (CGS) is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems. C3S manages the overall JPSS & DWSS missions from control & status of the space & ground assets to ensuring timely delivery of high-quality data to the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Key to C3S' data delivery system are 15 globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon Company which will collect up to 5 times the environmental data about 4 times faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. Then these data will be rapidly forwarded to weather centrals via the global fiber optic network for processing/production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. McMurdo Station, Antarctica is a major receptor site due to its high latitude. With the NSF, C3S completed the upgrade & expansion of their existing off-continent satellite communications (SATCOM) link with 60 Mbps of bandwidth outbound and 20 Mbps inbound to missions using McMurdo. C3S completed the 1st big milestone in 2008 increasjng bandwidth of 3 Mbps to/from Antarctica to 10 Mbps both ways. Raytheon's C3S also upgraded network infrastructure at McMurdo Station & Belrose Earth Station, Australia SATCOM sites. This provides routing support for several missions, plus expansion capabilities to support future missions at McMurdo. The upgrade completed in Dec 2010 to prepare for use of McMurdo Station to support new downlink capabilities, called the

  13. Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

  14. Unique cropping systems for Louisiana sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  15. The C3PO project: a laser communication system concept for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Humières, Benoît; Esmiller, Bruno; Gouy, Yann; Steck, Emilie; Quintana, Crisanto; Faulkner, Graham; O'Brien, Dominic; Sproll, Fabian; Wagner, Paul; Hampf, Daniel; Riede, Wolfgang; Salter, Michael; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Jakonis, Darius; Piao, Xiaoyu; Karlsson, Mikael; Oberg, Olof; Petermann, Ingemar; Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Krezel, Jerzy; Debowska, Anna; Thueux, Yoann

    2017-02-01

    The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

  16. Mitosis and apoptosis in postnatal auditory system of the C3H/He strain.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, K; Takahashi, K; Kitamura, K; Momoi, T; Yoshikawa, Y

    2001-05-18

    The mouse auditory neurons, hair cells and their supporting cells in the cochlea are considered to be generated mainly in the embryonic days and to be sustained throughout the whole life. In the present study, however, we observed that auditory ganglion cells in the spiral ganglia undergo apoptosis and mitosis in the suckling mouse (1- to 2-week-old C3H/HeJ mice) with a normal auditory system. In spiral ganglia at postnatal days 7 (P7) and 10 (P10), TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling)-positive and morphologically apoptotic ganglion cells were found. Furthermore, by bromodeoxyuridine labeling, mitosis of auditory ganglion cells was found at P10 to P14. In a functional study of auditory brainstem response, we demonstrated that the C3H/HeJ mouse acquires the ability to hear airborne sound at P12 and this is the same time as the opening of their external acoustic meatus (EAM). These results indicate that C3H/HeJ auditory ganglion cells have the ability to proliferate even after opening of the EAM and the initial input of airborne sound. We found that postnatal apoptosis and mitosis after P7 also occurred in the greater epithelial ridge (GER) which is an important organ for maturation of the organ of Corti and is located around the inner hair cells. This indicates that GER cells are not only degenerated but also regenerated until their disappearance around P12. This is the first report on mammals to demonstrate that neuronal mitosis of spiral ganglion cells and that of GER cells occur not only in embryonic and neonatal development but also in postnatal development of the normal auditory system.

  17. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  18. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  3. Cumulative and residual effects of potato cropping system management strategies on crop and soil health parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil and crop management practices can greatly affect parameters related to soil health, as well as crop productivity and disease development, and may provide options for more sustainable production. Different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC...

  4. A Centralized Regional Database for Winter Cover Crops in Annual Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce erosion, minimize losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase soil carbon in annual cropping systems in the Midwest. Public support, however, for incentives to farmers to adopt cover crops is minimal. Therefore, development of location-specific rec...

  5. Integrated crop-livestock systems and cover crop grazing in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrating crops and livestock has been identified as an approach to sustainably intensify agricultural systems, increasing production while reducing the need for external inputs, building soil health, and increasing economic returns. Cover crops and grazing these cover crops are a natural fit with...

  6. C3 System Performance Simulation and User Manual. Getting Started: Guidelines for Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a User's Manual describing the C3 Simulation capabilities. The subject work was designed to simulate the communications involved in the flight of a Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) using the Opnet software. Opnet provides a comprehensive development environment supporting the modeling of communication networks and distributed systems. It has tools for model design, simulation, data collection, and data analysis. Opnet models are hierarchical -- consisting of a project which contains node models which in turn contain process models. Nodes can be fixed, mobile, or satellite. Links between nodes can be physical or wireless. Communications are packet based. The model is very generic in its current form. Attributes such as frequency and bandwidth can easily be modified to better reflect a specific platform. The model is not fully developed at this stage -- there are still more enhancements to be added. Current issues are documented throughout this guide.

  7. ENERGY AND CARBON BUDGETS IN TRANSITIONAL CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MINNESOTA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy and carbon budgets were constructed for a wide range of cropping systems during the transition from conventional cropping practices. Cropping system treatments included factorial combinations of: conventional and organic systems (CNV and ORG), conventional tillage and strip tillage (CT and ST...

  8. Crop and cattle production responses to tillage and cover crop management in an integrated crop-livestock system in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated crop-livestock systems can help achieve greater environmental quality from disparate crop and livestock systems by recycling nutrients and taking advantage of synergies between systems. We investigated crop and animal production responses in integrated crop-livestock systems with two typ...

  9. Improvement of phenol photodegradation efficiency by a combined g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Yang; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Graphite-like C3N4 (g-C3N4) is an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst commonly used in dye decolorization with very poor photocatalytic efficiency for degrading recalcitrant organic pollutants, such as phenol. In this study, we designed a g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system to significantly improve the phenol photodegradation efficacy by combining photocatalysis and light Fenton interaction. The phenol removal ratio and degradation rate of the g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system are 16.5- and 240-fold higher than those of individual g-C3N4 system. Sulfate radicals [Formula: see text] and H2O2 are detected in the g-C3N4/Fe(III)/persulfate system, suggesting that both radical decomposition and light Fenton interaction play important roles in phenol degradation. The efficient coupled photocatalytic system of g-C3N4 combined with Fe(III) and persulfate shows significant potential for application in large-scale degradation of environmental pollutants.

  10. Contribution to Kinetics of Superplastic Deformation of Dispersion Strengthened Al-Al4C3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besterci, Michal; Varchola, Marián; Kováč, Ladislav; Velgosová, Oksana

    2012-02-01

    The influence of temperature at constant strain rate has been evaluated with respect to superplastic behavior of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 composite with 4 vol.% of Al4C3 phase. The dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 was prepared by powder metallurgy. Material can be characterized by grain size around 1 μm and dispersed particle Al4C3 size around 50 nm. This material showed superplastic behavior for strain rate 10-3 s-1 by test temperature 573 K. The mechanism of superplastic deformation was also investigated. For the presented material with low content of disperse particle slip on grain boundaries is typical. The final fracture is transcrystalline with dimples with their mean size 1.25 μm. The dimples are initialized by Al4C3 particles in size from 40 to 50 nm.

  11. Lie superbialgebra structures on the Lie superalgebra (C3+A) and deformation of related integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghbali, A.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2017-06-01

    Admissible structure constants related to the dual Lie superalgebras of particular Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) are found by straightforward calculations from the matrix form of super Jacobi and mixed super Jacobi identities which are obtained from adjoint representation. Then, by making use of the automorphism supergroup of the Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) , the Lie superbialgebra structures on the Lie superalgebra (C3+A ) are obtained and classified into inequivalent 31 families. We also determine all corresponding coboundary and bi-r-matrix Lie superbialgebras. The quantum deformations associated with some Lie superbialgebras (C3+A ) are obtained, together with the corresponding deformed Casimir elements. As an application of these quantum deformations, we construct a deformed integrable Hamiltonian system from the representation of the Hopf superalgebra Uλ (Cp=1 2 ,𝜖⊕A1 ,1 )(C3+A).

  12. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  13. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  14. Yield responses of wild C3 and C4 crop progenitors to subambient CO2 : a test for the role of CO2 limitation in the origin of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Osborne, Colin P

    2017-01-01

    Limitation of plant productivity by the low partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (Ca ) experienced during the last glacial period is hypothesized to have been an important constraint on the origins of agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, previous work has shown that glacial Ca limits vegetative growth in the wild progenitors of both C3 and C4 founder crops. Here, we present data showing that glacial Ca also reduces grain yield in both crop types. We grew four wild progenitors of C3 (einkorn wheat and barley) and C4 crops (foxtail and broomcorn millets) at glacial and postglacial Ca , measuring grain yield and the morphological and physiological components contributing to these yield changes. The C3 species showed a significant increase in unthreshed grain yield of ~50% with the glacial to postglacial increase in Ca , which matched the stimulation of photosynthesis, suggesting that increases in photosynthesis are directly translated into yield at subambient levels of Ca . Increased yield was controlled by a higher rate of tillering, leading to a larger number of tillers bearing fertile spikes, and increases in seed number and size. The C4 species showed smaller, but significant, increases in grain yield of 10-15%, arising from larger seed numbers and sizes. Photosynthesis was enhanced by Ca in only one C4 species and the effect diminished during development, suggesting that an indirect mechanism mediated by plant water relations could also be playing a role in the yield increase. Interestingly, the C4 species at glacial Ca showed some evidence that photosynthetic capacity was upregulated to enhance carbon capture. Development under glacial Ca also impacted negatively on the subsequent germination and viability of seeds. These results suggest that the grain production of both C3 and C4 crop progenitors was limited by the atmospheric conditions of the last glacial period, with important implications for the origins of agriculture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Applicability of existing C3 (command, control and communications) vulnerability and hardness analyses to sentry system issues. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1983-01-13

    This report is a compilation of abstracts resulting from a literature search of reports relevant to Sentry Ballistic missile system C3 vulnerability and hardness. Primary sources consulted were the DOD Nuclear Information Analysis Center (DASIAC) and the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Approximately 175 reports were reviewed and abstracted, including several related to computer programs for estimating nuclear effects on electromagnetic propagation. The reports surveyed were ranked in terms of their importance for Sentry C3 VandH issues.

  16. Cardioembolic and Small Vessel Disease Stroke Show Differences in Associations between Systemic C3 Levels and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stokowska, Anna; Olsson, Sandra; Holmegaard, Lukas; Jood, Katarina; Blomstrand, Christian; Jern, Christina; Pekna, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of the complement system has been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of stroke. As the specific involvement of the complement proteins may be influenced by stroke etiology, we compared plasma C3 and C3a levels in patients with cardioembolic (CE) and small vessel disease (SVD) subtypes of ischemic stroke and control subjects and evaluated their association to outcome at three months and two years. Methodology/Principal Findings Plasma C3 and C3a levels in 79 CE and 79 SVD stroke patients, sampled within 10 days and at three months after stroke, and age- and sex-matched control subjects from The Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke were measured by ELISA. Functional outcome was assesed with modified Rankin Scale. In the CE group, plasma C3 levels were elevated only in the acute phase, whereas C3a was elevated at both time points. The follow-up phase plasma C3 levels in the upper third were associated with an increased risk of unfavorable outcome at three months (OR 7.12, CI 1.72–29.46, P = 0.007) as well as after two years (OR 8.25, CI 1.61–42.28, P = 0.011) after stroke. These associations withstand adjustment for age and sex. Conversely, three-month follow-up plasma C3a/C3 level ratios in the middle third were associated with favorable outcome after two years both in the univariate analysis (OR 0.19, CI 0.05–0.82, P = 0.026) and after adjustment for age and sex (OR 0.19, CI 0.04–0.88, P = 0.033). In the SVD group, plasma C3 and C3a levels were elevated at both time points but showed no significant associations with outcome. Conclusions Plasma C3 and C3a levels are elevated after CE and SVD stroke but show associations with outcome only in CE stroke. PMID:23977229

  17. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and NO3--N levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4–5 times during each growing season and analyzed for NO3--N and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3—N. Red clover cover crop increased NO3--N by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on NO3--N in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop agricultural systems. PMID:26600462

  18. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    PubMed

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  19. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  20. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  1. C3Winds: A Novel 3D Wind Observing System to Characterize Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. A.; Wu, D. L.; Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; Wanzong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to resolve high-resolution 3D dynamic structures of severe wind events. Rapid evolution of severe weather events highlights the need for high-resolution mesoscale wind observations. Yet mesoscale observations of severe weather dynamics are quite rare, especially over the ocean where extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) can undergo explosive development. Measuring wind velocity at the mesoscale from space remains a great challenge, but is critically needed to understand and improve prediction of severe weather and tropical cyclones. Based on compact, visible/IR imagers and a mature stereoscopic technique, C3Winds has the capability to measure high-resolution (~2 km) cloud motion vectors and cloud geometric heights accurately by tracking cloud features from two formation-flying CubeSats, separated by 5-15 minutes. Complementary to lidar wind measurements from space, C3Winds will provide high-resolution wind fields needed for detailed investigations of severe wind events in occluded ETCs, rotational structures inside TC eyewalls, and ozone injections associated with tropopause folding events. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with the potential for increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  2. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  3. Divesting in crop diversity: trade-offs of modern cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, P.

    2013-12-01

    Since the advent of the Green Revolution in the 1960's, agriculture has experienced great advances in yield, seed genetics and management. This focus on increased yields and production came at the cost of many marginal, traditional crops because they could no longer compete with the bountiful harvests of massive mono-culture food systems. In the modern agricultural world, three staple crops are responsible for 46% of global agricultural production on 33% of global harvested area. Further, seventeen crops account for 73% of global crop production and use 58% of global harvested area. How has the distribution of individual crops today changed from before the Green Revolution began, and what are the broader implications of these changes for our food systems?

  4. A Comparison of Ecohydrological Function for a Native C4 Grass, Native C3 Forb and C4 Crop during a Wet Year

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Daily and seasonal patterns of water use by native prairie vegetation exert an important control on water fluxes within ecosystems to watersheds. However, the replacement of prairie by annual crops in the Midwest has significantly altered the hydrologic cycle. In this study, water use was assessed f...

  5. Global crop production forecasting data system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A. (Principal Investigator); Loats, H. L.; Lloyd, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Findings led to the development of a theory of radiometric discrimination employing the mathematical framework of the theory of discrimination between scintillating radar targets. The theory indicated that the functions which drive accuracy of discrimination are the contrast ratio between targets, and the number of samples, or pixels, observed. Theoretical results led to three primary consequences, as regards the data system: (1) agricultural targets must be imaged at correctly chosen times, when the relative evolution of the crop's development is such as to maximize their contrast; (2) under these favorable conditions, the number of observed pixels can be significantly reduced with respect to wall-to-wall measurements; and (3) remotely sensed radiometric data must be suitably mixed with other auxiliary data, derived from external sources.

  6. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  7. Cropping system effects on wind erosion potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wind erosion of soil is a destructive process impacting crop productivity and human health and safety. The mechanics of wind erosion and soil properties that influence erosion are well understood. Less well-studied are the effects that cropping intensity has upon those soil properties. We collected ...

  8. Effects of cropping systems on soil biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for fertilizer use to enhance soil nutrient pools to achieve good crop yield is essential to modern agriculture. Specific management practices, including cover cropping, that increase the activities of soil microorganisms to fix N and mobilize P and micronutrients may reduce annual inputs ...

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  10. The Role of Crop Systems Simulation in Agriculture and Environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past 30 to 40 years, simulation of crop systems has advanced from a neophyte science with inadequate computing power into a robust and increasingly accepted science supported by improved software, languages, development tools, and computer capabilities. Crop system simulators contain mathe...

  11. The crop assessment subsystem: System implementation and approaches used for the generation of crop production reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallum, W. E.; Hatch, R. E.; Boatwright, S. M.; Liszcz, C. J.; Evans, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the crop assessment subsystem (CAS) during the three phases of LACIE was to produce crop reports that included estimates of wheat area, yield, and production, as well as a specified set of associated statistical descriptors. The operations of CAS are described with emphasis on sampling strategy, input/output data, evolution of aggregation/reporting system capabilities, and CAS aggregation procedures.

  12. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Treesearch

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  13. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge.

  14. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  15. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  16. Expert Systems for C3I. Volume 1. A User’s Introduction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    components so that information does not have to be repeated for every component 25 % .’,.. in the system. In such a system, to say that a Camaro is a...kind of car would mean, roughly speaking, that things the system "believed" about cars it would also "believe" about Camaros . Such systems use

  17. Pyrosequencing reveals the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the composition of archaeal communities in the rhizosphere of C3 and C4 crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. M.; Cann, I. K.; Mackie, R. I.

    2008-12-01

    The projected increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations throughout the 21st century is likely to increase aboveground and belowground plant productivity and cause changes in the quantity and quality of plant root exudates, although plants using C4 photosynthesis are likely to be only affected during times of drought (Leakey et al., 2006, Plant Physiology, 140, 779). Evidence is emerging from molecular tools that these changes may influence the abundance and composition of soil microbial communities that regulate key soil processes, such as nitrogen cycling (Lesaulnier et al., 2008, Environmental Microbiology, 10, 926). However, most molecular tools are not well-suited for comparing multiple samples at great sequencing depth, which is critical when considering soil microbial communities of high diversity. To overcome these limitations we used pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of two genes (the V3 region of 16S rDNA and the amoA gene) to examine intra- and inter-treatment variability in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of soybean (C3) and maize (C4) grown in field conditions under ambient (~380 ppm) and elevated (~550 ppm) CO2 using FACE (free-air concentration enrichment) technology during the 2006 growing season in central Illinois. We specifically focused on archaeal communities because of their key role in nitrification (Leininger et al., 2006, Nature, 442, 806). The majority (>97%) of recovered sequences were from members of the phylum Crenarchaeota. Principle component analysis of sequence results from the V3 and amoA genes indicated significant (p<0.05) differences in the composition of rhizosphere archaeal communities between ambient and elevated CO2 beneath soybean, but not maize. qPCR suggested no significant difference in the abundance of archaea between treatments for soybean and maize. The lack of response of archaeal community composition beneath maize to elevated CO2 is consistent with relatively high

  18. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  19. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  20. Investigation of C3 S hydration mechanism by transmission electron microscope (TEM) with integrated Super-X(TM) EDS system.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Y; Trettin, R

    2017-07-01

    Tricalciumsilicate (C3 S, Alite) is the major component of the Portland cement clinker. Hydration of Alite is decisive in influencing the properties of the resulting material. This is due to its high content in cement. The mechanism of the hydration of C3 S is very complicated and not yet fully understood. There are different models describing the hydration of C3 S in various ways. In this work for a better understanding of hydration mechanism, the hydrated C3 S was investigated by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and for the first time, the samples for the investigations were prepared by using of focused ion beam from sintered pellets of C3 S. Also, an FEI Talos F200x with an integrated Super-X EDS system was used for the investigations. FEI Talos F200X combines outstanding high-resolution S/TEM and TEM imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy signal detection, and 3D chemical characterization with compositional mapping. TEM is a very powerful tool for material science. A high energy beam of electrons passes through a very thin sample, and the interactions between the electrons and the atoms can be used to observe the structure of the material and other features in the structure. TEM can be used to study the growth of layers and their composition. TEM produces high-resolution, two-dimensional images and will be used for a wide range of educational, science and industry applications. Chemical analysis can also be performed. The purpose of these investigations was to get the information about the composition of the C-S-H phases and some details of the nanostructure of the C-S-H phases. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. The Potato Systems Planner: Integrating Cropping System Impacts on Crop Yield and Quality, Soil Biology, Nutrient Cycling, Diseases, and Economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Finding and developing profitable cropping systems is a high priority for the potato industry. Consequently, an interdisciplinary team of ARS scientists from the New England Plant, Soil, & Water Laboratory evaluated 14 different rotations for their impacts on crop yield and quality, nutrient availa...

  2. Integrating soil solarization into crop production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil solarization remains one of but a handful of nonchemical soil disinfestation methods suitable for high-value crops such as cut-flowers, strawberry and fresh market tomato and pepper. Recognition of soil solarization within the context of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach is paramoun...

  3. Ecosystem services of woody crop production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of fast growing forest tree species to produce biomass for fuel, fodder, and building materials has a long history. Research programs on short rotation wood crops began in the 1960s; 50 years ago, the concept of silage sycamore (Platanus sp.) was conceived in Georgia. The basic premise was t...

  4. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  5. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yantai; Hamel, Chantal; O’Donovan, John T.; Cutforth, Herb; Zentner, Robert P.; Campbell, Con A.; Niu, Yining; Poppy, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in rainfed dry areas is often challenged by inadequate water and nutrient supplies. Summerfallowing has been used to conserve rainwater and promote the release of nitrogen via the N mineralization of soil organic matter. However, summerfallowing leaves land without any crops planted for one entire growing season, creating lost production opportunity. Additionally, summerfallowing has serious environmental consequences. It is unknown whether alternative systems can be developed to retain the beneficial features of summerfallowing with little or no environmental impact. Here, we show that diversifying cropping systems with pulse crops can enhance soil water conservation, improve soil N availability, and increase system productivity. A 3-yr cropping sequence study, repeated for five cycles in Saskatchewan from 2005 to 2011, shows that both pulse- and summerfallow-based systems enhances soil N availability, but the pulse system employs biological fixation of atmospheric N2, whereas the summerfallow-system relies on ‘mining’ soil N with depleting soil organic matter. In a 3-yr cropping cycle, the pulse system increased total grain production by 35.5%, improved protein yield by 50.9%, and enhanced fertilizer-N use efficiency by 33.0% over the summerfallow system. Diversifying cropping systems with pulses can serve as an effective alternative to summerfallowing in rainfed dry areas. PMID:26424172

  6. Testing and Evaluating C3I Systems That Employ AI. Volume 4. Published Articles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-31

    presents Andriole’s (7] "nine step protoytyping design blueprint" for developing decision support systems (DSSs). We emphasize " DSS " instead of restricting...systems are also often seen by members of the technical, development community as a type of DSS . Mittra [461 has, for example, shown that the components...of an expert system correspond quite naturally with the elements of the typical DSS . And, third, the DSS design blueprint ’s consistant 2 ’UP 4c4c IC

  7. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods can have devastating effects on cropping systems. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by projected increases of extreme events with climate change. More limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers further impacts farmers' resilience. Based on insurance claims, potatoes and rapeseed are the most vulnerable crops, followed by cereals and sugar beets. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Current knowledge gaps exist in the response of arable crops to the occurrence of extreme events. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather events and the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop and its environment. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency and magnitude of drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. Since crop development is driven by thermal time, crops matured earlier during the warmer 1988-2008 period than during the 1947-1987 period. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the cropping season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947-1987 and 1988-2008. Soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that earlier maturing winter crops may avoid drought stress that occurs in late spring and summer. This is reflected in a decrease both in magnitude and frequency of soil moisture deficit around the sensitive stages during the 1988-2008 period when atmospheric drought may be compensated for with soil moisture. The risk of drought spells during

  8. Ecosystem services of woody crop production systems

    Treesearch

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; James H. Perdue; Timothy M. Young; David R. Coyle; William L. Headlee; Gary S. Ba??uelos; Amir Hass

    2016-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops are an integral component of regional and national energy portfolios, as well as providing essential ecosystem services such as biomass supplies, carbon sinks, clean water, and healthy soils. We review recent USDA Forest Service Research and Development efforts from the USDA Biomass Research Centers on the provisioning of these ecosystem...

  9. Better Decision Making Through Representation and Reduction of Uncertainty in C3I Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Figure 4: Outline of the basic components of BatLab. Theoretical Foundations The theoretical foundations for most BatLab research ...Sirkis Center of Operational Research Israel Defense Forces Tel Aviv Israel November 2007 Interim Report for the Period October 2006 to... Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate Warfighter Interface Division Cognitive Systems Branch Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-7022 Approved

  10. A Transaction Workload Model and its Application to a Tactical C3 Distributed Database System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    34IANI’.LP MISSiON PLANNING FRAG ENIR’Y REVIEW FLIGHT SCHEDULING GERATION MONITORING IMMEDIATC MISSION PLANNING OPERATION ADOJS1MENT DAI A MAINTSNANCE 0 2...the performance and design of a distributed database system. The effect certaiftly warrants future investigation to which our model is we]i suited

  11. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  12. Impacts of different potato cropping systems on crop and soil health parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil health is essential for agricultural sustainability and environmental quality, and may be greatly affected by management practices. In field trials established in 2004, different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC), soil improvement (SI), ...

  13. A Basis for a Command, Control and Communications (C3) System Architecture for the Argentine Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    System Architecture for the Argentine Army by Juan Carlos Maidana Major, Argentine Army Ingeniero Militar, Escuela Superior Tecnica, Buenos Aires...warfare (IEW), and combat service support (CSS). These proc- esses are automated or manual , and they are designed to support the internal technical mission...documents used to regulate command and control actixities within the Army up to that moment were the following: * The manual "Organization and Functioning of

  14. Improving potato cropping systems: longer-term effects on diseases and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of effective cropping systems can provide the structural basis for enhanced crop production and sustainability through the conservation, maintenance, and replenishment of various soil resources. In 2004, field trials evaluating potato cropping systems focused on different specific cr...

  15. A Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Memory for Navy C3 Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-30

    lie objective of this effort was to investigate the use of charge-coupled devices for computer memory systems and also to develop a controller which...I. 4 Not Usedj lhrrable Bullet Read% InCtRrupt 0 i sable Butter Reads [wIn nr pt 7 Ilpl I F UiCtin Coude Input NTt)S tData 0 Input NlT)S (imuidI... computed by the controller could be used as a further check on data integrity. Eliminating the error- correction teature would reduce memory systen costs

  16. Processing requirements of secure C3/I and battle management systems - Development of Gemini trusted multiple microcomputer base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, T. F.; Schell, R. R.

    The present investigation is concerned with the potential applications of trusted computer system technologies in space. It is suggested that the rapidly expanding roles of new space defense missions will require space-borne command, control, communication, intelligence, and battle management (C2/I-BM) systems. The trusted computer system technology can be extended to develop new computer architectures which are able to support the broader requirements of C3/I-BM processing. The Gemini Trusted Multiple Microcomputer Base product is being developed to meet the demanding requirements and to support simultaneously the multiple capabilities. Attention is given to recent important events of trusted computer system developments, and to the Gemini system architecture.

  17. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

  18. Integrated soil-crop system management for food security.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Ping; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Vitousek, Peter M; Cassman, Kenneth G; Matson, Pamela A; Bai, Jin-Shun; Meng, Qing-Feng; Hou, Peng; Yue, Shan-Chao; Römheld, Volker; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2011-04-19

    China and other rapidly developing economies face the dual challenge of substantially increasing yields of cereal grains while at the same time reducing the very substantial environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. We used a model-driven integrated soil-crop system management approach to develop a maize production system that achieved mean maize yields of 13.0 t ha(-1) on 66 on-farm experimental plots--nearly twice the yield of current farmers' practices--with no increase in N fertilizer use. Such integrated soil-crop system management systems represent a priority for agricultural research and implementation, especially in rapidly growing economies.

  19. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adam S; Hill, Jason D; Chase, Craig A; Johanns, Ann M; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003-2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems.

  20. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  1. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  2. C3-PRO: Connecting ResearchKit to the Health System Using i2b2 and FHIR

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Pascal B.; Pinyol, Isaac; Natter, Marc D.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    A renewed interest by consumer information technology giants in the healthcare domain is focused on transforming smartphones into personal health data storage devices. With the introduction of the open source ResearchKit, Apple provides a framework for researchers to inform and consent research subjects, and to readily collect personal health data and patient reported outcomes (PRO) from distributed populations. However, being research backend agnostic, ResearchKit does not provide data transmission facilities, leaving research apps disconnected from the health system. Personal health data and PROs are of the most value when presented in context along with health system data. Our aim was to build a toolchain that allows easy and secure integration of personal health and PRO data into an open source platform widely adopted across 140 academic medical centers. We present C3-PRO: the Consent, Contact, and Community framework for Patient Reported Outcomes. This open source toolchain connects, in a standards-compliant fashion, any ResearchKit app to the widely-used clinical research infrastructure Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). C3-PRO leverages the emerging health data standard Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). PMID:27031856

  3. C3-PRO: Connecting ResearchKit to the Health System Using i2b2 and FHIR.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, Pascal B; Pinyol, Isaac; Natter, Marc D; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    A renewed interest by consumer information technology giants in the healthcare domain is focused on transforming smartphones into personal health data storage devices. With the introduction of the open source ResearchKit, Apple provides a framework for researchers to inform and consent research subjects, and to readily collect personal health data and patient reported outcomes (PRO) from distributed populations. However, being research backend agnostic, ResearchKit does not provide data transmission facilities, leaving research apps disconnected from the health system. Personal health data and PROs are of the most value when presented in context along with health system data. Our aim was to build a toolchain that allows easy and secure integration of personal health and PRO data into an open source platform widely adopted across 140 academic medical centers. We present C3-PRO: the Consent, Contact, and Community framework for Patient Reported Outcomes. This open source toolchain connects, in a standards-compliant fashion, any ResearchKit app to the widely-used clinical research infrastructure Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). C3-PRO leverages the emerging health data standard Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR).

  4. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers using no-till systems have found that crop yields often exceed their expectation based on nutrient and water supply. For example, corn yields 7% higher in a no-till system in central South Dakota than in a tilled system in eastern South Dakota. This is surprising because rainfall is 5 in...

  5. The deperturbation analysis of the C 3Δ-X 3Δ system of TiO: new 1Π state near 3 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Kei-ichi C.; Ito, Haruhiko; Davis, Sumner P.

    2003-02-01

    Transition wavenumbers of several vibronic bands associated with v'=0 to 5 for the C 3Δ-X 3Δ system were analyzed to determine the molecular parameters for the C 3Δ state. It was found that the Ω=3 spin sublevel in the C 3Δ, v'=2 to 4 levels is perturbed by the state having the 1Φ symmetry via the spin-orbit interaction. It was also found that the Ω=1 sublevel in the C 3Δ, v'=4 and 5 levels is perturbed by the state having the 1Π symmetry via the spin-orbit interaction. Taking into account these perturbations, the C 3Δ-X 3Δ, C 3Δ-a 1Δ, and c 1Φ-a 1Δ systems were simultaneously analyzed, from which the experimentally unknown 1Π state lying near 3 eV on the X 3Δ state was found. The Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potentials for the C 3Δ and c 1Φ states were evaluated using the newly determined rotational and vibrational parameters. Using these potentials, the spin-orbit interaction A( r) of the C 3Δ state, and the spin-orbit interaction Hsoel( r), between the C 3Δ and c 1Φ states, were determined as functions of the internuclear distance r. The electronic structures of the C 3Δ and c 1Φ states are discussed.

  6. Effects of potato-cotton cropping systems and nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W

    2000-09-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used.

