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Sample records for ca15-3 il-8 levels

  1. Study on IL-2 and CA 15-3 level as combined biomarkers in monitoring chemotherapeutic response among invasive breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Ahmed Muthanna Abdul; Hamid, Auni Fatin Abdul; Shahfiza Noor, Nurul; Appalanaido, Gokula Kumar; Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Shahrul

    2017-05-01

    In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most frequent type of disease among women. This study was designed to determine the clinical usefulness of carbohydrate antigen (CA 15-3) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) levels as combined biomarkers in monitoring breast cancer patient’s response to chemotherapy. Ethical approval was obtained to recruit patients with histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) attending Oncology Clinic at Advanced Medical and Dental Institute. Whole blood was collected from 10 IDC breast cancer patients’ pre and post primary chemotherapy. Plasma was separated from the whole blood to determine the CA 15-3 level and IL-2 level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) pre and post-treatment. In addition, the histological findings, tumour stage and other patients’ data were obtained from the medical record. Findings showed that IL-2 had borderline significant changes between pre- and post-chemotherapy (p = 0.074) whereas for CA 15-3, there was insignificant differences of CA 15-3 level between pre and post-chemotherapy (p > 0.05). It was noted that only CA 15-3 level had significant correlation with tumour size. This study demonstrates that IL-2 level requires further investigation in a larger sample size to correlate its potential use as combined biomarker with CA 15-3 in monitoring response to chemotherapy.

  2. Elevated IL-8 levels during sickle cell crisis.

    PubMed

    Duits, A J; Schnog, J B; Lard, L R; Saleh, A W; Rojer, R A

    1998-11-01

    The vaso-occlusive process (VOC) in sickle cell disease is of a complex nature. It involves intricate interactions between sickle red blood cells, endothelium and probably also leukocytes. As these interactions are regulated by cytokines, we analyzed the role of the potent neutrophil chemokine IL-8 by measuring serum levels in sickle cell patients during sickle cell crisis. These results were compared to nonsymptomatics and healthy controls. In patients having a vaso-occlusive crisis both HbSS and HbSC patients showed significantly enhanced serum IL-8 levels compared to healthy controls. Several of these patients showed extremely elevated serum IL-8 levels which were independent of the crisis inducing factor. Furthermore, a sickle cell patient with VOC as a complication of rhGM-CSF treatment similarly showed high IL-8 serum levels at crisis onset. Nonsymptomatic sickle cell patients serum IL-8 levels were comparable to healthy controls. These results implicate a role for IL-8 at or during (the initiation of) sickle cell crisis.

  3. High levels of serum CA15-3 and residual invasive tumor size are associated with poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with non-pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yukie; Higuchi, Tomoko; Nishimukai, Arisa; Miyagawa, Yoshimasa; Kira, Ayako; Ozawa, Hiromi; Bun, Ayako; Imamura, Michiko; Miyoshi, Yasuo

    2018-06-24

    To identify surrogate markers for prognosis of breast cancer patients with non-pathological complete response (non-pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), our investigation focused on serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA15-3) as well as clinicopathological factors both pre- and post-NAC. A total of 185 breast cancer patients treated with NAC were recruited. Serum CEA and CA15-3 were measured at baseline and at completion of NAC. Among the non-pCR cancers (n = 142), disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with CA15-3-low at baseline (3-year DFS: 0.908, n = 73) was significantly better than of those with CA15-3-high (3-year DFS: 0.681, n = 69, P = 0.0134). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that baseline CA15-3 levels (hazard ratio (HR): 3.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-10.23; P = 0.0122) and residual invasive size (HR: 4.47, 1.26-28.39; P = 0.0171) were significant independent factors for DFS. The combination of these factors proved to be accurate predictor for DFS regardless of breast cancer subtypes. The combination of residual invasive size and serum CA15-3 levels at baseline seems to be a significant and independent surrogate marker of poor outcome for patients with non-pCR. These findings suggest that these markers may be useful for identifying patients with inferior prognosis and candidates for additional adjuvant treatments. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Low IL-8 is associated with anxiety in suicidal patients: genetic variation and decreased protein levels.

    PubMed

    Janelidze, S; Suchankova, P; Ekman, A; Erhardt, S; Sellgren, C; Samuelsson, M; Westrin, A; Minthon, L; Hansson, O; Träskman-Bendz, L; Brundin, L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of suicidality. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that in addition to its function in the immune system also exert neuroprotective properties. The involvement of this chemokine in neuropsychiatric conditions is incompletely known. We measured plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-8, as well as the genotype frequency of a single nucleotide polymorphism (-251A/T, rs4073) in the promoter region of the IL8 gene, in suicide attempters (n=206) and healthy controls (n=578). Plasma and CSF levels of IL-8 were significantly lower in suicide attempters with anxiety than in healthy controls. IL-8 in both plasma and CSF correlated negatively with symptoms of anxiety. Compared with the population-based cohort, the IL-8-251T allele was more prevalent among female suicide attempters. Furthermore, suicide attempters carrying this allele showed more severe anxiety. This correlative study warrants further mechanistic studies on the effects of IL-8 in the central nervous system. We suggest that IL-8 might be involved in the biological mechanisms mediating resilience to anxiety. Thus, our findings highlight the chemokine IL-8 as a potential target for future development of anti-anxiety treatments and suicide prevention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the importance of the serum levels of CA-125, CA15-3, CA-19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha fetoprotein for distinguishing benign and malignant adnexal masses and contribution of different test combinations to diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Yumru, A E; Aral, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPPV) of the serum levels of CA-125, CA15-3, CA19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian tumors histopathologically diagnosed in patients and to determine the effects of the different test combinations on diagnostic accuracy. One-hundred sixty-eight patients that had their preoperative CA-125, CA15-3, CA19-9, CEA, AFP levels assessed and that were subsequently surgically treated for adnexal masses, were included in the study. For each tumor markers in these patients with histopathologically-confirmed diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, and diagnostic accuracy, and odds ratio were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of CA125 with cut-off 35 U/ml, were found to be 78.9%, 86.9%, 63.8%, and 93.3%, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio of CA-125 with cut-off of 35 U/ml, was found to be 25. With cut-off65 U/ml, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV values were 65.7%, 95.3%, 80.6%, and 90.5%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CEA were 16%, 93%, 37%, and 83%, respectively. For AFP, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were to be 2.6%, 98%, 33.3%, and 77.5%, respectively. For CA 15-3, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found to be 26.3% 96.1%, 66.6%, and 81.6%, respectively. Likelihood ratio tests: positive (LR+) = 6.83 and negative (LR-) = 0.76, with an odds ratio: 8.9. The risk of malignancy for adnexal masses with higher CA15-3 increased by approximately nine times. For CA19-9, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV value were found to be 18.4%, 93%, 43.7%, and 79.6%, respectively. CA19-9 was not statistically significant in the differentiation of benign and malignant of adnexal masses. Even the combinations of CA125 + CEA + CA19-9 and CA125 + CEA + CA19-9 +AFP and CA125 + CA15-3

  6. IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in gyneco-obstetric infections.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Beatriz; Giménez, Francisco; López, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy. METHODS: The selected patients were: healthy or control group (n = 52), those with bacterial vaginosis (n = 47), those with vaginitis (n = 37), those with asymptomatic urinary infection (n = 15) and post-treatment. The level of cytokines was assayed by ELISA test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The IL-1beta levels in vaginal discharge were: control 103.5 +/- 24.2 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 1030 +/- 59.5, vaginitis 749.14 +/- 66.7l ( p < 0.0001), post-treatment 101.4 +/- 28.7. IL-6 values were similar in both control and infected groups, and there were no patients with chorioamnionitis. In vaginal discharge IL-6: control 14.2 +/- 3.9 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 13.2 +/- 3.8, vaginitis 13 +/- 4.2. IL-8 levels were: control 1643 +/- 130.3 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 2612.7 +/- 257.7, vaginitis 3437 +/- 460 (p < 0.0001), post-treatment 1693 +/- 126.6. In urine the results were: control 40.2 +/- 17 pg/ml, asymptomatic urinary infection 1200.7 +/- 375 (p < 0.0001). In patients with therapeutic success both IL-1beta and IL-8 returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Genitourinary infections induce a significant increase in IL-1beta and IL-8 levels in vaginal secretions, and IL-8 in urine as well. Both cytokines could be useful as evolutive markers of infection. PMID:16338780

  7. Contributions of HLA haplotypes, IL8 level and Toxoplasma gondii infection in defining celiac disease's phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Peña, Amado Salvador; Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Hamid; Rostami, Kamran; Volta, Umberto; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2018-05-18

    It is not clear why some patients with coeliac disease (CD) present with severe symptoms and small intestinal mucosal damages while others present with milder symptoms and no frank enteropathy. There is no study to assess the associated factors with mild/severe symptoms and enteropathy. The terminologies like latent, silent and potential are difficult to use and are unrepresentative. In the present study we describe coeliac disease's phenotypes based on HLA haplotypes, IL8 production and past infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. In this case-control study, sera originating from 150 healthy subjects and 150 patients diagnosed with CD during the years 2013-14 were analyzed for the presence of antibodies specific T. gondii of the IgG and IgM subclasses. The level of IL8 were measured and HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 alleles were genotyped. The correlation between these parameters and the damages in intestinal mucosal were assessed using an accepted histopathological classification. High levels of IgG antibodies against T. gondii were found in the sera of control group compared to the CD group (52.6% vs. 39.4%, P = 0.02). Mean serum levels of IL8 was significantly higher in CD patients compared with control (P ≤ 0.05). By comparing the level of anti- T. gondii IgG and mucosal damage in celiac disease, we found a significant relationship between the severity of mucosal damages and anti- T. gondii IgG level (P = 0.02). No correlation was detected between Toxoplasma gondii infection and types of HLA (P > 0.05). However, patients with severely abnormal histology carried HLA-DQ2 risk alleles (92 patients (61%)) more often than the controls and those with mild histological abnormalities. CD patients with severe histological changes had more often Toxoplasma gondii infection than those affected with mild histological features. This suggests that CD's phenotypes are correlated to additional factors like infections and to particular HLA DQ2 alleles

