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Sample records for c3h mouse fibrosarcoma

  1. Molecular characterization of novel H-2 class I molecules expressed by a C3H UV-induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, M; Lewis, K D; Rovner, D M

    1985-01-01

    Two novel class I-like molecules expressed on tumor 1591, a C3H UV-induced fibrosarcoma, are biochemically characterized using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, a cross-blocking RIA, and tryptic peptide mapping. One novel molecule that reacts with CP28, a syngeneic tumor-specific monoclonal antibody, appears mosaic because it possesses characteristics of both Kk and Dk class I molecules. The second molecule is closely related but not identical to the bona fide Ld molecule expressed on BALB/c spleen. Thus 1591 expresses at least two novel class I molecules and is vigorously rejected by normal C3H mice, while a variant tumor derived from 1591, termed AS7, does not express these two class I molecules although it still expresses Kk and Dk. The significance of these observations to the immunobiology and genetics of the UV-induced fibrosarcoma system is discussed. Speculations on the role that the major histocompatibility complex may play in the immunosurveillance of neoplasms are also presented. Images PMID:3860872

  2. Electrochemical treatment of mouse and rat fibrosarcomas with direct current

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.K.; McDougall, J.A.; Ahn, C.; Vora, N.

    1997-03-01

    Electrochemical treatment (ECT) of cancer utilizes direct current to produce chemical changes in tumors. ECT has been suggested as an effective alternative local cancer therapy. However, a methodology is not established, and mechanisms are not well studied. In vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ECT on animal tumor models. Radiation-induced fibrosarcomas were implanted subcutaneously in 157 female C3H/HeJ mice. Larger rat fibrosarcomas were implanted on 34 female Fisher 344 rats. When the spheroidal tumors reached 10 mm in the mice, two to five platinum electrodes were inserted into the tumors at various spacings and orientations. Ten rats in a pilot group were treated when their ellipsoidal tumors were about 25 mm long; electrode insertion was similar to the later part of the mouse study; i.e., two at the base and two at the center. A second group of 24 rats was treated with six or seven electrodes when their tumors were about 20 mm long; all electrodes were inserted at the tumor base. Of the 24 rats, 12 of these were treated once, 10 were treated twice, and 2 were treated thrice. All treated tumors showed necrosis and regression for both mice and rats; however, later tumor recurrence reduced long-term survival. When multiple treatments were implemented, the best 3 month mouse tumor cure rate was 59.3%, and the best 6 month rat tumor cure rate was 75.0%. These preliminary results indicate that ECT is effective on the radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) mouse tumor and rat fibrosarcoma. The effectiveness is dependent on electrode placement and dosage.

  3. Thermochemotherapy in vivo of a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma: thermotolerant tumours.

    PubMed

    Monge, O R; Rofstad, E K

    1989-01-01

    The ability of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and mitomycin C (MMC) to modify the expression of thermotolerance in vivo at 43.5 degrees C was investigated in a transplantable C3H mouse mammary carcinoma grown s.c. in feet of C3D2F1/Bom mice. Dose-effect curves subjected to linear regression analysis were constructed for single-fraction treatment and for a second treatment 24 h after a priming heat treatment of 43.5 degrees C for 30 min. Tumour volume doubling time during regrowth showed no significant variation among treatment groups, justifying the use of tumour growth time as effect parameter. Thermotolerance ratio for heat alone was 11.6 +/- 2.3. Drug enhancement ratio in thermotolerant tumours was 6.2 +/- 1.4 for CTX (100 mg/kg) and 3.5 +/- 0.9 for MMC (3 mg/kg). These values are about 4 and 3 times larger than the corresponding enhancement ratios found for previously untreated tumours. Thermotolerance ratio for thermochemotherapy was 2.6 +/- 0.3 for CTX and 4.4 +/- 0.7 for MMC, i.e. the degree of thermotolerance was substantially reduced by both drugs, but not completely overcome. Thermal enhancement ratio for CTX and MMC was about equally large in thermotolerant and previously untreated tumours. Thermotolerant tumours showed a tendency for increased resistance to drug treatment alone. Both CTX and MMC may be used clinically to reduce the expression of thermotolerance, particularly in situations with inhomogeneous heating and short fractionation intervals.

  4. EVALUATION OF BENZO[C]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVALUATION OF BENZO[c]CHRYSENE DIHYDRODIOLS IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLAST C3H10T?CL8 CELLS

    Abstract The morphological cell transforming activities of three dihydrodiols of benzo[c]chrysene (B[c]C), trans-B[c]C-7,8-diol, trans-B[c]C-9...

  5. Runx1 and Runx3 Are Downstream Effectors of Nanog in Promoting Osteogenic Differentiation of the Mouse Mesenchymal Cell Line C3H10T1/2.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tadahito; Ohba, Shinsuke; Yano, Fumiko; Seto, Ichiro; Yonehara, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ogasawara, Toru

    2015-06-01

    Previously, we reported that the transcription factor Nanog, which maintains the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), promotes the osteogenic differentiation of the mouse mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 through a genome reprogramming process. In the present study, to clarify the mechanism underlying the multipotency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to develop a novel approach to bone regenerative medicine, we attempted to identify the downstream effectors of Nanog in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal cells. We demonstrated that Runx1 and Runx3 are the downstream effectors of Nanog, especially in the early and intermediate osteogenic differentiation of the mouse mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. PMID:26053522

  6. Variable phenotypic expressivity in inbred retinal degeneration mouse lines: A comparative study of C3H/HeOu and FVB/N rd1 mice

    PubMed Central

    van Wyk, Michiel; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent advances in optogenetics and gene therapy have led to promising new treatment strategies for blindness caused by retinal photoreceptor loss. Preclinical studies often rely on the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1 or Pde6brd1) retinitis pigmentosa (RP) mouse model. The rd1 founder mutation is present in more than 100 actively used mouse lines. Since secondary genetic traits are well-known to modify the phenotypic progression of photoreceptor degeneration in animal models and human patients with RP, negligence of the genetic background in the rd1 mouse model is unwarranted. Moreover, the success of various potential therapies, including optogenetic gene therapy and prosthetic implants, depends on the progress of retinal degeneration, which might differ between rd1 mice. To examine the prospect of phenotypic expressivity in the rd1 mouse model, we compared the progress of retinal degeneration in two common rd1 lines, C3H/HeOu and FVB/N. Methods We followed retinal degeneration over 24 weeks in FVB/N, C3H/HeOu, and congenic Pde6b+ seeing mouse lines, using a range of experimental techniques including extracellular recordings from retinal ganglion cells, PCR quantification of cone opsin and Pde6b transcripts, in vivo flash electroretinogram (ERG), and behavioral optokinetic reflex (OKR) recordings. Results We demonstrated a substantial difference in the speed of retinal degeneration and accompanying loss of visual function between the two rd1 lines. Photoreceptor degeneration and loss of vision were faster with an earlier onset in the FVB/N mice compared to C3H/HeOu mice, whereas the performance of the Pde6b+ mice did not differ significantly in any of the tests. By postnatal week 4, the FVB/N mice expressed significantly less cone opsin and Pde6b mRNA and had neither ERG nor OKR responses. At 12 weeks of age, the retinal ganglion cells of the FVB/N mice had lost all light responses. In contrast, 4-week-old C3H/HeOu mice still had ERG and OKR responses, and we

  7. Overexpression of {alpha}-catenin increases osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dohee; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Shin, Chan Soo

    2009-05-15

    {alpha}- and {beta}-Catenin link cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton at adherens junctions and regulate cell-cell adhesion. Although roles of cadherins and canonical Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling in osteoblastic differentiation have been extensively studied, the role of {alpha}-catenin is not known. Murine embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells, were transduced with retrovirus encoding {alpha}-catenin (MSCV-{alpha}-catenin-HA-GFP). In the presence of Wnt-3A conditioned medium or osteogenic medium ({beta}-glycerol phosphate and ascorbic acid), cells overexpressing {alpha}-catenin showed enhanced osteoblastic differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP activity assay compared to cells transduced with empty virus (MSCV-GFP). In addition, mRNA expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 was significantly increased compared to control. Cell aggregation assay revealed that {alpha}-catenin overexpression has significantly increased cell-cell aggregation. However, cellular {beta}-catenin levels (total, cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio) and {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF transcriptional activity did not change by overexpression of {alpha}-catenin. Knock-down of {alpha}-catenin using siRNA decreased osteoblastic differentiation as measured by ALP assay. These results suggest that {alpha}-catenin overexpression increases osteoblastic differentiation by increasing cell-cell adhesion rather than Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling.

  8. 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marci J; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2004-09-01

    Evidence suggests that biologically active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], may inhibit carcinogenesis. Because angiogenesis is crucial to carcinogenesis, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulation of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was investigated in cellular models for multistage carcinogenesis. Conditioned media from 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated C3H10T(1/2) mouse fibroblasts and their Harvey ras-oncogene transfected counterparts (rasneo11a cells) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation (1.3 and 0.3 times, respectively, P < 0.05), suggesting that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) altered the angiogenic phenotype of the cells. Although rasneo11a cells secreted less VEGF than C3H10T(1/2) cells (97%, P < 0.005), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced C3H10T(1/2) and rasneo11a cells to secrete 2 and 3 times, respectively, more VEGF than controls (P < 0.05). Similar effects on VEGF release occurred after 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment of MCF10A and MCF10Aras cells, a human breast epithelial cell model for multistage carcinogenesis. In C3H10T(1/2) cells, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activated the VEGF promoter in a dose-dependent (5-100 nmol/L) manner (maximum 60%) and all doses induced VEGF secretion (P < 0.05). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced VEGF mRNA expression ( approximately 50%) from 2 through 24 h; VEGF release was significantly increased at 8 h and sustained for 24 h. VEGF mRNA expression and release declined as C3H10T(1/2) cells grew more confluent, whereas the magnitude of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated changes in VEGF was greater in confluent (3.3 times RNA; 3.5 times release) than in subconfluent (50% RNA; 100% release) cultures (P < 0.05). Thus, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increases VEGF secretion, and in C3H10T(1/2) cells, this is likely through activation of the VEGF promoter and induction of gene expression. These data contribute to understanding the role 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays in regulation of angiogenesis in normal compared with disease states.

  9. The C3H/HeJ mouse and DEBR rat models for alopecia areata: review of preclinical drug screening approaches and results

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Silva, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Kevin J.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strain and the Dundee Experimental Bald Rat (DEBR) strain spontaneously develop adult onset alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated disease directed against actively growing hair follicles. The low frequency of AA and the inability to predict the stage of AA as it evolves in the naturally occuring C3H/HeJ model of AA can be converted into a highly predictable system by grafting full thickness skin from AA affected mice to normal haired mice of the same strain. The rat DEBR model develops spontaneous AA at a higher frequency than in the mouse model but they are more expensive to use in drug studies due to their larger size. Regardless of the shortcomings of either model, these rodent models can be used succesfully to screen novel or approved drugs for efficacy to treat human AA. Since the pathogenesis of AA follows the canonical lymphocytic co-stimulatory cascade in the mouse AA model, it can be used to screen compounds potentially useful to treat a variety of cell mediated diseases. Efficacy of various agents can easily be screened by simply observing the presence, rate, and cosmetic acceptability of hair regrowth. More sophisticated assays can refine how the drugs induce hair regrowth and evaluate the underlying pathogenesis of AA. Some drugs commonly used to treat human AA patients work equally as well in both rodent models validating their usefulness as models for drug efficacy and safety for human AA. PMID:18798913

  10. Clastogenic action of hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acids on the mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T 1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Ochi, T.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1987-02-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces the release of a low molecular weight clastogenic factor from monocytes. Hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acids represent major components of clastogenic factor. The authors report that several isomeric hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acids efficiently induce DNA strand breakage and/or alkali-labile sites in the mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T 1/2. Fe chelation by desferrioxamine suppresses breakage indicating the participation of Fe-catalyzed radical reactions. An additional 37% inhibition is observed upon addition of the Ca/sup 2 +/ chelators EGTA and quin-2. This result suggests that hydroxy-peroxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acid may activate a Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent nuclease. The addition of the antioxidant enzymes CuZn-superoxide dismutase and catalase had no effect, while glutathione peroxidase suppressed strand breakage by 90%.

  11. Clastogenic action of hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acids on the mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T1/2.

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, T; Cerutti, P A

    1987-01-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces the release of a low molecular weight clastogenic factor from monocytes. Hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acids represent major components of clastogenic factor. We report that several isomeric hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acids efficiently induce DNA strand breakage and/or alkali-labile sites in the mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T1/2. Fe chelation by desferrioxamine suppresses breakage by approximately equal to 42% indicating the participation of Fe-catalyzed radical reactions. An additional 37% inhibition is observed upon addition of the Ca2+ chelators EGTA and quin-2. This result suggests that hydroxyperoxy-5,8,11,13-icosatetraenoic acid may activate a Ca2+-dependent nuclease. The addition of the antioxidant enzymes CuZn-superoxide dismutase and catalase had no effect, while glutathione peroxidase suppressed strand breakage by 90%. To our knowledge, our results yield a first insight into the mechanism of action of monocyte clastogenic factor and the role of inflammation in tumor promotion. PMID:3469656

  12. Factors influencing the promotion of transformation in chemically-initiated C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Frazelle, J H; Abernethy, D J; Boreiko, C J

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of low density asynchronous cultures of C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 mouse embryo fibroblasts with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) initiates the process of transformation and produces significant numbers of transformed foci only when treated cultures are subsequently exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Cell culture variables which influence the outcome of this initiation and promotion system were studied. A TPA concentration of 0.25 micrograms/ml was found to be optimal for the promotion of focus production and the presence of TPA was required both during logarithmic growth and throughout confluence. The lot of fetal calf serum used to cultivate the cells also played a determining role in focus production. Of nine serum lots purchased from four different suppliers, only two were suited for initiation and promotion studies with MNNG and TPA. In contrast, seven of these lots were adequate for transformation studies with 3-methylcholanthrene. Factors which adversely influenced focus production included the use of fungizone or the use of high passage stock cultures. These studies demonstrate that cell culture variables which influence promotion in these cells can be controlled and that this system can be successfully used in studies of the cellular mechanism of in vitro promotion and for the detection of genotoxic substances.

  13. Molecular biology of deregulated gene expression in transformed C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo cell lines induced by specific insoluble carcinogenic nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Landolph, Joseph R; Verma, Anuradha; Ramnath, Jamuna; Clemens, Farrah

    2002-10-01

    In the past, exposure of workers to mixtures of soluble and insoluble nickel compounds by inhalation during nickel refining correlated with increased incidences of lung and nasal cancers. Insoluble nickel subsulfide and nickel oxide (NiO) are carcinogenic in animals by inhalation; soluble nickel sulfate is not. Particles of insoluble nickel compounds were phagocytized by C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo cells and induced morphological transformation in these cells with the following order of potency: NiO (black) > NiO (green) > nickel subsulfide. Foci induced by black/green NiO and nickel monosulfide developed into anchorage-independent transformed cell lines. Random arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction mRNA differential display showed that nine c-DNA fragments are differentially expressed between nontransformed and nickel compound-transformed 10T1/2 cell lines in 6% of total mRNA; 130 genes would be differentially expressed in 100% of the mRNA. Fragment R3-2 was a sequence in the mouse calnexin gene, fragment R3-1 a portion of the Wdr1 gene, and fragment R2-4 a portion of the ect-2 protooncogene. These three genes were overexpressed in transformed cell lines. Fragment R1-2 was 90% homologous to a fragment of the DRIP/TRAP-80 (vitamin D receptor interacting protein/thyroid hormone receptor-activating protein 80) genes and was expressed in nontransformed but not in nickel-transformed cell lines. Specific insoluble carcinogenic nickel compounds are phagocytized into 10T1/2 cells and likely generate oxygen radicals, which would cause mutations in protooncogenes, and chromosome breakage, and mutations in tumor suppressor genes, inactivating them. These compounds also induce methylation of promoters of tumor suppressor genes, inactivating them. This could lead to permanent overexpresssion of the ect-2, calnexin, and Wdr1 genes and suppression of expression of the DRIP/TRAP-80 gene that we observed, which likely contribute to induction and maintenance of transformed

  14. Molecular biology of nickel carcinogenesis: identification of differentially expressed genes in morphologically transformed C3H10T1/2 Cl 8 mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines induced by specific insoluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rini; Ramnath, Jamuna; Clemens, Farrah; Kaspin, Lisa C; Landolph, Joseph R

    2004-01-01

    Inhalation of mixtures of insoluble and soluble nickel compounds by humans during nickel refining has been associated with excess lung and nasal sinus cancers. Insoluble nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) and nickel oxide (NiO) are carcinogenic to rodents by inhalation. We previously showed that insoluble Ni3S2, crystalline nickel monosulfide (NiS), and green (high temperature, HT) and black (low temperature, LT) NiO, induced morphological transformation in cultured C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 (10T1/2) mouse embryo cells. To understand molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis by insoluble nickel compounds, we used random, arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) mRNA differential display and identified nine cDNA fragments that were differentially expressed between nontransformed and nickel-transformed cell lines in approximately 10.0% of the total mRNA. Expression of the calnexin gene (encoding a type I membrane protein/molecular chaperone), the ect-2 proto-oncogene, and the stress-inducible gene, Wdr1, was upregulated. Expression of six genes--the vitamin D interacting protein/thyroid hormone activating protein 80 (DRIP/TRAP-80) gene, the insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1) gene, the small nuclear activating protein (SNAP C3) gene, and three unknown genes, was down-regulated, in nickel-transformed cell lines. We hypothesize that these resulting aberrations in gene expression could contribute to the induction and/or maintenance of morphological transformation induced by specific insoluble nickel compounds. PMID:14971661

  15. 8,9-dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene is a potent morphological cell-transforming agent in C3H10T(1)/(2)Cl8 mouse embryo fibroblasts in the absence of detectable stable covalent DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, S; Davis, C; Padgett, W T; Adams, L; Yacopucci, M; King, L C

    2000-06-01

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9-dihydroxy-8, 9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def, p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3H10T(1)/(2)Cl8 (C3H10T(1)/(2)) fibroblasts was investigated. The C3H10T(1)/(2) mouse embryo morphological cell-transforming activities of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assayed using concentration-response studies. At concentrations of 33 nM and above both trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol and DB[a,l]P produced significant (and similar) numbers of type II and III foci per dish and numbers of dishes with type II and II foci. Concomitant cytotoxicity studies revealed a reduction in colony survival of approximately 25% up to 198 nM for both PAHs. DNA adducts of trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol and DB[a,l]P in C3H10T(1)/(2) cells were analyzed by a (32)P-post-labeling TLC/HPLC method. No adducts were observed in the DNA of C3H10T(1)/(2) cells treated with trans-DB[a, l]P-8,9-diol at concentrations that induced morphological cell transformation. Under the same exposure and chromatographic conditions, DNA adducts of deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine derived from the fjord region anti-DB[a,l]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide and syn-DB[a,l]P-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide were observed in the DNA of DB[a,l]P-treated cells. These results indicate that trans-DB[a,l]P-8, 9-diol has intrinsic genotoxic activity equal to that of DB[a,l]P, based on morphological cell transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The activity of trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol is apparently not associated with the formation of observable stable covalent DNA adducts. These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, trans-DB[a,l]P-8,9-diol may serve as an intermediate in the genotoxicity of DB[a,l]P.

  16. Nano-Scaled Particles of Titanium Dioxide Convert Benign Mouse Fibrosarcoma Cells into Aggressive Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Kunishige; Sato, Yu; Ogawara, Satomi; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Yoshitake, Jun; Yoshimura, Tetsuhiko; Iigo, Masaaki; Fujii, Junichi; Okada, Futoshi

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are prevalent in both commercial and medicinal products; however, the contribution of nanomaterials to carcinogenesis remains unclear. We therefore examined the effects of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) on poorly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 fibrosarcoma cells. We found that mice that were cotransplanted subcutaneously with QR-32 cells and nano-sized TiO2, either uncoated (TiO2−1, hydrophilic) or coated with stearic acid (TiO2−2, hydrophobic), did not form tumors. However, QR-32 cells became tumorigenic after injection into sites previously implanted with TiO2−1, but not TiO2−2, and these developing tumors acquired metastatic phenotypes. No differences were observed either histologically or in inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression between TiO2−1 and TiO2−2 treatments. However, TiO2−2, but not TiO2−1, generated high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell-free conditions. Although both TiO2−1 and TiO2−2 resulted in intracellular ROS formation, TiO2−2 elicited a stronger response, resulting in cytotoxicity to the QR-32 cells. Moreover, TiO2−2, but not TiO2−1, led to the development of nuclear interstices and multinucleate cells. Cells that survived the TiO2 toxicity acquired a tumorigenic phenotype. TiO2-induced ROS formation and its related cell injury were inhibited by the addition of antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine. These results indicate that nano-sized TiO2 has the potential to convert benign tumor cells into malignant ones through the generation of ROS in the target cells. PMID:19815711

  17. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M S; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu; Pandey, B N

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  18. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M S; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu; Pandey, B N

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  19. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M. S.; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  20. Effect of selenium on expression of selenoproteins in mouse fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Reszka, Edyta; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Stanczyk, Malgorzata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2005-05-01

    Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins as selenocysteine using insertion machinery, including UGA codon and selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mRNA. To assess the biological effects of tumor cells exposed to the elevated, but nontoxic Se level on glutathione peroxidase (GPx1 [cellular] and GPx3 [extracellular]), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression, we introduced a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique for each selenoprotein transcript using beta-actin as a reference housekeeping gene in mouse fibroblasts (WEHI 164). Cell lines were cultured with 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 ng of Se in 1 mL of medium for 3 and 7 d, apart from the control cell line with standard medium. It was found that Se exerts a statistically significant (p<0.05) effect only on GPx3 mRNA, referred to as the optical density (OD) ratio (GPx3/beta-actin). Moreover, the lowest Se level affected GPx3 mRNA expression more strongly than its highest concentrations. In an in vitro model applied in this study, GPx3 gene expression is most specific for Se supplementation. PMID:15894816

  1. An Observational Investigation of the Identity of B11244 (l-C3H+/C3H-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Gratier, Pierre; Guzmán, Viviana; Pety, Jerome; Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2014-03-01

    Pety et al. have reported the detection of eight transitions of a closed-shell, linear molecule (B11244) in observations toward the Horsehead photodissociation region (PDR), which they attribute to the l-C3H+ cation. Recent high-level ab initio calculations have called this assignment into question; the anionic C3H- molecule has been suggested as a more likely candidate. Here, we examine observations of the Horsehead PDR, Sgr B2(N), TMC-1, and IRC+10216 in the context of both l-C3H+ and C3H-. We find no observational evidence of Ka = 1 lines, which should be present were the carrier indeed C3H-. Additionally, we find a strong anticorrelation between the presence of known molecular anions and B11244 in these regions. Finally, we discuss the formation and destruction chemistry of C3H- in the context of the physical conditions in the regions. Based on these results, we conclude there is little evidence to support the claim that the carrier is C3H-.

  2. Arabidopsis C3H14 and C3H15 have overlapping roles in the regulation of secondary wall thickening and anther development.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guohua; Kong, Yingzhen; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Li; Qi, Guang; Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zengguang; Cao, Yingping; Yu, Changjiang; Zhou, Gongke

    2015-05-01

    Plant tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) proteins play diverse roles in developmental and adaptive processes. Arabidopsis C3H14 has been shown to act as a potential regulator of secondary wall biosynthesis. However, there is lack of direct evidence to support its functions in Arabidopsis. It is demonstrated here that C3H14 and its homologue C3H15 redundantly regulate secondary wall formation and that they additionally function in anther development. Plants with double, but not single, T-DNA mutants for C3H14 or C3H15 have few pollen grains and thinner stem secondary walls than the wild type. Plants homozygous for c3h14 and heterozygous for c3h15 [c3h14 c3h15(±)] have slightly thinner secondary walls than plants heterozygous for c3h14 and homozygous for c3h15 [c3h14(±) c3h15], and c3h14(±) c3h15 have lower fertility. Overexpression of C3H14 or C3H15 led to increased secondary wall thickness in stems and the ectopic deposition of secondary walls in various tissues, but did not affect anther morphology. Transcript profiles from the C3H14/15 overexpression and c3h14 c3h15 plants revealed marked changes in the expression of many genes associated with cell wall metabolism and pollen formation. Subcellular localization and biochemical analyses suggest that C3H14/15 might function at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  3. Development of mRuby2-Transfected C3H10T1/2 Fibroblasts for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts are multipotent, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitor cells that are widely used in musculoskeletal research. In this study, we have established a clonal population of C3H10T1/2 cells stably-transfected with mRuby2, an orange-red fluorescence reporter gene. Flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence imaging confirmed successful transfection of these cells. Cell counting studies showed that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells proliferated at similar rates. Adipogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Oil Red O and showed increased expression of adipogenic genes including adiponectin and lipoprotein lipase. Chondrogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Alcian Blue and showed increased expression of chondrogenic genes including aggrecan. Osteogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as Alizarin Red and showed increased expression of osteogenic genes including alp, ocn and osf-1. When seeded on calcium phosphate-based ceramic scaffolds, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells maintained even fluorescence labeling and osteogenic differentiation. In summary, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells exhibit mRuby2 fluorescence and showed little-to-no difference in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation as untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells. These cells will be available from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; CRL-3268™) and may be a valuable tool for preclinical studies. PMID:26407291

  4. Development of mRuby2-Transfected C3H10T1/2 Fibroblasts for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Sharma, Rashmi; Wang, Evelyna Tsi Hsin; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts are multipotent, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitor cells that are widely used in musculoskeletal research. In this study, we have established a clonal population of C3H10T1/2 cells stably-transfected with mRuby2, an orange-red fluorescence reporter gene. Flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence imaging confirmed successful transfection of these cells. Cell counting studies showed that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells proliferated at similar rates. Adipogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Oil Red O and showed increased expression of adipogenic genes including adiponectin and lipoprotein lipase. Chondrogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for Alcian Blue and showed increased expression of chondrogenic genes including aggrecan. Osteogenic differentiation experiments demonstrated that untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells and mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as Alizarin Red and showed increased expression of osteogenic genes including alp, ocn and osf-1. When seeded on calcium phosphate-based ceramic scaffolds, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells maintained even fluorescence labeling and osteogenic differentiation. In summary, mRuby2-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells exhibit mRuby2 fluorescence and showed little-to-no difference in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation as untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells. These cells will be available from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; CRL-3268™) and may be a valuable tool for preclinical studies. PMID:26407291

  5. Astronomical identification of the C3H radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Hjalmarson, A.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Irvine, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The C3H radical has been identified in the millimeter-wave spectra of IRC +10216 and TMC-1. In IRC +10216, four rotational transitions have been observed, three in the lower fine-structure ladder (2Pi1/2) and one in the upper (2Pi3/2), each a resolved or partially resolved lambda-doublet. In TMC-1, both lambda components of the lowest lying 3/2-1/2 transition of the 2Pi1/2 ladder have been observed, each with well-resolved hfs. In IRC +10216, the excitation of C3H is similar to that of SiCC: the rotational temperature Trot within the 2Pi1/2 ladder is low (8.5 K), because of rapid radiative decay, while Trot across the ladders is high (about 52 K), because interconnecting far-IR radiative transitions are only weakly permitted. The column density of C3H in IRC +10216 averaged over the estimated source diameter of 84 arcsec is 2.8 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm, an order of magnitude less than that of C2H and C4H.

  6. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  7. A search for interstellar oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Arrhenius, G; Pitsch, S; Bauder, A; Muller, F; Eschenmoser, A

    1996-04-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(-10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  8. A Search for Interstellar Oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Arrhenius, G.; Bauder, A.; Mueller, F.; Eschenmoser, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report a search in cold, quiescent and in 'hot core' type interstellar molecular clouds for the small cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (C3H3NO), which has been suggested as a precursor of important prebiotic molecules. We have determined upper limits to the column density and fractional abundance for the observed sources and find that, typically, the fractional abundance by number relative to molecular hydrogen Of C3H3NO is less than a few times 10(exp -10). This limit is one to two orders of magnitude less than the measured abundance of such similarly complex species as CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 in well-studied hot cores. A number of astrochemical discoveries were made, including the first detection of the species CH3CH2CN in the massive star-forming clouds G34.3+0.2 and W51M and the first astronomical detections of some eight rotational transitions of CH3CH2CN, CH3CCH, and HCOOCH3. In addition, we found 8 emission lines in the 89 GHz region and 18 in the 102 GHz region which we were unable to assign.

  9. Immunohistochemical observations on tumor suppressor gene p53 status in mouse fibrosarcoma following in-vivo photodynamic therapy: the role of xanthine oxidase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, Piotr P.; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Milnerowicz, Artur; Osiecka, Beata J.

    1997-12-01

    Tumor suppressor gene p53 expression in a mouse fibrosarcoma following in-vivo photodynamic therapy has been studied using the immunohistochemical method. Photodynamic treatment involved injections of the well known sensitizer -- hematoporphyrin derivative at the doses 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg of body weight and irradiations at the doses 25 and 50 J/sq cm. Glass slide preparations from PDT-treated tumors were obtained at different time points (15, 60 minutes, 2 and 24 hours) after therapy, subsequently stained for wild type/mutant p53, and assessed for positive reaction. High PDT doses (HpD -- 2.5 mg/kg; light dose -- 50 J/sq cm) correlated with decreased expression of p53 in tumor cells. The other part of the study was directed to measure the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the tumor cells. PDT included injections of HpD and light exposure at the same doses as for p53 study. We observed a complete inhibition of the enzyme activity. The slight increase in XO activity was found following treatment with either light or HpD alone.

  10. Infrared Predissociation Spectroscopy of the Hydrocarbon Cations C_3H^+, C_2H^+, and C_3H_2^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, Sandra; Lipparini, Filippo; Gauss, Jürgen; Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Reactive hydrocarbon cations play an important role in the astrochemistry of the interstellar medium, but spectroscopic data, needed for their identification in astronomical observations, is sparse. Here we report the first gas-phase vibrational spectra of the linear C_3H^+ (^1 Σ), the radical cation C_2H^+ (^3 Π), and the linear-/cyclic-C_3H_2^+ (^2 Π /^2A_1, resp.). Broadband spectra were recorded by Ne- and He-messenger infrared-predissociation (IR-PD) action spectroscopy in a cryogenic (4-11 K) ion trap instrument (FELion) in the 250-3500 {wn} range using a free electron laser and a MIR-OPO at the FELIX (Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments) laboratory. The band positions (determined with a precision of 1-2 wn) covering the C-H and C-C stretching as well as several bending modes are compared to high-level (CCSD(T) with large basis sets) quantum-chemical calculations with an emphasis on anharmonic effects and on the influence of the rare-gas messenger atom. The experimental and theoretical data provide a solid basis for subsequent IR high-resolution studies, with the ultimate goal to predict and measure accurate rotational spectra for a radio-astronomical search of these molecular ions in space.

  11. Trabecular and Cortical Bone of Growing C3H Mice Is Highly Responsive to the Removal of Weightbearing

    PubMed Central

    Judex, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic make-up strongly influences the skeleton’s susceptibility to the loss of weight bearing with some inbred mouse strains experiencing great amounts of bone loss while others lose bone at much smaller rates. At young adulthood, female inbred C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice are largely resistant to catabolic pressure induced by unloading. Here, we tested whether the depressed responsivity to unloading is inherent to the C3H genetic make-up or whether a younger age facilitates a robust skeletal response to unloading. Nine-week-old, skeletally immature, female C3H mice were subjected to 3wk of hindlimb unloading (HLU, n = 12) or served as normal baseline controls (BC, n = 10) or age-matched controls (AC, n = 12). In all mice, cortical and trabecular architecture of the femur, as well as levels of bone formation and resorption, were assessed with μCT, histomorphometry, and histology. Changes in bone marrow progenitor cell populations were determined with flow cytometry. Following 21d of unloading, HLU mice had 52% less trabecular bone in the distal femur than normal age-matched controls. Reflecting a loss of trabecular tissue compared to baseline controls, trabecular bone formation rates (BFR/BS) in HLU mice were 40% lower than in age-matched controls. Surfaces undergoing osteoclastic resorption were not significantly different between groups. In the mid-diaphysis, HLU inhibited cortical bone growth leading to 14% less bone area compared to age-matched controls. Compared to AC, BFR/BS of HLU mice were 53% lower at the endo-cortical surface and 49% lower at the periosteal surface of the mid-diaphysis. The enriched osteoprogenitor cell population (OPC) comprised 2% of the bone marrow stem cells in HLU mice, significantly different from 3% OPC in the AC group. These data show that bone tissue in actively growing C3H mice is lost rapidly, or fails to grow, during the removal of functional weight bearing—in contrast to the insignificant response previously demonstrated in

  12. Trabecular and Cortical Bone of Growing C3H Mice Is Highly Responsive to the Removal of Weightbearing.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Sankaran, Jeyantt Srinivas; Judex, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic make-up strongly influences the skeleton's susceptibility to the loss of weight bearing with some inbred mouse strains experiencing great amounts of bone loss while others lose bone at much smaller rates. At young adulthood, female inbred C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice are largely resistant to catabolic pressure induced by unloading. Here, we tested whether the depressed responsivity to unloading is inherent to the C3H genetic make-up or whether a younger age facilitates a robust skeletal response to unloading. Nine-week-old, skeletally immature, female C3H mice were subjected to 3wk of hindlimb unloading (HLU, n = 12) or served as normal baseline controls (BC, n = 10) or age-matched controls (AC, n = 12). In all mice, cortical and trabecular architecture of the femur, as well as levels of bone formation and resorption, were assessed with μCT, histomorphometry, and histology. Changes in bone marrow progenitor cell populations were determined with flow cytometry. Following 21d of unloading, HLU mice had 52% less trabecular bone in the distal femur than normal age-matched controls. Reflecting a loss of trabecular tissue compared to baseline controls, trabecular bone formation rates (BFR/BS) in HLU mice were 40% lower than in age-matched controls. Surfaces undergoing osteoclastic resorption were not significantly different between groups. In the mid-diaphysis, HLU inhibited cortical bone growth leading to 14% less bone area compared to age-matched controls. Compared to AC, BFR/BS of HLU mice were 53% lower at the endo-cortical surface and 49% lower at the periosteal surface of the mid-diaphysis. The enriched osteoprogenitor cell population (OPC) comprised 2% of the bone marrow stem cells in HLU mice, significantly different from 3% OPC in the AC group. These data show that bone tissue in actively growing C3H mice is lost rapidly, or fails to grow, during the removal of functional weight bearing-in contrast to the insignificant response previously demonstrated in female

  13. Infection of Interleukin 17 Receptor A-Deficient C3H Mice with Borrelia burgdorferi Does Not Affect Their Development of Lyme Arthritis and Carditis

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Carrie E.; Jamison, Kara E.; Sidelinger, Darcie R.; Pratt, Carmela L.; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a number of studies have reported the presence of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in patients with Lyme disease, and several murine studies have suggested a role for this cytokine in the development of Lyme arthritis. However, the role of IL-17 has not been studied using the experimental Lyme borreliosis model of infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. In the current study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in the development of experimental Lyme borreliosis by infecting C3H mice devoid of the common IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL-17RA) and thus deficient in most IL-17 signaling. Infection of both C3H and C3H IL-17RA−/− mice led to the production of high levels of IL-17 in the serum, low levels in the heart tissue, and no detectable IL-17 in the joint tissue. The development and severity of arthritis and carditis in the C3H IL-17RA−/− mice were similar to what was seen in wild-type C3H mice. In addition, development of antiborrelia antibodies and clearance of spirochetes from tissues were similar for the two mouse strains. These results demonstrate a limited role for IL-17 signaling through IL-17RA in the development of disease following infection of C3H mice with B. burgdorferi. PMID:25939508

  14. [Neonatal pulmonary fibrosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Desrousseaux, B; Gourdin, C; Atat, I; Podvin, A; Vix, M; Dusol, F; Bayart, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of pulmonary fibrosarcoma in a newborn. The respiratory distress imposed an urgent thoracotomy at the fifth hour of live. A lobectomy was performed. Three months later a relapse occurred. A second thoracotomy permitted an incomplete resection. The total involution was achieved after 6 months of chemotherapy. Actually no recidive is shown after 20 months of follow up. Its an exceptional case. A unique one was published in 1977. PMID:2698289

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4910_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4910_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4265_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4265_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4259_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4259_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1111, LB4254_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1111, LB4254_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4918_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4918_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4267_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4267_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4273_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4273_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4271_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H7NO N,N-Dimethylmethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4271_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4251_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4251_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4926_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4926_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4261_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C3H6O2 Methyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4261_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. A comparison of the infrared multiphoton dissociation of C 3H 5C(CH 3) 3 and C 3H 5Ge(CH 3) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitneva, G. P.

    1999-07-01

    The CO 2 laser-induced multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of C 3H 5X(CH 3) 3 molecules (X=C or Ge) in the gas phase was studied. Average energy absorbed by molecules with C at dissociation threshold is higher than that for Ge-containing molecules. The dependence of fragmentation probability of X(CH 3) 3, formed from MPD of C 3H 5X(CH 3) 3, on the laser fluence is different for molecules with C or Ge. The distinctions in MPD of these molecules can be attributed to the heavy-atom effect on the vibrational energy transfer over the molecule.

  7. Immunotoxicity of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor in female ICR, BALB/c, and C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Koichi; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Ohnuma, Aya; Tajima, Yukari; Kashimoto, Yukiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Several types of pesticides, including organochlorines, are known to suppress or modulate immune responses. The present study evaluated the immunotoxicity of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) in female BALB/c, C3H/He, and ICR mice. Mice were given oral MXC doses of 0, 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg each day for 7 consecutive days. On day 4, the mice also received an intravenous injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) IgM response and the serum anti-SRBC IgM antibody titer were evaluated while splenic lymphocytes were counted by flow cytometry and the spleen underwent histopathological analysis. Significant decreases in IgM PFC responses were seen in BALB/c, C3H/He, and ICR mice that received MXC doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. Similar changes in serum anti-SRBC IgM antibody titers occurred in three strain mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly decreased splenic T-cell (CD3+) populations in a dose dependent manner in BALB/c mice, and in the 300 mg/kg of MXC-treated group of C3H/He mice. Germinal center (GC) B-cell (CD19+PNA+) populations were significantly decreased in the 300 mg/kg of MXC-treated groups of all three mouse strains and in the 30 and 100 mg/kg of MXC-treated groups of BALB/c and C3H/He strain mice. Histopathological analysis revealed decreased cellularity of the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS; T-cell area) and decreased GC development in all three strains of mice treated with 300 mg/kg MXC. These results suggest that MXC has an immune-suppressive effect in mice, and that our protocol may be useful for rapidly detecting immunosuppression induced by environmental chemicals.

  8. 8,9-DIHYDROXY-8,9-DIHYDRODIBENZO[A,L]PYRENE IS A POTENT MORPHOLOGICAL CELL-TRANSFORMING AGENT IN C3H10T1/2C18 MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS IN THE ABSENCE OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans- DB[a,l]P8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3HIOT1/2C18 (C3HIOT1/...

  9. Tumour incidence, growth, reproduction and longevity in female C3H mice fed polyunsaturated ruminant-derived foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Pennycuik, P R; Fogerty, A C; Willcox, M E; Ferris, M C; Baxter, R I; Johnson, A R

    1979-06-01

    Earlier studies with the random-bred Quackenbush mouse strain showed that human-type diets based on linoleic acid-enriched foodstuffs derived from ruminants fed protected polyunsaturated oils have no detrimental effects on growth, reproduction or longevity. Tumour incidence and time of onset of tumour development have now been studied in the inbred, tumour-prone mouse strain C3H, in addition to growth, reproduction and longevity. Mice were fed a polyunsaturated human diet, a conventional human diet, or mouse cubes. The results with C3H mice tended to confirm those with Quackenbush strain mice-growth rates and reproductive productivities were very similar in the two groups eating human diets. Mice on the conventional human diet tended to survive better to about 60 weeks of age than mice on the polyunsaturated diet or the cube diet, after which the mortality rates of the mice on the three diets were similar. The degree of unsaturation of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the incidence of tumours. The tumour incidence was about 40% which, taken in conjunction with the average age of onset (about 80 weeks), suggested that the NIV virus rather than the MMTV virus was responsible. It would appear that the high-fat human diets had no effect on the incidence of mammary tumours caused by this virus.

  10. Crossed-beam radical-radical reaction dynamics of O(3P)+C3H3-->H(2S)+C3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Lee-Kyoung; Nam, Mi-Ja; Youn, Sung-Eui; Joo, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Hohjai; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2006-05-01

    The radical-radical oxidation reaction, O(P3)+C3H3(propargyl)→H(S2)+C3H2O (propynal), was investigated using vacuum-ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a crossed-beam configuration, together with ab initio and statistical calculations. The barrierless addition of O(P3) to C3H3 is calculated to form energy-rich addition complexes on the lowest doublet potential energy surface, which subsequently undergo direct decomposition steps leading to the major reaction products, H +C3H2O (propynal). According to the nascent H-atom Doppler-profile analysis, the average translational energy of the products and the fraction of the average transitional energy to the total available energy were determined to be 5.09±0.36kcal/mol and 0.077, respectively. On the basis of a comparison with statistical prior calculations, the reaction mechanism and the significant internal excitation of the polyatomic propynal product can be rationalized in terms of the formation of highly activated, short-lived addition-complex intermediates and the adiabaticity of the excess available energy along the reaction coordinate.

  11. The C3H2 2(20)-2(11) transition: absorption in cold dark clouds.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H E; Madden, S C; Avery, L W; Irvine, W M

    1986-08-15

    The first observations of the 2(20)-2(11) transition of cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) at 21.6 GHz are described. In all cases where it has been detected, the line appears in absorption, showing that this transition is "refrigerated" (i.e., Tex < 2.7 K) in cold dust clouds. These results are compared with those for the 1(10)-1(01) transition of C3H2, and the consequences for the excitation of C3H2 qualitatively discussed.

  12. Increased radiation-induced transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells after transfer of an exogenous c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, V; Drozdoff, V; Zeitz, L; Fleissner, E

    1987-01-01

    C3H/10T1/2 cells were infected with a retroviral vector expressing a mouse c-myc oncogene and a drug-selection marker. The resulting cells, morphologically indistinguishable from C3H/10T1/2, displayed a greatly enhanced sensitivity to neoplastic transformation by ionizing radiation or by a chemical carcinogen. Constitutive expression of myc therefore appears to synergize with an initial carcinogenic event, providing a function analogous to a subsequent event that apparently is required for the neoplastic transformation of these cells. This cell system should prove useful in exploring early stages in radiation-induced transformation. Images PMID:3473497

  13. Experimental and theoretical study on the thermal decomposition of C3H6 (propene).

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Chung; Tsai, Chieh-Ying; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Wang, Niann-Shiah; Miyoshi, Akira

    2015-02-26

    The mechanism of the thermal unimolecular decomposition of C3H6 (propene) is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The potential energy surfaces for possible reaction pathways are investigated by CBS-QB3 level of quantum chemical calculations, and RRKM/master-equation calculation is performed for the main channels. The time evolutions of H atoms are observed experimentally by using a highly sensitive detection technique (ARAS, detection limit ≈ 10(11) atoms cm(-3)) behind reflected shock waves (0.5-1.0 ppm C3H6 diluted in Ar, 1450-1710 K at 2.0 atm). The objective of this study is to examine the main product channels by combining the experimental and theoretical investigations on the yield and the rates of H atom production. Present quantum chemical calculations identify reactions (1a-1d) as the candidates of product channels: C3H6 → aC3H5 (allyl radical) + H (1a), C3H6 → CH3 + C2H3 (vinyl radical) (1b), C3H6 → CH4 + :CCH2 (singlet vinyldene radical) (1c), and C3H6 → C3H4 (allene) + H2 (1d). The RRKM calculations reveal the branching fractions for (1a), (1b), and (1c) to be approximately 0.8, 0.2, and 0.01, respectively. Reaction (1d) and other product channels are negligible (< 0.1 %), and the pressure dependence of the branching fraction is small under the present experimental conditions. The experimental yield of H atoms (1.7-2.0) is consistent with the theoretical branching fractions considering the H-atom production from the rapid subsequent thermal decomposition of a C3H5 and C2H3. From the observed time profiles of H atoms, the rate of overall thermal decomposition of C3H6 can be evaluated as Ln(k1/s(-1)) = (38.05 ± 1.18) - (48.91 ± 1.85) × 10(3) K/T, which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  14. A survey of cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) in galactic sources.

    PubMed

    Madden, S C; Irvine, W M; Matthews, H E; Friberg, P; Swade, D A

    1989-05-01

    We report the results of an initial survey in a variety of Galactic sources for cyclopropenylidene (C3H2), the first interstellar hydrocarbon ring molecule. C3H2 is found to be very widespread throughout the Galaxy. This, together with its large dipole moment and many observable transitions, makes cyclopropenylidene a promising probe for physical conditions in the interstellar medium. The ortho 1(10)-1(01) transition at 18 GHz is detected in a variety of environments, including giant molecular clouds, diffuse clouds, cold dark clouds, the spiral arm clouds in the direction of distant continuum sources, and the envelope of the carbon star IRC + 10216. The 2(20)-2(11) para line at 21.6 GHz was surveyed in many sources having strong 1(10)-1(01) emission, and, when detected, it was always seen in absorption. A more limited survey of the ortho 2(12)-1(01) transition at 85.3 GHz has been conducted. In addition, the 2(11)-2(02) line of the para species at 46.8 GHz was detected in the dark clouds TMC-1 and L134N. Maps have been made of the clouds TMC-1, L134N, W51, and Orion, confirming that the C3H2 emission is extended in these objects. The data obtained thus far suggest that C3H2 is one of the more abundant organic constituents of the dense interstellar medium.

  15. Chronic respiratory mycoplasmosis in C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice: lesion severity and antibody response.

    PubMed Central

    Cartner, S C; Simecka, J W; Lindsey, J R; Cassell, G H; Davis, J K

    1995-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading, worldwide cause of death and disability due to pneumonia. Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in mice is an invaluable model for the study of host defenses against respiratory mycoplasmas in vivo. C3H/HeN mice are much more susceptible to acute inflammatory lung disease due to M. pulmonis than C57BL/6N mice, but little is known about the chronic disease in these mouse strains. We infected C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice with 10(4) CFU of M. pulmonis UAB CT and evaluated them at weekly intervals by quantitative mycoplasma culture of nasal passages, trachea, and lungs, assessment of lesion severity in nasal passages, trachea, and lungs, and determination of serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that C3H/HeN mice had 2 to 5 logs more organisms in their lungs and far more severe lung disease than C57BL/6N mice through 63 days postinfection. Although both strains of mice developed the same classes of antibody, C3H/HeN mice had much greater anti-M. pulmonis immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses in the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses than C57BL/6N mice. These results suggest that adaptive immunity does not effect resolution of chronic mycoplasma infection and disease in the lungs. PMID:7558330

  16. A study of the C3H2 isomers and isotopologues: first interstellar detection of HDCCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzano, S.; Gupta, H.; Brünken, S.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Caselli, P.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Bizzocchi, L.; Schilke, P.; McCarthy, M. C.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-02-01

    The partially deuterated linear isomer HDCCC of the ubiquitous cyclic carbene (c-C3H2) was observed in the starless cores TMC-1C and L1544 at 96.9 GHz, and a confirming line was observed in TMC-1 at 19.38 GHz. To aid the identification in these narrow line sources, four centimetre-wave rotational transitions (two in the previously reported Ka = 0 ladder and two new ones in the Ka = 1 ladder) and 23 transitions in the millimetre band between 96 and 272 GHz were measured in high-resolution laboratory spectra. Ten spectroscopic constants in a standard asymmetric top Hamiltonian allow the main transitions of astronomical interest in the Ka ≤ 3 rotational ladders to be calculated to within 0.1 km s-1 in radial velocity up to 400 GHz. Conclusive identification of the two astronomical lines of HDCCC was provided by the VLSR, which is the same as for the normal isotopic species (H2CCC) in the three narrow line sources. In these sources, deuterium fractionation in singly substituted H2CCC (HDCCC/H2CCC ~4-19%) is comparable to that in c-C3H2 (c-C3H2/c-C3HD ~5-17%) and similarly in doubly deuterated c-C3H2 (c-C3D2/c-C3HD ~3-17%), implying that the efficiency of the deuteration processes in the H2CCC and c-C3H2 isomers are comparable in dark clouds. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  17. Helicobacter pylori Does Not Require Lewis X or Lewis Y Expression To Colonize C3H/HeJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Tohru; El-Omar, Emad; Camorlinga, Margarita; Thompson, Stuart A.; Minohara, Yutaka; Ernst, Peter B.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains frequently express Lewis X (Lex) and/or Ley on their cell surfaces as constituents of the O antigens of their lipopolysaccharide molecules. To assess the effect of Lex and Ley expression on the ability of H. pylori to colonize the mouse stomach and to adhere to epithelial cells, isogenic mutants were created in which fucT1 alone or fucT1 and fucT2, which encode the fucosyl transferases necessary for Lex and Ley expression, were deleted. C3H/HeJ mice were experimentally challenged with either wild-type 26695 H. pylori or its isogenic mutants. All strains, whether passaged in the laboratory or recovered after mouse passage, colonized the mice well and without consistent differences. During colonization by the mutants, there was no reversion to wild type. Similarly, adherence to AGS and KatoIII cells was unaffected by the mutations. Together, these findings indicate that Le expression is not necessary for mouse gastric colonization or for H. pylori adherence to epithelial cells. PMID:12011000

  18. Helicobacter pylori does not require Lewis X or Lewis Y expression to colonize C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tohru; El-Omar, Emad; Camorlinga, Margarita; Thompson, Stuart A; Minohara, Yutaka; Ernst, Peter B; Blaser, Martin J

    2002-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains frequently express Lewis X (Le(x)) and/or Le(y) on their cell surfaces as constituents of the O antigens of their lipopolysaccharide molecules. To assess the effect of Le(x) and Le(y) expression on the ability of H. pylori to colonize the mouse stomach and to adhere to epithelial cells, isogenic mutants were created in which fucT1 alone or fucT1 and fucT2, which encode the fucosyl transferases necessary for Le(x) and Le(y) expression, were deleted. C3H/HeJ mice were experimentally challenged with either wild-type 26695 H. pylori or its isogenic mutants. All strains, whether passaged in the laboratory or recovered after mouse passage, colonized the mice well and without consistent differences. During colonization by the mutants, there was no reversion to wild type. Similarly, adherence to AGS and KatoIII cells was unaffected by the mutations. Together, these findings indicate that Le expression is not necessary for mouse gastric colonization or for H. pylori adherence to epithelial cells. PMID:12011000

  19. Theoretical microwave spectral constants for C3H/+/ and C4H/+/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S.; Green, S.

    1980-01-01

    A number of linear conjugated carbon chain molecules have been observed in the interstellar gas. It has been suggested that ion molecule chemistry schemes may explain the formation of these compounds. In the present paper, theoretical bond lengths and rotation constants are obtained for C3H(+) and C4H(+). Calculations for C3 are used to assess the accuracy of the former. Recent results for C2H(+) are examined.

  20. Comparative hemostatic parameters in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Mariana; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Gil, Amparo; Salazar, Ana M; Taylor, Peter; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-07-01

    This study describes micro-methods to determine biological parameters in plasma of three strains of mice. Platelet count was significantly different among strains. C57BL/6 mice showed the highest values (988 x 10(3)/microL) and BALB/c the lowest (782 x 10(3)/microL). Fibrinogen levels were 2.55 (C57BL/6), 2.37 (BALB/c) and 2.28 g/L (C3H/He). Some inter-strain differences were observed in factor XIII (94, 118 and 114%) and plasminogen levels (142, 80 and 135%) in C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H/He, respectively. Additionally, we observed individual mice factor XIII and plasminogen levels between 80 to 200% and 65 to 180%, respectively, in relation to pooled human plasma; and between 70 to 185% and 70 to 155%, respectively, against pooled mice plasma. To our knowledge, this is first report in the literature in diverse mice strains regarding hemostasis, mainly on factor XIII, plasminogen levels, and a very simple test that allows measurement of endogenous fibrinolytic activity present in the plasma. The different results are discussed in relationship with existing literature regarding if the animals in some studies were maintained under strict pathogen-free conditions, the collection of blood was from the heart or eye and if the analysis method was tested by counting manually or automatically. This work could contribute useful knowledge to the field of investigations regarding hemostatic disorders using mouse models, especially for laboratories that are not well equipped. PMID:19101712

  1. Comparative hemostatic parameters in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Mariana; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Gil, Amparo; Salazar, Ana M; Taylor, Peter; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-07-01

    This study describes micro-methods to determine biological parameters in plasma of three strains of mice. Platelet count was significantly different among strains. C57BL/6 mice showed the highest values (988 x 10(3)/microL) and BALB/c the lowest (782 x 10(3)/microL). Fibrinogen levels were 2.55 (C57BL/6), 2.37 (BALB/c) and 2.28 g/L (C3H/He). Some inter-strain differences were observed in factor XIII (94, 118 and 114%) and plasminogen levels (142, 80 and 135%) in C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H/He, respectively. Additionally, we observed individual mice factor XIII and plasminogen levels between 80 to 200% and 65 to 180%, respectively, in relation to pooled human plasma; and between 70 to 185% and 70 to 155%, respectively, against pooled mice plasma. To our knowledge, this is first report in the literature in diverse mice strains regarding hemostasis, mainly on factor XIII, plasminogen levels, and a very simple test that allows measurement of endogenous fibrinolytic activity present in the plasma. The different results are discussed in relationship with existing literature regarding if the animals in some studies were maintained under strict pathogen-free conditions, the collection of blood was from the heart or eye and if the analysis method was tested by counting manually or automatically. This work could contribute useful knowledge to the field of investigations regarding hemostatic disorders using mouse models, especially for laboratories that are not well equipped.

  2. Photochemical Modeling of the Distribution of C3H8 in the Atmosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, S. G.; Simon-Miller, A.; Jennings, D.; Bjoraker, G.; Romani, P.; Achterberg, R.; Orton, G.; Flasar, M.; Cassini CIRS Team

    2005-08-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has measured the abundance of C2H2 and C3H8 (Propane) at several latitudes in the Southern hemisphere. An increase of radiance with latitude towards the pole has been observed, possibly implying a corresponding increase of C3H8. In an effort explain the observed distribution of both species, it is important to model the creation, destruction, and transport of these chemical species. Furthermore, since both molecules have overlapping absorption features in the same spectral region near 748 cm-1, such modeling will aid in refining derived abundances and separating temperature effects. The photochemistry model used in Edgington et al. (1998, 1999, 2000) to model simultaneously hydrocarbons, ammonia, and phosphine is updated and expanded to include paths relevant to the creation of C3H8. Destruction occurs through photolysis, while transport would tend to spread C3H8 from its source regions. With a series of exercises in 1- and 2- dimensions, we explore the extent to which photolysis, vertical, and/or meridional transport impacts the distribution of C2H2 and C3H8 with latitude. Thermal profiles derived from CIRS observations versus latitude are used as they have an impact on numerous reaction rates. We then compare these results with abundances derived from observations taken with the CIRS instrument. Edgington, S.G., West, R.A., Friedson, A.J., Atreya, S.K., 2000. A 2-D photochemical model with meridional circulation. Bull. American. Astron. Soc., 32, 1013. Edgington, S.G., S.K. Atreya, L.M. Trafton, J.J. Caldwell, R.F. Beebe, A.A. Simon, and R.A. West, 1999. Ammonia and eddy mixing variations in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter from HST Faint Object Spectrograph Observations. Icarus, 142, 342-357. Edgington, S.G., S.K. Atreya, L.M. Trafton, J.J. Caldwell, R.F. Beebe, A.A. Simon, R.A. West, and C. Barnet, 1998. On the latitude variation of ammonia, acetylene, and phosphine altitude profiles on Jupiter from HST Faint

  3. Optical and electrical characterization of C3H6O/Ar glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, S.; Castillo, F.; Flores, O.; Reyes, P. G.; Martínez, H.

    2015-03-01

    A low pressure glow discharge apparatus was used to produce a glow discharge of C3H6O/Ar mixture at a total pressure of 2.0 Torr. The emission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 200 to 1100 nm. The principal species observed were Ar I, C6H4O, C6H5, CHO, CH3O, CO2, CO, H2O, and H2. The electron temperature and ion density have been measured using a double Langmuir probe, and the electron temperature and ion density were found in the order of 10 eV and 1010 cm-3.