  7. Demonstration of defective C3-receptor-mediated clearance by the reticuloendothelial system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B S; Bohnsack, J F; Sourlis, S H; Frank, M M; Quinn, T C

    1987-01-01

    The function of macrophage C3 receptors was assessed in vivo by measuring the clearance of C3-sensitized autologous erythrocytes in seven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, eight healthy homosexual men, eight healthy heterosexual men, and four infected controls. Healthy heterosexual men had an initial clearance of 50.1 +/- 2.0% of the inoculum, with a release of a small portion of these cells (10.9 +/- 1.3%) into the circulation. Healthy homosexual men had a greater initial clearance of 66.0 +/- 4.2% (P less than 0.01) followed by a similar release (14.0 +/- 3.3%). AIDS patients had an initial clearance of 60.6 +/- 7.5% but had a relatively large release of cells (25.6 +/- 3.2%) (P less than 0.005 vs. heterosexuals; P less than 0.05 vs. homosexuals), suggesting a failure of macrophage phagocytosis. Infected controls had an initial clearance of 59.4 +/- 4.9%, with a release of 19.6 +/- 3.8% (P = NS vs. AIDS). These data, in addition to Fc-receptor dysfunction, demonstrate a global reticuloendothelial system dysfunction in AIDS patients. This may contribute to their frequent infections with opportunistic pathogens and inappropriate immune responses against these microorganisms. Images PMID:3546375

  8. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David I

    2008-04-01

    Roundup Ready (glyphosate-resistant) cropping systems enable the use of glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide that offers growers several benefits, including superior weed control, flexibility in weed control timing and economic advantages. The rapid adoption of such crops in North America has resulted in greater glyphosate use and concern over the potential for weed resistance to erode the sustainability of its efficacy. Computer modeling is one method that can be used to explore the sustainability of glyphosate when used in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Field tests should help strengthen the assumptions on which the models are based, and have been initiated for this purpose. Empirical evaluations of published data show that glyphosate-resistant weeds have an appearance rate of 0.007, defined as the number of newly resistant species per million acres treated, which ranks low among herbicides used in North America. Modeling calculations and ongoing field tests support a practical recommendation for growers occasionally to include other herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems, to lower further the potential for new resistance to occur. The presented data suggest that the sustainability of glyphosate in North America would be enhanced by prudent use of additional herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Global Cropping Systems Models and Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; You, L.; Wood, S.; Wood-Sichra, U.; Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural practices have dramatically altered the land cover of the Earth, but the spatial extent and intensity of these practices is often difficult to catalogue. Cropland accounts for nearly 15 million km2 of the Earth's land cover - amounting to 12% of the Earth's ice-free land surface - yet information on the distribution and performance of specific crops is often available only through national or sub-national statistics. While remote sensing products offer spatially disaggregated information, those currently available on a global scale are ill-suited for many applications due to the limited separation of crop types within the area classified as cropland. Recently, however, there have been multiple independent efforts to incorporate the detailed information available from statistical surveys with supplemental spatial information to produce a spatially explicit global dataset specific to individual cropss for the year 2000. While these datasets provide analysts and decision makers with improved information on global cropping systems, the final global cropping maps differ from one another substantially. This study aims to explore and quantify systematic similarities and differences between four major global cropping systems products: the monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRAC2000) dataset, the spatial production allocation model (SPAM), the global agro-ecological zone (GAEZ) dataset, and the dataset developed by Monfreda et al., 2008. The analysis explores not only the final cropping systems maps but also the interdependencies of each product, methodological differences and modeling assumptions, which will provide users with information vital for discerning between datasets in selecting a product appropriate for each intended application.

  10. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  11. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  12. WEBGIS based CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, M.; Yan, N.

    2015-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing global agricultural information. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. In order to better analysis and generate the bulletin and provide an alternative way to access agricultural monitoring indicators and results in CropWatch, The CropWatch online system based on the WEBGIS techniques has been developed. Figure 1 shows the CropWatch online system structure and the system UI in Clustering mode. Data visualization is sorted into three different modes: Vector mode, Raster mode and Clustering mode. Vector mode provides the statistic value for all the indicators over each monitoring units which allows users to compare current situation with historical values (average, maximum, etc.). Users can compare the profiles of each indicator over the current growing season with the historical data in a chart by selecting the region of interest (ROI). Raster mode provides pixel based anomaly of CropWatch indicators globally. In this mode, users are able to zoom in to the regions where the notable anomaly was identified from statistic values in vector mode. Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Clustering mode provides integrated information on different classes in maps, the corresponding profiles for each class and the percentage of area of each class to the total area of all classes. The time series data is categorized into limited types by the ISODATA algorithm. For each clustering type, pixels on the map, profiles, and percentage legend are all linked

  13. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  14. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  15. Cover crop termination timing is critical in organic rotational no-till systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crop-based rotational no-till enables organic farmers to reduce labor and build soil health. In these systems, cover crops are terminated with a roller-crimper and cash crops are direct-seeded into the mulch. A cropping system experiment was conducted at three locations in the Mid-Atlantic t...

  16. Cover crops in vegetable production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount Current vegetable production systems require an intensive amount of work and inputs, and if not properly managed could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Practices such as intensive tillage, increased herbicide use, ...

  17. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  18. COVER CROP SYSTEMS AFFECT WEED COMMUNITIES IN A CALIFORNIA VINEYARD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under four dormant season cover crop systems representative of those used in the north-coastal grape-growing region of California: no-till annuals (rose clover, soft brome, zorro fescue; ANoT), no-till perennials (blue wildrye, California brome, meadow barley,...

  19. Incorporating Grasslands into Cropping Systems: What are the Keys?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American agriculture in the 20th century has been shaped by social/political, economic, environmental and technological drivers. During this time, American agricultural systems became increasingly specialized and input driven resulting in agricultural production being dominated by ‘commodity crop p...

  20. Effect of Conservation Systems and Irrigation on Potential Bioenergy Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Renewable energy production in the United States should increase due to economic, environmental, and national security concerns. In the Southeastern US, annual cellulosic crops could be integrated in rotation systems to produce biofuels. An experiment conducted in South Central Alabama evaluated thr...

  1. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Bioenergy Cropping Systems: Critical Research Questions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current U.S. plans for energy security rely on converting large areas of cropland from food to biofuel production. Additionally, lands currently considered too marginal for intensive food production may be considered suitable for biofuels production; predominant cropping systems may shift to more va...

  2. Water use in camelina-soybean dual cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dual cropping systems can be potentially used as a sustainably intensified approach to integrating the production of food, feed, fiber, and fuel (i.e., bioenergy) on agriculturally productive landscapes. Recently, we reported that winter camelina (Camelina sativa) can be feasibly double- and relay-c...

  3. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  4. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on claypan-soil grain crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  5. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on grain crop production on claypan soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  6. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  7. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  8. Common polymorphisms in C3, factor B, and factor H collaborate to determine systemic complement activity and disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Meike; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Francis, Nigel J.; Roberts, Dawn L.; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Morgan, B. Paul; Harris, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Common polymorphisms in complement alternative pathway (AP) proteins C3 (C3R102G), factor B (fBR32Q), and factor H (fHV62I) are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other pathologies. Our published work showed that fBR32Q influences C3 convertase formation, whereas fHV62I affects factor I cofactor activity. Here we show how C3R102G (C3S/F) influences AP activity. In hemolysis assays, C3102G activated AP more efficiently (EC50 C3102G: 157 nM; C3102R: 191 nM; P < 0.0001). fB binding kinetics and convertase stability were identical, but native and recombinant fH bound more strongly to C3b102R (KD C3b102R: 1.0 μM; C3b102G: 1.4 μM; P < 0.0001). Accelerated decay was unaltered, but fH cofactor activity was reduced for C3b102G, favoring AP amplification. Combining disease “risk” variants (C3102G, fB32R, and fH62V) in add-back assays yielded sixfold higher hemolytic activity compared with “protective” variants (C3102R, fB32Q, and fH62I; P < 0.0001). These data introduce the concept of a functional complotype (combination of polymorphisms) defining complement activity in an individual, thereby influencing susceptibility to AP-driven disease. PMID:21555552

  9. Energizing marginal soils: A perennial cropping system for Sida hermaphrodita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabel, Moritz; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky; Schrey, Silvia D.; Koller, Robert; Schurr, Ulrich; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    As a way to avoid land use conflicts, the use of marginal soils for the production of plant biomass can be a sustainable alternative to conventional biomass production (e.g. maize). However, new cropping strategies have to be found that meet the challenge of crop production under marginal soil conditions. We aim for increased soil fertility by the use of the perennial crop Sida hermaphrodita in combination with organic fertilization and legume intercropping to produce substantial biomass yield. We present results of a three-year outdoor mesocosm experiment testing the perennial energy crop Sida hermaphrodita grown on a marginal model substrate (sand) with four kinds of fertilization (Digestate broadcast, Digestate Depot, mineral NPK and unfertilized control) in combination with legume intercropping. After three years, organic fertilization (via biogas digestate) compared to mineral fertilization (NPK), reduced the nitrate concentration in leachate and increased the soil carbon content. Biomass yields of Sida were 25% higher when fertilized organically, compared to mineral fertilizer. In general, digestate broadcast application reduced root growth and the wettability of the sandy substrate. However, when digestate was applied locally as depot to the rhizosphere, root growth increased and the wettability of the sandy substrate was preserved. Depot fertilization increased biomass yield by 10% compared to digestate broadcast fertilization. We intercropped Sida with various legumes (Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Melilotus spp. and Medicago sativa) to enable biological nitrogen fixation and make the cropping system independent from synthetically produced fertilizers. We could show that Medicago sativa grown on marginal substrate fixed large amounts of N, especially when fertilized organically, whereas mineral fertilization suppressed biological nitrogen fixation. We conclude that the perennial energy crop Sida in combination with organic fertilization has great

  10. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions. PMID:26442005

  11. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  12. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, B. B.; Raja, R.; Singh, Teekam; Tripathi, R.; Shahid, M.; Nayak, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June–September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November–May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities. However, in lowland areas, sufficient residual soil moistures are available in rice fallow in the post-rainy season (November–March), which can be utilized for raising second crops in the region. Implementation of suitable crop/varietal diversification is thus very much vital to achieve this objective. To assess the yield performance of rice varieties under timely and late sown conditions and to evaluate the performance of dry season crops following them, three different duration rice cultivars were transplanted in July and August. In dry season several non-rice crops were sown in rice fallow to constitute a cropping system. The results revealed that tiller occurrence, biomass accumulation, dry matter remobilization, crop growth rate, and ultimately yield were significantly decreased under late transplanting. On an average, around 30% yield reduction obtained under late sowing may be due to low temperature stress and high rainfall at reproductive stages of the crop. Dry season crops following short duration rice cultivars performed better in terms of grain yield. In the dry season, toria was profitable when sown earlier and if sowing was delayed greengram was suitable. Highest system productivity and profitability under timely sown rice may be due to higher dry matter remobilization from source to sink. A significant correlation was observed between biomass production and grain yield. We infer that late transplanting decrease the tiller occurrence and

  13. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Lal, B; Gautam, Priyanka; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Singh, Teekam; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Nayak, A K

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June-September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November-May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities. However, in lowland areas, sufficient residual soil moistures are available in rice fallow in the post-rainy season (November-March), which can be utilized for raising second crops in the region. Implementation of suitable crop/varietal diversification is thus very much vital to achieve this objective. To assess the yield performance of rice varieties under timely and late sown conditions and to evaluate the performance of dry season crops following them, three different duration rice cultivars were transplanted in July and August. In dry season several non-rice crops were sown in rice fallow to constitute a cropping system. The results revealed that tiller occurrence, biomass accumulation, dry matter remobilization, crop growth rate, and ultimately yield were significantly decreased under late transplanting. On an average, around 30% yield reduction obtained under late sowing may be due to low temperature stress and high rainfall at reproductive stages of the crop. Dry season crops following short duration rice cultivars performed better in terms of grain yield. In the dry season, toria was profitable when sown earlier and if sowing was delayed greengram was suitable. Highest system productivity and profitability under timely sown rice may be due to higher dry matter remobilization from source to sink. A significant correlation was observed between biomass production and grain yield. We infer that late transplanting decrease the tiller occurrence and assimilate

  14. Cover crop impact on weed dynamics in an organic dry bean system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops have the potential to enhance crop rotations by increasing diversity and enriching agroecosystems. Weed suppression, nutrient provisoning, and enhancements to soil biota and structure are benefits of cover crops in cropping systems, including organic dry bean production. The late spring ...

  15. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  16. Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+)-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+)-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+)-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+)-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

  17. Testing and Evaluating C3I Systems That Employ AI. Volume 1. Handbook for Testing Expert Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-31

    Lctween the helpful concern of the physician and the chemical effects of the medication. Similarly, if one considers an expert system as analogous to a new ... medication , is the positive effect of a expert system the result of the DSS or the helpful concern of senior-level management? If it’s the lat’er

  18. Cover crop root, shoot, and rhizodeposit contributions to soil carbon in a no- till corn bioenergy cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, E.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; McDaniel, M. D.; Robertson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may result in reduced soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass and as well as help to mitigate the negative effects of residue removal by adding belowground C to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern portion of the US corn belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace C in a winter rye (secale cereale) cover crop into different soil C pools for two years following rye termination. Corn stover contributed 66 (another 163 was in harvested corn stover), corn roots 57, rye shoot 61, rye roots 59, and rye rhizodeposits 27 g C m-2 to soil C. Five months following cover crop termination, belowground cover crop inputs were three times more likely to remain in soil C pools and much of the root-derived C was in mineral- associated soil fractions. Our results underscore the importance of cover crop roots vs. shoots as a source of soil C. Belowground C inputs from winter cover crops could substantially offset short term stover removal in this system.

  19. Dynamic cropping systems: Holistic approach for dryland agricultural systems in the northern Great Plains of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping systems over the past century have developed greater crop specialization, more effectively conserve our soil and water resources, and are more resilient. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the evolution of cropping systems in the Northern Great Plains and provide an approach to crop...

  20. Effects of different elevated CO2 concentrations on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange, water use efficiency, and PSII activity on C3 and C4 cereal crops in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Hui, Liu; Guanghui, Liu; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Although terrestrial CO2 concentrations [CO2] are not expected to reach 1000 μmol mol(-1) (or ppm) for many decades, CO2 levels in closed systems such as growth chambers and greenhouses can easily exceed this concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems (LSS) in space can exceed 10,000 ppm (1 %). In order to understand how photosynthesis in C4 plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if leaves of closed artificial ecosystem grown plants have a fully developed C4 photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated [CO2] than leaves of C3 plants. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of gas exchange, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic efficiency of PSII by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., 'Heihe35') of a typical C3 plant and maize (Zea mays L., 'Susheng') of C4 plant under four CO2 concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm), which were grown under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1. The results showed that photosynthetic pigment by the C3 plants of soybean was more sensitive to elevated [CO2] below 3000 ppm than the C4 plants of maize. Elevated [CO2] to 1000 ppm induced a higher initial photosynthetic rate, while super-elevated [CO2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion for C3 plants. The C4 plant had the highest ETR, φPSII, and qP under 500-3000 ppm [CO2], but then decreased substantially at 5000 ppm [CO2] for both species. Therefore, photosynthetic down-regulation and a decrease in photosynthetic electron transport occurred by both species in response to super-elevated [CO2] at 3000 and 5000 ppm. Accordingly, plants can be selected for and adapt to the efficient use of elevated CO2 concentration in LSS.

  1. Carbon sequestration in maize and grass dominant cropping systems in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vreken, Philippe; Gobin, Anne; Merckx, Roel

    2014-05-01

    differences could also be demonstrated for the carbon fractions of soils with different cropping histories. Each fraction of a GM-topsoil contained significantly more C4-SOC as compared to a SM-topsoil (with or without a second annual crop) with the sizes of the fractions being equal. The more labile POM- en DOC-fractions accounted for the biggest part of the maize C4-SOC detected in the bulk sample, whereas the silt and clay associated SOC and chemically resistant SOC consisted mainly out of old grass C3-SOC. For the deeper soil layers no significant differences could be demonstrated between GM and SM, neither for the total SOC stock nor for the C4-SOC stock. Our results suggest that the soils with maize cropping systems in Flanders are near carbon saturation, such that crop residue management does not influence the total amount, but rather the quality of the carbon sequestered. Stolbovoy, V., Montanarella, L., Filippi, N., Jones, A., Gallego, J., and Grassi, G. (2007). Soil sampling protocol to certify the changes of organic carbon stock in mineral soil of the European Union. Version 2. EUR 21576 EN/2. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 56p. Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., Schmidt, M.W.I., Smith, P., and Fuhrer, J. (2007). Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model. European Journal of Soil Science, 58: 658-667.

  2. Use of Greendrone Uas System for Maize Crop Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, A. K.; Tharani, M.

    2017-08-01

    This research work presents the use of a low-cost Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) - GreenDrone for the monitoring of Maize crop. GreenDrone consist of a long endurance fixed wing air-frame equipped with a modified Canon camera for the calculation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and FLIR thermal camera for Water Stress Index (WSI) calculations. Several flights were conducted over the study site in order to acquire data during different phases of the crop growth. By the calculation of NDVI and NGB images we were able to identify areas with potential low yield, spatial variability in the plant counts, and irregularities in nitrogen application and water application related issues. Furthermore, some parameters which are important for the acquisition of good aerial images in order to create quality Orthomosaic image are also discussed.

  3. Direct and indirect impacts of crop-livestock organization on mixed crop-livestock systems sustainability: a model-based study.

    PubMed

    Sneessens, I; Veysset, P; Benoit, M; Lamadon, A; Brunschwig, G

    2016-11-01

    Crop-livestock production is claimed more sustainable than specialized production systems. However, the presence of controversial studies suggests that there must be conditions of mixing crop and livestock productions to allow for higher sustainable performances. Whereas previous studies focused on the impact of crop-livestock interactions on performances, we posit here that crop-livestock organization is a key determinant of farming system sustainability. Crop-livestock organization refers to the percentage of the agricultural area that is dedicated to each production. Our objective is to investigate if crop-livestock organization has both a direct and an indirect impact on mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) sustainability. In that objective, we build a whole-farm model parametrized on representative French sheep and crop farming systems in plain areas (Vienne, France). This model permits simulating contrasted MC-L systems and their subsequent sustainability through the following indicators of performance: farm income, production, N balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (/kg product) and MJ consumption (/kg product). Two MC-L systems were simulated with contrasted crop-livestock organizations (MC20-L80: 20% of crops; MC80-L20: 80% of crops). A first scenario - constraining no crop-livestock interactions in both MC-L systems - permits highlighting that crop-livestock organization has a significant direct impact on performances that implies trade-offs between objectives of sustainability. Indeed, the MC80-L20 system is showing higher performances for farm income (+44%), livestock production (+18%) and crop GHG emissions (-14%) whereas the MC20-L80 system has a better N balance (-53%) and a lower livestock MJ consumption (-9%). A second scenario - allowing for crop-livestock interactions in both MC20-L80 and MC80-L20 systems - stated that crop-livestock organization has a significant indirect impact on performances. Indeed, even if crop-livestock interactions permit

  4. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  5. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant cropping systems on weed seedbanks in two years of following crops.

    PubMed

    Firbank, L G; Rothery, P; May, M J; Clark, S J; Scott, R J; Stuart, R C; Boffey, C W H; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Dewar, A M; Perry, J N; Squire, G R

    2006-03-22

    The Farm Scale Evaluations (FSEs) showed that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems could influence farmland biodiversity because of their effects on weed biomass and seed production. Recently published results for winter oilseed rape showed that a switch to GMHT crops significantly affected weed seedbanks for at least 2 years after the crops were sown, potentially causing longer-term effects on other taxa. Here, we seek evidence for similar medium-term effects on weed seedbanks following spring-sown GMHT crops, using newly available data from the FSEs. Weed seedbanks following GMHT maize were significantly higher than following conventional varieties for both the first and second years, while by contrast, seedbanks following GMHT spring oilseed rape were significantly lower over this period. Seedbanks following GMHT beet were smaller than following conventional crops in the first year after the crops had been sown, but this difference was much reduced by the second year for reasons that are not clear. These new data provide important empirical evidence for longer-term effects of GMHT cropping on farmland biodiversity.

  6. Impacts of C4 grass introductions on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in C3-dominated successional systems.

    PubMed

    Mahaney, Wendy M; Smemo, Kurt A; Gross, Katherine L

    2008-08-01

    While recent research has focused on the effects of exotic plant species on ecosystem properties, less is known about how restoring individual native plant species, differing in biomass and tissue chemistry, may impact ecosystems. We examined how three native C(4) prairie grasses affected soil C and N cycling 11 years after reintroduction into successional old-field communities dominated by non-native C(3) grasses. The species examined in this study differ in traits that are expected to influence soil C and N cycling (biomass and tissue chemistry). Thus, we hypothesized that cycling rates would decrease, thereby increasing pool sizes in soils under C(4) species compared under C(3) species. As predicted, the C(4) species had greater biomass and more recalcitrant tissue [higher C:N, acid detergent fiber (ADF):N] compared to the dominant C(3) species. The three C(4) species did not differ in tissue C:N, ADF:N, or root biomass, but Andropogon had more than twice the shoot biomass of Schizachyrium and Sorghastrum. Soils under the C(4) species did not differ in inorganic N levels, but levels were lower than in soils under the C(3) species, and soils under Andropogon had slightly lower in situ net N mineralization rates compared to those under C(3) species. We found little evidence of larger surface soil C pools under C(4) species versus C(3) species after 11 years and no differences in subsurface soil C or N among species. The C(4) species contributed a significant amount of C to both soil depths after 11 years. Our results demonstrate that C(4) species reintroduction into old-fields can alter C and N cycling on relatively short timescales, and that individual C(4) species differ in the magnitude of these effects. Improving our understanding of how species influence ecosystem properties is essential to predicting the ecosystem-level consequences of plant community alterations due to land use changes, global change, and species introductions.

  7. C3 glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cook, H. Terence

    2017-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently defined entity that encompasses a group of kidney diseases caused by abnormal control of complement activation with deposition of complement component C3 in glomeruli leading to variable glomerular inflammation. Before the recognition of the unique pathogenesis of these cases, they were variably classified according to their morphological features. C3 glomerulopathy accounts for roughly 1% of all renal biopsies. Clear definition of this entity has allowed a better understanding of its pathogenesis and clinical course and is likely to lead to the design of rational therapies over the next few years. PMID:28357053

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes from integrated crop-livestock systems in central North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems have shown potential to achieve environmentally sustainable production of crop and livestock products with regards to improved soil health. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to crop and/or livestock only production systems would increase sus...

  9. Nutrients in soil water under three rotational cropping systems, Iowa, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    tSubsurface nutrient losses differ between annual and perennial crops; however, nutrient losses fromcropping systems that rotate annual and perennial crops are poorly documented. This study trackedNO3-N and P in soil water under three cropping systems suited for the U.S. Midwest, includingtwo-year (...

  10. Statistical modeling of yield and variance instability in conventional and organic cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping systems research was undertaken to address declining crop diversity and verify competitiveness of alternatives to the predominant conventional cropping system in the northern Corn Belt. To understand and capitalize on temporal yield variability within corn and soybean fields, we quantified ...

  11. Applicability of Existing C3 (Command, Control and Communications) Vulnerability and Hardness Analyses to Sentry System Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-13

    surveyed were ranked in terms of their import-ca for Sentry C3 V&U issues. DD IJAN73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 5 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED - -.. .. 1 TABLE OF...CONTENTS Page * LIST OF FIGURES............ . .... . .. .. .. . .... 1 . INTRODUCTION....... ... ... .. .. .. .. ...... 2. LITERATURE SURVEY ...first was the vulnerability of the communications ground nodes (especially * antennas) to various nuclear effects, and the second was a survey of

  12. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  13. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  14. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  15. Mitigating Groundwater Depletion in North China Plain with Cropping System that Alternate Deep and Shallow Rooted Crops

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wang-Sheng; Ma, Li; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng

    2017-01-01

    In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle); peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle); ryegrass–cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle); and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year). We found that, compared to WS, the SpCSpWS annual evapotranspiration was 28% lower, PWS was 19% lower and RCPWS was 14% lower. The yield per unit of water evaporated improved for wheat within any alternative rotation compared to WS, increasing up to 19%. Average soil moisture contents at the sowing date of wheat in the SpCSpWS, PWS, and RCPWS rotations were 7, 4, and 10% higher than WS, respectively. The advantage of alternative rotations was that a deep rooted crop of winter wheat reaching down to 180 cm followed shallow rooted crops (sweet potato and peanut drawing soil moisture from 0 to 120 cm). They benefited from the sequencing and vertical complementarity of soil moisture extraction. Thus, replacing the traditional crop rotation with cropping system that involves rotating with annual shallow rooted crops is promising for reducing groundwater depletion in the North China Plain. PMID:28642779

  16. Use of Satellite-based Remote Sensing to inform Evapotranspiration parameters in Cropping System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungel, S.; Barber, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to use an automated satellite-based remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET) model to assist in parameterization of a cropping system model (CropSyst) and to examine the variability of consumptive water use of various crops across the watershed. The remote sensing model is a modified version of the Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC™) energy balance model. We present the application of an automated python-based implementation of METRIC to estimate ET as consumptive water use for agricultural areas in three watersheds in Eastern Washington - Walla Walla, Lower Yakima and Okanogan. We used these ET maps with USDA crop data to identify the variability of crop growth and water use for the major crops in these three watersheds. Some crops, such as grapes and alfalfa, showed high variability in water use in the watershed while others, such as corn, had comparatively less variability. The results helped us to estimate the range and variability of various crop parameters that are used in CropSyst. The paper also presents a systematic approach to estimate parameters of CropSyst for a crop in a watershed using METRIC results. Our initial application of this approach was used to estimate irrigation application rate for CropSyst for a selected farm in Walla Walla and was validated by comparing crop growth (as Leaf Area Index - LAI) and consumptive water use (ET) from METRIC and CropSyst. This coupling of METRIC with CropSyst will allow for more robust parameters in CropSyst and will enable accurate predictions of changes in irrigation practices and crop rotation, which are a challenge in many cropping system models.

  17. Cover Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are a beneficial tool for use in conservation tillage systems. Cover crop residues reduce soil erosion from water and wind, increase soil water availability for subsequent crops, enhance soil organic matter and biological activity, and can decrease labor and energy inputs. Cover crop...

  18. The impact of a chlorotoxin-modified liposome system on receptor MMP-2 and the receptor-associated protein ClC-3.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Lin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Guangji; Yin, Lifang; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, it is unknown whether a receptor-associated protein will be affected when a ligand modified delivery system interacts with its receptor. Besides, chlorotoxin (ClTx)-modified liposomes can target to glioma cells, but the target molecule is not clear: MMP-2, ClC-3 or both? Here a comparative study of ClTx-conjugated liposomes was conducted on two types of tumor cells: U87, a human glioma cell line with high expression of both MMP-2 and ClC-3, and A549, a human lung cancer cell line with expression of only MMP-2. ClTx-modified liposomes behaved similarly in these two cancer cells in terms of in vitro cell uptake, endocytosis pathway, intracellular trafficking and in vivo targeting efficacy, though the two tested cell lines were very different in ClC-3 expression. These results revealed that the targeted delivery of ClTx modified liposomes to U87 tumor was MMP-2-mediated and not correlated with the chloride channel ClC-3. On the other hand, ClTx modified on the liposomes did activate the receptor-associated protein ClC-3 via the binding with MMP-2, leading to the inhibition on cell migration and chloride currents. This is significant because cell migration is a key step in tumor metastasis. Interestingly, higher in vitro cellular uptake and lower in vivo tumor accumulation of liposomal systems was found in U87 compared to the A549 model, possibly due to the biological differences between in vitro and in vivo models. In general, ClTx-modified delivery systems may potentially target to tumors other than glioma that express a high level of MMP-2, and its effect on ClC-3 may help prevent tumor metastasis.

  19. Development of CropWatch Online Agriculture Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.

    2016-12-01

    CropWatch, which was developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI) in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has achieved breakthrough results in the integration of methods, independence of the assessments and support to emergency response by periodically releasing agricultural information for thirty-one countries over the world. Taking advantages of the multi-source remote sensing data and the openness of the data sharing policies, CropWatch group reported their monitoring results by publishing four bulletins one year. The digital agriculture system is an effective tool for people browse and analysis the agriculture monitoring results. For helping our group to analysis and write the bulletin better and providing our readers an alternative way to browser our results, we design and build the CropWatch online agriculture monitoring system based on the WEBGIS techniques. The figure shows the CropWatch online system structure. In this web application, three methods are provided to browse the data: Vector mode, Raster mode and Cluster mode. (1)Vector mode provides the statistical data of each area which including the current time value and the maximum and minimum values in five years. In this mode, users are able to look the global statistical data and the historical data change in a chart by selecting the region of interest; (2) Raster mode provides the abnormal index value by pixel globally. In this mode, users are able to locate the precise area where the notable exception occurred after they ensure the region in global statistical data. Meanwhile, the historical data change chart is still provided in this mode; (3) Data from remote sensing image series at high temporal and low spatial resolution provide key information in agriculture monitoring. Cluster mode provides the time series change by pixel in one country which users selected. The time series data is classified into 4 or 5 types by the ISODATA method. Users can click each type in the

  20. CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds(C3Winds) A New Wind Observing System to Study Mesoscale Cloud Dynamics and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Kelly, M.A.; Yee, J.-H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E. L.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L. D.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; Wanzong, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to better understand mesoscale dynamics and their structures in severe weather systems. With potential catastrophic damage and loss of life, strong extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) have profound three-dimensional impacts on the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic structures, producing complex cloud precipitation patterns, strong low-level winds, extensive tropopause folds, and intense stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Employing a compact, stereo IR-visible imaging technique from two formation-flying CubeSats, C3Winds seeks to measure and map high-resolution (2 km) cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and cloud geometric height (CGH) accurately by tracking cloud features within 5-15 min. Complementary to lidar wind observations from space, the high-resolution wind fields from C3Winds will allow detailed investigations on strong low-level wind formation in an occluded ETC development, structural variations of TC inner-core rotation, and impacts of tropopause folding events on tropospheric ozone and air quality. Together with scatterometer ocean surface winds, C3Winds will provide a more comprehensive depiction of atmosphere-boundary-layer dynamics and interactive processes. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with potential of increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  1. Efficacy of fluensulfone in a tomato-cucumber double cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern U.S. are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone when applied through a drip system to the second crop in a...

  2. Managing cover crops in no-till organic systems using rolling technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years use of cover crops in no-till organic production systems without incorporating them into the soil has been steadily increasing. This increase is associated with important benefits from cover crops left on the soil surface which improve soil properties and enhance main crop growth. Ro...

  3. Evaluating potential dryland cropping systems adapted to climate change in the Central Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate in the semi-arid Central Great Plains is expected to become warmer and drier in coming decades, with potentially greater variability in precipitation and temperature. Cropping systems that include forages and allow flexibility for determining if a crop should be planted and which crop to pla...

  4. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  5. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  6. Crop Growth Modeling in the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On land used for the production of food and fiber, the amount of growing crop and crop residue remaining on the field during no growth periods often determine whether the field is susceptible to the erosion of the soil by wind. The crop growth sub-model component of the Wind Erosion Prediction Syste...

  7. Wireless computer vision system for crop stress detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of soil water deficits, crop water stress, and biotic stress from disease or insects is important for optimal irrigation scheduling and water management. Crop spectral reflectances provide a means to quantify visible and near infrared thermal crop stress, but in-situ measurements can be cu...

  8. Use of fall-grown oats in dairy cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, there has been new (or renewed) interest in alternative forage crops, double-cropping, and cover crops to meet a variety of different management objectives; however, the use of cereal-grain forages figures prominently in many of these management considerations. Work by the USDA-ARS and UW ...

  9. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Associations in Biofuel Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, K.

    2012-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that play an important role in delivering nutrients to plant roots via mutualistic symbiotic relationships. AMF root colonization was compared between four different biofuel cropping systems in an effort to learn more about the factors that control colonization. The four biofuel systems sampled were corn, switchgrass, prairie, and fertilized prairie. We hypothesized that prairie systems would have the highest levels of AMF colonization and that fertilization would result in lower AMF colonization rates. Roots were sampled from each system in early June and mid-July. Soil P and pH were also measured. In contrast to our hypothesis, corn systems had 70-80% colonization and the unfertilized prairie system had ~35% (P=0.001) in June. In July, all systems saw an increase in colonization rate, but corn roots still had significantly more AMF colonization than unfertilized prairie (P=0.001). AMF colonization in the unfertilized prairie system increased ~55% from June to July. In contrast to previous work, AMF colonization rates were highest in systems with the greatest availability on P and N (corn systems). These results indicate that seasonal differences in root growth were more influential to AMF root colonization than soil nutrient availability.

  10. Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fusuo; Cui, Zhenling; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Chen, Xinping; Jiang, Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    During the past 47 yr (1961-2007), Chinese cereal production has increased by 3.2-fold, successfully feeding 22% of the global human population with only 9% of the world's arable land, but at high environmental cost and resource consumption. Worse, crop production has been stagnant since 1996 while the population and demand for food continue to rise. New advances for sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be needed during the coming 50 yr to reduce environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency. Here, we advocate and develop integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM). In this approach, the key points are (i) to take all possible soil quality improvement measures into consideration, (ii) to integrate the utilization of various nutrient resources and match nutrient supply to crop requirements, and (iii) to integrate soil and nutrient management with high-yielding cultivation systems. Recent field experiments have shed light on how ISSM can lead to significant increases in crop yields while increasing nutrient use efficiency and reducing environmental risk.