  8. High tumor levels of IL6 and IL8 abrogate preclinical efficacy of the γ-secretase inhibitor, RO4929097.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Luistro, Leopoldo; Carvajal, Daisy; Smith, Melissa; Nevins, Tom; Yin, Xuefeng; Cai, James; Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Rizzo, Christine; Packman, Kathryn; Heimbrook, David; Boylan, John F

    2011-06-01

    Interest continues to build around the early application of patient selection markers to prospectively identify patients likely to show clinical benefit from cancer therapies. Hypothesis generation and clinical strategies often begin at the preclinical stage where responder and nonresponder tumor cell lines are first identified and characterized. In the present study, we investigate the drivers of in vivo resistance to the γ-secretase inhibitor RO4929097. Beginning at the tissue culture level, we identified apparent IL6 and IL8 expression differences that characterized tumor cell line response to RO4929097. We validated this molecular signature at the preclinical efficacy level identifying additional xenograft models resistant to the in vivo effects of RO4929097. Our data suggest that for IL6 and IL8 overexpressing tumors, RO4929097 no longer impacts angiogenesis or the infiltration of tumor associated fibroblasts. These preclinical data provide a rationale for preselecting patients possessing low levels of IL6 and IL8 prior to RO4929097 dosing. Extending this hypothesis into the clinic, we monitored patient IL6 and IL8 serum levels prior to dosing with RO4929097 during Phase I. Interestingly, the small group of patients deriving some type of clinical benefit from RO4929097 presented with low baseline levels of IL6 and IL8. Our data support the continued investigation of this patient selection marker for RO4929097 and other types of Notch inhibitors undergoing early clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IL8 and IL16 levels indicate serum and plasma quality.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga; Henry, Estelle; Quesada, Rocio Aguilar; Bulla, Alexandre; Linares, Hector Navarro; Lescuyer, Pierre; Shea, Kathi; Stone, Mars; Tybring, Gunnel; Bellora, Camille; Betsou, Fay

    2018-02-09

    Longer pre-centrifugation times alter the quality of serum and plasma samples. Markers for such delays in sample processing and hence for the sample quality, have been identified. Twenty cytokines in serum, EDTA plasma and citrate plasma samples were screened for changes in concentration induced by extended blood pre-centrifugation delays at room temperature. The two cytokines that showed the largest changes were further validated for their "diagnostic performance" in identifying serum or plasma samples with extended pre-centrifugation times. In this study, using R&D Systems ELISA kits, EDTA plasma samples and serum samples with a pre-centrifugation delay longer than 24 h had an IL16 concentration higher than 313 pg/mL, and an IL8 concentration higher than 125 pg/mL, respectively. EDTA plasma samples with a pre-centrifugation delay longer than 48 h had an IL16 concentration higher than 897 pg/mL, citrate plasma samples had an IL8 concentration higher than 21.5 pg/mL and serum samples had an IL8 concentration higher than 528 pg/mL. These robust and accurate tools, based on simple and commercially available ELISA assays can greatly facilitate qualification of serum and plasma legacy collections with undocumented pre-analytics.

  10. Intratracheal fiber glass instillation in rats: IL8 and lymphocytes levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, correlation with the histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    HANCU, BIANCA DOMOKOS; POP, MONICA

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fiberglass (FG) is the largest category of man –made mineral fibers. Many types of FG are manufactured for specific uses building insulation, air handling, and sound absorption. Because of increasing use and potential for widespread human exposure, a chronic toxicity instillation study was conducted in Wistar rats, which were found to be sensitive to the induction of mesotheliomas with another MMVF. Aim The present study is focused on the effect of fiber glass on lung through intratracheal exposure, the analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of IL 8 levels, lymphocytes number and histopathological finding after the exposure period. Material and method Four groups of 8 female Wistar rats were included in the study. The animals were divided into three groups of 8 each, exposed to different doses of FG and one control group. The first group (1–8) was exposed to 6 mg dose/0.2 ml saline 5 days/week for 10 weeks, the second (9–16) group was exposed to 10 mg/0.2 ml saline 5 days/week 10 weeks, the third group (17–24) was exposed to 12 mg FG/0.2 ml saline solution 5 days/week 10 weeks and the control group (25–32) was exposed to the same volume of saline. The fibers had been size selected to be rat respirable. At the end of the exposure period of 10 weeks the rats were killed one week after the last exposure. Following preparation of the lungs, they were lavaged with 2x5 ml saline without massage. The lavage fluid was collected in calibrated tubes and harvested volume was recorded. Supernatant was obtained after centrifugation at 1,500 r.p.m for 5 minutes and IL8 levels and lymphocytes number were measured. Results The IL8 levels were found to be dose related; the first group had values ranging from 10 to 19.8 pg/ml and the total lymphocytes number in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ranging from 1,500–1,900 and minimal/slight inflammatory lesions. The second group had the IL8 levels ranging between 60.4–80.4 pg/ml, lymphocytes number

  11. Association of CA 15-3 and CEA with clinicopathological parameters in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Geng, Biao; Liang, Man-Man; Ye, Xiao-Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of serum cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels with clinicopathological parameters in patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 284 patients diagnosed with MBC between January, 2007 and December, 2012 who fulfilled the specified criteria and the association between the levels of the two tumor marker and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Of the 284 patients, elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels at initial diagnosis of recurrence were identified in 163 (57.4%) and 97 (34.2%) patients, respectively. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were significantly associated with breast cancer molecular subtypes (P<0.001 and P=0.032, respectively). Cases with luminal subtypes exhibited a higher percentage of elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels compared to non-luminal subtypes. Elevated CA 15-3 level was correlated with bone metastasis (P=0.017). However, elevation of CEA was observed regardless of the site of metastasis. Elevation of CA 15-3 was significantly more common in MBC with multiple metastatic sites compared to MBC with a single metastasis (P=0.001). However, the incidence of elevated CEA levels did not differ between patients with a single and those with multiple metastatic sites. In conclusion, elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels at initial diagnosis of recurrence were found to be associated with breast cancer molecular subtypes, whereas an elevated CA 15-3 level was significantly correlated with bone metastasis and an elevated CEA level was observed regardless of metastatic site. The proportion of MBC cases with elevated CA 15-3 levels differed according to the number of metastatic sites.

  12. Postoperative elevation of CA15-3 due to pernicious anemia in a patient without evidence of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yayoi; Kikumori, Toyone; Miyajima, Noriyuki; Inaishi, Takahiro; Onishi, Eiji; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Dai; Hayashi, Hironori; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is considered as a marker for breast cancer recurrence. However, we encountered a case where the patient showed postoperative elevation of the CA15-3 level due to pernicious anemia without evidence of breast cancer recurrence. The patient was a 60-year-old postmenopausal woman. She had undergone partial mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for her T1 left breast cancer. SLNB had indicated no lymph node metastases. The tumor was positive for hormone receptors and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Therefore, an aromatase inhibitor and external beam irradiation had been administered as adjuvant therapy. However, the CA15-3 level was found to be elevated at 6 months postoperatively. Although imaging studies did not indicate breast cancer recurrence, CA15-3 levels continued to increase. Based on the findings of blood tests and gastroendoscopy, a diagnosis of pernicious anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency was finally confirmed at 2 years and 6 months postoperatively. The CA15-3 level returned to normal after vitamin B12 administration. The possibility of pernicious anemia should be considered in cases of postoperative elevated CA15-3 levels with no evidence of recurrence in patients with early breast cancer.

  13. Cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and TGFβ) as potential biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Volpin, Gershon; Cohen, Miri; Assaf, Michael; Meir, Tamar; Katz, Rina; Pollack, Shimon

    2014-06-01

    Much research is now being conducted in order to understand the role of cytokines in the development of the inflammatory response following trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether serum levels of certain cytokines, measured immediately after initial injury, can be used as potential biomarkers for predicting the development and the degree of severity of the systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) in patients with moderate and severe trauma. We conducted a prospective study with 71 individuals of whom 13 (18.3 %) were healthy controls and 58 (81.7 %) were traumatized orthopaedic patients who were categorized into two groups: 31 (43.6 %) with moderate injuries and 27 (38.1 %) patients with severe orthopaedic trauma. Thirty cc of heparinized blood were drawn from each individual within a few hours after the injury. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory, regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in each individual participant. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β,-6,-8,-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were found in all injured patients compared to healthy controls. Only IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the injured patients. Levels of the regulatory cytokines, transformed growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-10 were higher in the injured patients, but significant only for TGF-β. Levels of IL-4 were significantly lower in the injured groups as compared to the controls. Secretion of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased level of anti-inflammatory cytokines during the acute phase of trauma may lead to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in unstable polytraumatized patients. SIRS may result in life threatening conditions as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). High levels of IL-6, IL-8, TGFβ and low levels of IL-4 were found to be reliable markers for the existence of immune reactivity in trauma patients. More

  14. [Correlation of IL-8 and IL-6 in prostatic fluid with serum prostate-specific antigen level in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated by prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Ren, Xingfei; Wu, Chunlei; Yu, Qinnan; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huiqing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 in the prostatic fluid with serum levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) complicated by prostatitis. A series of 211 patients undergoing surgery of BPH were divided into BPH group (n=75) and BPH with prostatitis group (n=136) according to the white blood cell count in the prostatic fluid. The clinical and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups, and stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the association of IL-8 and IL-6 with serum PSA level. No significant differences were found in age, BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, IPSS score, PSA-Ratio, or prostate volume between the two groups (P<0.05). The patients with prostatitis had significantly increased serum PSA and prostate fluid IL-8 and IL-6 levels compared with those without prostatitis (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that IL-8 and IL-6 levels and white blood cell count in the prostatic fluid were all positively correlated with serum PSA level. Prostatitis is an important risk factor for elevated serum PSA level in patients with BPH, and both IL-8 and IL-6 levels in the prostatic fluid are correlated with serum PSA level.