  4. Molecular-beam experiments for photodissociation of propenal at 157 nm and quantum-chemical calculations for migration and elimination of hydrogen atoms in systems C3H4O and C3H3O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Chaudhuri, Chanchal; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the dynamics of photodissociation of propenal (acrolein, CH2CHCHO) at 157 nm in a molecular beam and of migration and elimination of hydrogen atoms in systems C3H4O and C3H3O using quantum-chemical calculations. Compared with the previous results of photodissociation of propenal at 193 nm, the major difference is that the C3H3O fragment present at the 193-nm photolysis disappears at the 157-nm photolysis whereas the C3H2O fragment absent at 193 nm appears at 157 nm. Optimized structures and harmonic vibrational frequencies of molecular species with gross formula C3H2-4O were computed at the level of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and total energies of those molecules at optimized structures were computed at the level of CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p). Based on the calculated potential-energy surfaces, we deduce that the C3H3O fragment observed in the photolysis of propenal at 193 nm is probably CHCCHOH (2A″) and/or CH2CCOH (2A″) produced from an intermediate hydroxyl propadiene (CH2CCHOH) following isomerization. Adiabatic and vertical ionization potentials of eight isomers of C3H3O and two isomers of C3H2O were calculated; CHCCHOH (2A″) and CH2CCOH (2A″) have ionization potentials in good agreement with the experimental value of ˜7.4 eV. We also deduce that all the nascent C3H3O fragments from the photolysis of propenal at 157 nm spontaneously decompose mainly to C2H3 + CO and C3H2O + H because of the large excitation energy. This work provides profound insight into the dynamics of migration and elimination of hydrogen atoms of propenal optically excited in the vacuum-ultraviolet region.

  5. Fibrosarcoma complicating irradiated pituitary adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Farrell, M.A.; Kaufmann, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    Eight years after radiation therapy (5000 rads of 60Co) for a pituitary adenoma, a patient developed a sellar fibrosarcoma. The tumor had an aggressive growth pattern: it infiltrated the optic nerve, sphenoidal air sinus, hypothalamus, and both cavernous sinuses, where compression of the left internal carotid artery resulted in a massive hemispheric infarction. Surgery was ineffective in arresting rapid growth of the lesion; death occurring 5 months after onset of symptoms.

  6. DNA methylation in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-resistant variants of C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatau, E; Gonzales, F A; Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1984-01-01

    A cell line (T17) was derived from C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells after 17 treatments with increasing concentrations of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The T17 cell line was very resistant to the cytotoxic effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and the 50% lethal dose for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was ca. 3 microM, which was 30-fold greater than that of the parental C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells. Increased drug resistance was not due to a failure of the T17 cell line to incorporate 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine into DNA. The cells were also slightly cross-resistant to 5-azacytidine. The percentage of cytosines modified to 5-methylcytosine in T17 cells was 0.7%, a 78% decrease from the level of 3.22% in C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells. The DNA cytosine methylation levels in several clones isolated from the treated lines were on the order of 0.7%, and clones with methylation levels lower than 0.45% were not obtained even after further drug treatments. These highly decreased methylation levels appeared to be unstable, and DNA modification increased as the cells divided in the absence of further drug treatment. The results suggest that it may not be possible to derive mouse cells with vanishingly low levels of 5-methylcytosine and that considerable de novo methylation can occur in cultured lines. PMID:6209556

  7. Structure of Complement C3(H2O) Revealed By Quantitative Cross-Linking/Mass Spectrometry And Modeling*

    PubMed Central

    Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Barlow, Paul N.

    2016-01-01

    The slow but spontaneous and ubiquitous formation of C3(H2O), the hydrolytic and conformationally rearranged product of C3, initiates antibody-independent activation of the complement system that is a key first line of antimicrobial defense. The structure of C3(H2O) has not been determined. Here we subjected C3(H2O) to quantitative cross-linking/mass spectrometry (QCLMS). This revealed details of the structural differences and similarities between C3(H2O) and C3, as well as between C3(H2O) and its pivotal proteolytic cleavage product, C3b, which shares functionally similarity with C3(H2O). Considered in combination with the crystal structures of C3 and C3b, the QCMLS data suggest that C3(H2O) generation is accompanied by the migration of the thioester-containing domain of C3 from one end of the molecule to the other. This creates a stable C3b-like platform able to bind the zymogen, factor B, or the regulator, factor H. Integration of available crystallographic and QCLMS data allowed the determination of a 3D model of the C3(H2O) domain architecture. The unique arrangement of domains thus observed in C3(H2O), which retains the anaphylatoxin domain (that is excised when C3 is enzymatically activated to C3b), can be used to rationalize observed differences between C3(H2O) and C3b in terms of complement activation and regulation. PMID:27250206

  8. Antibody Production, Anaphylactic Signs, and T-Cell Responses Induced by Oral Sensitization With Ovalbumin in BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Tanarro, Alba; López-Expósito, Ivan; Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Two mouse strains, BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ, broadly used in the field of food allergy, were compared for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of ovalbumin (OVA). Methods Sensitization was made by administering 2 different OVA doses (1 and 5 mg), with cholera toxin as Th2-polarizing adjuvant. Antibody levels, severity of anaphylaxis, and Th1 and Th2 responses induced by the allergen were assessed. In addition, because the mice selected had functional toll-like receptor 4, the influence of contamination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the immunostimulating capacity of OVA on spleen cells was also evaluated. Results Both strains exhibited similar susceptibility to OVA sensitization. The 2 protein doses generated similar OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in both strains, whereas C3H/HeOuJ mice produced significantly more IgG2a. Oral challenge provoked more severe manifestations in C3H/HeOuJ mice as indicated by the drop in body temperature and the severity of the anaphylactic scores. Stimulation of splenocytes with OVA led to significantly higher levels of Th2 and Th1 cytokines in BALB/c, and these were less affected by protein contamination with LPS. Conclusions The antibody and cytokine levels induced by OVA in BALB/c mice and the observation that BALB/c spleen cell cultures were more resistant than those of C3H/HeOuJ mice to the stimulus of LPS make this strain prone to exhibit Th2-mediated food allergic reactions and very adequate for the study of the features of OVA that make it allergenic. PMID:26922934

  9. Characterization and performance of Pt/SBA-15 for low-temperature SCR of NO by C3H6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyong; Jiang, Zhi; Chen, Mingxia; Shi, Jianwei; Shangguan, Wenfeng; Teraoka, Yasutake

    2013-05-01

    Pt supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 was investigated as a catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by C3H6 in the presence of excess oxygen. The prepared catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, BET surface area, TEM, NO-TPD, NO/C3H6-TPO, NH3-TPD, XPS and 27Al MAS NMR. The effects of Pt loading amount, O2/C3H6 concentration, and incorporation of Al into SBA-15 have been studied. It was found that the removal efficiency increased significantly after Pt loading, but an optimal loading amount was observed. In particular, under an atmosphere of 150 ppm NO, 150 ppm C3H6, and 18 vol.% O2, 0.5% Pt/SBA-15 showed remarkably high catalytic performance giving 80.1% NOx reduction and 87.04% C3H6 conversion simultaneously at 140 degrees C. The enhanced SCR activity of Pt/SBA-15 is associated with its outstanding oxidation activities of NO to NO2 and C3H6 to CO2 in low temperature range. The research results also suggested that higher concentration of O2 and higher concentration of C3H6 favored NO removal. The incorporation of Al into SBA-15 improved catalytic performance, which could be ascribed to the enhancement of catalyst surface acidity caused by tetrahedrally coordinated AlO4. Moreover, the catalysts could be easily reused and possessed good stability.

  10. Flexibility of C3h -Symmetrical Linkers in Tris-oligonucleotide-Based Tetrahedral Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, Christos; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; von Kiedrowski, Günter

    2016-02-01

    Flexibility of tris-oligonucleotides is determined by the length of their connecting hydrocarbon chains. Tris-oligonucleotides are branched DNA building blocks with three oligonucleotide arms attached to a C3h -symmetrical linker core at these chains. Four tris-oligonucleotides hybridise into a tetrahedral nanocage by sequence-determined self-assembly. The influence of methylene, ethylene and propylene chains was studied by synthesising sets of tris-oligonucleotides and analysing the relative stability of the hybridisation products against digestion by mung bean nuclease by using gel electrophoresis. Linkers with ethylene chains showed sufficient flexibility, whereas methylene-chain linkers were too rigid. Tris-oligonucleotides based on the latter still formed tetrahedral scaffolds in intermixing experiments with linkers of higher flexibility. Thus, a new generation of versatile isocyanurate-based linkers was established.

  11. The hydrocarbon ring C3H2 is ubiquitous in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H E; Irvine, W M

    1985-11-15

    We report the discovery of a strong microwave (lambda 1.6 cm) spectral line, the carrier of which is common and widespread throughout the Galaxy. A survey of a large number of sources shows that the line appears in emission in cold dust clouds, in absorption in the direction of the Galactic center, and exhibits complex profiles toward H II regions. Toward Cas A and distant H II regions, intervening "spiral arm" clouds produce absorption. For almost all cases, the absorption features show a striking 1 : 1 radial velocity correspondence with those seen, e.g., in H2CO spectra of the same objects. The data indicate that the line arises between low-lying energy states of rather polar molecule. Recent work by Thaddeus, Vrtilek, and Gottlieb, reported in 1985 incorporating the present data, shows that the line in question is the 1(10)-1(01) transition of the small hydrocarbon ring C3H2.

  12. Flexibility of C3h -Symmetrical Linkers in Tris-oligonucleotide-Based Tetrahedral Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, Christos; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; von Kiedrowski, Günter

    2016-02-01

    Flexibility of tris-oligonucleotides is determined by the length of their connecting hydrocarbon chains. Tris-oligonucleotides are branched DNA building blocks with three oligonucleotide arms attached to a C3h -symmetrical linker core at these chains. Four tris-oligonucleotides hybridise into a tetrahedral nanocage by sequence-determined self-assembly. The influence of methylene, ethylene and propylene chains was studied by synthesising sets of tris-oligonucleotides and analysing the relative stability of the hybridisation products against digestion by mung bean nuclease by using gel electrophoresis. Linkers with ethylene chains showed sufficient flexibility, whereas methylene-chain linkers were too rigid. Tris-oligonucleotides based on the latter still formed tetrahedral scaffolds in intermixing experiments with linkers of higher flexibility. Thus, a new generation of versatile isocyanurate-based linkers was established. PMID:26593127

  13. Dehydrohalogenation and Dehydration Reactions of i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH by Sodium Ions Studied by Guided Ion Beam Techniques and Quantum Chemical Methods.

    PubMed

    López, E; Lucas, J M; de Andrés, J; Albertí, M; Bofill, J M; Aguilar, A

    2016-07-14

    Dehydrohalogenation and dehydration reactions of gas-phase i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH molecules induced by collision with Na(+), all participants being in their electronic ground state, were studied experimentally in our laboratory using a radiofrequency-guided ion beam apparatus and covering the 0.10-10.00 eV center of mass (CM) energy range. In Na(+) + i-C3H7Br collisions the formation of [C3H6-Na](+) and [HBr-Na](+) by dehydrohalogenation was observed and quantified, as well as that of the ion-molecule adduct [Na-i-C3H7Br](+) together with its decomposition products C3H7(+) and NaBr. In Na(+) + i-C3H7OH collisions the dehydration product [H2O-Na](+) was also found, while [C3H6-Na](+) was hardly detected. Moreover, the [Na-i-C3H7OH](+) adduct formation as well as its decomposition into C3H7(+) and NaOH were also quantified. For all these processes, absolute reaction cross sections were measured as a function of the CM collision energy. From measured excitation functions, rate constants for the formation of [C3H6-Na](+), [HBr-Na](+), and [H2O-Na](+) at 303 K were obtained. Complementing the experiments, exhaustive ab initio structure calculations at the MP2 level of theory were performed, giving information on the most relevant features of the potential energy surfaces (PESs) where the dehydrohalogenation, dehydration, and decomposition reactions take place adiabatically for both collision systems. On these PESs different stationary points associated with potential energy minima and transition state barriers were characterized, and their connectivity was ensured using the intrinsic-reaction-coordinate method. The main topology features of the ab initio calculated PESs allowed a qualitative interpretation of the experimental data also exposing the role of the sodium ion as a catalyst in elimination reactions.

  14. Dehydrohalogenation and Dehydration Reactions of i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH by Sodium Ions Studied by Guided Ion Beam Techniques and Quantum Chemical Methods.

    PubMed

    López, E; Lucas, J M; de Andrés, J; Albertí, M; Bofill, J M; Aguilar, A

    2016-07-14

    Dehydrohalogenation and dehydration reactions of gas-phase i-C3H7Br and i-C3H7OH molecules induced by collision with Na(+), all participants being in their electronic ground state, were studied experimentally in our laboratory using a radiofrequency-guided ion beam apparatus and covering the 0.10-10.00 eV center of mass (CM) energy range. In Na(+) + i-C3H7Br collisions the formation of [C3H6-Na](+) and [HBr-Na](+) by dehydrohalogenation was observed and quantified, as well as that of the ion-molecule adduct [Na-i-C3H7Br](+) together with its decomposition products C3H7(+) and NaBr. In Na(+) + i-C3H7OH collisions the dehydration product [H2O-Na](+) was also found, while [C3H6-Na](+) was hardly detected. Moreover, the [Na-i-C3H7OH](+) adduct formation as well as its decomposition into C3H7(+) and NaOH were also quantified. For all these processes, absolute reaction cross sections were measured as a function of the CM collision energy. From measured excitation functions, rate constants for the formation of [C3H6-Na](+), [HBr-Na](+), and [H2O-Na](+) at 303 K were obtained. Complementing the experiments, exhaustive ab initio structure calculations at the MP2 level of theory were performed, giving information on the most relevant features of the potential energy surfaces (PESs) where the dehydrohalogenation, dehydration, and decomposition reactions take place adiabatically for both collision systems. On these PESs different stationary points associated with potential energy minima and transition state barriers were characterized, and their connectivity was ensured using the intrinsic-reaction-coordinate method. The main topology features of the ab initio calculated PESs allowed a qualitative interpretation of the experimental data also exposing the role of the sodium ion as a catalyst in elimination reactions. PMID:26811987

  15. Dietary soy oil content and soy-derived phytoestrogen genistein increase resistance to alopecia areata onset in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    McElwee, K J; Niiyama, S; Freyschmidt-Paul, P; Wenzel, E; Kissling, S; Sundberg, J P; Hoffmann, R

    2003-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a complex, multi-factorial disease where genes and the environment may affect susceptibility and severity. Diet is an environmental factor with the potential to influence disease susceptibility. We considered dietary soy (soya) oil content and the soy-derived phytoestrogen genistein as potential modifying agents for C3H/HeJ mouse AA. Normal haired C3H/HeJ mice were grafted with skin from spontaneous AA affected mice, a method previously shown to induce AA. Grafted mice were given one of three diets containing 1%, 5% or 20% soy oil and observed for AA development. In a separate study, mice on a 1% soy oil diet were injected with 1 mg of genistein three times per week for 10 weeks or received the vehicle as a control. Of mice on 1%, 5%, and 20% soy oil diets, 43 of 50 mice (86%), 11 of 28 mice (39%), and 2 of 11 mice (18%) developed AA, respectively. Four of 10 mice injected with genistein and 9 of 10 controls developed AA. Mice with AA had hair follicle inflammation consistent with observations for spontaneous mouse AA, but no significant association was observed between the extent of hair loss and diet or genistein injection. Mice that failed to develop AA typically experience white hair regrowth from their skin grafts associated with a moderate macrophage and dendritic cell infiltration. Soy oil and derivatives have previously been reported to modify inflammatory conditions. Hypothetically, soy oil compounds may act on C3H/HeJ mice through modulating estrogen-dependent mechanisms and/or inflammatory activity to modify AA susceptibility. PMID:12631244

  16. Characteristics of NOx Removal Combining Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma with Selective Catalytic Reduction by C3H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Quan; Li, Yi; Chen, Wei; Lv, Guo-Hua; Huang, Jun; Zhu, Guo-Xian; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Wang, Da-Cheng; Feng, Ke-Cheng; Yang, Si-Ze

    2010-08-01

    Characteristics of NOx removal combining dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by C3H6 were investigated under the conditions of high NOx concentration and high space velocity at various temperatures. Experiment results show that there were no obvious removal of NOx and NO in the only C3H6-SCR system and only DBD system individually. But the high NOx removal rate was achieved in C3H6-SCR cooperating with DBD plasma system. Especially NOx removal rate can reach up to 88.5% at 150 °C simulating diesel engine exhaust temperature. It can be seen that when discharge comes into being, the catalystic activity was enhanced with discharge strengthened, so that the NOx was almost completely removed. In the course of NOx removal, DBD played an important role in oxidizing NO to NO2 and activating C3H6 and catalysts to reduce NOx.

  17. Highly accurate quartic force fields, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants for cyclic and linear C3H3(+).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinchuan; Taylor, Peter R; Lee, Timothy J

    2011-05-19

    High levels of theory have been used to compute quartic force fields (QFFs) for the cyclic and linear forms of the C(3)H(3)(+) molecular cation, referred to as c-C(3)H(3)(+) and l-C(3)H(3)(+). Specifically, the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), has been used in conjunction with extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit, and corrections for scalar relativity and core correlation have been included. The QFFs have been used to compute highly accurate fundamental vibrational frequencies and other spectroscopic constants by use of both vibrational second-order perturbation theory and variational methods to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Agreement between our best computed fundamental vibrational frequencies and recent infrared photodissociation experiments is reasonable for most bands, but there are a few exceptions. Possible sources for the discrepancies are discussed. We determine the energy difference between the cyclic and linear forms of C(3)H(3)(+), obtaining 27.9 kcal/mol at 0 K, which should be the most reliable available. It is expected that the fundamental vibrational frequencies and spectroscopic constants presented here for c-C(3)H(3)(+) and l-C(3)H(3)(+) are the most reliable available for the free gas-phase species, and it is hoped that these will be useful in the assignment of future high-resolution laboratory experiments or astronomical observations. PMID:21510653

  18. Oral lactoferrin treatment resolves amoebic intracecal infection in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    León-Sicairos, Nidia; Martínez-Pardo, Leonardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatriz; de la Garza, Mireya; Carrero, Julio César

    2012-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, an illness that affects many people around the world. We have previously reported that lactoferrin is able to kill E. histolytica in in vitro cultures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin in the control of intestinal amoebiasis of susceptible C3H/HeJ mice. The results showed that 20 mg lactoferrin/kg orally administered each day for 1 week was able to eliminate the infection in 63% of the mice, since neither trophozoites nor evidence of epithelial damage and (or) swelling were found in tissue sections of the cecum. The rest of the treated animals (37%) showed a decrease in trophozoite numbers and mucus secreted to the lumen, as compared with untreated and infected mice (p < 0.05). By immunohistochemistry, the profile of secreted cytokines in the cecum revealed that infected but untreated animals showed a mixed Th1/regulatory cytokines profile, whereas the cecum of mice treated (cured) showed a Th2 cytokine profile (IL-4) and expression of the multifunctional IL-6. In addition, cytokines and increasing cecal production of total IgA antibodies were found associated with little inflammation and disease control observed in the cecum of lactoferrin-treated animals. These results suggest that oral administration of lactoferrin can control intestinal amoebic infection probably by killing amoebas or favoring their removal and reestablish the antiinflammatory intestinal environment.

  19. Recurrent congenital fibrosarcoma with heart metastases.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Olli; Vornanen, Martine; Kähkönen, Marketta; Vettenranta, Kim; Parto, Katriina; Arola, Mikko

    2012-07-01

    Congenital fibrosarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in soft tissues. In infants this unique tumor does not commonly metastasize, even though there may be local recurrences. We report here a boy who had congenital fibrosarcoma in his right foot, which was completely excised at the age of 3 days. Four months later, a solitary encapsulated metastasis emerged in thoracic chest wall, which was operated. During adjuvant chemotherapy he developed histologically confirmed fibrosarcoma metastases in the heart. After extended treatment with cyclophosphamide/topotecan and gemcitabine/docetaxel, the heart tumors disappeared and he has been in complete remission for 3 years.

  20. Dual effects and mechanism of TiO2 nanotube arrays in reducing bacterial colonization and enhancing C3H10T1/2 cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhaoxiang; Ni, Jiahua; Zheng, Kang; Shen, Yandong; Wang, Xiaoqing; He, Guo; Jin, Sungho; Tang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Competition occurs between the osteoblasts in regional microenvironments and pathogens introduced during surgery, on the surface of bone implants, such as joint prostheses. The aim of this study was to modulate bacterial and osteoblast adhesion on implant surfaces by using a nanotube array. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays, 30 nm or 80 nm in diameter, were prepared by a two-step anodization on titanium substrates. Mechanically polished and acid-etched titanium samples were also prepared to serve as control groups. The standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]35984) and mouse C3H10T1/2 cell lines with osteogenic potential were used to evaluate the different responses to the nanotube arrays, in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. We found that the initial adhesion and colonization of S. epidermidis on the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were significantly reduced and that the adhesion of C3H10T1/2 cells on the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays was significantly enhanced when compared with the control samples. Based on a surface analysis of all four groups, we observed increased surface roughness, decreased water contact angles, and an enhanced concentration of oxygen and fluorine atoms on the TiO2 nanotube surface. We conclude that the TiO2 nanotube surface can reduce bacterial colonization and enhance C3H10T1/2 cell adhesion; multiple physical and chemical properties of the TiO2 nanotube surface may contribute to these dual effects. PMID:23983463

  1. Genetic deletion of the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptors abrogates methamphetamine-induced reward in C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Clough, Shannon J; Hutchinson, Anthony J; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2014-06-10

    The drug of abuse methamphetamine (METH) is known for its ability to enhance reward responses. The rewarding properties of psychostimulants have been shown to vary across time of day in mice. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in METH-induced reward, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for METH-induced CPP at either ZT 6-8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0=lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19-21, when melatonin levels are high. These time points also correspond to the high and low points for expression of the circadian gene Period1, respectively. The locomotor response to METH (1.2mg/kg, ip) treatment was of similar magnitude at both times; however only C3H/HeN mice conditioned to METH at ZT 6-8 developed a place preference. C3H/HeN mice with a genetic deletion of either the MT1 (MT1KO) or MT2 (MT2KO) receptor tested at ZT 6-8 or ZT 19-21 did not develop a place preference for METH, though both showed a similar increase in locomotor activity following METH treatment when compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that in our mouse model METH-induced CPP is dependent on time of day and the presence of the MT1 or MT2 receptors, suggesting a role for melatonin in METH-induced reward.

  2. Dual effects and mechanism of TiO2 nanotube arrays in reducing bacterial colonization and enhancing C3H10T1/2 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhaoxiang; Ni, Jiahua; Zheng, Kang; Shen, Yandong; Wang, Xiaoqing; He, Guo; Jin, Sungho; Tang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Competition occurs between the osteoblasts in regional microenvironments and pathogens introduced during surgery, on the surface of bone implants, such as joint prostheses. The aim of this study was to modulate bacterial and osteoblast adhesion on implant surfaces by using a nanotube array. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays, 30 nm or 80 nm in diameter, were prepared by a two-step anodization on titanium substrates. Mechanically polished and acid-etched titanium samples were also prepared to serve as control groups. The standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]35984) and mouse C3H10T1/2 cell lines with osteogenic potential were used to evaluate the different responses to the nanotube arrays, in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. We found that the initial adhesion and colonization of S. epidermidis on the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were significantly reduced and that the adhesion of C3H10T1/2 cells on the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays was significantly enhanced when compared with the control samples. Based on a surface analysis of all four groups, we observed increased surface roughness, decreased water contact angles, and an enhanced concentration of oxygen and fluorine atoms on the TiO2 nanotube surface. We conclude that the TiO2 nanotube surface can reduce bacterial colonization and enhance C3H10T1/2 cell adhesion; multiple physical and chemical properties of the TiO2 nanotube surface may contribute to these dual effects. PMID:23983463

  3. Communications: Infrared spectroscopy of gas phase C3H3+ ions: The cyclopropenyl and propargyl cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricks, Allen M.; Douberly, Gary E.; Schleyer, Paul v. R.; Duncan, Michael A.

    2010-02-01

    C3H3+ ions produced with a pulsed discharge source and cooled in a supersonic beam are studied with infrared laser photodissociation spectroscopy in the 800-4000 cm-1 region using the rare gas tagging method. Vibrational bands in the C-H stretching and fingerprint regions confirm the presence of both the cyclopropenyl and propargyl cations. Because there is a high barrier separating these two structures, they are presumed to be produced by different routes in the plasma chemistry; their relative abundance can be adjusted by varying the ion source conditions. Prominent features for the cyclopropenyl species include the asymmetric carbon stretch (ν5) at 1293 cm-1 and the asymmetric C-H stretch (ν4) at 3182 cm-1, whereas propargyl has the CH2 scissors (ν4) at 1445, the C-C triple bond stretch (ν3) at 2077 and three C-H stretches (ν2, ν9, and ν1) at 3004, 3093, and 3238 cm-1. Density functional theory computations of vibrational spectra for the two isomeric ions with and without the argon tag reproduce the experimental features qualitatively; according to theory the tag atom only perturbs the spectra slightly. Although these data confirm the accepted structural pictures of the cyclopropenyl and propargyl cations, close agreement between theoretical predictions and the measured vibrational band positions and intensities cannot be obtained. Band intensities are influenced by the energy dependence and dynamics of photodissociation, but there appear to be fundamental problems in computed band positions independent of the level of theory employed. These new data provide infrared signatures in the fingerprint region for these prototypical carbocations that may aid in their astrophysical detection.

  4. A Critical Examination of the l-C3H-2 Spectrum and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, B. J.; Oka, T.; Thorburn, J.; Hobbs, L. M.; York, D. G.

    2002-03-01

    It has recently been suggested by J. P. Maier's group that the origin band and three vibronic bands of the linear propadienylidene anion l-C3H-2 match the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We have examined the wavelength ranges in question using data from our ongoing DIB survey at the Apache Point Observatory. We find that the strongest DIB (λ6993) is not an acceptable wavelength match to the origin band of l-C3H-2, based on high-resolution laboratory data. The nondetection of interstellar features corresponding to the K=2<--1 and K=0<--1 branches of para l-C3H-2 also argues against the assignment of λ6993 to the K=1<--0 branch of ortho l-C3H-2. Two of the three DIBs that have been attributed to vibronic bands do not correlate in intensity with λ6993, providing further evidence against the assignment of this set of DIBs to l-C3H-2.

  5. Observations of C3H2 (2(12) - 1(01)) toward the Sagittarius A molecular cloud.

    PubMed

    Lee, C W; Minh, Y C; Irvine, W M

    1993-01-01

    We have mapped the C3H2 2(12)-1(01) transition line toward the Sgr A molecular cloud on a 1' grid spacing and derived C3H2 column densities of 3 approximately 7 x 10(14) cm-2 for molecular clouds of Sgr A. The fractional abundances of C3H2 relative to H2 are obtained to be 3 approximately 6 x 10(-9), which are slightly lower than that for the cold dark cloud TMC-1 but are enhanced by factors of 5-60 compared to those for Sgr B2 and the Orion extended ridge. We also estimate from the C3H2 column densities total masses of approximately 10(6) M(solar) for two clouds (M - 0.13-0.08 and M - 0.02-0.07), which are thought to be close to the virial equilibrium. We suggest that the large abundance of C3H2 in Sgr A may be partly due to the activities of the Galactic center.

  6. a Computational Investigation of c-C3H2...HX(X = F, Cl, Br) H-Bonded Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R.; Varadwaj, Arpita; Peslherbe, Gilles H.

    2011-06-01

    Cyclopropenylidene (c-C3H2) is of significant importance in interstellar chemistry and synthetic chemistry (e.g., transition metal and organic catalysis). Because of its peculiar structure, c-C3H2 can act as a hydrogen-bond donor or acceptor. In order to gain insight into this feature, the ground-state potential energy surfaces of singlet c-C3H2 complexed with hydrogen halides HX (X = F, Cl, Br) have been explored extensively by density-functional theory (B3LYP) and {ab initio} quantum chemistry (MP2) with a variety of basis sets, cc-pVxZ and aug-cc-pVxZ (x = D, T). The complexes characterized have the carbenic end of c-C3H2 H-bonded to HX, with some proton transfer occurring, the extent of which follows the order HF < HCl < HBr. Accompanying the complex formation are the dipole moment enhancement, the charge transfer, red shifts of the HX vibrational stretching frequencies together with the significant enhancement of band intensity and concomitant HX bond elongation. The nature of H-bonding in these complexes has been explored, based on energy decomposition schemes and the Bader's quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules, with the conclusion that c-C3H2 is a strong H-bond acceptor with respect to the hydrogen halides.

  7. Observations of C3H2 (2(12) - 1(01)) toward the Sagittarius A molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. W.; Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have mapped the C3H2 2(12)-1(01) transition line toward the Sgr A molecular cloud on a 1' grid spacing and derived C3H2 column densities of 3 approximately 7 x 10(14) cm-2 for molecular clouds of Sgr A. The fractional abundances of C3H2 relative to H2 are obtained to be 3 approximately 6 x 10(-9), which are slightly lower than that for the cold dark cloud TMC-1 but are enhanced by factors of 5-60 compared to those for Sgr B2 and the Orion extended ridge. We also estimate from the C3H2 column densities total masses of approximately 10(6) M(solar) for two clouds (M - 0.13-0.08 and M - 0.02-0.07), which are thought to be close to the virial equilibrium. We suggest that the large abundance of C3H2 in Sgr A may be partly due to the activities of the Galactic center.

  8. Fibrosarcoma of the mandible: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Nanda, Jasmine

    2013-08-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblasts that rarely affects oral cavity and can cause local recurrences or metastasis. The aetiologic factors are still unknown, but many authors have reported the radiation therapy history as an important aetiological factor, followed by trauma and underlying conditions like Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia or chronic osteomyelitis. Fibrosarcoma of mandible is rare, with an incidence which ranges from 0-6.1% of all primary fibrosarcomas of the bone. This paper has described a case of a swelling in the mandible of a 17-years old female who had a radiolucency in association with crown of an impacted tooth and foci of radiopacity, which led to a misdiagnosis of either an odontogenic lesion or a bone tumour, but proved to be a fibrosarcoma on histopathological and immunohistochemistry investigations.

  9. Cometary implications of recent laboratory experiments on the photochemistry of the C2H and C3H2 radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Bao, Yihan; Urdahl, Randall S.; Song, Xueyu; Gosine, Jai; Lu, Chi

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results on the photodissociation of the C2H and C3H2 radicals are described. These studies show that the C2 and C3 radicals are produced by the 193 nm photolysis of the C2H and C3H2 radicals, respectively. The quantum state distributions that were determined for the C2 radicals put certain constraints on the initial conditions for any models of the observed C2 cometary spectra. Experimental observations of C2 formed by the 212.8 nm photolysis of C2H are used to calculate a range of photochemical lifetimes for the C2H radical.

  10. Ca2LiC3H: a new complex carbide hydride phase grown in metal flux.

    PubMed

    Lang, David A; Zaikina, Julia V; Lovingood, Derek D; Gedris, Thomas E; Latturner, Susan E

    2010-12-15

    The reaction of carbon and CaH2 in a calcium/lithium flux mixture produces crystals of the new compound Ca2LiC3H. This phase forms with a new structure type in tetragonal space group P4/mbm (a = 6.8236(1) Å, c = 3.7518(1) Å, Z = 2, R1 = 0.0151). This is a stuffed variant of the Cs2(NH2)N3 structure, containing hydride anions in octahedral sites; the structure determination by single-crystal X-ray diffraction surprisingly allowed the hydrogen to be detected. The Ca2LiC3H structure also features the rarely seen C3(4-) carbide anion; the protolysis reaction of this compound with ammonium chloride produces C3H4. The electronic properties of Ca2LiC3H were studied by quantum-chemical calculations including band structure and electron localization function (ELF) analysis; the phase is a charge-balanced semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 0.48 eV. This is in agreement with (7)Li, (13)C, and (1)H MAS NMR data, which show resonances in the ionic region instead of the Knight shifted region. ELF analysis of the theoretical nonhydrided Ca2LiC3 structure confirms the ability of these calculations to properly locate hydrides and supports the structural model based on X-ray diffraction data.

  11. LIGNIFICATION IN TRANSGENICS DEFICIENT IN P-COUMARATE 3-HYDROXYLASE (C3H) AND THE ASSOCIATED HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASE (HCT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects on lignification of downregulating most of the genes for enzymes on the monolignol biosynthetic pathway have been reasonably well studied in angiosperms. The exception to this is the crucial hydroxylase, cinnamate 3-hydroxylase (C3H), and its associated hydroxycinnamyl transferase (HCT),...

  12. Helicobacter bilis infection alters the spatial distribution of commensal bacteria in colitic C3H/HeN mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Infection with Helicobacter bilis triggers the immune reactivity to the resident intestinal bacteria that is associated with the development of mucosal inflammation in defined flora C3H mice. Whether perturbations of the commensal microbiota occur and contribute to Helicobacter-induced c...

  13. Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies for l-C3H+ and Isotopologues from Highly-Accurate Quartic Force Fields: The Detection of l-C3H+ in the Horsehead Nebula PDR Questioned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan Clifton; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Very recently, molecular rotational transitions observed in the photon-dominated region of the Horsehead nebula have been attributed to l-C3H+. In an effort to corroborate this finding, we employed state-of-the art and proven high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques to compute spectroscopic constants for this cation and its isotopologues. Even though the B rotational constant from the fit of the observed spectrum and our computations agree to within 20 MHz, a typical level of accuracy, the D rotational constant differs by more than 40%, while the H rotational constant differs by three orders of magnitude. With the likely errors in the rotational transition energies resulting from this difference in D on the order of 1 MHz for the lowest observed transition (J = 4 yields 3) and growing as J increases, the assignment of the observed rotational lines from the Horsehead nebula to l-C3H+ is questionable.

  14. Comparative phenotypic assessment of cardiac pathology, physiology, and gene expression in C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and B6C3F1/J mice.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Scott S; Thomas, Reuben; Shah, Ruchir; Xu, Hong; Vallant, Molly K; Nyska, Abraham; Dunnick, June K

    2010-10-01

    Human cardiomyopathies often lead to heart failure, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Described here is a phenotypic characterization of cardiac function and genome-wide expression from C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and B6C3F1/J male mice. Histopathologic analysis identified a low-grade background cardiomyopathy (murine progressive cardiomyopathy) in eight of nine male C3H/HeJ mice (age nine to ten weeks), but not in male C57BL/6J and in only of ten male B6C3F1/J mice. The C3H/HeJ mouse had an increased heart rate and a shorter RR interval compared to the B6C3F1/J and C57BL/6J mice. Cardiac genomic studies indicated the B6C3F1/J mice exhibited an intermediate gene expression phenotype relative to the 2 parental strains. Disease-centric enrichment analysis indicated a number of cardiomyopathy-associated genes were induced in B6C3F1/J and C3H/HeJ mice, including Myh7, My14, and Lmna and also indicated differential expression of genes associated with metabolic (e.g., Pdk2) and hypoxic stress (e.g. Hif1a). A novel coexpression and integrated pathway network analysis indicated Prkaa2, Pdk2, Rhoj, and Sgcb are likely to play a central role in the pathophysiology of murine progressive cardiomyopathy in C3H/HeJ mice. Our studies indicate that genetically determined baseline differences in cardiac phenotype have the potential to influence the results of cardiotoxicity studies. PMID:21037199

  15. Commercial sunscreen lotions prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced depletion of epidermal Langerhans cells in Skh-1 and C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Beasley, D G; Montgomery, M A; Moloney, S J; Edmonds, S; Roberts, L K

    1998-01-01

    There is much controversy regarding the ability of sunscreens to prevent ultraviolet (UV)-induced immune suppression. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) play a key antigen-presenting role in the afferent limb of the immune system's response to antigens introduced through the skin. It has been suggested that depletion of LC in UV-exposed skin is a critical step toward the induction of immunosuppression by UV radiation. There are a number of disparate reports with inconsistent results concerning the ability of sunscreens to prevent UV-induced depletion of LC. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the ability of sunscreens to prevent UV-induced LC depletion in mice. Epidermal sheets obtained from skin biopsies taken from mice exposed to UV radiation from Kodacel-filtered FS20 sunlamps, which do not emit UV power at wavelengths < 290 nm, were immunoperoxidase stained for LC using a rat monoclonal antibody against mouse Ia (major histocompatibility complex class II antigen). Time course and dose-response curves for LC depletion were generated for Skh-1 and C3H mice. Dose-response curves for acute UV exposure induced depletion of LC in Skh-1 and C3H mice were similar, but not identical. LC density in the skin of Skh-1 mice that received chronic UV exposure (3 days/week for 8 weeks) was reduced by 62% after 2 weeks of exposure, but returned to normal levels by 6 weeks. Five commercial sunscreen lotions with labeled sun protection factors (SPF) of 4, 8, 15, 30 and 45 were tested for their capacity to block UV-induced depletion of LC. LC were depleted approximately 75% in the skin of unprotected or placebo lotion treated Skh-1 mice exposed to UV given on two consecutive days. Conversely, LC depletion was prevented in similarly UV exposed Skh-1 mice protected with a SPF 30 sunscreen. In C3H mice the levels of protection against LC depletion provided by the five sunscreens were proportional to the level of protection predicted by their labeled SPF. Comparisons

  16. Raspberry ketone promotes the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tomoyo; Morimoto, Chie

    2014-03-01

    The decrease in the bone mass associated with osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy, aging, and other conditions is accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. The balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes is influenced by a reciprocal relationship. The development of modalities to promote local/systemic bone formation by inhibiting bone marrow adipose tissue is important in the treatment of fractures or metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we examined whether raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one; RK], which is one of the major aromatic compounds of red raspberry and exhibits anti-obesity action, could promote osteoblast differentiation in C3H10T1/2 stem cells. Confluent C3H10T1/2 stem cells were treated for 6 days with 10-100 μg/mL of RK in culture medium containing 10 nM all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 300 ng/mL recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 protein as an osteoblast-differentiating agent. RK in the presence of ATRA increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner. RK in the presence of rhBMP-2 also increased ALP activity. RK in the presence of ATRA also increased the levels of mRNAs of osteocalcin, α1(I) collagen, and TGF-βs (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) compared with ATRA only. RK promoted the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts. However, RK did not affect the inhibition of early-stage adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that RK enhances the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cells into osteoblasts, and it may promote bone formation by an action unrelated to adipocyte differentiation.

  17. The molecular structure and vibrational spectrum of the cyclopropenyl cation, C3H + 3, and its deuterated isotopomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Willetts, Andrew; Gaw, Jeffrey F.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    1989-04-01

    The equilibrium structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, anharmonic constants, vibration-rotation interaction constants and quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants of C3H+3, the cyclopropenyl cation, and its deuterated isotopomers have been determined via purely ab initio quantum-mechanical methods. Two one-particle basis sets have been employed in conjunction with second-order M≂ller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), singles and doubles configuration interaction (CISD), and singles and doubles coupled cluster (CCSD). The best estimate of the harmonic frequencies is obtained from MP2 with a triple zeta plus double polarization (TZ2P) basis set. The anharmonic analysis has been determined via second-order perturbation theory using a double zeta plus polarization (DZP) self-consistent-field (SCF) full quartic force field. A generalization of formulas for the anharmonic analysis of D3h symmetric tops is discussed. The complete quartic force field in symmetry internal coordinates is given. Additionally, the anharmonic constants, vibration-rotation interaction constants and quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants for C3H+3 and C3D+3 are reported. Predictions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for C3H+3 and all its deuterated isotopomers are reported. At the TZ2P MP2 level of theory the equilibrium structure of cyclopropenyl cation is Re(C-C)=1.3647 Å, Re(C-H)=1.0753 Å. Coupling the TZ2P MP2 harmonic frequencies with the DZP SCF anharmonic corrections, the infrared active fundamentals of C3H+3 are predicted to occur at 3136, 1289, 939, and 773 cm-1, with those of C3D+3 predicted to occur at 2346, 1243, 684, and 567 cm-1.

  18. Role of ERK/NFκB in vanadium (IV) oxide mediated osteoblast differentiation in C3H10t1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Swati; Kumar, Narender; Roy, Partha

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium (V) compounds are reported to have insulin mimicking action, which render them to show excellent osteogenic activity. In the current study we investigated the effect of various vanadium compounds on osteoblast differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10t1/2 cells, and analyzed the underlying mechanism of vanadium for this action. Our data showed that treatment of C3H10t1/2 cells with V (IV) oxide complex (at 7-25 μM concentrations) induced osteoblast differentiation maximally as compared to V2O5. On the other hand, ammonium vanadate was found to dampen the osteoblast differentiation process. Based on this data, V (IV) oxide was investigated further to analyze its probable mode of action as an osteoblastic agent. The key factors implicated in osteoblast differentiation i.e., NFκB, ERK ½, AP1 and CRE were examined in response to V (IV) oxide exposure. Exposure to V (IV) oxide caused 2- and 5-folds induction of luciferase activities in cells transfected with SRE-luc and NFκB-luc reporter vectors respectively (p < 0.05). Further, exposure to V (IV) oxide enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK ½, IκB and NFκBp65 proteins. In addition, RT-PCR analysis, alizarin red staining and immunoblot analysis showed that inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in presence of PD98059 and parthenolide (inhibitors of ERK and NFκB pathways respectively) was rescued in presence of V (IV) oxide. These results suggest that V (IV) oxide up regulates osteoblast differentiation through ERK and NFκB pathways and hence could be utilized as an agent for bone formation after further analysis and validation.

  19. Study of heat and radiation response of a malignant, melanin-producing cell line derived from C3H 10T1/2 cells transformed in culture by radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Vadasz, J.; Azzam, E.I.

    1986-12-01

    The mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell line was transformed to the malignant state using ionizing radiation. One of the transformed lines (R25) that was isolated, displayed some properties similar to malignant melanoma cells. The cells became dark and pigmented after prolonged time in culture and this cell line produced tumors in C3H mice. The radiation survival curve of R25 had a large shoulder which was also observed for human melanoma cell lines. R25 was more resistant to heating at 45.0 degrees C than the normal cell line. Heating at 45.0 degrees C before irradiation resulted in a reduction of the survival curve shoulder. The heat and radiation sensitivity of R25 did not appear to be related to the melanin content of these cells.

  20. Organic Compounds in the C3H6O3 Family: Microwave Spectrum of cis-cis Dimethyl Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, B. A.; Widicus Weaver, S. L.; Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Blake, G. A.

    2011-05-01

    A number of recent spectroscopic and observational efforts have focused on simple sugars and sugar alcohols because of their importance in prebiotic astro- chemistry. The simplest sugar-related species, glycolaldehyde, has been detected in Sgr B2(N), as have its C2H4O2 structural isomers acetic acid and methyl formate. Additional studies of the C3-sugars with empirical formula C3H6O3, glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone, resulted in no clear interstellar detection. Structural isomerism is extensive in interstellar clouds, and there is a high level of correlation between the relative energies of isomers and their relative abundances, with the lowest energy isomers detected in greatest abundance. The detected members of the C2H4O2 family, however, defy this trend, having relative abundances of (acetic acid):(glycolaldehyde):(methyl formate) of about 2:1:52, despite acetic acid being the lowest energy isomer. These puzzling abundance ratios and the lack of detection of the C3H6O3 sugars gives rise to the question: "Which is the most likely isomer in the C3H6O3 family to be detectable in inter- stellar clouds?" In an attempt to answer this question, we carried out geometry optimization calculations to determine the relative binding energies of the 13 members of the C3H6O3 family. Of the four lowest- energy isomers, only lactic acid [CH3CH(OH)COOH] and dimethyl carbonate [(CH3)2CO3] are commercially available, and lactic acid has been previously investigated spectroscopically. We have therefore conducted a laboratory study of dimethyl carbonate, measuring its rotational spectrum from 8.4 - 25.3 GHz using a Fourier-Transform microwave spectrometer, and from 227 - 350 GHz using a direct absorption spectrometer. We report on the theoretical calculations performed on the C3H6O3 family of isomers, the experimental studies of cis-cis dimethyl carbonate, and the implica- tions of these results for interstellar chemistry. The details of this work are also reported in Lovas et

  1. Deviations from Born-Oppenheimer theory in structural chemistry: Jahn-Teller, pseudo Jahn-Teller, and hidden pseudo Jahn-Teller effects in C3H3 and C3H3(-).

    PubMed

    Kayi, H; Garcia-Fernandez, P; Bersuker, I B; Boggs, J E

    2013-09-12

    The electronic structure and vibronic coupling in two similar molecular systems, radical C3H3 and anion C3H3(-), in ground and excited states, are investigated in detail to show how their equilibrium structures, in deviation from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, originate from the vibronic mixing of at least two electronic states, producing the Jahn-Teller (JT), pseudo JT (PJT), and hidden PJT effects. Starting with the high-symmetry geometry D3h of C3H3, we evaluated its 2-fold degenerate ground electronic state (2)E″ and two lowest excited states (2)A1' and (2)E' and found that all of them contribute to the distortion of the ground state via the JT vibronic coupling problem E″ ⊗ e' and two PJT problems (E″ + A1') ⊗ e″ and (E″ + E') ⊗ (a2″ + e″); all the three active normal modes e'(1335 cm(-1)), e″(1030 cm(-1)), and a2″(778 cm(-1)) are imaginary, meaning that all the three vibronic couplings are sufficiently strong to cause instability, albeit in different directions. The first of them, the ground state JT effect, enhances one of the C-C bonds (toward an ethylenic form with C2v symmetry), while the two PJT effects produce, respectively, cis (a2″ toward C3v symmetry) and trans (e″) puckering of the hydrogen atoms. As a result, C3H3 has two coexisting equilibrium configurations with different geometry. In the C3H3(-) anion, the ground electronic state in D3h symmetry is an orbitally nondegenerate spin triplet (3)A2' with a group of close in energy singlet and triplet excited states in the order of (1)A1', (3)A1″, (1)E″, (3)E″, and (1)E'. This shows that two PJT couplings, ((3)A2' + (3)A1″) ⊗ a2″ and ((3)A2' + (3)E″) ⊗ e″, may influence the geometry of the equilibrium structure in the (3)A2' state. Indeed, both vibrational modes, a2″(1034 cm(-1)) and e″(1284 cm(-1)), are imaginary in this state. Similar to the radical case, they produce, respectively, cis (a2″) and trans (e″) puckering of the hydrogen atoms

  2. Inhibitory effect of iron withdrawal by chelation on the growth of human and murine mammary carcinoma and fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Power Coombs, Melanie R; Grant, Taryn; Greenshields, Anna L; Arsenault, Daniel J; Holbein, Bruce E; Hoskin, David W

    2015-10-01

    Since iron uptake is essential for cell growth, rapidly dividing cancer cells are sensitive to iron depletion. To explore the effect of iron withdrawal on cancer cell growth, mouse and human mammary carcinoma cells (4T1 and MDA-MB-468, respectively) and mouse and human fibrosarcoma cells (L929 and HT1080, respectively) were cultured in the absence or presence of DIBI, a novel iron-chelating polymer containing hydroxypyridinone iron-ligand functionality. Cell growth was measured by a colorimetric assay for cell metabolic activity. DIBI-treated 4T1, MDA-MB-468, L929 and HT1080 cells, as well as their normal counterparts, showed a dose- and time-dependent reduction in growth that was selective for human cancer cells and mouse fibrosarcoma cells. The inhibitory effect of DIBI on fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cell growth was reversed by addition of exogenous iron in the form of iron (III) citrate, confirming the iron selectivity of DIBI and that its inhibitory activity was iron-related. Fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cell growth inhibition by DIBI was associated with S-phase cell cycle arrest and low to moderate levels of cell death by apoptosis. Consistent with apoptosis induction following DIBI-mediated iron withdrawal, fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cells exhibited mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. A comparison of DIBI to other iron chelators showed that DIBI was superior to deferiprone and similar to or better than deferoxamine for inhibition of fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cell growth. These findings suggest that iron withdrawal from the tumor microenvironment with a selective and potent iron chelator such as DIBI may prevent or inhibit tumor progression.

  3. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.B.; Travis, E.L.

    1995-07-15

    To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and (c) when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logit analysis and ED{sub 50} values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED{sub 50} values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED{sub 50} values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1 week after irradiation. Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development.

  5. A Search for l-C3H+ and l-C3H in Sgr B2(N), Sgr B2(OH), and the Dark Cloud TMC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Loomis, Ryan A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Hollis, Jan M.; Lovas, Frank J.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2013-09-01

    Pety et al. recently reported the detection of several transitions of an unknown carrier in the Horsehead PDR and attribute them to l-C3H+. Here, we have tested the predictive power of their fit by searching for, and identifying, the previously unobserved J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions of the unknown carrier (B11244) toward Sgr B2(N) in data from the publicly available PRIMOS project. Also presented here are observations of the J = 6-5 and J = 7-6 transitions toward Sgr B2(N) and Sgr B2(OH) using the Barry E. Turner Legacy Survey and results from the Kaifu et al. survey of TMC-1. We calculate an excitation temperature and column density of B11244 of ~10 K and ~1013 cm-2 in Sgr B2(N) and ~79 K with an upper limit of <=1.5 × 1013 cm-2 in Sgr B2(OH) and find trace evidence for the cation's presence in TMC-1. Finally, we present spectra of the neutral species in both Sgr B2(N) and TMC-1, and comment on the robustness of the assignment of the detected signals to l-C3H+.

  6. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development. PMID:27457991

  7. C3H Male Mice with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Cannot Clear a Urethral Infection with a Human Serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis▿

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of an infection of the male genitourinary tract of mice with a human serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis has not been characterized. To establish a new model, we inoculated C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice in the meatus urethra with C. trachomatis serovar D. To determine the 50% infectious dose (ID50), male mice were inoculated with doses ranging from 102 to 106 inclusion-forming units (IFU). The mice were euthanized 10 days post infection (p.i.), and the urethra, bladder, epididimydes, and testes were cultured for Chlamydia. Positive cultures were obtained from the urethra, urinary bladder, and epididimydes, and the ID50 was determined to be 5 × 104 IFU/mouse. Subsequently, to characterize the course of the infection, wild-type (WT) and C3H animals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID animals) were inoculated with 106 IFU/mouse (20 times the ID50). In the WT mice, the infection peaked in the second week, and by 42 days p.i., it was cleared. In contrast, most of the SCID mice continued to have positive cultures at 60 days p.i. C. trachomatis-specific antibodies were first detected in WT animals' sera at 21 days p.i. and increased until 42 days p.i. The immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) titers were 32-fold higher than those of IgG1, indicative of a Th1-biased immune response. A lymphoproliferative assay using splenocytes showed a significant cell-mediated immune response in the WT mice. As expected, no humoral or cell-mediated immune responses were observed in the SCID animals. In conclusion, inoculation of WT male mice in the meatus urethra with a human serovar of C. trachomatis resulted in a limited infection mainly localized to the lower genitourinary tract. On the other hand, SCID animals could not clear the infection, suggesting that in male mice, the adaptive immune response is necessary to control an infection with a C. trachomatis human serovar. PMID:19805533

  8. BMP treatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells induces both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shea, Colleen M; Edgar, Cory M; Einhorn, Thomas A; Gerstenfeld, Louis C

    2003-12-15

    The molecular mechanisms by which bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote skeletal cell differentiation were investigated in the murine mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2. Both BMP-7 and BMP-2 induced C3H10T1/2 cells to undergo a sequential pattern of chondrogenic followed by osteogenic differentiation that was dependent on both the concentration and the continuous presence of BMP in the growth media. Differentiation was determined by the expression of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis associated matrix genes. Subsequent experiments using BMP-7 demonstrated that withdrawal of BMP from the growth media led to a complete loss of skeletal cell differentiation accompanied by adipogenic differentiation of these cells. Continuous treatment with BMP-7 increased the expression of Sox9, Msx 2, and c-fos during the periods of chondrogenic differentiation after which point their expression decreased. In contrast, Dlx 5 expression was induced by BMP-7 treatment and remained elevated throughout the time-course of skeletal cell differentiation. Runx2/Cbfa1 was not detected by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and did not appear to be induced by BMP-7. The sequential nature of differentiation of chondrocytic and osteoblastic cells and the necessity for continuous BMP treatment to maintain skeletal cell differentiation suggests that the maintenance of selective differentiation of the two skeletal cell lineages might be dependent on BMP-7-regulated expression of other morphogenetic factors. An examination of the expression of Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and the hedgehog family of morphogens showed that Wnt 5b, Wnt 11, BMP-4, growth and differentiation factor-1 (GDF-1), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) were endogenously expressed by C3H10T1/2 cells. Wnt 11, BMP-4, and GDF-1 expression were inhibited by BMP-7 treatment in a dose-dependent manner while Wnt 5b and Shh were selectively induced by BMP-7 during the period of chondrogenic

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4916_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4916_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4924_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4924_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4909_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Methanol CH4O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4909_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  12. HCO, c-C3H and CF+: three new molecules in diffuse, translucent and "spiral-arm" clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, H. S.; Pety, J.; Gerin, M.; Lucas, R.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: We observe molecular absorption from diffuse clouds across the 3 mm receiver band. Methods: We used the EMIR receiver and FTS spectrometer at the IRAM 30 m telescope to construct absorption spectra toward bright extra-galactic background sources at 195 kHz spectral resolution (≈0.6 km s-1). We used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to synthesize absorption spectra of H13CO+ and HCO toward the galactic HII region W49. Results: HCO, c-C3H and CF+ were detected toward the blazars BL Lac and 3C 111 having EB - V = 0.32 and 1.65 mag. HCO was observed in absorption from "spiral-arm" clouds in the galactic plane occulting W49. The complement of detectable molecular species in the 85-110 GHz absorption spectrum of diffuse/translucent gas is now fully determined at rms noise level δτ ≈ 0.002 at EB - V = 0.32 mag (AV = 1 mag) and δτ/EB - V≈ 0.003 mag-1 overall. Conclusions: As with OH, HCO+ and C2H, the relative abundance of c-C3H varies little between diffuse and dense molecular gas, with N(c-C3H)/N(o-c-C3H2) ≈ 0.1. We find N(CF+)/N(H13CO+) ≈ 5, N(CF+)/N(C2H) ≈ 0.005-0.01 and because N(CF+) increases with EB - V and with the column densities of other molecules we infer that fluorine remains in the gas phase as HF well beyond AV = 1 mag. We find N(HCO)/N(H13CO+) = 16 toward BL Lac, 3C 111 and the 40 km s-1 spiral arm cloud toward W49, implying X(HCO) ≈10-9, about 10 times higher than in dark clouds. The behaviour of HCO is consistent with previous suggestions that it forms from C+ and H2, even when AV is well above 1 mag. The survey can be used to place useful upper limits on some species, for instance N(H2CO)/N(H2CS) > 32 toward 3C 111, compared to 7 toward TMC-1, confirming the possibility of a gas phase formation route to H2CO. In general, however, the hunt for new species will probably be more fruitful at cm- and sub-mm wavelengths for the near future.