  11. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  12. The divergent AmoC3 subunit of ammonia monooxygenase functions as part of a stress response system in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Berube, Paul M; Stahl, David A

    2012-07-01

    The ammonia monooxygenase of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) catalyzes the first step in ammonia oxidation by converting ammonia to hydroxylamine. The monooxygenase of Nitrosomonas europaea is encoded by two nearly identical operon copies (amoCAB(1,2)). Several AOB, including N. europaea, also possess a divergent monocistronic copy of amoC (amoC(3)) of unknown function. Previous work suggested a possible functional role for amoC(3) as part of the σ(E) stress response regulon during the recovery of N. europaea from extended ammonia starvation, thus indicating its importance during the exit of cells from starvation. We here used global transcription analysis to show that expression of amoC(3) is part of a general poststarvation cellular response system in N. europaea. We also found that amoC(3) is required for an efficient response to some stress conditions, as deleting this gene impaired growth at elevated temperatures and recovery following starvation under high oxygen tensions. Deletion of the σ(32) global stress response regulator demonstrated that the heat shock regulon plays a significant role in mediating the recovery of N. europaea from starvation. These findings provide the first described phenotype associated with the divergent AmoC(3) subunit which appears to function as a stress-responsive subunit capable of maintaining ammonia oxidation activity under stress conditions. While this study was limited to starvation and heat shock, it is possible that the AmoC(3) subunit may be responsive to other membrane stressors (e.g., solvent or osmotic shocks) that are prevalent in the environments of AOB.

  13. The Divergent AmoC3 Subunit of Ammonia Monooxygenase Functions as Part of a Stress Response System in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Berube, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The ammonia monooxygenase of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) catalyzes the first step in ammonia oxidation by converting ammonia to hydroxylamine. The monooxygenase of Nitrosomonas europaea is encoded by two nearly identical operon copies (amoCAB1,2). Several AOB, including N. europaea, also possess a divergent monocistronic copy of amoC (amoC3) of unknown function. Previous work suggested a possible functional role for amoC3 as part of the σE stress response regulon during the recovery of N. europaea from extended ammonia starvation, thus indicating its importance during the exit of cells from starvation. We here used global transcription analysis to show that expression of amoC3 is part of a general poststarvation cellular response system in N. europaea. We also found that amoC3 is required for an efficient response to some stress conditions, as deleting this gene impaired growth at elevated temperatures and recovery following starvation under high oxygen tensions. Deletion of the σ32 global stress response regulator demonstrated that the heat shock regulon plays a significant role in mediating the recovery of N. europaea from starvation. These findings provide the first described phenotype associated with the divergent AmoC3 subunit which appears to function as a stress-responsive subunit capable of maintaining ammonia oxidation activity under stress conditions. While this study was limited to starvation and heat shock, it is possible that the AmoC3 subunit may be responsive to other membrane stressors (e.g., solvent or osmotic shocks) that are prevalent in the environments of AOB. PMID:22544266

  14. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop.

  15. Benefits of an improved wheat crop information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, I. L.

    1976-01-01

    The ECON work and the results of the independent reviews are summarized. Attempts are made to put this information into layman's terms and to present the benefits that can realistically be expected from a LANDSAT-type remote sensing system. Further the mechanisms by which these benefits can be expected to accrue are presented. The benefits are given including the nature of expected information improvements, how and why they can lead to benefits to society, and the estimated magnitude of the expected benefits. A brief description is presented of the ECON models, how they work, their results, and a summary of the pertinent aspects of each review. The ECON analyses show that substantial benefits will accrue from implementation of an improved wheat crop information system based on remote sensing.

  16. Microbial community structure and abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil of a tomato cropping system that includes cover crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this report we use Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) in a tomato production system to “finger printing” the soil microbial community structure with Phylum specific primer sets. Factors influencing the soil microbes are a cover crop of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) or Rye (...

  17. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Arindam; Chaturvedi, Palak; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet. PMID:28626463

  18. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effects of combinations of cropping systems and nematicides.

    PubMed

    Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B; Good, J M

    1974-07-01

    The population density of Meloidogyne incognita was significantly reduced in land that was fallowed or cropped to crotalaria, marigold, bermudagrass, or bahiagrass. The rate of population decline caused by different cropping systems was influenced by initial population densities. Crotalaria, marigold, and bare fallow were about equally effective in reducing the density of M. incognita below dctectable lcvels, usually requiring 1-3 yr. Bahiagrass and bcrmudagrass required 4-5 yr or longer to reduce M. incognita below a detectable level. A high population density of Trichodorus christiei developed in land cropped 5 yr to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, okra, and marigold. Population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Xiphinema americanum increased in land cropped to crotalaria or bermudagrass. Belonolabnus Iongicaudatus was detected only in land cropped to bermudagrass, The effectiveness of nematicides in reducing M. incognita infection was rclatcd to nematode population density resulting from 5 yr of different cropping systems. Treatment with aldicarb reduced M. incognita below detectable levels following all cropping systems; treatment with ethoprop following all cropping systems except okra, treatment wflh ethylene dibromide following bahiagrass or fallow; and treatment with DBCP only after 5 yr of fallow. Tomato transplant growth was affected .by both cropping systems and nematicide treatment. Transplants grown after crotalaria and bahiagrass were significantly larger than those grown after other crops. Also, treatment with aldicarb and ethoprop significantly increased transplant size.

  19. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    PubMed

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass

  20. Automated Video Analysis System Reveals Distinct Diurnal Behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adamah-Biassi, E. B.; Stepien, I.; Hudson, R.L.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in activity-like behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), exploration-like behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), ingestion-like behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and resting-like behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 hr magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin. PMID:23337734

  1. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  2. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  3. Calculation and synthesis of ZrC by CVD from ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar system with high H2 percentage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Cheng, Laifei; Ma, Baisheng; Gao, Shuang; Feng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Litong

    2015-03-01

    A thermodynamic calculation about the synthesis of ZrC from the ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar system with high percentage of H2 was performed using the FactSage thermochemical software. According to the calculation, ZrC coating was synthesized on graphite substrates and carbon fibers by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process, and growth rate of the ZrC coating as a function of temperature was investigated. The surface diagrams of condensed-phases in this system were expressed as the functions of the deposition temperature, total pressure and reactant ratios of ZrCl4/(ZrCl4 + C3H6), H2/(ZrCl4 + C3H6), and the yield of the products was determined by the diagrams. A smooth and dense ZrC coating could be synthesized under the instruction of the calculated parameters. The morphologies of the ZrC coatings were significantly affected by temperature and gases flux. The deposition temperature is much lower than that from the ZrCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system.

  4. Corn and soybean grain yields in a long-term tillage and cropping systems study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on corn and soybean yields are limited. Yields have been measured in a long-term experiment (30+ years) with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage system...

  5. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized.

    PubMed

    Poffenbarger, Hanna J; Barker, Daniel W; Helmers, Matthew J; Miguez, Fernando E; Olk, Daniel C; Sawyer, John E; Six, Johan; Castellano, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is uncertain. Here, we clarify the impact of N fertilization on SOC in typical maize-based (Zea mays L.) Midwest U.S. cropping systems by accounting for site-to-site variability in maize yield response to N fertilization. Within continuous maize and maize-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems at four Iowa locations, we evaluated changes in surface SOC over 14 to 16 years across a range of N fertilizer rates empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, or excessive for maximum maize yield. Soil organic C balances were negative where no N was applied but neutral (maize-soybean) or positive (continuous maize) at the agronomic optimum N rate (AONR). For continuous maize, the rate of SOC storage increased with increasing N rate, reaching a maximum at the AONR and decreasing above the AONR. Greater SOC storage in the optimally fertilized continuous maize system than in the optimally fertilized maize-soybean system was attributed to greater crop residue production and greater SOC storage efficiency in the continuous maize system. Mean annual crop residue production at the AONR was 22% greater in the continuous maize system than in the maize-soybean system and the rate of SOC storage per unit residue C input was 58% greater in the monocrop system. Our results demonstrate that agronomic optimum N fertilization is critical to maintain or increase SOC of Midwest U.S. cropland.

  6. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Daniel W.; Helmers, Matthew J.; Miguez, Fernando E.; Olk, Daniel C.; Sawyer, John E.; Six, Johan; Castellano, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is uncertain. Here, we clarify the impact of N fertilization on SOC in typical maize-based (Zea mays L.) Midwest U.S. cropping systems by accounting for site-to-site variability in maize yield response to N fertilization. Within continuous maize and maize-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems at four Iowa locations, we evaluated changes in surface SOC over 14 to 16 years across a range of N fertilizer rates empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, or excessive for maximum maize yield. Soil organic C balances were negative where no N was applied but neutral (maize-soybean) or positive (continuous maize) at the agronomic optimum N rate (AONR). For continuous maize, the rate of SOC storage increased with increasing N rate, reaching a maximum at the AONR and decreasing above the AONR. Greater SOC storage in the optimally fertilized continuous maize system than in the optimally fertilized maize-soybean system was attributed to greater crop residue production and greater SOC storage efficiency in the continuous maize system. Mean annual crop residue production at the AONR was 22% greater in the continuous maize system than in the maize-soybean system and the rate of SOC storage per unit residue C input was 58% greater in the monocrop system. Our results demonstrate that agronomic optimum N fertilization is critical to maintain or increase SOC of Midwest U.S. cropland. PMID:28249014

  7. Spatiotemporal simulation of changes in rice cropping systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic development of agro-economics, population growth, and climate change, the rice cropping systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) have been undergoing a major change. Information on rice cropping practices and changes in cropping systems is critical for policymakers to devise successful strategies to ensure food security and rice grain exports for the country. The primary objective of this research is to map rice cropping systems and predict future dynamics of rice cropping systems using MODIS time-series data from 2002 to 2012. A phenology-based classification approach was applied for the classification and assessment of rice cropping systems. Then, the Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) model was used to simulate future changes in rice-cropping activities. To obtain precise prediction, a calibration of CA-Markov were implemented by using a series of rice crop maps. The comparisons between the classification maps and the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with overall accuracies above 81%, and Kappa coefficients above 0.75, respectively. The simulated maps of rice cropping systems for 2010-2012 were extrapolated by CA-Markov model based on the trend of rice cropping systems during 2002-2009. The comparison between the predicted scenarios and the classification maps for 2010-2012 presents a reasonably close agreement. In summary, the CA-Markov model with a long-term calibration confirmed the validity of the approach for dynamic modeling of changes in rice cropping systems in the study region. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that the approach produced satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, quantitative forecast, and spatial pattern changes. Thus, projections of future changes would provide useful information for the agricultural policymakers in respect to formulating effective management strategies of rice cropping practices in VMD.

  8. Reducing N2O and NO emissions while sustaining crop productivity in a Chinese vegetable-cereal double cropping system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhisheng; Yan, Guangxuan; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-09-06

    High nitrogen (N) inputs in Chinese vegetable and cereal productions played key roles in increasing crop yields. However, emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and atmospheric pollutant nitric oxide (NO) increased too. For lowering the environmental costs of crop production, it is essential to optimize N strategies to maintain high crop productivity, while reducing the associated N losses. We performed a 2 year-round field study regarding the effect of different combinations of poultry manure and chemical N fertilizers on crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE) and N2O and NO fluxes from a Welsh onion-winter wheat system in the North China Plain. Annual N2O and NO emissions averaged 1.14-3.82 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) (or 5.54-13.06 g N kg(-1) N uptake) and 0.57-1.87 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) (or 2.78-6.38 g N kg(-1) N uptake) over all treatments, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions increased linearly with increasing total N inputs, and the mean annual direct emission factors (EFd) were 0.39% for N2O and 0.19% for NO. Interestingly, the EFd for chemical N fertilizers (N2O: 0.42-0.48%; NO: 0.07-0.11%) was significantly lower than for manure N (N2O: 1.35%; NO: 0.76%). Besides, a negative power relationship between yield-scaled N2O, NO or N2O + NO emissions and NUE was observed, suggesting that improving NUE in crop production is crucial for increasing crop yields while decreasing nitrogenous gas release. Compared to the current farmers' fertilization rate, alternative practices with reduced chemical N fertilizers increased NUE and decreased annual N2O + NO emissions substantially, while crop yields remained unaffected. As a result, annual yield-scaled N2O + NO emissions were reduced by > 20%. Our study shows that a reduction of current application rates of chemical N fertilizers by 30-50% does not affect crop productivity, while at the same time N2O and NO emissions would be reduced significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  10. RECEPTOR FOR SOLUBLE C3 AND C3b ON HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTOID (RAJI) CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.; Bokisch, Viktor A.; Dixon, Frank J.

    1974-01-01

    This study describes the presence of a receptor for fluid phase human C3 and C3b on Raji cell membranes. The binding of C3 and C3b was demonstrated indirectly by a fluoresceinated anti-C3 serum and directly by using radioiodinated proteins. No other complement proteins or serum factors were needed to mediate binding of C3 and C3b to the receptor. The possibility of enzymatic cleavage of C3 before or after its attachment on the cell membrane was ruled out by the demonstration of antigenically intact C3 on Raji cells. Inhibition and dissociation of Raji cell-EAC1423 rosettes by C3 and C3b indicated that both of these proteins bind to the same receptor site or closely associated receptor sites on Raji cells. C3b-bearing Raji cells were immune adherence negative, indicating that C3b binding to the receptor is brought about through the immune adherence region of the molecule and not the C3d portion. The C3 receptor on Raji cell membranes is uniformly distributed and can move on the membrane plane. Approximately 4 x 105 molecules of C3 or C3b bind per Raji cell. The receptor had a higher affinity for C3 than C3b, as was shown by uptake experiments and inhibition of Raji cell-EAC1423 rosette formation. Apart from the described receptor for C3 and C3b another specific receptor for C3b inactivator-cleaved C3b (C3d) bound to red cells was shown to be present on Raji cells. Raji cells cultured in medium containing fresh normal human serum and cobra venom factor were lysed. Similar results were obtained when C3b-bearing Raji cells were cultured in medium with fresh normal human serum. The lytic effect could be abolished by inactivating serum C3 proactivator (C3PA) and required C6. It was concluded that C3b bound to the Raji cell membrane activates the complement system through the alternate pathway and results in membrane damage and cytolysis. It is postulated that cell destruction by this mechanism may play an important role in vivo in controlling cell growth. PMID:4591176

  11. Sequential use of the STICS crop model and of the MACRO pesticide fate model to simulate pesticides leaching in cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Moeys, Julien; Barriuso, Enrique; Larsbo, Mats; Marín-Benito, Jesús-María; Justes, Eric; Alletto, Lionel; Ubertosi, Marjorie; Nicolardot, Bernard; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Mamy, Laure

    2016-05-18

    The current challenge in sustainable agriculture is to introduce new cropping systems to reduce pesticides use in order to reduce ground and surface water contamination. However, it is difficult to carry out in situ experiments to assess the environmental impacts of pesticide use for all possible combinations of climate, crop, and soils; therefore, in silico tools are necessary. The objective of this work was to assess pesticides leaching in cropping systems coupling the performances of a crop model (STICS) and of a pesticide fate model (MACRO). STICS-MACRO has the advantage of being able to simulate pesticides fate in complex cropping systems and to consider some agricultural practices such as fertilization, mulch, or crop residues management, which cannot be accounted for with MACRO. The performance of STICS-MACRO was tested, without calibration, from measurements done in two French experimental sites with contrasted soil and climate properties. The prediction of water percolation and pesticides concentrations with STICS-MACRO was satisfactory, but it varied with the pedoclimatic context. The performance of STICS-MACRO was shown to be similar or better than that of MACRO. The improvement of the simulation of crop growth allowed better estimate of crop transpiration therefore of water balance. It also allowed better estimate of pesticide interception by the crop which was found to be crucial for the prediction of pesticides concentrations in water. STICS-MACRO is a new promising tool to improve the assessment of the environmental risks of pesticides used in cropping systems.

  12. The b2/c3 Problem: How Big Buffers Overcome Covert Channel Cynicism in Trusted Database Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    models of buffer size, such as M/G/1 queues with finite buffers. Acknowledgments Carl Landwehr suggested several improvements to the paper. Our...interpretation. MTR-2997, MITRE Corp., Bedford, MA, 1975. 2. BERSTEIN , P., HADZILACOS, V., and GOODMAN, N. Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems

  13. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and

  14. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  15. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  16. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  17. Soil profile organic carbon as affected by tillage and cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in the entire rooting profile are limited. A long-term experiment with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage s...

  18. Longer-term potato cropping system effects on soilborne diseases and tuber yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In field trials established in 2004, different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific crop management goals of (SC) soil conservation, (SI) soil improvement, and (DS) disease-suppression were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases and tuber yield. These systems were compared to ...

  19. Evaluation of Learning Group Approaches for Fostering Integrated Cropping Systems Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blissett, Hana; Simmons, Steve; Jordan, Nicholas; Nelson, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Cropping systems management requires integration of multiple forms of knowledge, practice, and learning by farmers, extension educators, and researchers. We evaluated the outcomes of participation in collaborative learning groups organized to address cropping systems and, specifically, challenges of integrated weed management. Groups were…

  20. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  1. Acquisition history simulation for evaluation of Landsat-based crop inventory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Malin, J. T.; Lin, C. C.; Dvorin, M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a simulation procedure which produces patterns of Landsat data loss attributable to cloud patterns that are characteristic of a crop region. This simulation procedure is part of a simulation system under development which evaluates the performance of crop inventory system components over a number of years and under a variety of conditions.

  2. Evaluation of Learning Group Approaches for Fostering Integrated Cropping Systems Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blissett, Hana; Simmons, Steve; Jordan, Nicholas; Nelson, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Cropping systems management requires integration of multiple forms of knowledge, practice, and learning by farmers, extension educators, and researchers. We evaluated the outcomes of participation in collaborative learning groups organized to address cropping systems and, specifically, challenges of integrated weed management. Groups were…

  3. Behavior of Atrazine In Limited Irrigation Cropping Systems in Colorado: Prior Use Is Important

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Irrigation Water Optimization Project was begun in 2005 at Colorado State University to develop cropping systems to optimize use of limited irrigation water supply while sustaining production. Corn is a major component of many of these cropping systems and atrazine is used to provide residual w...

  4. A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A prototype microcontroller-based system was developed to automate the measurement and recording of soil-moisture status and canopy-, air-, and soil-temperature levels in cropped fields. Measurements of these conditions within the cropping system are often used to assess plant stress, and can assis...

  5. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Alluvione, Francesco; Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: (i) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and conventional moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; (ii) N fertilization levels [0-246 kg N ha(-1) for corn (Zea mays L.); 0 and 56 kg N ha(-1) for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 0 and 112 kg N ha(-1) for barley (Hordeum distichon L.)]; and (iii) crop rotation under NT soil management [corn-barley (NT-CB); continuous corn (NT-CC); corn-dry bean (NT-CDb)] on CO(2) and CH(4) flux from a clay loam soil. Carbon dioxide and CH(4) fluxes were monitored one to three times per week using vented nonsteady state closed chambers. No-till reduced (14%) growing season (154 d) cumulative CO(2) emissions relative to CT (NT: 2.08 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1); CT: 2.41 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1)), while N fertilization had no effect. Significantly lower (18%) growing season CO(2) fluxes were found in NT-CDb than NT-CC and NT-CB (11.4, 13.2 and 13.9 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1)d(-1) respectively). Growing season CH(4) emissions were higher in NT (20.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)) than in CT (1.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)). Nitrogen fertilization and cropping rotation did not affect CH(4) flux. Implementation of NT for 7 yr with no N fertilization was not adequate for restoring the CH(4) oxidation capacity of this clay loam soil relative to CT plowed and fertilized soil.

  6. Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electromechanical Equipment Used in Air Force Ground C3I (Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    refrigerant line leak developed. Refrigerant could also be a long lead item at remote locations. 4.1.2.4 Legionnaires ’ Disease Air conditioning...menu listing the input options with appropriate prompts to the operator, would giide him through the process much as the automated teller machine does...ventillation systems have been identified by the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta as participating in the cause of this affliction. The Air Force should

  7. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Zander, Peter M.; Walker, Robin L.; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  8. Basic EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) Technology Advancement for C3 Systems. Volume 4D. Modeling Crosstalk in Balanced Twisted Pairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    z 0 n APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED En -- DTIC ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER D T EC Air Force Systems Command ELECTE LAJ Griffiss...Air Force Base, NY 13441 MAY 15 1985 *B C=.OJ - . j I .. =41.’- This report has been reviewed by the RADC Public Affairs Office (PA) and is releasable...the 2nx2n chain parameter matrix of the line. S is now competely characterized by For no " eletric insulation and perfect conductors, the n x n are i

  9. [Influence of double rice cropping system innovation on paddy soil profile form and soil characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi-Bai; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Li, Lian-Fang; Wang, Bo-Ren; Bai, Ling-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the double rice cropping paddy field in red soil area to evaluate the influence of cropping system innovation on soil profile form and related soil characteristics. Four cropping systems of rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus Linn.), forage, paddy-upland rotation, and upland were substituted for the double rice cropping system. The results indicated that compared with those under double rice cropping system, the thickness of cultivated horizon under upland cropping system increased by 4 cm, that of plow pan declined by 2 cm, > 2 mm aggregates in wet-sieved particle-size fractions increased by 6.94%, wet-sieved mean-mass diameter increased by 0.37 mm, contents of humic acid carbon and fulvic acid carbon increased by 0.15 and 0.49 g kg(-1), respectively, and quotient of aggregates water stability was 0.78 times higher. Under paddy-upland rotation, the quotient of aggregates water stability was higher (95.86), while soil nutrient contents changed a little. Under rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch system, soil organic matter content increased by 1.3 g kg(-1), quotient of aggregates water stability declined by 8.82, but other parameters had less changes. Under forage system, the thickness of cultivated and transitional horizons increased by 2 cm and 9 cm, respectively, quotient of aggregates water stability increased by 1.39, while the contents of soil organic matter and total potassium decreased by 5.6 and 2.8 g kg(-1), respectively. Among all test cropping systems, forage system had the greatest changes in soil characteristics. It was completely feasible to substitute the local double rice cropping system for paddy-upland rotation or upland cropping, particularly in the areas where full irrigation was not available. However, attention should be paid to the decrease of soil potassium content when the cropping system innovation was practiced.

  10. Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

  11. Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

  12. Pressure Control System Design for a Closed Crop Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, K.; Blackwell, C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is an area of active research at NASA. CELSS is a plant-based bioregenerative life support system for long term manned space flights where resupply is costly or impractical. The plants in a CELSS will function to convert the carbon dioxide (exhaled by the crew) into oxygen, purify non-potable water into potable quality water, and provide food for the crew. Prior to implementing a CELSS life support system, one must have knowledge on growing plants in a closed chamber under low gravity. This information will come from research to be conducted on the CELSS Test Facility that will operate on the Space Station Freedom. Currently a ground-based CELSS Test Facility is being built at NASA Ames Research Center. It is called the EDU (Engineering Development Unit). This system will allow researchers to identify issues that may cause difficulties in the development of the CELSS Test Facility and aid in the development of new needed technologies. The EDU consists of a 1 m2 crop growth chamber that is surrounded by a containment enclosure. The containment enclosure isolates the system so there is very little mass and thermal exchange with the ambient. The leakage rate is on the order of 1 % of the enclosure's volume per day (with 0.2S psi pressure difference). The thermal leakage is less than 0.5% of the electrical power supplied to the system per degree Celsius difference from the surrounding. The pressure in the containment enclosure is regulated at 62.5 Pa below the ambient by an active controller. The goal is to maintain this set point for a variety of conditions, such as a range of operating temperatures, heat load variations that occur when the lights are turned on and off, and fluctuations in ambient pressure. In addition certain transition tracking performance is required. This paper illustrates the application of some advanced systems control methods to the task of synthesizing the EDU's pressure control system.

  13. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    PubMed

    Remans, Roseline; Flynn, Dan F B; DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for future research are suggested calling for

  14. Assessing Nutritional Diversity of Cropping Systems in African Villages

    PubMed Central

    DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Methods and Findings Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. Conclusion This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for

  15. Can subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) be a competitive irrigation system in the Great Plains region for commodity crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as with all microirrigation systems is typically only used on crops with greater value. In the U.S. Great Plains region, the typical irrigated crops are the cereal and oil seed crops and cotton. These crops have less economic revenue than typical microirrigated cro...

  16. A National Crop Progress Monitoring and Decision Support System Based on NASA Earth Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Timely and accurate information on weekly crop progress and development is essential to a dynamic agricultural industry in the U. S. and the world. By law, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) of the U. S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) is responsible for monitoring and assessing U.S. agricultural production. Currently NASS compiles and issues weekly state and national crop progress and development reports based on reports from knowledgeable state and county agricultural officials and farmers. Such survey-based reports are subjectively estimated for an entire county, lack spatial coverage, and are labor intensive. There has been limited use of remote sensing data to assess crop conditions. NASS produces weekly 1-km resolution un-calibrated AVHRR-based NDVI static images to represent national vegetation conditions but there is no quantitative crop progress information. This presentation discusses the early result for developing a National Crop Progress Monitoring and Decision Support System. The system will overcome the shortcomings of the existing systems by integrating NASA satellite and model-based land surface and weather products, NASS’ wealth of internal crop progress and condition data and Cropland Data Layers (CDL), and the Farm Service Agency’s (FSA) Common Land Units (CLU). The system, using service-oriented architecture and web service technologies, will automatically produce and disseminate quantitative national crop progress maps and associated decision support data at 250-m resolution, as well as summary reports to support NASS and worldwide users in their decision-making. It will provide overall and specific crop progress for individual crops from the state level down to CLU field level to meet different users’ needs on all known croplands. This will greatly enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the NASS aggregated crop condition data and charts of and provides objective and scientific evidence and guidance for the

  17. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  18. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PMo10V2O40 (PMoV2) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C3N4 and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV2. This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway. PMID:24413448

  19. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H5PMo10V2O40 (PMoV2) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C3N4 and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV2. This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway.

  20. C3N4-H5PMo10V2O40: a dual-catalysis system for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhouyang; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Guojian; Ge, Weilin; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-13

    Hydroxylation of benzene is a widely studied atom economical and environmental benign reaction for producing phenol, aiming to replace the existing three-step cumene process. Aerobic oxidation of benzene with O2 is an ideal and dream process, but benzene and O2 are so inert that current systems either require expensive noble metal catalysts or wasteful sacrificial reducing agents; otherwise, phenol yields are extremely low. Here we report a dual-catalysis non-noble metal system by simultaneously using graphitic carbon nitride (C(3)N(4)) and Keggin-type polyoxometalate H(5)PMo(10)V(2)O(40) (PMoV(2)) as catalysts, showing an exceptional activity for reductant-free aerobic oxidation of benzene to phenol. The dual-catalysis mechanism results in an unusual route to create phenol, in which benzene is activated on the melem unit of C(3)N(4) and O2 by the V-O-V structure of PMoV(2). This system is simple, highly efficient and thus may lead the one-step production of phenol from benzene to a more practical pathway.

  1. Soil hydrology of agroforestry systems: Competition for water or positive tree-crops interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjets, Rowena; Richter, Falk; Jansen, Martin; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In dry periods during the growing season crops may suffer from severe water stress. The question arises whether the alternation of crop and tree strips might enhance and sustain soil water resources available for crops during drought events. Trees reduce wind exposure, decreasing the potential evapotranspiration of crops and soils; additionally hydraulic lift from the deep roots of trees to the drier top soil might provide additional water for shallow-rooted crops. To understand the above and belowground water relations of agroforestry systems, we measured soil moisture and soil water potential in crop strips as a function of distance to the trees at varying depth as well as meteorological parameters. At the agroforestry site Reiffenhausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, two different tree species are planted, each in one separated tree strip: willow breed Tordis ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis) and poplar clone Max 1 (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii). In between the tree strips a crop strip of 24 m width was established with annual crop rotation, managed the same way as the reference site. During a drought period in May 2016 with less than 2 mm rain in four weeks, an overall positive effect on hydrological conditions of the agroforestry system was observed. The results show that trees shaded the soil surface, lowering the air temperature and further increasing the soil moisture in the crop strips compared to the reference site, which was located far from the trees. At the reference site the crops took up water in the upper soil (<20 cm depth); after the soil reached water potentials below -100 kPa, root water uptake moved to deeper soil layers (<40 cm). Because of the higher wind and solar radiation exposure the reference soil profile was severely dried out. Also in the crop strips of the agroforestry system, crops took up water in the upper soil. However, the lower soil layers remained wet for an extended period of time. The tree strips

  2. Agronomic & entomological results from 7 years of dryland cropping systems research at Briggsdale, Colorado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dryland crop production in the semi-arid Great Plains is limited by both the quantity and timing of precipitation. Sustainable dryland cropping systems maximize precipitation use efficiency by managing precipitation capture, storage, and use. Pest management approaches are also critical for efficie...

  3. Assimilating Leaf Area Index Estimates from Remote Sensing into the Simulations of a Cropping Systems Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spatial extrapolation of cropping systems models for regional crop growth and water use assessment and farm-level precision management has been limited by the vast model input requirements and the model sensitivity to parameter uncertainty. Remote sensing has been proposed as a viable source of spat...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Economics for Irrigated Cropping Systems in Northeastern Colorado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent soil and crop management technologies have potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, these management strategies must be profitable if they are to be adopted by producers. The economic feasibility of reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated cropping systems was eva...

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of dryland cropping systems in the U.S. Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Great Plains contain significant expanses of agricultural land dedicated to dryland cropping. Dryland cropping systems in the region that sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can serve to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of U.S. agriculture....

  6. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  7. Climate change impacts on dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural systems models are essential tools to assess potential climate change (CC) impacts on crop production and help guide policy decisions. In this study, impacts of GCM projected CC on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow (WF), wheat-corn-fallow (WCF), and wheat-corn-millet (WCM) at Akro...

  8. Utilizing cover crop mulches to reduce tillage in organic systems in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic sytems in the southeast offer unique challenges and solutions due to regional soil and climate characterized by highly weather soil types, high precipitation, and the capacity to grow cover crops in the winter. Recently high-residue cover crops and conservation tillage systems have increased...

  9. Utilizing Cover Crop Mulches to Reduce TIllage in Organic Systems in the Southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crop roller-crimper trials have been conducted across the southeastern U.S. during the past decade. Regional climatic conditions make the system particularly attractive but also pose their own challenges. Winter annual cover crops productivity can exceed 8 Mg ha-1 (dry weight) for rye (Secale ...

  10. Impacts of organic conservation tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic farming has been identified as promoting soil quality even though tillage is used for weed suppression. Adopting conservation tillage practices can enhance soil quality in cropping systems where synthetic agrichemicals are used for crop nutrition and weed control. Attempts have been made t...

  11. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  12. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  13. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  14. Spring wheat production and associated pests in conventional and diversified cropping systems in north central Montana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers in the northern Plains are diversifying and intensifying traditional wheat-based cropping systems by reducing summer fallow and including legume and oilseed crops. This study examined the influence of diversification and intensification on spring wheat yield and quality, and associated ins...

  15. Cover Crop and Liquid Manure Effects on Soil Quality Indicators in a Corn Silage System.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to a lack of surface residue and organic matter inputs, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) silage production is one of the most demanding cropping systems imposed on our soil resources. In this study, our objective was to determine if using cover/companion crops and/or applying low-solids liquid dair...

  16. Yields in stripper header vs conventional header in dryland cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in crop residue quality can impact the amount of soil water storage in semi-arid no-till systems of the West Central Great Plains. Using a stripper header as opposed to a conventional-reel type header to harvest small grains impacts the quality of the crop residue left in the field. Pr...

  17. Global crop production forecasting - A simulation analysis of the data system problems and their solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, H.; Neiers, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative data systems for a global crop production forecasting system were studied with the aid of a unique simulation facility called the Data System Dynamic Simulator (DSDS). Information system requirements were determined and compared with existing and planned data systems, and deficiencies were identified and analyzed. A first step was to determine the data load for an operational global crop production forecasting system as a function of data frequency, crop types, biophases, cloud coverage, and number of satellites. The DSDS was used to correlate the interrelated influence of orbital parameters, crop calendars, and cloud conditions to generate global data loading profiles. Some of the more important conclusions and the main features of the simulation system are presented.