  15. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients produce higher levels of chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1) and CXCL8 (IL-8).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Judith; Chen, Mei; Hogg, Ruth E; Toth, Levente; Silvestri, Giuliana; Chakravarthy, Usha; Xu, Heping

    2017-02-23

    Infiltrating immune cells including monocytes/macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the cytokine and chemokine expression and secretion profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from nAMD patients and the relationship between the cytokine/chemokine expression profile and clinical phenotype of nAMD, including macular fibrosis, macular atrophy or the responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy. One hundred sixty-one nAMD patients and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. nAMD patients were divided into subgroups based on the presence/absence of (1) macular atrophy, (2) macular fibrosis and (3) responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy; 25-30 ml of peripheral blood were obtained from all participants and 5 ml were used for serum collection, and the remaining were used for PBMC isolation using density gradient centrifugation. Intracellular cytokine expressions by PBMCs following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin stimulation were examined using flow cytometry. Cytokine productions in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-or 1% oxygen -treated PBMC were measured using cytometric bead array (CBA) assay. In addition, cytokine and chemokine levels in the serum were also measured by CBA assay. PBMCs from nAMD patients secreted higher levels of IL-8, CCL2 and VEGF, especially following LPS and 1% oxygen stimulation, than those from controls. 60~80% of IL-8 producing cells were CD11b + CD3 - monocytes. The percentage of CD11b + CD3 - IL-8 + was significantly increased in nAMD patients compared to controls. PBMCs from nAMD patients without macular fibrosis produced the highest levels of IL-8 and CCL2, whilst PBMCs from nAMD patients with macular atrophy produced highest levels of VEGF. In addition, PBMCs from patients who partially responded to anti-VEGF produced higher levels of IL-8 compared to the cells from complete responders. Interestingly, serum level

  16. Evaluation of serum CA27.29, CA15-3 and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, M F; Chen, Y L; Tseng, T F; Lin, C M; Chen, M S; Huang, C J; Huang, Y S; Hsieh, J S; Huang, T J; Jong, S B; Huang, Y F

    1999-09-01

    The Truquant BR radioimmunoassay (RIA) using monoclonal antibody BR 27.29 to recognize a peptide sequence on the MUC-1 gene product for quantification of the CA 27.29 antigen in serum was used in this report to evaluate in 145 patients with breast cancer and compared the other conventional serum markers such as CA15-3 and CEA. The upper limit of normal (25 u/ml) was determined from CA27.29 values 12.4 +/- 4.1 u/ml (mean +/- 3 S.D.) for 112 female subjects apparently free of disease. The CA15-3 levels above 25 u/ml and CEA levels above 5 ng/ml were considered positive values. Thirty-seven cases of 145 patients studied had elevated CA 27.29 levels (sensitivity: 25.5%), 35 of 145 had positive CA15-3 levels (sensitivity 24.1%) and 27 of 145 patients had positive CEA levels (sensitivity: 18.6%) (p < 0.05). One hundred and ten cases of the breast cancer patients (75.8%) did not have metastatic disease. In this group CA 27.29 sensitivity was 6.4%, while CA15-3 sensitivity was 5.5% and CEA sensitivity was 4.5% (p > 0.05). Mean values were 10.2 +/- 9.2 u/ml for CA 27.29, 14.1 +/- 5.6 u/ml for CA 15-3 and 1.7 +/- 1.5 ng/ml for CEA. Thirty-five patients (24.2%) had metastatic disease. In this group CA 27.29 sensitivity was 85.7%, CA15-3 sensitivity was 82.8% and CEA sensitivity was 62.8% (p < 0.05). Mean values for CA27.29 was 152.6 +/- 131.6 u/ml, CA15-3 was 123.1 +/- 107.6 u/ml and 21.8 +/- 36.9 ng/ml of CEA. With regard to the correlation of three tumor markers with clinical stages, patients had significantly higher levels of CA27.29 than CEA, but they were similar to CA 15-3 in metastatic breast cancer. These results suggest CA27.29 to be more sensitive and specific than CEA, but that it is similar to CA15-3 for metastatic breast cancer detection and monitoring.

  17. A new competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (MRP83-CA15-3) for MUC1 measurement in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnejad, J; Rasaee, Mohammad J; Saqhafi, B; Rajabibazl, M; Rahbarizadeh, F; Omidfar, K; Paknejad, M

    2006-01-01

    A new competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed in this study. Monoclonal antibody (PR81) against the tandem repeat of the core protein was prepared, characterized, purified, and conjugated to HRP. This antibody exhibited no cross reactions with proteins such as bovine serum albumin, keyhole limpet homocyanin, human serum albumin, casein, human milk fat globin (HMFG), and peptone. The native cancerous MUC1 protein was purified from ascites fluid of a patient suffering from small cell lung carcinoma by immunoaffinity chromatography and used as a standard preparation in the assay buffer. The standard curve was constructed following a competitive procedure in the range of 0-200 U/mL. The level of MUC1 in normal and cancerous samples was compared following this procedure and using available CA15-3 EIA (Can Ag), as well as LIAISON CA15-3 commercial kits. The correlation coefficient between the procedure reported in this work (MRP83-CA15-3) and CA15-3 EIA (Can Ag) was 0.68 and was 0.95 with the LIAISON CA15-3 kit. We concluded that the present assay can detect MUC1 in breast cancer patients with great sensitivity and accuracy.

  18. Role of elevated plasma soluble ICAM-1 and bronchial lavage fluid IL-8 levels as markers of chronic lung disease in premature infants.

    PubMed Central

    Little, S.; Dean, T.; Bevin, S.; Hall, M.; Ashton, M.; Church, M.; Warner, J.; Shute, J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Pulmonary neutrophilia characterises both the relatively transient inflammation associated with infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) and the persistent inflammation of chronic lung disease. The possibility that persistently raised markers of inflammation indicate the development of chronic lung disease in low birth weight (< 1730 g) preterm (< 31 weeks) infants was therefore investigated. METHODS--Soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels in plasma, and interleukin (IL)-8 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) obtained from 17 infants on days 1, 5, and 14 following birth were measured and correlations with the number of neutrophils in BLF sought. Peripheral neutrophils were isolated on Polymorphoprep and chemotactic responsiveness to IL-8 was assessed using micro Boyden chambers. RESULTS--Sixteen infants developed IRDS and, of these, 10 infants subsequently developed chronic lung disease. Levels of IL-8 in BLF at 14 days of age correlated with the long term requirement for intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Interleukin 8 levels in BLF correlated with neutrophil numbers and MPO concentration, suggesting both recruitment and activation in response to this cytokine. Antibody depletion studies showed that approximately 50% of total neutrophil chemotactic activity in BLF was due to IL-8. No difference in peripheral neutrophil chemotactic responsiveness at any age was observed for infants with IRDS or chronic lung disease. Plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) was higher at 14 days of age in infants who developed chronic lung disease than in those with resolving IRDS, and correlated with severity of disease, as indicated by duration of IPPV. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that high levels of plasma sICAM-1 and IL-8 in BLF at day 14 correlate with the development of chronic lung disease and indicate the severity of disease. PMID:7491556

  19. Concordance analysis of paired cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 and 27.29 testing.

    PubMed

    Lin, David C; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2018-01-01

    Cancer antigens (CA) 15-3 and 27.29 are used in the clinical management of many breast cancer patients. Given that immunoassays for CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 target epitopes on the same glycoprotein-Mucin 1 (MUC1)-the present analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential concordance of tumor marker results when both tests were ordered by providers on the same specimens. A retrospective limited dataset of paired CA 15-3 (Roche Diagnostics) and CA 27.29 (Siemens Diagnostics) test results was obtained from a national clinical reference laboratory. Concordance according to reference interval (RI) status and percent (%) change between consecutive test results was analyzed. 37,652 paired results from 12,470 distinct patients were obtained. The correlation between CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 results was high (correlation coefficient: Pearson, 0.967), although across the dataset a significant difference between CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 results was observed (P < 0.05). RI concordance between CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 results was observed in 93.7% of pairs (35,280 of 37,652). Correlation was also observed in the % change of CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 results between consecutive specimens for individual patients. Using doubling or halving thresholds (i.e., 100% increase or 50% decrease), concordance in % change was observed between CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 in approximately 90% of cases. Individual patient results trended similarly across both markers over time. While generally concordant, CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 results should not be used interchangeably. The present report provides no evidence for added value in performing both tests routinely for individual patients.

  20. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, T; Lohse, L; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture in 6-month-old Danish pigs, the strains used for inoculation were classified as being of low (Bergen), low to moderate (Eystrup) and moderate to high (Lithuania) virulence. The cytokines interferon-alpha (INF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed increased levels after CSFV infection with more or less comparable course in the 3 groups. However, the cytokine level peaked with a 2-3 days delay in pigs infected with the low virulent strain compared to those infected with a moderately or highly virulent strain. These findings may indicate that INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α are involved in the immune response during CSFV infection with strains of different virulence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CA15.3 serum concentrations in older women with infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Padín-Iruegas, María Elena; Arias, José Ignacio; Herranz, Michel

    2014-10-31

    Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3±4.2; range: 71-88; median 76). A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8±4.0; range: 55-70; median 63) was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL), and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041) tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age.