  13. ABA-induced CCCH tandem zinc finger protein OsC3H47 decreases ABA sensitivity and promotes drought tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Liu, Bohan; Xu, Mengyun; Jamil, Muhammad; Wang, Guoping

    2015-08-14

    Water deficit causes multiple negative impacts on plants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, abscisic acid (ABA) induction, stomatal closure, and decreased photosynthesis. Here, we characterized OsC3H47, which belongs to CCCH zinc-finger families, as a drought-stress response gene. It can be strongly induced by NaCl, PEG, ABA, and drought conditions. Overexpression of OsC3H47 significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses in rice seedlings, which indicates that OsC3H47 plays important roles in post-stress recovery. However, overexpression of OsC3H47 reduced the ABA sensitivity of rice seedlings. This suggests that OsC3H47 is a newly discovered gene that can control rice drought-stress response, and it may play an important role in ABA feedback and post-transcription processes. PMID:26047696

  14. Highly Accurate Quantum-Chemical Calculations for the Interstellar Molecules C_3 and l-C_3H^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Schröder, Benjamin; Stein, Christopher; Sebald, Peter; Oswald, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Composite potential energy surfaces with coupled-cluster contributions up to CCSDTQP were constructed for C_3 and l-C_3H^+ and used in the calculation of spectroscopic properties. The use of very large AO basis sets and the consideration of higher-order correlation beyond CCSD(T) is of utmost importance for C_3 in order to arrive at quantitative spectroscopic data. The first detection of l-C_3H^+ in the interstellar medium was reported by Pety et al., who attributed 9 radio lines observed in the horsehead photodissociation region to that species. That assignment was questioned by the recent theoretical work of Huang et al. However, our more accurate calculations are well in support of the original assignment. The calculated ground-state rotational constant is B_0 = 11248 MHz, only 0.03% off from the radio astronomical value of 11244.9512±0.0015 MHz. The ratio of centrifugal distortion constants D_0(exp.)/D_e(theor.) of 1.8 is quite large, but reasonable in comparison with C_3O and C_3. J. Pety, P. Gratier, V. Guzmán, E. Roueff, M. Gerin et al., Astron. Astrophys. 2012, A68, 1-8. X. Huang, R. C. Fortenberry, T. J. Lee, Astrophys. J. Lett. 2013, 768:L25, 1-5. P. Botschwina, R. Oswald, J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 044305

  15. Seasonal variations of C4H2, C2N2 and C3H4 in Titan's lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Melody; Teanby, Nicholas; Irwin, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Due to its obliquity (26.7°), Titan's atmosphere undergoes significant seasonal variations of insolation, which are expected to affect significantly its photochemistry and large-scale dynamics. The duration of the Cassini mission enables us to monitor these changes and to better understand the atmospheric processes at play. Here, we study the seasonal evolution of the composition of Titan's lower stratosphere (10 mbar). We analyse nadir high resolution (0.5 cm‑1) spectra from Cassini/CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) in the far infrared (200-400 cm‑1), in order to retrieve the abundances of three photochemical species: C2N2 (cyanogen), C4H2 (diacetylene), and C3H4 (methylacetylene). These data span all the latitudes and were acquired from 2004 to 2015. Consequently, they provide a good overview of the seasonal evolution of the meridional distributions of C2N2, C4H2, and C3H4, from northern winter to spring. For instance, these measurements show a strong enrichment in these three species at the South pole in the lower stratosphere, consistent with previous observations (Coustenis et al., 2016; Vinatier et al., 2015 ; Teanby et al., 2012). In contrast, other latitudes present much less variations in the mixing ratios of these gases, especially at the North Pole. These measurements will be used to provide constraints on the photochemistry and atmospheric dynamics in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  16. Absence seizures in C3H/HeJ and knockout mice caused by mutation of the AMPA receptor subunit Gria4

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Barbara; Deleuze, Charlotte; Letts, Verity A.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Boumil, Rebecca M.; Lew, Timothy A.; Huguenard, John R.; Frankel, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by spike–wave discharges (SWD) in the electroencephalogram, arises from aberrations within the circuitry of the cerebral cortex and thalamus that regulates awareness. The inbred mouse strain C3H/HeJ is prone to absence seizures, with a major susceptibility locus, spkw1, accounting for most of the phenotype. Here we find that spkw1 is associated with a hypomorphic retroviral-like insertion mutation in the Gria4 gene, encoding one of the four amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits in the brain. Consistent with this, Gria4 knockout mice also have frequent SWD and do not complement spkw1. In contrast, null mutants for the related gene Gria3 do not have SWD, and Gria3 loss actually lowers SWD of spkw1 homozygotes. Gria3 and Gria4 encode the predominant AMPA receptor subunits in the reticular thalamus, which is thought to play a central role in seizure genesis by inhibiting thalamic relay cells and promoting rebound burst firing responses. In Gria4 mutants, synaptic excitation of inhibitory reticular thalamic neurons is enhanced, with increased duration of synaptic responses—consistent with what might be expected from reduction of the kinetically faster subunit of AMPA receptors encoded by Gria4. These results demonstrate for the first time an essential role for Gria4 in the brain, and suggest that abnormal AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic activity can be involved in the network hypersynchrony that underlies absence seizures. PMID:18316356

  17. In vitro determination of carcinogenicity of sixty-four compounds using a bovine papillomavirus DNA-carrying C3H/10T(1/2) cell line.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, L A; Laitinen, A M; Mortazavi-Asl, B; Wee, R K; Erb, H E; Assi, K P; Madden, Z

    2000-01-01

    A new in vitro test for predicting rodent carcinogenicity is evaluated against a testing database of 64 chemicals including both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens and carcinogens that normally require addition of an S-9 microsomal fraction for detection in the bacterial mutagenicity assay. The assay uses focus formation in a stable, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) DNA carrying C3H/10T(1/2) mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (T1) that does not require transfection, infection with virus, isolation of primary cells from animals, or addition of a microsomal fraction. Of a total database of 64 compounds, 92% of the carcinogens, promoters, or noncarcinogens were correctly predicted. Based on previously reported results, the test of bacterial mutagenicity would have correctly predicted 58% of carcinogens, promoters or noncarcinogens and the Syrian hamster embryo test would have correctly predicted 87% of carcinogens, promoters, or noncarcinogens of this database. Of carcinogens that normally require addition of an S-9 fraction, T1 cells correctly predicted rodent carcinogenicity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aflatoxins, azo-compounds, nitrosamines, and hydrazine without the addition of an S-9 fraction. Of nongenotoxic carcinogens, T1 cells correctly predicted diethylstilbestroel, diethylhexylphthalate, acetamides, alkyl halides, ethyl carbamate, and phorbol ester tumour promoters.

  18. Brief change in housing conditions alters the survivability of irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Rept. for Sep 89-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.L.; Cohen, S.G.; Mickley, G.A.

    1992-03-04

    The present experiment examined how 24-hours in different housing conditions could effect the longevity of male and female C3H/HeN mice exposed to 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8 Gy Co-60 radiation at a dose rate if 0.40 Gy/minute. Housing conditions had a significant effect on the longevity of mice, as did gender and Gy level. Normal housed male and female mice (i.e., 10 mice per large 15800 cm3 cage) lived longer than did mice housed in isolation (i.e., one mouse per similar cage). Female mice exposed to 8.0 Gy and housed in either a social crowded (i.e., 10 mice per small 1580 cc cage) condition or a social and spatial crowded (i.e., 1 mouse per 158 cc cage - placed side-by-side in a 2x5 matrix) condition lived longer than did either normal or isolated female mice. The housing effect was so pronounced for female mice that 30% of the mice in the social crowded condition and 60% of the mice in the social and spatial crowded condition survived the supra-lethal 8.0 Gy dose. Female mice in the social and spatial condition lived 34% longer than did female mice housed in isolation. Overall, female mice lived 20% (+or- 5%) longer than did male mice. Male mice housed in the social-crowded condition lived on the average 23% (+or- 7%) longer than male mice housed in isolation. Male mice housed in the spatial crowded condition lived on the average 18% (+or- 7%) longer than male mice housed in isolation. Male mice in the 8.0 or 8.4 Gy condition lived an average of 35% (+or- 5%) longer than male mice in the 8.8 Gy condition.

  19. C3H/He Mice as an Incompatible Cholangiocarcinoma Model by Clonorchis sinensis, Dicyclanil and N-Nitrosodimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Jang, Ja June; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a Group-I bio-carcinogen, associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The hamster is the only experimental model of C. sinensis-mediated CCA, but we oblige another animal model. The present study intended to develop a C. sinensis (Cs) mediated CCA model using C3H/He mice, co-stimulated with N-nitrosodimethyl-amine (NDMA) and dicyclanil (DC). The mice were divided into 8 groups with different combinations of Cs, NDMA, and DC. Six months later the mice were sacrificed and subjected to gross and histopathological examination. The body weights were significantly reduced among the groups treated with 2 or more agents (eg. Cs+NDMA, Cs+DC, NDMA+DC, and Cs+NDMA+DC). In contrast, liver weight percentages to body weight were increased in above groups by 4.1% to 4.7%. A Change of the spleen weight was observed only in Cs+NDMA group. Though C. sinensis infection is evident from hyperplastic changes, only 1 worm was recovered. T wo mice, 1 from Cs and the other from Cs+DC group, showed mass forming lesions; 1 (281.2 mm3) from the Cs group was a hepatocellular adenoma and the other (280.6 mm3) from the Cs+DC group was a cystic mass (peliosis). Higher prevalence of gray-white nodules was observed in Cs group (42.9%) followed by Cs+NDMA+DC group (21.4%). The mice of the Cs+NDMA+DC group showed hyper-proliferation of the bile duct with fibrotic changes. No characteristic change for CCA was recognized in any of the groups. In conclusion, C3H/He mice produce no CCA but extensive fibrosis when they are challenged by Cs, NDMA, and DC together. PMID:27417082

  20. FT-IR Measurements of Cross Sections of Cold C3H8 in the 7 - 15 µm for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L. R.; Toon, G. C.; Mantz, A. W.; Smith, M. A. H.

    2012-10-01

    To support atmospheric remote sensing of Titan, the absorption cross sections of N2-broadened C3H8 were obtained at temperatures between 145 and 296 K. For this, 17 spectra of pure- and N2-broadened propane were recorded in the 690 to 1550 cm-1 region using a Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory configured with a 20.38 cm long temperature-stabilized cryogenic absorption cell. The coolable cell was developed at Connecticut College and described previously [1]. We report the absorption cross sections at the various cold temperatures for nine strong propane bands (v26, v8, v21, v20, v7, v19, v18, v4, v24). In addition, we present results from ‘pseudo-line generation’, which includes positions, intensities, and effective lower state energies’ determined from high-resolution laboratory spectra, (see http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo/Readme). The resulting compilation will be compared to earlier work, including the C3H8+N2 spectra recorded at PNNL [2] and available line-by-line predictions [3,4]. Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, NASA Langley Research Center, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. References [1] K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, M. A. H. Smith, et al., J Mol Spectrosc 262, 122, 2010. [2] S. W. Sharpe, et al., Appl Spectrosc 58, 1452, 2004. [3] J. M. Flaud et al., Mol Phys 108, 699, 2010. [4] J. M. Flaud et al., J Chem Phys 114, 9361, 2001.

  1. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D inhibits vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in C3H10T1/2 cells but not Harvey ras-transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Stedman, Lynn; Nickel, Kwangok P; Castillo, S Sianna; Andrade, Juan; Burgess, John R; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on regulation of apoptosis was compared in control C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblast cells and those transfected with the Harvey ras oncogene. A known apoptotic stimulator, vitamin E succinate (VES), reduced cell number in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both cell types. In an assay for viable cells, there were significantly more C3H10T1/2 cells cotreated with VES and 1,25(OH)2D3 (-5.0 +/- 10.5% of vehicle-treated controls) compared to VES alone treated cells (-60.8 +/- 5.6%). In contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 did not change the percentage of viable cells following treatment by VES in ras-transfected cells [-67.3 +/- 7.5%, VES alone compared to 57.3 +/-v 15.7% with VES and 1,25(OH)2D3 ]. Further studies confirmed that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited VES-mediated apoptosis (1.27 +/- 0.34-fold over vehicle control) compared to VES treatment alone (2.29 +/- 0.56-fold increase) in C3H10T1/2 cells, but not in ras-transfected cells [3.07 +/- 0.43-fold increase, VES treatment alone; 3.64 +/- 0.42-fold increase, VES and 1,25(OH)2D3]. Both C3H10T1/2 and ras-transfected cells treated with VES had increased concentrations of cellular VES with very little change in a-tocopherol, indicating that the cells took up VES intact. In addition, both cell lines contained similar levels of nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR); however, the ras-transfected cells had reduced VDRE transcriptional activity. In conclusion, VES exerts its effect intact and 1,25(OH)2D3 preferentially protects C3H10T1/2 cells, whereas ras-transformed cells were not protected from VES-mediated apoptosis.

  2. IgA mesangial deposits in C3H/HeJ mice after oral immunization with ferritin or bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Genin, C; Laurent, B; Sabatier, J C; Colon, S; Berthoux, F C

    1986-01-01

    In order to study an experimental model of IgA nephropathy, C3H/HeJ mice which are high IgA responders were strongly immunized orally with ferritin and compared to syngeneic C3H/eB. C3H/HeJ exhibited a significant increase of total IgA level in the serum and of IgA deposits in the mesangium. However the low level of IgA antibody to ferritin detected in the serum and the unsuccessful search for ferritin and antibody to ferritin in the glomeruli suggest that strong oral immunization of C3H/HeJ mice leads to high level of non specific IgA in the serum and deposition of IgA in the kidney. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3516467

  3. Effects of high cholesterol diet on newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Yong; Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yo Na; Yi, Sun Shin; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, In Se; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Seong, Je Kyung

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we observed and compared the effects of a high cholesterol diet (HCD) on cell proliferation and differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N (B6, susceptible strain) and C3H/HeN (C3H, resistant strain) mice. Ki67 (a marker for cell proliferation) positive cells) were significantly decreased in HCD-fed B6 mice compared to those in B6 (49.7%) and C3H mice fed a low cholesterol diet (LCD). In addition, doublecortin (DCX, a marker for cell differentiation or neuroblasts)-immunoreactive cells in HCD-fed B6 mice were significantly decreased compared to those in LCD-fed B6 and C3H mice. These results suggest that B6 strains are sensitive to HCD, which impairs cell proliferation and differentiation.

  4. Chronic granulomatous pneumonia and lymphocytic responses induced by inhaled beryllium metal in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Swafford, D.S.; Hoover, M.D.; Tohulka, M.D.; Finch, G.L.

    1997-12-31

    Inhalation of beryllium (Be) has been associated with 2 syndromes: an acute chemical pneumonitis and a granulomatous lung disease known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of CBD using the inhalation route of exposure. A/J (H-2a haplotype) and C3H/HeJ (H-2{sup k}) Mice were exposed once for 90 min in nose-only exposure tubes to aerosols of Be metal. Six mo later, lung histopathologic responses were assessed. Further analyses defined the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in pulmonary lesions and evaluated proliferation of lymphocytes in situ and in response to Be in vitro. Responses were similar in both strains of mice. Most Be-exposed mice had minimal to mild interstitial fibrosis. The majority of lymphocytes in interstitial infiltrates and in microgranulomas were CD4+ T cells. Interstitial compact aggregates of lymphocytes contained B cells centrally and CD4+ cells peripherally. Lymphocyte labeling indices, used to assess proliferation in situ, were significantly greater within microgranulomas compared to compact lymphocytic aggregates. Lymphocyte stimulation indices in response to BeSO{sub 4} in vitro were not positive in blood, spleen, or tracheobronchial lymph node samples. Be-specific immune responses and nonspecific inflammatory responses to toxic and foreign-body properties of Be may have contributed to the histopathology in both strains of mice. The interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates, presence of microgranulomas, multinucleated foreign-body and Langhans giant cells, interstitial fibrosis, and CD4+ T-cell predominance with local proliferation are features similar to CBD in humans. The chronic lung disease induced in these mice by inhaled Be can be used to investigate the importance of variables such as dose, exposure pattern, and physicochemical form of Be in producing this disease. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Immunotoxic effects of cis-urocanic acid exposure in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Prater, M Renee; Gogal, Robert M; De Fabo, Edward C; Longstreth, Janice; Holladay, Steven D

    2003-04-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation results in increased levels of intradermal cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) and alters cutaneous immunity by interfering with processing and presentation of antigen by Langerhans cells. Reports on effects of systemic immunotoxicity with 30 day cUCA exposure in laboratory rodents include thymic atrophy, thymic hypocellularity and decreased T-cell-mediated immunity; however, immune effects of single exposure or 5 day cUCA administration, which may better mimic human exposures, are poorly defined. The present study initially evaluated immune effects of single, 5 day, and 4 week cUCA exposure in C57BL/6N mice. Single administration of intradermal cUCA resulted in decreased splenocyte phagocytosis that persisted for 30 days after cUCA exposure. Five day consecutive cUCA exposure decreased numbers of phenotypically mature CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) (single positive) thymocytes, increased CD4(+)CD8(+) (double positive) immature thymocytes and increased splenocyte proliferation. Prolonged cUCA exposure (4 weeks) caused profound thymic hypocellularity and splenic hypercellularity and increased splenic macrophage chemiluminescence. Because of this apparent sensitivity of C57BL/6N mice to cUCA, thymic hypocellularity was compared between C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice dosed with cUCA, and was found to be more pronounced in the C57BL/6N strain. These results are an extension of previous conclusions on immune modulation caused by cUCA in the spleen and thymus. Further, the observed variation in sensitivity between the mouse strains is consistent with known genetic susceptibility of these strains to the immunomodulatory effects of exposure to sunlight. PMID:12733650

  6. Relationship between X-ray exposure and malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, A.R.; Fox, M.; Murphy, G.; Little, J.B.

    1980-12-01

    The appearance of transformed foci after x-irradiation of the C3H 10T1/2 line of murine cells requires extensive proliferation followed by prolonged incubation under conditions of confluence. When the progeny of irradiated cells are resuspended and plated to determine the number of potential transformed foci, the absolute yield is constant over a wide range of dilutions and is similar to that observed in cultures that have not been resuspended. In addition, for cells exposed to a given x-ray dose, the number of transformed foci per dish is independent of the number of irradiated cells. These observations suggest that few, if any, of the transformed clones occur as a direct consequence of the x-ray exposure and challenge the hypothesis that transformed foci are the clonal products of occasional cells that have experienced an x-ray-induced mutational change. Rather, it appears that at least two steps are involved. We suggest that exposure to x-rays results in a change, for example, the induction or expression of some cell function, in many or all of the cells and that this change is transmitted to the progeny of the surviving cells; a consequence of this change is an enhanced probability of the occurrence of a second step, transformation, when these cells are maintained under conditions of confluence.

  7. Control of chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss in C3H/HeJ mice: Glucocorticoids vs. mineralocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, Carol J.; Kempton, J. Beth; DeGagne, Jacqueline; Trune, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The impact of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids on chronic otitis media (COM) in toll-like receptor 4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice was investigated. Study Design To evaluate control of COM by steroids with differences in their anti-inflammatory (prednisolone, dexamethasone), and fluid absorption functions (fludrocortisone, aldosterone). A minimum sample size of 5 animals for each group was required based on power analysis calculations. Sample sizes ranged from 7-17 mice per treatment group. Subjects and Methods ABR thresholds were performed at baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Histopathology was evaluated on all mice ears at the end of the study. Results ANOVA of ABR threshold change showed significant treatment effects (p <0.05) by both steroid types at all time intervals and ABR frequencies except 4 weeks/8 kHz. Histologic assessment showed prednisolone-treated mice had a higher rate of clearance of middle and inner ear inflammation (62%) than control mice (4%). Conclusion It was concluded that steroid treatments can improve the physiology of chronic middle and inner ear disease seen with COM. PMID:18984258

  8. ISOACCEPTING TRANSFER RNA'S OF L-M CELLS IN CULTURE AND AFTER TUMOR INDUCTION IN C3H MICE*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Kuang; Hellman, A.; Martin, D. H.; Hellman, K. B.; Novelli, G. David

    1969-01-01

    Co-chromatography in a reversed-phase column was performed for 16 aminoacyl-tRNA's prepared from L-M cells grown in serum-free suspension culture and from tumors induced in irradiated C3H mice by subcutaneous injection of L-M cells. The results showed that between the two sources there were (1) marked differences in aspartyl-, histidyl-, phenylalanyl-, and tyrosyl-tRNA's; (2) significant quantitative differences in isoaccepting species of alanyl-, isoleucyl-, seryl-, and threonyl-tRNA's; and (3) similar to minimally different patterns of arginyl-, methionyl-, prolyl-, tryptophanyl-, valyl-, glycyl-, leucyl-, and lysyl-tRNA's. The differences were evident when synthetases prepared either from L-M cells or from the tumors were used. When the L-M tumors were brought back into in vitro culture, their tRNA patterns were like those of L-M cells. Addition of serum to the culture medium caused the L-M cells to show very minute, but detectable, amounts of the isoaccepting tRNA's found in the tumors. The cellular mechanisms which may be related to the changes of tRNA patterns in the L-M cells are discussed. PMID:5271761

  9. Radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells is suppressed by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukawa, M.; Terasima, T.; Seki, M. )

    1989-12-01

    X-ray induced transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by administration of ascorbic acid after irradiation (0.1-20 micrograms/ml for the first week) in the culture medium. The dose-response curve was shifted about 60% downward and was slightly steeper in the presence of ascorbic acid (5 micrograms/ml for the first week) than in its absence. The 1-week treatment procedure revealed that cells initiated by radiation remained susceptible to ascorbic acid until the time of morphological phenotype expression. The neoplastically transformed phenotype expressed after incubation for 8 weeks could no longer be suppressed by ascorbic acid even after culture transfer. Similarly, the neoplastically transformed phenotype suppressed for 8 weeks by ascorbic acid treatment was not subsequently expressed in the absence of ascorbic acid. On the basis of the oxygen-detoxifying nature of ascorbic acid, we postulated that expression of the neoplastically transformed phenotype is promoted by reactive oxygen species and peroxy radicals generated in cells during the whole assay period. The data may be useful as a guide for chemopreventive efforts against radiation carcinogenesis.

  10. Immunomodulatory properties of silver nanoparticles contribute to anticancer strategy for murine fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Biswajit; Pal, Ramkrishna; Ali, Mohammed; Singh, Leichombam Mohindro; Shahidur Rahman, Dewan; Kumar Ghosh, Sujit; Sengupta, Mahuya

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in nanoparticle-based cancer therapeutics is gaining impetus due to the unique biophysical properties of nanoparticles at the quantum level. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported as one type of potent therapeutic nanoparticles. The present study is aimed to determine the effect of AgNPs in arresting the growth of a murine fibrosarcoma by a reductive mechanism. Initially, a bioavailability study showed that mouse serum albumin (MSA)-coated AgNPs have enhanced uptake; therefore, toxicity studies of AgNP-MSA at 10 different doses (1–10 mg/kg b.w.) were performed in LACA mice by measuring the complete blood count, lipid profile and histological parameters. The complete blood count, lipid profile and histological parameter results showed that the doses from 2 to 8 mg (IC50: 6.15 mg/kg b.w.) sequentially increased the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes, whereas the 9- and 10-mg doses showed conclusive toxicity. In an antitumor study, the incidence and size of fibrosarcoma were reduced or delayed when murine fibrosarcoma groups were treated by AgNP-MSA. Transmission electron micrographs showed that considerable uptake of AgNP-MSA by the sentinel immune cells associated with tumor tissue and a morphologically buckled structure of the immune cells containing AgNP-MSA. Because the toxicity studies revealed a relationship between AgNPs and immune function, the protumorigenic cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were also assayed in AgNP-MSA-treated and non-treated fibrosarcoma groups, and these cytokines were found to be downregulated after treatment with AgNP-MSA. PMID:25938978

  11. Exploring the dynamics of hydrogen atom release from the radical-radical reaction of O(3P) with C3H5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sun-Kyu; Kwon, Lee-Kyoung; Lee, Hohjai; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2004-05-01

    The gas-phase radical-radical reaction dynamics of O(3P)+C3H5→H(2S)+C3H4O was studied at an average collision energy of 6.4 kcal/mol in a crossed beam configuration. The ground-state atomic oxygen [O(3P)] and allyl radicals (C3H5) were generated by the photolysis of NO2 and the supersonic flash pyrolysis of allyl iodide, respectively. Nascent hydrogen atom products were probed by the vacuum-ultraviolet-laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the Lyman-α region centered at 121.6 nm. With the aid of the CBS-QB3 level of ab initio theory, it has been found that the barrierless addition of O(3P) to C3H5 forms the energy-rich addition complexes on the lowest doublet potential energy surface, which are predicted to undergo a subsequent direct decomposition step leading to the reaction products H+C3H4O. The major counterpart C3H4O of the probed hydrogen atom is calculated to be acrolein after taking into account the factors of barrier height, reaction enthalpy, and the number of intermediates involved along the reaction pathway. The nascent H-atom Doppler profile analysis shows that the average center-of-mass translational energy of the H+C3H4O products and the fraction of the total available energy released as the translational energy were determined to be 3.83 kcal/mol and 0.054, respectively. On the basis of comparison with statistical calculations, the reaction proceeds through the formation of short-lived addition complexes rather than statistical, long-lived intermediates, and the polyatomic acrolein product is significantly internally excited at the moment of the decomposition.

  12. Modulation of cellular interactions between C3H/10T1/2 cells and their transformed counterparts by phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bertram, J S

    1979-09-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that nontransformed C3H/10T1/2CL8 mouse embryo fibroblasts (10T1/2) can induce a state of reversible growth inhibition in cocultured malignantly transformed mouse fibroblasts and that this inhibition is modulated by serum concentration. The present study suggests that cyclic nucleotides may be implicated in this intercellular communication. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors theophylline, caffeine, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBX) at concentrations of 10(-3) M, maintained continuously, were all found to inhibit the expression of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced malignant transformation when added 7 days after removal of carcinogen. IBX was the most potent, causing 100% inhibition at 10(-4) M and 70% inhibition at 10(-5) M. This inhibition was partially reversible in the former case and completely reversible in the latter case by removal of drug. Complete inhibition by 10(-4) M IBX was still observed when treatment was delayed 21 days postcarcinogen. In reconstruction experiments, utilizing confluent monolayers of 10T1/2 cells overlaid with transformed cells, IBX caused a dose-dependent inhibition of colony size of the transformed cells. Adenosine cyclic 2':3'-monophosphoric acid (cAMP) and N6,O2'-dibutyryladenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophophoric acid potentiated this response. The presence of non-transformed 10T1/2 cells was required for this effect, since a concentration of IBX (10(-4) M) inhibitory for the growth of transformed cells in mixed cultures was without effect on the growth rate, plating efficiency, or saturation density of pure cultures of 10T1/2 cells or of their transformed counterparts. Conditioned medium removed from IBX-treated 10T1/2 cells was not growth inhibitory for transformed cells, indicating a requirement for cell-cell contact. IBX caused a dose-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP in confluent 10T1/2 cells and a more pronounced increase in cAMP concentration in the culture medium of these cells. The dose

  13. Adventures on the C3H5O potential energy surface: OH+propyne, OH+allene and related reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zádor, Judit; Miller, James A.

    2014-06-25

    We mapped out the stationary points and the corresponding conformational space on the C3H5O potential energy surface relevant for the OH + allene and OH + propyne reactions systematically and automatically using the KinBot software at the UCCSD(T)-F12b/cc-pVQZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. We used RRKM-based 1-D master equations to calculate pressure- and temperature-dependent, channel-specific phenomenological rate coefficients for the bimolecular reactions propyne + OH and allene + OH, and for the unimolecular decomposition of the CH3CCHOH, CH3C(OH)CH, CH2CCH2OH, CH2C(OH)CH2 primary adducts, and also for the related acetonyl, propionyl, 2-methylvinoxy, and 3-oxo-1-propyl radicals. The major channel of the bimolecular reactions at highmore » temperatures is the formation propargyl + H2O, which makes the title reactions important players in soot formation at high temperatures. However, below ~1000 K the chemistry is more complex, involving the competition of stabilization, isomerization and dissociation processes. We found that the OH addition to the central carbon of allene has a particularly interesting and complex pressure dependence, caused by the low-lying exit channel to form ketene + CH3 bimolecular products. In this study, we compared our results to a wide range of experimental data and assessed possible uncertainties arising from certain aspects of the theoretical framework.« less

  14. Ft-Ir Measurements of Mid-Ir Propene (C_3H_6) Cross Sections for Titan Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Drouin, Brian; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2016-06-01

    We present temperature dependent cross sections of propene (C_3H_6; CH_2-CH-CH_3, propylene), which was detected in the stratosphere of Titan. For this study, a series of high-resolution (0.0022 wn) spectra of pure and N_2-mixture samples were recorded at 150 - 296 K in the 650 - 1530 wn (6.5 - 15.3 μm) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using a Fourier-transform spectrometer and a custom-designed cold cell. The observed spectral features cover the strongest band (νb{19}) with its outstanding Q-branch peak at 912 wn and three other strong bands: νb{18}, νb{16} and νb{7} at 990, 1442, and 1459 wn, respectively. In addition, we have generated a HITRAN-format empirical 'pseudoline list' consisting of line positions, intensities, and effective lower state energies, which were determined by fitting all the observed propene spectra simultaneously. A newly derived partition function was used in the analysis. The results are compared with early work from relatively warm temperatures (278 - 323 K). C. A. Nixon, et al., Astrophys. J. Lett., 776, L14 (2013). A.W. Mantz, K. Sung, et al. 65th Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH, 2010. K. Sung, A.W. Mantz, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 262, 122 - 134 (2010). Research described in this talk was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley Research Center under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. RhoA-Mediated Functions in C3H10T1/2 Osteoprogenitors Are Substrate Topography Dependent.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Yoichiro; Liang, Ruiwei; Mendonça, Daniela B S; Mendonça, Gustavo; Nagasawa, Masako; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2016-03-01

    Surface topography broadly influences cellular responses. Adherent cell activities are regulated, in part, by RhoA, a member of the Rho-family of GTPases. In this study, we evaluated the influence of surface topography on RhoA activity and associated cellular functions. The murine mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 cells (osteoprogenitor cells) were cultured on titanium substrates with smooth topography (S), microtopography (M), and nanotopography (N) to evaluate the effect of surface topography on RhoA-mediated functions (cell spreading, adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation). The influence of RhoA activity in the context of surface topography was also elucidated using RhoA pharmacologic inhibitor. Following adhesion, M and N adherent cells developed multiple projections, while S adherent cells had flattened and widespread morphology. RhoA inhibitor induced remarkable longer and thinner cytoplasmic projections on all surfaces. Cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation was topography dependent with S < M and N surfaces. RhoA inhibition increased adhesion on S and M surfaces, but not N surfaces. Cell migration in a wound healing assay was greater on S versus M versus N surfaces and RhoA inhibitor increased S adherent cell migration, but not N adherent cell migration. RhoA inhibitor enhanced osteogenic differentiation in S adherent cells, but not M or N adherent cells. RhoA activity was surface topography roughness dependent (S < M, N). RhoA activity and -mediated functions are influenced by surface topography. Smooth surface adherent cells appear highly sensitive to RhoA function, while nano-scale topography adherent cell may utilize alternative cellular signaling pathway(s) to influence adherent cellular functions regardless of RhoA activity.

  16. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  17. Microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Carminato, Antonio; Vascellari, Marta; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Mutinelli, Franco

    2011-12-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered male cat was presented for a subcutaneous mass on the neck. After surgical removal of the mass, a pet identification microchip was found within the tumour. Histological examination of the mass revealed typical features of the feline postinjection sarcoma. The cat had never received injections at the tumour site; all routine vaccinations were administered in the hindlimbs. Few cases of sarcomas developing at the site of microchip application have been reported in animals, although the contributory role of vaccine administrations has not been ruled out. This is the first report of a microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners vaccination guidelines, avoiding the interscapular area, enabled confirmation of the definitive aetiology of the neoplasia.

  18. PPARgamma1 synthesis and adipogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells depends on S-phase progression, but does not require mitotic clonal expansion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young C; Jefcoate, Colin R

    2004-02-01

    Adipogenesis is typically stimulated in mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) lines by a standard hormonal combination of insulin (I), dexamethasone (D), and methylisobutylxanthine (M), administered with a fresh serum renewal. In C3H10T1/2 (10T1/2) cells, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma1 (PPARgamma1) expression, an early phase key adipogenic regulator, is optimal after 36 h of IDM stimulation. Although previous studies provide evidence that mitotic clonal expansion of 3T3-L1 cells is essential for adipogenesis, we show, here, that 10T1/2 cells do not require mitotic clonal expansion, but depend on cell cycle progression through S-phase to commit to adipocyte differentiation. Exclusion of two major mitogenic stimuli (DM without insulin and fresh serum renewal) from standard IDM protocol removed mitotic clonal expansion, but sustained equivalent PPARgamma1 synthesis and lipogenesis. Different S-phase inhibitors (aphidicolin, hydroxyurea, l-mimosine, and roscovitin) each arrested cells in S-phase, under hormonal stimulation, and completely blocked PPARgamma1 synthesis and lipogenesis. However, G2/M inhibitors effected G2/M accumulation of IDM stimulated cells and prevented mitosis, but fully sustained PPARgamma1 synthesis and lipogenesis. DM stimulation with or without fresh serum renewal elevated DNA synthesis in a proportion of cells (measured by BrdU labeling) and accumulation of cell cycle progression in G2/M-phase without complete mitosis. By contrast, standard IDM treatments with fresh serum renewal caused elevated DNA synthesis and mitotic clonal expansion while achieved equivalent level of adipogenesis. At most, one-half of the 10T1/2 mixed cell population differentiated to mature adipocytes, even when clonally isolated. PPARgamma was exclusively expressed in the cells that contained lipid droplets. IDM stimulated comparable PPARgamma1 synthesis and lipogenesis in isolated cells at low cell density (LD) culture, but in about half of the cells and with

  19. Reaction Mechanism and Product Branching Ratios of the CH + C3H6 Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Mebel, Alexander M

    2016-03-24

    from experiment can be rationalized in terms of dynamical factors, which should favor direct dissociation of the CH3CHCH(•)CH2 precursor by H loss, especially to 1,2-butadiene, over its isomerization to (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 followed by the production of ethene + C2H3 radical, while 1-butyne might be formed through secondary H assisted isomerization of 1,2-butadiene. Overall, the calculations corroborate that the CH + C3H6 reaction could be a major source of 1,3-butadiene at low temperature and low pressure conditions in the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres.

  20. Heats of formation and thermodynamic functions for C2H, C3H, and C4H from 300 K to 6000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saturno, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the energy level and heat of formation data for the species C2H, C3H, and C4H is given. The procedure for computing thermochemical data from partition function is also reviewed. Working expressions for approximate partition functions, free-energy function, enthalpy function, and heat capacity for a linear polyatomic species are presented.

  1. Refrigeration of the 18.3 GHz C_3H_2 Transition in Dark Clouds G1.6-0.25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Whiteoak, J. B.; Peng, R. -S.; Peters, W. L., III; Reynolds, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have observed the 1_(10)-1_(01) (18.3 GHz) transition of orthocyclopropenylidene, C_(-3)H_(-2), at 24 positions in the unusual dense cloud G1.6- 0.025. Except for one position, the transition is refrigerated, a phenomenon which has not been seen in this transition before.

  2. Experimental measurement and thermodynamic modeling of the mixed CH4 + C3H8 clathrate hydrate equilibria in silica gel pores: effects of pore size and salinity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungmin; Seo, Yongwon

    2010-06-15

    We measured hydrate phase equilibria for the ternary CH(4) (90%) + C(3)H(8) (10%) + water mixtures in silica gel pores with nominal diameters of 6.0, 15.0, 30.0, and 100.0 nm and for the quaternary CH(4) (90%) + C(3)H(8) (10%) + NaCl + water mixtures of two different NaCl concentrations (3 and 10 wt %) in silica gel pores with nominal diameters of 6.0, 15.0, and 30.0 nm. The CH(4) (90%) + C(3)H(8) (10%) hydrate-water interfacial tension (sigma(HW)) of 42 +/- 3 mJ/m(2) was obtained through the Gibbs-Thomson equation for dissociation within cylindrical pores. With this value, the experimental results were in good agreement with the calculated ones based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. A correction term for the capillary effect and a Pitzer model for electrolyte solutions were adopted to calculate the activity of water in the aqueous electrolyte solutions within silica gel pores. At a specified temperature, three-phase H-L(W)-V equilibrium curves of pore hydrates were shifted to higher-pressure regions depending on pore sizes and NaCl concentrations. From the cage-dependent (13)C NMR chemical shifts of enclathrated guest molecules, the mixed CH(4) (90%) + C(3)H(8) (10%) gas hydrate was confirmed to be structure II.

  3. Abundance Anomaly of the 13C Isotopic Species of c-C3H2 in the Low-mass Star Formation Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Sakai, Nami; Tokudome, Tomoya; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Takano, Shuro; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bachiller, Rafael; Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    The rotational spectral lines of c-C3H2 and two kinds of the 13C isotopic species, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 ({C}2v symmetry) and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 (Cs symmetry), have been observed in the 1–3 mm band toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527. We have detected 7, 3, and 6 lines of c-C3H2, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2, and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2, respectively, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and 34, 6, and 13 lines, respectively, with the IRAM 30 m telescope, where seven, two, and two transitions, respectively, are observed with both telescopes. With these data, we have evaluated the column densities of the normal and 13C isotopic species. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] ratio is determined to be 310 ± 80, while the [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio is determined to be 61 ± 11. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] and [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratios expected from the elemental 12C/13C ratio are 60–70 and 30–35, respectively, where the latter takes into account the statistical factor of 2 for the two equivalent carbon atoms in c-C3H2. Hence, this observation further confirms the dilution of the 13C species in carbon-chain molecules and their related molecules, which are thought to originate from the dilution of 13C+ in the gas-phase C+ due to the isotope exchange reaction: {}13{{{C}}}++{CO}\\to {}13{CO}+{{{C}}}+. Moreover, the abundances of the two 13C isotopic species are different from each other. The ratio of c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 species relative to c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 is determined to be 0.20 ± 0.05. If 13C were randomly substituted for the three carbon atoms, the [c-{}13{{CCCH}}2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio would be 0.5. Hence, the observed ratio indicates that c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 exists more favorably. Possible origins of the different abundances are discussed. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the NRO 45 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). NRO is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

  4. Automated video analysis system reveals distinct diurnal behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Adamah-Biassi, E B; Stepien, I; Hudson, R L; Dubocovich, M L

    2013-04-15

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in Activity-Like Behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), Exploration-Like Behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), Ingestion-Like Behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and Resting-Like Behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal distribution analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 h magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin. PMID:23337734

  5. Automated Video Analysis System Reveals Distinct Diurnal Behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adamah-Biassi, E. B.; Stepien, I.; Hudson, R.L.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in activity-like behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), exploration-like behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), ingestion-like behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and resting-like behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 hr magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin. PMID:23337734

  6. Automated video analysis system reveals distinct diurnal behaviors in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Adamah-Biassi, E B; Stepien, I; Hudson, R L; Dubocovich, M L

    2013-04-15

    Advances in rodent behavior dissection using automated video recording and analysis allows detailed phenotyping. This study compared and contrasted 15 diurnal behaviors recorded continuously using an automated behavioral analysis system for a period of 14 days under a 14/10 light/dark cycle in single housed C3H/HeN (C3H) or C57BL/6 (C57) male mice. Diurnal behaviors, recorded with minimal experimental interference and analyzed using phenotypic array and temporal distribution analysis showed bimodal and unimodal profiles in the C57 and C3H mice, respectively. Phenotypic array analysis revealed distinct behavioral rhythms in Activity-Like Behaviors (i.e. walk, hang, jump, come down) (ALB), Exploration-Like Behaviors (i.e. dig, groom, rear up, sniff, stretch) (ELB), Ingestion-Like Behaviors (i.e. drink, eat) (ILB) and Resting-Like Behaviors (i.e. awake, remain low, rest, twitch) (RLB) of C3H and C57 mice. Temporal distribution analysis demonstrated that strain and time of day affects the magnitude and distribution of the spontaneous homecage behaviors. Wheel running activity, water and food measurements correlated with timing of homecage behaviors. Subcutaneous (3 mg/kg, sc) or oral (0.02 mg/ml, oral) melatonin treatments in C57 mice did not modify either the total 24 h magnitude or temporal distribution of homecage behaviors when compared with vehicle treatments. We conclude that C3H and C57 mice show different spontaneous activity and behavioral rhythms specifically during the night period which are not modulated by melatonin.

  7. Sphingosine-1-phosphate-enhanced Wnt5a promotes osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Mari; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Higashi, Katsumasa; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Takano, Aiko; Hirata, Masato; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the involvement of Wnt signaling in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells. We found that S1P enhanced the expression of Wnt5a and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 or 6 (LRP5/6) during osteogenic differentiation. Wnt5a-neutralizing antibody inhibited S1P-enhanced expression of LRP5/6 and alkaline phosphatase, which are essential for osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, S1P did not affect endogenous canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, S1P-enhanced Wnt5a promotes LRP5/6 expression, resulting in the trigger of osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. These findings suggest a potential beneficial role for S1P in bone regeneration. PMID:27486054

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate-enhanced Wnt5a promotes osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Mari; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Higashi, Katsumasa; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Takano, Aiko; Hirata, Masato; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the involvement of Wnt signaling in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells. We found that S1P enhanced the expression of Wnt5a and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 or 6 (LRP5/6) during osteogenic differentiation. Wnt5a-neutralizing antibody inhibited S1P-enhanced expression of LRP5/6 and alkaline phosphatase, which are essential for osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, S1P did not affect endogenous canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, S1P-enhanced Wnt5a promotes LRP5/6 expression, resulting in the trigger of osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. These findings suggest a potential beneficial role for S1P in bone regeneration.

  9. Circadian Periods of Sensitivity for Ramelteon on the onset of Running-wheel Activity and the Peak of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuronal Firing Rhythms in C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Oliver; Hudson, Randall L.; Stepien, Iwona; Dubocovich, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    Ramelteon, an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist, is used for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia and circadian sleep disorders. Ramelteon phase shifts circadian rhythms in rodents and humans when given at the end of the subjective day; however, its efficacy at other circadian times is not known. Here, the authors determined in C3H/ HeN mice the maximal circadian sensitivity for ramelteon in vivo on the onset of circadian running-wheel activity rhythms, and in vitro on the peak of circadian rhythm of neuronal firing in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) brain slices. The phase response curve (PRC) for ramelteon (90 μg/mouse, subcutaneous [sc]) on circadian wheel-activity rhythms shows maximal sensitivity during the late mid to end of the subjective day, between CT8 and CT12 (phase advance), and late subjective night and early subjective day, between CT20 and CT2 (phase delay), using a 3-day-pulse treatment regimen in C3H/HeN mice. The PRC for ramelteon resembles that for melatonin in C3H/ HeN mice, showing the same magnitude of maximal shifts at CT10 and CT2, except that the range of sensitivity for ramelteon (CT8–CT12) during the subjective day is broader. Furthermore, in SCN brain slices in vitro, ramelteon (10 pM) administered at CT10 phase advances (5.6 ± 0.29 h, n = 3) and at CT2 phase delays (−3.2 ± 0.12 h, n = 6) the peak of circadian rhythm of neuronal firing, with the shifts being significantly larger than those induced by melatonin (10 pM) at the same circadian times (CT10: 2.7 ± 0.15 h, n = 4, p < .05; CT2: −1.13 ± 0.08 h, n = 6, p < .001, respectively). The phase shifts induced by both melatonin and ramelteon in the SCN brain slice at either CT10 or CT2 corresponded with the period of sensitivity observed in vivo. In conclusion, melatonin and ramelteon showed identical periods of circadian sensitivity at CT10 (advance) and CT2 (delay) to shift the onset of circadian activity rhythms in vivo and the peak of SCN neuronal firing rhythms in vitro

  10. Highly regioselective hydride transfer, oxidative dehydrogenation, and hydrogen-atom abstraction in the thermal gas-phase chemistry of [Zn(OH)](+)/C3H8.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Nan; Zhao, Hai-Tao; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2014-12-28

    The thermal reactions of [Zn(OH)](+) with C3H8 have been studied by means of gas-phase experiments and computational investigation. Two types of C-H bond activation are observed in the experiment, and pertinent mechanistic features include inter alia: (i) the metal center of [Zn(OH)](+) serves as active site in the hydride transfer to generate [i-C3H7](+) as major product, (ii) generally, a high regioselectivity is accompanied by remarkable chemoselectivity: for example, the activation of a methyl C-H bond results mainly in the formation of water and [Zn(C3,H7)](+). According to computational work, this ionic product corresponds to [HZn(CH3CH=CH2)](+). Attack of the zinc center at a secondary C-H bond leads preferentially to hydride transfer, thus giving rise to the generation of [i-C3H7](+); (iii) upon oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH), liberation of CH3CH2=CH2 occurs to produce [HZn(H2O)](+). Both, ODH as well as H2O loss proceed through the same intermediate which is characterized by the fact that a methylene hydrogen atom from the substrate is transferred to the zinc and one hydrogen atom from the methyl group to the OH group of [Zn(OH)](+). The combined experimental/computational gas-phase study of C-H bond activation by zinc hydroxide provides mechanistic insight into related zinc-catalyzed large-scale processes and identifies the crucial role that the Lewis-acid character of zinc plays. PMID:25230924

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1141, LB3345_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1141, LB3345_V)' providing data from direct measurement of mass density at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  12. Successful treatment of alopecia areata-like hair loss with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt-Paul, P; Sundberg, J P; Happle, R; McElwee, K J; Metz, S; Boggess, D; Hoffmann, R

    1999-07-01

    A type of hair loss closely resembling human alopecia areata has been described in C3H/HeJ mice. In order to test the assumed analogy with human alopecia areata, we investigated the efficacy of treatment with the contact allergen squaric acid dibutylester. In 12 C3H/HeJ mice with alopecia areata an allergic contact dermatitis was induced and elicited weekly on one side of the back by topical applications of squaric acid dibutylester. Overt hair regrowth was observed only on the treated side of the back in nine of 12 mice. Histopathologic examination revealed a change in the distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate from a dense perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate around the mid and lower regions of hair follicles in untreated skin to a uniform presence in the upper dermis in treated skin. Immunohistomorphometric studies revealed that treatment with squaric acid dibutylester increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio from approximately 1:2 in untreated alopecia areata to 1:1 in treated alopecia areata. Additional immunohistochemical investigations showed an aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I, major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on keratinocytes of the mid and lower parts of hair follicles in untreated alopecia areata. In successfully treated skin ectopic major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression was clearly reduced, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression showed only minor changes. In conclusion, alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice responded to treatment with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester analogous to human alopecia areata. Moreover, successful treatment changes the aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II in a way similar to that observed in human alopecia areata. These observations support the concept that alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice can be utilized as an appropriate model for the study of

  13. Artificial miRNA-mediated down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes (C3H and F5H) cause reduction in lignin content in jute.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Farhana; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2015-11-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNA) provide a new feature in the gene silencing era. Concomitantly, reducing the amount of lignin in fiber-yielding plants such as jute holds significant commercial and environmental potential, since this amount is inversely proportional to the quality of the fiber. The present study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute, by introducing amiRNA based vectors for down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes of jute, coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). The transgenic lines of F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA showed a reduced level of gene expression, which resulted in about 25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin content for whole stem and 12-15% reduction in fiber lignin as compared to the non-transgenic plants. The results indicate successful F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA transgenesis for lignin reduction in jute. This is likely to have far-reaching commercial implications and economic acceleration for jute producing countries.

  14. Calculation and synthesis of ZrC by CVD from ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar system with high H2 percentage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Cheng, Laifei; Ma, Baisheng; Gao, Shuang; Feng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Litong

    2015-03-01

    A thermodynamic calculation about the synthesis of ZrC from the ZrCl4-C3H6-H2-Ar system with high percentage of H2 was performed using the FactSage thermochemical software. According to the calculation, ZrC coating was synthesized on graphite substrates and carbon fibers by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process, and growth rate of the ZrC coating as a function of temperature was investigated. The surface diagrams of condensed-phases in this system were expressed as the functions of the deposition temperature, total pressure and reactant ratios of ZrCl4/(ZrCl4 + C3H6), H2/(ZrCl4 + C3H6), and the yield of the products was determined by the diagrams. A smooth and dense ZrC coating could be synthesized under the instruction of the calculated parameters. The morphologies of the ZrC coatings were significantly affected by temperature and gases flux. The deposition temperature is much lower than that from the ZrCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system.

  15. Artificial miRNA-mediated down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes (C3H and F5H) cause reduction in lignin content in jute.

    PubMed

    Shafrin, Farhana; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2015-11-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNA) provide a new feature in the gene silencing era. Concomitantly, reducing the amount of lignin in fiber-yielding plants such as jute holds significant commercial and environmental potential, since this amount is inversely proportional to the quality of the fiber. The present study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute, by introducing amiRNA based vectors for down-regulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes of jute, coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). The transgenic lines of F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA showed a reduced level of gene expression, which resulted in about 25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin content for whole stem and 12-15% reduction in fiber lignin as compared to the non-transgenic plants. The results indicate successful F5H-amiRNA and C3H-amiRNA transgenesis for lignin reduction in jute. This is likely to have far-reaching commercial implications and economic acceleration for jute producing countries. PMID:26453352

  16. The role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato saliva in the dissemination of Rickettsia conorii in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Milhano, N; Saito, T B; Bechelli, J; Fang, R; Vilhena, M; DE Sousa, R; Walker, D H

    2015-09-01

    Animal models have been developed for the study of rickettsial pathogenesis. However, to understand what occurs during the natural route of rickettsial transmission via the tick bite, the role of tick saliva should be considered in these models. To address this, we analysed the role of tick saliva in the transmission of Rickettsia conorii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in a murine host by intradermally (i.d.) inoculating two groups of susceptible C3H/HeJ mice with this Rickettsia, and infesting one group with nymphal Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks. Quantification of bacterial loads and mRNA levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-10 and NF-κB was performed in C3H/HeJ lung samples by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. Lung histology was examined to evaluate the pathological manifestations of infection. No statistically significant difference in bacterial load in the lungs of mice was observed between these two groups; however, a statistically significant difference was observed in levels of IL-1β and NF-κB, both of which were higher in the group inoculated with rickettsiae but not infected with ticks. Lung histology in both groups of animals revealed infiltration of inflammatory cells. Overall, this study showed that i.d. inoculation of R. conorii caused infection in the lungs of C3H/HeJ mice and tick saliva inhibited proinflammatory effects.

  17. Xyloglucan undergoes interpolymeric transglycosylation during binding to the plant cell wall in vivo: evidence from 13C/3H dual labelling and isopycnic centrifugation in caesium trifluoroacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J E; Smith, R C; Fry, S C

    1997-01-01

    Xyloglucan from the walls of Rosa cells that had been cultured on [12C]- or [13C]-glucose formed bands in caesium trifluoroacetate with mean buoyant densities of 1.575 or 1.616 g/ml respectively. Incubation of a mixture of [13C,3H]xyloglucan and [12C,1H]xyloglucan in the presence of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity caused the mean buoyant density of the radioactive material to decrease, indicating that interpolymeric transglycosylation could be detected in vitro. We used two 13C/3H-dual-labelling protocols to look for interpolymeric transglycosylation in vivo. In protocol A, [13C]glucose-grown Rosa cells were transferred into [12C]glucose medium 6 h after a approximately 2 h pulse of l-[1-3H]arabinose (which radiolabels the xylose residues of xyloglucan). The mean buoyant density of the wall-bound [3H]xyloglucan decreased during the following 7 days in culture. This indicates that, during or after the wall-binding of newly synthesized [12C,1H]xyloglucan, it became covalently attached to previously wall-bound [13C, 3H]xyloglucan. In protocol B, [12C]glycerol- or [12C]glucose-grown Rosa cells were transferred into [13C]glucose medium, 20 or 60 min before a approximately 2 h pulse of [3H]arabinose. The buoyant density of the earliest wall-bound [3H]xyloglucan showed that it had a 12C/13C ratio of approximately 1:1. This indicates that, during (or, implausibly, before) wall-binding, the newly synthesized [13C, 3H]xyloglucan became covalently attached to previously synthesized [12C]xyloglucan. During the following 7 days in culture, the mean buoyant density of the [3H]xyloglucan increased, showing that later-synthesized [13C,1H]xyloglucan can be covalently attached to previously wall-bound [12C,13C,3H]xyloglucan. The only known mechanism by which segments of xyloglucans could become covalently attached to each other in the cell wall is by interpolymeric transglycosylation catalysed by XET. We conclude that XET-catalysed interpolymeric transglycosylation

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen image hypoxic fraction plus radiation dose strongly correlates with tumor cure in FSa fibrosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Elas, Martyna; Bell, Rebecca; Hleihel, Danielle; Barth, Eugene D.; McFaul, Colin; Haney, Chad R.; Bielanska, Joanna; Pustelny, Katarzyna; Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Halpern, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Tumor hypoxia has long been known to produce resistance to radiation. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging was investigated for its power to predict the success of tumor control depending on tumor oxygenation level and radiation therapy dose. Methods and Materials Thirty-four EPR oxygen images were obtained from the legs of C3H mice bearing 0.5 ml FSa fibrosarcomas under both normal (air breathing) and clamped tumor conditions. Under the same conditions as those during which the images were obtained, tumors were irradiated to a variety doses near the FSa TCD50. Tumor tissue was distinguished from normal tissue using co-registration of the EPR oxygen images with spin-echo MRI images of the tumor and/or stereotactic localization. Tumor voxel statistics in the EPR oxygen image included mean and median pO2, and the fraction of tumor voxels below the specified pO2 values of 3, 6 and 10 torr. Bivariate logistic regression analysis using radiation dose and each of the EPR oxygen image statistics determined which best separated treatment failure from success. Results and Conclusions TCD50 measurements were similar to those found in the literature for this syngeneic tumor. Bivariate analysis of 34 tumors demonstrated that tumor cure correlated with dose (p=0.004) and with <10 torr hypoxic fraction (p=0.023). Together, radiation dose and EPR image hypoxic fraction separate the population of FSa fibrosarcomas which are cured from those which fail, thus predicting curability. PMID:18474313

  19. Rotational spectrum and carbon-13 hyperfine structure of the C3H, C5H, C6H, and C7H radicals.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Thaddeus, P

    2005-05-01

    By means of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of a supersonic molecular beam, we have detected the singly substituted carbon-13 isotopic species of C(5)H, C(6)H, and C(7)H. Hyperfine structure in the rotational transitions of the lowest-energy fine structure component ((2)Pi(12) for C(5)H and C(7)H, and (2)Pi(32) for C(6)H) of each species was measured between 6 and 22 GHz, and precise rotational, centrifugal distortion, Lambda-doubling, and (13)C hyperfine coupling constants were determined. In addition, resolved hyperfine structure in the lowest rotational transition (J = 32-->12) of the three (13)C isotopic species of C(3)H was measured by the same technique. By combining the centimeter-wave measurements here with previous millimeter-wave data, a complete set of (13)C hyperfine coupling constants were derived to high precision for each isotopic species. Experimental structures (r(0)) have been determined for C(5)H and the two longer carbon-chain radicals, and these are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of high-level coupled-cluster calculations. C(3)H, C(5)H, and C(7)H exhibit a clear alternation in the magnitude and sign of the (13)C hyperfine coupling constants along the carbon-chain backbone. Because the electron spin density is nominally zero at the central carbon atom of C(3)H, C(5)H, and C(7)H, and at alternating sets of carbon atoms of C(5)H and C(7)H, owing to spin polarization, almost all of the (13)C coupling constants at these atoms are small in magnitude and negative in sign. Spin-polarization effects are known to be important for the Fermi-contact (b(F)) term, but prior to the work here they have generally been neglected for the hyperfine terms a, c, and d.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5136_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1212, LB5136_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Ethanol C2H6O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4328_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Ethanol C2H6O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4328_H)' providing data from direct calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant pressure and temperature.

  2. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4314_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1111, LB4314_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Methanol CH4O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4327_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'heat of Mixing and Solution of Methanol CH4O + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (HMSD1121, LB4327_H)' providing data from direct calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant pressure and temperature.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5133_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H6O3 Dimethyl carbonate (VMSD1111, LB5133_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxolane C3H6O2 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1212, LB3306_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxolane C3H6O2 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1212, LB3306_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1242, LB3383_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1242, LB3383_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from density measurements at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxolane C3H6O2 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1111, LB3318_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,3-Dioxolane C3H6O2 + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1111, LB3318_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1342, LB3356_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propan-2-one C3H6O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1342, LB3356_V)' providing data by calculation of isothermal compressibility from direct measurements of mass densities at variable pressure and constant temperature and mole fraction.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4270_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4270_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4253_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4253_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4920_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4920_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4258_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4258_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4250_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4250_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C8H18O Octan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4554_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C8H18O Octan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4554_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4925_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4925_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4552_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4552_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4262_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4262_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4917_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4917_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4912_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4912_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,2-Dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 + C3H3N Propenenitrile (EVLM1211, LB5647_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,2-Dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 + C3H3N Propenenitrile (EVLM1211, LB5647_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4256_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4256_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4275_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1412, LB4275_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4927_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4927_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1212, LB4923_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1212, LB4923_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4268_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4268_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4272_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4272_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4928_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4928_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4257_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4257_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4919_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4919_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5Cl Chlorobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5649_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5Cl Chlorobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5649_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4263_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1212, LB4263_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4264_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1511, LB4264_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4260_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4260_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4922_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4922_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4269_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1511, LB4269_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1111, LB4915_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-2-ol (VMSD1111, LB4915_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4266_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H12O2 Butyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4266_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1412, LB4276_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl sulfoxide C2H6OS + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1412, LB4276_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4911_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4911_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4913_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4913_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  5. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5NO2 Nitrobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5650_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C6H5NO2 Nitrobenzene (EVLM1211, LB5650_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4252_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1111, LB4252_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1111, LB4255_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H9NO N,N-Dimethylethanamide (VMSD1111, LB4255_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4930_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4930_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1412, LB4277_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanenitrile C2H3N + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1412, LB4277_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4274_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1412, LB4274_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4908_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethanol C2H6O + C3H3N Propenenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4908_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  12. Immunological and nonimmunological control of severity of Trypanosoma musculi infections in C3H and C57BL/6 inbred mice

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.W.; Albright, J.F.