  18. Noah-MP-Crop: Enhancing cropland representation in the community land surface modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.; Zhou, G.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands are important in land-atmosphere interactions and in modifying local and regional weather and climate. Despite their importance, croplands are poorly represented in the current version of the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/ Noah land-surface modeling system, resulting in significant surface temperature and humidity biases across agriculture- dominated regions of the United States. This study aims to improve the WRF weather forecasting and regional climate simulations during the crop growing season by enhancing the representation of cropland in the Noah-MP land model. We introduced dynamic crop growth parameterization into Noah-MP and evaluated the enhanced model (Noah-MP-Crop) at both the field and regional scales with multiple crop biomass datasets, surface fluxes and soil moisture/temperature observations. We also integrated a detailed cropland cover map into WRF, enabling the model to simulate corn and soybean field across the U.S. Great Plains. Results show marked improvement in the Noah-MP-Crop performance in simulating leaf area index (LAI), crop biomass, soil temperature, and surface fluxes. Enhanced cropland representation is not only crucial for improving weather forecasting but can also help assess potential impacts of weather variability on regional hydrometeorology and crop yields. In addition to its applications to WRF, Noah-MP-Crop can be applied in high-spatial-resolution regional crop yield modeling and drought assessments

  19. Crop heat stress in the context of Earth System modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levis, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Siebert et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 044012) suggest that crop models do not represent the effect of heat stress on crop yield adequately unless they apply such effect to sensitive phases in a crop’s growth cycle. Siebert et al focus particularly on the phase considered most sensitive for wheat yield in Germany, the time of anthesis. Siebert et al find that observed canopy rather than 2 m or ground temperature better quantifies the effect of heat stress during anthesis on wheat yield in Germany when evaluated against data from pot experiments under controlled conditions.

  20. Influence of crop rotation, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the soil enzymatic activity and humus content in organic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinkeviciene, A.; Boguzas, V.; Balnyte, S.; Pupaliene, R.; Velicka, R.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of crop rotation systems with different portions of nitrogen-fixing crops, intermediate crops, and organic fertilizers on the enzymatic activity and humus content of soils in organic farming was studied. The highest activity of the urease and invertase enzymes was determined in the soil under the crop rotation with 43% nitrogen-fixing crops and with perennial grasses applied twice per rotation. The application of manure and the growing of intermediate crops for green fertilizers did not provide any significant increase in the content of humus. The activity of urease slightly correlated with the humus content ( r = 0.30 at the significance level of 0.05 and r = 0.39 at the significance level of 0.01).

  1. C3I graphical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labatt, Earl C., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    Past research efforts in the field of command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I), have concentrated on the application and refinement of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) concepts. However, the man-machine interface to these advanced applications has experienced little improvement and does not adequately reflect some of the AI concepts embedded within these systems. The development of more advanced computing techniques requires a more sophisticated interface to the system. These enhancements cannot be adequately conceived by a user using traditional display techniques. The underlying AI concepts that help facilitate the transfer of information between acquired C3I data and an operator are revealed. Many of these concepts are discussed in regard to their application in current Tactical Air Force Research Projects. In addition, the limitations of previous program interfaces and the current advances in graphical interface techniques are discussed. The focus is on two decision aid systems that incorporate several AI concepts: the Tactical Expert Mission Planner (TEMPLAR) and the Identification of Command and Control Operations Nodes (ICON).

  2. C3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Complement component C3, a secreted protein found in plasma, plays a central role in the activation of complement system. Its activation is required for both classical and alternative complement activation pathways. People with C3 deficiency are susceptible to bacterial infection.

  3. Runoff losses from corn silage-manure cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transport of P, N, and sediment via runoff from crop fields, especially where manure has been applied, can contribute to eutrophication and degradation of surface waters. We established a paired-watershed field site in central Wisconsin to evaluate surface runoff losses of nutrients and sediment fro...

  4. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

  5. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  6. Integrating insect-resistant GM Crops in pest management systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, GM cotton and maize with insect resistance were grown on 12.1 and 20.1 million hectares in 9 and 13 countries, respectively. These insect resistant GM crops produce various Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and provide highly selective and effective control of lepidopteran and col...

  7. Management of greenbug biotypes in wheat-sorghum cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strategies for deploying crop cultivars with durable resistance to insects have for years been the focus of considerable debate and speculation. Interpretation of elaborate simulation models used to predict durability of resistance has led to the generally accepted paradigm that the widespread use ...

  8. Environmental benefits of growing perennial legumes in cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa offers several environmental benefits to farmers and society. Reduced nitrate leaching due to slower water flow and excellent nitrate removal are valuable in farm fields and at remediation sites. Improved N supply to following crops reduces energy use, economic costs, and greenhouse gas emis...

  9. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a linear programming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  10. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  11. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  12. Observation of Anisotropy of Creep Fracture Using Small Punch Test for Al-Al4C3 System Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besterci, Michal; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Ballóková, Beáta; Sülleiová, Katarína; Kvačkaj, Tibor

    2011-06-01

    The anisotropy of the creep properties and fracture using small punch tests for the Al-Al4C3 system produced by ECAP were analysed in this work. Small punch creep tests under constant force were performed at the temperature of 623 K. It was shown that the fracture results, i.e. time to fracture and deflection at fracture were different in specimens with different orientation with respect to the axis of ECAP deformation. Fracture surface analysis of the tested small punch specimens was conducted. Fractures have transcrystalline ductile character. The fracture dimples are equiaxial as well as elongated in the dependence on strain direction. Fracture dimples are of two categories, the small ones sized from 0.1 to 0.5 μm and large ones ranging from 3 to 6 μm.

  13. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China.

  14. [Nutrient management strategy of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Sheng; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lü, Shi-Hua; Liu, Xue-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Paddy rice-upland crop rotation system is a major cropping system in China, and practiced widely along the Yangtze River basin. A unique feature of this system is the annual conversion of soil from aerobic to anaerobic and then back to aerobic condition, which can result in the changes of soil physical, chemical, and biological prosperities among seasons, making a special agroecosystem. The major challenges faced by this system include declining or stagnating productivity, increasing shortage of irrigation water, improper management of nutrients, low efficiency of resource utilization, and environmental pollution. Based on an overview of the characteristics and problems of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system, this paper put forward a strategy of practicing integrated nutrient management to solve the contradictions between nutrient input, crop production and environmental risk. The key points of this strategy included nutrient management from the whole rotation system perspective, integrated use of nutrients from various sources (chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and nutrients from the environment), synchronization of nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand, application of different management technologies based on the characteristics of different nutrient resources, and integration of nutrient management with other cropping system technologies like water saving and high-yielding cultivation, etc.

  15. C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Matthew C; D'Agati, Vivette D; Nester, Carla M; Smith, Richard J; Haas, Mark; Appel, Gerald B; Alpers, Charles E; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bedrosian, Camille; Braun, Michael; Doyle, Mittie; Fakhouri, Fadi; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fogo, Agnes B; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Gale, Daniel P; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Griffin, Gene; Harris, Claire L; Holers, V Michael; Johnson, Sally; Lavin, Peter J; Medjeral-Thomas, Nicholas; Paul Morgan, B; Nast, Cynthia C; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Peters, D Keith; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Servais, Aude; Sethi, Sanjeev; Song, Wen-Chao; Tamburini, Paul; Thurman, Joshua M; Zavros, Michael; Cook, H Terence

    2013-12-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently introduced pathological entity whose original definition was glomerular pathology characterized by C3 accumulation with absent or scanty immunoglobulin deposition. In August 2012, an invited group of experts (comprising the authors of this document) in renal pathology, nephrology, complement biology, and complement therapeutics met to discuss C3 glomerulopathy in the first C3 Glomerulopathy Meeting. The objectives were to reach a consensus on: the definition of C3 glomerulopathy, appropriate complement investigations that should be performed in these patients, and how complement therapeutics should be explored in the condition. This meeting report represents the current consensus view of the group.

  16. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in conventional and diversified crop rotation systems.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E

    2008-02-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.

  17. HERBICIDE SENSITIVITY OF ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI POPULATIONS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN CROPPING SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Claerhout, S; De Cauwer, B; Reheul, D

    2014-01-01

    Echinochloa crus-galli populations exhibit high morphological variability and their response to herbicides varies from field to field. Differential response to herbicides could reflect differences in selection pressure, caused by years of cropping system related herbicide usage. This study investigates the relation between herbicide sensitivity of Echinochloa crus-galli populations and the cropping system to which they were subjected. The herbicide sensitivity of Echinochloa crus-galli was evaluated for populations collected on 18 fields, representing three cropping systems, namely (1) a long-term organic cropping system, (2) a conventional cropping system with corn in crop rotation or (3) a conventional cropping system with long-term monoculture of corn. Each cropping system was represented by 6 E. crus-galli populations. All fields were located on sandy soils. Dose-response pot experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess the effectiveness of three foliar-applied corn herbicides: nicosulfuron (ALS-inhibitor), cycloxydim (ACCase-inhibitor) and topramezone (HPPD-inhibitor), and two soil-applied corn herbicides: S-metolachlor and dimethenamid-P (both VLCFA-inhibitors). Foliar-applied herbicides were tested at a quarter, half and full recommended doses. Soil-applied herbicides were tested within a dose range of 0-22.5 g a.i. ha(-1) for S-metolachlor and 0-45 g a.i. ha(-1) for dimethenamid-P. Foliar-applied herbicides were applied at the three true leaves stage. Soil-applied herbicides were treated immediately after sowing the radicle-emerged seeds. All experiments were performed twice. The foliage dry weight per pot was determined four weeks after treatment. Plant responses to herbicides were expressed as biomass reduction (%, relative to the untreated control). Sensitivity to foliar-applied herbicides varied among cropping systems. Compared to populations from monoculture corn fields, populations originating from organic fields were significantly more

  18. Rye cover crop effects on soil quality in no-till corn silage-soybean cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn and soybean farmers in the upper Midwest are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion prevention, and weed suppression; however, the effects of winter cover crops on soil quality in this region have ...

  19. Crop monitoring & yield forecasting system based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and process-based crop growth model: Development and validation in South and South East Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyono, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and timely information on rice crop growth and yield helps governments and other stakeholders adapting their economic policies and enables relief organizations to better anticipate and coordinate relief efforts in the wake of a natural catastrophe. Such delivery of rice growth and yield information is made possible by regular earth observation using space-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology combined with crop modeling approach to estimate yield. Radar-based remote sensing is capable of observing rice vegetation growth irrespective of cloud coverage, an important feature given that in incidences of flooding the sky is often cloud-covered. The system allows rapid damage assessment over the area of interest. Rice yield monitoring is based on a crop growth simulation and SAR-derived key information, particularly start of season and leaf growth rate. Results from pilot study sites in South and South East Asian countries suggest that incorporation of SAR data into crop model improves yield estimation for actual yields. Remote-sensing data assimilation into crop model effectively capture responses of rice crops to environmental conditions over large spatial coverage, which otherwise is practically impossible to achieve. Such improvement of actual yield estimates offers practical application such as in a crop insurance program. Process-based crop simulation model is used in the system to ensure climate information is adequately captured and to enable mid-season yield forecast.

  20. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    PubMed

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  1. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSE<0.3), in total 39 cropping systems were selected. Each system was evaluated under soil and climate conditions representative of Therwil, Frick, Reckenholz and Changins sites with four replications. Soil inputs were sampled from normal probability distributions defined by available site-specific data using the Latin hypercube sampling method. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation and the annual net global warming potential (GWP) was calculated using IPCC (2014). For statistical analyses, the systems were grouped into the following categories: (a) farming system: organic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage

  2. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) crop production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Schlick, G.; Wilson, D.; Bates, M.

    2003-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant-based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of allocation proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of the likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system. Both single crop, batch production and continuous cultivation of mixed crops production studies have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber are described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumping, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with 27 different crops under cultivation, 17 m2 of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (85% of the approximate 620 g required for one person). Enhanced engineering and crop production performance achieved with the CAAP chamber, compared with current state-of-the-art, places plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) crop production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Schlick, G.; Wilson, D.; Bates, M.

    2003-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant-based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of allocation proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of the likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system. Both single crop, batch production and continuous cultivation of mixed crops production studies have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber are described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumping, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with 27 different crops under cultivation, 17 m2 of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (85% of the approximate 620 g required for one person). Enhanced engineering and crop production performance achieved with the CAAP chamber, compared with current state-of-the-art, places plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  4. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) crop production system.

    PubMed

    Bubenheim, D L; Schlick, G; Wilson, D; Bates, M

    2003-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant-based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of allocation proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of the likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system. Both single crop, batch production and continuous cultivation of mixed crops production studies have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber are described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumping, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with 27 different crops under cultivation, 17 m2 of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (85% of the approximate 620 g required for one person). Enhanced engineering and crop production performance achieved with the CAAP chamber, compared with current state-of-the-art, places plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility.

  5. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  6. Cover crop use for weed management in Southern reduced-tillage vegetable cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With growing agricultural demands from both conventional and organic systems comes the need for sustainable practices to ensure long-term productivity. Implementation of reduced- or no-till practices offers a number of environmental benefits for agricultural land and maintains adequate yield for cu...

  7. Weed-crop competition relationships differ between organic and conventional cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic farmers have identified weed management to be a top research priority and production constraint, as the efficacy of organic weed management is often more variable than conventional herbicide-based methods. The Rodale Institute Farming Systems Trial (FST) provides a unique 27-year history of ...

  8. Crop produciton and soil carbon: Using satellites to quantify cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilization of remote sensing data from satellite platforms for multiple purposes was a hallmark of Paul Doraiswamy’s career. These efforts entailed the application of various satellite systems, e.g., Landsat, MODIS, AVRIS, to various areas around the world to quantify different components of croppi...

  9. Crop yield network and its response to changes in climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    Crop failure (reduction in crop yield) due to extreme weather and climate change could lead to unstable food supply, reflecting the recent globalization in world agricultural production. Specifically, in several major production countries producing large amount of main cereal crops, wheat, maize, soybean and rice, abrupt crop failures in wide area are significantly serious for world food supply system. We examined the simultaneous changes in crop yield in USA, China and Brazil, in terms of the changes in climate system such as El Nino, La nina and so on. In this study, we defined a crop yield networks, which represent the correlation between yearly changes in crop yields and climate resources during the crop growing season in two regions. The climate resources during the crop growing season represents here the average temperature and the accumulated precipitation during the crop growing season of a target crop. As climate data, we used a reanalysis climate data JRA-25 (Japan Meteorological Agency). The yearly changes in crop yields are based on a gridded crop productivity database with a resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude (Iizumi et al. 2013). It is constructed from the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureau in each country, which covers the period during 1982 to 2006 (25 years). For the regions being lack of data, the data was interpolated referring to NPP values estimated by satellite data. Crop yield network is constructed as follows: (1) let DY(i,y) be negative difference in crop yield of year y from the trend yield at grid i; (2) define the correlation of the differences Cij(y) = DY(i, y) DY(j, y); (3) if Cij(y) > Q, then grids i and j are mutually linked for a threshold value Q. Links between grids make a crop yield network. It is here noted that only negative differences are taken into account because we focused on the lean year cases (i.e. yields of both grids were lower than those in the long-term trend). The arrays of

  10. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  11. Organic fertilization for soil improvement in a vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaeghe, Micheline; De Rocker, Erwin; De Reycke, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Vegetable Research Centre East-Flanders Karreweg 6, 9770 Kruishoutem, Belgium A long term trial for soil improvement by organic fertilization was carried out in Kruishoutem from 2001 till 2010 in a vegetable rotation (carrots - leek - lettuce (2/year) - cauliflower (2/year) - leek - carrots - lettuce (2/year) - cauliflower (2/year) - leek and spinach). The trial compared yearly applications of 30 m²/ha of three types of compost (green compost, vfg-compost and spent mushroom compost) with an untreated object which did not receive any organic fertilization during the trial timescale. The organic fertilization was applied shortly before the cropping season. Looking at the soil quality, effects of organic fertilization manifest rather slow. The first four years after the beginning of the trial, no increase in carbon content of the soil is detectable yet. Although, mineralization of the soil has increased. The effect on the mineralization is mainly visible in crops with a lower N uptake (e.g. carrots) leading to a higher nitrate residue after harvest. Effects on soil structure and compaction occur rather slowly although, during the first two cropping seasons compost applications increase the water retention capacity of the soil. Compost increases the pH of the soil from the first year on till the end of the trial in 2010. Thus, organic fertilization impedes acidification in light sandy soils. Also soil fertility benefits from compost by an increase in K-, Ca- and Mg- content in the soil from the second year on. After 10 years of organic fertilization, yield and quality of spinach were increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the untreated object. Also leek (2002 and 2009) and lettuce (2003 and 2007) benefit from organic fertilization.

  12. Census Parcels Cropping System Classification from Multitemporal Remote Imagery: A Proposed Universal Methodology

    PubMed Central

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J.; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%. PMID:25689830

  13. Census parcels cropping system classification from multitemporal remote imagery: a proposed universal methodology.

    PubMed

    García-Torres, Luis; Caballero-Novella, Juan J; Gómez-Candón, David; Peña, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A procedure named CROPCLASS was developed to semi-automate census parcel crop assessment in any agricultural area using multitemporal remote images. For each area, CROPCLASS consists of a) a definition of census parcels through vector files in all of the images; b) the extraction of spectral bands (SB) and key vegetation index (VI) average values for each parcel and image; c) the conformation of a matrix data (MD) of the extracted information; d) the classification of MD decision trees (DT) and Structured Query Language (SQL) crop predictive model definition also based on preliminary land-use ground-truth work in a reduced number of parcels; and e) the implementation of predictive models to classify unidentified parcels land uses. The software named CROPCLASS-2.0 was developed to semi-automatically perform the described procedure in an economically feasible manner. The CROPCLASS methodology was validated using seven GeoEye-1 satellite images that were taken over the LaVentilla area (Southern Spain) from April to October 2010 at 3- to 4-week intervals. The studied region was visited every 3 weeks, identifying 12 crops and others land uses in 311 parcels. The DT training models for each cropping system were assessed at a 95% to 100% overall accuracy (OA) for each crop within its corresponding cropping systems. The DT training models that were used to directly identify the individual crops were assessed with 80.7% OA, with a user accuracy of approximately 80% or higher for most crops. Generally, the DT model accuracy was similar using the seven images that were taken at approximately one-month intervals or a set of three images that were taken during early spring, summer and autumn, or set of two images that were taken at about 2 to 3 months interval. The classification of the unidentified parcels for the individual crops was achieved with an OA of 79.5%.

  14. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: I. Cropping systems in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The cropping systems of seventeenth century traditional organic agriculture in the Jiaxing Region of eastern China required about 2000 hr of labor per hectare for rice production. Rice and related grain crops were produced employing only human power. The input was about 200 times that for most mechanized grain production today. The charcoal or fossil energy input to produce simple hand tools accounted for only 1-2% total energy in the crop systems. Organic wastes including manures, pond sediments, and green manure crops supplied most of the nutrients. Rice yields, ranging as high as 6700-8400 kg/ha, were similar to some of the highest yields today. The energy output/input ratio ranged from 9 for compost-fertilized rice to 12 for green manure-fertilized rice production. These ratios were 2-10 times higher than most mechanized rice production systems of today. Knowledge of the crop and soil system enabled the early Chinese farms to maintain high crop yields and sustain highly productive soils.

  15. Mapping Farming Practices in Belgian Intensive Cropping Systems from Sentinel-1 SAR Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chome, G.; Baret, P. V.; Defourny, P.

    2016-08-01

    The environmental impact of the so-called conventional farming system calls for new farming practices reducing negative externalities. Emerging farming practices such as no-till and new inter-cropping management are promising tracks. The development of methods to characterize crop management across an entire region and to understand their spatial dimension offers opportunities to accompany the transition towards a more sustainable agriculture.This research takes advantage of the unmatched polarimetric and temporal resolutions of Sentinel-1 SAR C- band to develop a method to identify farming practices at the parcel level. To this end, the detection of changes in backscattering due to surface roughness modification (tillage, inter-crop cover destruction ...) is used to detect the farming management. The final results are compared to a reference dataset collected through an intensive field campaign. Finally, the performances are discussed in the perspective of practices monitoring of cropping systems through remote sensing.

  16. United States benefits of improved worldwide wheat crop information from a LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.; Sand, F.; Seidel, A.; Warner, D.; Sheflin, N.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Andrews, J.

    1975-01-01

    The value of worldwide information improvements on wheat crops, promised by LANDSAT, is measured in the context of world wheat markets. These benefits are based on current LANDSAT technical goals and assume that information is made available to all (United States and other countries) at the same time. A detailed empirical sample demonstration of the effect of improved information is given; the history of wheat commodity prices for 1971-72 is reconstructed and the price changes from improved vs. historical information are compared. The improved crop forecasting from a LANDSAT system assumed include wheat crop estimates of 90 percent accuracy for each major wheat producing region. Accurate, objective worldwide wheat crop information using space systems may have a very stabilizing influence on world commodity markets, in part making possible the establishment of long-term, stable trade relationships.

  17. Agro-climatic adaptation of cropping systems under climate change in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhuoran; Gu, Tingting; Tian, Zhan; Zhong, Honglin; Liang, Yuqi

    2015-09-01

    Climate change affects the heat and water resources required by agriculture, thus shifting cropping rotation and intensity. Shanghai is located in the Taihu Lake basin, a transition zone for various cropping systems. In the basin, moderate climate changes can cause major shifts in cropping intensity and rotation. In the present study, we integrated observational climate data, one regional climate model, land use maps, and agricultural statistics to analyze the relationship between heat resources and multi-cropping potential in Shanghai. The results of agro-climatic assessment showed that climate change over the past 50 years has significantly enhanced regional agroclimatic resources, rendering a shift from double cropping to triple cropping possible. However, a downward trend is evident in the actual multi-cropping index, caused principally by the increasing costs of farming and limitations in the supply of labor. We argue that improving the utilization rate of the enhanced agro-climatic resources is possible by introducing new combinations of cultivars, adopting more laborsaving technologies, and providing incentives to farmers.

  18. An Intelligent Crop Planning Tool for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Laura O.; Leon, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a crop planning tool developed for the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) project which is in the research phases at various NASA facilities. The Crop Planning Tool was developed to assist in the understanding of the long term applications of a CELSS environment. The tool consists of a crop schedule generator as well as a crop schedule simulator. The importance of crop planning tools such as the one developed is discussed. The simulator is outlined in detail while the schedule generator is touched upon briefly. The simulator consists of data inputs, plant and human models, and various other CELSS activity models such as food consumption and waste regeneration. The program inputs such as crew data and crop states are discussed. References are included for all nominal parameters used. Activities including harvesting, planting, plant respiration, and human respiration are discussed using mathematical models. Plans provided to the simulator by the plan generator are evaluated for their 'fitness' to the CELSS environment with an objective function based upon daily reservoir levels. Sample runs of the Crop Planning Tool and future needs for the tool are detailed.

  19. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) Crop Production System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a concomitant decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of resource allocations proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system to achieve enhanced performance efficiency. Both single crop, batch production, and continuous cultivation of mixed crops Product ion scenarios have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber will be described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumps, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with up to 25 different crops under cultivation, 17 sq m of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (83% of the approximately 620 g required for one person). Lighting efficiency (moles on photons kWh-1) approached 4 and the conversion efficiency of light energy to biomass was greatly enhanced compared with conventional growing systems. Engineering and biological performance achieved place plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility.

  20. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul R; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2007-04-01

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset carbon dioxide emissions by converting atmospheric CO2 to organic C in crop biomass and soil, but they also emit nitrous oxide and vary in their effects on soil oxidation of methane. Growing the crops requires energy (e.g., to operate farm machinery, produce inputs such as fertilizer) and so does converting the harvested product to usable fuels (feedstock conversion efficiency). The objective of this study was to quantify all these factors to determine the net effect of several bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. We used the DAYCENT biogeochemistry model to assess soil GHG fluxes and biomass yields for corn, soybean, alfalfa, hybrid poplar, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass as bioenergy crops in Pennsylvania, USA. DAYCENT results were combined with estimates of fossil fuels used to provide farm inputs and operate agricultural machinery and fossil-fuel offsets from biomass yields to calculate net GHG fluxes for each cropping system considered. Displaced fossil fuel was the largest GHG sink, followed by soil carbon sequestration. N20 emissions were the largest GHG source. All cropping systems considered provided net GHG sinks, even when soil C was assumed to reach a new steady state and C sequestration in soil was not counted. Hybrid poplar and switchgrass provided the largest net GHG sinks, >200 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass conversion to ethanol, and >400 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass gasification for electricity generation. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethanol and biodiesel from corn rotations reduced GHG emissions by approximately 40%, reed canarygrass by approximately 85%, and switchgrass and hybrid poplar by approximately 115%.

  1. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) Crop Production System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a concomitant decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of resource allocations proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system to achieve enhanced performance efficiency. Both single crop, batch production, and continuous cultivation of mixed crops Product ion scenarios have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber will be described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumps, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with up to 25 different crops under cultivation, 17 sq m of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (83% of the approximately 620 g required for one person). Lighting efficiency (moles on photons kWh-1) approached 4 and the conversion efficiency of light energy to biomass was greatly enhanced compared with conventional growing systems. Engineering and biological performance achieved place plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility.

  2. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species.

  3. Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.

    PubMed

    Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management.

  4. Behavior of [[sup 14]C]-4-nitrophenol and [[sup 14]C]-3,4-dichloroaniline in lab sediment-water systems; 1: Metabolic fate and partitioning of radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, K.; Schuphan, I.; Schmidt, B. . Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen)

    1994-06-01

    Using a standard screening procedure, the fate of [[sup 14]C]-4-nitrophenol and [[sup 14]C]-3,4-dichloroaniline was studied in lab sediment-water systems; incubation intervals ranged from 4 h to 90 d. The sediments were collected from a creek, a pond, and a drainage ditch of a fruit-growing plantation, and were characterized. Both compounds and their transformation products were sorbed to the sediments in large quantities; radioactivity left in the water phase was below 11% after termination of the experiments. Besides minor amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2], 3,4-dichloroaniline was converted to predominantly nonextractable residues, presumably without preceding microbial transformation of the 3,4-dichloroaniline moiety. Two main end products were observed in the 4-nitrophenol experiments, namely nonextractable residues and [sup 14]CO[sub 2]. Data obtained from the sediment exhibiting highest microbial activity probably indicated a further mineralization of 4-nitrophenol-derived sediment-bound residues. On the whole, 4-nitrophenol presumably shows low persistence and accumulation in sediment-water systems, whereas due to its stability the toxicity of sediment-sorbed 3,4-dichloroaniline should be examined.

  5. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  6. Effect of tillage practices on soil properties and crop productivity in wheat-mungbean-rice cropping system under subtropical climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Khairul; Islam, Md Monirul; Salahin, Nazmus; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0-15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept).

  7. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  8. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-06-05

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits.

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer fate after introducing maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, Irabella; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Lehndorf, Eva; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    After introducing upland crops into permanent flooded cropping systems, soil conditions temporally change from anaerobic to aerobic, which profoundly impacts nitrogen (N) dynamics. In the framework of the DFG research unit 1701 ICON we applied a single 15N-urea pulse in a field experiment in the Philippines with three different crop rotations: continuous paddy rice, paddy rice-dry rice, and paddy rice-maize. Subsequently, we traced the fate of the labelled urea in bulk soil, rhizosphere, roots, biomass and microbial residues (amino sugars) within the following two years. 15N recovery in the first 5 cm of bulk soil was highest in the first dry season of continuous paddy rice cropping (37.8 % of applied 15N) and lowest in the paddy rice-maize rotation (19.2 %). While an accumulation over time could be observed in bulk soil in 5-20 cm depth of the continuous paddy rice system, the recoveries decreased over time within the following two years in the other cropping systems. Highest 15N-recovery in shoots and roots were found in the continuous paddy rice system in the first dry season (27.3 % in shoots, 3.2 % in roots) as well as in the following wet season (4.2 % in shoots, 0.3 % in roots). Lowest recoveries in biomass were found for the paddy rice-dry rice rotation. Long-term fixation of 15N in microbial biomass residues was observed in all cropping systems (2-3 % in the 3rd dry season). The results indicate that the introduction of maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system can reduce the fertilizer N use efficiency especially in the first year, most likely due to nitrate leaching and gaseous losses to the atmosphere.

  10. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    PubMed

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact.

  11. A multiple chamber, semicontinuous, crop carbon dioxide exchange system: design, calibration, and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Iersel, M. W.; Bugbee, B.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term, whole crop CO2 exchange measurements can be used to study factors affecting crop growth. These factors include daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency, which cannot be determined from short-term measurements. We describe a system that measures semicontinuously crop CO2 exchange in 10 chambers over a period of weeks or months. Exchange of CO2 in every chamber can be measured at 5 min intervals. The system was designed to be placed inside a growth chamber, with additional environmental control provided by the individual gas exchange chambers. The system was calibrated by generating CO2 from NaHCO3 inside the chambers, which indicated that accuracy of the measurements was good (102% and 98% recovery for two separate photosynthesis systems). Since the systems measure net photosynthesis (P-net, positive) and dark respiration(R-dark, negative), the data can be used to estimate gross photosynthesis, daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency. Continuous whole-crop measurements are a valuable tool that complements leaf photosynthesis measurements. Multiple chambers allow for replication and comparison among several environmental or cultural treatments that may affect crop growth. Example data from a 2 week study with petunia (Petunia x hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr.) are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of this system.

  12. A multiple chamber, semicontinuous, crop carbon dioxide exchange system: design, calibration, and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Iersel, M. W.; Bugbee, B.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term, whole crop CO2 exchange measurements can be used to study factors affecting crop growth. These factors include daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency, which cannot be determined from short-term measurements. We describe a system that measures semicontinuously crop CO2 exchange in 10 chambers over a period of weeks or months. Exchange of CO2 in every chamber can be measured at 5 min intervals. The system was designed to be placed inside a growth chamber, with additional environmental control provided by the individual gas exchange chambers. The system was calibrated by generating CO2 from NaHCO3 inside the chambers, which indicated that accuracy of the measurements was good (102% and 98% recovery for two separate photosynthesis systems). Since the systems measure net photosynthesis (P-net, positive) and dark respiration(R-dark, negative), the data can be used to estimate gross photosynthesis, daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency. Continuous whole-crop measurements are a valuable tool that complements leaf photosynthesis measurements. Multiple chambers allow for replication and comparison among several environmental or cultural treatments that may affect crop growth. Example data from a 2 week study with petunia (Petunia x hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr.) are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of this system.

  13. [Cropping system and research strategies in Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Xu, Jiang; Dong, Lin-lin; Li, Xi-wen; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-09-01

    Panax ginseng is the king of herbs and plays important roles in the traditional Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, we summarized the development of ginseng cultivation in China and other main countries, analyzed the effects of ecological factors of soil and climate on ginseng distribution, and investigated the characteristic of main cultivation patterns (conversion of forest to cultivate ginseng soils, cultivated ginseng in the farmland and wild nursery). Aimed at the serious issues in the cultivation, research strategies have been provided to guarantee the sustainable development of the ginseng industry. The patterns of cultivated ginseng in the farmland should be strive to develop; pollution-free cultivation and studies of continuous cropping obstacles should be carried out; ginseng varieties suited to ecological environment of farmland should be bred using modern biotechnology.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  15. General description and operation of the agro-environmental system: Crop management modeling. [Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, E.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Input for a data management system to provide farmers with information to improve crop management practices in Virginia requires monitoring of control crops at field stations, crop surveys derived from remotely sensed aircraft data, meteorological data from synchronous satellites, and details of local agricultural conditions. Presently models are under development for determining pest problems, water balance in the soil, stages of plant maturity, and optimum planting date. The status of the Cerospora leafspot model for peanut crop management is considered. Other models under development planned relate to Cylindtocladium Blackrot and Sclerotinia blight of peanuts, cyst nematode (Globerdena solanacearum) of tobacco, and red crown rot of soybeans. A software for program for estimating precipitation and solar radiation on a statewise basis is also being developed.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  18. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, W R; Sager, J C

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC GRAIN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments ...

  20. Hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation in legume cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, T.; Cen, Y.; Layzell, D. B.; Kyser, K.; Scott, N. A.