  2. CA15.3 Serum Concentrations in Older Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Padín-Iruegas, María Elena; Arias, José Ignacio; Herranz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3 ± 4.2; range: 71–88; median 76). A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8 ± 4.0; range: 55–70; median 63) was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL), and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041) tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age. PMID:25365176

  3. Plasma Inflammatory Cytokine IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α Levels Correlate with Pulmonary Function in Patients with Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Overlap Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Xia; Lu, Li-Wen; Liu, Wen-Juan; Huang, Mao

    2016-08-09

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma inflammatory cytokine levels and their correlations with pulmonary function in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January 2013 and December 2014, a total of 96 patients with asthma, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), or ACOS were enrolled, and 35 healthy people were included as a control group. Fasting plasma interleukin (IL)-4, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlations between the plasma inflammatory cytokine levels and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/predicted value ratio (FEV1%pred), and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) were analyzed. RESULTS IL-4 and IL-8 levels showed statistically significant differences among the 3 groups of patients (both P<0.001); IL-4 level was significantly lower, while IL-8 level was significantly higher in the AECOPD group and ACOS group than those in the asthma group (all P<0.05). IL-10 level and TNF-α level were significantly different among the 3 patient groups (both P<0.001). IL-10 level was significantly different between each of the 2 groups (all P<0.001). TNF-α level in the asthma group was higher than in the AECOPD group and ACOS group (both P<0.001). IL-4 and IL-10 were positively and IL-8 and TNF-α were negatively related with FEV1, FEV1%pred, and FEV1/FVC. CONCLUSIONS Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α are related with severity of airway diseases and could be potential markers for the evaluation of asthma, COPD, and ACOS.

  4. Analysis of a Panel of 48 Cytokines in BAL Fluids Specifically Identifies IL-8 Levels as the Only Cytokine that Distinguishes Controlled Asthma from Uncontrolled Asthma, and Correlates Inversely with FEV1

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Huibin; Kurosky, Alexander; Jennings, Kristofer; Sun, Qian; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids that distinguish asthma from healthy control subjects and those that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma. Following informed consent, 36 human subjects were recruited for this study. These included 11 healthy control subjects, 15 subjects with controlled asthma with FEV1≥80% predicted and 10 subjects with uncontrolled asthma with FEV1 <80% predicted. BAL fluid was obtained from all subjects. The numbers of different cell types and the levels of 48 cytokines were measured in these fluids. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients with asthma had significantly more percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils, IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, G-CSF, GROα (CXCL1), MIP-1β (CCL4), MIG (CXCL9), RANTES (CCL5) and TRAIL in their BAL fluids. The only inflammatory markers that distinguished controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma were neutrophil percentage and IL-8 levels, and both were inversely correlated with FEV1. We examined whether grouping asthma subjects on the basis of BAL eosinophil % or neutrophil % could identify specific cytokine profiles. The only differences between neutrophil-normal asthma (neutrophil≤2.4%) and neutrophil-high asthma (neutrophils%>2.4%) were a higher BAL fluid IL-8 levels, and a lower FEV1 in the latter group. By contrast, compared to eosinophil-normal asthma (eosinophils≤0.3%), eosinophil-high asthma (eosinophils>0.3%) had higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, IL-16, and PDGF-bb, but same neutrophil percentage, IL-8, and FEV1. Our results identify neutrophils and IL-8 are the only inflammatory components in BAL fluids that distinguish controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma, and both correlate inversely with FEV1. PMID:26011707

  5. Multicenter evaluation of the Bayer Immuno I CA 15-3 assay.

    PubMed

    Cheli, C D; Morris, D L; Kish, L; Goldblatt, J; Neaman, I; Allard, W J; Yeung, K K; Wu, A H; Moore, R; Chan, D W; Fritsche, H A; Schwartz, M K; Very, D L

    1998-04-01

    We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the analytical and clinical features of the automated Bayer Immuno 1 CA 15-3 assay and compared assay performance to two manual tests. Results of the 10-day imprecision study of the Bayer Immuno 1 assay pooled across four evaluation sites and three lots of reagent produced total CV < or = 4%. Lot-to-lot reproducibility for 26 different lots of reagents and calibrators manufactured over a 2-year period was demonstrated (CV, 1.1%). Results for the Bayer Immuno 1 assay correlated well with the Biomira TRUQUANT BR 27.29 and Centocor CA 15-3 RIAs (r > or = 0.94). The upper limit of the reference interval for the Bayer Immuno 1 assay was 35.9 kilounits/L (35.9 units/mL); values were similar for all methods. Longitudinal monitoring of healthy women yielded assay values with an average CV of 11% and 21% for the Bayer Immuno 1 and Biomira assays, respectively. The Bayer Immuno 1 assay demonstrated the analytical features, intermethod correlation, and long-term performance characteristics that are essential for longitudinal monitoring of breast cancer patients.

  6. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of CA27.29 and CA15.3 in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gion, M; Mione, R; Leon, A E; Dittadi, R

    1999-05-01

    A new, fully automated method that measures the breast cancer-associated glycoprotein CA27.29 has become commercially available. The aim of the present study was to compare this CA27.29 assay with the assay that measures CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. The study was performed retrospectively on preoperative serum samples collected from 275 patients with untreated primary breast cancer (154 node positive and 121 node negative). Eighty-three healthy control subjects were also evaluated. CA27.29 was measured using the fully automated Chiron Diagnostics immunochemiluminescent system (ACS:180 BR). CA15.3 was measured with a manual immunoradiometric method (Centocor CA15.3 RIA). In healthy subjects, CA15.3 was significantly higher than CA27.29 (P <0. 0001). On the other hand, in breast cancer patients CA27.29 was higher than CA15.3 (P = 0.013). The mean value found in the control group plus 2 SD was chosen as the positive/negative cutoff point. The overall positivity rates were 34.9% for CA27.29 and 22.5% for CA15.3. The area under the ROC curve was greater (P <0.001) for CA27. 29 (0.72) than for CA15.3 (0.61). Both markers showed a statistically significant, direct relationship, with pathological stage being higher in node-positive than in node-negative cases and in larger than in smaller tumors. Neither CA27.29 nor CA15.3 showed significant associations with age, menopausal status, or tumor receptor status. CA27.29 discriminates primary breast cancer from healthy subjects better than CA15.3, especially in patients with limited disease. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this conclusion. Copyright 1999 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3

    PubMed Central

    Artico, M.; Bronzetti, E.; Alicino, V.; Ionta, B.; Bosco, S.; Grande, C.; Bruno, M.; Tranquilli Leali, F. M.; Ionta, G.; Fumagalli, L.

    2010-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  8. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Alicino, V; Ionta, B; Bosco, S; Grande, C; Bruno, M; Tranquilli Leali, F M; Ionta, G; Fumagalli, L

    2010-03-11

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  9. CEA, CA 15-3, and TPS as Prognostic Factors in the Follow-up Monitoring of Patients After Radical Surgery for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Svobodova, Sarka; Kucera, Radek; Fiala, Ondrej; Marie, Karlikova; Narsanska, Andrea; Zedníková, Ilona; Treska, Vladislav; Slouka, David; Milena, Rousarova; Topolcan, Ondrej; Finek, Jindrich

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) to predict relapse in breast cancer patients, when the measurement of biomarkers is performed within 6 months after surgery. Four hundred and seventy-two patients with breast cancer were evaluated. TPS, CEA, and CA 15-3 were measured in months 1, 3, and 6, after surgery. Disease recurrence was recorded between 7-12 months after surgery. Disease recurrence occurred in 60 patients, while 412 patients remained in recurrence-free status. TPS levels of the recurrence group differed statistically significantly in the first and sixth month after surgery compared to recurrence-free group (p=0.0339, AUC=0.6056; p<0.0001, AUC=0.7196). CEA and CA 15-3 measurements did not achieve a statistically significant difference for any month examined. TPS level in the sixth month after surgery is the best candidate biomarker to predict disease recurrence. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Disposable electrochemical detection of breast cancer tumour marker CA 15-3 using poly(Toluidine Blue) as imprinted polymer receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J A; Pereira, C M; Silva, A F; Sales, M Goreti F

    2018-06-30

    In this work, electrically-conducting poly(Toludine Blue) was employed for the first time as synthetic receptor film, prepared by Molecular Imprinting strategies and using electrochemical methods, for the specific screening of breast cancer biomarker Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). The protein imprinted poly(Toluidine Blue) film was grown in a pre-formed Toluidine Blue (TB) tailed SAM at the AuSPE surface, which greatly enhanced the stability against degradation of the Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) film at the electrode surface. The MIP receptor film recognition ability towards the protein was investigated by fitting data to Freundlich isotherm. The binding affinity (K F ) obtained for the MIP system was significantly higher (~ 12-fold) to that obtained for the NIP system, demonstrating the success of the approach in creating imprinted materials that specifically respond to CA 15-3 protein. The incubation of the MIP modified electrode with increasing concentration of protein (from 0.10 U mL -1 to 1000 U mL -1 ) resulted in a decrease of the ferro/ferricyanide redox current. The device displayed linear response from 0.10 U mL -1 to 100 U mL -1 and LODs below 0.10 U mL -1 were obtained from calibration curves built in neutral buffer and diluted artificial serum, using DPV technique, enabling the detection of the protein biomarker at clinically relevant levels. The developed MIP biosensor was applied to the determination of CA 15-3 in spiked serum samples with satisfactory results. The developed device provides a new strategy for sensitive, rapid, simple and cost-effective screening of CA 15-3 biomarker. Importantly, the overall approach seems suitable for point-of-care (PoC) use in clinical context. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Optofluidic ring resonator sensor for sensitive label-free detection of breast cancer antigen CA15-3 in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongying; Dale, Paul S.; Fan, Xudong

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide. Because of its great impact on society, a lot of research funding has been used to develop novel detection tools for aiding breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this work, we demonstrated a simple, fast, and sensitive detection of circulating breast cancer biomarker CA15-3 with opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensors. The OFRR sensor employs a thin-walled capillary with wall thickness less than 4 μm. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the optical ring resonator, in which the light circulates in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The capillary wall is thin enough that the evanescent field of the WGM extends into the capillary core and responds to refractive index changes in the capillary core or close to its interior surface. The WGM spectral position will change when the biomolecules bind to the surface, yielding quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction. Here, the direct immunoassay method was employed for the detection of CA15-3 antigen without any signal amplification steps. The sensor performance in both PBS buffer and human serum were investigated, respectively. The experimental detection limit was 5 units/mL in PBS buffer and 30 units/mL for CA15-3 spiked in serum, both of which satisfied clinical diagnosis requirements. The potential use of the OFRR as the point-of-care device for breast cancer detection was tested by measuring the CA15-3 level in blood samples collected from stage IV breast cancer patients and the results were compared with standard clinical test.