    1989-06-01

    Studies concerned with the mechanisms responsible for relative resistance or susceptibility of strains of inbred mice to Trypanosoma musculi infections are presented. Treatment with 400 rads of ionizing radiation, silica dust, or trypan blue (reticuloendothelial blocking agents) rendered C3H mice unable to control the initial maximum level of parasite growth, and the mice died of overwhelming infections. In contrast, similarly treated C57BL/6 (relatively resistant) mice controlled initial trypanosome growth as well as controls; however, the duration of infection, preceding eventual cure, was approximately doubled. Combined treatment with trypan blue and 400 rads of radiation resulted in much higher initial levels of infection in C57BL/6 mice, and about half of the mice died; the remaining mice eventually recovered after a prolonged course of infection. These results indicate that a nonimmunological mechanism, which controls initial infection, and an immunological mechanism cooperate to limit T. musculi infections in normal mice. We present results that suggest that both mechanisms are less effective in C3H than in C57BL/6 mice. The initial control of infection presumably reflects the activity of some type(s) of phagocytic effector cell; we show, however, that the initial control of infection is not an attribute of the liver Kupffer cells. Identification and characterization of the cells capable of controlling initial infection could lead to procedures for enhancing their function and, thus, to enhanced resistance to, and elimination of, trypanosome infections.

  13. In vitro induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in C3H/10T1/2 cells by X-rays is inhibited by nitrogen.

    PubMed

    von Hofe, E; Kennedy, A R

    1988-04-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the most potent inducers of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MT) in rat liver in vivo. In this study we show that MT is readily induced in C3H/10T1/2 cells in culture, which provides a system more amenable to determining the molecular events involved in the induction of this repair enzyme. Maximal induction (2- to 3-fold) was observed in logarithmically growing cells 48 h after a dose of 200 rad, similar to the optimal induction time seen in rat liver in vivo. The absolute level of MT observed in C3H/10T1/2 cells which had been at confluence for 24 h was less than in cells in log growth but was still inducible by X-rays, exhibiting an approximately 2-fold increase over unirradiated cells similar to MT induction in logarithmically growing cells. Irradiating cells under anaerobic conditions (saturated N2) abolished MT induction by 100 rad. Cells irradiated with 200 rad under anaerobic conditions exhibited approximately 70% inhibition of induction compared with aerobically irradiated cells. The possibility that MT may be partially inactivated by interaction with radicals produced by ionizing radiation is discussed.

  14. Genetic linkage of hyperglycemia, body weight and serum amyloid-P in an intercross between C57BL/6 and C3H apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhiguang; Li, Yuhua; James, Jessica C; Matsumoto, Alan H; Helm, Gregory A; Lusis, Aldons J; Shi, Weibin

    2006-05-15

    Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are integral components of the metabolic perturbations in type 2 diabetes. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice develop severe hyperlipidemia and significant hyperglycemia when fed a western diet containing 21% fat (w/w), 0.15% cholesterol and 19.5% casein. Using an intercross between C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) apoE(-/-) mice, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify loci contributing to hyperglycemia and associated traits. Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and serum amyloid-P (SAP) and body weight in 234 female F2 mice were measured after being fed the western diet for 12 weeks. QTL analysis revealed one significant QTL, named Bglu3 [95.8 cM, logarithm of odds ratio (OR)(LOD) 4.1], on chromosome 1 and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 9 (38 cM, LOD 2.3) that influenced plasma glucose levels. Bglu3 coincided with loci on distal chromosomal 1 that had a major influence on plasma SAP levels and body weight. Significant correlations between plasma glucose, SAP and body weight were observed in F2 mice. Thus, these results demonstrate genetic linkages of hyperglycemia and body weight with SAP, a marker of the acute-phase response, in hyperlipidemic apoE(-/-) mice and suggest a probability for the Sap gene to be a positional candidate of Bglu3.

  15. Activity of double wash-coat monolith catalyst with noble metals and zeolites in selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) with C3H6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Dae; Kim, Ki-Joong; Kim, Yong-Hwa; Jeon, Gyung-Soo; Choi, Young-Key; Ahn, Ho-Geun

    2008-10-01

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) with C3H6 was studied in the presence of oxygen. The double wash-coat monolith catalysts for SCR comprised a lower layer of Au (or Pt)/Al2O3 and a upper layer of zeolites. The catalytic performance of the double wash-coated catalyst was remarkably improved to broaden the temperature window. The Au and Pt particles were dispersed uniformly on the monolith with particle sizes range of 3 approximately 5 nm and 5 approximately 10 nm, respectively. The catalyst binders used were colloidal silica, potassium silicate and tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the best catalyst activity was achieved with using colloidal silica as a binder. The zeolites used for the catalyst upper layer were MCM-41, FER, Y5.3-Zeolite and ZSM5, among which the NH4-ZSM5-coated catalyst showed the highest activity. The experimental results confirmed the promising potential of the double wash-coat, monolith catalyst for SCR of NO(x) with C3H6 due to the effective combination of noble metal monolith catalyst with zeolite for the removal of NO(x) by SCR with hydrocarbons.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, NMR study and AC conductivity of [(C3H7)4N]2Cd2ClF5 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajji, Rachid; Oueslati, Abderrazak; Body, Monique; Hlel, Faouzi

    2015-08-01

    The [(C3H7)4N]2Cd2ClF5 compound was crystallized in the triclinic system with space group P1. The crystal structure consists of organic-inorganic layers, stacked along direction. The organic part consists of two cations types. The inorganic layer is made up of Cd2ClF5 dimmers composed of two in-equivalent irregular tetrahedra sharing one edge (Cl-F). The MAS NMR spectra showed two, three and five isotropic resonances relative to 111Cd, 13C and 19F nuclei, respectively. DSC measurement disclosed a phase transition at around 380 K. The impedance spectroscopy and AC electrical conductivity measurements of our compound were taken from 209 Hz to 5 MHz over the temperature range of 350-381 K. Nyquist plots ( Z″ vs Z') show semicircle arcs at different temperatures, and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to explain the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of bulk resistance ( R), capacitance ( C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The conductivity σ p follows the Arrhenius relation. The near value of activation energies obtained from the conductivity data and circuit equivalent confirms that the transport is through hopping mechanism. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the reorientation motion of [N(C3H7)4]+ cations and/or [Cd2ClF5]2- anions is probably responsible for the observed conductivity.

  17. Crystal structure and AC conductivity mechanism of [N(C3H7)4]2CoCl4 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutia, N.; Oueslati, A.; Ben Gzaiel, M.; Khirouni, K.

    2016-09-01

    We found that the new organic-inorganic compound [N(C3H7)4]2 CoCl4, crystallizes at room temperature in the centrosymmetric monoclinic system with P21/c space group. The atomic arrangement can be described by an alternation of organic and organic-inorganic layers parallel to the (001) plan. Indeed, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies indicate a presence of three order-disorder phase transitions located at 332, 376 and 441 K. Furthermore, the conductivity was measured in the frequency range from 200 MHz to 5 MHz and temperatures between 318 K and 428 K using impedance spectroscopy. Analysis of the AC conductivity experimental data obtained, and the frequency exponent s with theoretical models reveals that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the appropriate mechanism for conduction in the title compound. The analysis of the dielectric constants ε ‧ and ε ″ versus temperature, at several frequencies, shows a distribution of relaxation times. This relaxation is probably due to the reorientational dynamics of [N(C3H7)4]+ cations.

  18. Ft-Ir Measurements of Cross Sections of Cold C_3H_8 in the 7 - 15 μm for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Brown, Linda R.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2013-06-01

    To support atmospheric remote sensing of Titan, the absorption cross sections of N_2-broadened C_3H_8 were obtained at temperatures between 145 and 296 K. For this, 35 spectra of pure- and N_2-broadened propane were recorded in the 670 to 1900 cm-1 region using a Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A 20.38 cm path temperature-stabilized cryogenic absorption cell was used, which was developed at Connecticut College and described previously [1]. We report the absorption cross sections at the various cold temperatures for nine strong fundamental bands (ν_{26}, ν_8, ν_{21}, ν_{20}, ν_7, ν_{19}, ν_{18}, ν_4, ν_{24}) as well as for many contributions from hot and combination bands. In addition, we present results from 'pseudo -line generation' (http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo/Readme), which includes mean intensities and effective lower state energies on a 0.005 cm^{-1} frequency grid determined in the 690 - 1536 cm^{-1} region from all 35 high-resolution laboratory spectra. It was observed that the pseudo lines reproduce all the observed spectral transmittances well within 3% and the C_3H_8 amounts within 4% on the average. The measured cross sections and synthetic spectra from the pseudoline compilation are compared to earlier work, including the C_3H_8+N_2 spectra recorded at PNNL [2] and line-by-line predictions available [3, 4]. [1] K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, M. A. H. Smith, et al., J Mol Spectrosc 262, 122, 2010.; [2] S. W. Sharpe, et al., Appl Spectrosc 58, 1452, 2004.; [3] J. M. Flaud et al., Mol Phys 108, 699, 2010.; [4] J. M. Flaud et al., J Chem Phys 114, 9361, 2001. The research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and at The College of William and Mary under contracts with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. US Government Support Acknowledged.

  19. Characteristics of a Virus Isolated from a Feline Fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    McKissick, G. E.; Lamont, P. H.

    1970-01-01

    A virus was isolated from a radioresistant feline fibrosarcoma. It induced multi-nucleated giant-cell formation and lysis in a cell line derived from a canine fibro-sarcoma, which was used to characterize the virus. End-point titrations in these cells required 28 days. The virus was sensitive to ether and heat and was destroyed at pH 3. Replication was not inhibited by 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Electron microscopy revealed assembly by a budding process from the plasma membrane of infected cells. The average diameter of the virion was 106 nm. Intracisternal particles with an average diameter of 45 nm were present within infected cells. In two instances secondary monolayers of feline renal cells underwent morphological transformation after inoculation of the virus. The two strains of transformed cells are now in continuous culture and do not yield infectious virus. Images PMID:4194169

  20. Growth of a radiation-transformed clone of C3H 1OT1/2 cells into melanin-producing colonies

    SciTech Connect

    Szekely, J.G.; Raaphorst, G.P.; Lobreau, A.U.; Azzam, E.I.; Vadasz, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    When R25, a radiation-transformed clone of C3H 1OT1/2 cells, was plated in soft agarose, a fraction of the colonies became pigmented. The morphologies of the white and dark colonies and their cells were compared by optical, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The transformed R25 cells had apparently differentiated into melanin-producing cells in the soft agarose, with the white colonies containing actively growing cells having only a few melanosomes, and the dark colonies being made up of stationary-phase cells filled with electronopaque melanosomes. Exposure of the R25 cells to 4.0 Gy of X-rays decreased the percentage of dark colonies, while exposure to 1% DMSO had no effect.

  1. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transitions observed in [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gzaiel, M.; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Bulou, A.; Hlel, F.; Gargouri, M.

    2015-06-01

    Phase transitions of the centrosymmetric compound, [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. Two reversible order-disorder and displacive phase transitions are observed at T1 = 327 K and T2 = 347 K with 3 K and 4 K hysteresis respectively, indicating a first order character. The evolution of Raman line shifts, "ν", and the half-width, "Δν", versus temperature show some singularities associated with the transitions, suggesting that they are governed by the reorientational and the displacement of the organic part. Besides the results of the dielectric permittivity study confirms the conclusion drawn from the calorimetric and Raman measurements that the phase transition located in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric proprieties is characterized by change of dynamical state of cation.

  2. Ratjadone C-mediated nuclear accumulation of HDAC4: implications on Runx2-induced osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ping; Deepak, Vishwa; Kang, Liheng; Jiang, Qing; Liu, Rong; Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Zhongli; Zeng, Xianlu; Liu, Wenguang

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes that deacetylate ε-N-acetyl lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins and play an important role in gene regulation. HDAC4, a class-IIa HDAC, has been reported to shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm in response to various cellular stimuli. The nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC4 is critical, and an anomalous nuclear localization might affect the cellular differentiation program. While the subcellular localization of HDAC4 has been reported to be vital for myoblast differentiation and chondrocyte hypertrophy, nuclear accumulation of HDAC4 during Runx2-induced osteoblast differentiation of stem cells has not been characterized. Ratjadone C is a natural compound that inhibits the nuclear export of proteins. Here, we show that Runx2 is a more potent transcription factor than Osterix in inducing osteoblast differentiation. Under the influence of ratjadone C, HDAC4 is retained in the nucleus and co-localizes with Runx2. However, forced nuclear accumulation of HDAC4 by ratjadone C or overexpression of the nuclear resident form of HDAC4 does not inhibit osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the Runx2- induced osteogenic program of C3H10T1/2 cells is not affected by HDAC4. Even though phosphorylation of HDAC4 affects its compartmentalization and the stemness of progenitor cells, we found that total HDAC4 and phosphorylated HDAC4 remain cytoplasmic under both osteogenic and nonosteogenic conditions. Collectively, this work demonstrates that, regardless of the nucleo-cytoplasmic presence of HDAC4, the Runx2-induced osteoblast differentiation program of C3H10T1/2 cells remains unaffected. Additionally, the ratjadone C-mediated nuclear retention assay can potentially be used as a screening tool to identify novel regulatory mechanisms of HDAC4 and its functional partners in various pathophysiological conditions.

  3. FT-IR measurements of cold C3H8 cross sections at 7-15 μm for Titan atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2013-11-01

    We present absorption cross sections of propane (C3H8) at temperatures from 145 K to 297 K in the 690-1550 cm-1 region. Pure and N2-broadened spectra were measured at pressures from 3 Torr to 742 Torr using a Bruker IFS125 FT-IR spectrometer at JPL. The gas absorption cell, developed at Connecticut College, was cooled by a closed-cycle helium refrigerator. The cross sections were measured and compiled for individual spectra recorded at various experimental conditions covering the planetary atmosphere and Titan. In addition to the cross sections, a propane pseudoline list with a frequency grid of 0.005 cm-1, was fitted to the 34 laboratory spectra. Line intensities and lower state energies were retrieved for each line, assuming a constant width. Validation tests showed that the pseudoline list reproduces discrete absorption features and continuum, the latter contributed by numerous weak and hot band features, in most of the observed spectra within 3%. Based on the pseudoline list, the total intensity in the 690-1550 cm-1 region was determined to be 52.93 (±3%) × 10-19 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 296 K; this value is within 3% of the average from four earlier studies. Finally, the merit of the pseudoline approach is addressed for heavy polyatomic molecules in support of spectroscopic observation of atmospheres of Titan and other planets. The cold cross sections will be submitted to the HITRAN database (hitran.harvard.edu), and the list of C3H8 pseudolines will be available from a MK-IV website of JPL (http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo).

  4. Electronic-state-specific transition metal cation chemistry: Fe++C3H8 and n-C4H10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanton, Scott D.; Noll, Robert J.; Weisshaar, James C.

    1992-04-01

    We present total reaction cross sections and product branching fractions for collisions of specific electronic states of Fe+ with the linear alkanes C3H8 and n-C4H10 at two collision energies each, 0.2 and 1.0 eV. Resonant two-photon ionization prepares specific electronic state distributions of Fe+, as described in the preceding paper. A crossed beam experiment using pulsed, time-of-flight mass spectrometry measures total reaction cross sections averaged over known state distributions, from which we extract state-specific cross sections. The three lowest energy electronic terms of Fe+, 3d64s(6D), 3d7(4F), and 3d64s(4D), show remarkably similar reactivity with both alkanes. The relative cross section varies only a factor of 4 in Fe++C3H8 and less than a factor of 2 in Fe++C4H10, in spite of sampling both sextet and quartet spins, 3d64s and 3d7 configurations, and a range of 1.1 eV electronic energy. Product branching between H2 and alkane elimination is insensitive to initial electronic state as well. All reactions are inefficient compared with the Langevin cross section. We propose a model of Fe++alkane chemistry that assumes that all those Fe+ that insert in a C-H bond of the alkane proceed to elimination products. Spin-changing surface hops between diabatic potential surfaces correlating to different reactant asymptotes (i.e., electronic quenching) competes with bond insertion, explaining the low reactivity of the 3d7(4F) term.

  5. Effect of phaleria macrocarpa supplementation on apoptosis and tumor growth of C3H mice with breast cancer under treatment with adriamycin-cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Riwanto, Ignatius; Budijitno, Selamat; Dharmana, Edi; Handojo, Djoko; Prasetyo, Sigit Adi; Eko, Albert; Suseno, Dicky; Prasetyo, Bondan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to know the response of supplementation of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM) to adriamycin-cyclophosphamide (AC) in the treatment of C3H mice with breast cancer. Twenty-four C3H mice, who were successfully inoculated with breast cancer cells, were randomly allocated into 4 groups: without treatment, treated with AC, treated with AC + PM 0.07 mg/d, and treated with AC + PM 0.14 mg/d. The tumor size was measured using millimeter calipers before and 12 weeks after treatment. The tumor, liver, and kidneys were removed and prepared for pathologic examination using imunohistochemistry staining, and the apoptotic index was counted using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling method. AC reduce the tumor growth significantly (P < 0.001), whereas supplementation of PM, which significantly reduced the tumor growth compared with AC only, was at the 0.14 mg/d dose (P = 0.007). AC increase the apoptotic index significantly (P < 0.001), and supplementation with PM showed that the higher dose increased the apoptotic index. The correlation between the apoptotic index and the diameter of tumor was significantly negative (r = -0.884; P = 0.020). The apoptotic index of the liver and kidney increased significantly in the AC group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively); supplementation with PM decreased significantly the high apoptotic index caused by AC. We conclude that PM supplementation has a synergic effect to AC treatment in reducing the tumor growth, by increasing apoptosis, and protects the liver and kidney from damage caused by AC. PMID:22026311

  6. Fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi: report of a unique case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor. To the author’s best knowledge, no previous case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi has been reported. Here we reported the first case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi. A case of 58-year-old man was presented with a mass with ulcer and infection in the second joint of left middle finger for 2 months, with long standing gouty tophi. The tumor was biopsied and the biopsy showed complete excision of the tumor. With the pathological and immunohistochemical features considered, the diagnosis of fibrosarcoma associated with gouty tophi was made. The clinical findings, pathological characteristics and treatment were described. PMID:26097616

  7. Strain-specific differences in cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Il Yong; Kim, Dae Won; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yo Na; Yi, Sun Shin; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, In Se; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Seong, Je Kyung

    2008-11-19

    The authors investigated strain-specific cell proliferation and differentiation differences in the dentate gyri of C57BL/6N (susceptible strain to obesity) and C3H/HeN (resistant strain to obesity) mice. In addition, the influences of a high fat diet (HD) on neuronal differentiation in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice fed a low-fat diet (LD) or HD for 4 or 12 weeks were investigated. Body weight and body weight gains were significantly higher in HD-fed C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice than in LD-fed C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice. In particular, body weight gains were significantly higher in C57BL/6N mice than in C3H/HeN mice. In both of HD- and LD-fed C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice for 4 weeks, some Ki67 and many DCX immunoreactive cells were detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In HD-fed C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice, the number of Ki67 immunoreactive cells and DCX immunoreactivities in the dentate gyri were significantly lower than in LD-fed C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice. However, the number of Ki67 immunoreactive cells and DCX immunoreactivities in HD-fed C57BL/6N mice were significantly lower than in HD-fed C3H/HeN mice. These results suggest that C57BL/6N mice are more vulnerable to HD induced obesity than C3H/HeN mice. In addition, the feeding of HD was found to exacerbate reduced cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyri of C57BL/6N mice as compared with that in C3H/HeN mice.

  8. Microarray analysis of early adipogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells: Cooperative inhibitory effects of growth factors and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Paul R.; Cimafranca, Melissa A.; Liu Xueqing; Cho, Young C.; Jefcoate, Colin R. . E-mail: jefcoate@facstaff.wisc.edu

    2005-08-22

    C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts differentiate into adipocytes when stimulated by a standard hormonal mixture (IDMB). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), inhibits induction of the key adipogenic gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and subsequent adipogenesis. This TCDD-mediated inhibition requires activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, which can be accomplished by serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or fibroblast growth factor (FGF). In the absence of serum or growth factors, IDMB induced adipogenesis without mitosis. Microarray analysis identified 200 genes that exhibited expression changes of at least twofold after 24 h of IDMB treatment. This time precedes most PPAR{gamma} stimulation but follows the period of TCDD/ERK cooperation and periods of increased cell contraction and DNA synthesis. Functionally related gene clusters include genes associated with cell structure, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism, oxidative regulation, and secreted proteins. In the absence of growth factors TCDD inhibited 30% of these IDMB responses without inhibiting the process of differentiation. A combination of EGF and TCDD that blocks differentiation cooperatively blocked a further 44 IDMB-responsive genes, most of which have functional links to differentiation, including PPAR{gamma}. Cell cycle regulators that are stimulated by EGF were substantially inhibited by IDMB but these responses were unaffected by TCDD. By contrast, TCDD and EGF cooperatively reversed IDMB-induced changes in cell adhesion complexes immediately prior to increases in PPAR{gamma}1 expression. Changes in adhesion-linked signaling may play a key role in TCDD affects on differentiation.

  9. Protection against ultraviolet-B radiation-induced local and systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity and edema responses in C3H/HeN mice by green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Elmets, C A; Agarwal, R; Mukhtar, H

    1995-11-01

    Exposure of skin to UV radiation can cause diverse biological effects, including induction of inflammation, alteration in cutaneous immune cells and impairment of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses. Our laboratory has demonstrated that oral feeding as well as topical application of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) affords protection against the carcinogenic effects of UVB (280-320 nm) radiation. In this study, we investigated whether GTP could protect against UVB-induced immunosuppression and cutaneous inflammatory responses in C3H mice. Immunosuppression was assessed by contact sensitization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene applied to UVB-irradiated skin (local suppression) or to a distant site (systemic suppression), while double skin-fold swelling was used as the measure of UVB-induced inflammation. Topical application of GTP (1-6 mg/animal), 30 min prior to or 30 min after exposure to a single dose of UVB (2 kJ/m2) resulted in significant protection against local (25-90%) and systemic suppression (23-95%) of CHS and inflammation in mouse dorsal skin (70-80%). These protective effects were dependent on the dose of GTP employed; increasing the dose (1-6 mg/animal) resulted in an increased protective effect (25-93%). The protective effects were also dependent on the dose of UVB (2-32 kJ/m2). Among the four major epicatechin derivatives present in GTP, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the major constituent in GTP, was found to be the most effective in affording protection against UVB-caused CHS and inflammatory responses. Our study suggests that green tea, specifically polyphenols present therein, may be useful against inflammatory dermatoses and immunosuppression caused by solar radiation.

  10. Fasudil hydrochloride induces osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cell lines, C3H10T1/2 and ST2, via bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Yamaguchi, Toru; Yano, Shozo; Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Rho-kinase (ROK), downstream of the mevalonate pathway, is detrimental to vessels, and suppressing its activity is a target for the treatment of human disease such as coronary artery disease and pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies have shown that ROK has a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of ROK in stromal cells is still unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a ROK inhibitor, fasudil hydrochloride, on stromal cell lines, C3H10T1/2 and ST2. In both cells, Fasudil significantly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced cell mineralization. Moreover, fasudil significantly increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Supplementation of noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist, significantly reversed the fasudil-induced collagen-I and osteocalcin mRNA expression in both cells. These findings suggest that fasudil induces the osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells via enhancing BMP-2 expression, and that this drug might be beneficial for not only atherosclerosis but also osteoporosis by promoting bone formation. PMID:20154408

  11. Rosiglitazone Induces Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Differentiated Murine 3T3-L1 and C3H/10T1/2 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rong, James X; Klein, Jean-Louis D; Qiu, Yang; Xie, Mi; Johnson, Jennifer H; Waters, K Michelle; Zhang, Vivian; Kashatus, Jennifer A; Remlinger, Katja S; Bing, Nan; Crosby, Renae M; Jackson, Tymissha K; Witherspoon, Sam M; Moore, John T; Ryan, Terence E; Neill, Sue D; Strum, Jay C

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that PPARγ agonists, including rosiglitazone (RSG), induce adipose mitochondrial biogenesis. By systematically analyzing mitochondrial gene expression in two common murine adipocyte models, the current study aimed to further establish the direct role of RSG and capture temporal changes in gene transcription. Microarray profiling revealed that in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 and C3H/10T1/2 adipocytes treated with RSG or DMSO vehicle for 1, 2, 4, 7, 24, and 48 hrs, RSG overwhelmingly increased mitochondrial gene transcripts time dependently. The timing of the increases was consistent with the cascade of organelle biogenesis, that is, initiated by induction of transcription factor(s), followed by increases in the biosynthesis machinery, and then by increases in functional components. The transcriptional increases were further validated by increased mitochondrial staining, citrate synthase activity, and O(2) consumption, and were found to be associated with increased adiponectin secretion. The work provided further insight on the mechanism of PPARγ-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in differentiated adipocytes.

  12. Effects of CoCl2 on multi-lineage differentiation of C3H/10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong Il; Moon, Yeon Hee; Kim, Min Seok

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow and other somatic tissues reside in an environment with relative low oxygen tension. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can mimic hypoxic conditions through transcriptional changes of some genes including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study evaluated the potential role of CoCl2 preconditioning on multi-lineage differentiation of C3H/10T1/2, a murine MSC line to understand its possible molecular mechanisms in vitro. CoCl2 treatment of MSCs markedly increased HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA, and protein expression of HIF-1α. Temporary preconditioning of MSCs with CoCl2 induced up-regulation of osteogenic markers including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen during osteogenic differentiation, followed by enhanced mineralization. CoCl2 also increased chondrogenic markers including aggrecan, sox9, and type II collagen, and promoted chondrocyte differentiation. CoCl2 suppressed the expression of adipogenic markers including PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα, and inhibited adipogenesis. Temporary preconditioning with CoCl2 could affect the multi-lineage differentiation of MSCs. PMID:26807023

  13. FGF2 Stimulates COUP-TFII Expression via the MEK1/2 Pathway to Inhibit Osteoblast Differentiation in C3H10T1/2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Nam; Kim, Jung-Woo; Oh, Sin-Hye; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates many key biological processes, including organ development and cell fate determination. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFII have been studied extensively, little is known about what regulates its gene expression, especially the role of inducible extracellular factors in triggering it. Here we report that COUP-TFII expression is regulated specifically by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which mediates activation of the MEK1/2 pathway in mesenchymal lineage C3H10T1/2 cells. Although FGF2 treatment increased cell proliferation, the induction of COUP-TFII expression was dispensable. Instead, FGF2-primed cells in which COUP-TFII expression was induced showed a low potential for osteoblast differentiation, as evidenced by decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Reducing COUP-TFII by U0126 or siRNA against COUP-TFII prevented the anti-osteogenic effect of FGF2, indicating that COUP-TFII plays a key role in the FGF2-mediated determination of osteoblast differentiation capability. This report is the first to suggest that FGF2 is an extracellular inducer of COUP-TFII expression and may suppress the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells by inducing COUP-TFII expression prior to the onset of osteogenic differentiation. PMID:27404388

  14. Estrogen deprivation and excess energy supply accelerate 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumor growth in C3H/HeN mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Yoon Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity is a risk factor of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deprivation has been suggested to cause alteration of lipid metabolism thereby creating a cellular microenvironment favoring tumor growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of estrogen depletion in combination with excess energy supply on breast tumor development. MATERIALS/METHODS Ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated C3H/HeN mice at 4 wks were provided with either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HD) for 16 weeks. Breast tumors were induced by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene once a week for six consecutive weeks. RESULTS Study results showed higher serum concentrations of free fatty acids and insulin in the OVX+HD group compared to other groups. The average tumor volume was significantly larger in OVX+HD animals than in other groups. Expressions of mammary tumor insulin receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin proteins as well as the ratio of pAKT/AKT were significantly increased, while pAMPK/AMPK was decreased in OVX+HD animals compared to the sham-operated groups. Higher relative expression of liver fatty acid synthase mRNA was observed in OVX+HD mice compared with other groups. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that excess energy supply affects the accelerated mammary tumor growth in estrogen deprived mice. PMID:26634052

  15. Dickkopf-1 is involved in BMP9-induced osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangbo; Qiu, Quanhe; Zhou, Nian; Dong, Wen; Shen, Jieliang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Ji; Hao, Jie; Hu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is involved in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Here, we investigated the role of Dkk1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that overexpression of BMP9 induced Dkk1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was reduced by the P38 inhibitor SB203580 but not the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Moreover, Dkk1 dramatically decreased not only BMP9-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity but also the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) and matrix mineralization of C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, exogenous Dkk1 expression inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced by BMP9. Our findings indicate that Dkk1 negatively regulates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and it could be used to optimize the therapeutic use of BMP9 and for bone tissue engineering. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 179-184] PMID:26674341

  16. The new thioantimonate(V) (C3H10N)[NiSbS4(C6H18N4)].

    PubMed

    Stähler, Ralph; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2002-11-01

    Turquoise crystals of the title salt, propylammonium di-mu-thio-1:2 kappa(4)S-dithio-2 kappa(2)S-tris(2-aminoethyl)amine-1 kappa(4)N-antimony(V)nickel(II), (C(3)H(10)N)[NiSbS(4)(C(6)H(18)N(4))] or [PAH][Ni(tren)SbS(4)] [where tren is tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and PA is propylamine], were synthesized under solvothermal conditions by reacting [Ni(tren)(2)]Cl(2), Sb and S in a solution of PA. The Ni(II) ion is octahedrally surrounded by four N atoms of the tetradentate tren molecule and by two S atoms of the tetrahedral [Sb(V)S(4)](3-) anion, thus forming the anionic [Ni(tren)SbS(4)](-) part of the compound. Charge balance is achieved through the PAH(+) cation. An extended intermolecular hydrogen-bonding network is observed between the anion and the cation.

  17. Investigation into Variation of Endogenous Metabolites in Bone Marrow Cells and Plasma in C3H/He Mice Exposed to Benzene

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongli; Zhang, Juan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Benzene is identified as a carcinogen. Continued exposure of benzene may eventually lead to damage to the bone marrow, accompanied by pancytopenia, aplastic anemia or leukemia. This paper explores the variations of endogenous metabolites to provide possible clues for the molecular mechanism of benzene-induced hematotoxicity. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to investigate the variation of endogenous metabolites in bone marrow cells and plasma of male C3H/He mice. The mice were injected subcutaneously with benzene (0, 300, 600 mg/day) once daily for seven days. The body weights, relative organ weights, blood parameters and bone marrow smears were also analyzed. The results indicated that benzene caused disturbances in the metabolism of oxidation of fatty acids and essential amino acids (lysine, phenylalanine and tyrosine) in bone marrow cells. Moreover, fatty acid oxidation was also disturbed in plasma and thus might be a common disturbed metabolic pathway induced by benzene in multiple organs. This study aims to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in benzene hematotoxicity, especially in bone marrow cells. PMID:24658442

  18. Raman study of order-disorder phase transition in [(C3H7)4N]3Bi3Cl12 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigui, W.; Oueslati, A.; Hlel, F.; Bulou, A.

    2016-02-01

    The [(C3H7)4N]3Bi3Cl12 compound that crystallizes at room temperature in a centrosymmetric triclinic system (P1bar space group) is studied on heating up to its melting temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry investigations disclosed an irreversible phase transition at T = 414 K. Raman scattering studies (140-3500 cm-1) were investigated in the temperature range 398-438 K. A detailed analysis of the frequency, half-width and reduced intensity of the bands associated to υ(Bi-Cl) (at 254 cm-1), υ(Bi-Cl) (at 287 cm-1) and υs(N-C-C)+δs(C-N-C) (at 1034 cm-1) is quantitatively described in term of an order-disorder phase transitions. The temperature dependence of the correlation lengths of these three bands is consistent with a disordered state at high temperature. This behavior is presumably governed by the reorientational motion of the alkylammonium chains of the cations between two sites coupled with changes of interactions with the anionic groups.

  19. Solvation effects on reactive intermediates: The benzyl radical and its clusters with Ar, N2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R.; Bernstein, E. R.

    1993-03-01

    Mass resolved excitation spectra are presented for the benzyl radical and its clusters with Ar, N2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8. The cluster spectra exhibit small redshifts (≤50 cm-1) relative to the unclustered benzyl radical for the D1(1 2A2)←D0(1 2B2) and D2(2 2B2)←D0(1 2B2) electronic transition regions. A unique set of low energy van der Waals modes is observed for these clusters for each excited electronic state investigated. The cluster spectra also reveal significant vibronic coupling between the two excited electronic states of the benzyl radical, as evidenced by a single vibrational predissociation threshold for each cluster. Ab initio calculations are performed on the benzyl radical to examine excited electronic state structure, predict transition energies, estimate ionization energy, and determine partial atomic charges in the electronic states of interest. The resulting partial charges are used in empirical atom-atom potential energy calculations to aid in the understanding of cluster spectroscopic shifts, binding energies, and van der Waals modes.

  20. Endocardial fibrosarcoma in a reticulated python (Python reticularis).

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Nevarez, Javier G; Cho, Doo-Youn

    2010-11-01

    A female, reticulated python (Python reticularis) of unknown age was presented with a history of lethargy, weakness, and distended coelom. Physical examination revealed severe dystocia and stomatitis. The reticulated python was euthanized due to a poor clinical prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed marked distention of the reproductive tract with 26 eggs (10-12 cm in diameter), pericardial effusion, and a slightly firm, pale tan mass (3-4 cm in diameter) adhered to the endocardium at the base of aorta. Based on histopathologic and transmission electron microscopic findings, the diagnosis of endocardial fibrosarcoma was made.

  1. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis. PMID:26714035

  2. Oncogenic transformation of C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to alpha particles: Sensitivity through the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bettega, D.; Calzolari, P.; Chiorda, G.N.

    1995-06-01

    Oncogenic transformation of synchronized C3H 10T1/2 cells was determined after exposure to 4.3 MeV {alpha} particles (LET = 101 keV/{mu}m). Two synchronization techniques were tested using basic and modified protocols: one based on the release of cells from contact inhibition and the second on the mitotic shake-off method. Progression of cells through the cycle was followed as a function of time by flow cytometric analysis, DNA labeling for passage through S phase, the growth curve for the cell number and mitotic index measurements. The conclusion is that, although the release of cells from confluence provides higher yields of synchronized cells, mitotic shake-off proved to be the best way of collecting a synchronized population of minimally perturbed cells. Cells synchronized by mitotic shake-off were irradiated with 0.30 Gy in the interval between 2 and 10 h corresponding to G{sub 1} and early S phases. For comparison asynchronous populations were irradiated in parallel. Oncogenic transformation frequency, corrected for background, in mid-G{sub 1} phase was (18 {+-} 4) x 10{sup {minus}5} (average values of frequencies at 4 and 6 h) compared with the value of (8 {+-} 4) x 10{sup {minus}5} for the asynchronous population. While these data are suggestive of a trend toward a slightly increased sensitivity in mid-G{sub 1} phase, it is not statistically significant. The surviving fraction is constant in G{sub 1} phase. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Reduction by strontium of the bone marrow adiposity in mice and repression of the adipogenic commitment of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fournier, C; Perrier, A; Thomas, M; Laroche, N; Dumas, V; Rattner, A; Vico, L; Guignandon, A

    2012-02-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal cells (MMCs) differentiate into osteoblasts or adipocytes through RUNX2 and PPARγ2, respectively. Strontium ranelate has been shown to promote osteoblastogenesis and prevent adipogenesis in long-term experiments using MMCs. The present study involved in-vitro and in-vivo investigations of whether Sr might first be an inhibitor of adipogenesis, thus explaining late osteoblastogenesis. It was established in vivo that Sr reduces adipogenesis in mice treated only for 3 weeks with a 6 mmol/kg/day dose of Sr while the trabecular bone volume is increased. In order to decipher molecular mechanisms during inhibition of adipogenesis, we used murine MMCs C3H10T1/2 cultured under adipogenic conditions (AD) and treated Sr of a concentration up to 3 mM. It was shown that early on (day 1), Sr dose-dependently reduced PPARγ2 and CEBPα mRNA without affecting the RUNX2 gene expression whereas it repressed ALP mRNA. Later (day 5), PPARγ2 and CEBPα mRNA remained inhibited by Sr, preventing adipocyte lipid accumulation, while Runx2 and ALP mRNA were increased. Moreover, under the mentioned conditions, Sr was able to quickly induce the Cyclin D1 gene expression, proliferation and fibronectin fibrillogenesis, both involved in the inhibition of adipogenesis. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by U0126 blunted the Sr-induced PPARγ2 repression while restoring the lipid accumulation. These results demonstrated that Sr was capable of rapidly reducing adipogenesis by a selective PPARγ2 repression that can be explained by its ability to promote MMC proliferation.

  4. Focus formation of C3H/10T1/2 cells and exposure to a 836.55 MHz modulated radiofrequency field

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, C.D.; Thomas, D.L.; Adey, W.R.

    1997-05-01

    Disruption of communication between transformed cells and normal cells is involved in tumor promotion. The authors have tested the hypothesis that exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields using a form of digital modulation (TDMA) and a chemical tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), are copromoters that enhance focus formation of transformed cells in coculture with parental C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblasts. RF field exposures did not influence TPA`s dose-dependent promotion of focus formation in coculture. Cell cultures were exposed to an 836.55 MHz TDMA-modulated field in TEM transmission line chambers, with incident energies that simulated field intensities at a user`s head. Specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.15, 1.5, and 15 {micro}W/g were used during each digital packet, and the packet frequency was 50/s. The TEM chambers were placed in a commercial incubator at 37 C and 95% humidity/5% CO{sub 2}. The RF field exposures were in a repeating cycle, 20 min on, 20 min off, 24 h/day for 28 days. At 1.5 {micro}W/g, TPA-induced focus formation was not significantly different in RF-exposed cultures compared to parallel sham-exposed cultures in ten independent experiments in terms of the number, density, and area of foci. Similarly, at 0.15 and 15.0 {micro}W/g, in two and four experiments, respectively, RF exposure did not alter TPA-induced focus formation. The findings support a conclusion that repeated exposures to this RF field do not influence tumor promotion in vitro, based on the RF field`s inability to enhance TPA-induced focus formation.

  5. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis.

  6. Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease.

  7. Combined effects of exposure to dim light at night and fine particulate matter on C3H/HeNHsd mice.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Matthew K; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-11-01

    Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5 μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5lx) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants.

  8. Copper(II) perrhenate Cu(C3H7OH)2(ReO4)2: Synthesis from isopropanol and CuReO4, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailova, D.; Engel, J. M.; Schmidt, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structure of Cu+Re7+O4 is capable of a quasi-reversible incorporation of C3H7OH molecules. A room-temperature reaction between CuReO4 and C3H7OH under oxidizing conditions leads to the formation of a novel metal-organic hybrid compound Cu2+(C3H7OH)2(ReO4)2. Upon heating under reducing conditions, this compound transforms back into CuReO4, albeit with ReO2 and metallic Cu as by-products. The crystal structure of Cu(C3H7OH)2(ReO4)2 solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Pbca, a=10.005(3) Å, b=7.833(2) Å, and c=19.180(5) Å) reveals layers of corner-sharing CuO6-octahedra and ReO4-tetrahedra, whereas isopropyl groups are attached to both sides of these layers, thus providing additional connections within the layers through hydrogen bonds. Cu(C3H7OH)2(ReO4)2 is paramagnetic down to 4 K because the spatial arrangement of the Cu2+ half-filled orbitals prevents magnetic superexchange. The paramagnetic effective moment of 2.0(1) μB is slightly above the spin-only value and typical for Cu2+ ions.

  9. High-Accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 1(exp 1)A' l-C3H(-): A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula PDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated-region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D-eff for C3H(-) is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H(+). As a result, 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions and would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C(sub n)H(-) molecular anion with an odd n.

  10. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of a fibrosarcoma of the thigh: a case report.

    PubMed

    Durin, Luc; Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne; Bailleul, Patrick; Eboué, Cyril; Aicardi, Stéphanie; Herlicoviez, Michel; Dreyfus, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We report a rare case of fibrosarcoma of the thigh suspected prenatally. At 27 weeks of gestation a voluminous, vascularised mass was discovered at ultrasound on the foetus' left leg, suggestive of haemangioma or a fibrosarcoma. There were no signs of heart failure. A rapid increase in the tumour mass was noted and a caesarean section was carried out at 39 weeks because of abnormal foetal heart rate. Postnatal ultrasound examination was comparable to that carried out prenatally; pathological examination of the mass biopsied and immunohistochemical investigation provided a diagnosis of congenital fibrosarcoma. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery the infant is now in complete remission without amputation. PMID:16968999

  12. Proto-oncogene mRNA levels and activities of multiple transcription factors in C3H 10T 1/2 murine embryonic fibroblasts exposed to 835.62 and 847.74 MHz cellular phone communication frequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Goswami, P C; Albee, L D; Parsian, A J; Baty, J D; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Roti Roti, J L; Hunt, C R

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to determine whether two differently modulated radiofrequencies of the type generally used in cellular phone communications could elicit a general stress response in a biological system. The two modulations and frequencies studied were a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) with a carrier frequency of 835.62 MHz and a code division multiple-access (CDMA) modulation centered on 847.74 MHz. Changes in proto-oncogene expression, determined by measuring Fos, Jun, and Myc mRNA levels as well as by the DNA-binding activity of the AP1, AP2 and NF-kappaB transcription factors, were used as indicators of a general stress response. The effect of radiofrequency exposure on proto-oncogene expression was assessed (1) in exponentially growing C3H 10T 1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts during their transition to plateau phase and (2) during transition of serum-deprived cells to the proliferation cycle after serum stimulation. Exposure of serum-deprived cells to 835.62 MHz FMCW or 847.74 MHz CDMA microwaves (at an average specific absorption rate, SAR, of 0.6 W/kg) did not significantly change the kinetics of proto-oncogene expression after serum stimulation. Similarly, these exposures did not affect either the Jun and Myc mRNA levels or the DNA-binding activity of AP1, AP2 and NF-kappaB in exponential cells during transit to plateau-phase growth. Therefore, these results suggest that the radiofrequency exposure is unlikely to elicit a general stress response in cells of this cell line under these conditions. However, statistically significant increases (approximately 2-fold, P = 0.001) in Fos mRNA levels were detected in exponential cells in transit to the plateau phase and in plateau-phase cells exposed to 835.62 MHz FMCW microwaves. For 847.74 MHz CDMA exposure, the increase was 1.4-fold (P = 0.04). This increase in Fos expression suggests that expression of specific genes could be affected by radiofrequency exposure. PMID:10073668

  13. Distribution of MT1 Melatonin Receptor Promoter-Driven RFP Expression in the Brains of BAC C3H/HeN Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adamah-Biassi, EB; Zhang, Y; Jung, H; Vissapragada, S; Miller, RJ

    2014-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin activates two G-protein coupled receptors (MT1 and MT2) to regulate in part biological functions. The MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors are heterogeneously distributed in the mammalian brain including humans. In the mouse, only a few reports have assessed the expression of the MT1 melatonin receptor expression using 2-iodomelatonin binding, in situ hybridization and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we described a transgenic mouse in which red fluorescence protein (RFP) is expressed under the control of the endogenous MT1 promoter, by inserting RFP cDNA at the start codon of MTNR1a gene within a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and expressing this construct as a transgene. The expression of RFP in the brain of this mouse was examined either directly under a fluorescent microscope or immunohistochemically using an antibody against RFP (RFP-MT1). RFP-MT1 expression was observed in many brain regions including the subcommissural organ, parts of the ependyma lining the lateral and third ventricles, the aqueduct, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the pars tuberalis, the habenula and the habenula commissure. This RFP-MT1 transgenic model provides a unique tool for studying the distribution of the MT1 receptor in the brain of mice, its cell-specific expression and its function in vivo. PMID:24051358

  14. Effects of Withdrawal from Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor on the Level and Circadian Periodicity of Running-Wheel Activity in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; McCulley, Walter D.; Seggio, Joseph A.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol withdrawal is associated with behavioral and chronobiological disturbances that may persist during protracted abstinence. We previously reported that C57BL/6J (B6) mice show marked but temporary reductions in running-wheel activity, and normal free-running circadian rhythms, following a 4-day chronic intermittent ethanol vapor (CIE) exposure (16 hours of ethanol vapor exposure alternating with 8 hours of withdrawal). In the present experiments, we extend these observations in two ways: (1) by examining post-CIE locomotor activity in C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice, an inbred strain characterized by high sensitivity to ethanol withdrawal, and (2) by directly comparing the responses of B6 and C3H mice to a longer-duration CIE protocol. Methods In Experiment 1, C3H mice were exposed to the same 4-day CIE protocol used in our previous study with B6 mice (referred to here as the 1-cycle CIE protocol). In Experiment 2, C3H and B6 mice were exposed to three successive 4-day CIE cycles, each separated by 2 days of withdrawal (the 3-cycle CIE protocol). Running-wheel activity was monitored prior to and following CIE, and post-CIE activity was recorded in constant darkness to allow assessment of free-running circadian period and phase. Results C3H mice displayed pronounced reductions in running-wheel activity that persisted for the duration of the recording period (up to 30 days) following both 1-cycle (Experiment 1) and 3-cycle (Experiment 2) CIE protocols. In contrast, B6 mice showed reductions in locomotor activity that persisted for about one week following the 3-cycle CIE protocol, similar to the results of our previous study using a 1-cycle protocol in this strain. Additionally, C3H mice showed significant shortening of free-running period following the 3-cycle, but not the 1-cycle, CIE protocol, while B6 mice showed normal free-running rhythms. Conclusions These results reveal genetic differences in the persistence of ethanol withdrawal-induced hypo

  15. Bifrontal meningeal fibrosarcoma in a patient with metastases to the liver, kidneys and suprarenal glands.

    PubMed

    Aung, T H; Tse, C H

    1993-09-01

    Primary meningeal sarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of the central nervous system and metastases to the liver, kidney and the suprarenal gland have not been reported elsewhere. A 47 year old Chinese woman who presented with a short history of headache and vomiting was found to have metastatic meningeal fibrosarcoma in the liver 4 months after resection of primary bifrontal meningeal fibrosarcoma. The computerized tomography findings and relevant histology are presented.

  16. Disruption of bbe02 by Insertion of a Luciferase Gene Increases Transformation Efficiency of Borrelia burgdorferi and Allows Live Imaging in Lyme Disease Susceptible C3H Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Alter, Laura; Barthold, Stephen W.; Parveen, Nikhat

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and Europe. The causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the white-footed mouse. Infection with B. burgdorferi can cause acute to persistent multisystemic Lyme disease in humans. Some disease manifestations are also exhibited in the mouse model of Lyme disease. Genetic manipulation of B. burgdorferi remains difficult. First, B. burgdorferi contains a large number of endogenous plasmids with unique sequences encoding unknown functions. The presence of these plasmids needs to be confirmed after each genetic manipulation. Second, the restriction modification defense systems, including that encoded by bbe02 gene lead to low transformation efficiency in B. burgdorferi. Therefore, studying the molecular basis of Lyme pathogenesis is a challenge. Furthermore, investigation of the role of a specific B. burgdorferi protein throughout infection requires a large number of mice, making it labor intensive and expensive. To overcome the problems associated with low transformation efficiency and to reduce the number of mice needed for experiments, we disrupted the bbe02 gene of a highly infectious and pathogenic B. burgdorferi strain, N40 D10/E9 through insertion of a firefly luciferase gene. The bbe02 mutant shows higher transformation efficiency and maintains luciferase activity throughout infection as detected by live imaging of mice. Infectivity and pathogenesis of this mutant were comparable to the wild-type N40 strain. This mutant will serve as an ideal parental strain to examine the roles of various B. burgdorferi proteins in Lyme pathogenesis in the mouse model in the future. PMID:26069970

  17. Combined effects of treatment with trientine, a copper-chelating agent, and x-irradiation on tumor growth in transplantation model of a murine fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Hirai, Ryou; Ishihara, Yuusuke; Horiguchi, Noboru; Endoh, Daiji; Okui, Toyo

    2007-10-01

    Combined effects of treatment with trientine, a copper-chelating agent, and X-irradiation on development of fibrosarcoma using a murine transplantation model in vivo and on cellular survival in vitro were examined. Copper contents in the tumors and serum of trientine-treated mice were significantly lower than those of untreated mice. The tumor volumes of mouse fibrosarcoma QRsp-11 cells increased more slowly in the trientine-treated and the X-irradiated mice than in the control mice from 10 to 24 days postinoculation. The extent of inhibition of tumor growth by X-irradiation at 3 Gy was similar to that obtained by treatment with trientine. A combination of trientine and X-irradiation at 3 Gy showed inhibitory effects on tumor growth similar to those obtained by X-irradiation at 6 Gy. The results showed that trientine and X-irradiation interacted additively in inhibition of tumor growth. When QRsp-11 cells and mouse and bovine endothelial cells were treated with trientine after X-irradiation, the surviving fractions of the cells with combined treatments were essentially consistent with the products of the surviving fractions of trientine-treated cells and those of X-irradiated cells. When the cells were pretreated with trientine and X-irradiated, the surviving fractions of the pretreated cells were lower than those of cells without treatment.

  18. Cometary implications of the internal energy distributions of the C2 and C3 radicals produced in the photolysis of the C2H and C3H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Bao, Yihan; Urdahl, Randall S.; Song, Xueyu; Gosine, Jai; Luu, Chi

    1991-01-01

    The C2 and C3 radicals are prominent emission in the visible region of cometary spectra. Observational evidence exists that suggests these radicals are formed as granddaughter fragments in the photolysis of more stable molecules. Likely candidates for these parent molecules ar C2H2, C3H4 (allene), and CH3C2H (propyne). Recent laboratory studies were performed on all of these parent molecules and they indicate that they can indeed produce the observed cometary radicals. In the case of C2H2, the laboratory evidence suggest that C2 is formed via the following mechanisms: (1) C2H2 + photon(193 nm) yields C2H + H; and (2) C2H + photon(193 nm) yields C2 + H. Evidence is presented to show that the C2 radical produced in the second reaction occurs in a variety of electronic, vibrational, and rotational states. It is argued that this is a result of conical intersections in the potential energy curves and the density of states associated with these curves. Since this is a property of the C2H radical similar initial product state distributions are expected to occur in comets. This means that any models of the C2 emission may have to start off with rotationally excited C2 radicals in both the singlet and the triplet manifolds. When C3H4 (allene) and CH3C2H (propyne) were photolyzed, the C3 radical is formed. In the allene case, laboratory evidence shows that the C3 radical is formed via the following mechanism: (1) C3H4 + photon(193 nm) yields C3H2 + H2; and (2) C3H2 + photon(193 nm) yields C3 + H2. More C3 is formed in the case of allene than in the propyne case, even though the absorption cross section for propyne is a factor of 2 larger. This suggests that competing dissociation pathways are present during the photolysis of propyne that are not available to allene. The observed quantum state distributions of the C3 product were the same for both parent molecules, indicating that the same intermediate state is involved. These observations can be understood if the excited

  19. Oral and maxillofacial sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gretchen S; Williams, Stephen B; Foss, Robert B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C

    2007-09-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) has distinctive morphology and occurs mainly in deep soft tissue of adult extremities. Approximately 59 cases of SEF have been reported, with only 12 previously described in head and neck locations. Lesions involving the oral and maxillofacial region (OMFR) and intraosseous examples are rare. We present five cases of OMFRSEF. The OMF Pathology Department Registry was searched for cases coded from 1990 to the present as "SEF," "fibrosarcoma not otherwise specified" or "neoplasm of uncertain histiogenesis." Inclusion required OMFR location, an abundantly sclerotic sarcoma with epithelioid features, and lack of other phenotype by immunohistochemistry. Five cases of SEF included 3 males and 2 females. The age of the patients were: 19, 22, 35, 47 and 47 years. Tumor location included the infra-temporal fossa, buccal mucosa (recurrence extending into bone), anterior mandible (intraosseous primary, focally extending into soft tissue), and left parotid and submandibular gland (with metaplastic bone) regions. Tumor sizes ranged from 1.0 to 5.7 cm, median 3.5 cm. Histologically, the tumors were well delineated and multinodular, separated by fibrous septae. The spindled to primarily epithelioid tumor cells formed moderately cellular sheets and cords of irregularly contoured medium to large, round to oval, occasionally overlapping nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, wispy eosinophilic (retracting) cytoplasm, and distinctive cytoplasmic borders, embedded in osteoid-like stroma. Hemangiopericytoid (HPC-like) vessels were observed. Despite numerous apoptotic cells, mitoses were generally low; necrosis was present in two cases. Three tumors were graded as 2/3 and two 1/3. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, 1 case focally for CD34, whereas all cases were negative for S100 protein, keratins, EMA, desmin, and SMA. Wide or radical excision was performed with no adjuvant therapy. Follow-up revealed that 4 cases recurred

  20. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C 3H 9NO 3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO 3·H 2O) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, İlkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C 3H 9NO 3S and NaHSO 3.H 2O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C 3H 9NO 3S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO 3. The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO3- and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO3- and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO3-, the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed.

  1. Early growth response 2 (Egr2) plays opposing roles in committing C3H10T1/2 stem cells to adipocytes and smooth muscle-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Huang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Su-Zhen; Li, Xi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Ting; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-08-01

    Early growth response 2 (Egr2) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that acts as an important modulator of a variety of physiological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Here we showed that Egr2 was downregulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways during the commitment of C3H10T1/2 stem cells to adipocyte lineage. Overexpression of Egr2 completely prevented BMP4-induced adipocyte lineage commitment of C3H10T1/2 stem cells, while simultaneously stimulating early smooth muscle-like differentiation. We also demonstrated that Egr2-induced early smooth muscle-like differentiation is transforming growth factor β1-independent. Egr2 can activate the transcription of early smooth muscle cell specific genes smooth muscle protein 22α and calponin 1. Together, the results indicated a novel role for Egr2 in repressing adipocyte lineage commitment and promoting early smooth muscle-like cell differentiation. PMID:23751188

  2. PRIMARY FIBROSARCOMA OF THE THYROID GLAND: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Dabelić, Nina; Mateša, Neven; Jukić, Tomislav; Soldić, Željko; Kust, Davor; Prgomet, Angela; Bolanca, Ante; Kusić, Zvonko

    2016-03-01

    Due to progressive dyspnea, a male patient aged 59 underwent medical examination in 2003 in a local hospital. Neck ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of a suspect lesion in the thyroid gland revealed the presence of a malignant neoplasm, i.e. mesenchymal tumor. Immunocytochemistry for epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin A and leukocyte common antigen (CD45) was negative, while vimentin and S-100 were positive. The patient was referred to a university hospital center, where further oncologic work-up was done. Neck ultrasound revealed a tumor in the left lobe of the thyroid, with extension to the aortic arch. After repeated FNAB, cytologic diagnosis of primary thyroid fibrosarcoma was established. Due to the locally advanced and consequently inoperable disease, primary radiotherapy to the neck region (64 Gy in 32 fractions) was applied, followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. After completion of therapy, computed tomography scan demonstrated significant regression of primary disease, but it was still not amenable to surgical treatment. Thus, the decision of the oncology board was active surveillance of the patient. During 9-year follow up, no signs of progression or activity of the disease were found. PMID:27333734

  3. Congenital fibrosarcoma and history of prenatal exposure to petroleum derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Soldin, Offie P; López-Hernández, Fernando A; Trasande, Leonardo; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2012-10-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS) is a rare fibrous tissue malignancy that usually presents in the first few years of life. It is unique among human sarcomas in that it has an excellent prognosis. We describe a temporal clustering of a number of cases of CFS and investigate the possible associated prenatal risk factors. The Pediatric Environmental History, a questionnaire developed in our clinic that is instrumental in determining environmental risk factors for tumor-related disease, was essential in documenting the presence or absence of risk factors considered as human carcinogens. We found a history of exposure to petroleum products in four cases of CFS that occurred at a greater than expected rate in a short time frame-an apparent cancer cluster. We call attention to the possibility that exposure to petroleum products raises the risk of developing CFS. While future studies should focus on systematic investigation of CFS and its underlying mechanisms, this report suggests the need for proactive measures to avoid exposure to solvents and petroleum products during pregnancy.