    2009-05-01

    Electron flow from oxidation of excess H2 released by root nodules was shown to contribute to microbial CO2 fixation in soybean crops. This discovery has important implications for carbon storage in soils used to grow legumes; however, further research is needed to understand the fate and turnover time of this H2-coupled CO2 fixation. Isotopic labeling of soil through incubation with 13CO2 was used to elucidate movement of sequestered carbon into soil carbon pools. Measurement of isotopic shifts was determined using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Preliminary experiments have confirmed CO2 uptake through an isotopic shift (Δ13C -20.4 to -14.5 ‰) in 24 hour incubated soils labeled with 13CO2 (1% v/v, 99.5 Atom%) under elevated H2 concentration (6000 ppm). Other incubation experiments have confirmed the biotic nature of observed CO2 uptake by comparing isotopic shifts in oven dried and autoclaved soils to moist soil. Under an elevated H2 atmosphere, no significant isotopic shift was observed in dry and autoclaved soils whereas moist soil showed an isotopic shift of Δ13C -21.9 to 11.4 ‰ over 48 hours. Future experiments will involve longer incubations (7 days) and will be aimed at determining isotopic shifts within soil carbon pools. Samples will be incubated and fractionated into microbial biomass, light fraction carbon, and acid stable carbon and subsequent isotopic analysis will be carried out. This will help determine the distribution of H2- coupled fixed CO2 within soil carbon pools and the turnover time of sequestered carbon. This and further research may lead to modification of greenhouse gas coefficients for leguminous crops that includes a CO2 fixation component.

  1. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; Dickson, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  2. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities. PMID:27695462

  3. A multi-scale hydroclimatological assessment of perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Matei; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Wagner, Melissa; Wang, Meng; Bagley, Justin; Vanloocke, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-climatic sustainability associated with deployment of perennial bioenergy cropping systems requires a holistic approach that extends beyond merely carbon accounting. Here, we present results from a five-year National Science Foundation project (Water Sustainability and Climate initiative) focused on development of geographically explicit maps depicting sustainable regional "hot-spots" of perennial biomass energy expansion in the United States (U.S.). Using short-term/high-resolution (1 year/1km) and climate scale/medium range resolution (10 years/20km) simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system, an atmospheric code coupled to a suite of land surface models, we quantify impacts on the hydrologic cycle, and examine the effect of energy crops (e.g., miscanthus and switchgrass) on subsurface hydrology (e.g., soil moisture, groundwater impacts) and atmospheric dynamics. We avoid the competition with food crops by focusing energy crop deployment exclusively on abandoned and degraded farmland regions within the Continental U.S. Finally, assessment of photosynthetic production of bioenergy crops is made, based on hydro-climatic constraints associated with varying scenarios of perennial bioenergy crop deployment simulated with WRF.

  4. Oscillator strengths and radiative lifetimes for C2: Swan, Ballik-Ramsay, Phillips, and d 3Pig<--c 3Sigmau+ systems.

    PubMed

    Kokkin, Damian L; Bacskay, George B; Schmidt, Timothy W

    2007-02-28

    High level ab initio calculations, using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) techniques, have been carried out to investigate the spectroscopic properties of the singlet A 1Piu<--X 1Sigmag+ Phillips, the triplet d 3Pig<--a 3Sigmau Swan, the b 3Sigmag-<--a 3Piu Ballik-Ramsay, and the d 3Pig<--c 3Sigmau+ transitions of C2. The MRCI expansions are based on full-valence complete active space self-consistent-field reference states and utilize the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set to resolve valence electron correlation. Core and core-valence correlations and scalar relativistic energy corrections were also incorporated in the computed potential energy surfaces. Nonadiabatic and spin-orbit effects were explored and found to be of negligible importance in the calculations. Harmonic frequencies and rotational constants are typically within 0.1% of experiment. The calculated radiative lifetimes compare very well with the available experimental data. Oscillator strengths are reported for all systems: fv'v", where 0

  5. Low capacity of erythrocytes to bind with immune complexes via C3b receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with pathological proteinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Nojima, Y.; Terai, C.; Minota, S.; Takano, K.; Miyakawa, Y.; Takaku, F.

    1985-01-01

    Erythrocytes from 51 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 75 controls were tested for the capacity to bind aggregated human gamma-globulin labeled with radioiodine in the presence of complement. Both in patients and controls, a trimodal distribution of binding capacity was observed. Low (less than 9% of the added radioactivity), intermediate (9-17%), and high binding (more than 17%) were observed in 13, 58, and 29% in controls and in 49, 43 and 8% in lupus patients. The low binding capacity of erythrocytes persisted even after patients entered remission following steroid therapy. A genetic control of binding capacity was supported by familial surveys. Prevalence of pathological proteinuria was significantly higher in patients with low binding capacity than those with intermediate or high binding capacity (16/25 vs 7/26, P less than 0.01). These results indicate that an impaired physiological disposal of immune complexes via the erythrocyte C3b receptor in lupus patients may contribute to the development of renal involvement.

  6. Management of herbicide resistance in wheat cropping systems: learning from the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael J; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Herbicide resistance continues to escalate in weed populations infesting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops, threatening grain production and thereby food supply. Conservation wheat production systems are reliant on the use of efficient herbicides providing low-cost, selective weed control in intensive cropping systems. The resistance-driven loss of herbicide resources combined with limited potential for new herbicide molecules means greater emphasis must be placed on preserving existing herbicides. For more than two decades, since the initial recognition of the dramatic consequences of herbicide resistance, the challenge of introducing additional weed control strategies into herbicide-based weed management programmes has been formidable. Throughout this period, herbicide resistance has expanded unabated across the world's wheat production regions. However, in Australia, where herbicide resources have become desperately depleted, the adoption of harvest weed seed control is evidence, at last, of a successful approach to sustainable weed management in wheat production systems. Growers routinely including strategies to target weed seeds during crop harvest, as part of herbicide-based weed management programmes, are now realising significant weed control and crop production benefits. When combined with an attitude of zero weed tolerance, there is evidence of a sustainable weed control future for wheat production systems. The hard-learned lessons of Australian growers can now be viewed by global wheat producers as an example of how to stop the continual loss of herbicide resources in productive cropping systems. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. ROLE OF ALLELOPATHY IN THE STIMULATORY AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF HAIRY VETCH COVER CROP RESIDUE IN NO-TILLAGE SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops can provide multiple benefits to sustainable cropping systems including building soil organic matter, controlling soil and nutrient losses from fields, moderating radiation and moisture exchange, releasing nutrients for subsequent crops, and suppressing weed and pest populations. Many o...

  8. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2017-02-01

    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) –summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14–31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr‑1). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  9. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2017-02-03

    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14-31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr(-1)). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  10. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) –summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14–31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr−1). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions. PMID:28155860

  11. Crop Rotation and Straw Residue Effects on Soil Carbon In Three Grass Seed Cropping Systems Of Western Oregon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As grass seed crop field burning in western Oregon was phased-out, alternative non-thermal practices, such as post harvest straw residue removal or incorporation to the soil, and crop rotations were being developed. There is little information available on the practicality and impacts of non-thermal...

  12. Operationalizing crop monitoring system for informed decision making related to food security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Shah, S. N. Pd.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Baidar, T.; Dhonju, K.; Hari, B. G.

    2014-11-01

    In Nepal, two thirds of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihoods and more than one third of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) comes from the agriculture sector. However, effective agriculture production across the country remains a serious challenge due to various factors, such as a high degree of spatial and temporal climate variability, irrigated and rain-fed agriculture systems, farmers' fragile social and economic fabric, and unique mountain practices. ICIMOD through SERVIR-Himalaya initiative with collaboration of Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD) is working on developing a comprehensive crop monitoring system which aims to provide timely information on crop growth and drought development conditions. This system analyzes historical climate and crop conditions patterns and compares this data with the current growing season to provide timely assessment of crop growth. Using remote sensing data for vegetation indices, temperature and rainfall, the system generated anomaly maps are inferred to predict the increase or shortfall in production. Comparisons can be made both spatially and in graphs and figures at district and Village Developmental Committee (VDC) levels. Timely information on possible anomaly in crop production is later used by the institutions like Ministry of Agricultural Development, Nepal and World Food Programme, Nepal to trigger appropriate management response. Future potential includes integrating data on agricultural inputs, socioeconomics, demographics, and transportation to holistically assess food security in the region served by SERVIR-Himalaya.

  13. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  14. Development of a BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test using a mainstream cigarette smoke exposure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke toxicity has traditionally been assessed using the particulate fraction under submerged culture conditions which omits the vapour phase elements from any subsequent analysis. Therefore, methodologies that assess the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke are required. Here we describe the adaption of a modified BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test methodology, which is based on the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) protocol for in vitro acute toxicity testing. The methodology described takes into account the synergies of both the particulate and vapour phase of tobacco smoke. This is of particular importance as both phases have been independently shown to induce in vitro cellular cytotoxicity. Findings The findings from this study indicate that mainstream tobacco smoke and the gas vapour phase (GVP), generated using the Vitrocell® VC 10 smoke exposure system, have distinct and significantly different toxicity profiles. Within the system tested, mainstream tobacco smoke produced a dilution IC50 (dilution (L/min) at which 50% cytotoxicity is observed) of 6.02 L/min, whereas the GVP produced a dilution IC50 of 3.20 L/min. In addition, we also demonstrated significant dose-for-dose differences between mainstream cigarette smoke and the GVP fraction (P < 0.05). This demonstrates the importance of testing the entire tobacco smoke aerosol and not just the particulate fraction, as has been the historical preference. Conclusions We have adapted the NRU methodology based on the ICCVAM protocol to capture the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke. This methodology could also be used to assess the performance of traditional cigarettes, blend and filter technologies, tobacco smoke fractions and individual test aerosols. PMID:24935030

  15. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  16. A Familial C3GN Secondary to Defective C3 Regulation by Complement Receptor 1 and Complement Factor H

    PubMed Central

    Roumenina, Lubka T.; Bruneau, Sarah; Marinozzi, Maria Chiara; Rybkine, Tania; Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Java, Anuja; Atkinson, John P.; Aldigier, Jean Claude; Bridoux, Frank; Touchard, Guy; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy is a recently described form of CKD. C3GN is a subtype of C3 glomerulopathy characterized by predominant C3 deposits in the glomeruli and is commonly the result of acquired or genetic abnormalities in the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. We identified and characterized the first mutation of the C3 gene (p. I734T) in two related individuals diagnosed with C3GN. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies showed C3 deposits in the subendothelial space, associated with unusual deposits located near the complement receptor 1 (CR1)-expressing podocytes. In vitro, this C3 mutation exhibited decreased binding to CR1, resulting in less CR1-dependent cleavage of C3b by factor 1. Both patients had normal plasma C3 levels, and the mutant C3 interacted with factor B comparably to wild-type (WT) C3 to form a C3 convertase. Binding of mutant C3 to factor H was normal, but mutant C3 was less efficiently cleaved by factor I in the presence of factor H, leading to enhanced C3 fragment deposition on glomerular cells. In conclusion, our results reveal that a CR1 functional deficiency is a mechanism of intraglomerular AP dysregulation and could influence the localization of the glomerular C3 deposits. PMID:26471127

  17. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659

  18. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  19. Compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bransby, D.I.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Sladden, S.E.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to examine the compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems in the southeastern USA, relative to other regions. In particular, the issues addressed are (1) competition between switchgrass as an energy crop and existing farm enterprises, based primarily on economic returns, (2) complementarity between switchgrass and existing farm enterprises, and (3) environmental benefits. Because projected economic returns for switchgrass as an energy crop are highest in the Southeast, and returns from forestry and beef pastures (the major existing enterprises) are low, there is a very strong economic incentive in this region. In contrast, based on current information, economic viability of switchgrass as an energy crop in other regions appears doubtful. In addition, switchgrass in the southeastern USA would complement forage-livestock production, row crop production and wildlife and would provide several additional environmental benefits. It is concluded that the southeastern USA offers the greatest opportunity for developing switchgrass as an economically viable energy crop.

  20. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  1. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  2. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jiashu; Zhang, Tianzhe; Chang, Weidong; Zhang, Dan; Zulfiqar, Saman; Fu, Aigen; Hao, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0–40 cm) at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0–20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the <0.053 mm size class and N stocks in the <0.25 mm size class. The increases in OC and N stocks in these aggregates accounted for 99.5 and 98.7% of the total increases, respectively, in the continuous alfalfa system. The increases in the OC and N stocks associated with the >0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm. PMID:27764209

  3. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jiashu; Zhang, Tianzhe; Chang, Weidong; Zhang, Dan; Zulfiqar, Saman; Fu, Aigen; Hao, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0-40 cm) at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0-20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the <0.053 mm size class and N stocks in the <0.25 mm size class. The increases in OC and N stocks in these aggregates accounted for 99.5 and 98.7% of the total increases, respectively, in the continuous alfalfa system. The increases in the OC and N stocks associated with the >0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm.

  4. Regional modelling of nitrate leaching from Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calitri, Francesca; Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Zaccone, Claudio; Spiess, Ernst; Herrera, Juan; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Organic cropping systems have been promoted as a sustainable alternative to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. Relatively little is known about the potential to reduce NO3-N leaching through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Moreover, the potential to mitigate NO3-N leaching and thus the N pollution under future climate change through organic farming remain unknown and highly uncertain. Here, we compared regional NO3-N leaching from organic and conventional cropping systems in Switzerland using a terrestrial biogeochemical process-based model DayCent. The objectives of this study are 1) to calibrate and evaluate the model for NO3-N leaching measured under various management practices from three experiments at two sites in Switzerland; 2) to estimate regional NO3-N leaching patterns and their spatial uncertainty in conventional and organic cropping systems (with and without cover crops) for future climate change scenario A1B; 3) to explore the sensitivity of NO3-N leaching to changes in soil and climate variables; and 4) to assess the nitrogen use efficiency for conventional and organic cropping systems with and without cover crops under climate change. The data for model calibration/evaluation were derived from field experiments conducted in Liebefeld (canton Bern) and Eschikon (canton Zürich). These experiments evaluated effects of various cover crops and N fertilizer inputs on NO3-N leaching. The preliminary results suggest that the model was able to explain 50 to 83% of the inter-annual variability in the measured soil drainage (RMSE from 12.32 to 16.89 cm y-1). The annual NO3-N leaching was also simulated satisfactory (RMSE = 3.94 to 6.38 g N m-2 y-1), although the model had difficulty to reproduce the inter-annual variability in the NO3-N leaching losses correctly (R2 = 0.11 to 0.35). Future climate datasets (2010-2099) from the 10 regional climate models (RCM) were used in the simulations. Regional NO3-N leaching

  5. A crop population perspective on maize seed systems in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, George A.; Taylor, J. Edward

    2008-01-01

    Improvement of local germplasm through artificial selection is regarded as the main force behind maize evolution and diversity in Mexico, the crop's center of origin. This perspective neglects the larger social context of maize evolution. Using a theoretical approach and Mexico-wide data, we show that farmer-led evolution of maize is largely driven by a technological diffusion and appropriation process that selectively integrates nonlocal germplasm into local seed stocks. Our approach construes farmer practices as events in the life history of seed to build a demographic model. The model shows how random and systematic differences in management combine to structure maize seed populations into subpopulations that can spread or become extinct, in some cases independently of visible agronomic advantages. The process involves continuous population bottlenecks that can lead to diversity loss. Nonlocal germplasm thus might play a critical role in maintaining diversity in individual localities. Empirical estimates show that introduction of nonlocal seed in Central and Southeastern Mexico is rarer than previously thought; prompt replacement further prevents new seed from spreading. Yet introduced seed perceived as valuable diffuses rapidly, contributing variation in the form of type diversity or through introgression into local seed. Maize seed dynamics and evolution are thus part of a complex social process driven by farmers' desire to appropriate the value in maize farming, not always achieved by preserving or improving local seed stocks. PMID:18184814

  6. A National Crop Progress Monitoring System Based on NASA Earth Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhang, B.; Deng, M.; Yang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Crop progress is an important piece of information for food security and agricultural commodities. Timely monitoring and reporting are mandated for the operation of agricultural statistical agencies. Traditionally, the weekly reporting issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is based on reports from the knowledgeable state and county agricultural officials and farmers. The results are spatially coarse and subjective. In this project, a remote-sensing-supported crop progress monitoring system is being developed intensively using the data and derived products from NASA Earth Observing satellites. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 product - MOD09 (Surface Reflectance) is used for deriving daily normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and mean vegetation condition index (MVCI). Ratio change to previous year and multiple year mean can be also produced on demand. The time-series vegetation condition indices are further combined with the NASS' remote-sensing-derived Cropland Data Layer (CDL) to estimate crop condition and progress crop by crop. To facilitate the operational requirement and increase the accessibility of data and products by different users, each component of the system has being developed and implemented following open specifications under the Web Service reference model of Open Geospatial Consortium Inc. Sensor observations and data are accessed through Web Coverage Service (WCS), Web Feature Service (WFS), or Sensor Observation Service (SOS) if available. Products are also served through such open-specification-compliant services. For rendering and presentation, Web Map Service (WMS) is used. A Web-service based system is set up and deployed at dss.csiss.gmu.edu/NDVIDownload. Further development will adopt crop growth models, feed the models with remotely sensed precipitation and soil moisture information, and incorporate

  7. Regional simulation of soil nitrogen dynamics and balance in Swiss cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhwan; Necpalova, Magdalena; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the regional-scale potential of various crop and soil management practices to reduce the dependency of crop N demand on external N inputs and N losses to the environment. The estimates of soil N balance were simulated and compared under alternative and conventional crop production across all Swiss cropland. Alternative practices were all combinations of organic fertilization, reduced tillage and winter cover cropping. Using the DayCent model, we simulated changes in crop N yields as well as the contribution of inputs and outputs to soil N balance by alternative practices, which was complemented with corresponding measurements from available long-term field experiments and site-level simulations. In addition, the effects of reducing (between 0% and 80% of recommended application rates) or increasing chemical fertilizer input rates (between 120% and 300% of recommended application rates) on system-level N dynamics were also simulated. Modeled yields at recommended N rates were only 37-87% of the maximum yield potential across common Swiss crops, and crop productivity were sensitive to the level of external N inputs, except for grass-clover mixture, soybean and peas. Overall, differences in soil N input and output decreased or increased proportionally with changing the amount of N input only from the recommended rate. As a result, there was no additional difference in soil N balance in response to N application rates. Nitrate leaching accounted for 40-81% of total N output differences, while up to 47% of total N output occurred through harvest and straw removal. Regardless of crops, yield potential became insensitive to high N rates. Differences in N2O and N2 emissions slightly increased with increasing N inputs, in which each gas was only responsible for about 1% of changes in total N output. Overall, there was a positive soil N balance under alternative practices. Particularly, considerable improvement in soil N balance was expected when slowly

  8. Logistic regression modeling of cropping systems to predict fumonisin contamination in maize.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Barbano, Carlo; Scandolara, Andrea; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Marocco, Adriano

    2008-11-12

    The aims of this research were to monitor the presence of fumonisins in maize crops in northern Italy over a 6 year period, to study the role of the cropping system on fumonisin levels, and to contribute to the development of a predictive system for fumonisin contamination. In the 6 year period from 2002 to 2007, 438 maize samples were collected in five regions, supported by agronomic data, and analyzed for fumonisin content. Fumonisin was detected in almost all of the grain samples, but 2007 was less and 2005 more contaminated compared to the other years. Preceding crop, maturity class of hybrids, nitrogen fertilization, sowing and harvest week, and grain moisture significantly affected the level of contamination. The logistic regression developed explained around 60% of variability with major roles for longitude, maturity class, and growing weeks. The function can be used to quantify the effect of these factors in a predictive system.

  9. Effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils: I. Single-metal adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Tabatabai, M.A. )

    1992-02-01

    The effect of long-term cropping systems on adsorption of metals was studied for soils obtained from two sites, Clarion-Webster Research Center (CWRC site) at Kanawha and Galva-Primghar Research Center (GPRC site) at Sutherland, under long-term rotation experiments in Iowa. Each experiment consisted of three cropping systems: continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean (CSCS), and corn-oats-meadow-meadow (COMM), and treated with (+N) and without (0 N) ammoniacal fertilizer. In general, CSCS and COMM cropping systems did not significantly affect the metal adsorption maxima of soils obtained from both sites. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb adsorption were significantly correlated with pH and percentage base saturation for soils from both sites.

  10. Grain yield response to poultry litter application under a wheat-soybean double cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry litter application and double cropping are management practices that could be used with conservation tillage systems to increase yields compared to conventional monocropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]...

  11. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop-livestock systems: Environmental outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  12. Developing wind and/or solar powered crop irrigation systems for the Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some small scale, off-grid irrigation systems (less than 2.5 ha) that are powered by wind or solar energy are cost effective, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. It was found that partitioning t...

  13. Genetic Resources of Energy Crops: Biological Systems to Combat Climate Change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological systems are expected to contribute to renewable energy production, help stabilize rising levels of green house gases (GHG), and mitigate the risk of global climate change (GCC). Bioenergy crop plants that function as solar energy collectors and thermo-chemical energy storage systems are t...

  14. Fates of Setaria faberi and Abutilon theophrasti seeds in three crop rotation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed seeds in and on the soil are the primary cause of weed infestations in arable fields. Previous studies have documented reductions in weed seedbanks due to cropping system diversification through extended rotation sequences, but the impacts of different rotation systems on additions to and losse...

  15. Mapping and monitoring potato cropping systems in Maine: geospatial methods and land use assessments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geospatial frameworks and GIS-based approaches were used to assess current cropping practices in potato production systems in Maine. Results from the geospatial integration of remotely-sensed cropland layers (2008-2011) and soil datasets for Maine revealed a four-year potato systems footprint estima...

  16. Soil water infiltration affected by topsoil thickness in row crop and switchgrass production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conversion of annual grain crop systems to biofuel production systems can restore soil hydrologic function; however, information on these effects is limited. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and swi...

  17. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  18. Fuzzy multi attributive comparison of tillage crop and manure management systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to differences between years as a result of seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further complicates the determination of best alternative for sustainable c...

  19. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some small scale irrigation systems (< 2 ha) powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  20. Effects of cover cropping on soil and rhizosphere microbial community structure in tomato production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black polyethylene film is frequently used in vegetable farming systems to promote rapid warming of the soil in spring, conserve soil moisture, and suppress weeds. Alternative systems have been developed using cover cropping with legumes to provide a weed-suppressive mulch while also fixing nitrogen...

  1. PERUN system and its application for assessing the crop yield potential of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Semeradova, D.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of the first version of the computer system PERUN, which has been developed in 2001-2002 (presented in EGS 2002), is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting for a given site. The system is based on the crop growth model WOFOST (version 7, slightly modified) and the six-variate version of the stochastic weather generator Met&Roll. The system is now being enhanced to allow assessment of the crop yield potential of a larger area. As this assessment requires a great amount of meteorological, pedological and crop data to be gathered, but these data are not yet all available to the authors, the presentation will rather focus on the methodological aspects and the results of the sensitivity analysis. The presentation will consist of the following points: (i) Overview of the PERUN system. The results of the validation experiments (spring barley and winter wheat at selected Czech locations) will be presented, too. (ii) Methodology used for a spatial assessment. The assessment is based on integrating model crop yields simulated at multiple sub-regions with region-specific climatic and pedological conditions. The input daily weather series are produced by the stochastic generator. The multi-year crop model simulation is performed for each sub-region to assess the mean and variability of the model yields. (iii) Sensitivity of the regional crop production potential to uncertainties in selected input characteristics: crop cultivar, soil type, hydrological characteristics (e.g. amount of available water at the beginning of the simulation), and climatic conditions (e.g temperature, precipitation). In assessing sensitivity to climate, the climatic characteristics will be varied within the range of values typical for the territory of the Czech Republic. The crops applied in the analysis are spring barley and winter wheat. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN has been developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for

  2. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-01-01

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R2) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively. PMID:28273815

  3. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-03-03

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R²) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively.

  4. Complement component 3 (C3)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003539.htm Complement component 3 (C3) To use the sharing features on ... and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. A complement test may be used to monitor ...

  5. Crop discrimination in Northern China with double cropping systems using Fourier analysis of time-series MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingwei, Zhang; Qingbo, Zhou; Zhongxin, Chen; Jia, Liu; Yong, Zhou; Chongfa, Cai

    2008-12-01

    Crop identification is the basis of crop monitoring using remote sensing. Remote sensing the extent and distribution of individual crop types has proven useful to a wide range of users, including policy-makers, farmers, and scientists. Northern China is not merely the political, economic, and cultural centre of China, but also an important base for grain production. Its main grains are wheat, maize, and cotton. By employing the Fourier analysis method, we studied crop planting patterns in the Northern China plain. Then, using time-series EOS-MODIS NDVI data, we extracted the key parameters to discriminate crop types. The results showed that the estimated area and the statistics were correlated well at the county-level. Furthermore, there was little difference between the crop area estimated by the MODIS data and the statistics at province-level. Our study shows that the method we designed is promising for use in regional spatial scale crop mapping in Northern China using the MODIS NDVI time-series.

  6. Update on C3 glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Thomas D.; Ruseva, Marieta M.; Pickering, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    C3 glomerulopathy refers to a disease process in which abnormal control of complement activation, degradation or deposition results in predominant C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus and glomerular damage. Recent studies have improved our understanding of its pathogenesis. The key abnormality is uncontrolled C3b amplification in the circulation and/or along the glomerular basement membrane. Family studies in which disease segregates with structurally abnormal complement factor H-related (CFHR) proteins demonstrate that abnormal CFHR proteins are important in some types of C3 glomerulopathy. This is currently thought to be due to the ability of these proteins to antagonize the major negative regulator of C3 activation, complement factor H (CFH), a process termed ‘CFH de-regulation’. Recent clinicopathological cohort studies have led to further refinements in case definition, culminating in a 2013 consensus report, which provides recommendations regarding investigation and treatment. Early clinical experience with complement-targeted therapeutics, notably C5 inhibitors, has also now been published. Here, we summarize the latest developments in C3 glomerulopathy. PMID:25326473

  7. Investigation of acetaminophen toxicity in HepG2/C3a microscale cultures using a system biology model of glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Eric; Hamon, Jeremy; Claude, Isabelle; Jellali, Rachid; Naudot, Marie; Bois, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    We have integrated in vitro and in silico information to investigate acetaminophen (APAP) and its metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) toxicity in liver biochip. In previous works, we observed higher cytotoxicity of HepG2/C3a cultivated in biochips when exposed to 1 mM of APAP for 72 h as compared to Petri cultures. We complete our investigation with the present in silico approach to extend the mechanistic interpretation of the intracellular kinetics of the toxicity process. For that purpose, we propose a mathematical model based on the coupling of a drug pharmacokinetic model (PK) with a systemic biology model (SB) describing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NAPQI and the subsequent glutathione (GSH) depletion. The SB model was parameterized using (i) transcriptomic data, (ii) qualitative results of time lapses ROS fluorescent curves for both control and 1-mM APAP-treated experiments, and (iii) additional GSH literature data. The PK model was parameterized (i) using the in vitro kinetic data (at 160 μM, 1 mM, 10 mM), (ii) using the parameters resulting from a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) literature model for APAP, and (iii) by literature data describing NAPQI formation. The PK-SB model predicted a ROS increase and GSH depletion due to the NAPQI formation. The transition from a detoxification phase and NAPQI and ROS accumulation was predicted for a NAPQI concentration ranging between 0.025 and 0.25 μM in the cytosol. In parallel, we performed a dose response analysis in biochips that shows a reduction of the final hepatic cell number appeared in agreement with the time and doses associated with the switch of the NAPQI detoxification/accumulation. As a result, we were able to correlate in vitro extracellular APAP exposures with an intracellular in silico ROS accumulation using an integration of a coupled mathematical and experimental liver on chip approach.

  8. Multiple criteria analysis of remotely piloted aircraft systems for monitoring the crops vegetation status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, L.; Luculescu, M. C.; Zamfira, S. C.; Boer, A. L.; Pop, S.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) used for monitoring the crops vegetation status. The study focuses on two types of RPAS, namely the flying wing and the multi-copter. The following criteria were taken into account: technical characteristics, power consumption, flight autonomy, flight conditions, costs, data acquisition systems used for monitoring, crops area and so on. Based on this analysis, advantages and disadvantages are emphasized offering a useful tool for choosing the proper solution according to the specific application conditions.

  9. Soil coverage evolution and wind erosion risk on summer crops under contrasting tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Mariano J.; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2015-03-01

    The effectiveness of wind erosion control by soil surface conditions and crop and weed canopy has been well studied in wind tunnel experiments. The aim of this study is to assess the combined effects of these variables under field conditions. Soil surface conditions, crop and weed coverage, plant residue, and non-erodible aggregates (NEA) were measured in the field between the fallow start and the growth period of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and corn (Zea mays). Both crops were planted on a sandy-loam Entic Haplustoll with conventional-(CT), vertical-(VT) and no-till (NT) tillage systems. Wind erosion was estimated by means of the spreadsheet version the Revised Wind Erosion Equation and the soil coverage was measured each 15 days. Results indicated that wind erosion was mostly negligible in NT, exceeding the tolerable levels (estimated between 300 and 1400 kg ha-1 year-1 by Verheijen et al. (2009)) only in an year with high climatic erosivity. Wind erosion exceeded the tolerable levels in most cases in CT and VT, reaching values of 17,400 kg ha-1. Wind erosion was 2-10 times higher after planting of both crops than during fallows. During the fallows, the soil was mostly well covered with plant residues and NEA in CT and VT and with residues and weeds in NT. High wind erosion amounts occurring 30 days after planting in all tillage systems were produced by the destruction of coarse aggregates and the burying of plant residues during planting operations and rains. Differences in soil protection after planting were given by residues of previous crops and growing weeds. The growth of weeds 2-4 weeks after crop planting contributed to reduce wind erosion without impacting in crops yields. An accurate weeds management in semiarid lands can contribute significantly to control wind erosion. More field studies are needed in order to develop management strategies to reduce wind erosion.

  10. Monitoring agricultural crops using a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Bartholomeus, Harm; Mücher, Sander; Becker, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing has been identified as a key technology to allow near real-time detection and diagnosis of crop status at the field level. Although satellite based remote sensing techniques have already proven to be relevant for many requirements of crop inventory and monitoring, they might lack flexibility to support anomaly detection at specific moments over the growing season. Imagery taken from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are shown to be an effective alternative platform for crop monitoring, given their potential of high spatial and temporal resolution, and their high flexibility in image acquisition programming. In addition, several studies have shown that an increased spectral resolution as available from hyperspectral systems provide the opportunity to estimate biophysical properties like leaf-area-index (LAI), chlorophyll and leaf water content with improved accuracies. To investigate the opportunities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in operational crop monitoring, we have developed a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system (< 2 kg) suitable to be mounted on small UAVs. Its composed of an octocopter UAV-platform with a pushbroom spectrometer consisting of a spectrograph, an industrial camera functioning as frame grabber, storage device, and computer, a separate INS and finally a photogrammetric camera. The system is able to produce georeferenced and georectified hyperspectral data cubes in the 400-1000 nm spectral range at 10-50 cm resolution. The system is tested in a fertilization experiment for a potato crop on a 12 ha experimental field in the South of the Netherlands. In the experiment UAV-based hyperspectral images were acquired on a weekly basis together with field data on chlorophyll as indicator for the nitrogen situation of the crop and leaf area index (LAI) as indicator for biomass status. Initially, the quality aspects of the developed light-weight hyperspectral mapping system will presented with regard to its radiometric and geometric

  11. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops. PMID:16187411

  12. TropGENE-DB, a multi-tropical crop information system.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Raboin, Louis Marie; Lartaud, Marc; Lagoda, Pierre; Courtois, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    TropGENE-DB, is a crop information system created to store genetic, molecular and phenotypic data of the numerous yet poorly documented tropical crop species. The most common data stored in TropGENE-DB are information on genetic resources (agro-morphological data, parentages, allelic diversity), molecular markers, genetic maps, results of quantitative trait loci analyses, data from physical mapping, sequences, genes, as well as the corresponding references. TropGENE-DB is organized on a crop basis with currently three running modules (sugarcane, cocoa and banana), with plans to create additional modules for rice, cotton, oil palm, coconut, rubber tree, pineapple, taro, yam and sorghum. The TropGENE-DB information system is accessible for consultation via the internet at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. Specific web consultation interfaces have been designed to allow quick consultations as well as complex queries.