  12. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, H Y; Kwon, O J; Choi, D C

    1999-04-01

    Recent publications have suggested an active participation of neutrophils to induce bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust (GD). To further understand the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma, this investigation was designed to determine whether human bronchial epithelial cells could produce IL-8 production and to observe the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four concentrations (1 to 200 microg/mL) of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant, which was derived from the culture of PBMC from a GD-induced asthmatic subject under the exposure to 10 microg/mL of GD, and compared with those cultured without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production, four concentrations (5 to 5000 ng/mL) of dexamethasone were pre-incubated for 24 hours and the same experiments were repeated. There was significant production of IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05), which was significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05) at each concentration. Compared with the untreated sample, pretreatment of dexamethasone could induced a remarkable inhibitions (15% to 55%) of IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to neutrophil recruitment occurring in GD-induced airway inflammation. The downregulation of IL-8 production by dexamethasone from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to the efficacy of this compound in

  13. IL-8 is upregulated in cervical cancer tissues and is associated with the proliferation and migration of HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linlin; Li, Fengying; Shao, Mingliang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Chunbin; Zhao, Xiaolian; Luan, Haiyan; Qi, Yaling; Zhang, Pengxia; Liang, Lichun; Jia, Xiuyue; Zhang, Kun; Lu, Yan; Yang, Zhe; Zhu, Xiulin; Zhang, Qi; Du, Jiwei; Wang, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) serves an important function in chronic inflammation and cancer development; however, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of IL-8 in uterine cervical cancer remains unclear. The present study investigated whether IL-8 and its receptors [IL-8 receptor (IL-8R)A and IL-8RB] contributed to the proliferative and migratory abilities of HeLa cervical cancer cells, and also investigated the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Results demonstrated that IL-8 and its receptors were detected in HeLa cells, and levels of IL-8RA were significantly increased compared with those of IL-8RB. Furthermore, the level of IL-8 in cervical cancer tissues was significantly increased compared with that in normal uterine cervical tissues, and migratory and proliferative efficiencies of HeLa cells treated with exogenous IL-8 were increased, compared with untreated HeLa cells. In addition, exogenous IL-8 was able to downregulate endocytic adaptor protein (NUMB), and upregulate IL-8RA, IL-8RB and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) expression levels in HeLa cells. Results suggest that IL-8 and its receptors were associated with the tumorigenesis of uterine cervical cancer, and exogenous IL-8 promotes the carcinogenic potential of HeLa cells by increasing the expression levels of IL-8RA, IL-8RB and ERK, and decreasing the expression level of NUMB.

  14. MEK-dependent IL-8 induction regulates the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Jeon, Myeongjin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) serves as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, and its expression level correlates with metastatic breast cancer and poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the levels of IL-8 expression in a variety of breast cancer cells and the regulatory mechanism of IL-8 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Our results showed that IL-8 expression correlated positively with overall survival in basal-type breast cancer patients. The levels of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were significantly increased in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC cells. In addition, the invasiveness of the TNBC cells was dramatically increased by IL-8 treatment and then augmented invasion-related proteins such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 or MMP-9. We observed that elevated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were suppressed by a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126. In contrast, the overexpression of constitutively active MEK significantly increased the level of IL-8 mRNA expression in BT474 non-TNBC cells. Finally, we investigated the effect of UO126 on the tumorigenecity of TNBC cells. Our results showed that anchorage-independent growth, cell invasion, and cell migration were also decreased by UO126 in TNBC cells. As such, we demonstrated that IL-8 expression is regulated through MEK/ERK-dependent pathways in TNBC cells. A diversity of MEK blockers, including UO126, may be promising for treating TNBC patients.

  15. CA 15-3 predicting breast cancer relapse: beware of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rassy, Elie El; Ghor, Maya Al; Kattan, Joseph

    2018-05-10

    A sustained increase of cancer antigen 15-3 serum levels was found in a 54-year-old woman treated 2 years ago for early stage breast cancer, without any evidence of cancer recurrence. The patient thereafter developed severe megaloblastic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation with B12 to reverse the anemia led to the normalization of the cancer antigen 15-3 serum levels. As such, with the limited understanding of molecular biology, the integrative approach of clinical history, physical examination, and diagnostic imaging remain pivotal in the management of cancer patients.

  16. IL-8 expression and its possible relationship with estrogen-receptor-negative status of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Ariane; Chauveau, Corine; Brouillet, Jean-Paul; Lucas, Annick; Lacroix, Matthieu; Licznar, Anne; Vignon, Françoise; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) status is an important parameter in breast cancer management as ER-positive breast cancers have a better prognosis than ER-negative tumors. This difference comes essentially from the lower aggressiveness and invasiveness of ER-positive tumors. Here, we demonstrate, that IL-8 was clearly overexpressed in most ER-negative breast, ovary cell lines and breast tumor samples tested, whereas no significant IL-8 level could be detected in ER-positive breast or ovarian cell lines. We have also cloned human IL-8 from ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells and we show that IL-8 produced by breast cancer cells is identical to monocyte-derived IL-8. Interestingly, the invasion potential of ER-negative breast cancer cells is associated at least in part with expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), but not with IL-8 receptors levels. Moreover, IL-8 increases the invasiveness of ER-positive breast cancer cells by 2 fold, thus confirming the invasion-promoting role of IL-8. On the other hand, exogenous expression of estrogen receptors in ER-negative cells led to a decrease of IL-8 levels. In summary, our data show that IL-8 expression is negatively linked to ER-status of breast and ovarian cancer cells. We also support the idea that IL-8 expression is associated with a higher invasiveness potential of cancer cells in vitro, which suggests that IL-8 could be a novel marker of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:12527894

  17. Evaluation of a newly developed quantitative determination kit for tumor marker CA15-3 with chemiluminescent assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Peihua; Ye, Huiming; Liu, Jiangwu; Jin, Hongwei; Lin, Yongzhi; Yan, Shuidi; Yu, Yang; Gao, Lei; Xu, Feihai; Zhang, Zhongying

    2018-01-01

    Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is used as a biomarker to aid to diagnose and monitor the prognosis of breast cancer patients. A new quantitative determination kit for CA15-3 with chemiluminescent assay was developed by Xiamen InnoDx Biotech Co., Ltd, China. Therefore, we conducted the report to evaluate the performance of the kit. According to the "Guiding principles on performance analysis of diagnostic reagents in vitro", the calibration curve, limit of detection, reportable range, accuracy, precision, anti-interference capability, cross-reaction and comparison by measuring EDTA plasma and serum were carried out. In addition, the kit was performed in parallel to electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kit (Roche) to analyze the correlation between the two kits. Regression equation of calibration curve of the kit was Y=0.7914X+4.1032 (R 2 =.990). Limit of detection was 0.0347 U/mL. The reportable range was 0.5-2400 U/mL. Recovery ratio was 100.0%-104.8%. Coefficient of variations (CVs) of within-run and between-run were 4.8%-7.6% and 5.8%-7.4% respectively. No remarkable interferences (all Bias% were less than ±10%) were detected when samples contained hemoglobin ≤183.8 μmol/L, bilirubin ≤340 μmol/L, triglyceride ≤18.1 mmol/L, or rheumatoid factor ≤400 U/mL. No cross-reaction was present in the kit. Moreover, compared with the results from electrochemiluminescence immunoassay kit (Roche) in 345 serum samples, there was a satisfied correlation coefficient of 0.977 (P<.01), and the kit was simultaneously fit for the detection of EDTA plasma and serum samples. The new kit validated satisfactorily, and it can be used for detecting CA15-3 in clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Knockdown of IL-8 Provoked Premature Senescence of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan-Juan; Ma, Feng-Xia; Wang, You-Wei; Chen, Fang; Lu, Shi-Hong; Chi, Ying; Du, Wen-Jing; Song, Bao-Quan; Hu, Liang-Ding; Chen, Hu; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2017-06-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promise for use in cell therapy, and due to their tumor tropism can serve as vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents to tumor sites. Because interleukin-8 (IL-8) is known to mediate the protumor effect of MSCs, elimination of IL-8 secretion by MSCs may enhance their safety for use in cancer gene therapy. However, little is known concerning the effect of endogenously secreted IL-8 on MSCs. We performed studies using placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs) to determine whether knockdown of IL-8 would influence their biological activity. We first verified that IL-8 and its membrane receptor CXCR2, but not CXCR1, were highly expressed in PMSCs. We then employed lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNA interference to generate stable IL-8-silenced PMSCs, which displayed a variety of characteristic senescent phenotypes. We observed that at day 9 post-transfection, IL-8-silenced PMSCs had become larger and displayed a more flattened appearance when compared with their controls. Moreover, their proliferation, colony forming unit-fibroblast formation, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and immunosuppressive potentials were significantly impaired. Enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and specific global gene expression profiles confirmed that IL-8 silencing evoked the senescence process in PMSCs. Increased levels of p-Akt and decreased levels of FOXO3a protein expression suggested that reactive oxygen species played a role in the initiation and maintenance of senescence in IL-8-silenced PMSCs. Notably, the majority of CXCR2 ligands were downregulated in presenescent IL-8-silenced PMSCs but upregulated in senescent cells, indicating an antagonistic pleiotropy of the IL-8/CXCR2 signaling pathway in PMSCs. This effect may promote the proliferation of young cells and accelerate senescence of old cells.