  4. Congenital Fibrosarcoma and History of Prenatal Exposure to Petroleum Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; López-Hernández, Fernando A.; Trasande, Leonardo; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS) is a rare fibrous tissue malignancy that usually presents in the first few years of life. It is unique among human sarcomas in that it has an excellent prognosis. We describe a temporal clustering of a number of cases of CFS and investigate the possible associated prenatal risk factors. The Pediatric Environmental History, a questionnaire developed in our clinic that is instrumental in determining environmental risk factors for tumor-related disease, was essential in documenting the presence or absence of risk factors considered as human carcinogens. We found a history of exposure to petroleum products in four cases of CFS that occurred at a greater than expected rate in a short time frame–an apparent cancer cluster. We call attention to the possibility that exposure to petroleum products raises the risk of developing CFS. While future studies should focus on systematic investigation of CFS and its underlying mechanisms, this report suggests the need for proactive measures to avoid exposure to solvents and petroleum products during pregnancy. PMID:22945410

  5. New Aspects on the Mechanism of C3H6 selective catalytic reduction of NO in the presence of O2 over LaFe1-x(Cu, Pd)xO3-δ perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Runduo; Chen, Biaohua; Duprez, Daniel; Royer, Sébastien

    2012-10-16

    A series of LaFe(1-x)(Cu, Pd)(x)O(3-δ) perovskites was fully characterized and tested for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by C(3)H(6) in the presence of O(2). The adsorbed species and surface reactions were investigated for mechanistic study by means of NO-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), C(3)H(6)/O(2)-TPD, and in situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform spectroscopy, in order to discriminate the effects of copper and palladium partial substitutions. With respect to LaFeO(3), Cu(2+) incorporation obviously improved SCR performance, due to its properties for C(3)H(6) activation with an easy generation of partially oxidized active surface C(x)H(y)O(z) species. The excellent catalytic activity at the low temperatures over LaFe(0.94)Pd(0.06)O(3) was attributed to the formation of reactive nitrites/nitrates, leading to a rapid reaction between adNO(x) and C(x)H(y)O(z) species, as well as a decreased occupation of the active sites by the inactive ionic nitrates. A mechanism was herein proposed with the formation of nitrite/nitrate and C(x)H(y)O(z) surface species and the further organo nitrogen compounds (ONCs)/-CN/-NCO as important intermediates. Moreover, the acceleration of both formation of inactive ionic nitrate and deep oxidation of C(3)H(6) contributed to a negative effect of O(2) excess for NO reduction, while Pd substitution significantly increased the O(2) tolerance ability.

  6. Differential Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine-Derived Efficacy in C3Heb/FeJ and C3H/HeOuJ Mice Exposed to a Clinical Strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Creissen, Elizabeth; Shanley, Crystal; Orme, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The global epidemic caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues unabated. Moreover, the only available vaccine against tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), demonstrates variable efficacy. To respond to this global threat, new animal models that mimic the pathological disease process in humans are required for vaccine testing. One new model, susceptible C3Heb/FeJ mice, is similar to human tuberculosis in that these animals are capable of forming necrotic tubercle granulomas, in contrast to resistant C3H/HeOuJ mice. In this study, we evaluated the impact of prior BCG vaccination of C3Heb/FeJ and C3H/HeOuJ mice on exposure to a low-dose aerosol of Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing strain SA161. Both BCG-vaccinated murine strains demonstrated reduced bacterial loads 25 days after infection compared to controls, indicating vaccine efficacy. However, during chronic infection, vaccine efficacy waned in C3H/HeOuJ but not in C3Heb/FeJ mice. Protection in vaccinated C3Heb/FeJ mice was associated with reduced numbers of CD11b+ Gr1+ cells, increased numbers of effector and memory T cells, and an absence of necrotic granulomas. BCG vaccine efficacy waned in C3H/HeOuJ mice, as indicated by reduced expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and increased expressions of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-10, and Foxp3 by T cells compared to C3Heb/FeJ mice. This is the first murine vaccine model system described to date that can be utilized to dissect differential vaccine-derived immune efficacy. PMID:25392011

  7. Differential Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine-derived efficacy in C3Heb/FeJ and C3H/HeOuJ mice exposed to a clinical strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Creissen, Elizabeth; Shanley, Crystal; Orme, Ian; Ordway, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    The global epidemic caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues unabated. Moreover, the only available vaccine against tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), demonstrates variable efficacy. To respond to this global threat, new animal models that mimic the pathological disease process in humans are required for vaccine testing. One new model, susceptible C3Heb/FeJ mice, is similar to human tuberculosis in that these animals are capable of forming necrotic tubercle granulomas, in contrast to resistant C3H/HeOuJ mice. In this study, we evaluated the impact of prior BCG vaccination of C3Heb/FeJ and C3H/HeOuJ mice on exposure to a low-dose aerosol of Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing strain SA161. Both BCG-vaccinated murine strains demonstrated reduced bacterial loads 25 days after infection compared to controls, indicating vaccine efficacy. However, during chronic infection, vaccine efficacy waned in C3H/HeOuJ but not in C3Heb/FeJ mice. Protection in vaccinated C3Heb/FeJ mice was associated with reduced numbers of CD11b(+) Gr1(+) cells, increased numbers of effector and memory T cells, and an absence of necrotic granulomas. BCG vaccine efficacy waned in C3H/HeOuJ mice, as indicated by reduced expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and increased expressions of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-10, and Foxp3 by T cells compared to C3Heb/FeJ mice. This is the first murine vaccine model system described to date that can be utilized to dissect differential vaccine-derived immune efficacy.

  8. [Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the paravertebral column. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Puerta Roldán, Patricia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Bagué Rossell, Silvia; de Juan Delago, Manel; Molet Teixidó, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare variant of low-grade fibrosarcoma, with specific histological and immunohistochemical features and a poor prognosis. We report a case of SEF of the paravertebral column in a 49-year old male who presented a paraspinal mass with extension into the L4-L5 neural foramen and invasion of the L5 nerve root. Histology of the tumourectomy specimen and its immunohistochemical study led to the diagnosis of SEF. This case was particularly unusual due to its paravertebral column location and, despite its low grade, illustrates the malignant potential of SEF.

  9. Metastatic Secondary Fibrosarcoma of Bone Responsive to Repeated Courses of Ifosfamide and Associated With Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, N. Wilson; Bramwell, Vivien H. C.

    2003-01-01

    We present a case of a 40-year-old man with secondary fibrosarcoma of bone, arising from a non-ossifying fibroma. He subsequently developed metastatic disease that responded to four successive chemotherapy courses, the last three using the same dose/schedule of single agent ifosfamide. Eventual rapid progression of a huge intra-abdominal mass was associated with the syndrome of extrapancreatic tumour hypoglycemia (EPTH). The clinicopathological behaviour of fibrosarcoma of bone, and the mechanism of EPTH are discussed. PMID:18521374

  10. Gene expression and production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and gamma interferon in C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in acute Mycoplasma pulmonis disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, C B; Simecka, J W; Davidson, M K; Davis, J K; Schoeb, T R; Lindsey, J R; Everson, M P

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether the production of various cytokines is associated with Mycoplasma pulmonis disease expression. Susceptible C3H/HeN and resistant C57BL/6N mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) CFU of virulent M. pulmonis UAB CT or avirulent M. pulmonis UAB T. Expression of genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-6, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in whole lung tissue and TNF-alpha gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells was determined by reverse transcription-PCR using specific cytokine primers at various times postinoculation. In addition, concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IFN-gamma were determined in BAL fluid and serum samples at various times postinoculation. Our results showed that there was a sequential appearance of cytokines in the lungs of infected mice: TNF-alpha, produced primarily by BAL cells, appeared first, followed by IL-1 and IL-6, which were followed by IFN-gamma. Susceptible C3H/HeN mice had higher and more persistent concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in BAL fluid than did resistant C57BL/6N mice, indicating that TNF-alpha and possibly IL-6 are important factors in pathogenesis of acute M. pulmonis disease in mice. Serum concentrations of IL-6 were elevated in C3H/HeN mice, but not C57BL/6N mice, following infection with M. pulmonis, suggesting that IL-6 has both local and systemic effects in M. pulmonis disease. PMID:7558323

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C6H12O3 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane (VMSD1111, LB4518_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C6H12O3 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane (VMSD1111, LB4518_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C6H12O3 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane (VMSD1212, LB4519_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C6H12O3 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane (VMSD1212, LB4519_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C6H12O3 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane (VMSD1511, LB4517_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C6H12O3 2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane (VMSD1511, LB4517_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; et al

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  17. Gas-phase reactions of the bare Th2+ and U2+ ions with small alkanes, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8: experimental and theoretical study of elementary organoactinide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Emanuela; Santos, Marta; Michelini, Maria C; Marçalo, Joaquim; Russo, Nino; Gibson, John K

    2011-02-16

    The gas-phase reactions of two dipositive actinide ions, Th(2+) and U(2+), with CH(4), C(2)H(6), and C(3)H(8) were studied by both experiment and theory. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the bimolecular ion-molecule reactions; the potential energy profiles (PEPs) for the reactions, both observed and nonobserved, were computed by density functional theory (DFT). The experiments revealed that Th(2+) reacts with all three alkanes, including CH(4) to produce ThCH(2)(2+), whereas U(2+) reacts with C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8), with different product distributions than for Th(2+). The comparative reactivities of Th(2+) and U(2+) toward CH(4) are well explained by the computed PEPs. The PEPs for the reactions with C(2)H(6) effectively rationalize the observed reaction products, ThC(2)H(2)(2+) and UC(2)H(4)(2+). For C(3)H(8) several reaction products were experimentally observed; these and additional potential reaction pathways were computed. The DFT results for the reactions with C(3)H(8) are consistent with the observed reactions and the different products observed for Th(2+) and U(2+); however, several exothermic products which emerge from energetically favorable PEPs were not experimentally observed. The comparison between experiment and theory reveals that DFT can effectively exclude unfavorable reaction pathways, due to energetic barriers and/or endothermic products, and can predict energetic differences in similar reaction pathways for different ions. However, and not surprisingly, a simple evaluation of the PEP features is insufficient to reliably exclude energetically favorable pathways. The computed PEPs, which all proceed by insertion, were used to evaluate the relationship between the energetics of the bare Th(2+) and U(2+) ions and the energies for C-H and C-C activation. It was found that the computed energetics for insertion are entirely consistent with the empirical model which relates insertion efficiency to the

  18. Rotameric transformations in the photochemistry of TpM(CO)2(η(3)-C3H4R), where Tp = tris(pyrazolyl)borate, M = Mo or W, and R = H or Me.

    PubMed

    Thornley, Wyatt A; Bitterwolf, Thomas E

    2015-05-01

    Low energy photolysis of TpM(CO)2(η(3)-C3H4R), where Tp = tris(pyrazolyl)borate, M = Mo or W, and R = 2-H or 2-Me in PVC matrices at 85 K results in exo/gauche isomerism of the allyl ligand. This transformation comes in contrast to the behaviour observed in cyclopentadienyl analogues which undergo exo/endo isomerism. DFT computations reveal an η(3) → η(1)* → η(3) mechanism for the allyl rotameric interconversion where the η(1)*-allyl intermediate is generated upon MLCT excitation.

  19. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane C2H2Cl4 + C3H3N Propenenitrile (EVLM1211, LB5648_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane C2H2Cl4 + C3H3N Propenenitrile (EVLM1211, LB5648_E)' providing data from direct measurement of temperature at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant pressure.

  20. COOMET.QM-S5 (COOMET project No 576/RU/12) 'Supplementary comparison of national standards in the field of analysis of gas mixtures containing CO2, CO, C3H8 in nitrogen ("automotive" gas mixtures)'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Rozhnov, M. S.; Melnyk, D. M.; Petryshyn, P. V.; Shpilnyi, S. A.; Iakubov, S. E.; Bakovec, N. V.; Kluchits, A. S.; Kipphardt, H.; Aleksandrov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the COOMET.QM-S5 comparison is founded on tightening of requirements to a control of automobile emissions (realization of environmental standards of EURO 4, EURO-5). Participating laboratories: VNIIM, BAM, BelGIM, Ukrmetrteststandart, KazInMetr. This comparison was carried out in 2013-2014. This supplementary comparison supports CMC claims for: CO2 in the range (4-16) . 10-2 mol/mol; CO in the range (0.5-5) . 10-2 mol/mol; C3H8 in the range (0.01-0.3) . 10-2 mol/mol. Results: Component CO: All laboratories identified the values of carbon monoxide mole fraction in the gas mixture within +/-0.9134%. Component CO2: All laboratories identified the values of carbon dioxide mole fraction in the gas mixture within +/-0.3042%. Component C3H8: All laboratories identified the values of propane mole fraction in the gas mixture within +/-0.443%. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajlaoui, S.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.; Bulou, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393 K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800 cm- 1 covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(Snsbnd O) + νs(Snsbnd Cl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length.

  2. Adult lupus-prone MRL/MpJ2+ mice express a primary antibody repertoire that differs in CDR-H3 length distribution and hydrophobicity from that expressed in the C3H parental strain.

    PubMed

    Zemlin, Michael; Ippolito, Gregory C; Zemlin, Cosima; Link, Jason; Monestier, Marc; Schroeder, Harry W

    2005-05-01

    Anti-dsDNA antibodies tend to be enriched for heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR-H3) intervals of above average length that contain an increased frequency of charged amino acids. It is unclear whether these types of CDR-H3s are more common in the primary B-cell repertoire of auto-immune prone strains or whether their increased prevalence in affected individuals reflects positive selection and expansion of atypical CDR-H3s in the pathogenic response to self-antigen. Here, we present evidence that when compared to C3H, a MRL/MpJ(2+) parental strain, CDR-H3 intervals from pre-B cells of adult lupus-prone MRL/MpJ(2+) mice are longer on average and are enriched for charged amino acids. The predicted prevalence of deformed loops per Shirai H3 criteria is also higher. In contrast, the frequency of charge, the distribution of length, and the pattern of predicted deformed loop structures did not differ in sequences obtained from neonates of the same two strains. These observations suggest that the mechanisms that serve to shape the initial CDR-H3 repertoire in adults, but not neonates, are being regulated differently in C3H versus MRL/MpJ(2+). Dysregulation of the adult pre-B CDR-H3 antibody repertoire could be a contributing factor for the development of florid auto-immune disease in MRL/MpJ(2+) mice.

  3. ACE-FTS Observation of a Young Biomass Burning Plume: First Reported Measurements of C2H4, C3H6O, H2CO and PAN by Infrared Occultation from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Herbin, Herve; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Wespes, Catherine; Carleer, Michel; Turquety, Solene; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Remedios, John; Hauglustaine, Didier; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our study of the upper tropospheric composition with the infrared 35 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE FTS), we 36 found an occultation sequence that on 8 October 2005, sampled a remarkable plume near the 37 east coast of Tanzania. Model simulations of the CO distribution in the Southern hemisphere 38 are performed for this period and they demonstrate that the emissions for this event originated 39 from a nearby forest fire, after which the plume was transported from the source region to the 40 upper troposphere. Taking advantage of the very high signal-to-noise ratio of the ACE FTS 41 spectra over a wide wavenumber range (750-4400 cm(exp -1), we present in-depth analyses of the 42 chemical composition of this plume in the middle and upper troposphere, focusing on the 43 measurements of weakly absorbing pollutants. For this specific biomass burning event, we 44 report simultaneous observations of an unprecedented number of organic species. 45 Measurements of C2H4 (ethene), C3H4 (propyne), H2CO (formaldehyde), C3H6O (acetone) 46 and CH3COO2NO2 (perxoxyacetylnitrate, abbreviated as PAN) are the first reported 47 detections using infrared occultation spectroscopy from satellites. Based on the lifetime of the 48 emitted species, we discuss the photochemical age of the plume and also report, whenever 49 possible, the enhancement ratios relative to CO.

  4. C3H3N 2-Propenenitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  5. Combination of glycosphingosomes and liposomal doxorubicin shows increased activity against dimethyl-α-benzanthracene-induced fibrosarcoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood A; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Khan, Arif

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antitumor effect of glycosphingolipid-incorporated liposomes (glycosphingosomes) in combination with liposomal doxorubicin (Lip-Dox) in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Glycosphingosomes were prepared by incorporating glycosphingolipids isolated from Sphingomonas paucimobilis into the liposomes of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, and cardiolipin. Tumors were induced by administering dimethyl-α-benzanthracene, and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of Dox, including free Dox, Lip-Dox, or glycosphingosomes + Lip-Dox. Mice were observed for 90 days to monitor their survival and tumor size. Free Dox, but not Lip-Dox or a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox, caused the substantial depletion of leukocytes and significantly increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase in mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox showed restricted tumor growth and increased survival when compared to those treated with free Dox or Lip-Dox. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of glycosphingosomes and Lip-Dox may prove to be very effective in the treatment of tumors. PMID:26504383

  6. Theoretical study of the bonding of Sc, Y, and La singly charged and dipositive ions to C2H2, C2H4, and C3H6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the Sc and Y singly-charged and dipositive ions with C2H2, C2H4, and C3H6 is studied using electronic structure calculations that include high levels of electron correlation. These results are compared with comparable calculations performed previously for La(+) and La(2+). For C2H2 and C2H4, all three metal ions insert into the C-C pi bond, making a three-membered ring. The optimal structures for the MC3H6(+) ions all involve rearrangement to make a four-membered ring. The strength of the metal-ligand bond for the singly charged ions follows the order La greater than Sc equal to about Y. In contrast, the bonds involving the dipositive ions are electrostatic, so that the binding energy increases as the size of the ion decreases, leading to the trend Sc greater than Y greater than La.

  7. Effect of non-magnetic organic cation (A) on the magnetic properties of ANi II[Fe III(ox) 3], A= N(n- C4H9) 4+ and N( n-C 3H 7) 4+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.

    1999-08-01

    The effect of the non-magnetic organic cation A on the magnetic properties of molecule based material ANi II[Fe III(ox) 3] with A= N(n- C4H9) 4+ and N( n-C 3H 7) 4+ has been measured in the temperature range of 5-300 K under different conditions. The compounds are ferrimagnetic with T N=28 and 25 K, respectively. Spin-glass-like states have been observed below TN. The MZFC( T) and MFC( T) plots branch out at Tbranch and this branching, represented by a power law, is highly magnetic field dependent. The non-magnetic cation A plays an important role in determining the magnetic exchange interaction and the disordered states below TN.

  8. Theoretical studies of the local structures and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters for Cu2+ center in Zn(C3H3O4)2(H2O)2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua-Ming; Xiao, Wen-Bo; Wan, Xiong

    2014-07-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors gxx, gyy, gzz and hyperfine structure constants Axx, Ayy, Azz) are interpreted by taking account of the admixture of d-orbitals in the ground state wave function of the Cu2+ ion in a Zn(C3H3O4)2(H2O)2 (DABMZ) single crystal. Based on the calculation, local structural parameters of the impurity Cu2+ center were obtained (i.e. Ra≈1.92 Å, Rb≈1.96 Å, Rc≈1.99 Å). The theoretical EPR parameters based on the above Cu2+-O2- bond lengths in the DABMZ crystal show good agreement with the observed values and some improvements have been made as compared with those in the previous studies.

  9. A vaccine formulated with the major outer membrane protein can protect C3H/HeN, a highly susceptible strain of mice, from a Chlamydia muridarum genital challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Tatarenkova, Olga V; de la Maza, Luis M

    2015-11-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were vaccinated with native Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP), using Montanide+CpG or Alum+CpG as adjuvants. Negative control groups were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and the same adjuvants. As positive control, mice were inoculated intranasally with live Chlamydia. Mice were challenged in the ovarian bursa with 10(5) C. muridarum inclusion forming units. Six weeks after the genital challenge the animals were caged with male mice and monitored for pregnancy. Mice vaccinated with MOMP+Montanide+CpG developed high levels of C. muridarum-specific antibodies, with a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and neutralizing titres. Animals immunized using Alum+CpG had low antibody levels. Cellular immune responses were significantly higher in mice vaccinated with MOMP and Montanide+CpG, but not with Alum+CpG, when compared with negative controls. Following the genital challenge, only 20% (4/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide had positive vaginal cultures whereas 100% (9/9) of mice immunized with MOMP+CpG+Alum had positive cultures. Of the positive control animals inoculated with live Chlamydia only 15% (3/20) had positive vaginal cultures. In contrast, 100% (20/20) of mice immunized with OVA+CpG+Montanide, or minimal essential medium, had positive cultures. Following mating, 80% (16/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide, and 85% (17/20) of animals inoculated intranasally with live C. muridarum carried embryos in both uterine horns. No protection against infertility was observed in mice immunized with MOMP and CpG+Alum or OVA. In conclusion, this is the first time that a subunit vaccine has been shown to elicit a protective immune response in the highly susceptible C3H/HeN strain of mice against an upper genital challenge.

  10. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin administration and high-fat diet on the body weight and hepatic estrogen metabolism in female C3H/HeN mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Baoting Gallo, Michael A. Burger, Conney W.; Meeker, Robert J.; Cai, May Xiaoxin; Xu Shiyao; Conney, Allan H.

    2008-01-15

    We studied the effect of administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by i.p. injection once every 2 weeks in combination with a high-fat (HF) diet for 8 or 16 weeks on the body and organ weight changes as well as on the hepatic enzyme activity for estrogen metabolism in C3H/HeN female mice. Administration of TCDD at 100 {mu}g/kg b.w. once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks increased the body weight by 46% in the HF diet-fed animals, but not in the regular diet-fed animals. This is the first observation suggesting that TCDD at a high dose (100 {mu}g/kg b.w.), but not at lower doses (1 or 10 {mu}g/kg b.w.), may have a strong obesity-inducing effect in C3H/HeN mice fed an HF diet. While TCDD increased liver weight and decreased thymus weight in animals, these effects were enhanced by feeding animals an HF diet. Metabolism studies showed that TCDD administration for 8 or 16 weeks increased the liver microsomal activity for the 2- and 4-hydroxylation of 17{beta}-estradiol in animals fed a control diet, but surprisingly not in animals fed an HF diet. Treatment with TCDD dose-dependently increased the hepatic activity for the O-methylation of catechol estrogens in both control and HF diet-fed animals, and it also decreased the levels of liver microsomal sulfatase activity for hydrolysis of estrone-3-sulfate. TCDD did not significantly affect the hepatic enzyme activity for the glucuronidation or esterification of endogenous estrogens. It is suggested that enhanced metabolic inactivation of endogenous estrogens by hepatic estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in TCDD-treated, control diet-fed animals contributes importantly to the reduced incidence of estrogen-associated tumors in animals treated with TCDD.

  11. On the Formation and Isomer Specific Detection of Propenal (C2H3CHO) and Cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O) in Interstellar Model Ices - A Combined FTIR and Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Borsuk, Aleca; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2015-11-01

    The formation routes of two structural isomers—propenal (C2H3CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O)—were investigated experimentally by exposing ices of astrophysical interest to energetic electrons at 5.5 K thus mimicking the interaction of ionizing radiation with interstellar ices in cold molecular clouds. The radiation-induced processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and via temperature programmed desorption exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with single photon ionization in the post irradiation phase. To selectively probe which isomer(s) is/are formed, the photoionization experiments were conducted with 10.49 and 9.60 eV photons. Our studies provided compelling evidence on the formation of both isomers—propenal (C2H3CHO) and cyclopropanone (c-C3H4O)—in ethylene (C2H4)—carbon monoxide (CO) ices forming propenal and cyclopropanone at a ratio of (4.5 ± 0.9):1. Based on the extracted reaction pathways, the cyclopropanone molecule can be classified as a tracer of a low temperature non-equilibrium chemistry within interstellar ices involving most likely excited triplet states, whereas propenal can be formed at ultralow temperatures, but also during the annealing phase via non-equilibrium as well as thermal chemistry (radical recombination). Since propenal has been detected in the interstellar medium and our laboratory experiments demonstrate that both isomers originated from identical precursor molecules our study predicts that the hitherto elusive second isomer—cyclopropanone—should also be observable toward those astronomical sources such as Sgr B2(N) in which propenal has been detected.

  12. Seasonal evolution of C2N2, C3H4, and C4H2 in Titan's lower stratosphere, inferred from Cassini/CIRS far-IR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Melody; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Vinatier, Sandrine; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Due to its obliquity (26.7°), Titan's atmosphere undergoes significant seasonal variations of insolation, which are expected to affect significantly its photochemistry and large-scale dynamics. The duration of the Cassini mission enables us to monitor these changes and to better understand the atmospheric processes at play.Here, we study the seasonal evolution of the composition of Titan's lower stratosphere (10 mbar). We analyse nadir and limb high resolution (0.5 cm-1) spectra from Cassini/CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) in the far infrared (200-400 cm-1), in order to retrieve the abundances of three photochemical species: C2N2 (cyanogen), C4H2 (diacetylene), and C3H4 (methylacetylene). These data span all the latitudes and were acquired from 2004 to 2015. Consequently, they provide a good overview of the seasonal evolution of the meridional distributions of C2N2, C4H2, and C3H4, from northern winter to mid-spring. For instance, these measurements show a strong enrichment in these three species at the South pole in the lower stratosphere, consistent with previous observations (Coustenis et al., 2016 ; Vinatier et al., 2015 ; Teanby et al., 2012). In contrast, other latitudes present much less variations in the mixing ratios of these gases, especially at the North Pole. These vertical and meridional abundances profiles and their comparison with previous studies provide constraints on the photochemical processes in Titan's atmosphere. We also use these measurements to monitor the seasonal evolution of atmospheric circulation in the lower stratosphere.

  13. A vaccine formulated with the major outer membrane protein can protect C3H/HeN, a highly susceptible strain of mice, from a Chlamydia muridarum genital challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Tatarenkova, Olga V; de la Maza, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were vaccinated with native Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP), using Montanide+CpG or Alum+CpG as adjuvants. Negative control groups were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and the same adjuvants. As positive control, mice were inoculated intranasally with live Chlamydia. Mice were challenged in the ovarian bursa with 105 C. muridarum inclusion forming units. Six weeks after the genital challenge the animals were caged with male mice and monitored for pregnancy. Mice vaccinated with MOMP+Montanide+CpG developed high levels of C. muridarum-specific antibodies, with a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and neutralizing titres. Animals immunized using Alum+CpG had low antibody levels. Cellular immune responses were significantly higher in mice vaccinated with MOMP and Montanide+CpG, but not with Alum+CpG, when compared with negative controls. Following the genital challenge, only 20% (4/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide had positive vaginal cultures whereas 100% (9/9) of mice immunized with MOMP+CpG+Alum had positive cultures. Of the positive control animals inoculated with live Chlamydia only 15% (3/20) had positive vaginal cultures. In contrast, 100% (20/20) of mice immunized with OVA+CpG+Montanide, or minimal essential medium, had positive cultures. Following mating, 80% (16/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide, and 85% (17/20) of animals inoculated intranasally with live C. muridarum carried embryos in both uterine horns. No protection against infertility was observed in mice immunized with MOMP and CpG+Alum or OVA. In conclusion, this is the first time that a subunit vaccine has been shown to elicit a protective immune response in the highly susceptible C3H/HeN strain of mice against an upper genital challenge. PMID:26423798

  14. Fibrosarcoma adjacent to the site of microchip implantation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Daly, Meighan K; Saba, Corey F; Crochik, Sonia S; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kosarek, Carrie E; Cornell, Karen K; Roberts, Royce E; Northrup, Nicole C

    2008-04-01

    A 14-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with an interscapular mass. A computed tomography scan, biopsy, and histological examination revealed a fibrosarcoma adjacent to a pet identification microchip. Because the cat was previously vaccinated at this site, it is not possible to establish definitive causation of the fibrosarcoma, but this is the first report of a tumor in the vicinity of a microchip in a cat. Microchip-associated tumors have been reported in rodents and dogs. Veterinarians should be aware that because inflammation may predispose felines to tumor formation, separation and observation of vaccination and implantation sites are indicated. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) vaccination guidelines and monitoring of microchip implantation sites are recommended.

  15. Synergistic effects of sonoporation and taurolidin/TRAIL on apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Daigeler, Adrien; Chromik, Ansgar M; Haendschke, Kathrin; Emmelmann, Sabine; Siepmann, Monica; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Steinau, Hans U; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hauser, Joerg

    2010-11-01

    Sonodynamic therapy, in combination with ultrasound contrast agents, proved to enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutics in malignant cells. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were treated in vitro with a combination of ultrasound SonoVue™-microbubbles and taurolidine (TRD) plus tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Apoptosis was measured by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Gene expression was analysed by RNA-microarray. The apoptotic effects of TRD and TRAIL on human fibrosarcoma are enhanced by sonodynamic therapy and additional application of contrast agents, such as SonoVue™ by 25%. A broad change in the expression of genes related to apoptotic pathways is observed when ultrasound and microbubbles act synchronously in combination with the chemotherapeutics (e.g. BIRC3, NFKBIA and TNFAIP3). Some of these genes have already been proven to play a role in programmed cell death in human fibrosarcoma (HSPA1A/HSPA1B, APAF1, PAWR, SOCS2) or were associated with sonication induced apoptosis (CD44). Further studies are needed to explore the options of sonodynamic therapy on soft tissue sarcoma and its molecular mechanisms.

  16. A VUV photoionization study of the combustion-relevant reaction of the phenyl radical (C6H5) with propylene (C3H6) in a high temperature chemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I; Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid; Hansen, Nils

    2012-04-12

    We studied the reaction of phenyl radicals (C(6)H(5)) with propylene (C(3)H(6)) exploiting a high temperature chemical reactor under combustion-like conditions (300 Torr, 1200-1500 K). The reaction products were probed in a supersonic beam by utilizing tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Advanced Light Source and recording the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves at mass-to-charge ratios of m/z = 118 (C(9)H(10)(+)) and m/z = 104 (C(8)H(8)(+)). Our results suggest that the methyl and atomic hydrogen losses are the two major reaction pathways with branching ratios of 86 ± 10% and 14 ± 10%. The isomer distributions were probed by fitting the recorded PIE curves with a linear combination of the PIE curves of the individual C(9)H(10) and C(8)H(8) isomers. Styrene (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(3)) was found to be the exclusive product contributing to m/z = 104 (C(8)H(8)(+)), whereas 3-phenylpropene, cis-1-phenylpropene, and 2-phenylpropene with branching ratios of 96 ± 4%, 3 ± 3%, and 1 ± 1% could account for the signal at m/z = 118 (C(9)H(10)(+)). Although searched for carefully, no evidence of the bicyclic indane molecule could be provided. The reaction mechanisms and branching ratios are explained in terms of electronic structure calculations nicely agreeing with a recent crossed molecular beam study on this system.

  17. Artepillin C, a Typical Brazilian Propolis-Derived Component, Induces Brown-Like Adipocyte Formation in C3H10T1/2 Cells, Primary Inguinal White Adipose Tissue-Derived Adipocytes, and Mice.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Sho; Aoyama, Hiroki; Kamiya, Misa; Higuchi, Jun; Kato, Aiko; Soga, Minoru; Kawai, Taeko; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant expression of UCP1 and PRDM16 proteins in iWAT of mice, and was independent of the β3-adrenergic signaling pathway via the sympathetic nervous system. These findings may provide insight into browning of white adipocytes including the molecular mechanism mediated by dietary factors and demonstrate that ArtC has a novel biological function with regard to increasing energy expenditure by browning of white adipocytes. PMID:27598888

  18. Artepillin C, a Typical Brazilian Propolis-Derived Component, Induces Brown-Like Adipocyte Formation in C3H10T1/2 Cells, Primary Inguinal White Adipose Tissue-Derived Adipocytes, and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Sho; Aoyama, Hiroki; Kamiya, Misa; Higuchi, Jun; Kato, Aiko; Soga, Minoru; Kawai, Taeko; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant expression of UCP1 and PRDM16 proteins in iWAT of mice, and was independent of the β3-adrenergic signaling pathway via the sympathetic nervous system. These findings may provide insight into browning of white adipocytes including the molecular mechanism mediated by dietary factors and demonstrate that ArtC has a novel biological function with regard to increasing energy expenditure by browning of white adipocytes. PMID:27598888

  19. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenping; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiong, Xiaolu; Jiao, Jun; Yang, Xiaomei; Wen, Bohai

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR) extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), two crucial cytokines in resisting intracellular bacterial infection, as well as significantly lower rickettsial loads and slighter pathological lesions in organs after challenge with R. rickettsii, compared with mice immunized with rOmpB-4 or CMR alone. Additionally, after challenge with C. burnetii, the coxiella loads in the organs of these mice were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with rOmpB-4 alone. Our results prove that CMR could markedly potentiate enhance the rOmpB-4-specific immunoprotection by promoting specific and non-specific immunoresponses and the immunization with the protective antigen of R. rickettsii combined with CMR of C. burnetii could confer effective protection against infection of R. rickettsii or C. burnetii. PMID:25909586

  20. A VUV Photoionization Study of the Combustion-Relevant Reaction of the Phenyl Radical (C6H5) with Propylene (C3H6) in a High Temperature Chemical Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    University of Hawaii at Manoa; Sandia National Laboratories; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid; Hansen, Nils

    2012-02-22

    We studied the reaction of phenyl radicals (C6H5) with propylene (C3H6) exploiting a high temperature chemical reactor under combustion-like conditions (300 Torr, 1,200-1,500 K). The reaction products were probed in a supersonic beam by utilizing tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Advanced Light Source and recording the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves at mass-to-charge ratios of m/z = 118 (C9H10+) and m/z = 104 (C8H8+). Our results suggest that the methyl and atomic hydrogen losses are the two major reaction pathways with branching ratios of 86 10 percent and 14 10 percent. The isomer distributions were probed by fitting the recorded PIE curves with a linear combination of the PIE curves of the individual C9H10 and C8H8 isomers. Styrene (C6H5C2H3) was found to be the exclusive product contributing to m/z = 104 (C8H8+), whereas 3-phenylpropene, cis-1-phenylpropene, and 2-phenylpropene with branching ratios of 96 4 percent, 3 3 percent, and 1 1 percent could account for signal at m/z = 118 (C9H10+). Although searched for carefully, no evidence of the bicyclic indane molecule could be provided. The reaction mechanisms and branching ratios are explained in terms of electronic structure calculations nicely agreeing with a recent crossed molecular beam study on this system.

  1. A layered fluorinated gallium phosphate organically templated by propane-1,3-diaminium, an analog of the aluminophosphate MIL-12: Ga2(PO4)F5.C3H12N2.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Thierry; Ferey, Gerard

    2005-06-01

    Crystals of the oxyfluorinated gallium phosphate MIL-12 (digallium phosphate pentafluoride propane-1,3-diaminium), (C3H12N2)[Ga2(PO4)F5], were synthesized hydrothermally at 453 K under autogenous pressure using propane-1,3-diamine as the structure-directing agent. The title compound is isomorphous with the aluminium phosphate having the MIL-12 structural type. The structure is built up from a two-dimensional anionic network intercalated by the diamine species. The inorganic layer is composed of corner-linked GaO2F4 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra. The diprotonated diamine group is located on a mirror plane, between the inorganic sheets, and interacts preferentially via hydrogen bonding through the ammonium groups and the terminal F and bridging O atoms of the inorganic layer. One of the Ga atoms lies on an inversion centre and the other lies on a mirror plane, as does the P atom, two of the phosphate O atoms and one of the F atoms. PMID:15930677

  2. Trientine, a copper-chelating agent, induced apoptosis in murine fibrosarcoma cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Nishiya, Hide; Chiba, Toshiaki; Endoh, Daiji; Kon, Yasuhiro; Okui, Toyo

    2007-02-01

    Anti-copper treatments have been investigated to determine whether they suppress angiogenesis and tumor development since Cu is widely accepted as being required for angiogenesis. We examined the effects of treatment with trientine, a copper-chelating agent, on tumor development in a murine xenograft model using fibrosarcoma-derived transplantable QRsp-11 cells and C57BL/6 mice and induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. The tumor volumes increased more slowly in trientine-treated mice than in untreated mice. Tumor volumes in the treated mice were significantly smaller than those in the untreated mice at 24 days postinoculation (d.p.i.) of tumor cells. A cluster of pyknotic tumor cells and morphological abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells were observed in the tumors of trientine-treated mice but not in the tumors of untreated mice. The proportions of apoptotic and necrotic cells in the tumors of treated mice were approximately 3.5-fold higher than those in the tumors of untreated mice at 14 d.p.i. When the cells were treated with trientine in vitro, mouse endothelial cells and bovine primary endothelial cells showed an approximately 10-fold higher sensitivity to trientine than QRsp-11 cells in terms of D37. However, the proportion of apoptotic cells in endothelial cells was significantly lower than that in QRsp-11 cells after treatment with trientine. These results show that apoptosis was induced in tumor cells by treatment with trientine in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Methods: Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Results: Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024μg/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract. PMID:25671193

  4. Development of amnesia in different mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Sinovyev, D R; Dubrovina, N I; Kulikov, A V

    2009-05-01

    We studied passive avoidance retrieval after amnestic stimulation (arrest in unsafe section of the experimental setup) in C57Bl/6J, BALB/c, CBA/Lac, AKR/J, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, and ASC/Icg mice. We demonstrated resistance to amnestic stimulation in mice with high predisposition to freezing reaction (ASC/Icg) and memory deficit in other mouse strains.

  5. The Roles of Hyaluronan/RHAMM/CD44 and Their Respective Interactions along the Insidious Pathways of Fibrosarcoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, Dragana; Kouvidi, Katerina; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors originating from fibroblasts. Importantly, fibrosarcoma cells were shown to have a high content and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including hyaluronan (HA), proteoglycans, collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. ECMs are complicated structures that surround and support cells within tissues. During cancer progression, significant changes can be observed in the structural and mechanical properties of the ECM components. Importantly, hyaluronan deposition is usually higher in malignant tumors as compared to benign tissues, predicting tumor progression in some tumor types. Furthermore, activated stromal cells are able to produce tissue structure rich in hyaluronan in order to promote tumor growth. Key biological roles of HA result from its interactions with its specific CD44 and RHAMM (receptor for HA-mediated motility) cell-surface receptors. HA-receptor downstream signaling pathways regulate in turn cellular processes implicated in tumorigenesis. Growth factors, including PDGF-BB, TGFβ2, and FGF-2, enhanced hyaluronan deposition to ECM and modulated HA-receptor expression in fibrosarcoma cells. Indeed, FGF-2 through upregulation of specific HAS isoforms and hyaluronan synthesis regulated secretion and net hyaluronan deposition to the fibrosarcoma pericellular matrix modulating these cells' migration capability. In this paper we discuss the involvement of hyaluronan/RHAMM/CD44 mediated signaling in the insidious pathways of fibrosarcoma progression. PMID:24083250

  6. Electrosynthesis of Rh2(dpf)4(R) where dpf = N,N'-diphenylformamidinate anion and R = CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9 or C5H11.

    PubMed

    Bear, J L; Van Caemelbecke, E; Ngubane, S; Da-Riz, V; Kadish, K M

    2011-03-21

    The electrosynthesis of Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R) where dpf is the N,N'-diphenylformamidinate anion and R = CH(3), C(2)H(5), C(3)H(7), C(4)H(9) or C(5)H(11) was carried out in THF containing 0.2 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) and one of several alkyl iodides represented as RI. The initial step in the reaction involved a one-electron reduction of the Rh(2)(4+) unit in Rh(2)(dpf)(4) to its Rh(2)(3+) form followed by a homogeneous reaction involving electrogenerated [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)](-) and the alkyl iodide in solution to give Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R). The homogeneously generated Rh(2)(5+) product was then immediately reduced by a second electron at the potential where [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R)](-) is generated, giving [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R)](-) which contains a Rh(2)(4+) center as a final product of an electrochemical ECE mechanism. The electrosynthesized [Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(CH(3))](-) derivative could be reoxidized to Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(CH(3)) on the reverse potential sweep and both forms of the CH(3) bonded derivative were in situ characterized by cyclic voltammetry combined with UV-visible and/or ESR spectroscopy. The reversible Rh(2)(4+/3+) process of Rh(2)(dpf)(4) is located at E(1/2) = -1.11 V in THF, 0.2 M TBAP while the electrogenerated Rh(2)(dpf)(4)(R) products are substantially easier to reduce, with E(p) values for the Rh(2)(5+/4+) couples ranging from -0.50 to -0.54 V vs. SCE depending upon the specific R group.

  7. Low temperature rate coefficients for reactions of the butadiynyl radical, C4H, with various hydrocarbons. Part I: reactions with alkanes (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C4H10).

    PubMed

    Berteloite, Coralie; Le Picard, Sébastien D; Balucani, Nadia; Canosa, André; Sims, Ian R

    2010-04-21

    The kinetics of the reactions of the linear butadiynyl radical, C4H (CCCCH), with methane, ethane, propane and butane have been studied over the temperature range of 39-300 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. The rate coefficients, except for the reaction with methane, show a negative temperature dependence and can be fitted with the following expressions over the temperature range of this study: k(C2H6) = 0.289 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.23) exp(-24.8 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C3H8) = 1.06 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.36) exp(-56.9 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1); k(C4H10) = 2.93 x 10(-10) (T/298 K)(-1.30) exp(-90.1 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients for the reaction with methane were measured only at 200 K and 300 K yielding a positive temperature dependence: k(CH4) = 1.63 x 10(-11) exp(-610 K/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Possible reaction mechanisms and product channels are discussed in detail for each of these reactions. Potential implications of these results for models of low temperature chemical environments, in particular cold interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres such as that of Titan, are considered.

  8. Genetic deletion of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors differentially abrogates the development and expression of methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization during the day and the night in C3H/HeN mice

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Anthony J.; Hudson, Randall L.; Dubocovich, Margarita L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of the melatonin receptors in methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor sensitization during the light and dark phases in C3H/HeN mice with genetic deletion of theMT1 and/or MT2 melatonin receptors. Six daily treatments with METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel environment during the light phase led to the development of locomotor sensitization in wild-type (WT), MT1KO and MT2KO mice. Following four full days of abstinence, METH challenge (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) triggered the expression of locomotor sensitization in METH-pretreated but not in vehicle (VEH)-pretreated mice. In MT1/MT2KO mice, the development of sensitization during the light phase was significantly reduced and the expression of sensitization was completely abrogated upon METH challenge. During the dark phase the development of locomotor sensitization in METH-pretreated WT, MT1KO and MT2KO mice was statistically different from VEH-treated controls. However, WT and MT2KO, but not MT1KO mice receiving repeated VEH pretreatments during the dark phase expressed a sensitized response to METH challenge that is of an identical magnitude to that observed upon 6 days of METH pretreatment. We conclude that exposure to a novel environment during the dark phase, but not during the light phase, facilitated the expression of sensitization to a METH challenge in a manner dependent on MT1 melatonin receptor activation by endogenous melatonin. We suggest that MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors are potential targets for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in METH abusers. PMID:22672659

  9. Genetic deletion of MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors differentially abrogates the development and expression of methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization during the day and the night in C3H/HeN mice.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Anthony J; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2012-11-01

    This study explored the role of the melatonin receptors in methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor sensitization during the light and dark phases in C3H/HeN mice with genetic deletion of the MT(1) and/or MT(2) melatonin receptors. Six daily treatments with METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel environment during the light phase led to the development of locomotor sensitization in wild-type (WT), MT(1)KO and MT(2)KO mice. Following four full days of abstinence, METH challenge (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) triggered the expression of locomotor sensitization in METH-pretreated but not in vehicle (VEH)-pretreated mice. In MT(1)/MT(2)KO mice, the development of sensitization during the light phase was significantly reduced and the expression of sensitization was completely abrogated upon METH challenge. During the dark phase the development of locomotor sensitization in METH-pretreated WT, MT(1)KO and MT(2)KO mice was statistically different from VEH-treated controls. However, WT and MT(2)KO, but not MT(1)KO mice receiving repeated VEH pretreatments during the dark phase expressed a sensitized response to METH challenge that is of an identical magnitude to that observed upon 6 days of METH pretreatment. We conclude that exposure to a novel environment during the dark phase, but not during the light phase, facilitated the expression of sensitization to a METH challenge in a manner dependent on MT(1) melatonin receptor activation by endogenous melatonin. We suggest that MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors are potential targets for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in METH abusers.

  10. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute

  11. Trientine, a copper-chelating agent, induced apoptosis in murine fibrosarcoma cells by activation of the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    KADOWAKI, Shingo; ENDOH, Daiji; OKUI, Toyo; HAYASHI, Masanobu

    2009-11-01

    We have reported that treatment with trientine, Cu-chelating agent, inhibits tumor growth in a murine transplantation model using fibrosarcoma and induces apoptosis in tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. When fibrosarcoma cells were treated with 10 mM trientine, the activities of p38 MAPK in treated cells were approximately 3-4 times higher than those in untreated cells. Proportions of cells in which apoptosis was induced by trientine increased in an incubation time-dependent manner from days 2 to 6. The proportions of apoptotic cells in the cells treated with trientine and SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, were approximately 50% in those of cells treated with trientine alone. The present results showed that the p38 MAPK pathway may play an important role in induction of apoptosis in fibrosarcoma cells by trientine.

  12. Fibrosarcoma with typical features of postinjection sarcoma at site of microchip implant in a dog: histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vascellari, M; Melchiotti, E; Mutinelli, F

    2006-07-01

    A 9-year-old, male French Bulldog was examined for a subcutaneous mass located at the site of a microchip implant. Cytologic examination of the mass was suggestive of a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm. Histologically, the mass was confirmed as a high-grade infiltrative fibrosarcoma, with multifocal necrosis and peripheral lymphoid aggregates. By immunohistochemistry, the sample was investigated for vimentin, smooth-muscle actin (SMA), CD3, CD79alpha, and CD18. All the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin. Scattered cells at the periphery of the lesion were also positive for SMA, highlighting a myofibroblastic phenotype. The lymphoid cells were positive for CD18 and CD3. No aluminum deposits were detected by the aurintricarboxylic acid method. A diagnosis of fibrosarcoma morphologically similar to feline postinjection sarcomas was made. Fibrosarcomas at the site of injections have been reported in dogs and ferrets. Furthermore, neoplastic growth at the site of microchip implant in dog and laboratory rodents has been described.

  13. Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Sasaki, K; Kito, H; Haga, A; Sato, T

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena var. marunasu) extract on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell invasion of reconstituted basement membrane [Matrigel (MG)]. We found that the effective component of the plant extract was delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel. The extract and delphinidin did not affect tumor cell adhesion to MG or haptotactic migration to MG. HT-1080 secretes matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which degrade extracellular matrix as part of the invasive process. Delphinidin slightly inhibited the activity of MMPs, which may have been responsible, in part, for the inhibition of tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:9581517

  14. Skull sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XU, JINGJING; WANG, JIAWEI; ZHANG, MINMING; LI, BAIZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is an unusual variant of fibrosarcoma that was previously considered to be a low-grade tumor with an indolent course. The tumor occurs most commonly in the soft tissue of the limb, trunk, head and neck, and occasionally in the bone and visceral organs. The skull is a rare primary site for SEF, with only 3 cases reported to date. The current study reports a case of SEF occurring in the occipital bone of a 24-year-old man, who lacked neurological symptoms. Imaging revealed a large mass emanating from the occipital bone and involving the superior sagittal sinus, torcular herophili and adjacent brain tissue. Histological and immunohistochemical characteristics confirmed the diagnosis of SEF. The patient experienced local recurrence and distant metastasis at 10 and 15 months, respectively, subsequent to the resection of the primary mass. The current case and review of the literature suggest that skull SEF may behave clinically as an aggressive malignant sarcoma. Radiological findings indicated the biological and histopathological characteristics of the tumor. Thus, its clinical behavior and certain imaging features may suggest this diagnosis. PMID:27123127

  15. Paeonol Oxime Inhibits bFGF-Induced Angiogenesis and Reduces VEGF Levels in Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ihn; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun-Ok; Zhu, Shudong; Chen, Chang-Yan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported the anti-angiogenic activity of paeonol isolated from Moutan Cortex. In the present study, we investigated the negative effect of paeonol oxime (PO, a paeonol derivative) on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-mediated angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) (including tumor angiogenesis) and pro-survival activity in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line. Methodology/Principal Findings We showed that PO (IC50  = 17.3 µg/ml) significantly inhibited bFGF-induced cell proliferation, which was achieved with higher concentrations of paeonol (IC50 over 200 µg). The treatment with PO blocked bFGF-stimulated migration and in vitro capillary differentiation (tube formation) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PO was able to disrupt neovascularization in vivo. Interestingly, PO (25 µg/ml) decreased the cell viability of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells but not that of HUVECs. The treatment with PO at 12.5 µg/ml reduced the levels of phosphorylated AKT and VEGF expression (intracellular and extracelluar) in HT-1080 cells. Consistently, immunefluorescence imaging analysis revealed that PO treatment attenuated AKT phosphorylation in HT-1080 cells. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results suggest that PO inhibits bFGF-induced angiogenesis in HUVECs and decreased the levels of PI3K, phospho-AKT and VEGF in HT-1080 cells. PMID:20808805

  16. Lameness and pleural effusion associated with an aggressive fibrosarcoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J S; Geoly, F J; Berry, C R; Breuhaus, B A

    1997-05-01

    An 8-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was admitted for evaluation of chronic lameness of the left scapulohumeral joint of 3 months' duration. Radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion with the proximal portion of the humerus in the area of the metaphysis. Scintigraphy confirmed radiographic findings, with an increased uptake of technetium Tc 99m medronate in the proximal portion of the left humerus. A preliminary diagnosis of humeral fracture was made. Two weeks later, the horse was readmitted for clinical signs of respiratory distress. Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation revealed masses within the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The diagnosis was changed to neoplasm with multiple metastases. Because of the unfavorable prognosis, the horse was euthanatized. Necropsy findings confirmed an aggressive neoplasm. Special histochemical stains, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy were required to characterize the neoplasm as an anaplastic fibrosarcoma. Findings in this horse illustrate the importance of considering neoplasia, resulting in bone lesions, as a possible cause of chronic lameness in horses. PMID:9143540

  17. Unusual case of infantile fibrosarcoma evaluated on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bedmutha, Akshay; Singh, Natasha; Shivdasani, Divya; Gupta, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma originating from extremities and occasionally from axial soft tissue. The prognosis is good with favorable long-term survival. It is rarely metastasizing tumor, the chances being lesser with IFS originating from extremities. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) as a treatment regime further reduces the chances of local relapse and distant metastasis. The organs commonly affected in metastatic IFS are lungs and lymph nodes. We report an unusual case of an IFS originating from extremity, which received NACT, yet presented with an early metastatic disease involving soft tissues and sparing lungs and lymph nodes, as demonstrated on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. PMID:27385891

  18. Slit2 inhibits growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zhang, Hong; Li, Hui; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Swisher, Stephen; He, Donggou; Wu, Lizhi; Xu, Jianmin; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Xu, Xìao-chun; Xu, Hui

    2008-12-01

    Slits are a group of secreted glycoproteins that play a role in the regulation of cell migration. Previous studies suggested that Slit2 might be a tumor-suppressor gene. However, it remained to be determined whether Slit2 suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in animal models. We showed that Slit2 expression was decreased or abolished in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) compared to normal tissues by in situ hybridization. Stable transfection of human SCC A431 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with Slit2 gene suppressed tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Apoptosis in Slit2-transfected tumors was increased, whereas proliferating cells were decreased, suggesting a mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression. This was supported by further analysis indicating that antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and cell cycle molecules Cdk6 and Cyclin D1 were down-regulated in Slit2-transfected tumors. Furthermore, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays showed that the transfection with Slit2 inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Slit2-transfected tumors showed a high level of keratin 8/18 and a low level of N-cadherin expression compared to empty vector-transfected tumors. More importantly, Slit2 transfection suppressed the metastasis of HT1080 tumor cells in lungs after intravenous inoculation. Collectively, our study has demonstrated that Slit2 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and SCC and that its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis signal pathways is an important mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression.