  13. An optimization model for a crop deficit irrigation system under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ping; Chen, Xiaohong; Tong, Ling; Li, Jianbing; Li, Mo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an inexact nonlinear programming model under uncertainty is developed by incorporating a water production function into the crop irrigation system optimization framework. By introducing a time parameter, this model can address the uncertainty associated with the irrigation schedule for different crops and their planting stages. The developed model was applied to a case study of an agricultural water resources management problem to demonstrate its applicability. Through scenario analysis under different precipitation levels, the key planting stage of crops and the amount of water for the irrigation schedule that could significantly affect system benefits were identified. By using intervals to represent uncertain parameters, more reliable and practical decision alternatives were generated through the presented model in typical hydrological years (i.e. wet, normal and dry years).

  14. Crop parameters estimation by fuzzy inference system using X-band scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Prasad, R.; Singh, V. P.; Jha, S. K.; Shukla, K. K.

    2013-03-01

    Learning fuzzy rule based systems with microwave remote sensing can lead to very useful applications in solving several problems in the field of agriculture. Fuzzy logic provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon imprecise, ambiguous, vague, noisy or missing input information. In the present paper, a subtractive based fuzzy inference system is introduced to estimate the potato crop parameters like biomass, leaf area index, plant height and soil moisture. Scattering coefficient for HH- and VV-polarizations were used as an input in the Fuzzy network. The plant height, biomass, and leaf area index of potato crop and soil moisture measured at its various growth stages were used as the target variables during the training and validation of the network. The estimated values of crop/soil parameters by this methodology are much closer to the experimental values. The present work confirms the estimation abilities of fuzzy subtractive clustering in potato crop parameters estimation. This technique may be useful for the other crops cultivated over regional or continental level.

  15. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  16. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  17. Combining Multi-Agent Systems and Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Crop Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; Paz, Juan F De; Iglesia, Daniel H De La; Bajo, Javier

    2017-08-02

    Monitoring mechanisms that ensure efficient crop growth are essential on many farms, especially in certain areas of the planet where water is scarce. Most farmers must assume the high cost of the required equipment in order to be able to streamline natural resources on their farms. Considering that many farmers cannot afford to install this equipment, it is necessary to look for more effective solutions that would be cheaper to implement. The objective of this study is to build virtual organizations of agents that can communicate between each other while monitoring crops. A low cost sensor architecture allows farmers to monitor and optimize the growth of their crops by streamlining the amount of resources the crops need at every moment. Since the hardware has limited processing and communication capabilities, our approach uses the PANGEA architecture to overcome this limitation. Specifically, we will design a system that is capable of collecting heterogeneous information from its environment, using sensors for temperature, solar radiation, humidity, pH, moisture and wind. A major outcome of our approach is that our solution is able to merge heterogeneous data from sensors and produce a response adapted to the context. In order to validate the proposed system, we present a case study in which farmers are provided with a tool that allows us to monitor the condition of crops on a TV screen using a low cost device.

  18. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  19. Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant crop systems in the United States. Part 2: Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K; Young, Bryan G; Shaw, David R; Wilson, Robert G; Jordan, David L; Dixon, Philip M; Weller, Stephen C

    2011-07-01

    A six-state, 5 year field project was initiated in 2006 to study weed management methods that foster the sustainability of genetically engineered (GE) glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop systems. The benchmark study field-scale experiments were initiated following a survey, conducted in the winter of 2005-2006, of farmer opinions on weed management practices and their views on GR weeds and management tactics. The main survey findings supported the premise that growers were generally less aware of the significance of evolved herbicide resistance and did not have a high recognition of the strong selection pressure from herbicides on the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. The results of the benchmark study survey indicated that there are educational challenges to implement sustainable GR-based crop systems and helped guide the development of the field-scale benchmark study. Paramount is the need to develop consistent and clearly articulated science-based management recommendations that enable farmers to reduce the potential for HR weeds. This paper provides background perspectives about the use of GR crops, the impact of these crops and an overview of different opinions about the use of GR crops on agriculture and society, as well as defining how the benchmark study will address these issues.

  20. Meteorological fluctuations define long-term crop yield patterns in conventional and organic production systems.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, John R; Cavigelli, Michel A

    2017-04-06

    Variability in meteorological patterns presents significant challenges to crop production consistency and yield stability. Meteorological influences on corn and soybean grain yields were analyzed over an 18-year period at a long-term experiment in Beltsville, Maryland, U.S.A., comparing conventional and organic management systems. Precipitation and temperature variables explained much of the yield variability, with precipitation and heat stress during the late vegetative and early reproductive phases of crop growth accounting for the majority of yield variability in all crops and management systems. Crop yields under conventional and organic management followed similar periodic patterns, but yields were 31% and 20% lower in organic than conventional corn and soybean, respectively. The efficiency of grain yield per unit precipitation was higher under conventional than organic management, highlighting the importance of crop management for optimizing production in response to meteorological variability. Periodic yield and precipitation patterns did not consistently align with global meteorological cycles such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  1. Combining Multi-Agent Systems and Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Crop Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F.; De La Iglesia, Daniel H.; Bajo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring mechanisms that ensure efficient crop growth are essential on many farms, especially in certain areas of the planet where water is scarce. Most farmers must assume the high cost of the required equipment in order to be able to streamline natural resources on their farms. Considering that many farmers cannot afford to install this equipment, it is necessary to look for more effective solutions that would be cheaper to implement. The objective of this study is to build virtual organizations of agents that can communicate between each other while monitoring crops. A low cost sensor architecture allows farmers to monitor and optimize the growth of their crops by streamlining the amount of resources the crops need at every moment. Since the hardware has limited processing and communication capabilities, our approach uses the PANGEA architecture to overcome this limitation. Specifically, we will design a system that is capable of collecting heterogeneous information from its environment, using sensors for temperature, solar radiation, humidity, pH, moisture and wind. A major outcome of our approach is that our solution is able to merge heterogeneous data from sensors and produce a response adapted to the context. In order to validate the proposed system, we present a case study in which farmers are provided with a tool that allows us to monitor the condition of crops on a TV screen using a low cost device. PMID:28767089

  2. Decision support system to study climate change impacts on crop production

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenboom, G.; Tsuji, G.Y.; Pickering, N.B.; Curry, R.B.; Jones, J.W.; Singh, U. |; Godwin, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Under the auspices of the International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer (IBSNAT) Project a Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) has been developed. DSSAT operates on a personal compute rand includes data base management programs for climate, soil, and cultural practice information; crop simulation models for cereal grains, grain legumes, and root crops; and seasonal strategy and risk analysis programs. The IBSNAT crop models use daily weather data, i.e., maximum and minimum air temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation, as inputs. One of the applications of DSSAT is, therefore, to study the potential impact of climate change on agricultural production. A new and special version of DSSAT (Version 2.5) was developed to facilitate studies of the effect of climate change on crop performance. In this version, the daily canopy photosynthesis and transpiration sections of the CERES and GRO models were modified to respond to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration. The management sections of the models and the strategy analysis program were expanded to include the option to modify weather data interactively. This decision support system has been used to study changes in crop yield, irrigation requirements, and other responses to global climate change in various regional, national, and international research programs. 65 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. The Development of a Remote Sensor System and Decision Support Systems Architecture to Monitor Resistance Development in Transgenic Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacas, Joseph; Glaser, John; Copenhaver, Kenneth; May, George; Stephens, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that "significant benefits accrue to growers, the public, and the environment" from the use of transgenic pesticidal crops due to reductions in pesticide usage for crop pest management. Large increases in the global use of transgenic pesticidal crops has reduced the amounts of broad spectrum pesticides used to manage pest populations, improved yield and reduced the environmental impact of crop management. A significant threat to the continued use of this technology is the evolution of resistance in insect pest populations to the insecticidal Bt toxins expressed by the plants. Management of transgenic pesticidal crops with an emphasis on conservation of Bt toxicity in field populations of insect pests is important to the future of sustainable agriculture. A vital component of this transgenic pesticidal crop management is establishing the proof of concept basic understanding, situational awareness, and monitoring and decision support system tools for more than 133650 square kilometers (33 million acres) of bio-engineered corn and cotton for development of insect resistance . Early and recent joint NASA, US EPA and ITD remote imagery flights and ground based field experiments have provided very promising research results that will potentially address future requirements for crop management capabilities.

  4. Soil, Water, and Greenhouse-gas Impacts of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte Moore, L. A.; Bach, E.; Cambardella, C.; Hargreaves, S.; Helmers, M.; Hofmockel, K.; Isenhart, T.; Kolka, R. K.; Ontl, T.; Welsh, W.; Williams, R.; Landscape Biomass Team

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2008 Energy Independence and Security Act and other state and federal mandates, the U.S. is embarking on an aggressive agenda to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. While grain-derived ethanol will be used to largely meet initial renewable fuels targets, advanced biofuels derived from lignocellulosic materials are expected to comprise a growing proportion of the renewable energy portfolio and provide a more sustainable solution. As part of our interdisciplinary research, we are assessing the environmental impacts of four lignocellulosic biomass cropping systems and comparing them to a conventional corn cropping system. This comparison is conducted using a randomized, replicated experiment initiated in fall 2008, which compares the five cropping systems across a toposequence (i.e., floodplain, toeslope, backslope, shoulder, summit). In addition to assessing herbaceous and woody biomass yields, we are evaluating the environmental performance of these systems through changes in water quality, greenhouse-gas emissions, and carbon pools. Initial results document baseline soil parameters, including the capacity of the soils to sequester carbon across the toposequence, and the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and cropping system on soil moisture and nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone. Additional results on greenhouse-gas emissions and carbon dynamics are forthcoming from this year’s field research. The fuller understanding of the environmental performance of these systems will help inform federal and state policies seeking to incentivize the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry.

  5. C3 photosynthesis in silico.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Agu; Eichelmann, Hillar; Oja, Vello

    2006-10-01

    A computer model comprising light reactions, electron-proton transport, enzymatic reactions, and regulatory functions of C3 photosynthesis has been developed as a system of differential budget equations for intermediate compounds. The emphasis is on electron transport through PSII and PSI and on the modeling of Chl fluorescence and 810 nm absorptance signals. Non-photochemical quenching of PSII excitation is controlled by lumenal pH. Alternative electron transport is modeled as the Mehler type O2 reduction plus the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle based on the chloroplast malate dehydrogenase. Carbon reduction enzymes are redox-controlled by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system, sucrose synthesis is controlled by the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate inhibition of cytosolic FBPase, and starch synthesis is controlled by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Photorespiratory glycolate pathway is included in an integrated way, sufficient to reproduce steady-state rates of photorespiration. Rate-equations are designed on principles of multisubstrate-multiproduct enzyme kinetics. The parameters of the model were adopted from literature or were estimated from fitting the photosynthetic rate and pool sizes to experimental data. The model provided good simulations for steady-state photosynthesis, Chl fluorescence, and 810 nm transmittance signals under varying light, CO2 and O2 concentrations, as well as for the transients of post-illumination CO2 uptake, Chl fluorescence induction and the 810 nm signal. The modeling shows that the present understanding of photosynthesis incorporated in the model is basically correct, but still insufficient to reproduce the dark-light induction of photosynthesis, the time kinetics of non-photochemical quenching, 'photosynthetic control' of plastoquinone oxidation, cyclic electron flow around PSI, oscillations in photosynthesis. The model may find application for predicting the results of gene transformations, the analysis of kinetic experimental data, the

  6. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  7. Systems biology-based approaches toward understanding drought tolerance in food crops.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramsandra; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-03-01

    Economically important crops, such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and other food crops are affected by even small changes in water potential at important growth stages. Developing a comprehensive understanding of host response to drought requires a global view of the complex mechanisms involved. Research on drought tolerance has generally been conducted using discipline-specific approaches. However, plant stress response is complex and interlinked to a point where discipline-specific approaches do not give a complete global analysis of all the interlinked mechanisms. Systems biology perspective is needed to understand genome-scale networks required for building long-lasting drought resistance. Network maps have been constructed by integrating multiple functional genomics data with both model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula, and various food crops, such as rice and soybean. Useful functional genomics data have been obtained from genome-wide comparative transcriptome and proteome analyses of drought responses from different crops. This integrative approach used by many groups has led to identification of commonly regulated signaling pathways and genes following exposure to drought. Combination of functional genomics and systems biology is very useful for comparative analysis of other food crops and has the ability to develop stable food systems worldwide. In addition, studying desiccation tolerance in resurrection plants will unravel how combination of molecular genetic and metabolic processes interacts to produce a resurrection phenotype. Systems biology-based approaches have helped in understanding how these individual factors and mechanisms (biochemical, molecular, and metabolic) "interact" spatially and temporally. Signaling network maps of such interactions are needed that can be used to design better engineering strategies for improving drought tolerance of important crop species.

  8. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  9. From the Academy: Colloquium perspective. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Cook, R James

    2006-12-05

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding.

  10. RF-CLASS: A Remote-sensing-based Interoperable Web service system for Flood Crop Loss Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Kang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Flood is one of the worst natural disasters in the world. Flooding often causes significant crop loss over large agricultural areas in the United States. Two USDA agencies, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and Risk Management Agency (RMA), make decisions on flood statistics, crop insurance policy, and recovery management by collecting, analyzing, reporting, and utilizing flooded crop acreage and crop loss information. NASS has the mandate to report crop loss after all flood events. RMA manages crop insurance policy and uses crop loss information to guide the creation of the crop insurance policy and the aftermath compensation. Many studies have been conducted in the recent years on monitoring floods and assessing the crop loss due to floods with remote sensing and geographic information technologies. The Remote-sensing-based Flood Crop Loss Assessment Service System (RF-CLASS), being developed with NASA and USDA support, aims to significantly improve the post-flood agricultural decision-making supports in USDA by integrating and advancing the recently developed technologies. RF-CLASS will operationally provide information to support USDA decision making activities on collecting and archiving flood acreage and duration, recording annual crop loss due to flood, assessing the crop insurance rating areas, investigating crop policy compliance, and spot checking of crop loss claims. This presentation will discuss the remote sensing and GIS based methods for deriving the needed information to support the decision making, the RF-CLASS cybersystem architecture, the standards and interoperability arrangements in the system, and the current and planned capabilities of the system.

  11. Noah-MP-CROP: an integrated atmosphere-crop-soil modeling system for regional agro-climatic assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Barlage, M. J.; Chen, F.; Niyogi, D. S.; Zhou, G.

    2014-12-01

    Cropland plays an important role in land-atmosphere interactions. Integrating advanced regional-scale crop-growth modeling capabilities into a land surface model (LSM) is not only crucial for assessing potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on crop yields, but also can help to improve the representation of crop-atmosphere interactions in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Therefore, the objectives of developing Noah-MP-CROP are: 1) provide high-spatial and high-temporal resolution regional agro-climatic related products; 2) enhance the simulations of cropland surface-fluxes in the WRF model for numerical weather prediction and regional climate modeling. Noah-MP is a new-generation of LSM that uses multiple parameterizations for land hydrology and energy processes. In this study, we couple species-specific crop phenology and carbon allocation schemes with Noah-MP-based complex simulations of canopy photosynthesis and soil moisture. The Noah-MP-CROP can be executed at field-scales or grid-scales of different spatial resolution and it also can be applied at multiple temporal scales. The major agriculture-related outputs include: grain mass, leaf mass, leaf area index, crop yield, growth primary production, growing degree days, soil temperature, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration. The model also allows us to conduct different assessments by using either historical, real-time, short-term forecast or future projected weather input data. In this study, we focus on evaluating the Noah-MP-CROP for the regional agro-climatic assessments in the U.S. Corn Belt. Model simulations are conducted at both field-scale (Bondville, IL and Mead, NE) and grid-scale (4km-resolution). At both field sites, model outputs of crop yield (grain mass), leaf area index and surface fluxes show strong agreement with observations. Also incorporating crop-growth models in Noah-MP improves the simulated latent heat and sensible heat fluxes during the crop

  12. What is the clinical significance of anti-Sm antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus? A comparison with anti-dsDNA antibodies and C3.

    PubMed

    Flechsig, Alexandra; Rose, Thomas; Barkhudarova, Fidan; Strauss, Romy; Klotsche, Jens; Dähnrich, Cornelia; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Enghard, Philipp; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Hiepe, Falk; Biesen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the clinical value of anti-Sm antibodies in diagnosis and monitoring of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their ability to predict lupus flares compared with that of anti-dsDNA antibody and complement (C3) assays. Autoantibodies against Smith antigen (Sm) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in sera from SLE (n=232), myositis (n=26), systemic sclerosis (n=81), Sjögren's syndrome (n=88), and rheumatoid arthritis patients (n=165) and healthy donors (n=400) were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (both from Euroimmun). New thresholds for both autoantibodies were calculated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and predictive analyses of anti-Sm and disease activity were also performed. Sensitivities of 25.9% for anti-Sm (cut-off: 3.6 relative units/ml) and 30.2% for anti-dsDNA (cut-off 157.4 international units/ml) were obtained at a specificity of 99%. 14.8% of anti-dsDNA-negative patients were positive for anti-Sm, and more than half (51.4%) of anti-dsDNA-positive patients were also positive for anti-Sm. Anti-Sm antibodies were associated with age (p=0.0174), the number of ACR criteria (p=0.0242), the ACR criteria renal (p=0.0350) and neurologic disorder (p=0.0239), the BILAG category constitutional symptoms (p=0.0227), fatigue (p=0.0311) and cross-sectional disease activity (r=0.2519, p=0.0224). Although no correlations with lupus activity were observed in the longitudinal and predictive analysis, a remarkable association was found between anti-Sm and proteinuria. Anti-Sm antibodies are essential for diagnosis of SLE, especially in anti-dsDNA-negative patients. However, our data suggest that anti-Sm monitoring is only helpful in SLE patients with active lupus nephritis.

  13. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits. PMID:28587254

  14. Future Food Production System Development Pulling from Space Biology Crop Growth Testing in Veggie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Romeyn, M. W.; Fritsche, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary crop testing using Veggie indicates the environmental conditions provided by the ISS are generally suitable for food crop production. When plant samples were returned to Earth for analysis, their levels of nutrients were comparable to Earth-grown ground controls. Veggie-grown produce food safety microbiology analysis indicated that space-grown crops are safe to consume. Produce sanitizing wipes were used on-orbit to further reduce risk of foodborne illness. Validation growth tests indicated abiotic challenges of insufficient or excess fluid delivery, potentially reduced air flow leading to excess water, elevated CO2 leading to physiological responses, and microorganisms that became opportunistic pathogens. As NASA works to develop future space food production, several areas of research to define these systems pull from the Veggie technology validation tests. Research into effective, reusable water delivery and water recovery methods for future food production systems arises from abiotic challenges observed. Additionally, impacts of elevated CO2 and refinement of fertilizer and light recipes for crops needs to be assessed. Biotic pulls include methods or technologies to effectively sanitize produce with few consumables and low inputs; work to understand the phytomicrobiome and potentially use it to protect crops or enhance growth; selection of crops with high harvest index and desirable flavors for supplemental nutrition; crops that provide psychosocial benefits, and custom space crop development. Planning for future food production in a deep space gateway or a deep space transit vehicle requires methods of handling and storing seeds, and ensuring space seeds are free of contaminants and long-lived. Space food production systems may require mechanization and autonomous operation, with preliminary testing initiated to identify operations and capabilities that are candidates for automation. Food production design is also pulling from Veggie logistics

  15. Local crop planting systems enhance insecticide-mediated displacement of two invasive leafminer fly.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yulin; Reitz, Stuart R; Wei, Qingbo; Yu, Wenyan; Zhang, Zhi; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii are highly invasive leafminer pests of vegetable crops that have invaded southern China in recent years. Liriomyza sativae was the first of these species to invade China, but it is now being displaced by L. trifolii. The rate and extent of this displacement vary across southern China. In Hainan, monocultures of highly valuable cowpea are planted and treated extensively with insecticides in attempts to control leafminer damage. In Guangdong, cowpea fields are interspersed with other less valuable crops, such as towel gourd (Luffa cylindrica), which receive significantly fewer insecticide applications than cowpea. To determine how differences in cropping systems influence the Liriomyza species composition, we conducted field trials in 2011 and 2012 in Guangdong where both species were present. We replicated conditions in Hainan by planting cowpea monocultures that were isolated from other agricultural fields, and we replicated conditions in Guangdong by planting cowpea in a mixed crop environment with towel gourd planted in neighboring plots. We then compared leafminer populations in cowpea treated with the insecticide avermectin and untreated cowpea. We also monitored leafminer populations in the untreated towel gourd. Untreated cowpea and towel gourd had comparatively low proportions of L. trifolii, which remained relatively stable over the course of each season. Avermectin applications led to increases in the proportions of L. trifolii, and after three weekly applications populations were >95% L. trifolii in both crop systems. However, the rate of change and persistence of L. trifolii in the mixed crop system were less than in the monocrop. These results indicate that L. trifolii is much less susceptible to avermectin than is L. sativae. Further, L. sativae was able to persist in the untreated towel gourd, which probably enabled it to recolonize treated cowpea.

  16. Local Crop Planting Systems Enhance Insecticide-Mediated Displacement of Two Invasive Leafminer Fly

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yulin; Reitz, Stuart R.; Wei, Qingbo; Yu, Wenyan; Zhang, Zhi; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii are highly invasive leafminer pests of vegetable crops that have invaded southern China in recent years. Liriomyza sativae was the first of these species to invade China, but it is now being displaced by L. trifolii. The rate and extent of this displacement vary across southern China. In Hainan, monocultures of highly valuable cowpea are planted and treated extensively with insecticides in attempts to control leafminer damage. In Guangdong, cowpea fields are interspersed with other less valuable crops, such as towel gourd (Luffa cylindrica), which receive significantly fewer insecticide applications than cowpea. To determine how differences in cropping systems influence the Liriomyza species composition, we conducted field trials in 2011 and 2012 in Guangdong where both species were present. We replicated conditions in Hainan by planting cowpea monocultures that were isolated from other agricultural fields, and we replicated conditions in Guangdong by planting cowpea in a mixed crop environment with towel gourd planted in neighboring plots. We then compared leafminer populations in cowpea treated with the insecticide avermectin and untreated cowpea. We also monitored leafminer populations in the untreated towel gourd. Untreated cowpea and towel gourd had comparatively low proportions of L. trifolii, which remained relatively stable over the course of each season. Avermectin applications led to increases in the proportions of L. trifolii, and after three weekly applications populations were >95% L. trifolii in both crop systems. However, the rate of change and persistence of L. trifolii in the mixed crop system were less than in the monocrop. These results indicate that L. trifolii is much less susceptible to avermectin than is L. sativae. Further, L. sativae was able to persist in the untreated towel gourd, which probably enabled it to recolonize treated cowpea. PMID:24651465

  17. Impact of Cropping Systems, Soil Inoculum, and Plant Species Identity on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Johnson, Stephen P; Miller, Zach J; Lehnhoff, Erik A; Olivo, Sarah; Yeoman, Carl J; Menalled, Fabian D

    2017-02-01

    Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am. retroflexus or Av. fatua and grown for two consecutive 8-week periods to condition soil nutrients and biota. Subsequently, the V3-V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Treatments clustered significantly, with living or sterilized inoculum being the strongest delineating factor, followed by organic or conventional cropping system, then individual farm. Living inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness and was more diverse than sterile inoculum-treated soil (observed OTUs, Chao, inverse Simpson, Shannon, P < 0.001) and had more discriminant taxa delineating groups (linear discriminant analysis). Living inoculum soil contained more Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria, while the sterile inoculum soil had more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Organically farmed inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness, more diversity (observed OTUs, Chao, Shannon, P < 0.05), and more discriminant taxa than conventionally farmed inoculum-treated soil. Cyanobacteria were higher in pots growing Am. retroflexus, regardless of inoculum type, for three of the four organic farms. Results highlight the potential of cropping systems and species identity to modify soil bacterial communities, subsequently modifying plant growth and crop-weed competition.

  18. Extension Education for Dryland Cropping Systems in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Ghanem, Rita; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Koenig, Richard; Pannkuk, Chris; Pan, William; Parker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, is the birthplace of agriculture. The recent war and instability have significantly impacted the country's agricultural production and knowledge support systems. To support revitalization of the Iraqi agricultural system, the USDA funded a consortium of five U.S. universities (Washington State University,…

  19. Extension Education for Dryland Cropping Systems in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Ghanem, Rita; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Koenig, Richard; Pannkuk, Chris; Pan, William; Parker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, is the birthplace of agriculture. The recent war and instability have significantly impacted the country's agricultural production and knowledge support systems. To support revitalization of the Iraqi agricultural system, the USDA funded a consortium of five U.S. universities (Washington State University,…

  20. VIC-CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Keyvan; Stöckle, Claudio; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran; Nelson, Roger; Liu, Mingliang; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Barik, Muhammad; Adam, Jennifer C.

    2017-08-01

    Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively). A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC-CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology), it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC-CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC-CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land-atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC-CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest) and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois). The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET), applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI), and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  1. Intensive cropping systems select for greater seed dormancy and increased herbicide resistance levels in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass).

    PubMed

    Owen, Mechelle J; Goggin, Danica E; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-07-01

    Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) is a widespread annual crop weed that has evolved high levels of resistance to selective herbicides. Anecdotal evidence suggests that intensive cropping also leads to higher seed dormancy in L. rigidum. This was quantified by measuring dormancy levels in L. rigidum populations collected from paired sites (one with nil to low cropping intensity, the other intensively cropped) located throughout the Western Australian grain belt. Populations from non-cropped fields or those with low cropping intensity showed higher and faster germination than populations from fields with a medium- or high-intensity cropping regime. Resistance to selective herbicides was also higher in the medium- and high-intensity cropping fields than in the low-intensity cropping fields. High-intensity cropping systems are likely to impose greater selection pressures for seed dormancy and selective herbicide resistance, because late-emerging seedlings avoid preplanting weed control practices (tillage and non-selective herbicide application) but are exposed to selective in-crop herbicides. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ag’s ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  3. Geospatial assessments of cropping systems and farmland assemblages in New England

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Detailed assessments of the current state of crop production systems are essential to modeling potential productivity and evaluating core issues of sustainability for local to regional food supply studies. The main objective of this regionally-based geospatial investigation was to evaluate the most ...

  4. Simulation of Climate Change Impacts on Wheat-Fallow Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural system simulation models are predictive tools for assessing climate change impacts on crop production. In this study, RZWQM2 that contains the DSSAT 4.0-CERES model was evaluated for simulating climate change impacts on wheat growth. The model was calibrated and validated using data fro...

  5. Impacts of an integrated crop-livestock system on soil properties to enhance precipitation capture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping/Livestock systems alter soil properties that are important in enhancing capture of precipitation by developing and maintaining water infiltration and storage. In this paper we will relate soil hydraulic conductivity and other physical properties on managed Old World Bluestem grassland, whea...

  6. Cropping and tillage systems effects on soil erosion under climate change in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil erosion under future climate change is very likely to increase due to projected increases in frequency and magnitude of heavy storms. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of common cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion and surface runoff during 2010-2039 in central Okl...

  7. Effects of cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion under climate change in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil erosion under future climate change is very likely to increase due to projected increases in frequency and magnitude of heavy storms. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of common cropping and tillage systems on soil erosion and surface runoff during 2010-2039 in central Okl...

  8. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  9. Soil characteristics and associated wind erosion potential altered by oilseeds in wheat-based cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseeds are integral to the production of biofuels and diversifying rainfed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest. However, there is evidence to suggest greater potential for wind erosion when growing oilseeds in wheat-based rotations when tillage is used during fallow. Little is known concerni...

  10. Radio/antenna mounting system for wireless networking under row-crop agriculture conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-colle...

  11. Opportunities and challenges for integrating North American crop and livestock systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasslands in North America offer abundant opportunities to support ruminant animal production systems, both in the arid western states and the mesic eastern states. Integration of crops and livestock was a common practice in North America prior to the widespread adoption of inorganic fertilizer ap...

  12. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  13. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  14. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health.

  15. Management Team Analysis of Crop Production Systems: A Course in Problem Identification and Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization of a crop production systems course for undergraduates in agriculture. Emphasis is placed on problem solving and student interaction and co-operation while working on grain farms and in the classroom. Samples of student evaluations of the course are included. (ML)

  16. Multiple rolling/crimping effects on termination of two summer cover crops in a conservation system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field experiment was initiated in the 2015 growing season at the USDA-NSDL to determine the effectiveness of a prototype two-stage roller/crimper in mechanical termination of two summer cover crops intended for organic systems. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replic...

  17. Projected dryland cropping system shifts in the Pacific Northwest in response to climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture in the dryland region of the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW, including northern Idaho, eastern Washington and northern Oregon) is typically characterized based on annual rainfall and associated distribution of cropping systems that have evolved in response to biophysical and socio-econom...

  18. Weed seed persistence and microbial abundance in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed seed persistence in soil can be influenced by many factors, including crop management. This research was conducted to determine whether organic management systems with higher organic amendments and soil microbial biomass could reduce weed seed persistence compared to conventional management sy...

  19. Management Team Analysis of Crop Production Systems: A Course in Problem Identification and Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization of a crop production systems course for undergraduates in agriculture. Emphasis is placed on problem solving and student interaction and co-operation while working on grain farms and in the classroom. Samples of student evaluations of the course are included. (ML)

  20. Sustainable agriculture for a dynamic world: Forage-Crop-Livestock systems research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory is focused on development and delivery of improved technologies, strategies, and planning tools for integrated crop-forage-livestock systems under variable climate, energy, and market conditions. The GRL research p...

  1. Soil sustainability as measured by carbon sequestration using carbon isotopes from crop-livestock management systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is an integral part of maintaining and measuring soil sustainability. This study was undertaken to document and better understand the relationships between two livestock-crop-forage systems and the sequestration of SOC with regards to soil sustainability and was conducted o...

  2. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  3. Cover Crop, Amendment, and Tillage Effects on Decomposers, Nematodes, and Collembolans in An Organic Vegetable System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil organisms are sensitive indicators of changes in soil properties. This study reports the effects of different organic management practices on microbial biomass, nematodes and collembolans. Cropping systems treatments are traditional post-harvest, fall-seeded cereal rye-hairy vetch mix; relay-...

  4. Windblown soil surface characteristics altered by oilseeds in a wheat-fallow cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oilseeds are integral to the production of biofuels and diversifying rainfed cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest United States (PNW). However, there is evidence to suggest greater potential for wind erosion when growing oilseeds in wheat rotations. Little is known concerning the impact of grow...

  5. Global crop production forecasting: An analysis of the data system problems and their solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neiers, J.; Graf, H.

    1978-01-01

    Data related problems in the acquisition and use of satellite data necessary for operational forecasting of global crop production are considered for the purpose of establishing a measurable baseline. For data acquisition the world was divided into 37 crop regions in 22 countries. These regions represent approximately 95 percent of the total world production of the selected crops of interest, i.e., wheat, corn, soybeans, and rice. Targets were assigned to each region. Limited time periods during which data could be taken (windows) were assigned to each target. Each target was assigned to a cloud region. The DSDS was used to measure the success of obtaining data for each target during the specified windows for the regional cloud conditions and the specific alternatives being analyzed. The results of this study suggest several approaches for an operational system that will perform satisfactorily with two LANDSAT type satellites.

  6. Sweet sorghum cropping systems for on-farm ethanol or lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hunter, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    Thirteen cropping systems using biomass crops in monoculture, double cropping, and intercropping were conducted with four rates of N for five years at two sites. Total above ground biomass was harvested and removed. Alfalfa and sweet sorghum removed the greatest amounts of K and had the lowest soil test K values after 5 years. Switchgrass removed the least K; about one-half as much as sweet sorghum. Reed canarygrass required the greatest rates of N and monocropped sweet sorghum the least (70 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Sweet sorghum yielded up to 26 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} and contained 11 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} of cellulosic fibers and 7 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} of soluble sugars. Methods of fermenting sugars and fibers are discussed.

  7. Smart investments in sustainable food production: revisiting mixed crop-livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Thornton, P K; Notenbaert, A M; Wood, S; Msangi, S; Freeman, H A; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Peters, M; van de Steeg, J; Lynam, J; Parthasarathy Rao, P; Macmillan, S; Gerard, B; McDermott, J; Seré, C; Rosegrant, M

    2010-02-12

    Farmers in mixed crop-livestock systems produce about half of the world's food. In small holdings around the world, livestock are reared mostly on grass, browse, and nonfood biomass from maize, millet, rice, and sorghum crops and in their turn supply manure and traction for future crops. Animals act as insurance against hard times and supply farmers with a source of regular income from sales of milk, eggs, and other products. Thus, faced with population growth and climate change, small-holder farmers should be the first target for policies to intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies.