  19. Predictive Value of IL-8 for Sepsis and Severe Infections after Burn Injury - A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Song, Juquan; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response induced by burn injury contributes to increased incidence of infections, sepsis, organ failure, and mortality. Thus, monitoring post-burn inflammation is of paramount importance but so far there are no reliable biomarkers available to monitor and/or predict infectious complications after burn. As IL-8 is a major mediator for inflammatory responses, the aim of our study was to determine whether IL-8 expression can be used to predict post-burn sepsis, infections, and mortality other outcomes post-burn. Plasma cytokines, acute phase proteins, constitutive proteins, and hormones were analyzed during the first 60 days post injury from 468 pediatric burn patients. Demographics and clinical outcome variables (length of stay, infection, sepsis, multiorgan failure (MOF), and mortality were recorded. A cut-off level for IL-8 was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical significance is set at (p<0.05). ROC analysis identified a cut-off level of 234 pg/ml for IL-8 for survival. Patients were grouped according to their average IL-8 levels relative to this cut off and stratified into high (H) (n=133) and low (L) (n=335) groups. In the L group, regression analysis revealed a significant predictive value of IL-8 to percent of total body surface area (TBSA) burned and incidence of MOF (p<0.001). In the H group IL-8 levels were able to predict sepsis (p<0.002). In the H group, elevated IL-8 was associated with increased inflammatory and acute phase responses compared to the L group (p<0.05). High levels of IL-8 correlated with increased MOF, sepsis, and mortality. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-8 may be a valid biomarker for monitoring sepsis, infections, and mortality in burn patients. PMID:25514427

  20. Amplified FRET based CA15-3 immunosensor using antibody functionalized luminescent carbon-dots and AuNPs-dendrimer aptamer as donor-acceptor.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Salimi, Abdollah; Qaddareh, Somayeh Hamde

    2018-06-13

    We proposed an amplified FRET immunosensing for detection of CA15-3 tumor marker by highly biospecific interactions between CA 15-3 antigen and the corresponding antibody and aptamer. In this sandwich type immunoassay, CA15-3 antibody-functionalized carbon dots and AuNPs labeled PAMAM-Dendrimer/aptamer were used as donor/acceptor, respectively. When CA 15-3 Ag was added to homogenous immunoassay, the strong complex interaction between CA15-3 Ab-CA15-3 Ag- aptamer caused in more coming closer carbon dot and AuNPs and more decreasing fluorescence signal. The decreased fluorescence intensity was linear at three ranges including in concentration range 1.1 μUmL -1 to 16 μU mL -1 with regression of R 2  = 0.9879, at the concentration range 16 μU mL -1 to 0.163 mU mL -1 with regression of R 2  = 0.9944 and at the concentration range 0.163 mU mL -1 to 5.0 mU mL -1 with regression of R 2  = 0.9805. The detection limit of the FRET immunoassay was 0.9 μU mL -1 . In addition, this FRET immunosensing is applicable in diluted human serum. The recovery values were in the range of 95.86-96.97% for CA 15-3 Ag in spiked serum sample with RSD lower than 7.3%. The proposed immunoassay could be a valid model for establishing other immunoassays for detection of different cancer tumor markers with relevant antigens and antibodies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Mechanism of subdural effusion evolves into chronic subdural hematoma: IL-8 inducing neutrophil oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhiqiang; Lin, Yingying; Hu, Maotong; Ding, Shenghong; Li, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is still a mysterious disease. Though great success has been has achieved by neuro-surgery treatment, the origin and development of CSDH remains unknown. Tremendous clinical observations have found the correlation of subdural effusion (SDE) and CSDH. However, systematic elucidation of CSDH's origin and progression is lacking while almost all the current hypothesis only explained partial phenomenon. This hypothesis proposes Interleukin (IL)-8 inducing neutrophil respiratory burst is the crucial impact when SDE evolves into CSDH. IL-8 initially secreted by dural border layer cells, accumulates and the concentration of IL-8 rises in the SDE cavity. Accompanied by the formation of neo-membrane under the dura meninges, IL-8 firstly prompts to establish the neo-vasculature in it, and then attracts lymphocytes aggregation in the neo-membrane. Both the newly recruited lymphocytes and endothelial cells assist the further elevation of local IL-8 concentration. When the IL-8 concentration elevated to a particular level, it attracts neutrophils to the inner wall of neo-vessels and primes them to oxidative burst. Lysosomes and superoxide released by these neutrophils make the fragile neo-capillary became leaky, and subsequently the plasma and blood cells run into SDE. However, as long as the erythrocytes come into the cavity, they shall bind large quantity of IL-8 and decrease IL-8 concentration to a lower level relatively that reduce the neutrophils recruit. When this negative feedback is stagnancy, for example, the SDE space is so large in elder man who is experiencing brain atrophy, the neo-vessels have to release more erythrocytes to bind IL-8, the liquid cavity will expand and the high intracranial pressure symptoms appeared. Our hypothesis holds potential for the proper therapeutic intervention of CSDH. IL-8 antagonist and other anti-inflammation drugs like macrolides antibiotics, glucocorticoid and atorvastatin might be optional to resist

  2. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A.; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H.; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B.; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease. PMID:26267317

  3. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-10-13

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease.

  4. Sensing CA 15-3 in point-of-care by electropolymerizing O-phenylenediamine (oPDA) on Au-screen printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rui S; Moreira, Felismina T C; Fernandes, Ruben; Sales, M Goreti F

    2018-01-01

    This work presents an alternative device for cancer screening in liquid biopsies. It combines a biomimetic film (i) with electrochemical detection (ii). The biomimetic film (i) was obtained by electro-polymerizing amine-substituted benzene rings around a CA 15-3 target. This protein target was previously adsorbed on a gold (Au) support and incubated in charged monomers (4-Styrenesulfonate sodium and 3-Hydroxytyraminium chloride). The protein was further eliminated by enzymatic activity, leaving behind vacant sites for subsequent rebinding. Electrochemical detection (ii) was achieved on an Au working electrode, designed on commercial screen-printed electrodes. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometric readings were used to follow the chemical modification of the Au surface. The ability of the material to rebind CA15-3 was monitored by electrochemical techniques. The device displayed linear responses to CA15-3 ranging from 0.25 to 10.00 U/mL, with detection limits of 0.05 U/mL. Accurate results were obtained by applying the sensor to the analysis of CA15-3 in PBS buffer and in serum samples. This biosensing device displayed successful features for the detection of CA 15-3 and constitutes a promising tool for breast cancer screening procedures in point-of-care applications. Moreover, its scale-up seems feasible as it contains a plastic antibody assembled in situ, in less than 1 minute, and the analysis of serum takes less than 30 minutes.

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce UVB- and TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 secretion in keratinocytes and UVB-induced IL-8 in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Storey, Amy; McArdle, Frank; Friedmann, Peter S; Jackson, Malcolm J; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2005-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced inflammation and other inflammatory states, in vivo. We examined whether this may be mediated by modulation of interleukin (IL)-8, a chemokine pivotal to skin inflammation induced by UVB, in epidermal and dermal cells. We also explored the ability of n-3 PUFA to protect against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induction of IL-8, and assessed relative potencies of the principal dietary n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pre-supplementation, both HaCaT keratinocyte and CCD922SK fibroblast cell lines showed dose-responses for UVB-induced IL-8 release (p<0.001), assessed 48 h post-irradiation. Cells were supplemented with > or =90% purified EPA, DHA, oleic acid (OA) or vehicle control, for 4.5 d. EPA and DHA supplements were bioavailable to keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In keratinocytes, EPA and DHA were shown to reduce basal secretion of IL-8 by 66% and 63%, respectively (p<0.05), and UVB-induced levels by 66% and 65% at 48 h after 100 mJ per cm2, respectively, (p<0.01). A similar pattern occurred in fibroblasts, whereas OA had no influence on IL-8 release in either cell line. In addition, TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 secretion by keratinocytes was reduced by 54% and 42%, respectively, by EPA and DHA (p<0.001). Hence both n-3 PUFA inhibit production of UVB- and TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 in skin cells; this may be important in the photoprotective and other anti-inflammatory effects conferred by these agents.

  6. Polymorphism in the IL-8 Gene Promoter and the Risk of Acne Vulgaris in a Pakistani Population.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Tahir; Sadiq, Irfan; Feroz, Saima; Shafique Satti, Humayoon

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a well-known inflammatory chemokine and suggested to be involved in the development of acne vulgaris. This study investigates IL-8 plasma levels in acne patients and healthy controls and the molecular basis for the regulation of the IL-8 gene in a Pakistani population. Patients with acne vulgaris (n = 264) and healthy individuals (n = 264) were enrolled in this investigation. Plasma IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The genotyping for IL-8 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Our data showed a statistically significant increase in IL-8 levels from acne patients compared with healthy subjects (154.2 ± 52.1 pg/mL in patients vs. 101.6 ± 33.5 pg/mL in controls, p<0.0001). The IL-8-251T>A (rs4073) polymorphism was significantly higher in patients with acne compared with the control group (p=0.013). There was a significant difference between the T and A alleles from acne cases and controls (odds ratio OR=1.6,95 % CI= 1.16-2.19, p=0.003). Logistic-regression analysis showed that the increased IL-8 levels, and the IL-8-251T>A polymorphism were significantly associated with acne. Our data suggest that the elevated IL-8 levels and the IL-8-251T>A polymorphism may be associated with acne vulgaris in the study population.