  19. PPARγ1 phosphorylation enhances proliferation and drug resistance in human fibrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiaojuan; Shu, Yuxin; Niu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Haochen; Lu, Yan; Shen, Pingping

    2014-03-10

    Post-translational regulation plays a critical role in the control of cell growth and proliferation. The phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the most important post-translational modification. The function of PPARγ phosphorylation has been studied extensively in the past. However, the relationship between phosphorylated PPARγ1 and tumors remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PPARγ1 phosphorylation in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line. Using the nonphosphorylation (Ser84 to alanine, S84A) and phosphorylation (Ser84 to aspartic acid, S84D) mutant of PPARγ1, the results suggested that phosphorylation attenuated PPARγ1 transcriptional activity. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that phosphorylated PPARγ1 promoted HT1080 cell proliferation and this effect was dependent on the regulation of cell cycle arrest. The mRNA levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} descended in PPARγ1{sup S84D} stable HT1080 cell, whereas the expression of p18{sup INK4C} was not changed. Moreover, compared to the PPARγ1{sup S84A}, PPARγ1{sup S84D} up-regulated the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin A. Finally, PPARγ1 phosphorylation reduced sensitivity to agonist rosiglitazone and increased resistance to anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HT1080 cell. Our findings establish PPARγ1 phosphorylation as a critical event in human fibrosarcoma growth. These findings raise the possibility that chemical compounds that prevent the phosphorylation of PPARγ1 could act as anticancer drugs. - Highlights: • Phosphorylation attenuates PPARγ1 transcriptional activity. • Phosphorylated PPARγ1 promotes HT1080 cells proliferation. • PPARγ1 phosphorylation regulates cell cycle by mediating expression of cell cycle regulators. • PPARγ1 phosphorylation reduces sensitivity to agonist and anticancer drug. • Our findings establish PPARγ1 phosphorylation as a critical event in HT1080

  20. TRAIL and Taurolidine induce apoptosis and decrease proliferation in human fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, Adrien; Brenzel, Christina; Bulut, Daniel; Geisler, Anne; Hilgert, Christoph; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Steinau, Hans U; Flier, Annegret; Steinstraesser, Lars; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Mittelkötter, Ulrich; Uhl, Waldemar; Chromik, Ansgar M

    2008-01-01

    Background Disseminated soft tissue sarcoma still represents a therapeutic dilemma because effective cytostatics are missing. Therefore we tested TRAIL and Tarolidine (TRD), two substances with apoptogenic properties on human fibrosarcoma (HT1080). Methods Viability, apoptosis and necrosis were visualized by TUNEL-Assay and quantitated by FACS analysis (Propidiumiodide/AnnexinV staining). Gene expression was analysed by RNA-Microarray and the results validated for selected genes by rtPCR. Protein level changes were documented by Western Blot analysis. NFKB activity was analysed by ELISA and proliferation assays (BrdU) were performed. Results and discussion The single substances TRAIL and TRD induced apoptotic cell death and decreased proliferation in HT1080 cells significantly. Gene expression of several genes related to apoptotic pathways (TRAIL: ARHGDIA, NFKBIA, TNFAIP3; TRD: HSPA1A/B, NFKBIA, GADD45A, SGK, JUN, MAP3K14) was changed. The combination of TRD and TRAIL significantly increased apoptotic cell death compared to the single substances and lead to expression changes in a variety of genes (HSPA1A/B, NFKBIA, PPP1R15A, GADD45A, AXL, SGK, DUSP1, JUN, IRF1, MYC, BAG5, BIRC3). NFKB activity assay revealed an antipodal regulation of the several subunits of NFKB by TRD and TRD+TRAIL compared to TRAIL alone. Conclusion TRD and TRAIL are effective to induce apoptosis and decrease proliferation in human fibrosarcoma. A variety of genes seems to be involved, pointing to the NFKB pathway as key regulator in TRD/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. PMID:19077262

  1. Elastin peptides regulate HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell migration and invasion through an Hsp90-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Donet, M; Brassart-Pasco, S; Salesse, S; Maquart, F-X; Brassart, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) exert protumoural activities by potentiating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and the plasminogen–plasmin activating system. In the present paper, we studied heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) involvement in this mechanism. Methods: HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell migration and invasion were studied in artificial wound assay and modified Boyden chamber assay, respectively. Heat-shock protein 90 was studied by western blot and immunofluorescence. Matrix metalloproteinase–2 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) were studied by gelatin±plasminogen zymography and immunofluorescence. Heat-shock protein 90 partners were studied by immunoprecipitation. Messenger RNA expression was studied using real-time PCR. Small interfering RNAs were used to confirm the essential role of Hsp90. Results: We showed that kappa-elastin and VGVAPG elastin hexapeptide stimulated Hsp90, pro-MMP-2 and uPA secretion within 6 h, whereas AGVPGLGVG and GRKRK peptides had no effect. No increase of mRNA level was observed. Heat-shock protein 90-specific inhibitors inhibit EDP-stimulated HT-1080 cell-invasive capacity and restrained EDP-stimulated pro-MMP-2 and uPA secretions. The inhibitory effect was reproduced by using Hsp90-blocking antibody or Hsp90 knockdown by siRNA. Heat-shock protein 90 interacted with and stabilised uPA and pro-MMP-2 in conditioned culture media of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our results demonstrate that EDPs exert protumoural activities through an Hsp90-dependent mechanism involving pro-MMP-2 and uPA. PMID:24874477

  2. Pseudolaric Acid B Induced Cell Cycle Arrest, Autophagy and Senescence in Murine Fibrosarcoma L929 Cell

    PubMed Central

    hua Yu, Jing; yu Liu, Chun; bin Zheng, Gui; Zhang, Li Ying; hui Yan, Ming; yan Zhang, Wen; ying Meng, Xian; fang Yu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: PAB induced various cancer cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. But in cell line murine fibrosarcoma L929, PAB did not induce apoptosis, but autophagy, therefore it was thought by us as a good model to research the relationship of cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence bypass apoptosis. Methods: Inhibitory ratio was assessed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Phase contrast microscopy visualized cell morphology. Hoechst 33258 staining for nuclear change, propidium iodode (PI) staining for cell cycle, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining for autophagy, and rodanmine 123 staining for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured by fluorescence microscopy or flowcytometry. Apoptosis was determined by DNA ladder test. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was detected by PKC assay kit. SA-β-galactosidase assay was used to detect senescence. Protein expression was examined by western blot. Results: PAB inhibited L929 cell growth in time-and dose-dependent manner. At 12 h, 80 μmol/L PAB induced obvious mitotic arrest; at 24 h, PAB began to induce autophagy; at 36 h, cell-treated with PAB slip into G1 cell cycle; and 3 d PAB induced senescence. In time sequence PAB induced firstly cell cycle arrest, then autophagy, then slippage into G1 phase, lastly senescence. Senescent cells had high level of autophagy, inhibiting autophagy led to apoptosis, and no senescence. PAB activated PKC activity to induce cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence, inhibiting PKC activity suppressed cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence. Conclusion: PAB induced cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cell through PKC. PMID:23630435

  3. Characterization of a novel fusion gene EML4-NTRK3 in a case of recurrent congenital fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum-Dvir, Sarah; Glade Bender, Julia L; Church, Alanna J; Janeway, Katherine A; Harris, Marian H; Mansukhani, Mahesh M; Nagy, Peter L; Andrews, Stuart J; Murty, Vundavalli V; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela; Connolly, Eileen P; Kung, Andrew L; Dela Cruz, Filemon S

    2015-10-01

    We describe the clinical course of a recurrent case of congenital fibrosarcoma diagnosed in a 9-mo-old boy with a history of hemimelia. Following complete surgical resection of the primary tumor, the patient subsequently presented with bulky bilateral pulmonary metastases 6 mo following surgery. Molecular characterization of the tumor revealed the absence of the prototypical ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. However, tumor characterization incorporating cytogenetic, array comparative genomic hybridization, and RNA sequencing analyses, revealed a somatic t(2;15)(2p21;15q25) translocation resulting in the novel fusion of EML4 with NTRK3. Cloning and expression of EML4-NTRK3 in murine fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells revealed a potent tumorigenic phenotype as assessed in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that multiple fusion partners targeting NTRK3 can contribute to the development of congenital fibrosarcoma. PMID:27148571

  4. Characterization of a novel fusion gene EML4-NTRK3 in a case of recurrent congenital fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum-Dvir, Sarah; Glade Bender, Julia L.; Church, Alanna J.; Janeway, Katherine A.; Harris, Marian H.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Nagy, Peter L.; Andrews, Stuart J.; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela; Connolly, Eileen P.; Kung, Andrew L.; Dela Cruz, Filemon S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe the clinical course of a recurrent case of congenital fibrosarcoma diagnosed in a 9-mo-old boy with a history of hemimelia. Following complete surgical resection of the primary tumor, the patient subsequently presented with bulky bilateral pulmonary metastases 6 mo following surgery. Molecular characterization of the tumor revealed the absence of the prototypical ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. However, tumor characterization incorporating cytogenetic, array comparative genomic hybridization, and RNA sequencing analyses, revealed a somatic t(2;15)(2p21;15q25) translocation resulting in the novel fusion of EML4 with NTRK3. Cloning and expression of EML4-NTRK3 in murine fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells revealed a potent tumorigenic phenotype as assessed in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that multiple fusion partners targeting NTRK3 can contribute to the development of congenital fibrosarcoma. PMID:27148571

  5. Epithelial Dysplasia in Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising from Recurrent Ameloblastic Fibroma in a 26-Year-Old Iranian Man

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Behrad, Samira; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma Symptoms: Swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Hemimandibulectomy Specialty: Dentistry Objective: Rare disease Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare malignant odontogenic tumor with a mesenchymal component, showing sarcomatous features and epithelial nests resembling ameloblastic fibroma (AF). Case Report: We report a case of AFS showing epithelial dysplasia arising in a recurrent AF in the left mandible after 3 years in a 26-year-old man, which is regarded as an uncommon histopathologic finding in AFS. We also emphasize the comprehensive clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic evaluation, and immunohistochemical staining of this patient. Conclusions: We conclude that it is important to consider malignancy alternations in the epithelial component of AFS, along with that of the mesenchymal component, to provide a proper diagnosis and treatment of recurrent AF. PMID:26289384

  6. Genetic control of estrogen-regulated transcriptional and cellular responses in mouse uterus

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma H.; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Liu, Liwen; del Rio, Roxana; Case, Laure K.; Lin, Chin-Yo; Korach, Kenneth S.; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-01-01

    The uterotropic response of the uterus to 17β-estradiol (E2) is genetically controlled, with marked variation observed depending on the mouse strain studied. Previous genetic studies from our laboratory using inbred mice that are high [C57BL/6J (B6)] or low [C3H/HeJ (C3H)] responders to E2 led to the identification of quantitative trait (QT) loci associated with phenotypic variation in uterine growth and leukocyte infiltration. The mechanisms underlying differential responsiveness to E2, and the genes involved, are unknown. Therefore, we used a microarray approach to show association of distinct E2-regulated transcriptional signatures with genetically controlled high and low responses to E2 and their segregation in (C57BL/6J×C3H/HeJ) F1 hybrids. Among the 6664 E2-regulated transcripts, analysis of cellular functions of those that were strain specific indicated C3H-selective enrichment of apoptosis, consistent with a 7-fold increase in the apoptosis indicator CASP3, and a 2.4-fold decrease in the apoptosis inhibitor Naip1 (Birc1a) in C3H vs. B6 following treatment with E2. In addition, several differentially expressed transcripts reside within our previously identified QT loci, including the ERα-tethering factor Runx1, demonstrated to enhance E2-mediated transcript regulation. The level of RUNX1 in uterine epithelial cells was shown to be 3.5-fold greater in B6 compared to C3H. Our novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the genetic control of tissue sensitivity to estrogen have great potential to advance understanding of individualized effects in physiological and disease states.—Wall, E. H., Hewitt, S. C., Liu, L., del Rio, R., Case, L. K., Lin, C.-Y., Korach, K. S., Teuscher, C. Genetic control of estrogen-regulated transcriptional and cellular responses in mouse uterus. PMID:23371066

  7. A transition in transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid and retinoic acid receptors at the tumor stage of dermal fibrosarcoma development.

    PubMed Central

    Vivanco, M D; Johnson, R; Galante, P E; Hanahan, D; Yamamoto, K R

    1995-01-01

    In transgenic mice harboring the bovine papillomavirus genome, fibrosarcomas arise along an experimentally accessible pathway in which normal dermal fibroblasts progress through two pre-neoplastic stages, mild and aggressive fibromatosis, followed by a final transition to the tumor stage. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) displays only modest transcriptional regulatory activity in cells derived from the three non-tumor stages, whereas it is highly active in fibrosarcoma cells. Upon inoculation into mice, the aggressive fibromatosis cells progress to tumor cells that have high GR activity; thus, the increased transcriptional regulatory activity of GR correlates with the cellular transition to the tumor stage. The intracellular levels of GR, as well as its hormone-dependent nuclear translocation and specific DNA binding activities, are unaltered throughout the progression. Strikingly, the low GR activity observed in the pre-neoplastic stages cannot be overcome by exogenous GR introduced by co-transfection. Moreover, comparisons of primary embryo fibroblasts and their transformed derivatives revealed a similar pattern--modest GR activity, unresponsive to overexpressed GR protein, in the normal cells was strongly increased in the transformed cells. Likewise, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) displayed similar differential activity in the fibrosarcoma pathway. Thus, the oncogenic transformation of fibroblasts, and likely other cell types, is accompanied by a striking increase in the activities of transcriptional regulators such as GR and RAR. We suggest that normal primary cells have a heretofore unrecognized capability to limit the magnitude of induction of gene expression. Images PMID:7774580

  8. Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Mouse Model of Urinary Tract Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David A.; Hung, Chia-Suei; Kline, Kimberly A.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetics have a higher incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI), are infected with a broader range of uropathogens, and more commonly develop serious UTI sequelae than nondiabetics. To better study UTI in the diabetic host, we created and characterized a murine model of diabetic UTI using the pancreatic islet β-cell toxin streptozocin in C3H/HeN, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6 mouse backgrounds. Intraperitoneal injections of streptozocin were used to initiate diabetes in healthy mouse backgrounds, as defined by consecutive blood glucose levels of >250 mg/dl. UTIs caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UTI89), Klebsiella pneumoniae (TOP52 1721), and Enterococcus faecalis (0852) were studied, and diabetic mice were found to be considerably more susceptible to infection. All three uropathogens produced significantly higher bladder and kidney titers than buffer-treated controls. Uropathogens did not have as large an advantage in the Toll-like receptor 4-defective C3H/HeJ diabetic mouse, arguing that the dramatic increase in colonization seen in C3H/HeN diabetic mice may partially be due to diabetic-induced defects in innate immunity. Competition experiments demonstrated that E. coli had a significant advantage over K. pneumoniae in the bladders of healthy mice and less of an advantage in diabetic bladders. In the kidneys, K. pneumoniae outcompeted E. coli in healthy mice but in diabetic mice E. coli outcompeted K. pneumoniae and caused severe pyelonephritis. Diabetic kidneys contained renal tubules laden with communities of E. coli UTI89 bacteria within an extracellular-matrix material. Diabetic mice also had glucosuria, which may enhance bacterial replication in the urinary tract. These data support that this murine diabetic UTI model is consistent with known characteristics of human diabetic UTI and can provide a powerful tool for dissecting this infection in the multifactorial setting of diabetes. PMID:18644886

  9. Pressure Effects on Product Channels of the Allyl Radical Reactions; C3H5+C3H5 and C3H5+CH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.; N'Doumi, M.; Fahr, A.

    2011-12-01

    Relatively large hydrocarbon molecules (C4, C6 and larger) have been detected in several planetary environments. The mechanism for the formation of such large molecular species and detailed mechanism for their potential destruction are not well understood and are of considerable current interest. Previously we have studied the kinetics and product channels of small unsaturated hydrocarbon radical (C2 and C3s) reactions relevant to planetary atmospheric modeling. Reactions of C2 radicals (such as vinyl, H2CCH and ethynyl C2H) and C3 radicals (such as propargyl, HCCCH2) can affect the abundances of a large number of stable observable C3, C4, C5, C6 and larger molecules, including linear, aromatic and even poly aromatic molecules. Pressure-dependent product yields have been determined experimentally for the self- and cross-radical reactions performed at 298 K and at pressures between ~4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Final reaction products were quantitatively determined using a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID). In some cases complementary computational studies extended the pressure and temperature range of the experiments and provided valuable information on the complex reaction mechanisms. Theses studies provide a systematic framework so that important energetic and structural parameters for radical-radical reactions can be assessed. Here we report recent results for the allyl radical reactions H2CCCH3+ H2CCCH3 and H2CCCH3+CH3. For the allyl radical self-reaction, at high pressures the "head -to-head", combination channel forming 1,5-hexadiene is dominant with a combination/disproportionation = 1,5-hexadiene/propyne ratio of about 24 at 500 Torr (67 kPa, T=298K). At low pressures the ratio is substantially reduced to about 1.2 (at 0.3 kPa) and other major products are observed including allene, propene, 1-butene and propyne.

  10. Coagulation activation by MC28 fibrosarcoma cells facilitates lung tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, M; Francis, J L

    1995-01-01

    Tumor cells interact with the hemostatic system in various ways and may thus influence malignant growth and spread. MC28 fibrosarcoma cells possess a potent procoagulant activity (PCA) and form lung tumors following intravenous injection. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between PCA, intravascular coagulation and lung seeding in the MC28 model. MC28 cells were injected into control, warfarinized and heparinized hooded Lister rats. Coagulation changes were monitored by thromboelastography (TEG) and Sonoclot analysis (SA), lung fibrin formation by light and electron microscopy, tumor seeding by macroscopic counting and tumor cell and platelet deposition in the lungs by radiolabelling. PCA was measured by chromogenic assay. MC28 PCA was characterized as a tissue factor-factor VIIa complex that probably arose during cell culture or disaggregation of solid tumors. Injection of tumor cells caused marked coagulopathy and was rapidly (within 30 min) followed by fibrin deposition in the lungs and accumulation of radiolabelled platelets. Heparin and warfarin significantly reduced lung seeding (p < 0.001) and reduced retention of radiolabelled tumor cells in the pulmonary circulation (p < 0.01). Inhibition of cellular PCA by prior treatment with concanavalin A markedly reduced intravascular coagulation and lung seeding. We conclude that MC28 cells cause intravascular coagulation as a direct result of their procoagulant activity. The data suggest that tumor cells form complexes with platelets and fibrin which are retained in the lungs long enough for extravasation and seeding to occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma of the mandible: a case report and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Loya-Solis, Abelardo; González-Colunga, Karla Judith; Pérez-Rodríguez, Cynthia M; Ramírez-Ochoa, Natalie Sofía; Ceceñas-Falcón, Luis; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is an uncommon odontogenic tumor composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant ectomesenchymal component most frequently seen in the third and fourth decades of life. It mainly presents as a painful maxillary or mandibular swelling. Radiographs show a radiolucent mass with ill-defined borders. Radical surgical excision and long-term follow-up are the suggested treatment. We report the case of a 22-year-old female with a 2-month history of an asymptomatic swelling in her left mandible. Examination revealed an exophytic growth measuring 3 × 3 cm extending from the mandibular left first premolar to the second molar. The patient underwent a left hemimandibular resection. Histopathological examination revealed a biphasic tumor composed of inconspicuous islands of benign odontogenic epithelium and an abundant malignant mesenchymal component with marked cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromatism, and moderate mitotic figures with clear margins; one year after the surgical procedure, the patient is clinically and radiologically disease-free.

  12. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma of the Mandible: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Loya-Solis, Abelardo; González-Colunga, Karla Judith; Pérez-Rodríguez, Cynthia M.; Ramírez-Ochoa, Natalie Sofía; Ceceñas-Falcón, Luis; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is an uncommon odontogenic tumor composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant ectomesenchymal component most frequently seen in the third and fourth decades of life. It mainly presents as a painful maxillary or mandibular swelling. Radiographs show a radiolucent mass with ill-defined borders. Radical surgical excision and long-term follow-up are the suggested treatment. We report the case of a 22-year-old female with a 2-month history of an asymptomatic swelling in her left mandible. Examination revealed an exophytic growth measuring 3 × 3 cm extending from the mandibular left first premolar to the second molar. The patient underwent a left hemimandibular resection. Histopathological examination revealed a biphasic tumor composed of inconspicuous islands of benign odontogenic epithelium and an abundant malignant mesenchymal component with marked cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromatism, and moderate mitotic figures with clear margins; one year after the surgical procedure, the patient is clinically and radiologically disease-free. PMID:25861504

  13. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro.

  14. Mechanistic investigation of toxicity of chromium oxide nanoparticles in murine fibrosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Chromium oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs) are widely used in polymers and paints. In the present study, we aimed to determine the toxicity of Cr2O3NPs in murine fibrosarcoma (L929) cells. The cytotoxicity of Cr2O3NPs was measured by MTT and neutral red uptake assays; Cr2O3NPs had significant cytotoxic effects on L929 cells. Enhancement of intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in L929 cells after exposure to Cr2O3NPs. Cr2O3NPs produced caspase-3, indicating that exposure to Cr2O3NPs induced apoptosis. After exposure to Cr2O3NPs, the cellular glutathione level decreased and lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. By using single-cell gel tests, we also observed increased DNA damage in a Cr2O3NP exposure-duration- and dose-dependent fashion. Cell toxicity and DNA damage may be useful biomarkers for determining the safety of Cr2O3NPs in human and animal health. PMID:27099490

  15. Coagulation activation by MC28 fibrosarcoma cells facilitates lung tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, M; Francis, J L

    1995-01-01

    Tumor cells interact with the hemostatic system in various ways and may thus influence malignant growth and spread. MC28 fibrosarcoma cells possess a potent procoagulant activity (PCA) and form lung tumors following intravenous injection. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between PCA, intravascular coagulation and lung seeding in the MC28 model. MC28 cells were injected into control, warfarinized and heparinized hooded Lister rats. Coagulation changes were monitored by thromboelastography (TEG) and Sonoclot analysis (SA), lung fibrin formation by light and electron microscopy, tumor seeding by macroscopic counting and tumor cell and platelet deposition in the lungs by radiolabelling. PCA was measured by chromogenic assay. MC28 PCA was characterized as a tissue factor-factor VIIa complex that probably arose during cell culture or disaggregation of solid tumors. Injection of tumor cells caused marked coagulopathy and was rapidly (within 30 min) followed by fibrin deposition in the lungs and accumulation of radiolabelled platelets. Heparin and warfarin significantly reduced lung seeding (p < 0.001) and reduced retention of radiolabelled tumor cells in the pulmonary circulation (p < 0.01). Inhibition of cellular PCA by prior treatment with concanavalin A markedly reduced intravascular coagulation and lung seeding. We conclude that MC28 cells cause intravascular coagulation as a direct result of their procoagulant activity. The data suggest that tumor cells form complexes with platelets and fibrin which are retained in the lungs long enough for extravasation and seeding to occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7740497

  16. Host immune responses to tumor cells augmented by bleomycin and their therapeutic effects on rat fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, M; Xu, Z Y; Morikawa, K; Hamada, J; Kobayashi, H

    1988-01-01

    The administration--timing-dependent therapeutic effects of bleomycin (BLM) were observed on a fibrosarcoma implanted SC in WKA rats. Five consecutive IP administrations of BLM (5 mg/kg/d) were found to be more effective when BLM was given from Day 8 than when it was given from Day 1 for tumors implanted on Day 0. The therapeutic effects correlated well with antitumor immune responses, which were examined on Day 13 when the tumor had not yet regressed even in surviving rats. The tumor-neutralizing activity of spleen cells was augmented in rats treated with BLM from Day 8 to Day 12, and the suppressor cell activity detected in the spleen cells of tumor-bearing rats was eliminated by the BLM treatment. The tumoricidal activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) was detected in rats treated from Day 8 but not in rats untreated or treated from Day 1. The in vitro treatment of KMT-17 cells with BLM (20 micrograms/ml) for two hours enhanced the sensitivity of the tumor cells to the activity of tumoricidal PEC. This suggests that the direct action of BLM on tumor cells also plays an immunologic role in BLM treatment. The findings reveal that the therapeutic effect of BLM is elicited by its ability to augment the host immune responses to tumor cells. PMID:2479397

  17. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2015-02-20

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.

  18. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro. PMID:2099903

  19. Phase-specific cytotoxicity in vivo of hydroxyurea on murine fibrosarcoma pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Grdina, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects in vivo of hydroxyurea (HU) on murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary tumours were determined. Tumour cells from 13-day-old nodules were made into suspension and separated on the basis of cell size by centrifugal elutriation. Flow microfluorometry (FMF) was used to determine the cell-cycle parameters and the relative synchrony of the separated populations, as well as the degree of contamination by normal diploid cells in each of the tumour-cell populations. HU cytotoxicity was tested by administering both a single 1 mg/g i.p. dose into mice that had been injected i.v. 20 min earlier with known numbers of synchronized viable FSa cells, and i.p. doses of 1 mg/g each into mice bearing 13-day-old pulmonary nodules. In the latter experiments, animals were killed 1 h after the last dose, and the tumour nodules were excised and made into a single-cell suspension and elutriated. Known numbers of cells from each fraction were injected into recipient mice to determine survival. In both sets of experiments, cell killing by HU correlated with the percentage of S-phase cells. The treatment of 13-day-old pulmonary nodules with 3 doses of HU also depleted the (G2+M) phase tumour cells and increased the heterogeneity between tumour subpopulations, as determined by FMF analysis. PMID:7073937

  20. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  1. Systems Biology Strategy Reveals PKCδ is Key for Sensitizing TRAIL-Resistant Human Fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Tabata, Sho; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells are highly variable and largely resistant to therapeutic intervention. Recently, the use of the tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced treatment is gaining momentum due to TRAIL’s ability to specifically target cancers with limited effect on normal cells. Nevertheless, several malignant cancer types still remain non-sensitive to TRAIL. Previously, we developed a dynamic computational model, based on perturbation-response differential equations approach, and predicted protein kinase C (PKC) as the most effective target, with over 95% capacity to kill human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) in TRAIL stimulation (1). Here, to validate the model prediction, which has significant implications for cancer treatment, we conducted experiments on two TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines (HT1080 and HT29). Using PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I, we demonstrated that cell viability is significantly impaired with over 95% death of both cancer types, in consistency with our previous model. Next, we measured caspase-3, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), p38, and JNK activations in HT1080, and confirmed cell death occurs through apoptosis with significant increment in caspase-3 and PARP activations. Finally, to identify a crucial PKC isoform, from 10 known members, we analyzed each isoform mRNA expressions in HT1080 cells and shortlisted the highest 4 for further siRNA knock-down (KD) experiments. From these KDs, PKCδ produced the most cancer cell death in conjunction with TRAIL. Overall, our approach combining model predictions with experimental validation holds promise for systems biology based cancer therapy. PMID:25601862

  2. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma of the mandible evolving from a prior Ameloblastic Fibroma after two years: an unusual finding.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Franco; Del Corso, Giacomo; Bacchini, Patrizia; Marchetti, Claudio; Tarsitano, Achille

    2016-10-01

    Transformation of an ameloblastic fibroma to an ameloblastic fibrosarcoma has been reported rarely in the literature. The present case report describes such evolution in a patient under long-term follow-up. The patient was first treated in 2008, and he developed the malignant counterpart of the disease 2 years later. The patient is currently under careful long-term follow-up and is free of disease. This article describes the clinical and radiographic features, histological characteristics, immunohistochemical findings, and surgical treatment of the tumor.

  3. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma of the upper jaw: Report of a rare case with long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Maryam; Shakib, Pouyan Amini

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare malignant mixed odontogenic tumor which is usually considered as the malignant counterpart of ameloblastic fibroma. Only mesenchymal component represents sarcomatous alterations and ameloblast-like epithelial nest remains bland in AFS. Here, we report a case of AFS in a 26-year-old man in the maxilla, which was regarded as an uncommon location for this tumor. After 2 years follow up, no evidence of recurrence was noted. We also emphasize on comprehensive clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic evaluation of such patients rather than immunohistochemical staining to make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:23878574

  4. C3H7NO2 β-Alanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  5. C3H3NS (Z)-3-Mercapto-2-propenenitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  6. Photodissociation dynamics of cyclopropenylidene, c-C3 H2.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Michael S; Giegerich, Jens; Pachner, Kai; Lang, Daniel; Kiendl, Benjamin; MacDonell, Ryan J; Krueger, Anke; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-10-01

    In this joint experimental and theoretical study we characterize the complete dynamical "life cycle" associated with the photoexcitation of the singlet carbene cyclopropenylidene to the lowest lying optically bright excited electronic state: from the initial creation of an excited-state wavepacket to the ultimate fragmentation of the molecule on the vibrationally hot ground electronic state. Cyclopropenylidene is prepared in this work using an improved synthetic pathway for the preparation of the precursor quadricyclane, thereby greatly simplifying the assignment of the molecular origin of the measured photofragments. The excitation process and subsequent non-adiabatic dynamics have been previously investigated employing time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and are now complemented with high-level ab initio trajectory simulations that elucidate the specific vibronic relaxation pathways. Lastly, the fragmentation channels accessed by the molecule following internal conversion are probed using velocity map imaging (VMI) so that the identity of the fragmentation products and their corresponding energy distributions can be definitively assigned. PMID:26385048

  7. Post-radiation fibrosarcoma of the cerebrum associated with a prominent, lace-like, perivascular, desmoplastic change.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yasuhide; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Koyama, Junji

    2016-04-01

    An intra-axial tumor measuring about 4 cm was excised from the right temporal lobe of a 35-year-old woman, who had a past history of resection of craniopharyngioma and postoperative radiation 21 years earlier. The tumor involved both the cortex and white matter, but was not attached to the dura mater. It consisted of a dense, interlacing, fascicular proliferation of atypical fibroblastic cells and was associated with an extensive, lace-like, desmoplastic change mainly involving the perivascular region around the tumor and overlying the subarachnoid space. The histopathological features of the desmoplastic change resembled meningioangiomatosis, but no proliferation of meningothelial cells was noted. The patient has been free from recurrence for 12 months since the operation. The association of primary cerebral fibrosarcoma with an extensive, lace-like, perivascular, desmoplastic change has not been documented in the literature. The radiation administered 21 years previously may have played some pathogenetic role in the perivascular desmoplastic change, and a malignant transformation of fibroblasts within the perivascular collagenous tissue is considered the most likely origin of the fibrosarcoma.

  8. Bovine beta-casein (1-28), a casein phosphopeptide, enhances proliferation and IL-6 expression of mouse CD19+ cells via Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Keisuke; Kawahara, Takeshi; Otani, Hajime

    2006-10-18

    This study was conducted to elucidate the target cells and receptors which participate in the mitogenic and interleukin (IL)-6-enhancing effect of bovine beta-casein (1-28), a casein phosphopeptide. When the spleen lymphocyte subset (CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cells) from C3H/HeN mice was cultured with the beta-casein (1-28), it exerted a dose-dependent mitogenic effect on CD19+ cells. The effect of beta-casein (1-28) was not apparent in the case of CD19+ cells from C3H/HeJ mouse. In addition, the effect was significantly inhibited by treating the C3H/HeN mouse-derived CD19+ cells with neutralizing antibody for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the beta-casein (1-28) exerted an IL-6-enhancing effect on the CD19+ cells. The effect was also abrogated in either C3H/HeJ mouse-derived CD19+ cell culture or the anti-TLR4 antibody-added culture. These results suggest that the beta-casein (1-28) stimulates both proliferation and IL-6 expression of CD19+ cells via TLR4.

  9. The volume effect in irradiated mouse colorectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwarchuk, Mark William

    1997-11-01

    Damage of the colorectum is the dose-limiting normal tissue complication following radiotherapy of prostate and cervical cancers. One approach for decreasing complications is to physically reduce the treatment volume. Mathematical models have been previously developed to describe the change in associated toxicity with a change in irradiated volume, i.e. the 'volume effect', for serial-type normal tissues including the colorectum. The first goal of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that there would not be a threshold length in the development of obstruction after irradiation of mouse colorectum, as predicted by the Probability model of the volume effect. The second goal was to examine if there were differences in the threshold and in the incidence of colorectal obstruction after irradiation of two mouse strains, C57B1/6 (C57) and C3Hf/Kam (C3H), previously found to be fibrosis-prone and-resistant, respectively, after lung irradiation due, in part, to genetic differences. The hypothesis examined was that differences in incidence between strains were due to the differential expression of the fibrogenic cytokines TGF/beta and TNF/alpha. Various lengths of C57 and C3H mouse colorectum were irradiated and the incidence of colorectal obstruction was followed up to 15 months. A threshold length was observed for both mouse strains, in contradiction of model predictions. The mechanism of the threshold was epithelial regeneration after irradiation. C57 mice had significantly higher incidence of colorectal obstruction compared to C3H mice, especially at smaller irradiated lengths. Colorectal tissue was obtained at various times after irradiation and prepared for histology, immunohistochemistry and RNase protection assay for measurement of TGF/beta 1, 2, 3 and TNF/alpha mRNA. Distinct strain differences in the histological time of appearance and spatial locations of fibrosis were observed. However, there were no consistent strain difference in mRNA levels or

  10. A novel technique for measurement of thermal rate constants and temperature dependences of dissociative recombination: CO2(+), CF3(+), N2O(+), C7H8(+), C7H7(+), C6H6(+), C6H5(+), C5H6(+), C4H4(+), and C3H3(+).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Joseph A; Shuman, Nicholas S; Melko, Joshua J; Ard, Shaun G; Viggiano, Albert A

    2013-04-21

    A novel technique using a flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe apparatus for measurement of temperature dependences of rate constants for dissociative recombination (DR) is presented. Low (~10(11) cm(-3)) concentrations of a neutral precursor are added to a noble gas∕electron afterglow plasma thermalized at 300-500 K. Charge exchange yields one or many cation species, each of which may undergo DR. Relative ion concentrations are monitored at a fixed reaction time while the initial plasma density is varied between 10(9) and 10(10) cm(-3). Modeling of the decrease in concentration of each cation relative to the non-recombining noble gas cation yields the rate constant for DR. The technique is applied to several species (O2(+), CO2(+), CF3(+), N2O(+)) with previously determined 300 K values, showing excellent agreement. The measurements of those species are extended to 500 K, with good agreement to literature values where they exist. Measurements are also made for a range of CnHm(+) (C7H7(+), C7H8(+), C5H6(+), C4H4(+), C6H5(+), C3H3(+), and C6H6(+)) derived from benzene and toluene neutral precursors. CnHm(+) DR rate constants vary from 8-12 × 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) at 300 K with temperature dependences of approximately T(-0.7). Where prior measurements exist these results are in agreement, with the exception of C3H3(+) where the present results disagree with a previously reported flat temperature dependence. PMID:23614415

  11. Jute batching oil: a tumor promoter on mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, N.K.; Kumar, S.; Agarwal, R.; Antony, M.

    1987-02-01

    A mineral oil essentially used in the jute industry for the batching of jute fibers, and earlier reported to be nontumorigenic on mouse skin, has been found to be a tumor promoter following a two-stage mouse-skin bioassay protocol. The types of tumors developed after initiation with a single dose of urethane or 3-methylcholanthrene (subcutaneously), followed by repeated skin painting with jute batching oil (JBO) included benign papillomas, keratoacanthomas, and fibrosarcomas. Chemical analysis of this oil indicated the total aromatic content was 11.71% and the amount of fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and triphenylene was in the range of 192.54 to 227.79 mg/kg in the test sample. The underlying biochemical mechanism for the tumor-promoting effect of JBO seemed to operate through a different pathway rather than involving the induction of cytochrome-dependent monoxygenase and N-demethylase activities in the tissue.

  12. Jute batching oil: a tumor promoter on mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, N K; Kumar, S; Agarwal, R; Antony, M

    1987-02-01

    A mineral oil essentially used in the jute industry for the "batching" of jute fibers, and earlier reported to be nontumorigenic on mouse skin, has been found to be a tumor promoter following a two-stage mouse-skin bioassay protocol. The types of tumors developed after initiation with a single dose of urethane or 3-methylcholanthrene (subcutaneously), followed by repeated skin painting with jute batching oil (JBO) included benign papillomas, keratoacanthomas, and fibrosarcomas. Chemical analysis of this oil indicated the total aromatic content was 11.71% and the amount of fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and triphenylene was in the range of 192.54 to 227.79 mg/kg in the test sample. The underlying biochemical mechanisms for the tumor-promoting effect of JBO seemed to operate through a different pathway rather than involving the induction of cytochrome-dependent monoxygenase and N-demethylase activities in the tissue.

  13. Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma of the Bone: A Case Report of High Resistance to Chemotherapy and a Survey of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; von Luettichau, Irene; Weirich, Gregor; Wawer, Angela; Behrends, Uta; Prodinger, Peter M.; Jundt, Gernot; Bielack, Stefan S.; Gradinger, Reiner; Burdach, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma mostly occurring in extraosseous sites. SEF represents a clinically challenging entity especially because no standardized treatment regimens are available. Intraosseous localization is an additional challenge with respect to the therapeutical approach. We report on a 16-year-old patient with SEF of the right proximal tibia. The patient underwent standardized neoadjuvant chemotherapy analogous to the EURAMOS-1 protocol for the treatment of osteosarcoma followed by tumor resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction. Histopathological analysis of the resected tumor showed >90% vital tumor cells suggesting no response to chemotherapy. Therefore, therapy was reassigned to the CWS 2002 High-Risk protocol for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. To date (22 months after diagnosis), there is no evidence of relapse or metastasis. Our data suggest that SEF may be resistant to a chemotherapy regimen containing Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, and Methotrexate, which should be considered in planning treatment for patients with SEF. PMID:20396630

  14. Primary Renal Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma: Report of Two Cases with EWSR1-CREB3L1 Gene Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Argani, Pedram; Lewin, Jack R.; Edmonds, Pamela; Netto, George J.; Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first two genetically confirmed cases of primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), occurring in a 17 year-old male and a 61 year-old female. In both cases, the tumors demonstrated the typical epithelioid clear cell morphology associated with extensive hyalinizing fibrosis, raising the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor, metanephric stromal tumor, and the sclerosing variant of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Both neoplasms demonstrated diffuse immunoreactivity for MUC4, a highly specific marker for SEF, and both demonstrated evidence of rearrangement of both the EWSR1 and CREB3L1 genes which have recently shown to be fused in this entity. Both neoplasms presented with metastatic disease. Primary renal SEF represents yet another translocation-associated sarcoma now shown to arise primarily in the kidney. PMID:25353281

  15. Fibrosarcoma versus fibromatoses and cellular nodular fasciitis. A comparative study of their proliferative activity using proliferating cell nuclear antigen, DNA flow cytometry, and p53.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Y; Fukuda, T; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1994-07-01

    We analyzed the proliferative activities, immunoreactivity of the p53 protein, and aneuploidy in patients with benign and malignant fibrous lesions, including 19 with nodular fasciitis (cellular type) (6-88 years old, mean 42.9), 11 with abdominal fibromatoses (22-74 years old, mean 37.9), 13 with extraabdominal fibromatoses (2-38 years old, mean 19.5), and 23 with fibrosarcomas (adult type: 16-71 years old, mean 47.3; infantile type: 3 months to 9 years, mean 2.9) using immunohistochemistry to determine proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PC10) and p53 protein (CM1) as well as performing DNA flow cytometry. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) score was measured as the ratio of PCNA-positive nuclear size/total nuclear size determined by an image analysis computer system. The distribution pattern of the PCNA-positive cells was uneven in each instance of nodular fasciitis, in contrast to the distribution in abdominal fibromatosis, extraabdominal fibromatosis, and fibrosarcoma. Both fibrosarcoma (28.4 +/- 20.0) and nodular fasciitis (33.6 +/- 20.9) exhibited a larger value and a greater variation in the PCNA score than did either abdominal (13.5 +/- 14.5) or extraabdominal fibromatosis (19.9 +/- 21.5). Abdominal fibromatosis exhibited a smaller value and less variation in the score. In short, the PCNA score did not correlate with the malignant potential. The proliferative index (S + G2 + M fraction) in fibrosarcoma was significantly higher than in either nodular fasciitis or abdominal fibromatosis. Aneuploidy was detected in five cases (26%) of fibrosarcoma, while six (26%) fibrosarcomas showed p53 positivity. Furthermore, p53-positive patients had a worse survival (0.01 < p < 0.05), and p53 positivity correlated with the proliferative index (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the PCNA score simply indicates the proliferative activity independent of malignant potential. On the other hand, p53 positivity, proliferative index, and aneuploidy are all indicators of

  16. Maximizing the effect of an α7 nicotinic receptor PAM in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like sensory inhibition deficits.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Karen E; Zheng, Lijun; Floyd, Kirsten L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-06-22

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the α7 nicotinic receptor hold promise for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Studies of these compounds in the DBA/2 mouse, which models the schizophrenia-related deficit in sensory inhibition, have shown PAMs to be effective in improving the deficit. However, the first published clinical trial of a PAM for both sensory inhibition deficits and related cognitive difficulties failed, casting a shadow on this therapeutic approach. The present study used both DBA/2 mice, and C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice to assess the ability of the α7 PAM, PNU-120596, to improve sensory inhibition. Both of these strains of mice have reduced hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers and deficient sensory inhibition similar to schizophrenia patients. Low doses of PNU-120596 (1 or 3.33mg/kg) were effective in the DBA/2 mouse but not the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. Moderate doses of the selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, choline chloride (10 or 33mg/kg), were also ineffective in improving sensory inhibition in the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. However, combining the lowest doses of both PNU-120596 and choline chloride in this mouse model did improve sensory inhibition. We propose here that the difference in efficacy of PNU-120596 between the 2 mouse strains is driven by differences in hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers, such that C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice require additional direct stimulation of the α7 receptors. These data may have implications for further clinical testing of putative α7 nicotinic receptor PAMs.

  17. Ovariectomy Stimulates and Bisphosphonates Inhibit Intracortical Remodeling in the Mouse Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Allen, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is thought to be linked to suppression of intracortical remodeling. Aim of this study was to determine whether mice, which normally do not undergo appreciable amounts of intracortical remodeling, could be stimulated by ovariectomy to remodel within the cortex of the mandible and if bisphosphonates (BPs) would suppress this intracortical remodeling. Material and Methods Skeletally mature female C3H mice were either ovariectomized (OVX) or SHAM operated and treated with two intravenous doses of zoledronic acid (ZOL, 0.06 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (VEH). This ZOL dose corresponds to the dose given to cancer patients on a mg/kg basis, adjusted for body weight. Calcein was administered prior to sacrifice to label active formation sites. Dynamic histomorphometry of the mandible and femur were performed. Results Vehicle-treated OVX animals had significantly higher (8-fold) intracortical remodeling of the alveolar portion of the mandible compared to sham – this was significantly suppressed by ZOL treatment. At all skeletal sites, overall bone formation rate (BFR) was lower with ZOL treatment compared to the corresponding VEH group. Conclusions Under normal conditions the level of intracortical remodeling in the mouse mandible is minimal but in C3H mice can be stimulated to appreciable levels with ovariectomy. Based on this, if the suppression of intracortical remodeling is found to be part of the pathophysiology of ONJ, the ovariectomized C3H mouse could serve as a useful tool for studying this condition. PMID:21040464

  18. Cytoplasmic expression of Wilms tumor transcription factor-1 (WT1): a useful immunomarker for young-type fibromatoses and infantile fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Rita, Alaggio; Parenti, Rosalba

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that Wilms' tumor transcription factor-1 (WT1) is expressed in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells from different benign and malignant tumors. Only a few studies on WT1 cytoplasmic immunolocalization are available in pediatric tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemically the expression and distribution of WT1 in a large series of soft tissue fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lesions occurring in children and adolescents. Notably WT1 was not expressed in nodular fasciitis and desmoid-type (adult) fibromatosis, while it stained diffusely and strongly in several infantile-type fibromatoses, such as fibrous hamartoma of infancy, myofibroma/myofibromatosis, and lipofibromatosis. Interestingly, WT1 cytoplasmic expression was also found in all cases (10/10) of infantile fibrosarcomas examined. The present study shows that a diffuse WT1 cytoplasmic expression is of complementary diagnostic value to conventional myofibroblastic markers (α-smooth muscle actin; desmin) in confirming diagnosis of young-type fibromatoses or infantile fibrosarcoma and in ruling out both desmoid-type fibromatoses and nodular fasciitis. WT1 cytoplasmic expression in infantile fibrosarcoma is a novel finding which could be exploitable as an immunomarker for this tumor. Although highly sensitive, WT1 cytoplasmic immunostaining is not specific for infantile fibrosarcoma, and thus it should be evaluated in the context of a wide immunohistochemical panel when pathologists are dealing with spindle cell lesions of soft tissues in children and adolescents. Accordingly we recommend that a correct diagnosis of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic soft tissue lesion in pediatric patients is usually achieved on the basis of a careful correlation of morphological and immunohistochemical findings in the appropriate clinical context. The different cellular localization of WT1, namely nuclear, cytoplasmic or nucleo-cytoplasmic, in different benign and malignant

  19. Protective effects of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation damage of normal tissues and a fibrosarcoma in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Milas, L.; Hunter, N.; Reid, B.O.; Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was investigated for its protective effect against radiation-produced damage of jejunum, testis, lung, hair follicles, and a fibrosarcoma of C3Hf/Kam mice. Most of these tissues were radioprotected, and the degree of radioprotection depended on the dose of WR-2721 and the time interval between administration of WR-2721 and radiation treatment. WR-2721 increased resistance of jejunal epithelial cells and spermatogenic cells to single doses of gamma-rays by factors of 1.64 and 1.54, respectively. Protection against hair loss was less pronounced; the dose-modifying factor here was 1.24. The radiation-induced acute damage of the lung expressed by the increased formation of tumor nodules in the lung was not decreased by treatment of animals with WR-2721 before radiation. In contrast, WR-2721 augmented the radiation-induced enhancement of metastasis formation in the lung. WR-2721 protected fibrosarcoma micrometastases in the lung against therapeutic effect of radiation by a factor of 1.238. In contrast, this compound had no effect on the therapy of an 8-mm fibrosarcoma growing in the legs of mice.

  20. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. PMID:26176658

  1. 1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane-Induced DNA-Protein Cross-Linking in Human Fibrosarcoma (HT1080) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gherezghiher, Teshome B.; Ming, Xun; Villalta, Peter; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2013-01-01

    1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) is the key carcinogenic metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), an important industrial and environmental chemical present in urban air and in cigarette smoke. DEB is a genotoxic bis-electrophile capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, mass spectrometry-based proteomics was employed to characterize DEB-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. Over 150 proteins including histones, high mobility group proteins, transcription factors, splicing factors, and tubulins were found among those covalently cross-linked to chromosomal DNA in the presence of DEB. A large portion of the cross-linked proteins are known factors involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, cell signaling, DNA repair, and DNA damage response. HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS analysis of total proteolytic digests revealed the presence of 1-(S-cysteinyl)-4-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol conjugates, confirming that DEB forms DPCs between cysteine thiols within proteins and the N-7 guanine positions within DNA. However, relatively high concentrations of DEB were required to achieve significant DPC formation, indicating that it is a poor cross-linking agent as compared to antitumor nitrogen mustards and platinum compounds. PMID:23506368

  2. A novel branched TAT(47-57) peptide for selective Ni(2+) introduction into the human fibrosarcoma cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Szyrwiel, Łukasz; Shimura, Mari; Shirataki, Junko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Setner, Bartosz; Szczukowski, Łukasz; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Malinka, Wiesław; Chavatte, Laurent; Łobinski, Ryszard

    2015-07-01

    A TAT47-57 peptide was modified on the N-terminus by elongation with a 2,3-diaminopropionic acid residue and then by coupling of two histidine residues on its N-atoms. This branched peptide could bind to Ni under physiological conditions as a 1 : 1 complex. We demonstrated that the complex was quantitatively taken up by human fibrosarcoma cells, in contrast to Ni(2+) ions. Ni localization (especially at the nuclei) was confirmed by imaging using both scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy and Newport Green fluorescence. A competitive assay with Newport Green showed that the latter displaced the peptide ligand from the Ni-complex. Ni(2+) delivered as a complex with the designed peptide induced substantially more DNA damage than when introduced as a free ion. The availability of such a construct opens up the way to investigate the importance of the nucleus as a target for the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of Ni(2+).

  3. Growth-related variations in the glycosaminoglycan synthesis of ultraviolet light-induced murine cutaneous fibrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Piepkorn, M.; Carney, H.; Linker, A.

    1985-08-01

    Glycosaminoglycan synthesis was studied in cell populations of ultraviolet light-induced murine cutaneous fibrosarcoma cells under conditions of varying growth rates in vitro. After labeling with the precursors, /sup 3/H-glucosamine and /sup 35/SO/sub 4/, sulfated glycosaminoglycans recoverable by direct proteolysis of the culture monolayers increased approximately 5-fold on a per cell basis from sparsely populated, exponential cell cultures (greater than 85% of cells in S, G2, or M phases) to stationary cultures inhibited by high cell density (greater than 50% of cells in G1). Within this cell surface-associated material, the relative ratio of heparan sulfate to the chondroitin sulfates was approximately 60/40% under conditions of exponential growth; in the growth-arrested cultures, the reverse ratio was found. The substratum attached material, obtained from the flask surface after ethyl glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-mediated detachment of the monolayers, contained relatively more hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfates in the most actively proliferating cultures compared with the growth-inhibited cell populations. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and the chondroitin sulfates, which were enriched in the substratum material and in the cell pellet of exponential cultures, showed a relative shift to the cell surface-associated compartment (releasable by mild trypsinization after EGTA-mediated cell detachment) and to the compartment loosely associated with the pericellular matrix (i.e., released into the supernatant during detachment of the monolayers in the presence of EGTA).

  4. Molecular species of phospholipid in rats in primary and transplanted fibrosarcomas induced by soybean oil containing tocopherol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ishinaga, M; Tanimoto, M; Sugiyama, S; Kumamoto, R; Yokoro, K

    1991-09-01

    When soybean oil containing tocopherol acetate was given to rats once a week subcutaneously for 10-12 months, it caused the development of fibrosarcomas at the injection site in 11 of 15 rats. A tumor produced in this manner proved eminently transplantable into other rats. The molecular species of phospholipid subclasses were determined in primary and transplanted tumors. The molecular species composition of the phospholipid subclasses in both types of tumors were similar. The percentages of diacyl and alkylacyl glycerophosphocholine (GPC) were 90-93 and 6-8% of total phosphatidylcholine, respectively. The percentages of diacyl and alkenylacyl glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE) were 51 and 45%, respectively, of total phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Diacyl and alkylacyl GPC species containing arachidonic acid (20:4) composed about 15-16 and 37-40% of each subclass, respectively. Diacyl and alkenylacyl GPE species containing 20:4 composed about 38-40 and 56-60% of each subclass, respectively. Disaturated species of diacyl and alkylacyl GPC composed about 22-24 and 13% of each subclass, respectively, whereas these species of PE composed less than 2%. The fatty acid composition of the other tumor phospholipids was analyzed.

  5. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. PMID:26176658

  6. MiR-152 May Silence Translation of CaMK II and Induce Spontaneous Immune Tolerance in Mouse Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingcheng; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Chen, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jiacong; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs), hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H) and syngeneic (C3H-C3H) liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group) were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts) vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts) were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation. PMID:25133393

  7. Evaluation of a Japanese quail fibrosarcoma cell line (QT-35) for use in the propagation and detection of metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Sabara, Marta I; Larence, June E

    2002-04-01

    A Japanese quail fibrosarcoma cell line (QT-35) was evaluated and compared to Vero cells for its utility in metapneumovirus propagation, titration and serological detection by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Cell characteristics such as growth kinetics at different passage levels and seeding density in 96-well plates using various media formulations were studied in order to determine suitable assay parameters. Specifically, QT-35 cells supported the replication of a subgroup A metapneumovirus, strain 14/1, when maintained in DMEM containing a high level of glucose (4500 mg/l) and 2% gamma-irradiated fetal bovine serum (gamma-FBS). There appeared to be a decreased ability of metapneumovirus produced in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells to replicate to high titers in QT-35 cells, however, this apparent restriction was overcome after the second passage resulting in high titered stock. Metapneumovirus produced in Vero cells and propagated in QT-35 cells produced high titered stock after the first passage. Viral titers determined in Vero and QT-35 cells were comparable, when the latter cell line was used at passage levels < or = 20 and seeded between 5.0 x 10(4) and 1.0 x 10(5) cells/0.33 cm(2) in hgDMEM containing 10% gamma-FBS, with a reduction to 2% gamma-FBS when the virus was applied to the cell monolayers 24 h post-seeding. After infection with metapneumovirus, QT-35 cells exhibited syncytia, similar to those in metapneumovirus-infected Vero cells, which were readily detected by indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining.

  8. Carcinogenicities of 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene, N-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene and related azo dyes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H K; Hashimoto, Y; Abe, I; Sato, H

    1982-02-01

    The carcinogenicities of 2-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene and 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene (2-MeO-AAB and 3-MeO-AAB) and their N-hydroxy derivatives (N-OH-2-MeO-AAB and N-OH-3-MeO-AAB) were tested in (C3H X C57BL/6) F1 mice. Topical sc injections, twice weekly for 8 weeks, of 4 or 8 mumol of N-OH-3-MeO-AAB dissolved in 0.1 ml of olive oil containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide induced fibrosarcomas at the site of application. Similar treatment with 3-MeO-AAB or 2-MeO-AAB as well as N-OH-2-MeO-AAB failed to induce sarcomas. Oral administration of 0.09% 3-MeO-AAB in the diet for 13 months induced hepatic tumors in female mice but not in males. 2-MeO-AAB did not induce tumors in male or female mice. The relationship between carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, the ability to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis, and the metabolism of these azo dyes is discussed.

  9. Piroxicam, indomethacin and aspirin action on a murine fibrosarcoma. Effects on tumour-associated and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Valdéz, J C; Perdigón, G

    1991-01-01

    Growth of a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in BALB/c mice was accompanied by an increase in the activation state of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), as measured by their FcIgG receptor expression, phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase levels. All of these parameters were markedly higher in TAM than in peritoneal macrophages (PM) derived from the same animal. On the other hand, PM from tumour-bearing mice showed lower activation parameters than PM from normal animals. We also studied the effect on tumour development of three inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis: indomethacin, piroxicam and aspirin. Intraperitoneal administration of these drugs during 8 d was followed by the regression of palpable tumours. Indomethacin (90 mg/d) induced 45% regression, while with piroxicam (two 400 mg/d doses and six 200 mg/d doses) and aspirin (1 mg/d) 32% and 30% regressions, respectively, were observed. The growth rate of nonregressing tumours, which had reached different volumes by the end of the treatment, was delayed to a similar extent by the three anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs (NSAID). With respect to TAM, the treatment did not induce any significant change in their activation state, though both piroxicam and indomethacin increased slightly the TAM number. In contrast, NSAID administration was followed by a remarkable increase in the activation parameters of PM when compared with PM from tumour-bearing mice receiving no treatment. Indeed, these parameters were in some cases higher than those of PM from normal mice. The leukocytosis (60,000/microliters) with neutrophilia (80%) induced by tumour growth on peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was reversed by the treatment to values close to normal, in parallel with the reduction of tumour size. A drop in haematocrit was also noted which was most probably a consequence of tumour growth rather than of the treatment. This study reveals that the three NSAID tested have a remarkable antitumour activity, which

  10. Comparative gene expression profiling in two congenic mouse strains following Bordetella pertussis infection

    PubMed Central

    Banus, Sander; Vandebriel, Rob J; Pennings, Jeroen LA; Gremmer, Eric R; Wester, Piet W; van Kranen, Henk J; Breit, Timo M; Demant, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Hoebee, Barbara; Kimman, Tjeerd G

    2007-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to Bordetella pertussis infection varies widely. These differences can partly be explained by genetic host factors. HcB-28 mice are more resistant to B. pertussis infection than C3H mice, which could partially be ascribed to the B. pertussis susceptibility locus-1 (Bps1) on chromosome 12. The presence of C57BL/10 genome on this locus instead of C3H genome resulted in a decreased number of bacteria in the lung. To further elucidate the role of host genetic factors, in particular in the Bps1 locus, in B. pertussis infection, and to identify candidate genes within in this region, we compared expression profiles in the lungs of the C3H and HcB-28 mouse strains following B. pertussis inoculation. Twelve and a half percent of the genomes of these mice are from a different genetic background. Results Upon B. pertussis inoculation 2,353 genes were differentially expressed in the lungs of both mouse strains. Two hundred and six genes were differentially expressed between the two mouse strains, but, remarkably, none of these were up- or down-regulated upon B. pertussis infection. Of these 206 genes, 17 were located in the Bps1 region. Eight of these genes, which showed a strong difference in gene expression between the two mouse strains, map to the immunoglobulin heavy chain complex (Igh). Conclusion Gene expression changes upon B. pertussis infection are highly identical between the two mouse strains despite the differences in the course of B. pertussis infection. Because the genes that were differentially regulated between the mouse strains only showed differences in expression before infection, it appears likely that such intrinsic differences in gene regulation are involved in determining differences in susceptibility to B. pertussis infection. Alternatively, such genetic differences in susceptibility may be explained by genes that are not differentially regulated between these two mouse strains. Genes in the Igh complex, among which Igh-1a

  11. Effects of synthetic sphingosine-1-phosphate analogs on cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha-independent release of arachidonic acid and cell toxicity in L929 fibrosarcoma cells: the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaya; Muramatsu, Yuki; Tada, Eiko; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Yamaura, Erika; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Houjyo, Yuuya; Miyasaka, Yuri; Koide, Yuuki; Nishida, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide, sphingosine, and their phosphorylated products [sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate] regulate cell functions including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and cell death. The development of analogs of S1P may be useful for regulating these mediator-induced cellular responses. We synthesized new analogs of S1P and examined their effects on the release of AA and cell death in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Among the analogs tested, several compounds including DMB-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMB-mC9S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-nonyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] released AA within 1 h and caused cell death 6 h after treatment. The release of AA was observed in C12 cells [a L929 variant lacking a type alpha cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha)] and L929-cPLAalpha-siRNA cells (L929 cells treated with small interference RNA for cPLA(2)alpha). Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of secretory and Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)s decreased the DMB-mC11S-induced release of AA. The effect of the S1P analogs tested on the release of AA was comparable to that on cell death in L929 cells, and a high correlation coefficient was observed. Two analogs lacking a butoxycarbonyl moiety [DMAc-mC11S (dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-acetamino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate] and DMAm-mC11S [dimethyl (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-3-(3'-undecyl)phenylpropyl phosphate)] had inhibitory effects on the release of AA and cell toxicity induced by DMB-mC11S. Synthetic phosphorylated lipid analogs may be useful for studying PLA(2) activity and its toxicity in cells. [Supplementary Fig. 1: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08284FP].

  12. Enhancing Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin by Non-Covalent Conjugation to Gold Nanoparticles – In Vitro Studies on Feline Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Michał; Lewandowski, Wiktor; Król, Magdalena; Pawłowski, Karol; Mieczkowski, Józef; Lechowski, Roman; Zabielska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Background Feline injection-site sarcomas are malignant skin tumors of mesenchymal origin, the treatment of which is a challenge for veterinary practitioners. Methods of treatment include radical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most commonly used cytostatic drugs are cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine. However, the use of cytostatics as adjunctive treatment is limited due to their adverse side-effects, low biodistribution after intravenous administration and multidrug resistance. Colloid gold nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems to overcome multidrug resistance, which is a main cause of ineffective chemotherapy treatment. The use of colloid gold nanoparticles as building blocks for drug delivery systems is preferred due to ease of surface functionalization with various molecules, chemical stability and their low toxicity. Methods Stability and structure of the glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles non-covalently modified with doxorubicin (Au-GSH-Dox) was confirmed using XPS, TEM, FT-IR, SAXRD and SAXS analyses. MTT assay, Annexin V and Propidium Iodide Apoptosis assay and Rhodamine 123 and Verapamil assay were performed on 4 feline fibrosarcoma cell lines (FFS1WAW, FFS1, FFS3, FFS5). Statistical analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 (USA). Results A novel approach, glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (4.3 +/- 1.1 nm in diameter) non-covalently modified with doxorubicin (Au-GSH-Dox) was designed and synthesized. A higher cytotoxic effect (p<0.01) of Au-GSH-Dox than that of free doxorubicin has been observed in 3 (FFS1, FFS3, FFS1WAW) out of 4 feline fibrosarcoma cell lines. The effect has been correlated to the activity of glycoprotein P (main efflux pump responsible for multidrug resistance). Conclusions The results indicate that Au-GSH-Dox may be a potent new therapeutic agent to increase the efficacy of the drug by overcoming the resistance to doxorubicin in feline fibrosarcoma cell lines. Moreover, as

  13. Alpha-MSH and coat color changes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Thody, A J; Ridley, K; Carter, R J; Lucas, A M; Shuster, S

    1984-01-01

    The effect of alpha-MSH on coat color was examined in viable yellow mice (C3H/He-A*vy). These mice normally grow a coat of darkly pigmented hair at puberty. This darkening effect was also evident in hair that grew in a region that had been plucked at 13 days of age. Administration of alpha-MSH increased the darkness of this hair and the hair which grew naturally in an unplucked area. However, the natural coat darkening that occurred at puberty was not associated with an increase in plasma immunoreactive alpha-MSH levels. Moreover, although bromocryptine, a dopamine agonist that inhibits alpha-MSH release from the pituitary reduced the darkness of the coat that grew after plucking the reduction in coat darkening was unrelated to changes in plasma alpha-MSH. Nevertheless, this effect of bromocryptine was reversed when alpha-MSH was administered together with the drug. Apomorphine had no effect on coat darkening and produced only a slight decrease in plasma alpha-MSH. Melatonin reduced coat darkening slightly but, like apomorphine, had little effect on plasma alpha-MSH concentrations. Although alpha-MSH may have a physiological role in coat darkening in the C3H/He-A*vy mouse at puberty the response seems to be unrelated to an increase in circulating alpha-MSH. Thus, other factors, such as changes in melanocyte sensitivity to alpha-MSH or inhibitory mechanisms that prevent coat darkening during prepubertal and adult life may be involved in regulation of coat color in the viable yellow mouse. PMID:6531269

  14. Distant metastatic spread of molecularly proven infantile fibrosarcoma of the chest in a 2-month-old girl: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    van Grotel, Martine; Blanco, Esther; Sebire, Neil J; Slater, Olga; Chowdhury, Tanzina; Anderson, John

    2014-04-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a malignant neoplasm, arising in children younger than 2 years of age and with a hallmark chromosomal translocation t(12;15)(p13;q26) encoding an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion oncoprotein. A review of the world literature found no reported cases of molecularly proven IFS with distant metastatic spread at presentation. We report the case of a 2-month-old infant girl presenting with a chest wall primary IFS bearing and expressing the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, who had several pulmonary metastatic deposits at diagnosis. She achieved complete remission with chemotherapy and surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of molecularly proven IFS with distant metastatic spread.