  8. United States benefits of improved worldwide wheat crop information from a LANDSAT system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The value of improvements in worldwide information on wheat crops provided by LANDSAT was measured in the context of world wheat markets. These benefits were based on exiting LANDSAT technical goals and assumed that information would be made available to the United States and other countries at the same time. The benefits to the United States of such public LANDSAT information on wheat crops were found to be 174 million dollars a year on the average. The benefits from improved wheat crop information compare favorably with the annual system's cost of about $62 million. A detailed empirical sample demonstration of the effect of improved information was developed. The history of wheat commodity prices for 1971-72 was reconstructed and the price changes from improved vs. historical information were compared.

  9. Step 1: C3 Flight Demo Data Analysis Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Data Analysis Plan (DAP) describes the data analysis that the C3 Work Package (WP) will perform in support of the Access 5 Step 1 C3 flight demonstration objectives as well as the processes that will be used by the Flight IPT to gather and distribute the data collected to satisfy those objectives. In addition to C3 requirements, this document will encompass some Human Systems Interface (HSI) requirements in performing the C3 flight demonstrations. The C3 DAP will be used as the primary interface requirements document between the C3 Work Package and Flight Test organizations (Flight IPT and Non-Access 5 Flight Programs). In addition to providing data requirements for Access 5 flight test (piggyback technology demonstration flights, dedicated C3 technology demonstration flights, and Airspace Operations Demonstration flights), the C3 DAP will be used to request flight data from Non- Access 5 flight programs for C3 related data products

  10. Interplay between invertebrate C3a with vertebrate macrophages: functional characterization of immune activities of amphioxus C3a.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the structure and function of C3a comes from the study of vertebrate C3a anaphylatoxins, virtually nothing is known about the structure and function of C3a molecules in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that C3a from the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma japonicum, BjC3a, was similar to vertebrate C3a possessing potential antibacterial activity, as revealed by sequence analysis and computational modeling. The antibacterial activity of BjC3a was definitely confirmed by both antibacterial assay and TEM observation showing that recombinant BjC3a was directly bactericidal. Additionally, recombinant BjC3a, like vertebrate C3a, was capable of inducing sea bass macrophage migration and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and respiratory burst response. Moreover, recombinant BjC3a-desArg (generated by removal of the C-terminal arginine), like mammalian C3a-desArg, retained the immunological activities of BjC3a such as antibacterial and respiratory burst-stimulating activities, indicating that the immunological functions of C3a-desArg were conserved throughout chordate evolution. Altogether, our findings show that invertebrate (amphioxus) BjC3a is able to interact with vertebrate (sea bass) macrophages and mediate immune activities, suggesting the emergence of the inflammatory pathway of the complement system similar to that of vertebrates in the basal chordate amphioxus.

  11. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. . Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  12. Tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Senwo, Zachary N; Nyakatawa, Ermson Z; Tazisong, Irenus A; Reddy, K Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of soil carbon (C) cycling as influenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr effects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA. Treatments were incomplete factorial combinations of three tillage practices (no-till [NT], mulch till [MT], and conventional till [CT]), two cropping systems (cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L.]-cotton-corn [Zea mays L.] and rye [Secale cereale L.]/cotton-rye/cotton-corn), and two N fertilization sources and rates (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1) from NH(4)NO(3) and 100 and 200 kg N ha(-1) from poultry litter). Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC), particulate organic C (POC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM). Crop residue varied among treatments and years and total residue from 1997 to 2005 was greater in rye/cotton-rye/cotton-corn than in cotton-cotton-corn and greater with NH(4)NO(3) than with poultry litter at 100 kg N ha(-1). The SOC content at 0 to 20 cm after 10 yr was greater with poultry litter than with NH(4)NO(3) in NT and CT, resulting in a C sequestration rate of 510 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with poultry litter compared with -120 to 147 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with NH(4)NO(3). Poultry litter also increased PCM and MBC compared with NH(4)NO(3). Cropping increased SOC, POC, and PCM compared with fallow in NT. Long-term poultry litter application or continuous cropping increased soil C storage and microbial biomass and activity compared with inorganic N fertilization or fallow, indicating that these management practices can sequester C, offset atmospheric CO(2) levels, and improve soil and environmental quality.

  13. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  14. Topographic and soil influences on root productivity of three bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Ontl, Todd A; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Cambardella, Cynthia A; Schulte, Lisa A; Kolka, Randall K

    2013-08-01

    Successful modeling of the carbon (C) cycle requires empirical data regarding species-specific root responses to edaphic characteristics. We address this need by quantifying annual root production of three bioenergy systems (continuous corn, triticale/sorghum, switchgrass) in response to variation in soil properties across a toposequence within a Midwestern agroecosystem. Using ingrowth cores to measure annual root production, we tested for the effects of topography and 11 soil characteristics on root productivity. Root production significantly differed among cropping systems. Switchgrass root productivity was lowest on the floodplain position, but root productivity of annual crops was not influenced by topography or soil properties. Greater switchgrass root production was associated with high percent sand, which explained 45% of the variation. Percent sand was correlated negatively with soil C and nitrogen and positively with bulk density, indicating this variable is a proxy for multiple important soil properties. Our results suggest that easily measured soil parameters can be used to improve model predictions of root productivity in bioenergy switchgrass, but the edaphic factors we measured were not useful for predicting root productivity in annual crops. These results can improve C cycling modeling efforts by revealing the influence of cropping system and soil properties on root productivity.

  15. Root System Architecture and Abiotic Stress Tolerance: Current Knowledge in Root and Tuber Crops

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. A.; Gemenet, Dorcus C.; Villordon, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The challenge to produce more food for a rising global population on diminishing agricultural land is complicated by the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity. Although great progress has been made in crop improvement, so far most efforts have targeted above-ground traits. Roots are essential for plant adaptation and productivity, but are less studied due to the difficulty of observing them during the plant life cycle. Root system architecture (RSA), made up of structural features like root length, spread, number, and length of lateral roots, among others, exhibits great plasticity in response to environmental changes, and could be critical to developing crops with more efficient roots. Much of the research on root traits has thus far focused on the most common cereal crops and model plants. As cereal yields have reached their yield potential in some regions, understanding their root system may help overcome these plateaus. However, root and tuber crops (RTCs) such as potato, sweetpotato, cassava, and yam may hold more potential for providing food security in the future, and knowledge of their root system additionally focuses directly on the edible portion. Root-trait modeling for multiple stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, robust databases, and data analytical pipelines, may provide a valuable base for a truly inclusive ‘green revolution.’ In the current review, we discuss RSA with special reference to RTCs, and how knowledge on genetics of RSA can be manipulated to improve their tolerance to abiotic stresses. PMID:27847508

  16. Root System Architecture and Abiotic Stress Tolerance: Current Knowledge in Root and Tuber Crops.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Gemenet, Dorcus C; Villordon, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The challenge to produce more food for a rising global population on diminishing agricultural land is complicated by the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity. Although great progress has been made in crop improvement, so far most efforts have targeted above-ground traits. Roots are essential for plant adaptation and productivity, but are less studied due to the difficulty of observing them during the plant life cycle. Root system architecture (RSA), made up of structural features like root length, spread, number, and length of lateral roots, among others, exhibits great plasticity in response to environmental changes, and could be critical to developing crops with more efficient roots. Much of the research on root traits has thus far focused on the most common cereal crops and model plants. As cereal yields have reached their yield potential in some regions, understanding their root system may help overcome these plateaus. However, root and tuber crops (RTCs) such as potato, sweetpotato, cassava, and yam may hold more potential for providing food security in the future, and knowledge of their root system additionally focuses directly on the edible portion. Root-trait modeling for multiple stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, robust databases, and data analytical pipelines, may provide a valuable base for a truly inclusive 'green revolution.' In the current review, we discuss RSA with special reference to RTCs, and how knowledge on genetics of RSA can be manipulated to improve their tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  17. Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems in Iowa, USA

    Treesearch

    V. Hernandez-Santana; X. Zhou; M.J. Helmers; H. Asbjornsen; R. Kolka; M. Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Intensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration, in particular hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, but its effect is still not well understood. Therefore, our objective was...

  18. Profitability of Cropping Systems Featuring Tillage and Compost

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Productivity rather than profitability is often used to compare agronomic systems. Increasing energy prices will force producers to scrutinize machinery operation and input costs, which will shift emphasis to profitability. The objective of this study was to compare returns to land and management fo...

  19. Development of Intelligent Spray Systems for Nursery Crop Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two intelligent sprayer prototypes were developed to increase pesticide application efficiency in nursery production. The first prototype was a hydraulic vertical boom system using ultrasonic sensors to detect tree size and volume for liner-sized trees and the second prototype was an air-assisted sp...

  20. Carbon and Conservation: Cropping systems and greenhouse gases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantifying and predicting soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems have been research goals for numerous institutions, especially since the turn of the millennium. Cost, time, and politics are variables that have limited the rapid development of robust quant...

  1. Soil microbial substrate properties and microbial community responses under irrigated organic and reduced-tillage crop and forage production systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B; Stahl, Peter D; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil

  2. Soil Microbial Substrate Properties and Microbial Community Responses under Irrigated Organic and Reduced-Tillage Crop and Forage Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Rajan; Norton, Jay B.; Stahl, Peter D.; Norton, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Changes in soil microbiotic properties such as microbial biomass and community structure in response to alternative management systems are driven by microbial substrate quality and substrate utilization. We evaluated irrigated crop and forage production in two separate four-year experiments for differences in microbial substrate quality, microbial biomass and community structure, and microbial substrate utilization under conventional, organic, and reduced-tillage management systems. The six different management systems were imposed on fields previously under long-term, intensively tilled maize production. Soils under crop and forage production responded to conversion from monocropping to crop rotation, as well as to the three different management systems, but in different ways. Under crop production, four years of organic management resulted in the highest soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass concentrations, while under forage production, reduced-tillage management most effectively increased SOC and microbial biomass. There were significant increases in relative abundance of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, with two- to 36-fold increases in biomarker phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Under crop production, dissolved organic C (DOC) content was higher under organic management than under reduced-tillage and conventional management. Perennial legume crops and organic soil amendments in the organic crop rotation system apparently favored greater soil microbial substrate availability, as well as more microbial biomass compared with other management systems that had fewer legume crops in rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications. Among the forage production management systems with equivalent crop rotations, reduced-tillage management had higher microbial substrate availability and greater microbial biomass than other management systems. Combined crop rotation, tillage management, soil amendments, and legume crops in rotations considerably influenced soil

  3. Mediator-free direct Z-scheme photocatalytic system: BiVO4/g-C3N4 organic-inorganic hybrid photocatalyst with highly efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Huang, Hongwei; He, Ying; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-03-07

    We disclose the fabrication of a mediator-free direct Z-scheme photocatalyst system BiVO4/g-C3N4 using a mixed-calcination method based on the more reliable interfacial interaction. The facet coupling occurred between the g-C3N4 (002) and BiVO4 (121), and it was revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystal structure and optical properties of the as-prepared samples have also been characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) in details. The photocatalytic experiments indicated that the BiVO4/g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts display a significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity pertaining to RhB degradation and photocurrent generation (PC) compared to the pristine BiVO4 and g-C3N4. This remarkably improved photocatalytic performance should be attributed to the fabrication of a direct Z-scheme system of BiVO4/g-C3N4, which can result in a more efficient separation of photoinduced charge carriers than band-band transfer, thus endowing it with the much more powerful oxidation and reduction capability, as confirmed by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The Z-scheme mechanism of BiVO4/g-C3N4 heterostructure was verified by a series of combined techniques, including the active species trapping experiments, NBT transformation and terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technique (TA-PL) over BiVO4/g-C3N4 composites and the pristine samples. The present work not only furthered the understanding of mediator-free Z-scheme photocatalysis, but also shed new light on the design of heterostructural photocatalysts with high-performance.

  4. Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Devos, Yann; Beckie, Hugh J; Owen, Micheal D K; Tillie, Pascal; Messéan, Antoine; Kudsk, Per

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally bred (CHT) and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have changed weed management practices and made an important contribution to the global production of some commodity crops. However, a concern is that farm management practices associated with the cultivation of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland biodiversity and accelerate the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Diversification in crop systems and weed management practices can enhance farmland biodiversity, and reduce the risk of weeds evolving herbicide resistance. Therefore, HT crops are most effective and sustainable as a component of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. IWM advocates the use of multiple effective strategies or tactics to manage weed populations in a manner that is economically and environmentally sound. In practice, however, the potential benefits of IWM with HT crops are seldom realized because a wide range of technical and socio-economic factors hamper the transition to IWM. Here, we discuss the major factors that limit the integration of HT crops and their associated farm management practices in IWM systems. Based on the experience gained in countries where CHT or GMHT crops are widely grown and the increased familiarity with their management, we propose five actions to facilitate the integration of HT crops in IWM systems within the European Union.

  5. A porous stainless steel membrane system for extraterrestrial crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, H. V.; Prince, R. P.; Berry, W. L.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    A system was developed in which nutrient flow to plant roots is controlled by a thin (0.98 or 1.18 mm) porous (0.2 or 0.5 microns) stainless steel sheet membrane. The flow of nutrient solution through the membrane is controlled by adjusting the relative negative pressure on the nutrient solution side of the membrane. Thus, the nutrient solution is contained by the membrane and cannot escape from the compartment even under microgravity conditions if the appropriate pressure gradient across the membrane is maintained. Plant roots grow directly on the top surface of the membrane and pull the nutrient solution through this membrane interface. The volume of nutrient solution required by this system for plant growth is relatively small, since the plenum, which contains the nutrient solution in contact with the membrane, needs only to be of sufficient size to provide for uniform flow to all parts of the membrane. Solution not passing through the membrane to the root zone is recirculated through a reservoir where pH and nutrient levels are controlled. The size of the solution reservoir depends on the sophistication of the replenishment system. The roots on the surface of the membrane are covered with a polyethylene film (white on top, black on bottom) to maintain a high relative humidity and also limit light to prevent algal growth. Seeds are sown directly on the stainless steel membrane under the holes in the polyethylene film that allow a pathway for the shoots.

  6. A porous stainless steel membrane system for extraterrestrial crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, H. V.; Prince, R. P.; Berry, W. L.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    A system was developed in which nutrient flow to plant roots is controlled by a thin (0.98 or 1.18 mm) porous (0.2 or 0.5 microns) stainless steel sheet membrane. The flow of nutrient solution through the membrane is controlled by adjusting the relative negative pressure on the nutrient solution side of the membrane. Thus, the nutrient solution is contained by the membrane and cannot escape from the compartment even under microgravity conditions if the appropriate pressure gradient across the membrane is maintained. Plant roots grow directly on the top surface of the membrane and pull the nutrient solution through this membrane interface. The volume of nutrient solution required by this system for plant growth is relatively small, since the plenum, which contains the nutrient solution in contact with the membrane, needs only to be of sufficient size to provide for uniform flow to all parts of the membrane. Solution not passing through the membrane to the root zone is recirculated through a reservoir where pH and nutrient levels are controlled. The size of the solution reservoir depends on the sophistication of the replenishment system. The roots on the surface of the membrane are covered with a polyethylene film (white on top, black on bottom) to maintain a high relative humidity and also limit light to prevent algal growth. Seeds are sown directly on the stainless steel membrane under the holes in the polyethylene film that allow a pathway for the shoots.

  7. A porous stainless steel membrane system for extraterrestrial crop production.

    PubMed

    Koontz, H V; Prince, R P; Berry, W L

    1990-06-01

    A system was developed in which nutrient flow to plant roots is controlled by a thin (0.98 or 1.18 mm) porous (0.2 or 0.5 microns) stainless steel sheet membrane. The flow of nutrient solution through the membrane is controlled by adjusting the relative negative pressure on the nutrient solution side of the membrane. Thus, the nutrient solution is contained by the membrane and cannot escape from the compartment even under microgravity conditions if the appropriate pressure gradient across the membrane is maintained. Plant roots grow directly on the top surface of the membrane and pull the nutrient solution through this membrane interface. The volume of nutrient solution required by this system for plant growth is relatively small, since the plenum, which contains the nutrient solution in contact with the membrane, needs only to be of sufficient size to provide for uniform flow to all parts of the membrane. Solution not passing through the membrane to the root zone is recirculated through a reservoir where pH and nutrient levels are controlled. The size of the solution reservoir depends on the sophistication of the replenishment system. The roots on the surface of the membrane are covered with a polyethylene film (white on top, black on bottom) to maintain a high relative humidity and also limit light to prevent algal growth. Seeds are sown directly on the stainless steel membrane under the holes in the polyethylene film that allow a pathway for the shoots.

  8. Cover crop water use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are being widely promoted because of soil health benefits. However, semi-arid dryland production systems, chronically short of water for crop production, may not be able to profitably withstand the yield reduction that follows cover crops because of cover crop water use. Some studies sug...

  9. Establishment of a system based on universal multiplex-PCR for screening genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-03-01

    The rapid development of many genetically modified (GM) crops in the past two decades makes it necessary to introduce an alternative strategy for routine screening and identification. In this study, we established a universal multiplex PCR detection system which will effectively reduce the number of reactions needed for sample identification. The PCR targets of this system include the six most frequently used transgenic elements: cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) terminator, the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene, the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 epsps) gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4, and the phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene. According to the AGBIOS database, the coverage of this detection system is 93% of commercial GM crops. This detection system could detect all certified reference materials (CRMs) at the 1.0% level. The correct combination of all the CRM amplicon patterns proved the specificity of this multiplex PCR system. Furthermore, the amplicon patterns of this multiplex PCR detection system could be used as an index of classification which will narrow the range of possible GM products. The simulation result of this multiplex PCR detection system on all commercialized 139 GM products in the AGBIOS database showed that the maximum number of PCR reactions needed to identify an unknown sample can be reduced to 13. In this study, we established a high-throughput multiplex PCR detection system with feasible sensitivity, specificity, and cost. By incorporating this detection system, the routine GM crop-detection process will meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the number of GM crops in the future.

  10. Functional analysis and quantification of the complement C3 derived anaphylatoxin C3a with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, R; Bader, A; Kirschfink, M; Rother, U; Schrod, L; Wörner, I; Zilow, G

    1987-01-01

    The C3 fragment C3a belongs to the anaphylatoxins. It has immune regulatory activity and contributes to the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The low molecular weight (9 kD) of C3a complicates the production of antibodies to C3a. We obtained a monoclonal antibody (designated H13) to human C3a. It reacts with C3a or C3a-desArg and with native C3 but not with C5 or C5a. In immunoblot analysis it reacts with the alpha- but not with beta-chain of C3 and binds to a protein with a mol. wt of about 10 kD present in zymosan-activated sera which is only marginally detectable in nonactivated serum and absent in plasma. H13 crossreacts with the analogous proteins of rabbit, guinea pig and sheep. H13 has the capacity to bind 125I-radiolabelled C3a efficiently but fails totally to react with 125I-C5a or with other C3 alpha-chain fragments. H13 blocks C3a functional activity. It markedly inhibits C3a-induced 3H-serotonin release from platelets in vitro and similarly inhibits the C3a-induced extravasation of Evans blue into the skin in vivo. H13 does not interfere with the haemolytic activity of C3. An ELISA system was established using H13 which permits quantification of C3a in sera of polytrauma patients. The antibody H13 should facilitate further functional analysis of C3a in experimental systems. It should be useful for quantification of C3a in diagnostic assays and also for application in immunopathology. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3498585

  11. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  12. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  13. Diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales in soil and phylloplanes of five Mediterranean cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Fernández-Bravo, María; Campos, Carlos; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales from the soil and phylloplanes in five Mediterranean cropping systems with different degrees of management [organic olive orchard conventional olive orchard, holm oak reforestation, holm oak dehesa (a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system), and sunflower plantation] was studied during four seasons. A total of 697 entomopathogenic fungal isolates were obtained from 272 soil samples, 1608 crop phylloplane samples and 1368 weed phylloplane samples. The following nine species were identified: Beauveria amorpha, B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, B. varroae, Metarhizium brunneum, M. guizhoense, M. robertsii, Paecilomyces marquandii and lilacinum using EF-1α gene sequences. All the fungal entomopathogenic species were found in both the soil and phylloplane samples, with the exception of M. robertsii, which was only isolated from the soil. The species richness, diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) and evenness (Pielou index) were calculated for each cropping system, yielding the following species ranking, which was correlated with the crop management intensity: holm oak reforestation>organic olive orchard>conventional olive orchard>holm oak dehesa>sunflower plantation. The number of fungal species isolated was similar in both phylloplane habitats and dissimilar between the soil and the crop phylloplane habitats. The ISSR analysis revealed high genotypic diversity among the B. bassiana isolates on the neighbourhood scale, and the isolates were clustered according to the habitat. These results suggest that the entomopathogenic Hypocreales in the phylloplane could result from the dispersal of fungal propagules from the soil, which might be their habitat of origin; a few isolates, including EABb 09/28-Fil of Beauveria bassiana, inhabit only the phylloplane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen fertilizer is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is actively debated. Using 60 site-years of maize (Zea mays L.) yield response to a wide range of N fertilizer rates in continuous maize and annually rotated maize-soybean [Glycine max...

  15. The Relationship Between Carbon Input, Aggregation, and Soil Organic Carbon Stabilization in Sustainable Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. Y.; Six, J.; Bryant, D. C.; Denison, R.; van Kessel, C.

    2003-12-01

    Approximately 10% of the earth's soil C is stored within agricultural soil ecosystems. Because farming systems hold promise for sequestering C, their sustainability, environmental impact, and potential role in mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations must be addressed. Our current challenges are to provide credible evidence that agricultural practices can sequester significant amounts of C and to quantify the mechanisms, capacity, and longevity of agricultural lands as C sinks. Agronomic practices that influence yield and, therefore, affect the proportion of crop residues returned to the soil (e.g. cover cropping, irrigation, fertilizer addition, and compost application) are likely to influence soil organic carbon (SOC). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the influence of C input on C sequestration in SOC fractions and (2) to evaluate how aggregation (MWD) relates to SOC and cumulative C input, across 10 different cropping systems. Using SOM fractionation techniques, soil samples from 10 cropping systems at LTRAS (Long-term Research on Agricultural Systems, Davis, CA) were separated into four aggregate size classes (LM: >2000μ m, sM: 250-2000μ m, m: 53-250μ m, and silt&clay: <53μ m) and into three SOM fractions within LM and sM (cPOM:250-2000μ m, mM: 53-250μ m, and silt&clay: <53μ m). All fractions were analyzed for their C content. Empirically derived relationships between yield and aboveground biomass-C plus yield and belowground biomass-C were used to quantify C input from corn, wheat, and tomato residues as well as for legume cover crops and compost for the different cropping systems. We found a positive correlation between cumulative C input and SOC (R2=0.45, P<0.0001). After 9 years, MWD increased linearly with greater C input (R2=0.64, P<0.0001) and SOC (R2=0.61, P<0.0001), respectively. We observed that aggregate-C shifts from the microaggregate fraction (53-250μ m) in low C input systems to macroaggregate fractions (>2000

  16. Biofuel cropping system impacts on soil C, microbial communities and N2O emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Andrew R.

    Substitution of cellulosic biofuel in place of gasoline or diesel could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation. However, emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) could have a large impact on the GHG balance of cellulosic biofuel, thus there is a need to quantify these responses in cellulosic biofuel crops. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure changes in yield, SOC and microbial communities in potential cellulosic biofuel cropping systems (ii) measure and characterize the temporal variation in N2O emissions from these systems (iii) characterize the yield and N2O response of switchgrass to N fertilizer and to estimate the costs of production. Sweet sorghum, photoperiod-sensitive sorghum, and miscanthus yielded the highest aboveground biomass (20-32 Mg ha-1). The perennial grasses sequestered SOC over 4 yrs, while SOC stocks did not change in the annual crops. Root stocks were 4-8 times higher in the perennial crops, suggesting greater belowground C inputs. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) abundance and aggregate mean weight diameter were higher in the perennials. No consistent significant differences were found in N2O emissions between crops, though miscanthus tended to have the lowest emissions. Most N2O was emitted during large events of short duration (1-3 days) that occurred after high rainfall events with high soil NO3-. There was a weak relationship between IPCC Tier 1 N2O estimates and measured emissions, and the IPCC method tended to underestimate emissions. The response of N2O to N rate was nonlinear in 2 of 3 years. Fertilizer induced emission factor (EF) increased from 0.7% at 50 kg N ha-1 to 2.6% at 150 kg N ha-1. Switchgrass yields increased with N inputs up to 100-150 kg N ha-1, but the critical N level for maximum yields decreased each year, suggesting N was being applied in excess at higher N rates. Yield-scaled costs of production were minimized at 100 kg N ha-1 ($70.91 Mg-1

  17. Options for transpiration water removal in a crop growth system under zero gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Kliss, M.; Yendler, B.; Borchers, B.; Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    The operation of a microgravity crop-growth system is a critical feature of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) development program. Transpiration-evolved water must be removed from the air that is recirculated in such a system, perhaps supplying potable water in the process. The present consideration of candidate systems for CELSS water removal gives attention to energy considerations and to a mechanical, inertial-operation water-separation system that was chosen due to the depth of current understanding of its operation.

  18. Influence of Cultivation and Cropping Systems on Production of Soil Sediment on Agricultural Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poposka, Hristina; Mukaetov, Dusko

    2017-04-01

    Soil conservation practices and in particular soil tillage and crop cultivation patterns are becoming an important issue in agricultural production. Combating soil erosion and diminishing its negative impact on agricultural soil imposes as a matter of vital interest which gained even greater significance, in a pronounced negative impact of climate change. Main objective of the three-year research and monitoring program was to evaluate the effects of the easy-to-use adaptive measures on intensity of soil erosion, and soil properties considering to be of crucial importance on run-off velocity and sediment loss, like: soil structure stability, soil infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil moisture conservation. The influence of soil tillage practices and different cropping systems on soil intensity and sediment loss, has been monitored on specially designed soil erosion fields with standard dimensions (20m length x 4m. width), on a sloppy terrain (12% slope). The experimental field is located on heavily textured Chromic cambisol on saprolite. This is the predominant soil type on the sloppy terrains in the country, usually under intensive agricultural activities Soil texture and physical characteristics were thoroughly investigated in order to determine the base soil conditions. The influence of downslope and contour ploughing on quantity of eroded sediment has been monitored in three consecutive years. The eroded sediment has been collected periodically on a weekly base and after intensive rainfalls. The intensity of soil erosion under most widespread cropping systems in the country, like: a) cereals as a monoculture, b) crop rotation, and c) perennial grass, was monitored as well. The collected sediment was examined in order to determine the quantity of soil organic matter and nutrient loss (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). Soil chemical properties are examined after each vegetative season in order to quantify the effect of tillage and cropping systems on

  19. A g-C3N4/nanocarbon/ZnIn2S4 nanocomposite: an artificial Z-scheme visible-light photocatalytic system using nanocarbon as the electron mediator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fenfen; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Min; Jiang, Deli

    2015-12-14

    A g-C3N4/nanocarbon/ZnIn2S4 (CN/C/ZIS) nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic H2 production performance has been successfully synthesized. Based on the experimental results, for the first time, it has been demonstrated that nanocarbon could be integrated into a Z-scheme photocatalytic system and acted as an excellent solid electron mediator.

  20. Comparing the Net Ecosystem Exchange of Two Cropping Systems for Dairy Feed Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, M. F.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Brown, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    A three-year study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine the net CO2 fluxes from corn and hay, the two main feed crops used in dairy production. The aim of this study is to better understand the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in annual and perennial cropping systems used in dairy production to benefit greenhouse gas emission model developments and the life cycle analysis of dairy production. The study was conducted on two 4-ha plots where one plot was a 5-year old hayfield and the other plot was planted in a continuous cycle corn. All plots were continuously monitored using the flux-gradient method deployed with a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer and sonic anemometers. All plots received dairy manure as fertilizer applied according to common practice. The cumulative NEE for the three years of the study was -873.15 g C m-2 for corn and -409.36 g C m-2 for hay. Differences in respiration between the two cropping systems was found to be the larger factor compared to differences in gross ecosystem production (GEP) that resulted in the contrasting cumulative NEE where cumulative respiration for the three years for hay was 3094.23 g C m-2 as opposed to 2078.11 g C m-2 for corn. Cumulative GEP for the three years was 3503.60 and 2951.31 g C m-2 for hay and corn respectively. Inter-annual and inter-crop variability of the NEE, GEP and respiration will be discussed in relation to biomass production, climatic conditions and crop physiological characteristics.

  1. Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Peter S; Liang, Wei-li; Twomlow, Stephen; Holzworth, Dean P; Dimes, John P; McClelland, Tim; Huth, Neil I; Chen, Fu; Hochman, Zvi; Keating, Brian A

    2013-05-21

    Global food security requires eco-efficient agriculture to produce the required food and fiber products concomitant with ecologically efficient use of resources. This eco-efficiency concept is used to diagnose the state of agricultural production in China (irrigated wheat-maize double-cropping systems), Zimbabwe (rainfed maize systems), and Australia (rainfed wheat systems). More than 3,000 surveyed crop yields in these three countries were compared against simulated grain yields at farmer-specified levels of nitrogen (N) input. Many Australian commercial wheat farmers are both close to existing production frontiers and gain little prospective return from increasing their N input. Significant losses of N from their systems, either as nitrous oxide emissions or as nitrate leached from the soil profile, are infrequent and at low intensities relative to their level of grain production. These Australian farmers operate close to eco-efficient frontiers in regard to N, and so innovations in technologies and practices are essential to increasing their production without added economic or environmental risks. In contrast, many Chinese farmers can reduce N input without sacrificing production through more efficient use of their fertilizer input. In fact, there are real prospects for the double-cropping systems on the North China Plain to achieve both production increases and reduced environmental risks. Zimbabwean farmers have the opportunity for significant production increases by both improving their technical efficiency and increasing their level of input; however, doing so will require improved management expertise and greater access to institutional support for addressing the higher risks. This paper shows that pathways for achieving improved eco-efficiency will differ among diverse cropping systems.

  2. Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Carberry, Peter S.; Liang, Wei-li; Twomlow, Stephen; Holzworth, Dean P.; Dimes, John P.; McClelland, Tim; Huth, Neil I.; Chen, Fu; Hochman, Zvi; Keating, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Global food security requires eco-efficient agriculture to produce the required food and fiber products concomitant with ecologically efficient use of resources. This eco-efficiency concept is used to diagnose the state of agricultural production in China (irrigated wheat–maize double-cropping systems), Zimbabwe (rainfed maize systems), and Australia (rainfed wheat systems). More than 3,000 surveyed crop yields in these three countries were compared against simulated grain yields at farmer-specified levels of nitrogen (N) input. Many Australian commercial wheat farmers are both close to existing production frontiers and gain little prospective return from increasing their N input. Significant losses of N from their systems, either as nitrous oxide emissions or as nitrate leached from the soil profile, are infrequent and at low intensities relative to their level of grain production. These Australian farmers operate close to eco-efficient frontiers in regard to N, and so innovations in technologies and practices are essential to increasing their production without added economic or environmental risks. In contrast, many Chinese farmers can reduce N input without sacrificing production through more efficient use of their fertilizer input. In fact, there are real prospects for the double-cropping systems on the North China Plain to achieve both production increases and reduced environmental risks. Zimbabwean farmers have the opportunity for significant production increases by both improving their technical efficiency and increasing their level of input; however, doing so will require improved management expertise and greater access to institutional support for addressing the higher risks. This paper shows that pathways for achieving improved eco-efficiency will differ among diverse cropping systems. PMID:23671071

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions in cover crop-based corn production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian Wesley

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas; the majority of N2O emissions are the result of agricultural management, particularly the application of N fertilizers to soils. The relationship of N2O emissions to varying sources of N (manures, mineral fertilizers, and cover crops) has not been well-evaluated. Here we discussed a novel methodology for estimating precipitation-induced pulses of N2O using flux measurements; results indicated that short-term intensive time-series sampling methods can adequately describe the magnitude of these pulses. We also evaluated the annual N2O emissions from corn-cover crop (Zea mays; cereal rye [Secale cereale], hairy vetch [Vicia villosa ], or biculture) production systems when fertilized with multiple rates of subsurface banded poultry litter, as compared with tillage incorporation or mineral fertilizer. N2O emissions increased exponentially with total N rate; tillage decreased emissions following cover crops with legume components, while the effect of mineral fertilizer was mixed across cover crops.