  7. The diagnostic value of serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weigang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Tian, Baoguo; Wang, Yan; Du, Lili; Sun, Ting; Shi, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianwen; Jing, Jiexian

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to understand the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 164 metastatic breast cancer patients in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were recruited between February 2016 and July 2016. 200 breast cancer patients without metastasis in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The general characteristics, immunohistochemical, and pathological results were investigated between the two groups, and tumor markers were determined. There were statistical differences in the concentration and the positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS between the MBC and control group (P<0.05). The highest sensitivity was in CEA and the highest specificity was in CA125 for the diagnosis of MBC when using a single tumor marker at 56.7% and 97.0%, respectively. In addition, two tumor markers were used for the diagnosis of MBC and the CEA and TPS combination had the highest diagnostic sensitivity with 78.7%, while the CA15-3 and CA125 combination had the highest specificity of 91.5%. Analysis of tumor markers of 164 MBC found that there were statistical differences in the positive rates of CEA and CA15-3 between bone metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =6.00, P=0.014; χ 2 =7.32, P=0.007, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the CEA and CA15-3 combination in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 77.1% and 45.8%, respectively. The positive rate of TPS in the lung metastases group was lower than in other metastases (χ 2 =8.06, P=0.005).There were significant differences in the positive rates of CA15-3 and TPS between liver metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =15.42, P<0.001; χ 2 =9.72, P=0.002, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the CA15-3 and TPS combination in the diagnosis of liver metastases were 92.3% and

  8. Sensing CA 15-3 in point-of-care by electropolymerizing O-phenylenediamine (oPDA) on Au-screen printed electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Rui S.; Moreira, Felismina T. C.; Fernandes, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    This work presents an alternative device for cancer screening in liquid biopsies. It combines a biomimetic film (i) with electrochemical detection (ii). The biomimetic film (i) was obtained by electro-polymerizing amine-substituted benzene rings around a CA 15–3 target. This protein target was previously adsorbed on a gold (Au) support and incubated in charged monomers (4-Styrenesulfonate sodium and 3-Hydroxytyraminium chloride). The protein was further eliminated by enzymatic activity, leaving behind vacant sites for subsequent rebinding. Electrochemical detection (ii) was achieved on an Au working electrode, designed on commercial screen-printed electrodes. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometric readings were used to follow the chemical modification of the Au surface. The ability of the material to rebind CA15-3 was monitored by electrochemical techniques. The device displayed linear responses to CA15-3 ranging from 0.25 to 10.00 U/mL, with detection limits of 0.05 U/mL. Accurate results were obtained by applying the sensor to the analysis of CA15-3 in PBS buffer and in serum samples. This biosensing device displayed successful features for the detection of CA 15–3 and constitutes a promising tool for breast cancer screening procedures in point-of-care applications. Moreover, its scale-up seems feasible as it contains a plastic antibody assembled in situ, in less than 1 minute, and the analysis of serum takes less than 30 minutes. PMID:29715330

  9. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: effect on neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, S S; Kwon, O J

    2000-06-01

    There have been several investigations suggesting an involvement of activated neutrophils in the development of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma. Interleukin-8 in the sputa from GD-induced asthmatic patients increased significantly after the exposure to GD. To confirm IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells when exposed to GD, and to evaluate the role of IL-8 on neutrophil recruitment. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four different concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 microg/mL of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production and neutrophil chemotaxis, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant derived from subjects with GD-induced asthma exposed to 10 microg/mL of GD, and then compared with those without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil chemotactic activity of the culture supernatant was determined by modified Boyden chamber method. Interleukin-8 production and neutrophil chemotactic activity from bronchial epithelial cells significantly increased with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05, respectively), and were significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05, respectively) at each concentration. Close correlation was noted between neutrophil chemotactic activity and IL-8 level (r = 0.87, P < .05). Compared with the untreated sample, pre-treatment of anti-IL-8 antibody induced a significant suppression (up to 67.2%) of neutrophil chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 produced from bronchial epithelial cells may be a major cytokine, which induces neutrophil migration into the airways when exposed to GD.

  10. MCPIP-1, Alias Regnase-1, Controls Epithelial Inflammation by Posttranscriptional Regulation of IL-8 Production.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Ewelina; Wilamowski, Mateusz; Lech, Maciej; Bugara, Beata; Jura, Jolanta; Potempa, Jan; Koziel, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors are critical for the detection of invading microorganisms. They activate multiple pathways that lead to the induction of proinflammatory responses and pathogen clearance. The intensity and duration of this immune reaction must be tightly controlled spatially and temporally in every tissue by different negative regulators. We hypothesized that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein-1 (MCPIP-1) might play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis in the epithelium both under physiological conditions and upon bacterial infection. To this end, we examined the distribution of the MCPIP-1 transcript and protein in various tissues. The MCPIP-1 protein level was higher in epithelial cells than in myeloid cells. MCPIP-1 exerted RNase activity towards the interleukin (IL)-8 transcript and the lifespan of IL-8 was determined by the presence of the stem-loops/hairpin structures at the 3'UTR region of IL-8 mRNA. Moreover, using fully active, purified recombinant MCPIP-1 protein, we elucidated the mechanism by which MCPIP-1 controls the IL-8 mRNA level. In conclusion, we uncovered a novel IL-8-dependent mechanism via which MCPIP-1 maintains epithelial homeostasis. This study reveals for the first time that MCPIP-1 plays a crucial anti-inflammatory role not only in myeloid cells but also in epithelial cells. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Short-term exposure to oleandrin enhances responses to IL-8 by increasing cell surface IL-8 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Raviprakash, Nune; Manna, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One of the first steps in host defence is the migration of leukocytes. IL-8 and its receptors are a chemokine system essential to such migration. Up-regulation of these receptors would be a viable strategy to treat dysfunctional host defence. Here, we studied the effects of the plant glycoside oleandrin on responses to IL-8 in a human monocytic cell line. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH U937 cells were incubated with oleandrin (1-200 ng mL−1) for either 1 h (pulse) or for 24 h (non-pulse). Apoptosis; activation of NF-κB, AP-1 and NFAT; calcineurin activity and IL-8 receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) were measured using Western blotting, RT-PCR and reporter gene assays. KEY RESULTS Pulse exposure to oleandrin did not induce apoptosis or cytoxicity as observed after non-pulse exposure. Pulse exposure enhanced activation of NF-κB induced by IL-8 but not that induced by TNF-α, IL-1, EGF or LPS. Exposure to other apoptosis-inducing compounds (azadirachtin, resveratrol, thiadiazolidine, or benzofuran) did not enhance activation of NF-κB. Pulse exposure to oleandrin increased expression of IL-8 receptors and chemotaxis, release of enzymes and activation of NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 along with increased IL-8-mediated calcineurin activation, and wound healing. Pulse exposure increased numbers of cell surface IL-8 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Short-term (1 h; pulse) exposure to a toxic glycoside oleandrin, enhanced biological responses to IL-8 in monocytic cells, without cytoxicity. Pulse exposure to oleandrin could provide a viable therapy for those conditions where leukocyte migration is defective. PMID:24172227

  12. IL-8 is a key mediator of neuroinflammation in severe traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Kushi, H; Saito, T; Makino, K; Hayashi, N

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 22 patients with severe head injury. The average age was 45 +/- 18.3 years. There were 13 survivors and 9 fatalities. Samples of peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were taken four times, at the time of admission and at 24, 72, and 168 hours later. IL-6: For the survivor group, peripheral blood levels were 181, 105, 37, and 26 pg/ml, respectively (median values). CSF levels were 5376, 3565, 328, and 764 pg/ml, respectively. For the fatality group, peripheral blood levels were 102, 176, 873, and 3059 pg/ml, respectively, whereas CSF levels were 15241, 97384, 548225, and 366500 pg/ml, respectively. IL-8: For the survivor group, peripheral blood levels were 36, 15, 15, and 15 pg/ml, respectively, whereas CSF levels were 23736, 4074, 355, and 1509 pg/ml, respectively. For the fatality group, peripheral blood levels were 21, 28, 43, and 77 pg/mL, respectively, whereas CSF levels were 29003, 8906, 5852, and 8220 pg/ml, respectively. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher after 72 hours in the fatality group. The fact that CSF IL-8 was 1000 times that in the peripheral blood at the time of admission, and decreased thereafter, indicates that IL-8 is a key mediator of neuroinflammation.

  13. IL-8 Expression in Granulocytic Epithelial Lesions of Idiopathic Duct-centric Pancreatitis (Type 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis).

    PubMed

    Ku, Yuna; Hong, Seung-Mo; Fujikura, Kohei; Kim, Sung Joo; Akita, Masayuki; Abe-Suzuki, Shiho; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Azuma, Takeshi; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Zen, Yoh

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (type 2 AIP) develops in isolation or sometimes in association with ulcerative colitis. Its diagnosis requires the histologic confirmation of granulocytic epithelial lesions (GELs) with no diagnostic biomarker currently available. This study aimed to elucidate the tissue expression of cytokines and their diagnostic value in this condition. In quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple cytokines using tissue-derived mRNA, the expression level of interleukin (IL)-8 was markedly higher in type 2 AIP than in type 1 AIP (P<0.001). In immunostaining, IL-8 expression was detected in the ductal/ductular epithelium (11/13; 85%) and infiltrating neutrophils or lymphocytes (12/12; 100%) in type 2 AIP, but was almost entirely negative in type 1 AIP (n=13; both, P<0.001). Although obstructive pancreatitis adjacent to pancreatic cancers (peritumoral pancreatitis) exhibited IL-8 expression in the epithelium (3/12; 25%) and inflammatory cells (10/12; 83%), expression levels were significantly lower than those in type 2 AIP (P<0.001 and 0.020, respectively). The presence of either GELs or IL-8-positive epithelium discriminated type 2 AIP from type 1 AIP or obstructive pancreatitis with 92% sensitivity and 92% to 100% specificity. Furthermore, CD3/IL-8-coexpressing lymphocytes were almost restricted to type 2 AIP. Interestingly, a similar pattern of IL-8 expression was also observed in colonic biopsies of ulcerative colitis. In conclusion, the overexpression of IL-8 may underlie the development of GELs in type 2 AIP, and IL-8 immunostaining or IL-8/CD3 double staining may become an ancillary method for its diagnosis. The similar expression pattern of IL-8 in ulcerative colitis also suggests a pathogenetic link between the 2 conditions.