  15. Effects of Low Dose Particle Radiation to Mouse Neonatal Neurons in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, K.; Vazquez, M. E.; Okayasu, R.; Nagaoka, S.

    To investigate effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to CNS system, we adopted mouse neonatal brain cells in culture being exposed to heavy ions by HIMAC at NIRS and NSRL at BNL. The applied dose varied from 0.05Gy up to 2.0Gy. The subsequent biological effectswere evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and neuron survival focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains, SCID, B6, B6C3F1, C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to particle radiation as evaluated by 10% apoptotic criterion. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID and B6 cells exposing to different ions (H, C, Ne, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed in the high LET (55 -200 keV/μ m) and low dose (<0.5 Gy) regions. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. In this repot, a result of memory and learning function to adult mice after whole-body and brainlocal irradiation at carbon ion and iron ion.

  16. Effects of heavy ion to the primary culture of mouse brain cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Kohno, Yukio; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    To investigate effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to CNS system, we adopted mouse neonatal brain cells in culture being exposed to heavy ions by HIMAC at NIRS and NSRL at BNL. The applied dose varied from 0.05 Gy up to 2.0 Gy. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and neuron survival focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains, SCID, B6, B6C3F1, C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to particle radiation as evaluated by 10% apoptotic criterion. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID and B6 cells exposing to different ions (H, C, Ne, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed in the high LET (55-200 keV/micrometers) and low dose (<0.5 Gy) regions. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. In this report, a result of memory and learning function to adult mice after whole-body and brain local irradiation at carbon ion and iron ion.

  17. Salinomycin causes migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-06-01

    Salinomycin (SAL) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses in various human cancer cells. However, the effects of SAL on metastatic capacity of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells have not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of SAL on migration and invasion, with emphasis on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of SAL promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as detected by western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SAL also increased metastatic capacities, as determined by an increase in the migration and invasion of cells using the wound healing assay and the invasion assay, respectively. To confirm the detailed molecular mechanisms of these effects, we measured the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s (ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase), as detected by the phosphorylated proteins through western blot analysis. SAL treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2, and p38 kinase with LY294002, PD98059, and SB203580, respectively, in the presence of SAL suppressed the metastatic capacity by reducing MMP-2 expression, as determined by gelatin zymography. Our results indicate that the PI3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in migration and invasion of HT1080 through induction of MMP-2 expression and activation. In conclusion, SAL significantly increases the metastatic capacity of HT1080 cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that SAL may be a potential agent for the study of cancer metastatic capacities.

  18. Beta-sitosterol-induced-apoptosis is mediated by the activation of ERK and the downregulation of Akt in MCA-102 murine fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Kyeong-Jun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2007-08-01

    Beta-sitosterol (SITO) is a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapy, however, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms in cancer cells. We herein identified how SITO induces anti-proliferation and cell death in MCA-102 fibrosarcoma cells. SITO exposure induced-apoptosis and the cell death resulted from a significant loss of the Bcl-2 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family (XIAP, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2), and increased Bax with an alteration of p53 and p21. SITO-induced cell death significantly also increased caspase activity and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk significantly inhibited SITO-induced cell death. These data suggest that the activation of caspase-3 is associated with SITO-induced-apoptosis. Treatment with SITO also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MARK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly blocks SITO-induced-apoptosis, whereas a JNK inhibitor SP600125 has no affect. A p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 very slightly suppressed cell death. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by an inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increases SITO-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of SITO is mediated through the activation of ERK and the block of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway in MCA-102 cells. Therefore, SITO has a strong potential as a therapeutic agent for preventing cancers such as fibrosarcoma.

  19. Mouse model for sublethal Leptospira interrogans infection.

    PubMed

    Richer, Luciana; Potula, Hari-Hara; Melo, Rita; Vieira, Ana; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although Leptospira can infect a wide range of mammalian species, most studies have been conducted in golden Syrian hamsters, a species particularly sensitive to acute disease. Chronic disease has been well characterized in the rat, one of the natural reservoir hosts. Studies in another asymptomatic reservoir host, the mouse, have occasionally been done and have limited infection to mice younger than 6 weeks of age. We analyzed the outcome of sublethal infection of C3H/HeJ mice older than age 10 weeks with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Infection led to bloodstream dissemination of Leptospira, which was followed by urinary shedding, body weight loss, hypothermia, and colonization of the kidney by live spirochetes 2 weeks after infection. In addition, Leptospira dissemination triggered inflammation in the kidney but not in the liver or lung, as determined by increased levels of mRNA transcripts for the keratinocyte-derived chemokine, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, and gamma interferon in kidney tissue. The acquired humoral response to Leptospira infection led to the production of IgG mainly of the IgG1 subtype. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes from infected mice revealed that cellular expansion was primarily due to an increase in the levels of CD4(+) and double-negative T cells (not CD8(+) cells) and that CD4(+) T cells acquired a CD44(high) CD62L(low) effector phenotype not accompanied by increases in memory T cells. A mouse model for sublethal Leptospira infection allows understanding of the bacterial and host factors that lead to immune evasion, which can result in acute or chronic disease or resistance to infection (protection).

  20. Mouse model for sublethal Leptospira interrogans infection.

    PubMed

    Richer, Luciana; Potula, Hari-Hara; Melo, Rita; Vieira, Ana; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although Leptospira can infect a wide range of mammalian species, most studies have been conducted in golden Syrian hamsters, a species particularly sensitive to acute disease. Chronic disease has been well characterized in the rat, one of the natural reservoir hosts. Studies in another asymptomatic reservoir host, the mouse, have occasionally been done and have limited infection to mice younger than 6 weeks of age. We analyzed the outcome of sublethal infection of C3H/HeJ mice older than age 10 weeks with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Infection led to bloodstream dissemination of Leptospira, which was followed by urinary shedding, body weight loss, hypothermia, and colonization of the kidney by live spirochetes 2 weeks after infection. In addition, Leptospira dissemination triggered inflammation in the kidney but not in the liver or lung, as determined by increased levels of mRNA transcripts for the keratinocyte-derived chemokine, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, and gamma interferon in kidney tissue. The acquired humoral response to Leptospira infection led to the production of IgG mainly of the IgG1 subtype. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes from infected mice revealed that cellular expansion was primarily due to an increase in the levels of CD4(+) and double-negative T cells (not CD8(+) cells) and that CD4(+) T cells acquired a CD44(high) CD62L(low) effector phenotype not accompanied by increases in memory T cells. A mouse model for sublethal Leptospira infection allows understanding of the bacterial and host factors that lead to immune evasion, which can result in acute or chronic disease or resistance to infection (protection). PMID:26416909

  1. T cell intrinsic USP15 deficiency promotes excessive IFN-γ production and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in MCA-induced fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qiang; Jin, Jin; Xiao, Yichuan; Zhou, Xiaofei; Hu, Hongbo; Cheng, Xuhong; Kazimi, Nasser; Ullrich, Stephen E; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2015-01-01

    USP15 is a deubiquitinase that negatively regulates activation of naïve CD4+ T cells and generation of IFN-γ-producing T helper 1 (Th1) cells. USP15 deficiency in mice promotes antitumor T cell responses in a transplantable cancer model; however, it has remained unclear how deregulated T cell activation impacts primary tumor development during the prolonged interplay between tumors and the immune system. Here, we find that the USP15-deficient mice are hypersensitive to methylcholantrene (MCA)-induced fibrosarcomas. Excessive IFN-γ production in USP15-deficient mice promotes expression of the immunosuppressive molecule PD-L1 and the chemokine CXCL12, causing accumulation of T-bet+ regulatory T cells and CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells at tumor site. Mixed bone marrow adoptive transfer studies further reveals a T cell-intrinsic role for USP15 in regulating IFN-γ production and tumor development. These findings suggest that T cell intrinsic USP15 deficiency causes excessive production of IFN-γ, which promotes an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, during MCA-induced primary tumorigenesis. PMID:26686633

  2. Major histocompatibility complex class I genes in murine fibrosarcoma IC9 are down regulated at the level of the chromatin structure.

    PubMed Central

    Maschek, U; Pülm, W; Segal, S; Hämmerling, G J

    1989-01-01

    The fibrosarcoma IC9 is deficient in the expression of the major histocompatibility complex class I genes Kb, Kk, and Dk and expresses only the Db molecule. Because class I deficiency may enable tumor cells to escape the immune response by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, we investigated why the class I genes are not expressed. Expression of the silent class I genes could not be induced, but all known DNA-binding factors specific for class I genes could be detected in nuclear extracts of IC9 cells. After cloning of the silent Kb gene from the IC9 cells and subsequent transfection of this cloned Kb gene into LTK- and IC9 cells, normal Kb antigens were expressed on the cell surface of both cell lines. Digestion of the chromatin of IC9 cells with micrococcal nuclease and DNase I showed a decreased nuclease sensitivity of the silent class I genes in comparison with active genes and the absence of DNase I hypersensitive sites in the promoter region of the silent Dk gene. These findings demonstrate that class I expression is turned off by a cis-acting regulatory mechanism at the level of the chromatin structure. Images PMID:2506438

  3. Biological study of the effect of water soluble [N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-L-aspartato] gallium complexes on breast carcinoma and fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Ahmed; Saby, Charles; Collery, Philippe; Sabry, Gilane Mohamed; Hassan, Rasha Elsherif; Badawi, Abdelfattah; Jeannesson, Pierre; Desmaële, Didier; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Two water soluble gallium complexes described as [Ga(III)LCl], where L is the deprotonated form of N-2-hydroxybenzyl aspartic acid derivatives, were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The 2-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylamino)succinic acid derivative (GS2) has been found to be a promising anticancer drug candidate. This compound was found to be more cytotoxic against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 and fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell lines than the unsubstituted derivative and GaCl3. GS2 was able to induce apoptosis through downregulation of AKT phosphorylation, G2M arrest in cell cycle, and caspase 3/7 pathway. This gallium complex was found to induce an increase in mitochondrial ROS level in HT-1080 cells but not in MDA-MB231 cells. This suggests that the mechanism of action of GS2 would not be mediated by the drug-induced oxidative stress but probably by directly and indirectly inhibiting the AKT cell-signaling pathway. PMID:27484500

  4. Biological study of the effect of water soluble [N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-L-aspartato] gallium complexes on breast carcinoma and fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Ahmed; Saby, Charles; Collery, Philippe; Sabry, Gilane Mohamed; Hassan, Rasha Elsherif; Badawi, Abdelfattah; Jeannesson, Pierre; Desmaële, Didier; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Two water soluble gallium complexes described as [Ga(III)LCl], where L is the deprotonated form of N-2-hydroxybenzyl aspartic acid derivatives, were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The 2-(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzylamino)succinic acid derivative (GS2) has been found to be a promising anticancer drug candidate. This compound was found to be more cytotoxic against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 and fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell lines than the unsubstituted derivative and GaCl3. GS2 was able to induce apoptosis through downregulation of AKT phosphorylation, G2M arrest in cell cycle, and caspase 3/7 pathway. This gallium complex was found to induce an increase in mitochondrial ROS level in HT-1080 cells but not in MDA-MB231 cells. This suggests that the mechanism of action of GS2 would not be mediated by the drug-induced oxidative stress but probably by directly and indirectly inhibiting the AKT cell-signaling pathway.

  5. Expression of the 72-kD heat shock protein is induced by ultraviolet A radiation in a human fibrosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Trautinger, F; Kokesch, C; Klosner, G; Knobler, R M; Kindas-Mügge, I

    1999-06-01

    The 72-kD heat shock protein (hsp72) belongs to a family of stress inducible proteins (heat shock proteins, hsp) and its expression is associated with increased survival of cells in culture following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Hsp72 can be induced by a number of stresses, including heat, cold, and toxic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether UV is able to activate transcription of hsp72. The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 was used for these experiments because hsp72 is not detectable in these cells under normal culture conditions. Cells were exposed to UVA and UVB using a solar simulating source and hsp72 was determined in whole cell extracts by immunoblotting. For inhibition of mRNA and protein synthesis cordycepin (20 microg/ml) and cycloheximide (10 microg/ml) were added to the cultures, respectively. UVA-induced lipid peroxidation was inhibited by alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). UVA but not UVB induced hsp72 with maximal expression at 40 J/cm2, 8-12 h after exposure. Induction was blocked by cordycepin as well as by cycloheximide indicating that both, mRNA and protein synthesis, are required for UVA-induction of hsp72. Inhibition of cell lipid peroxidation with alpha-tocopherol and BHT had no effect on hsp72 expression. These results suggest that induction of hsp72 is part of an adaptive response mechanism in human cells to UV-related stress.

  6. The relationship between nephron number, kidney size and body weight in two inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Inga J; Maina, Rita W; Gupta, Indra R

    2010-01-01

    While some reports in humans have shown that nephron number is positively correlated with height, body weight or kidney weight, other studies have not reproduced these findings. To understand the impact of genetic and environmental variation on these relationships, we examined whether nephron number correlates with body weight, kidney planar surface area, or kidney weight in two inbred mouse strains with contrasting kidney sizes but no overt renal pathology: C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J. C3H/HeJ mice had smaller kidneys at birth and larger kidneys by adulthood, however there was no significant difference in nephron number between the two strains. We did observe a correlation between kidney size and body weight at birth and at adulthood for both strains. However, there was no relationship between nephron number and body weight or between nephron number and kidney size. From other studies, it appears that a greater than two-fold variation is required in each of these parameters in order to demonstrate these relationships, suggesting they are highly dependent on scale. Our results are therefore not surprising since there was a less than two-fold variation in each of the parameters examined. In summary, the relationship between nephron number and body or kidney size is most likely to be demonstrated when there is greater phenotypic variation either from genetic and/or environmental factors.

  7. Evaluation of an in vitro toxicogenetic mouse model for hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Stephanie M.; Bradford, Blair U.; Soldatow, Valerie Y.; Witek, Rafal; Kaiser, Robert; Stewart, Todd; Amaral, Kirsten; Freeman, Kimberly; Black, Chris; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Ferguson, Stephen S.

    2010-12-15

    Numerous studies support the fact that a genetically diverse mouse population may be useful as an animal model to understand and predict toxicity in humans. We hypothesized that cultures of hepatocytes obtained from a large panel of inbred mouse strains can produce data indicative of inter-individual differences in in vivo responses to hepato-toxicants. In order to test this hypothesis and establish whether in vitro studies using cultured hepatocytes from genetically distinct mouse strains are feasible, we aimed to determine whether viable cells may be isolated from different mouse inbred strains, evaluate the reproducibility of cell yield, viability and functionality over subsequent isolations, and assess the utility of the model for toxicity screening. Hepatocytes were isolated from 15 strains of mice (A/J, B6C3F1, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, CAST/EiJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, AKR/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, NZW/LacJ, PWD/PhJ and WSB/EiJ males) and cultured for up to 7 days in traditional 2-dimensional culture. Cells from B6C3F1, C57BL/6J, and NOD/LtJ strains were treated with acetaminophen, WY-14,643 or rifampin and concentration-response effects on viability and function were established. Our data suggest that high yield and viability can be achieved across a panel of strains. Cell function and expression of key liver-specific genes of hepatocytes isolated from different strains and cultured under standardized conditions are comparable. Strain-specific responses to toxicant exposure have been observed in cultured hepatocytes and these experiments open new opportunities for further developments of in vitro models of hepatotoxicity in a genetically diverse population.

  8. The Response of a Mouse Sarcoma to Single and Divided Doses of X-rays and Fast Neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Denekamp, J.

    1974-01-01

    The response of an experimental sarcoma to single doses and two fractions of x-rays and fast neutrons has been investigated to test the hypothesis that slowly shrinking sarcomata will reoxygenate poorly and therefore will benefit more from fractionated neutron treatment than from fractionated x-ray treatment, in contrast with rapidly shrinking carcinomata. Neutrons were approximately three times more effective than x-rays, both for single doses and for two fractions given in 48 hours, when regrowth was used as a measure of response. This observation is closely similar to results previously obtained on a rat fibrosarcoma and contrasts with previous results from a mouse mammary carcinoma, and is in agreement with the hypothesis. PMID:4855057

  9. Genomic landscapes of endogenous retroviruses unveil intricate genetics of conventional and genetically-engineered laboratory mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Lim, Debora; Chiu, Sophia; Greenhalgh, David; Cho, Kiho

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory strains of mice, both conventional and genetically engineered, have been introduced as critical components of a broad range of studies investigating normal and disease biology. Currently, the genetic identity of laboratory mice is primarily confirmed by surveying polymorphisms in selected sets of "conventional" genes and/or microsatellites in the absence of a single completely sequenced mouse genome. First, we examined variations in the genomic landscapes of transposable repetitive elements, named the TREome, in conventional and genetically engineered mouse strains using murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs) as a probe. A survey of the genomes from 56 conventional strains revealed strain-specific TREome landscapes, and certain families (e.g., C57BL) of strains were discernible with defined patterns. Interestingly, the TREome landscapes of C3H/HeJ (toll-like receptor-4 [TLR4] mutant) inbred mice were different from its control C3H/HeOuJ (TLR4 wild-type) strain. In addition, a CD14 knock-out strain had a distinct TREome landscape compared to its control/backcross C57BL/6J strain. Second, an examination of superantigen (SAg, a "TREome gene") coding sequences of mouse mammary tumor virus-type ERVs in the genomes of the 46 conventional strains revealed a high diversity, suggesting a potential role of SAgs in strain-specific immune phenotypes. The findings from this study indicate that unexplored and intricate genomic variations exist in laboratory mouse strains, both conventional and genetically engineered. The TREome-based high-resolution genetics surveillance system for laboratory mice would contribute to efficient study design with quality control and accurate data interpretation. This genetics system can be easily adapted to other species ranging from plants to humans.

  10. Genomic landscapes of endogenous retroviruses unveil intricate genetics of conventional and genetically-engineered laboratory mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Lim, Debora; Chiu, Sophia; Greenhalgh, David; Cho, Kiho

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory strains of mice, both conventional and genetically engineered, have been introduced as critical components of a broad range of studies investigating normal and disease biology. Currently, the genetic identity of laboratory mice is primarily confirmed by surveying polymorphisms in selected sets of "conventional" genes and/or microsatellites in the absence of a single completely sequenced mouse genome. First, we examined variations in the genomic landscapes of transposable repetitive elements, named the TREome, in conventional and genetically engineered mouse strains using murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs) as a probe. A survey of the genomes from 56 conventional strains revealed strain-specific TREome landscapes, and certain families (e.g., C57BL) of strains were discernible with defined patterns. Interestingly, the TREome landscapes of C3H/HeJ (toll-like receptor-4 [TLR4] mutant) inbred mice were different from its control C3H/HeOuJ (TLR4 wild-type) strain. In addition, a CD14 knock-out strain had a distinct TREome landscape compared to its control/backcross C57BL/6J strain. Second, an examination of superantigen (SAg, a "TREome gene") coding sequences of mouse mammary tumor virus-type ERVs in the genomes of the 46 conventional strains revealed a high diversity, suggesting a potential role of SAgs in strain-specific immune phenotypes. The findings from this study indicate that unexplored and intricate genomic variations exist in laboratory mouse strains, both conventional and genetically engineered. The TREome-based high-resolution genetics surveillance system for laboratory mice would contribute to efficient study design with quality control and accurate data interpretation. This genetics system can be easily adapted to other species ranging from plants to humans. PMID:26779669

  11. Mouse Paneth Cell Secretory Responses to Cell Surface Glycolipids of Virulent and Attenuated Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Bainbridge, Brian; Guina, Tina; Ernst, Robert K.; Darveau, Richard P.; Miller, Samuel I.; Ouellette, Andre J.

    2005-01-01

    Mouse Paneth cells respond to bacteria and bacterial cell surface antigens by discharging secretory granules into the lumen of small intestinal crypts (T. Ayabe et al., Nat. Immunol. 1:113-118, 2000). To investigate mechanisms regulating these responses, purified surface glycolipid molecules with known acyl chain modifications and attenuated properties were tested for the ability to stimulate Paneth cell secretion. The antigens included lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from wild-type and msbB-null Escherichia coli and phoP-null and phoP-constitutive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, as well as LPS, lipid A, and lipoteichoic acid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes grown in Mg2+-limited media. Measurements of total secreted protein, secreted lysozyme, and the bactericidal peptide activities of collected secretions showed that the purified antigens elicited similar secretory responses from Paneth cells in mouse crypts ex vivo, regardless of glycolipid acyl chain modification. Despite their impaired Tlr4 pathway, Paneth cells in ex vivo C3H/HeJ mouse crypts released equivalent amounts of bactericidal peptide activity in response to purified bacterial antigens, including lipid A. Thus, mouse Paneth cells respond equivalently to purified bacterial cell envelope glycolipids, regardless of functional Tlr4, the structural properties of glycolipid acyl chains, or their association with virulence in humans. PMID:15784576

  12. Genes encoding p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Chapple, Clinton C. S.; Franke, Rochus; Ruegger, Max O.

    2006-07-04

    The present invention is directed to a method for altering secondary metabolism in plants, specifically phenylpropanoid metabolism. The present invention is further directed to a mutant p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase gene, referred to herein as the ref8 gene, its protein product which can be used to prepare gene constructs and transgenic plants. The gene constructs and transgenic plants are further aspects of the present invention.

  13. C3H4N2 (2Z)-3-Amino-2-propenenitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  14. C3H2ClN 2-Chloro-2-propenenitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 2 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  15. Theoretical study of the bond dissociation energies of propyne (C3H4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The C-C and C-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of propyne have been computed using the modified coupled-pair functional method. Due to hyperconjugation, the C-C and methyl C-H single bonds are stronger and weaker, respectively than those in ethane. The acetylenic C-H and C triple bond C BDEs are larger and smaller, respectively, than in acetylene, also as a result of the hyperconjugation. Our best estimate of 92.5 +/- 2 kcal/mol for the methyl C-H BDE in propyne is slightly larger than the experimental value. For the acetylenic C-H BDE in propyne we predict 135.9 +/- 2 kcal/mol.

  16. Theoretical study of the bond dissociation energies of propyne (C3H4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-06-01

    The C-C and C-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of propyne have been computed using the modified coupled-pair functional method. Due to hyperconjugation, the C-C and methyl C-H single bonds are stronger and weaker, respectively than those in ethane. The acetylenic C-H and C triple bond C BDEs are larger and smaller, respectively, than in acetylene, also as a result of the hyperconjugation. Our best estimate of 92.5 +/- 2 kcal/mol for the methyl C-H BDE in propyne is slightly larger than the experimental value. For the acetylenic C-H BDE in propyne we predict 135.9 +/- 2 kcal/mol.

  17. Derivation of transplantable 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced chicken fibrosarcoma lines: differences in metastasizing properties and organ specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Galton, J.E.; Xue, B.; Hochwald, G.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1982-08-01

    Transplantable 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced SC chicken fibrosarcoma (CHCT-NYU) lines were studied for their ability to grow in internal organs after iv injection (artificial metastases) into 1- to 3-week-old chickens. Some tumor lines were recently derived, whereas others were studied after many serial subcutaneous transplantations. Artificial metastases were seen in the stomach, pancreas, lungs, heart, and muscle, and occasionally in the kidneys and liver. Agammaglobulinemic recipients showed more extensive organ involvement than normal recipients of the same age. Whole-body ..gamma..-irradiation enhanced the incidence of artificial metastases, particularly in lungs. Antibody from the serum of a primary tumor-bearing host reduced the growth of the corresponding tumor in many organs. The metastatic pattern of line CHCT-NYU4 was a relatively stable property. However, intravenous transplantation of tumor cells from line CHCT-NYU4 taken from the liver, lungs, and pancreas of a single recipient established sublines with changes in organ specificity. After a few such serial transplants of liver-derived tumor, a line was derived that grew virtually in the liver alone. A subline with preference for growth in lungs was also obtained, but its ability to grow in the pancreas persisted. A pancreas-derived tumor line also grew in the liver and lungs. Subcutaneous transplants of tissue fragments of the lung-derived tumor line caused the appearance of spontaneous metastases in lungs. The incidence of spontaneous metastases with the lung-derived line was much greater than that with the liver-derived line or with the original CHCT-NYU4 line.

  18. Frequent deletion of CDKN2A and recurrent coamplification of KIT, PDGFRA, and KDR in fibrosarcoma of bone--an array comparative genomic hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Niini, Tarja; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Ninomiya, Shinsuke; Guled, Mohamed; Hattinger, Claudia Maria; Michelacci, Francesca; Böhling, Tom; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Picci, Piero; Serra, Massimo; Knuutila, Sakari

    2010-02-01

    Very little is known about the genetics of fibrosarcoma (FS) of bone. We applied array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify genes and genomic regions with potential role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Seventeen patients with FS of bone were included in the study. Array CGH analysis was carried out in 13 fresh frozen tissue specimens from 11 of these patients (nine primary tumors and four local recurrences). DNA was extracted and hybridizations were performed on Agilent 244K CGH oligoarrays. The data were analyzed using Agilent DNA Analytics Software. The number of changes per patient ranged from 0 to 132 (average = 43). Losses were most commonly detected at 6q, 8p, 9p, 10, 13q, and 20p. CDKN2A was homozygously deleted in 7/11 patients. Hypermethylation of both p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF) was found in 1/14 patients. An internal deletion of STARD13 was found in a region with common losses at 13q13.1. The most frequent gains were seen at 1q, 4q, 5p, 8q, 12p, 15q, 16q, 17q, 20q, 22q, and Xp. Single recurrent high level amplification was detected at 4q12, including KIT, PDGFRA, and KDR. No activating mutations were found in any of them. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of PDGFRA and/or PDGFRB in 12/17 samples. Moreover, small regions of gains pinpointed genes of particular interest, such as IGF1R at 15q26.3 and CHD1L at 1q21.1. In conclusion, our analysis provided novel findings that can be exploited when searching for markers for diagnosis and prognosis, and targets of therapy in this tumor type.

  19. Contribution of alpha-D-galactopyranosyl end groups to attachment of highly and low metastatic murine fibrosarcoma cells to various substrates.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, I A; Varani, J; McCoy, J P

    1984-12-01

    There are much greater numbers of cell surface terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactorpyranosyl groups in highly malignant (metastatic) cells than are found in low malignant cells derived from the same murine fibrosarcoma. We have examined the contribution of these residues to attachment of the cells to various collagens and to plastic. Removal of these carbohydrate groups with alpha-galactosidase or blocking them with lectins from Griffonia simplicifolia seeds or with anti-blood group B antiserum all dramatically inhibited the attachment of both the highly malignant and the low malignant cells. Following removal with the enzyme, the alpha-D-galactopyranosyl end groups were rapidly resynthesized. This resynthesis was inhibited by tunicamycin, an inhibitor of de novo glycoprotein synthesis. This antibiotic also impaired cell attachment and, when used in addition to treatment with alpha-galactosidase, it inhibited cell attachment more than did treatment with the enzyme alone. The effects of all treatments on cell attachment were greater for the highly malignant than for the low malignant cells. With the latter cells, inhibition by lectin was seen only in the absence of serum, whereas the adhesion of highly malignant cells was affected in both the presence and the absence of serum. On their surface membrane the highly malignant cells express much more than do the low malignant cells of a glycoprotein that cross-reacts immunologically with laminin. The basement membrane glycoprotein laminin promotes cell attachment to collagen, and both glycoproteins contain terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactopyranosyl groups. Attachment of cells is a requirement for the formation of a metastasis, and thus the laminin-like molecule and the alpha-D-galactopyranosyl end groups (whether on the laminin-related moiety or on other cell surface molecules) may both be important for expression of the most malignant phenotype.

  20. Reversal of radiation-induced cisplatin resistance in murine fibrosarcoma cells by selective modulation of the cyclic GMP-dependent transduction pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Eichholtz-Wirth, H.

    1995-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance, induced in murine fibrosarcoma cells (SSK) in vitro or in vivo by low-dose irradiation, can be overcome by activation of the cyclic GMP(cGMP)-dependent transduction pathway. This is mediated either by stimulating cGMP formation with sodium nitroprusside or by replacing cGMP with a selective activator of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, 8-bromo-cGMP. The cyclic AMP-dependent transduction pathway is not involved in cisplatin resistance. Instead, activation of cAMP sensitises both parental and resistant SSK cells equally to the action of cisplatin. There is a 1.8 to 2.5-fold increase in drug toxicity, depending on the activating agent. Enhancement of cisplatin sensitivity is induced by specific inhibition of cAMP hydrolysis, increase in cAMP formation or by increasing the activation potential to cAMP-dependent protein kinase by specific cAMP analogues. Cells that have lost cisplatin resistance respond to cGMP- or cAMP-elevating agents in the same way as the parental SSK cells. The radiation sensitivity is unchanged in all cell lines, even after activation of cAMP or cGMP. These results suggest that specific DNA repair pathways are altered by radiation but affected only in cisplatin damage repair, which is regulated by cGMP. Although there is ample cooperativity and interaction between the cAMP- and the cGMP-dependent transduction pathways, specific substrate binding by cGMP appears to play an important role in radiation-induced cisplatin resistance. PMID:7640207

  1. Dose effect and mode of inheritance of diabetogenic gene on mouse chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Babaya, Naru; Ueda, Hironori; Noso, Shinsuke; Hiromine, Yoshihisa; Nojima, Koji; Itoi-Babaya, Michiko; Kobayashi, Misato; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Ikegami, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in segregating crosses of NSY (Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda) mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, with nondiabetic strain C3H/He mice has identified diabetogenic QTLs on multiple chromosomes. The QTL on chromosome 11 (Chr11) (Nidd1n) showing the largest effect on hyperglycemia was confirmed by our previous studies with homozygous consomic mice, C3H-11(NSY), in which the NSY-derived whole Chr11 was introgressed onto control C3H background genes. C3H-11(NSY) mice also showed a streptozotocin (STZ) sensitivity. In the present study, we constructed heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice and the phenotypes were analyzed in detail in comparison with those of homozygous C3H-11(NSY) and C3H mice. Heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice had significantly higher blood glucose levels and STZ sensitivity than those in C3H mice. Hyperglycemia and STZ sensitivity in heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice, however, were not as severe as in homozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice. The body weight and fat pad weight in heterozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice were similar to those in C3H and homozygous C3H-11(NSY) mice. These data indicated that the introgression of Chr11 of the diabetes-susceptible NSY strain onto diabetes-resistant C3H caused marked changes in the glucose tolerance and STZ susceptibility even in a heterozygous state, and suggested that the mode of inheritance of a gene or genes on Chr11 for hyperglycemia and STZ sensitivity is additive.

  2. A Simple Method for Transportation of Mouse Embryos Using Microtubes and a Warm Box.

    PubMed

    Tokoro, Mikiko; Fukunaga, Noritaka; Yamanaka, Kaori; Itoi, Fumiaki; Terashita, Yukari; Kamada, Yuko; Wakayama, Sayaka; Asada, Yoshimasa; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Generally, transportation of preimplantation embryos without freezing requires incubators that can maintain an optimal culture environment with a suitable gas phase, temperature, and humidity. Such incubators are expensive to transport. We reported previously that normal offspring were obtained when the gas phase and temperature could be maintained during transportation. However, that system used plastic dishes for embryo culture and is unsuitable for long-distance transport of live embryos. Here, we developed a simple low-cost embryo transportation system. Instead of plastic dishes, several types of microtubes-usually used for molecular analysis-were tested for embryo culture. When they were washed and attached to a gas-permeable film, the rate of embryo development from the 1-cell to blastocyst stage was more than 90%. The quality of these blastocysts and the rate of full-term development after embryo transfer to recipient female mice were similar to those of a dish-cultured control group. Next, we developed a small warm box powered by a battery instead of mains power, which could maintain an optimal temperature for embryo development during transport. When 1-cell embryos derived from BDF1, C57BL/6, C3H/He and ICR mouse strains were transported by a parcel-delivery service over 3 days using microtubes and the box, they developed to blastocysts with rates similar to controls. After the embryos had been transferred into recipient female mice, healthy offspring were obtained without any losses except for the C3H/He strain. Thus, transport of mouse embryos is possible using this very simple method, which might prove useful in the field of reproductive medicine.

  3. Strain-dependent Damage in Mouse Lung After Carbon Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moritake, Takashi; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Yanagisawa, Mitsuru; Nakawatari, Miyako; Imadome, Kaori; Nakamura, Etsuko; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether inherent factors produce differences in lung morbidity in response to carbon ion (C-ion) irradiation, and to identify the molecules that have a key role in strain-dependent adverse effects in the lung. Methods and Materials: Three strains of female mice (C3H/He Slc, C57BL/6J Jms Slc, and A/J Jms Slc) were locally irradiated in the thorax with either C-ion beams (290 MeV/n, in 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) or with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays as a reference beam. We performed survival assays and histologic examination of the lung with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical staining for hyaluronic acid (HA), CD44, and Mac3 and assayed for gene expression. Results: The survival data in mice showed a between-strain variance after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. The median survival time of C3H/He was significantly shortened after C-ion irradiation at the higher dose of 12.5 Gy. Histologic examination revealed early-phase hemorrhagic pneumonitis in C3H/He and late-phase focal fibrotic lesions in C57BL/6J after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Pleural effusion was apparent in C57BL/6J and A/J mice, 168 days after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Microarray analysis of irradiated lung tissue in the three mouse strains identified differential expression changes in growth differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), which regulates macrophage function, and hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1), which plays a role in HA metabolism. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of CD44-positive cells, a surrogate marker for HA accumulation, and Mac3-positive cells, a marker for macrophage infiltration in irradiated lung, varied significantly among the three mouse strains during the early phase. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a strain-dependent differential response in mice to C-ion thoracic irradiation. Our findings identified candidate molecules that could be implicated in the between-strain variance to early

  4. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  5. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  6. Endotoxin suppresses expression of apoprotein E by mouse macrophages in vivo and in culture: a biochemical and genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-09-10

    The synthesis and secretion of apo-E, a component of plasma lipoproteins, are suppressed in mouse macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) in culture or in vivo. Control mouse macrophages contained intracellular immunofluorescent apo-E, and apo-E represented about 10% of secreted protein. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, freshly lavaged macrophages neither contained intracellular apo-E nor secreted apo-E. The suppressive effects of LPS and apo-E synthesis in culture were selective, and secretion of many other major macrophage proteins was not affected. When then LPS-elicited macrosphages were cultured for 24-72 h in the absence of LPS, synthesis of apo-E was initiated. Treatment of bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages in culture with less than 1 ng of LPS/ml inhibited apo-E synthesis and secretion by 18 h of treatment. Although LPS stimulates prostaglandin E/sub 2/ synthesis, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ itself did not suppress apo-E synthesis. Macrophages from C3H/HeJ (Lps/sup d//Lps/sup d/) mice, which are resistant to LPS, were neither primed for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production nor suppressed for apo-E synthesis in response to LPS in vivo (30 ..mu..g/mouse) or in culture (1..mu../ml), whereas macrophages from the co-isogenic C3H/HeN (Lps/sup n//Lps/sup n/) strain were induced for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ secretion and had suppressed synthesis of apo-E. Because apo-E serves as a recognition determinant for the receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins, the decreased synthesis of apo-E after LPS treatment may in part explain the hyperlipoproteinemia associated with endotoxins in vivo.

  7. Generation of fibrosarcomas in vivo by a retrovirus that expresses the normal B chain of platelet-derived growth factor and mimics the alternative splice pattern of the v-sis oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Pech, M; Gazit, A; Arnstein, P; Aaronson, S A

    1989-01-01

    A retrovirus containing the entire human platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (PDGF-B) gene was constructed in order to investigate the in vivo biological activity of its encoded growth factor. When this virus was introduced into newborn mice, it reproducibly generated fibrosarcomas at the site of inoculation. Proviruses in each fibrosarcoma analyzed had lost 149 nucleotides downstream of the PDGF-B coding region. This deletion originated from an alternative or aberrant splice event that occurred within exon 7 of the PDGF-B gene and mimicked the v-sis oncogene. Thus, deletion of this region may be necessary for efficient retrovirus replication or for more potent transforming function. Evidence that the normal growth factor coding sequence was unaltered derived from RNase protection studies and immunoprecipitation analysis. Tumors were generally polyclonal but demonstrated clonal subpopulations. Moreover, tumor-derived cell lines became monoclonal within a few tissue culture passages and rapidly formed tumors in vivo. These findings argue that overexpression of the normal human PDGF-B gene product under retrovirus control can induce the fully malignant phenotype. Images PMID:2649890

  8. Enhancement of therapeutic effects of recombinant interleukin 2 on a transplantable rat fibrosarcoma by the use of a sustained release vehicle, pluronic gel.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, K; Okada, F; Hosokawa, M; Kobayashi, H

    1987-01-01

    We have tested the feasibility of pluronic F-127 gel (PLF-127; a polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene surface active block copolymer) as a sustained release vehicle for topical administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in order to enhance the therapeutic effects of IL-2 against a rat fibrosarcoma, KMT-17. Injection of human DNA recombinant IL-2 (3 X 10(4) units s.c.) in 30% (w/w) PLF-127 into rats provided detectable serum IL-2 levels for up to 10 h, while injection of IL-2 alone provided detectable IL-2 levels for 3 h. When, following s.c. inoculation with 1 X 10(5) KMT-17 tumor cells into rats, IL-2 (6 X 10(4) units/day) in PLF-127 gels was injected s.c. around the growing tumor inoculum every 2 days for 10 days from Day 1 to Day 19, the survival days of rats were more prolonged [mean survival day, 32.3 +/- 5.4 (SD)] as compared with that of rats treated with saline [20.7 +/- 2.1] than mean survival days of rats treated with IL-2 alone [27.3 +/- 4.5] or PLF-127 alone [22.9 +/- 3.3]. Moreover, the span of mean survival days of rats treated with IL-2 in PLF-127 locally (31.7 +/- 5.9) was much longer than that of rats given IL-2 in PLF-127 systemically (22.8 +/- 3.4). By means of a Winn assay, stronger tumor neutralizing activities were observed in regional lymph node cells obtained from tumor bearing rats treated with IL-2 in PLF-127 than were observed in lymph node cells from rats treated with IL-2 alone or PLF-127 alone (percentage of inhibition, 90.3, 12.2, and -15.5%, respectively). The therapeutic effects of IL-2 were thus found to be consistent with the antitumor activity in regional lymph node cells. These results suggest that the enhanced therapeutic effects of IL-2 in PLF-127 are due to enhancement of antitumor immune responses induced by sustained IL-2 activity at the tumor sites. PMID:3491675

  9. The cell proliferation kinetics of the EMT6/M/AC mouse tumour at four volumes during unperturbed growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Watson, J V

    1976-03-01

    The cell proliferation kinetics of the EMT6/M/AC mouse tumour were determined at four different volumes between 1-5 mm3 and 175 mm3. The decrease in the growth rate between these volumes are mainly due to a decrease in the rate constant for cell production. A small increase in the rate constant for cell loss occurred, but this was thought to be insignificant. The cell loss factor increased from 40% at 1-5 mm3 to over 70% in the 175 mm3 tumours. An increase in the median cell cycle time, from 14-1 hr to 18-5 hr was also found between these same volumes. Results obtained for the NCTC fibrosarcoma and the R-1 rhabdo-myosarcoms indicate that there may be a threshold volume in these sarcomas below which little or no cell loss takes place. This was not found in the EMT6/M/AC tumour. PMID:1260835

  10. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, John P; Pratt, C Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Stearns, Timothy M; Sundberg, Beth A; King, Lloyd E; HogenEsch, Harm

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10 weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, John P; Pratt, C Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Stearns, Timothy M; Sundberg, Beth A; King, Lloyd E; HogenEsch, Harm

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10 weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26960166

  12. Genetic evidence for a product of the Fv-1 locus that transfers resistance to mouse leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, R W; Schluter, B; Myer, F E; Otten, J A; Yang, W K; Brown, A

    1976-01-01

    Extracts of mouse cells have been shown to transfer to N- or B-trophic host range types of mouse leukemia viruses. The genetic specificity of the inhibition was tested in two ways: (i) by correlating the Fv-1 genotype of a number of mouse strains with the restriction-transferring activity of extracts of the respective embryo cell cultures, and (ii) by correlating the Fv-1 genotype of BLC3F2 (C57BL/6 female [Fv-1bb] by C3H male [Fv-1nn] parental strains) mouse embryos, which segregate the Fv-1 alleles in a 12:1 ratio, with the inhibitor activity of extracts of the cells from each embryo. Five independent matings, totaling 45 individual embryos, were tested. Each embryo was cultured, and the Fv-1 genotype was determined independently by titration of N- and B-tropic viruses; the extracts of replicate secondary cultures were tested for their effect on infection of permissive cells by N- and B-tropic viruses. The specific-restriction-transferring activity of the embryos was found to segregate with the appropriate Fv-1 genotype. These res-lts confirm the suggestion that the inhibitor of the leukemia virus host range types in the cellular extracts is a product of the Fv-1 locus. PMID:186636

  13. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  14. Conflicting effects of DMSO on mouse skin tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, W.T.; Weiss, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    A number of solvents, including dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when substituted for acetone as the vehicle for the potent promoter phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) in the two-stage mouse skin cancer model, tend to inhibit tumorigenesis. DMSO was investigated further because the literature is ambiguous concerning its effect in both single and multi-stage carcinogenesis. As solvent for the complete carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP, 125 mg in 40 ..mu..l 2x/wk), tumor yield increased an avg of 245% (3 trials in C3H mice) compared to acetone/BaP. However, in the two-stage model (CD-1 mice initiated with 50-100 ..mu..g DMBA) DMSO as the vehicle for PMA (5 ..mu..g in 40 ..mu..l 2x/wk) reduced tumor yield to 34% of the PMA/acetone controls. To test whether the inhibition was an in vitro effect, 40 ..mu..l DMSO was applied at the initiation site, the back, up to one hr before PMA/acetone. In three trials tumor yield averaged 23% of controls. To determine whether the DMSO effect was directly on initiated cells or indirectly via the systemic circulation, 40 ..mu..l DMSO was applied prior to promotion at a site distant from initiation/promotion, the abdomen. In three trials, DMSO enhanced tumor yield by 194%. DMSO itself had no initiating or promotion effects. Thus, it appears that DMSO may either inhibit or enhance mouse skin tumorigenesis depending on its method of application.

  15. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  16. Maternal choline modifies fetal liver copper, gene expression, DNA methylation, and neonatal growth in the tx-j mouse model of Wilson disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Islam, Mohammad S; Keen, Carl L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W; Halsted, Charles H; LaSalle, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diet can affect fetal gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Wilson disease (WD), which is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in ATP7B encoding a biliary copper transporter, is characterized by excessive hepatic copper accumulation, but variability in disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that gestational supply of dietary methyl groups modifies fetal DNA methylation and expression of genes involved in methionine and lipid metabolism that are impaired prior to hepatic steatosis in the toxic milk (tx-j) mouse model of WD. Female C3H control and tx-j mice were fed control (choline 8 mmol/Kg of diet) or choline-supplemented (choline 36 mmol/Kg of diet) diets for 2 weeks throughout mating and pregnancy to gestation day 17. A second group of C3H females, half of which were used to cross foster tx-j pups, received the same diet treatments that extended during lactation to 21 d postpartum. Compared with C3H, fetal tx-j livers had significantly lower copper concentrations and significantly lower transcript levels of Cyclin D1 and genes related to methionine and lipid metabolism. Maternal choline supplementation prevented the transcriptional deficits in fetal tx-j liver for multiple genes related to cell growth and metabolism. Global DNA methylation was increased by 17% in tx-j fetal livers after maternal choline treatment (P < 0.05). Maternal dietary choline rescued the lower body weight of 21 d tx-j mice. Our results suggest that WD pathogenesis is modified by maternal in utero factors, including dietary choline. PMID:24220304

  17. Validating high-throughput micronucleus analysis of peripheral reticulocytes for radiation biodosimetry: benchmark against dicentric and CBMN assays in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhchyau; Tsai, Ying; Nowak, Irena; Wang, Nancy; Hyrien, Ollivier; Wilkins, Ruth; Ferrarotto, Catherine; Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2010-02-01

    Automation of radiation biodosimetry is one of the top priority tasks considered by the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Homeland Security Council in preparation for the nation's readiness for a possible radionuclear terrorist attack. The Center for Biophysical Assessment and Risk Management Following Irradiation, a consortium of researchers and institutions centered at the University of Rochester, has been investigating automated scoring of radiation-induced micronucleus formation in reticulocytes for high-throughput radiation biodosimetry. The collaborative project is based on a commercially-available product by Litron Laboratories in Rochester, New York. The study was designed to validate the flow-cytometry based analysis of micronucleated reticulocyte expression for radiation biodosimetry by benchmarking against the standard lymphocyte-based biodosimetry methods in a mouse model. C57B1/6 mice and C3H mice were exposed to Cs total-body radiation from 0-3 Gy. Blood samples were subsequently analyzed for CD71+ micronucleated reticulocyte and reticulocyte frequencies by flow cytometry. Results showed a linear dose-response of MN-RET up to 1 Gy for C57B1/6 and 2 Gy for C3H mice. On the other hand, robust and good dose-response curves were obtained with lymphocyte-based dicentric assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay up to 3 Gy. High-throughput, automated analyses of micronucleated reticulocytes is a sensitive and reproducible method for detecting recent radiation exposure. In mice, the dose range of detection is useful up to 1 Gy (C57Bl/6) and 2 Gy (C3H) but not reliable beyond these dose limits. The utilization of this automated analysis for human radiation biodosimetry is currently under investigation.

  18. Mouse mammary tumor virus proviruses in T-cell lymphomas lack a negative regulatory element in the long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, C L; Fabritius, C; Dudley, J

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of long terminal repeats (LTRs) from several mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviruses acquired in mouse T-cell lymphomas were determined. All MMTV proviruses cloned from a C57BL/6 lymphoma contained an identical LTR deletion of 491 base pairs (approximately -655 to -165), whereas an MMTV provirus from a BALB/c T-cell lymphoma had a 430-base-pair deletion in the same U3 region. MMTV proviruses with LTR deletions were acquired in these tumors 10 times more frequently than proviruses with intact LTRs. Because the deletions removed a portion of the glucocorticoid response element or "regulated" enhancer, the transcriptional activity of the deleted MMTV LTRs was assessed in both transient expression and stable transfection experiments. Plasmids were constructed in which the deleted or full-length MMTV LTRs were placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Results from transfection experiments with these constructs showed that the basal expression of the deleted MMTV LTR in the absence of glucocorticoids was higher than that of the full-length Mtv-17 or C3H MMTV LTRs under the same conditions. Moreover, the C3H LTR with a similar deletion (-637 to -255) also promoted high basal levels of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. These results, coupled with the observation in lymphomas of high basal levels of transcription from MMTV proviruses with deleted LTRs, suggested that these proviruses lack negative regulatory elements in their LTRs. Loss of the negative regulatory element may contribute to the selective propagation of proviruses with deleted LTRs. Images PMID:2846876

  19. Use of Molecular Imaging Markers of Glycolysis, Hypoxia and Proliferation (18F-FDG, 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FLT) in a Dog with Fibrosarcoma: The Importance of Individualized Treatment Planning and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp; Clausen, Malene M.; Hansen, Anders E.; Law, Ian; McEvoy, Fintan J.; Engelholm, Svend A.; Kjær, Andreas; Kristensen, Annemarie T.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, hypoxia, and proliferation are important factors in the tumor microenvironment contributing to treatment-resistant aggressiveness. Imaging these factors using combined functional positron emission tomography and computed tomography can potentially guide diagnosis and management of cancer patients. A dog with fibrosarcoma was imaged using 18F-FDG, 64Cu-ATSM, and 18F-FLT before, during, and after 10 fractions of 4.5 Gy radiotherapy. Uptake of all tracers decreased during treatment. Fluctuations in 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET uptakes and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of the three tracers were seen. Tracer distributions partially overlapped. It appears that each tracer provides distinct information about tumor heterogeneity and treatment response. PMID:26854160

  20. Use of Molecular Imaging Markers of Glycolysis, Hypoxia and Proliferation ((18)F-FDG, (64)Cu-ATSM and (18)F-FLT) in a Dog with Fibrosarcoma: The Importance of Individualized Treatment Planning and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp; Clausen, Malene M; Hansen, Anders E; Law, Ian; McEvoy, Fintan J; Engelholm, Svend A; Kjær, Andreas; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, hypoxia, and proliferation are important factors in the tumor microenvironment contributing to treatment-resistant aggressiveness. Imaging these factors using combined functional positron emission tomography and computed tomography can potentially guide diagnosis and management of cancer patients. A dog with fibrosarcoma was imaged using (18)F-FDG, (64)Cu-ATSM, and (18)F-FLT before, during, and after 10 fractions of 4.5 Gy radiotherapy. Uptake of all tracers decreased during treatment. Fluctuations in (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT PET uptakes and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of the three tracers were seen. Tracer distributions partially overlapped. It appears that each tracer provides distinct information about tumor heterogeneity and treatment response. PMID:26854160

  1. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  2. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and PBR drug ligands in fibroblast and fibrosarcoma cell proliferation: role of ERK, c-Jun and ligand-activated PBR-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Kletsas, Dimitris; Li, Wenping; Han, Zeqiu; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2004-05-15

    Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a 18-kDa high-affinity drug and cholesterol binding protein, that has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as cholesterol transport and mitochondrial respiration. Specific PBR ligands regulate cell proliferation, although their action is controversial and probably cell-type specific. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of PBR in cells of mesenchymal origin, i.e. human fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells, as well as its role in the regulation of their proliferation. Both mesenchymal cell types express high levels of PBR, localized exclusively in mitochondria. PBR-specific drug ligands, the isoquinoline carboxamide PK 11195 and the benzodiazepine Ro5-4864, at relative high concentrations (10(-4)M), exert a strong inhibitory effect on cell proliferation by arresting the cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, while no apoptotic cell death was observed. In normal fibroblasts, this inhibition was correlated with a decrease in the activation of the cell cycle markers ERK and c-Jun. PBR knockdown by RNA inhibition did not affect the proliferation of either cell type and did not influence the inhibitory effect of PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 on cell growth. These data suggest that in fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells PBR drug ligands inhibit cell proliferation in a PBR-independent manner. These results are in contrast to data reported on cells of epithelial origin, suggesting that the origin of the cells is crucial in defining the role of PBR in their proliferation, and raise caution in the commonly made assumption that PBR mediates cell functions affected by PBR drug ligands.

  3. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  4. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  5. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  6. Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yalow, R S; Gross, L

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology. PMID:1066697

  7. Transcriptomics and Metabonomics Identify Essential Metabolic Signatures in Calorie Restriction (CR) Regulation across Multiple Mouse Strains.

    PubMed

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Barger, Jamie L; Da Silva, Laeticia; Prolla, Tomas A; Weindruch, Richard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has long been used to study lifespan effects and oppose the development of a broad array of age-related biological and pathological changes (increase healthspan). Yet, a comprehensive comparison of the metabolic phenotype across different genetic backgrounds to identify common metabolic markers affected by CR is still lacking. Using a system biology approach comprising metabonomics and liver transcriptomics we revealed the effect of CR across multiple mouse strains (129S1/SvlmJ, C57BL6/J, C3H/HeJ, CBA/J, DBA/2J, JC3F1/J). Oligonucleotide microarrays identified 76 genes as differentially expressed in all six strains confirmed. These genes were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR analysis in the C57BL/6J mouse strain, and a CR-induced change expression was confirmed for 14 genes. To fully depict the metabolic pathways affected by CR and complement the changes observed through differential gene expression, the metabolome of C57BL6/J was further characterized in liver tissues, urine and plasma levels using a combination or targeted mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Overall, our integrated approach commonly confirms that energy metabolism, stress response, lipids regulators and the insulin/IGF-1 are key determinants factors involved in CR regulation. PMID:24958256

  8. Mouse chromosome 11 harbors genetic determinants of hippocampal strain-specific nicotinic receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Scott W; Weis, Janis J; Ma, Ying; Teuscher, Cory; Gahring, Lorise C

    2008-01-01

    Differences between isogenic mouse strains in cellular expression of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subunit alpha 4 (nAChR alpha 4) by the dorsal hippocampus are well known. To investigate further the genetic basis of these variations, expression of the nAChR alpha 4 subunit was measured in congenic mouse lines derived from two strains exhibiting notable divergence in the expression of this subunit: C3H and C57BL/6. Congenic lines carrying reciprocally introgressed regions (quantitative trait loci; QTL) from chromosomes 4, 5, and 12 each retained the phenotype most closely associated with the parental strain. However, in congenic lines harboring the reciprocal transfer of a chromosome 11 QTL, a characteristic difference in the ratio of interneurons versus astrocytes expressing nAChR alpha 4 in the CA1 region is reversed relative to the parental strain. These finding suggest that this chromosomal segment harbors genes that regulate strain distinct hippocampal morphology that is revealed by nAChR alpha 4 expression.

  9. Chelate conjugates of monoclonal antibodies for imaging lymphoid structures in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.; McCall, M.J.; Haseman, M.K.; McTigue, M.; Diamanti, C.I.; Chaovapong, W.

    1985-05-01

    Radiolabeling of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the mouse histocompatibility alloantigen lA/sup k/ expressed by the B lymphocytes of BALB/k and C3H mice but not BALB/c mice was performed by mixing the chelate-labeled anti (..cap alpha..) lA/sup k/ MoAb with purified, no-carrier-added /sup 111/In citrate. The organ, spleen, and lymph node distribution of intravenously and subcutaneously administered /sup 111/In..cap alpha..lA/sup k/ MoAb was compared in mice, two lA/sup k/ positive and one lA/sup k/ negative strains, and to /sup 125/l..cap alpha..lA/sup k/ MoAb in one 1A/sup K/ positive strain. The /sup 111/In..cap alpha.. 1A/sup K/ MoAb was more stable in vivo compared to /sup 125/I..cap alpha.. 1A/sup K/ MoAb as shown by a much slower excretion and a higher absolute uptake in lymph nodes and spleen. Potential clinical applications of /sup 111/In..cap alpha.. lymphocyte MoAb include localization of normal lymph nodes and T and B cell leukemias and lymphomas, as well as detecting lymphatic metastases of other cancers.

  10. Dosimetry study of PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Haixia; Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known in photodynamic therapy (PDT) that there is a large variability between PDT light dose and therapeutic outcomes. An explicit dosimetry model using apparent reacted 1O2 concentration [1O2]rx has been developed as a PDT dosimetric quantity to improve the accuracy of the predicted ability of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, this explicit macroscopic singlet oxygen model was adopted to establish the correlation between calculated reacted [1O2]rx and the tumor growth using Photofrin-mediated PDT in a mouse tumor model. Mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were injected with Photofrin at a dose of 5 mg/kg. PDT was performed 24h later with different fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) and different fluences (50 and 135 J/cm2) using a collimated light applicator coupled to a 630nm laser. The tumor volume was monitored daily after PDT and correlated with the total light fluence and [1O2]rx. Photophysical parameters as well as the singlet oxygen threshold dose for this sensitizer and the RIF tumor model were determined previously. The result showed that tumor growth rate varied greatly with light fluence for different fluence rates while [1O2]rx had a good correlation with the PDT-induced tumor growth rate. This preliminary study indicated that [1O2]rx could serve as a better dosimetric predictor for predicting PDT outcome than PDT light dose.