  4. Monitoring temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition under maize-wheat cropping systems in semi-arid India.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Mayadevi, M R; Singh, A K

    2016-08-01

    Long-term storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) is essential for sustainability of agricultural ecosystems and maintaining overall environment quality as soils contain a significant part of global carbon stocks. In this study, we attempted to explain the carbon mineralization and temperature sensitivity of SOC in maize-wheat systems, a common cropping system in the semi-arid regions of India. Soil samples(0-0.15 m) from long-term experimental plots laid in split plot design with two tillage systems (conventional tillage and bed planting) and six nutrient management treatments (T 1 = control, T 2 = 120 kg urea-N/ha, T 3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by farmyard manure (FYM)), T 4 = T 2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T 5 = T 2 + crop residue, T 6 = 100 % recommended doses of N through organic source - 50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were incubated at different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 °C) to determine the thermal sensitivity parameters associated with carbon mineralization. Earlier reports suggest a selective preservation of C3-derived carbon fractions over C4 in the SOC pool, and this is the first instance where δ (13)C signatures (C4-derived carbon) were used as a qualitative measure to assess thermal sensitivity of SOC pools in the maize-wheat crop rotation systems of semi-arid India. Among the nutrient management treatments, mineral fertilizers were found to add more C4-derived carbon to the SOC pool in both the tillage systems but shows less promise in SOC stability as indicated by their lower activation energies (Ea) (14.25 kJ mol(-1)). Conventional tillage was found to mineralize 18.80 % (T 1-control at 25 °C) to 29.93 % carbon (T 3-mineral fertilizer + FYM at 40 °C) during the 150 days of incubation which was significantly higher than bed planting system (14.90 % in T 1-control at 25 °C and 21.99 % in T 6-100% organic sources at 40 °C). Organic manures, especially FYM (19

  5. Advancing human nutrition without degrading land resources through modeling cropping systems in the Ethiopian highlands.

    PubMed

    Amede, Tilahun; Stroud, Ann; Aune, Jens

    2004-12-01

    Food shortage in sub-Saharan Africa is generally considered a function of limited access to food, with little thought to nutritional quality. Analyzing household production of nutrients across farming systems could be valuable in guiding the improvement of those systems. An optimization model was employed to analyze the scenario of human nutrition and cropland allocation in enset (Enset ventricosum)/root crop-based and cereal-based systems of the Ethiopian Highlands. The type and amount of nutrients produced in each system were analyzed, and an optimization model was used to analyze which cropping strategies might improve the nutritional quality of the household using existing resources. Both production systems were in food deficit, in terms of quantity and quality of nutrients, except for iron. The energy supply of resource-poor households in the enset/root crop-based system was only 75% of the recommended daily dietary allowance (RDA) of the World Health Organization (WHO), whereas resource-rich farmers were able to meet their energy, protein, zinc, and thiamine demands. Extremely high deficiency was found in zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C, which provided only 26.5%, 34%, 1.78%, and 12%, of the RDA, respectively. The RDA could be satisfied if the land area occupied by enset, kale, and beans were expanded by about 20%, 10%, and 40%, respectively, at the expense of maize and sweet potato. The cereal-based system also had critical nutrient deficits in calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C, which provided 30%, 2.5%, and 2% of the RDA, respectively. In the cereal system, the RDA could be fully satisfied by reducing cropland allocated to barley by about 50% and expanding the land area occupied by faba beans, kale, and enset. A shift from the cereal/root crop-dominated system to a perennial-enset dominated system would decrease soil erosion by improving the crop factor by about 45%. This shift would also have a very strong positive impact on soil fertility

  6. Effect of roller/crimper designs in terminating rye cover crop in small-scale conservation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, use of cover crops in no-till organic production systems has steadily increased. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue mulch protects the soil from erosion, runoff, soil compaction, and weed pressure, and conserves soil water. In ...

  7. Soil carbon and soil organic matter quality in soil size fractions from crop and livestock systems in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton based rotations and monocultures in the Southern High Plains have resulted in soil quality degradation because the semiarid environment combined with low crop residue returns has diminished soil C. Integrated crop-livestock systems and no-till based rotations can increase soil C when used as ...

  8. Effects of cover crop management and planting operations on cotton establishment and yield in a no-till system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, for example, termination of cover crops and planting of the cash crop can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field ...

  9. Surface runoff from manured cropping systems assessed by the paired-watershed method, part 1: P, N, and sediment transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transport of P, N, and sediment via runoff from crop fields can contribute to degradation of surface waters. We established a paired-watershed study in central Wisconsin to evaluate surface runoff losses of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens from different manure/crop/tillage management systems for ...

  10. The effect of five biomass cropping systems on soil-saturated hydraulic conductivity across a topographic gradient

    Treesearch

    Usman Anwar; Lisa A. Schulte; Matthew Helmers; Randall K. Kolka

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental impact of bioenergy crops is needed to inform bioenergy policy development. We determined the effects of five biomass cropping systems—continuous maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max)-triticale (Triticosecale ×)/soybean-maize, maize-switchgrass (Panicum virgatum...

  11. A novel integrated cropping system for efficient grain production, improved soil quality, and enhanced beneficial arthropod communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity by using broad strips (corridors or skip rows) that promote highly efficient use of solar radiation and ambient carbon dioxide by C-4 plants including corn. Field trials in 2013 and 2014 showed that yields of selected c...

  12. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  13. Behavior of atrazine in limited irrigation cropping systems in colorado: prior use is important.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Dale L; Wiles, Lori; Hansen, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn may be a major component of new cropping systems to optimize the use of limited irrigation water supply while sustaining production. Because atrazine is an important tool for residual weed control in GR corn, we examined atrazine binding to soil, dissipation, movement, and early season weed control in limited and full irrigation cropping systems. These systems included continuous corn under conventional tillage and full irrigation (CCC-FI) and under no-tillage and deficit irrigation (CCC-DI), a sunflower-wheat-corn rotation under no-tillage and deficit irrigation (SWC-DI), and a wheat-fallow-wheat-corn rotation under no tillage and natural precipitation (WFWC-NP). Crop rotation and herbicide use history influenced atrazine behavior more than amount or type of irrigation. Atrazine dissipated more rapidly in the top 30 cm of soil in the CCC-FI and CCC-DI plots (half-life [T(1/2)] = 3-12 d), which had received previous applications of the herbicide, compared with the SWC-DI and WFWC-NP plots, which had no history of atrazine use (T(1/2) = 15-22 d). Laboratory assays indicated that the different rates of degradation were at least partly due to differences in microbial degradation in the soil. Atrazine moved the most in the top 30 cm in the SWC-DI and WFWC-NP plots. This greater movement is probably due to the slower rate of atrazine degradation. Studies of the behavior of pre-emergence herbicides in new limited irrigation cropping systems must consider all characteristics of the systems, not just amount and timing of irrigation.

  14. Evaluation of carbon saturation across gradients of cropping systems diversity and soil depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Michael; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Cambardella, Cindy; Liebman, Matt; Mallarino, Antonio; Olk, Dan; Russell, Ann; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence indicates arable soils in the US Maize Belt are effectively carbon-saturated. We hypothesized that: 1) surface soil mineral-associated soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in these systems are effectively carbon-saturated and 2) diverse cropping systems with greater belowground C inputs would increase subsoil SOC stocks because subsoils have large C saturation deficit. Using three long-term field trials in Iowa (study durations of 60, 35, and 12 years), we examined the effects of cropping system diversity (maize-soybean-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa or corn-corn-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa vs. maize-soybean rotation) on SOC content at different depths (0-100 cm) throughout the soil profile. Average annual C inputs were similar for both cropping systems, but the proportion of C delivered belowground was approximately twice as great in the extended rotations. Within and across cropping systems and the three field trial locations, there was a positive linear relationship between total SOC and the concentration of SOC in the mineral-associated fraction, indicating mineral-associated SOC stocks are not saturated. Organic C accumulation was observed at depth (15-100 cm) but not at the surface (0-15 cm) across all sites and rotations. These data suggest surface SOC stocks may have reached equilibrium rather than effective C saturation. In the absence of experiments that manipulate C inputs, the relationship between total SOC and the concentration of SOC in the mineral-associated fraction is frequently used as a proxy for C-saturation, and this relationship should be further explored.

  15. Farming system design for innovative crop-livestock integration in Europe.

    PubMed

    Moraine, M; Duru, M; Nicholas, P; Leterme, P; Therond, O

    2014-08-01

    The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options. A conceptual framework based on a conceptual model (crops, grasslands, animals) was developed to act as a boundary object in the design step and invite innovative thinking in 'metabolic' and 'ecosystemic' approaches. A diversity of crops and grasslands interacting with animals appeared central for designing sustainable farming systems at the territory level, providing and benefitting from ecosystem services. Within this diversity, we define three types of integrated systems according to their degrees of spatial and temporal coordination: complementarity, local synergy, territorial synergy. Moreover, the options for cooperation and collective organisation between farmers and other stakeholders in territories to organise and manage this diversity of land use revealed opportunities for smart social innovation. The qualitative multicriteria assessment identified farmer workload as the main issue of concern while demonstrating expected benefits of ICLS simultaneously for economic, agronomic, environmental and social criteria. This study concludes that participatory design of ICLS based on a generic multi-level and multi-domain framework and a methodology to deal with a local context can identify new systems to be tested

  16. Methodological discussion for interdisciplinary project on the effects of climatic variability on cropping systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capa-Morocho, M.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Campus of International Excellence Moncloa (CEI, 2009) is a joint project of the Universities Complutense (UCM) and Politécnica of Madrid (UPM) which aims to promote connectivity between both of them in a context of scientific excellence. Within this framework an interdisciplinary doctoral Thesis is being developed, whose methodological line is presented here to collect the comments from the international scientific community. The aim of the Thesis is to assess the effect of the climatic variability in the agricultural systems of the Iberian Peninsula. It takes place between the group of agricultural systems (AgSystems) of the UPM and the TROPA group of Climatic Variability of the UCM. The provisional methodology consists on using time series of simulated crop yields and to correlate the monthly deviations with different atmospheric and oceanic anomalous fields in order to characterize the climate variability patterns affecting the fluctuations in productivity. We use observed data of climate reanalysis, general circulation models and crop simulation models. We have identified a common tool to connect both modeling disciplines: MATLAB software is used to program the functions used in data processing, for both climate and agricultural data. In this paper the methodological scheme will be shown. Both the potentials and synergies that we are finding between the group of modelers of climate and cropping systems, as well as the problems and methodological points to be resolved will be specified. We invite researchers with similar experiences to contribute to this discussion.

  17. Long-term trends in nitrous oxide emissions, soil nitrogen, and crop yields of till and no-till cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Grandy, A Stuart; Loecke, Terrance D; Parr, Sara; Robertson, G Philip

    2006-01-01

    No-till cropping can increase soil C stocks and aggregation but patterns of long-term changes in N2O emissions, soil N availability, and crop yields still need to be resolved. We measured soil C accumulation, aggregation, soil water, N2O emissions, soil inorganic N, and crop yields in till and no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotations between 1989 and 2002 in southwestern Michigan and investigated whether tillage effects varied over time or by crop. Mean annual NO3- concentrations in no-till were significantly less than in conventional till in three of six corn years and during one year of wheat production. Yields were similar in each system for all 14 years but three, during which yields were higher in no-till, indicating that lower soil NO3- concentrations did not result in lower yields. Carbon accumulated in no-till soils at a rate of 26 g C m(-2) yr(-1) over 12 years at the 0- to 5-cm soil depth. Average nitrous oxide emissions were similar in till (3.27 +/- 0.52 g N ha d(-1)) and no-till (3.63 +/- 0.53 g N ha d(-1)) systems and were sufficient to offset 56 to 61% of the reduction in CO2 equivalents associated with no-till C sequestration. After controlling for rotation and environmental effects by normalizing treatment differences between till and no-till systems we found no significant trends in soil N, N2O emissions, or yields through time. In our sandy loam soils, no-till cropping enhances C storage, aggregation, and associated environmental processes with no significant ecological or yield tradeoffs.

  18. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  19. Rye residues contribute weed suppression in no-tillage cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J P; Putnam, A R

    1983-08-01

    The use of allelopathic cover crops in reduced tillage cropping systems may provide an ecologically sound and environmentally safe management strategy for weed control. Growers often plant winter rye (Secale cereale L.) for increased soil organic matter and soil protection. Spring-planted living rye reduced weed biomass by 93% over plots without rye. Residues of fall-planted/spring-killed rye reduced total weed biomass over bare-ground controls. Rye residues also reduced total weed biomass by 63% when poplar excelsior was used as a control for the mulch effect, suggesting that allelopathy, in addition to the physical effects of the mulch, did contribute to weed control in these systems. In greenhouse studies, rye root leachates reduced tomato dry weight by 25-30%, which is additional evidence that rye is allelopathic to other plant species.

  20. Evaluation of computer-aided system design tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (command, control and communications) architecture development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, D.W.; Campbell, K.; Chludzinski, J.; Corcoran, N.; Gonzalez, C.

    1987-10-01

    This IDA paper was prepared at the request of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The paper documents findings of an evaluation on the capabilities of certain computer software/computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools to provide computer-aided graphic design of Battle Management/C3 for the SDIO. Each tool (of the five selected on the basis of the best available at this time), was installed at IDA. After training by vendor tool staff, an IDA team, using a hands-on design experience determined the merits of the tools for SDI application. A comparative summary of the tools is given relative to envisaged SDI requirements and an extensive questionnaire is answered for each.

  1. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    PubMed

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Soil denitrifier community size changes with land use change to perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Karen A.; Deen, Bill; Dunfield, Kari E.

    2016-10-01

    Dedicated biomass crops are required for future bioenergy production. However, the effects of large-scale land use change (LUC) from traditional annual crops, such as corn-soybean rotations to the perennial grasses (PGs) switchgrass and miscanthus, on soil microbial community functioning is largely unknown. Specifically, ecologically significant denitrifying communities, which regulate N2O production and consumption in soils, may respond differently to LUC due to differences in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs between crop types and management systems. Our objective was to quantify bacterial denitrifying gene abundances as influenced by corn-soybean crop production compared to PG biomass production. A field trial was established in 2008 at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada (n  =  30), with miscanthus and switchgrass grown alongside corn-soybean rotations at different N rates (0 and 160 kg N ha-1) and biomass harvest dates within PG plots. Soil was collected on four dates from 2011 to 2012 and quantitative PCR was used to enumerate the total bacterial community (16S rRNA) and communities of bacterial denitrifiers by targeting nitrite reductase (nirS) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. Miscanthus produced significantly larger yields and supported larger nosZ denitrifying communities than corn-soybean rotations regardless of management, indicating large-scale LUC from corn-soybean to miscanthus may be suitable in variable Ontario climatic conditions and under varied management, while potentially mitigating soil N2O emissions. Harvesting switchgrass in the spring decreased yields in N-fertilized plots, but did not affect gene abundances. Standing miscanthus overwinter resulted in higher 16S rRNA and nirS gene copies than in fall-harvested crops. However, the size of the total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying bacterial communities changed differently over time and in response to LUC, indicating varying controls on these communities.

  3. Emissions of N2O from peat soils under different cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Lisbet; Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture use leads to an increase in nitrogen turnover rate causing emissions of N2O to the atmosphere. Agriculture contributes to a substantial part of the anthropogenic emissions of N2O therefore mitigation options for the farmers are important. Here we present a field study with the aim to investigate if the choice of cropping system can mitigate the emission of N2O from cultivated organic soils. The sites used in the study represent fen peat soils with a range of different soil properties located in different parts of southern Sweden. All sites are on active farms with good drainage. N2O emissions from the soil under two different crops grown on the same field, with the same soil type, drainage intensity and weather conditions, are compared by gas sampling. The crops included are oat, barley, carrot, potato and grassland. Three or four sampling occasions during the growing season in 2010 were carried out with static chambers. The N2O emission is calculated from the linear increase of gas concentration in the chamber headspace during the incubation time of 40 minutes. Parallel to the gas sampling soil temperature and soil moisture are measured and some soil properties determined. The result from the gas sampling and measurements show no significant difference in seasonal average N2O emission between the compared crops at any site. There are significant differences in N2O emissions between the compared crops at some of the single sampling occasions but the result vary and no crop can be pointed out as a mitigation option. The seasonal average N2O emissions varies from 16±17 to 1319±1971 μg N2O/m2/h with peaks up to 3317 μg N2O/m2/h. The N2O emission rate from peat soils are determined by other factors than the type of crops grown on the field. The emission rates vary during the season and especially between sites. Although all sites are fen peat soil the soil properties are different, e.g. carbon content varies between 27-43% and

  4. Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

  5. The drought of 2012: Effects on photosynthesis and soil respiration in bioenergy cropping systems of the Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions across the central US. This heightened risk on producers and economies alike also supports the need to improve our understanding of how extreme environmental conditions impact other ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, which is directly linked to net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In doing so, the scientific community aims to improve the realism of ecosystem models that are relied upon to project changes in large scale and long-term land surface-atmosphere carbon exchange as they are affected by continued land management change and climate change. One such large-scale land management change of the next several decades in the Midwest US could be the expansion of bioenergy cropping systems across the landscape. A wide range of bioenergy cropping systems (e.g., miscanthus, switchgrass, diverse prairie, hybrid poplar) are now targeted to support a feedstock supply chain for production of cellulosic biofuels. Many of these agroecosystems have only recently begun to appear as functional types in dynamic ecosystem models, and a general lack of observational data across a wide range of soils and climate has hampered model development and validation. In response to this shortcoming, from 2009 through 2012, component measurements of ecosystem carbon exchange (total soil respiration and leaf level photosynthetic rates) have been made along with measurements of other soil and meteorological variables in three model bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, hybrid poplar and switchgrass) at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) field trial at Arlington, Wisconsin. The three cropping systems encompass a wide range of growth (e.g. C3 vs. C4, annual vs. perennial) and management (e.g., tillage, harvesting) strategies that are predicted to impart different controls on NEE given likely varying biological responses to extreme weather events. Throughout the study period, the

  6. Selecting research of candidate crops in controlled ecological life support system(CELSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    In order to select appropriate biological components for controlled ecological life support system CELSS supporting future long-duration space mission and planetary exploration habitat five crops of lettuce neilvnanyou dasusheng naichoutai dongfangkaixuan and sijiyoumaicai two crops of spinach daye and quanneng one rape jingyou No 1 and one common sowthistle were grown in Controlled Ecological Life Support Technique Complex Experimental System Nutrient solution light period and intensity atmospheric temperature relative humidity O 2 and CO 2 concentration in the system were all regulated automatically Canopy photosynthetic rate transpiration rate were measured at different growing stages at different CO 2 levels 500 1000 1500 and 2000 mu mol cdot mol -1 and different light intensities 100 300 500 and 700 mu mol cdot m -2 cdot s -1 Three crops of lettuce neilvnaiyou dasusheng and youmaicai one common sowthistle were selected based on their high productivity nutrient composition and content photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate which is necessarily benefit for further research of CELSS

  7. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbies, Mark; Volk, Timothy; Abrahamson, Lawrence; Shuren, Richard; Stanton, Brian; Posselius, John; McArdle, Matt; Karapetyan, Samvel; Patel, Aayushi; Shi, Shun; Zerpa, Jose

    2014-10-03

    Biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy can be sourced from forests, agricultural crops, various residue streams, and dedicated woody or herbaceous crops. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), like willow and hybrid poplar, are perennial cropping systems that produce a number of environmental and economic development benefits in addition to being a renewable source of biomass that can be produced on marginal land. Both hybrid poplar and willow have several characteristics that make them an ideal feedstock for biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy; these include high yields that can be obtained in three to four years, ease of cultivar propagation from dormant cuttings, a broad underutilized genetic base, ease of breeding, ability to resprout after multiple harvests, and feedstock composition similar to other sources of woody biomass. Despite the range of benefits associated with SRWC systems, their deployment has been restricted by high costs, low market acceptance associated with inconsistent chip quality (see below for further explanation), and misperceptions about other feedstock characteristics (see below for further explanation). Harvesting of SRWC is the largest single cost factor (~1/3 of the final delivered cost) in the feedstock supply system. Harvesting is also the second largest input of primary fossil energy in the system after commercial N fertilizer, accounting for about one third of the input. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the harvesting system has the potential to reduce both cost and environmental impact. At the start of this project, we projected that improving the overall efficiency of the harvesting system by 25% would reduce the delivered cost of SRWC by approximately $0.50/MMBtu (or about $7.50/dry ton). This goal was exceeded over the duration of this project, as noted below.

  8. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  9. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-07-29

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Spatial decision support system to evaluate crop residue energy potential by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Humberto; Castro, Liliana; Gauthier-Maradei, Paola; Rodríguez De La Vega, Reynel

    2016-11-01

    Implementing anaerobic digestion (AD) in energy production from crop residues requires development of decision tools to assess its feasibility and sustainability. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) was constructed to assist decision makers to select appropriate feedstock according to biomethanation potential, identify the most suitable location for biogas facilities, determine optimum plant capacity and supply chain, and evaluate associated risks and costs. SDSS involves a spatially explicit analysis, fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, and statistical and optimization models. The tool was validated on seven crop residues located in Santander, Colombia. For example, fique bagasse generates about 0.21millionm(3)CH4year(-1) (0.329m(3)CH4kg(-1) volatile solids) with a minimum profitable plant of about 2000tonyear(-1) and an internal rate of return of 10.5%. SDSS can be applied to evaluate other biomass resources, availability periods, and co-digestion potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Interannual variations in ecosystem carbon fluxes of a maize crops system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Luca; Di Tommasi, Paul; Famulari, Daniela; Tosca, Maurizio; Tedeschi, Anna; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The eddy correlation technique was used to investigate the influence of biophysical variables on ecosystem carbon fluxes of a maize crop system across 6 growing seasons (2004-2009) at IT-Bci in Southern Italy (Eboli, Italy), a candidate class 1 ICOS cropland site. Interannual variation in GPP and Reco was chiefly dependent on crop management, as GPP was a direct function of applied water and fertilizer. The seasonal variability in GPP was mainly explained by variation in LAI (50 %), followed by air temperature (37 %), incoming radiation (11 %) and soil water content (2 %). Reco was positively influenced by LAI (65 %), followed by soil temperature (11%), so that a higher contribution of the autotrophic component to total ecosystem respiration is hypothesized.

  12. Selection of fetal bovine serum for use in the C3H/10T 1/2 CL8 cell transformation assay system.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Y; Balwierz, P S; Piper, C E

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report our experience concerning the variation in cloning efficiency and transformation frequency utilizing C3H/10T 1/2 CL8 cells with 23 different lots of fetal bovine sera. These sera were purchased from five different commercial sources. The standard cell transformation assay using 1,000 cells per dish and 3-methylcholanthrene (7.5 micrograms/ml) as the transforming agent was performed. The chemical exposure period was 3 days. The cloning efficiency was determined in parallel toxicity tests using 200 cells per dish. Only three out of 23 serum lots supported a strong response in cell transformation. The results indicated that variation in the ability of sera to support cell transformation was not supplier dependent. In addition, our results showed that serum lots exhibiting the best cloning efficiencies did not necessarily support cell transformation. It is apparent that reliance on cloning efficiency alone would be inadequate as a means of selecting a serum lot. We therefore recommend that a complete cell transformation assay be performed when selecting fetal bovine serum for use in this assay.

  13. Feasibility of substituting sodium for potassium in crop plants for advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, G V; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W

    2000-01-01

    Recycling of nutrients, air, and water is an integral feature of life support systems designed for long-term space missions. Plants can play a major role in supplying the basic life support requirements, which include providing the crew's food, clean water, and air, and recycling their wastes. The nutrient flux through the plant and human systems needs to be matched in order for nutrients to recycle between humans and plants without an excessive buildup in any one section of the system. Sodium, which is essential at the macronutrient level for human metabolism, has only been shown to be a micronutrient for some plants, with only very limited uptake in most plants. Thus, when Na is added from the outside to meet the human demand in these closed life support systems it will accumulate someplace in the overall system. In simple systems such as these, without a complete biogeological cycle, the buildup of Na could occur in the nutrient solution of the plant system. Various concepts related to the substitution of sodium for potassium in crop plants are currently being investigated by NASA. Results to date suggest that Na concentrations up to 100 g kg-1 dry weight may be achievable in the edible portions of Na-tolerant crops (e.g., red beet and chard). A flow path for nutrient solution high in Na wastes has been suggested for optimizing Na and nitrogen incorporation and utilization from such solutions. Options for further improvements include selecting plant genotypes tolerant to high salinity, which are efficient in Na uptake. This should also be combined with environmental manipulations to maximize Na uptake by crop plants.

  14. Climatic variability effects on summer cropping systems of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capa-Morocho, M.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability and changes in the frequency of extremes events have a direct impact on crop yield and damages. Climate anomalies projections at monthly and yearly timescale allows us for adapting a cropping system (crops, varieties and management) to take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. The objective of this work is to develop indices to evaluate the effect of climatic variability in summer cropping systems of Iberian Peninsula, in an attempt of relating yield variability to climate variability, extending the work of Rodríguez-Puebla (2004). This paper analyses the evolution of the yield anomalies of irrigated maize in several representative agricultural locations in Spain with contrasting temperature and precipitation regimes and compare it to the evolution of different patterns of climate variability, extending the methodology of Porter and Semenov (2005). To simulate maize yields observed daily data of radiation, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation were used. These data were obtained from the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET). Time series of simulated maize yields were computed with CERES-maize model for periods ranging from 22 to 49 years, depending on the observed climate data available for each location. The computed standardized anomalies yields were projected on different oceanic and atmospheric anomalous fields and the resulting patterns were compared with a set of documented patterns from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The results can be useful also for climate change impact assessment, providing a scientific basis for selection of climate change scenarios where combined natural and forced variability represent a hazard for agricultural production. Interpretation of impact projections would also be enhanced.

  15. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in irrigated cropping systems in northeastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Arvin R; Halvorson, Ardell D; Reule, Curtis A; Liu, Xuejun J

    2006-01-01

    The impact of management on global warming potential (GWP), crop production, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in irrigated agriculture is not well documented. A no-till (NT) cropping systems study initiated in 1999 to evaluate soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in irrigated agriculture was used in this study to make trace gas flux measurements for 3 yr to facilitate a complete greenhouse gas accounting of GWP and GHGI. Fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O were measured using static, vented chambers, one to three times per week, year round, from April 2002 through October 2004 within conventional-till continuous corn (CT-CC) and NT continuous corn (NT-CC) plots and in NT corn-soybean rotation (NT-CB) plots. Nitrogen fertilizer rates ranged from 0 to 224 kg N ha(-1). Methane fluxes were small and did not differ between tillage systems. Nitrous oxide fluxes increased linearly with increasing N fertilizer rate each year, but emission rates varied with years. Carbon dioxide efflux was higher in CT compared to NT in 2002 but was not different by tillage in 2003 or 2004. Based on soil respiration and residue C inputs, NT soils were net sinks of GWP when adequate fertilizer was added to maintain crop production. The CT soils were smaller net sinks for GWP than NT soils. The determinant for the net GWP relationship was a balance between soil respiration and N2O emissions. Based on soil C sequestration, only NT soils were net sinks for GWP. Both estimates of GWP and GHGI indicate that when appropriate crop production levels are achieved, net CO2 emissions are reduced. The results suggest that economic viability and environmental conservation can be achieved by minimizing tillage and utilizing appropriate levels of fertilizer.

  16. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  17. Residual soil nitrate content and profitability of five cropping systems in northwest Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Schuiteman, Matthew A.; Vos, Ronald J.

    2017-01-01

    Many communities in the Midwestern United States obtain their drinking water from shallow alluvial wells that are vulnerable to contamination by NO3-N from the surrounding agricultural landscape. The objective of this research was to assess cropping systems with the potential to produce a reasonable return for farmers while simultaneously reducing the risk of NO3-N movement into these shallow aquifers. From 2009 to 2013 we conducted a field experiment in northwest Iowa in which we evaluated five cropping systems for residual (late fall) soil NO3-N content and profitability. Soil samples were taken annually from the top 30 cm of the soil profile in June and August, and from the top 180 cm in November (late fall). The November samples were divided into 30 cm increments for analysis. Average residual NO3-N content in the top 180 cm of the soil profile following the 2010 to 2013 cropping years was 134 kg ha-1 for continuous maize (Zea mays L.) with a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop, 18 kg ha-1 for perennial grass, 60 kg ha-1 for a three year oat (Avena sativa L.)-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-maize rotation, 85 kg ha-1 for a two year oat/red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)-maize rotation, and 90 kg ha-1 for a three year soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize rotation. However, residual NO3-N in the 90 to 180 cm increment of the soil profile was not significantly higher in the oat-alfalfa-maize cropping system than the perennial grass system. For 2010 to 2013, average profit ($ ha-1 yr-1) was 531 for continuous corn, 347 for soybean-winter wheat-maize, 264 for oat-alfalfa-maize, 140 for oat/red clover-maize, and -384 (loss) for perennial grass. Considering both residual soil NO3-N and profitability data, the oat-alfalfa-maize rotation performed the best in this setting. However, given current economic pressures widespread adoption is likely to require changes in public policy. PMID:28248976

  18. Effect of Cropping System and Contouring or Download Sowing on Soil Water Erosion under no Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marioti, J.; Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Barbosa, F. T.; Ramos, J. C.; Werner, R. S.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Tanaka, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water erosion is the main responsible factor of soil and water losses, thus also causing soil degradation, especially on agricultural land, and it is also one factor of degradation outside the place of the origin of erosion. No tillage agriculture has been practiced in the last few decades for the purposes of water erosion control in various regions of Brazil. However, it has been shown that no tillage does not adequately control water erosion unless other complementary conservationist practices such as contour tillage or terracement. Although the erosion problem is widely recognized, there are still difficulties in estimating their magnitude, the environmental impact and the economic consequences, especially when it occurs in a conservation system like no tillage. The aim of this study was to quantify runoff and soil losses by water erosion under five different soil tillage treatments at Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. A field study was carried out using a rotating-boom rainfall simulator with 64 mmh-1 rainfall intensity for 90 minutes. Four rainfall tests were applied over the experimental period, one in each of the successive soybean and maize crop stages. Both soil cover by surface crop residue and soil cover by soybean and maize plant canopy were measured immediately before each rainfall test. Soil and water losses were smaller when sowing in contour than when sowing downslope. Contouring has promoted an average reduction of 42% in soil losses and 20% in water losses. Maize crop has promoted an average reduction of 19% in soil losses and 12% in water losses, in relation to the soybean crop. Therefore runoff rates and soil losses were higher in the downslope plots and in the soybean crop. Soil cover by previous crop residue was an important factor for reducing soil losses. Runoff rates were influenced by the soil water content before each rainfall test (R2= 0.78). The highest runoff occurred during the third simulated rainfall test, with the 83% of the

  19. Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

  20. A systems approach to identify adaptation strategies for Midwest US cropping systems under increased climate variability and change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, B.; Dumont, B.

    2015-12-01

    A systems approach was implemented to assess the impact of management strategies and climate variability on crop yield, nitrate leaching and soil organic carbon across the the Midwest US at a fine scale spatial resolution. We used the SALUS model which designed to simulated yield and environmental outcomes of continous crop rotations under different agronomic management, soil, weather. We extracted soil parameters from the SSURGO (Soil Survey Geographic) data of nine Midwest states (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, OH, SD, WI) and weather from NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis). State specific management itineraries were extracted from USDA-NAS. We present the results different cropping systems (continuous corn, corn-soybean and extended rotations) under different management practices (no-tillage, cover crops and residue management). Simulations were conducted under both the baseline (1979-2014) and projected climatic projections (RCP2.5, 6). Results indicated that climate change would likely have a negative impact on corn yields in some areas and positive in others. Soil N, and C losses can be reduced with the adoption of conservation practices.