  11. Differential Regulation of the Dioxin-Induced Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 Genes in Mouse Hepatoma and Fibroblast cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Taylor, Robert T.; Hankinson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 can be induced by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (dioxin) via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). These genes are differentially induced by dioxin in different mouse cell lines. In the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1c1c7 (Hepa-1), the Cyp1a1 gene is induced to very high levels by dioxin, but the levels of Cyp1b1 mRNA are extremely low and are not inducible by dioxin. The reverse is the case for the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line C3H10T1/2, in which Cyp1b1 is induced to very high levels by dioxin, but the levels of Cyp1a1 mRNA are extremely low and not inducible by dioxin. However, dioxin treatment leads to the recruitment of AhR to the enhancer regions of both genes in both cell lines. Somatic cell hybrid clones generated between the two cell lines display high levels of induction of both genes in response to dioxin. Strong reactivation of the Cyp1a1 gene was also observed in C3H10T1/2 cell line after treatment with the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AzadC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA). However, only modest reactivation of Cyp1b1 was observed in Hepa-1 cells after 5-AzadC or TSA treatment. These data demonstrate that the presence or absence of binding of AhR to regulatory regions is not responsible for determining the differences in levels of induction of the two genes in these cell lines, and indicate that DNA methylation plays a major role in silencing of Cyp1a1 gene expression in C3H10T1/2 cells, but appears to play only a minor role in silencing Cyp1b1 gene expression in Hepa-1 cells, which likely occurs principally because Hepa-1 cells lack a factor required for high levels of induction of this gene. PMID:20116417

  12. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  13. Coriolus versicolor mushroom polysaccharides exert immunoregulatory effects on mouse B cells via membrane Ig and TLR-4 to activate the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-fa; Zhuang, Tai-feng; Si, Yan-mei; Qi, Ke-yan; Zhao, Juan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immunopotentiating effects and immune receptors for Coriolus versicolor mushroom polysaccharides (CVP), a Chinese medicinal fungus that exerts anti-tumor activities by enhancing host immunity. Proliferation assays were used to determine whether CVP could activate splenocytes. Flow cytometry analysis and IgM and IgG detection were used to characterize CVP-binding cells. Immune receptors were analyzed in immunoprecipitation and western blot assays. The downstream signaling pathways were identified by western blotting or immunostaining. CVP significantly stimulated the proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Fluorescence-labeled CVP (fl-CVP) selectively stained mouse B cells, but not T cells. CVP induced the production of IgM and IgG1 with or without exogenous IL-4. Membrane Ig (B cell antigen-receptor, BCR) was identified as a CVP-binding protein in immunoprecipitation and western blot experiments. CVP-induced B cell proliferation could be significantly inhibited by anti-mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) blocking antibody (Fab) or in cells from TLR4-mutant mice (C3H/HeJ). Phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and p38 MAPK were clearly increased in a time-dependent manner, as was the nuclear translocation of the cytosolic NF-κB p65 subunit after CVP stimulation. Together, we demonstrate that CVP can bind and induce B cell activation using membrane Ig and TLR-4 as potential immune receptors. CVP activates mouse B cells through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  14. Dioxin induces genomic instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Korkalainen, Merja; Huumonen, Katriina; Naarala, Jonne; Viluksela, Matti; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and certain other exposures have been shown to induce genomic instability (GI), i.e., delayed genetic damage observed many cell generations later in the progeny of the exposed cells. The aim of this study was to investigate induction of GI by a nongenotoxic carcinogen, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (C3H10T1/2) were exposed to 1, 10 or 100 nM TCDD for 2 days. Micronuclei (MN) and expression of selected cancer-related genes were assayed both immediately and at a delayed point in time (8 days). For comparison, similar experiments were done with cadmium, a known genotoxic agent. TCDD treatment induced an elevated frequency of MN at 8 days, but not directly after the exposure. TCDD-induced alterations in gene expression were also mostly delayed, with more changes observed at 8 days than at 2 days. Exposure to cadmium produced an opposite pattern of responses, with pronounced effects immediately after exposure but no increase in MN and few gene expression changes at 8 days. Although all responses to TCDD alone were delayed, menadione-induced DNA damage (measured by the Comet assay), was found to be increased directly after a 2-day TCDD exposure, indicating that the stability of the genome was compromised already at this time point. The results suggested a flat dose-response relationship consistent with dose-response data reported for radiation-induced GI. These findings indicate that TCDD, although not directly genotoxic, induces GI, which is associated with impaired DNA damage response.

  15. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  16. Autoantibodies against bromelainized mouse erythrocyte: strain distribution of serum idiotype expression and relative peritoneal cell activity.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, A; Poncet, P; Bussard, A

    1986-10-15

    Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally occurring mouse autoantibodies directed against bromelainized mouse red blood cells (BrMRBC) comprised a family of structurally related molecules bearing a common idiotypic determinant (CP) based on structural and idiotypic analysis of a series of anti-BrMRBC monoclonal autoantibodies derived from a fusion of peritoneal cells (PerC) with plasmacytomas. In the present studies, we have evaluated the quantitative expression of circulating CP idiotype related to autoantibodies against BrMRBC in relation to specific PerC anti-BrMRBC plaque-forming activity in an individual mouse of different strains. The data presented here show no direct relationship between serum CP idiotype expression and PerC anti-BrMRBC plaque-forming activity in an individual mouse of all strains tested. However, the circulating CP idiotype content is higher in strains, viz., CBA/J, NZB, C3H, BXSB, and Biozzi high responder (H) mice which exhibit a high perC autoantibody secretory activity against BrMRBC. The strains such as BALB/c, DBA2, SJL/J, CBA/N, and Biozzi low responder (L) express little or no circulating CP idiotype with a corresponding small or no PerC anti-BrMRBC activity. Furthermore, the PerC "auto"-immune phenomenon is markedly expressed in the normal CBA/J strain since these mice show a higher percentage ratio of CP idiotype over serum IgM (2.68%) as well as highest PerC anti-BrMRBC plaque-forming activity (11,319 +/- 18,029 plaques per million viable cells) compared to other normal and autoimmune strains tested. Nevertheless, the highest circulating serum CP idiotype (49.4 micrograms/ml) is observed in the autoimmune NZB mouse. The immunodeficient CBA/N mice fail to express detectable levels of CP idiotype in their serum. The experiments conducted in genetically selected outbred Biozzi (H and L) strain have revealed remarkable differences in serum CP idiotype expression as well as PerC anti-BrMRBC plaque-forming activity in these two

  17. Seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells by competing with intracellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and inhibiting uPA-mediated activation of plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Se-kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Sun Joo

    2014-12-01

    α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and a surface receptor for plasminogen. α-Enolase-bound plasminogen promotes tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis by activating plasmin and consequently degrading the extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, α-enolase and plasminogen are novel targets for cancer therapy. We found that the amino acid sequence of a peptide purified from enzymatic hydrolysates of seahorse has striking similarities to that of α-enolase. In this study, we report that this peptide competes with cellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and suppresses urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated activation of plasminogen, which results in decreased invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In addition, the peptide treatment decreased the expression levels of uPA compared to that of untreated controls. These results provide new insight into the mechanism by which the seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive properties of human cancer cells. Our findings suggest that this peptide could emerge as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer.

  18. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    PubMed

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address http://mouse.biomed.cas.cz/sage/.

  19. Host and Bacterial Factors Involved in the Innate Ability of Mouse Macrophages To Eliminate Internalized Unopsonized Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Terri S.; Havell, Edward A.; Horton, John R.; Orndorff, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to better understand genetic and cellular factors that influence innate immunity, we examined host and bacterial factors involved in the nonopsonic phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli K-12 by mouse macrophages. Unelicited (resident) peritoneal macrophages from five different mouse strains, BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, C3H/HeJ, and C3H/HeN, were employed. Additional macrophage populations were obtained from CD-1 mice (bone marrow-derived macrophages). Also, for BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, peritoneal macrophages elicited with either thioglycolate or proteose peptone, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and macrophage-like cell lines derived from the two strains were employed. Two E. coli K-12 strains that differed specifically in their abilities to produce type 1 pili containing the adhesive protein FimH were examined. The parameters used to assess macrophage bacteriocidal activity were (i) the killing of internalized (gentamicin-protected) E. coli during the approximately 4-h assay and (ii) the initial rate at which internalized E. coli were eliminated. Data on these parameters allowed the following conclusions: (i) unelicited or proteose peptone-elicited peritoneal macrophages were significantly better at eliminating internalized bacteria than thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages, or macrophage cell lines; (ii) the host genetic background had no significant effect upon the ability of unelicited peritoneal macrophages to kill E. coli (even though the mouse strains differ widely in their in vivo susceptibilities to bacterial infection); and (iii) the FimH phenotype had no significant effect upon E. coli survival once the bacterium was inside a macrophage. Additionally, there was no correlation between the bacteriocidal effectiveness of a macrophage population and the number of bacteria bound per macrophage. However, macrophage populations that were the least bacteriocidal tended to bind higher ratios of FimH+ to Fim

  20. Effects of Some Natural Immunomodulatory Compounds in Combination with Thalidomide on Survival Rate and Tumor Size in Fibrosarcoma-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Reza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Sadigh Eteghad, Saeed; Zarredar, Habib; Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Samavati, Mehrnosh; Asadi, Hamed; Mosavi, Seyed Ehsan; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite significant advances have been achieved in cancer therapy, response to conventional treatments like surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy varies among individuals. Immunotherapy is known to be an effective strategy for patients who are resistant to the currently available interventions. Methods: Ninety-six male Balb/c mice (aged 6-8 weeks) were selected and divided into twelve groups of eight. Approximately, 1×106of WEHI-164 cells were injected to each mouse for tumor genesis. Five immunotherapy treatments were considered in this study, including Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), Bifidobacterium, Immuno-Modulator Drug (IMOD) and Thalidomide. After tumor formation, the groups were treated with one or more of these therapies. Tumor size and survival rate was regularly monitored. Results: Depending on the treatment group, tumor sizes were different. In some groups, combined treatments demonstrated more inhibitory effects on tumor growth rate. The mice in group (IMOD+ Thalidomide) had the lowest survival rate but group (BCG+ HSP+ Thalidomide) survived until the end of the experiment. Conclusion: The (HSP+ BCG+ Thalidomide) group exhibited satisfactory outcomes and two third of the mice in this group went into complete remission. Some combination therapies in test groups had significant impacts on survival and tumor growth rate. PMID:25364664

  1. Transgenerational changes of metabolic phenotypes in two selectively bred mouse colonies for different susceptibilities to diet-induced glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Mototsugu; Asai, Akira; Sugihara, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    We recently established 2 mouse lines with different susceptibilities (prone and resistant) to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance by selective breeding (designated selectively bred diet-induced glucose intolerance-prone [SDG-P] and -resistant [SDG-R], respectively). In the present study, we analyzed transgenerational changes in metabolic phenotypes in these 2 mouse colonies to explore how the distinct phenotypes have emerged through the repetitive selection. Using C57BL/6, C3H, and AKR as background strains, mice showing inferior and superior glucose tolerance after HFD feeding were selected and bred repetitively over 20 generations to produce SDG-P and SDG-R, respectively. In addition to the blood glucose levels, HFD intake and body weight were also measured over the selective breeding period. As the generations proceeded, SDG-P mice became more susceptible to HFD-induced glucose intolerance and body weight gain, whereas SDG-R mice had gradually reduced HFD intake. The differences in fasting and post-glucose challenge blood glucose levels, body weight, and HFD intake became more evident between the 2 colonies through the selective breeding, mainly due to the HFD-induced glucose metabolism impairment and body weight gain in SDG-P mice and the reduction of HFD intake in SDG-R mice. These transgenerational changes in the metabolic phenotypes suggest that the genetic loci associated with the quantitative traits have been selectively enriched in SDG-P and SDG-R.

  2. Presence of mouse mammary tumour‐like virus gene sequences may be associated with morphology of specific human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, J S; Tran, D D; Carpenter, E; Ford, C E; Rawlinson, W D; Whitaker, N J; Delprado, W

    2006-01-01

    Background Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) has a proven role in breast carcinogenesis in wild mice and genetically susceptible in‐bred mice. MMTV‐like env gene sequences, which indicate the presence of a replication‐competent MMTV‐like virus, have been identified in some human breast cancers, but rarely in normal breast tissues. However, no evidence for a causal role of an MMTV‐like virus in human breast cancer has emerged, although there are precedents for associations between specific histological characteristics of human cancers and the presence of oncogenic viruses. Aim To investigate the possibility of an association between breast cancer and MMTV‐like viruses. Methods Histological characteristics of invasive ductal human breast cancer specimens were compared with archival MMTV‐associated mammary tumours from C3H experimental mice. The presence of MMTV‐like env DNA sequences in the human breast cancer specimens was determined by polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by Southern hybridisation. Results MMTV‐like env gene sequences were identified in 22 of 59 (37.3%) human breast cancer specimens. Seventeen of 43 (39.5%) invasive ductal carcinoma breast cancer specimens and 4 of 16 (25%) ductal carcinoma in situ specimens had some histological characteristics, which were similar to MMTV‐associated mouse mammary tumours. However, these similarities were not associated with the presence or absence of MMTV‐like gene sequences in the human breast tumour specimens. A significant (p = 0.05) correlation was found between the grade of the human breast cancer and similarity to the mouse mammary tumours. The lower the grade, the greater the similarity. Conclusion Some human breast cancer specimens, in which MMTV‐like env DNA sequences have been identified, were shown to have histological characteristics (morphology) similar to MMTV‐associated mouse mammary tumours. These observations are compatible with, but not conclusive of, an

  3. FTIR Measurements of N 2-Induced Pressure Broadening of Allene (C 3H 4) in the ν 10 Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. F.; Sirota, J. M.; Reuter, D. C.

    1999-12-01

    Nitrogen pressure-broadening coefficients have been measured in the 841 cm-1 ν10 band of allene (H2CCCH2). The high-resolution absorption infrared spectra were recorded by a FTIR spectrometer at a temperature of 201 K. The Voigt line profile, convolved with a sinc instrument function, was applied to the fit of the observed rovibrational lines. No regular J or K dependence of the broadening coefficients was observed for this strong symmetric-top-molecule band. The power-exponential-gap (PEG) fitting law and the infinite-order-sudden (IOS) scaling law were modified for the fit of the N2-broadening coefficients. The wavefunction mixing arising from the ν10/ν9 Coriolis resonance was taken into account for the IOS law. A total of 180 broadening coefficients measured at 201 K were reproduced with an accuracy of 8.6 and 7.9% by the PEG and IOS laws, respectively.

  4. Impact of lifestage and duration of exposure on arsenic-induced proliferative lesions and neoplasia in C3H mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cancer of the skin, urinary bladder and lung as well as the kidney and liver. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated increased incidence of liver, lung, ovary, and uterine tumo...

  5. Highly Accurate Quartic Force Fields, Vibrational Frequencies, and Spectroscopic Constants for Cyclic and Linear C3H3(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of theory have been used to compute quartic force fields (QFFs) for the cyclic and linear forms of the C H + molecular cation, referred to as c-C H + and I-C H +. Specifically the 33 3333 singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), has been used in conjunction with extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit and corrections for scalar relativity and core correlation have been included. The QFFs have been used to compute highly accurate fundamental vibrational frequencies and other spectroscopic constants using both vibrational 2nd-order perturbation theory and variational methods to solve the nuclear Schroedinger equation. Agreement between our best computed fundamental vibrational frequencies and recent infrared photodissociation experiments is reasonable for most bands, but there are a few exceptions. Possible sources for the discrepancies are discussed. We determine the energy difference between the cyclic and linear forms of C H +, 33 obtaining 27.9 kcal/mol at 0 K, which should be the most reliable available. It is expected that the fundamental vibrational frequencies and spectroscopic constants presented here for c-C H + 33 and I-C H + are the most reliable available for the free gas-phase species and it is hoped that 33 these will be useful in the assignment of future high-resolution laboratory experiments or astronomical observations.

  6. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Chani, Baldeep; Puri, Veena; Chander Sobti, Ranbir; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity. PMID:27397998

  7. Establishment and Characterization of UTI and CAUTI in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Matt S.; Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Dodson, Karen; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent, a significant cause of morbidity and are increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. Females are disproportionately afflicted by UTI: 50% of all women will have a UTI in their lifetime. Additionally, 20-40% of these women who have an initial UTI will suffer a recurrence with some suffering frequent recurrences with serious deterioration in the quality of life, pain and discomfort, disruption of daily activities, increased healthcare costs, and few treatment options other than long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary causative agent of community acquired UTI. Catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) is the most common hospital acquired infection accounting for a million occurrences in the US annually and dramatic healthcare costs. While UPEC is also the primary cause of CAUTI, other causative agents are of increased significance including Enterococcus faecalis. Here we utilize two well-established mouse models that recapitulate many of the clinical characteristics of these human diseases. For UTI, a C3H/HeN model recapitulates many of the features of UPEC virulence observed in humans including host responses, IBC formation and filamentation. For CAUTI, a model using C57BL/6 mice, which retain catheter bladder implants, has been shown to be susceptible to E. faecalis bladder infection. These representative models are being used to gain striking new insights into the pathogenesis of UTI disease, which is leading to the development of novel therapeutics and management or prevention strategies. PMID:26132341

  8. Identification of candidate lung cancer susceptibility genes in mouse using oligonucleotide arrays

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, W; Bernert, H; Sun, H; Wang, Y; You, M

    2002-01-01

    We applied microarray gene expression profiling to lungs from mouse strains having variable susceptibility to lung tumour development as a means to identify, within known quantitative trait loci (QTLs), candidate genes responsible for susceptibility or resistance to lung cancer. At least eight chromosomal regions of mice have been mapped and verified to be linked with lung tumour susceptibility or resistance. In this study, high density oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure the relative expression levels of >36 000 genes and ESTs in lung tissues of A/J, BALB/cJ, SM/J, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J mice. A number of differentially expressed genes were found in each of the lung cancer susceptibility QTLs. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed genes located within QTLs produced 28 susceptibility candidates and 22 resistance candidates. These candidates may be extremely helpful in the ultimate identification of the precise genes responsible for lung tumour susceptibility or resistance in mice and, through follow up, humans. Complete data sets are available at http://thinker.med.ohio-state.edu. PMID:12205107

  9. Sources and biology of regulatory factors active on mouse myeloid leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, D.

    1982-01-01

    The action of serum or cells in enforcing differentiation in mouse myelomonocytic leukemic cells was monitored in agar cultures of WEHI-3B leukemic cells. The repeated intravenous injection of 5 ..mu..g endotoxin initially increased serum differentiating activity but after the third injection responses to further injections decreased markedly. Congenitally athymic (nude) mice exhibited normal rises in serum differentiating activity when injected with endotoxin but C3H HeJ mice failed to respond to challenge with purified lipid A. Whole body irradiation up to 1,200 rads did not increase serum differentiating activity but did not suppress responses to challenge injection of endotoxin. Coculture of WEHI-3B cells with peritoneal cells from normal or irradiated BALB/c mice caused marked granulocytic differentiation in WEHI-3B colonies. This effect was not seen if leukemic cells were cultured with thymus, spleen, or bone marrow cells. The serum halflife of the factor in postendotoxin serum enforcing differentiation of WEHI-3B cells was shown to be 1.5-2.3 hr.

  10. Prostatic inflammation induces fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Letitia; Hutson, Paul R; Bushman, Wade

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation of the prostate is strongly correlated with development of lower urinary tract symptoms and several studies have implicated prostatic fibrosis in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction. It has been postulated that inflammation induces prostatic fibrosis but this relationship has never been tested. Here, we characterized the fibrotic response to inflammation in a mouse model of chronic bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation. Transurethral instillation of the uropathogenic E. coli into C3H/HeOuJ male mice induced persistent prostatic inflammation followed by a significant increase in collagen deposition and hydroxyproline content. This fibrotic response to inflammation was accompanied with an increase in collagen synthesis determined by the incorporation of 3H-hydroxyproline and mRNA expression of several collagen remodeling-associated genes, including Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Mmp2, Mmp9, and Lox. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation of inflammation severity with collagen deposition and immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes were abundant in inflamed prostates at the time point coinciding with increased collagen synthesis. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of these CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes among collagen type I expressing cells. These data show-for the first time-that chronic prostatic inflammation induces collagen deposition and implicates fibrocytes in the fibrotic process. PMID:24950301

  11. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  12. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  13. The transcription factor EGR-1 suppresses transformation of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells by coordinated induction of transforming growth factor-beta1, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Yao, J; de Belle, I; Huang, R P; Adamson, E; Mercola, D

    1999-02-12

    Re-expression of EGR-1 in fibrosarcoma HT1080 suppresses transformation including tumorigenicity (Huang, R.-P., Liu, C., Fan, Y., Mercola, D., and Adamson, E. (1995) Cancer Res. 55, 5054-5062) owing in part to up-regulation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 promoter by EGR-1 which suppresses growth by an autocrine mechanism (Liu, C., Adamson, E., and Mercola, D. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 11831-11836). Here we show that enhanced cell attachment contributes to the suppression via increased secretion of fibronectin (FN) and also of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The secretion of FN and PAI-1 is strongly correlated with EGR-1 expression (RPEARSON = 0.971 and 0. 985, respectively). Addition of authentic TGF-beta1 to parental cells greatly stimulated secretion of PAI-1 but not FN, whereas addition of TGF-beta antibody or lipofection with specific antisense TGF-beta1 oligonucleotides to EGR-1-regulated cells completely inhibits the secretion of PAI-1 but not FN. However, in gel mobility shift assays pure EGR-1 or nuclear extracts of EGR-1-regulated cells specifically bind to two GC-rich elements of the human FN promoter at positions -75/-52 and -4/+18, indicating that the increased secretion of FN is likely due to direct up-regulation by EGR-1. Moreover, adhesion was greatly enhanced in EGR-1-regulated cells and was reversed by treatment with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) or PAI-1 antibody indicating that the secreted proteins are functional. We conclude that EGR-1 regulates the coordinated expression of gene products important for cell attachment ("oikis" factor) and normal growth control.

  14. Induction of mixed-function oxidase activity in mouse lymphoid tissues by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Egan, B.Z.; Lee, N.E.; Burtis, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure can cause mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme induction in certain tissues of various organisms. Measurements of such induction might serve as a useful bioindicator of human exposure to PAHs, provided readily obtainable human tissues can be utilized for such measurements. The authors have investigated the MFO activity in various lymphoid tissues of the C3H mouse as a model system and have studied the effect of systemic PAH treatment on such enzyme activity. An MFO enzyme assay was used to measure the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin deethylase, an enzyme activity that may be specific for the cytochrome P-448 subset of MFO enzymes (those enzymes that are induced in cells or tissues following PAH administration). Intraperitoneal injection of mice with 180 mg/kg (4.6 mg) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 160 mg/kg (4.0 mg) 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) produced a significant induction in MFO activity in mouse spleen S9 fractions 48 h after the injection. Induction ratios (induced activity/control activity) between 4 and 5 were seen with BaP; MC produced induction ratios of 2.5-3.0. Enzyme activity was not induced in the spleen within 16 h following BaP or MC administration. Other experiments indicated that MFO activity could be induced in thymus cells 48 h after either BaP or MC treatment. Treatment with BaP or MC did produce significant enzyme induction in the liver and lung tissues from the animals both 16 and 48 h after chemical treatment.

  15. Functional genomics in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Archibald S

    2002-08-01

    The mouse is the premier genetic model organism for the study of human disease and development. With the recent advances in sequencing of the human and mouse genomes, there is strong interest now in large-scale approaches to decipher the function of mouse genes using various mutagenesis technologies. This review discusses what tools are currently available for manipulating and mutagenizing the mouse genome, such as ethylnitrosourea and gene trap mutagenesis, engineered inversions and deletions using the cre-lox system, and proviral insertional mutagenesis in somatic cells, and how these are being used to uncover gene function.

  16. Chandra Catches the `Mouse'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an x-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. This image, from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the x-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. G359.23-0.82 gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Chandler program.

  17. IgG subclass responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection and immunization suggest a dominant role for Th1 cells in susceptible mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J D; Waltenbaugh, C; Miller, S D

    1992-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. A strong correlation between disease susceptibility and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been previously demonstrated, but no strong correlation between disease susceptibility and total anti-TMEV ELISA titres was shown. Since both DTH and IgG2a antibody production are regulated by CD4+ Th1 cells, we investigated three strains of mice to determine whether antivirus IgG2a antibody levels, like DTH in previous studies, correlated with disease susceptibility. Susceptible SJL/J, intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ, and resistant C57BL/6 mice were infected intracerebrally (i.c.) with the BeAn strain of TMEV and monitored for clinical signs of demyelination and for levels of TMEV-specific antibody of different IgG subclasses using a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA). Resistant C57BL/6 mice were found to have significantly lower concentrations of total anti-TMEV antibody than susceptible SJL/J mice and intermediately susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show variable antibody responses. A predominance of anti-TMEV IgG2a (Th1 regulated) antibody was seen in susceptible and intermediately susceptible mice, whereas resistant mice displayed a predominant anti-TMEV IgG1 (Th2 regulated) response accompanied by a marked deficiency of IgG2a. In contrast, immunization of C57BL/6 mice with UV-inactivated TMEV in adjuvant revealed that this strain was not defective either in its ability to generate high levels of anti-TMEV antibody or in its ability to produce IgG2a antibody. These results suggest that the antivirus IgG subclass profile is dependent upon the immunization route, virus viability and/or the use of adjuvant and that the levels of antivirus subclasses may be predictive of disease susceptibility. PMID:1350571

  18. WR-2721 protects against cytoxan-induced hprt mutagenesis without affecting therapeutic effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Yasushi; Perrin, J.; Hunter, N.; Milas, L.; Grdina, D. ||

    1995-12-31

    The radioprotector S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was evaluated for its ability to protect against cytoxan-induced mutagenesis at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in mouse splenocytes under conditions that would not interfere with the therapeutic effectiveness of cytoxan in the treatment of fibrosarcoma lung tumors. Mutations at the hprt locus increase in frequency as a function of the dose of cytoxan used. With a spontaneous mutation frequency in C3H mice of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}, mutation frequencies increased from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} as the dose of cytoxan increased from 50 to 200 mg/kg. C3H male mice were injected in their tail veins with 3.5 {times} 10{sup 5} viable fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells. This protocol gave rise to an average of 68 tumor colonies per mouse. Four days following injection animals were treated with cytoxan at a dose of 100 mg/kg, which gave rise to significant tumor cell killing and a reduction in tumor colony number to less than an average of one per animal. WR-2721 at a concentration of 100 mg/kg did not affect on cytoxan`s therapeutic effectiveness. However, a 100 mg/kg dose of WR-2721 was effective in reducing the cytoxan induced hprt mutation frequency in mice from 160 to 35 per 10{sup 5} viable cells regardless of whether it was administered 30 min before or 2 h following cytoxan treatment.

  19. The mouse genome informatics and the mouse genome database

    SciTech Connect

    Maltais, L.J.; Blackburn, R.E.; Bradt, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) is a centralized, comprehensive database of the mouse genome that includes genetic mapping data, comparative mapping data, gene descriptions, mutant phenotype descriptions, strains and allelic polymorphism data, inbred strain characteristics, physical mapping data, and molecular probes and clones data. Data in MGD are obtained from the published literature and by electronic transfer from laboratories working on large backcross panels of mice. MGD provides tools that enable the user to search the database, retrieve data, generate reports, analyze data, annotate records, and build genetic maps. The Encyclopedia of the Mouse Genome provides a graphic user interface to mouse genome data. It consists of software tools including: LinkMap, a graphic display of genetic linkage maps with the ability to magnify regions of high locus density: CytoMap, a graphic display of cytogenetic maps showing banded chromosomes with cytogenetic locations of genes and chromosomal aberrations; CATS, a catalog searching tool for text retrieval of mouse locus descriptions. These software tools provide access to the following data sets: Chromosome Committee Reports, MIT Genome Center data, GBASE reports, Mouse Locus Catalog (MLC), and Mouse Cytogenetic Mapping Data. The MGD is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web (WWW) and Gopher. In addition GBASE can be accessed via the Internet.

  20. Mouse papillary lung tumors transplacentally induced by N-nitrosoethylurea: evidence for alveolar type II cell origin by comparative light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Rehm, S; Ward, J M; ten Have-Opbroek, A A; Anderson, L M; Singh, G; Katyal, S L; Rice, J M

    1988-01-01

    A histogenetic study was designed to evaluate controversial findings on the cell of origin of tubular/papillary lung tumors in mice, i.e., bronchiolar Clara cell versus alveolar type II cell. N-Nitrosoethylurea (0.5 mmol or 0.74 mmol/kg) was given to pregnant C3H (C3H/HeNCr MTV-) and Swiss Webster [Tac:(SW)fBR] mice as a single i.p. injection on Day 14, 15, 16, or 18 of gestation. The offspring were studied at various ages ranging from 7 days to 52 wk. Serial sections of the whole lung (100 to 200 sections per mouse) showed that solid/alveolar and papillary tumors arose from the pulmonary acinus, invading the bronchioles only as the tumors grew. Furthermore, a mixture of solid and papillary patterns within a single module did not represent a merging of two tumors but a progression from the solid to the papillary form. By use of two rabbit antisera against mouse lung surfactant apoproteins found in normal alveolar type II cells, it was shown by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex procedure, by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and by indirect immunofluorescence that both solid and papillary tumors contained these proteins that are specific markers for alveolar type II cells. With a rabbit anti-rat Clara cell antiserum, none of the tumors studied was immunoreactive while normal Clara cells were reactive. The nitroblue tetrazolium formazan stain for dehydrogenase enzymes, found particularly in Clara cells, did not reveal these enzymes in any lung tumors from either strain. Ultrastructurally, no typical features of the mature Clara cell were detected in papillary or other pulmonary neoplasms. However, all tumors showed characteristic alveolar type II cell structures such as various stages of lamellar body formation, although these features were less well differentiated in the papillary tumors. Argentaffin dense bodies, representing lysosomes and immature forms of lamellar bodies, were commonly observed in papillary tumors. Some features of the papillary tumors

  1. Cloning the laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, T; Yanagimachi, R

    1999-06-01

    A brief account is given of early attempts to clone mammals (mice) by transferring cells (nuclei) of preimplantation embryos into enucleated oocytes, zygotes or blastomeres of two-cell embryos. This is followed by a brief review of recent successes using adult somatic cells: mammary gland cells for sheep, muscle cells for cattle and cumulus cells for mice. We have developed a technique for cloning the laboratory mouse by transferring cumulus cell nuclei into enucleated oocytes. With this technique, we have produced a population of over 80 cloned animals, and have carried the process over four generations. Development and fertility of these appear normal. However, the yield is very low; only approximately 1% of injected oocytes are carried to term. The challenge is now to understand the reason for this high loss. Is it a problem of technique, genomic reprogramming, somatic mutation, imprinting or incompatible cell cycle phases?

  2. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  3. Bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages from lipopolysaccharide responder and nonresponder mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Cuffini, A; Carlone, N A; Forni, G

    1980-01-01

    The phagocytic capacity of macrophages from C3H/H3J mice was assessed against lipopolysaccharide-producing (Escherichia coli) and -nonproducing (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Despite their gene-coded unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and lymphokines and their defective tumoricidal activity, proteose peptone-induced C3H/HeJ macrophages did not display a defective phagocytic capacity, but rather displayed an enhanced phagocytosis of both bacterial strains compared with macrophages from closely related C3H/HeN mice. Unstimulated peritoneal resident C3H/HeJ macrophages, on the other hand, displayed a normal phagocytic activity toward E. coli and enhanced phagocytosis toward S. aureus. PMID:6995321

  4. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  5. A molecular insight into Darwin’s “plant brain hypothesis” through expression pattern study of the MKRN gene in plant embryo compared with mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Wadekar, Hanumant Baburao; Ravi, Nagganatha Suganthan; Arumugam, Thangavelu Umashankar; Morita, Eugene Hayato; Abe, Shunnosuke

    2012-01-01

    MKRN gene family encodes zinc ring finger proteins characterized by a unique array of motifs (C3H, RING and a characteristic cys-his motif) in eukaryotes. To elucidate the function of the MKRN gene and to draw an analogy between plant root apical meristem and animal brain, we compared the gene expression pattern of MKRN in plant seeds with that of mouse embryo. The spatio-temporal expression of MKRN in seeds of pea and rice was performed using non radioactive mRNA in situ hybridization (NRISH) with DIG and BIOTIN labeled probes for pea and rice embryos respectively. Images of MKRN1 expression in e10.5 whole mount mouse embryo, hybridized with DIG labeled probes, were obtained from the Mouse Genome Database (MGD). MKRN transcripts were expressed in the vascular bundle, root apical meristem (RAM) and shoot apical meristem (SAM) in pea and rice embryos. The spatial annotation of the MKRN1 NRISH of whole mount mouse embryo shows prominent localization of MKRN1 in the brain, and its possible expression in spinal cord and the genital ridge. Localization of MKRN in the anterior and posterior ends of pea and rice embryo suggests to the probable role it may have in sculpting the pea and rice plants. The expression of MKRN in RAM may give a molecular insight into the hypothesis that plants have their brains seated in the root. The expression of MKRN is similar in functionally and anatomically analogous regions of plant and animal embryos, including the vascular bundle (spinal cord), the RAM (brain), and SAM (genital ridge) thus paving way for further inter-kingdom comparison studies. PMID:22499205

  6. Different rankings of inbred mouse strains on the Morris maze and a refined 4-arm water escape task.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, Douglas; Cooper, Sean F; Crabbe, John C

    2005-11-30

    The submerged platform or Morris water escape task is widely used to study genetic variation in spatial learning and memory, but interpretation is sometimes difficult because of wall hugging, jumping off the platform, floating or non-spatial swim strategies. We modified the task by introducing four wide arms into the circular tank and adding features that reduced, eliminated, or compensated for several competing behaviors. Three versions of the 4-arm task were evaluated in detail, and the third version yielded good results for six of eight inbred strains. Furthermore, the 4-arm task could be scored adequately without computerized video tracking. Although performance on the 4-arm task was generally superior to the Morris maze, the extent of the improvement was strain dependent. Two strains with retinal degeneration (C3H/HeJ, FVB/NJ) performed poorly on both the Morris and 4-arm mazes, whereas C57BL/6J and DBA/2J did well on both mazes. A/J performed poorly on the Morris task but became very proficient on the 4-arm maze, despite its strong tendency to hug the walls of the tank. The BALB/cByJ strain, on the other hand, exhibited the best probe trial performance on the Morris maze but was very slow in acquiring the 4-arm task. We conclude that no single task can reveal the full richness of spatially guided behavior in a wide range of mouse genotypes. PMID:16191444

  7. Computer Workstation: Pointer/Mouse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and long term use. Potential Hazards: When the sensitivity for the input device is not appropriately set, ... provide adequate control. A mouse that has insufficient sensitivity may require large deviation of the wrist to ...

  8. Mouse models for cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Moore, Lynette; Ji, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to learn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Journal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue. PMID:21352691

  9. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  10. Reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes with thrombin-treated mouse platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1989-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with mouse platelets before and after thrombin treatment was assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-BrMRBC antibodies could bind to thrombin-treated platelets, although normal platelets were also weakly reactive with the antibodies. The binding of anti-BrMRBC antibodies to platelets was confirmed by complement-dependent lysis. It is suggested that thrombin-activated platelets may be a real target for anti-BrMRBC antibodies. PMID:2467876

  11. Construction of mouse adenovirus type 1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Cauthen, Angela N; Welton, Amanda R; Spindler, Katherine R

    2007-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus provides a model for studying adenovirus pathogenesis in the natural host. The ability to make viral mutants allows the investigation of specific mouse adenoviral gene contributions to virus-host interactions. Methods for propagation and titration of wild-type mouse adenovirus, production of viral DNA and viral DNA-protein complex, and transfection of mouse cells to obtain mouse adenovirus mutants are described in this chapter. Plaque purification, propagation, and titration of the mutant viruses are also presented.

  12. Mink-mouse interspecific hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Ufimtseva, E G; Galakhar, N L; Matjakhina, L D; Khlebodarova, T M; Djatchenko, S N

    1991-08-01

    Mink-mouse interspecific hybridomas were produced by fusion of the american mink spleen cells with the NSO cells. Seven cloned lines of the mink-mouse hybridoma were isolated, and their functional mink Ig secretion and karyological characteristics are given. During cytogenetic analysis of mink-mouse hybridoma cell lines, we observed the elimination of mink chromosomes, and inter- and intralineral variability of the numbers of the cells with particular quantities of mink DNA. We did not find that the characteristic peculiarities of mink DNA distribution in the hybridoma cell lines had any bearing upon the secretion or non-secretion of mink Ig. There was no synthesis of lambda-L-chains of mink Ig in line 7 cells because the line lost the lambda-gene. With the aid of in situ hybridization with 3H-labeled total mink DNA, a considerable transformation of hybridoma cell karyotype was observed. Multiple integration of the mink DNA into mouse chromosomes and the appearance of chromosomes not characteristic for either the mink or mouse parent cells were noted. Increasing numbers of cells with translocations of mink chromosomes fragments into mouse chromosomes were found in the hybridoma lines cultivated for lengthy periods. PMID:1937502

  13. Mouse genetics: Catalogue and scissors

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young Hoon; Baek, In-Jeoung; Seong, Je Kyung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Lee, Han-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO) mice has revolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. As the use of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells is inevitable for conventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout mice remains a very time-consuming and expensive process. To accelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses of KO mice, international efforts have organized global consortia such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC), and they are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that is publicly available for the researches studying specific genes of interests in vivo. However, new technologies, adopting zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) or Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE) Nucleases (TALENs) to edit the mouse genome, are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternative for the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, we introduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate the significance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(12): 686-692] PMID:23261053

  14. Radiation induction of cancer of the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Burns, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of epidermal tumors was studied using exposures to 25 kV x-rays with or without subsequent exposures to 12-0-tetradeconyl phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet radiation (uvr) 280-400 nm. Fractionation regimens and total exposure up to 4000R produced no squamous cell carcinomas. When these regimes were followed by TPA an incidence of about 80% was obtained, and incidence of 60% when uvr exposures followed the x-irradiation. A dose-dependent increase in fibrosarcomas was found when x-irradiation was followed by 24 weeks of topical treatment with TPA. These results support the contention that uvr can enhance the expression of cells initiated by x-rays. The experimental evidence is compared with the data from the tinea capitis patients treated with x-rays. In C3HF/He male mice exposed to 50, 100, 150 and 200 rads /sup 137/Cs gamma rays the induction rate for fibrosarcomas was 2.9 x 10/sup -4/ per cGy/per mouse. This result compares with 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ transformations per surviving cell per cGy with 10T1/2 cells that are fibroblasts derived from C3H mice. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Improved generation of germline-competent embryonic stem cell lines from inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Schoonjans, Luc; Kreemers, Veerle; Danloy, Sophie; Moreadith, Randall W; Laroche, Yves; Collen, Désiré

    2003-01-01

    Genetically altered mice may exhibit highly variable phenotypes due to the variation in genetic background, which can only be circumvented by generation of inbred, isogenic gene-targeted and control mice. Here we report that an embryonic stem (ES) cell culture medium conditioned by a rabbit fibroblast cell line transduced with genomic rabbit leukemia inhibitory factor allows efficient derivation and maintenance of ES cell lines from all of 10 inbred mouse strains tested, including some that were presumed to be nonpermissive for ES cell derivation (129/SvEv, 129/SvJ, C57BL/6N, C57BL/6JOla, CBA/CaOla, DBA/2N, DBA/1Ola, C3H/HeN, BALB/c, and FVB/N). Germline transmission was established by blastocyst injection of established ES cell lines after 10 or more passages from all of seven strains tested (129/SvJ, C57BL/6N, C57BL/6JOla, DBA/2N, DBA/1Ola, BALB/c, and FVB/N), by diploid aggregation of ES cell lines from all of four strains tested (129/SvEv, C57BL/6N, CBA/ CaOla, and FVB/N), or by tetraploid aggregation of ES cell lines from all of three strains tested (129/SvEv, C57BL/6N, and CBA/CaOla). Thus, these inbred ES cell lines may constitute useful tools to derive gene-targeted mice and isogenic controls in selected genetic backgrounds.

  16. ROS activates JNK-mediated autophagy to counteract apoptosis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-yu; Jiang, Xiao-xue; Zhu, Xin; He, Wei-yang; Kuang, You-lin; Ren, Ke; Lin, Yong; Gou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) is hampered by apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In diabetic ED, there is increased oxidative stress and decreased NO in the corpora cavernosa, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In this study we examined whether and how autophagy was involved in ROS-induced apoptosis of MSCs. Methods: Mouse C3H10 MSCs were treated with H2O2 to simulate the high oxidative condition in diabetic ED. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blot assays. Intracellular autophagosome accumulation was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (50–400 μmol/L) inhibited the cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, H2O2 (300 μmol/L) induced apoptosis, as well as activated autophagy in MSCs. Pretreatment with lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (10 μmol/L) or PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine (5 mmol/L) significantly enhanced H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L) abrogated H2O2-induced accumulation of LC3-II, and attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of Bcl-2 levels in MSCs. Conclusion: ROS induce autophagy to counteract apoptosis in MSCs by activation of JNK. Thus, augmentation of autophagy may reduce apoptosis, prolonging MSC survival and improving MSC-based therapeutic efficacy for diabetic ED. PMID:26592514

  17. Congenic Strains Confirm the Pleiotropic Effect of Chromosome 4 QTL on Mouse Femoral Geometry and Biomechanical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kristianto, Jasmin; Litscher, Suzanne J.; Johnson, Michael G.; Patel, Forum; Patel, Mital; Fisher, Jacqueline; Zastrow, Ryley K.; Radcliff, Abigail B.; Blank, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    A pleiotropic quantitative trait locus (QTL) for bone geometry and mechanical performance in mice was mapped to distal chromosome 4 via an intercross of recombinant congenic mice HcB-8 and HcB-23. To study the QTL in isolation, we have generated C3H.B10-(rs6355453-rs13478087) (C.B.4.3) and C3H.B10-(rs6369860-D4Mit170) (C.B.4.2) congenic strains that harbor ~20 Mb and ~3 Mb, respectively, of chromosome 4 overlapping segments from C57BL/10ScSnA (B10) within the locus on a C3H/DiSnA (C3H) background. Using 3-point bend testing and standard beam equations, we phenotyped these mice for femoral mid-diaphyseal geometry and biomechanical performance. We analyzed the results via 2-way ANOVA, using sex and genotype as factors. In the C.B.4.3 strain, we found that homozygous B10/B10 male mice had smaller cross sectional area (CSA) and reduced total displacement than homozygous C3H/C3H mice. Sex by genotype interaction was also observed for maximum load and stiffness for C3H/C3H and B10/B10 mice, respectively. In C.B.4.2 strain, we found that homozygous B10/B10 mice had lower total displacement, post-yield displacement (PYD), stiffness, yield load and maximum load than mice harboring C3H allele. Sex by genotype interaction was observed in B10/B10 mice for perimeter, outer minor axis (OMA) and CSA. There were no significant differences in tissue level mechanical performance, which suggest that the QTL acts primarily on circumferential bone size. These data confirm the prior QTL mapping data and support other work demonstrating the importance of chromosome 4 QTL on bone modeling and bone responses to mechanical loading. PMID:26849124

  18. 10. international mouse genome conference

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  19. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  20. Modeling metastasis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Paula D.; Nguyen, Don X.; Massagué, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis is a complex clinical and biological problem presently under intense study, and several model systems are in use to experimentally recapitulate and dissect the various steps of the metastatic process. Genetically engineered mouse models provide faithful renditions of events in tumor progression, angiogenesis, and local invasion that set the stage for metastasis, whereas engrafting of human or mouse tumor tissues into mouse hosts has been successfully exploited to investigate metastatic dissemination and colonization of distant organs. Real-time, high-resolution microscopy in live animals, and comprehensive genetic and molecular profiling are effective tools to interrogate diverse metastatic cancer cell phenotypes as well as the metastatic tumor microenvironment in different organs. By integrating the information obtained with these complementary approaches the field is currently obtaining an unprecedented level of understanding of the biology, molecular basis, and therapeutic vulnerabilities of metastasis. PMID:20598638

  1. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): mouse biology and model systems.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Blake, Judith A

    2008-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database, (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org/), integrates genetic, genomic and phenotypic information about the laboratory mouse, a primary animal model for studying human biology and disease. MGD data content includes comprehensive characterization of genes and their functions, standardized descriptions of mouse phenotypes, extensive integration of DNA and protein sequence data, normalized representation of genome and genome variant information including comparative data on mammalian genes. Data within MGD are obtained from diverse sources including manual curation of the biomedical literature, direct contributions from individual investigator's laboratories and major informatics resource centers such as Ensembl, UniProt and NCBI. MGD collaborates with the bioinformatics community on the development of data and semantic standards such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology. MGD provides a data-mining platform that enables the development of translational research hypotheses based on comparative genotype, phenotype and functional analyses. Both web-based querying and computational access to data are provided. Recent improvements in MGD described here include the association of gene trap data with mouse genes and a new batch query capability for customized data access and retrieval.

  2. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) —

    Cancer.gov

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) comprises a group of major mouse genetics research institutions along with national funding organisations formed to address the challenge of developing an encyclopedia of mammalian gene function.

  3. Lipid Extraction from Mouse Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Daniel; Yang, Qin; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of feces composition is important for the study of energy metabolism, which comprises various measurements of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy wasting. The current protocol describes how to measure energy-dense lipids in mouse feces using a modification of the method proposed by Folch et al. (1957). PMID:27110587

  4. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients.

  5. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  6. Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Phillipe D.; Sakowski, Stacey A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. DPN is characterized by progressive, distal-to-proximal degeneration of peripheral nerves that leads to pain, weakness, and eventual loss of sensation. The mechanisms underlying DPN pathogenesis are uncertain, and other than tight glycemic control in type 1 patients, there is no effective treatment. Mouse models of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are critical to improving our understanding of DPN pathophysiology and developing novel treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss the most widely used T1DM and T2DM mouse models for DPN research, with emphasis on the main neurologic phenotype of each model. We also discuss important considerations for selecting appropriate models for T1DM and T2DM DPN studies and describe the promise of novel emerging diabetic mouse models for DPN research. The development, characterization, and comprehensive neurologic phenotyping of clinically relevant mouse models for T1DM and T2DM will provide valuable resources for future studies examining DPN pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24615439

  7. Mouse models of myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Beachy, Sarah H.; Aplan, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Three general approaches have been used in an attempt to model myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in mice, including treatment with mutagens or carcinogens, xenotransplantation of human MDS cells, and genetic engineering of mouse hematopoietic cells. Xenotransplantation of cells from MDS patients has proved difficult, possibly due to the innate characteristics of the MDS clone and microenvironmental influences, including adverse effects of a host immune response. Genetic engineering of hematopoietic cells or mice has been accomplished by in vitro transfer of genes to mouse hematopoietic cells with subsequent transplantation into an irradiated host, or by modification of the mouse germline to generate mice with altered expression of genes of interest. A number of genes have been studied using these approaches, including RUNX1, Evi1, Npm1, SALL4B, NUP98-HOXD13, BCL2/NRAS, Arid4a, Polg and Dido. This review discusses the phenotypes observed in available mouse models for MDS with a concentration on a model that leads to aberrant expression of conserved homeobox (HOX) genes that are important regulators of normal hematopoiesis. Utilizing these models of MDS should allow a more complete understanding of the disease process and provide a platform for pre-clinical testing of therapeutic approaches. PMID:20359631

  8. Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest in the tissue in its natural state and environment. PMID:27547786

  9. Mouse models of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Ban, Joanne; Phillips, William D

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a muscle weakness disease characterized by autoantibodies that target components of the neuromuscular junction, impairing synaptic transmission. The most common form of myasthenia gravis involves antibodies that bind the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Many of the remaining cases are due to antibodies against muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Recently, autoantibodies against LRP4 (another component of the MuSK signaling complex in the postsynaptic membrane) were identified as the likely cause of myasthenia gravis in some patients. Fatiguing weakness is the common symptom in all forms of myasthenia gravis, but muscles of the body are differentially affected, for reasons that are not fully understood. Much of what we have learnt about the immunological and neurobiological aspects of the pathogenesis derives from mouse models. The most widely used mouse models involve either passive transfer of autoantibodies, or active immunization of the mouse with acetylcholine receptors or MuSK protein. These models can provide a robust replication of many of the features of the human disease. Depending upon the protocol, acute fatiguing weakness develops 2 - 14 days after the start of autoantibody injections (passive transfer) or might require repeated immunizations over several weeks (active models). Here we review mouse models of myasthenia gravis, including what they have contributed to current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and their current application to the testing of therapeutics.

  10. Comparison of fracture healing among different inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Michaele B; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative trait locus analysis can be used to identify genes critically involved in biological processes. No such analysis has been applied to identifying genes that control bone fracture healing. To determine the feasibility of such an approach, healing of femur fractures was measured between C57BL/6, DBA/2, and C3H inbred strains of mice. Healing was assessed by radiography and histology and measured by histomorphometry and biomechanical testing. In all strains, radiographic bridging of the fracture was apparent after 3 weeks of healing. Histology showed that healing occurred through endochondral ossification in all strains. Histomorphometric measurements found more bone in the C57BL/6 fracture calluses 7 and 10 days after fracture. In contrast, more cartilage was present after 7 days in the C3H callus, which rapidly declined to levels less than those of C57BL/6 or DBA/2 mice by 14 days after fracture. An endochondral ossification index was calculated by multiplying the callus percent cartilage and bone areas as a measure of endochondral ossification. At 7 and 10 days after fracture, this value was higher in C57BL/6 mice. Using torsional mechanical testing, normalized structural and material properties of the C57BL/6 healing femurs were higher than values from the DBA/2 or C3H mice 4 weeks after fracture. The data indicate that fracture healing proceeds more rapidly in C57BL/6 mice and demonstrate that genetic variability significantly contributes to the process of bone regeneration. Large enough differences exist between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 or C3H mice to permit a quantitative trait locus analysis to identify genes controlling bone regeneration.

  11. Mouse Models of Human Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Shedlovsky, A.; McDonald, J. D.; Symula, D.; Dove, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) results from a deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although this inborn error of metabolism was among the first in humans to be understood biochemically and genetically, little is known of the mechanism(s) involved in the pathology of PKU. We have combined mouse germline mutagenesis with screens for hyperphenylalaninemia to isolate three mutants deficient in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity and cross-reactive protein. Two of these have reduced PAH mRNA and display characteristics of untreated human PKU patients. A low PHE diet partially reverses these abnormalities. Our success in using high frequency random germline point mutagenesis to obtain appropriate disease models illustrates how such mutagenesis can complement the emergent power of targeted mutagenesis in the mouse. The mutants now can be used as models in studying both maternal PKU and somatic gene therapy. PMID:8375656

  12. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  13. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Beck, J A; Lloyd, S; Hafezparast, M; Lennon-Pierce, M; Eppig, J T; Festing, M F; Fisher, E M

    2000-01-01

    The mouse is a prime organism of choice for modelling human disease. Over 450 inbred strains of mice have been described, providing a wealth of different genotypes and phenotypes for genetic and other studies. As new strains are generated and others become extinct, it is useful to review periodically what strains are available and how they are related to each other, particularly in the light of available DNA polymorphism data from microsatellite and other markers. We describe the origins and relationships of inbred mouse strains, 90 years after the generation of the first inbred strain. Given the large collection of inbred strains available, and that published information on these strains is incomplete, we propose that all genealogical and genetic data on inbred strains be submitted to a common electronic database to ensure this valuable information resource is preserved and used efficiently.

  14. Retinofugal Projections in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Studholme, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is increasingly a subject for visual system investigation, but there has been no comprehensive evaluation of this species’ visual projections. Here, projections were visualized and mapped following intraocular injection of cholera toxin B subunit. Tissue was processed using standard procedures applied to 30 Am free floating sections with diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. The mouse retina projects to approximately 46 brain regions, including 14 not previously described in this species. These include two amygdaloid nuclei, the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, several visual thalamic nuclei, the paranigral nucleus, several pretectal nuclei, and the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus. Dense retinal patches were also observed in a narrow portion of the ipsilateral intermediate layer of the superior colliculus. The superior fasciculus of the accessory optic tract, which innervates the medial terminal nucleus, was also determined to be a terminal zone throughout its length. The results are compared with previous descriptions of projections from mouse intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells, and with data from the hamster, Nile grass rat and laboratory rat. The retinal projection patterns are similar in all four species, although there are many differences with respect to the details. The specific visual functions of most retinorecipient areas are unknown, but there is substantial convergence of retinal projections onto regions concerned with olfaction and audition. PMID:24889098

  15. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  16. [PRODUCT OF THE BMI1--A KEY COMPONENT OF POLYCOMB--POSITIVELY REGULATES ADIPOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION OF MOUSE MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N S; Vereschagina, N A; Sushilova, E N; Kropotov, A V; Miheeva, N F; Popov, B V

    2016-01-01

    Bmil is a key component of Polycomb (PcG), which in mammals controls the basic functions of mammalian somatic stem cells (SSC) such as self-renewal and differentiation. Bmi1 supports SSC via transcriptional suppression of genes associated with cell cycle and differentiation. The most studied target genes of Bmi1 are the genes of Ink4 locus, CdkI p16(Ink4a) and p1(Arf), suppression of which due to activating mutations of the BMI1 results in formation of cancer stem cells (CSC) and carcinomas in various tissues. In contrast, inactivation of BMI1 results in cell cycle arrest and cell senescence. Although clinical phenomena of hypo- and hyperactivation of BMI1 are well known, its targets and mechanisms of regulation of tissue specific SSC are still obscure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the regulatory role of BMI1 in adipocyte differentiation (AD) of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Induction of AD in mouse MSC of the C3H10T1/2 cell line was associated with an increase in the expression levels of BMI1, the genes of pRb family (RB, p130) and demethylase UTX, but not methyltransferase EZH2, whose products regulate the methylation levels of H3K27. It was observed earlier that H3K27me3 may play the role of the epigenetic switch by promoting AD of human MSC via activating expression of the PPARγ2, the master gene of AD (Hemming et al., 2014). Here we show that inactivation of BMI1 using specific siRNA slows and decreases the levels of AD, but does not abolish it. This is associated with a complete inhibition of the expression of adipogenic marker genes--PPARγ2, ADIPOQ and a decrease in the expression of RB, p130, but not UTX. The results obtained give evidence that the epigenetic mechanism regulating AD differentiation in mouse and human MSC is different.

  17. Mouse embryonic stem cells with a multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome for transchromosomic mouse generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Endo, Takeshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) has several advantages as a gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance of the exogenous genetic material and the ability to carry large and/or multiple gene inserts including their regulatory elements. Previously, a MAC containing multi-integration site (MI-MAC) was generated to facilitate transfer of multiple genes into desired cells. To generate transchromosomic (Tc) mice containing a MI-MAC with genes of interest, the desired genes were inserted into MI-MAC in CHO cells, and then the MI-MAC was transferred to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). However, the efficiency of MMCT from CHO to mES cells is very low (<10(-6)). In this study, we constructed mES cell lines containing a MI-MAC vector to directly insert a gene of interest into the MI-MAC in mES cells via a simple transfection method for Tc mouse generation. The recombination rate of the GFP gene at each attachment site (FRT, PhiC31attP, R4attP, TP901-1attP and Bxb1attP) on MI-MAC was greater than 50% in MI-MAC mES cells. Chimeric mice with high coat colour chimerism were generated from the MI-MAC mES cell lines and germline transmission from the chimera was observed. As an example for the generation of Tc mice with a desired gene by the MI-MAC mES approach, a Tc mouse strain ubiquitously expressing Emerald luciferase was efficiently established. Thus, the findings suggest that this new Tc strategy employing mES cells and a MI-MAC vector is efficient and useful for animal transgenesis.

  18. Mouse embryonic stem cells with a multi-integrase mouse artificial chromosome for transchromosomic mouse generation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Nakamura, Kazuomi; Endo, Takeshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    The mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) has several advantages as a gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance of the exogenous genetic material and the ability to carry large and/or multiple gene inserts including their regulatory elements. Previously, a MAC containing multi-integration site (MI-MAC) was generated to facilitate transfer of multiple genes into desired cells. To generate transchromosomic (Tc) mice containing a MI-MAC with genes of interest, the desired genes were inserted into MI-MAC in CHO cells, and then the MI-MAC was transferred to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). However, the efficiency of MMCT from CHO to mES cells is very low (<10(-6)). In this study, we constructed mES cell lines containing a MI-MAC vector to directly insert a gene of interest into the MI-MAC in mES cells via a simple transfection method for Tc mouse generation. The recombination rate of the GFP gene at each attachment site (FRT, PhiC31attP, R4attP, TP901-1attP and Bxb1attP) on MI-MAC was greater than 50% in MI-MAC mES cells. Chimeric mice with hi