  14. Members of the Oral Microbiota Are Associated with IL-8 Release by Gingival Epithelial Cells in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Katharina; Riva, Alessandra; Pfeiffer, Stefanie; Berry, David; Somoza, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The triggers for the onset of oral diseases are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the oral bacterial community in healthy humans and its association with nutrition, oral hygiene habits, and the release of the inflammatory marker IL-8 from gingival epithelial cells (GECs) with and without stimulation by bacterial endotoxins to identify possible indicator operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with inflammatory marker status. GECs from 21 healthy participants (13 females, 8 males) were incubated with or without addition of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), and the oral microbiota was profiled using 16S rRNA gene-targeted sequencing. The basal IL-8 release after 6 h was between 9.9 and 98.2 pg/ml, and bacterial communities were characteristic for healthy oral microbiota. The composition of the oral microbiota was associated with basal IL-8 levels, the intake of meat, tea, white wine, sweets and the use of chewing gum, as well as flossing habits, allergies, gender and body mass index. Additionally, eight OTUs were associated with high basal levels of IL-8 and GEC response to LPS, with high basal levels of IL-8, and 1 with low basal levels of IL8. The identification of indicator bacteria in healthy subjects with high levels of IL-8 release is of importance as they may be promising early warning indicators for the possible onset of oral diseases. PMID:28360899

  15. CD147 deficiency blocks IL-8 secretion and inhibits lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongkai; Zhuo, Yunyun; Hu, Xu

    2015-03-06

    Bone is a frequent target of lung cancer metastasis, which is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis; however, the molecular basis of this process is still unknown. This study investigated the role of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)147) in osteoclastogenesis resulting from bone metastasis, based on the enrichment of this glycoprotein on the surface of many malignant bone tumors. RNA interference was used to silence CD147 expression in A549 human lung cancer cells. Compared with conditioned medium (CM) from control cells (A549-CM), CM from CD147-deficient cells (A549-si-CM) suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factormore » κB ligand-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific genes such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K were also reduced in the presence of A549-si-CM. CD147 knockdown in A549 cells decreased interleukin (IL)-8mRNA and protein expression. IL-8 is present in large amounts in A549-CM and mimicked its inductive effect on osteoclastogenesis; this was reversed by depletion of IL-8 from the medium. Taken together, these results indicate that CD147 promotes lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis by modulating IL-8 secretion, and suggest that CD147 is a potential therapeutic target for cancer-associated bone resorption in lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Bone loss frequently results from lung cancer metastasis. • Cluster of differentiation (CD)147 was depleted in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. • RAW 264.7 cell osteoclastogenesis was blocked by medium from CD147-deficient cells. • Interleukin (IL)-8 level was reduced in the conditioned medium. • Osteoclastogenesis induced by lung tumor cells requires CD147-mediated IL-8 release.« less

  16. Regulation of IL-8 promoter activity by verrucarin A in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Simmons, Steve O; Pei, Ruoting

    2014-01-01

    Macrocyclic trichothecenes have been frequently detected in fungi in water-damaged buildings and exhibited higher toxicity than the well-studied trichothecenes; however, the mechanism underlying their toxicity has been poorly understood. In this study, transcriptional regulation of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 by a macrocyclic trichothecene, verrucarin A (VA), in human monocytic THP-1 cells is reported. Consistent with previous findings, VA was 100-fold more cytotoxic than deoxynivalenol (DON), while ochratoxin A (OA) was not cytotoxic. In cells transduced with the wild-type IL-8 promoter luciferase construct, VA induced a biphasic dose response composed of an upregulation of luciferase expression at low concentrations of 0.01-1 ng/ml and a downregulation at high levels of 10 ng/ml and higher. In contrast, DON induced a sigmoid-shaped dose response with the EC50 of 11.6 ng/ml, while OA did not markedly affect the IL-8 expression. When cells were transduced with IL-8 promoter with a mutation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-binding site, VA (1 ng/ml), DON (1000 ng/ml), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α (20 ng/ml)-induced luciferase expression were impaired. In addition, the NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibited VA-, DON-, and TNFα-induced luciferase expression. Mutation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) β binding site of the IL-8 promoter affected only DON-, but not VA- and TNFα-induced luciferase expression. Taken together, these results suggested that VA activated IL-8 promoter via an NF-κB-dependent, but not CEBPβ-dependent, pathway in human monocytes.

  17. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Skytte, Christina; Erneholm, Karin; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-06-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed. In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubertal minipigs (n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs (n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boost, Kim A; Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Production of interferon (IFN)-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8. PMID:18801189

  19. Stress Effects on FosB- and Interleukin-8 (IL8)-driven Ovarian Cancer Growth and Metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Arevalo, Jesusa M.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Lu, Chunhua; Stone, Rebecca L.; Moreno-Smith, Myrthala; Nishimura, Masato; Lee, Jeong-Won; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that chronic stress can accelerate tumor growth due to sustained sympathetic nervous system activation. Our recent findings suggest that chronic stress is associated with increased IL8 levels. Here, we examined the molecular and biological significance of IL8 in stress-induced tumor growth. Norepinephrine (NE) treatment of ovarian cancer cells resulted in a 250–300% increase in IL8 protein and 240–320% increase in its mRNA levels. Epinephrine treatment resulted in similar increases. Moreover, NE treatment resulted in a 3.5–4-fold increase in IL8 promoter activity. These effects were blocked by propranolol. Promoter deletion analyses suggested that AP1 transcription factors might mediate catecholamine-stimulated up-regulation of IL8. siRNA inhibition studies identified FosB as the pivotal component responsible for IL8 regulation by NE. In vivo chronic stress resulted in increased tumor growth (by 221 and 235%; p < 0.01) in orthotopic xenograft models involving SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 ovarian carcinoma cells. This enhanced tumor growth was completely blocked by IL8 or FosB gene silencing using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine nanoliposomes. IL8 and FosB silencing reduced microvessel density (based on CD31 staining) by 2.5- and 3.5-fold, respectively (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that neurobehavioral stress leads to FosB-driven increases in IL8, which is associated with increased tumor growth and metastases. These findings may have implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:20826776

  20. Knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma triggers apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Park, Jun Yong; Kang, Wonseok; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Ro, Simon Wonsang; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2016-01-01

    A local hypoxic microenvironment is one of the most important characteristics of solid tumors. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) activate tumor survival from hypoxic-induced apoptosis in each pathway. This study aimed to evaluate whether knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 induced apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and endothelial cell lines. HCC cell lines were infected with adenovirus-expressing shRNA for HIF-1α and IL-8 and maintained under hypoxic conditions (1% O2, 24 h). The expression levels of HIF-1α and both apoptotic and growth factors were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. We also investigated apoptosis by TUNEL assay (FACS and Immunofluorescence) and measured the concentration of cytochrome C. Inhibition of HIF-1α and IL-8 up-regulated the expression of apoptotic factors while downregulating anti-apoptotic factors simultaneously. Knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 increased the concentration of cytochrome C and enhanced DNA fragmentation in HCC cell lines. Moreover, culture supernatant collected from the knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 in HCC cell lines induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under hypoxia, and the expression of variable apoptotic ligand increased from HCC cell lines, time-dependently. These data suggest that adenovirus-mediated knockdown of HIF-1α and IL-8 induced apoptosis in HCC cells and triggered apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells.

  1. Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-09-01

    The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05), whereas OPG was under the detection limit in most samples. In contrast, IL-8 levels were significantly lower in SIP compared to AAP (P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analysis between RANKL and IL-8 revealed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation between the two measures (rho = -.44). The results of this study suggest that, in the development of apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental changes in circulating IL-8/CXCL8 isoforms in neonates.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Akhil; Voitenok, Nikolai N; Akalovich, Svetlana; Shaik, Sadiq S; Randolph, David A; Sims, Brian; Patel, Rakesh P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Fallon, Michael B; Ohls, Robin K

    2009-04-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) is widely expressed in fetal tissues although inflammatory changes are not seen. Circulating IL-8 is comprised of an endothelial-derived [ala-IL-8](77) isoform and another, more potent [ser-IL-8](72) secreted by most other cells; [ala-IL-8](77) can be converted into [ser-IL-8](72) by proteolytic removal of an N-terminal pentapeptide from [ala-IL-8](77). In this study, we show [ala-IL-8](77) is the predominant circulating isoform of IL-8 in premature neonates but not in term neonates/adults, who have [ser-IL-8](72) as the major isoform. This isoform switch from the less potent [ala-IL-8](77) to [ser-IL-8](72) correlates with a maturational increase in the neutrophil chemotactic potency of plasma IL-8. The emergence of [ser-IL-8](72) as the major isoform is likely due to increased plasma [ala-IL-8](77)-convertase activity and/or changes in the cellular sources of IL-8. Developmental changes in IL-8 isoforms may serve to minimize its inflammatory effects in the fetus and also provide a mechanism to restore its full activity after birth.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Lajczak, Natalia K; Keyes, Jennifer A; Ward, Joseph B; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Monocytes are critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as they infiltrate the mucosa and release cytokines that drive the inflammatory response. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid with anti-inflammatory actions, has been proposed as a potential new therapy for IBD. However, its effects on monocyte function are not yet known. Primary monocytes from healthy volunteers or cultured U937 monocytes were treated with either the proinflammatory cytokine, TNFα (5 ng/ml) or the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/ml) for 24 h, in the absence or presence of UDCA (25-100 μM). IL-8 release into the supernatant was measured by ELISA. mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR and changes in cell signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Toxicity was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. UDCA treatment significantly attenuated TNFα-, but not LPS-driven, release of IL-8 from both primary and cultured monocytes. UDCA inhibition of TNFα-driven responses was associated with reduced IL-8 mRNA expression. Both TNFα and LPS stimulated NFκB activation in monocytes, while IL-8 release in response to both cytokines was attenuated by an NFκB inhibitor, BMS-345541. Interestingly, UDCA inhibited TNFα-, but not LPS-stimulated, NFκB activation. Finally, TNFα, but not LPS, induced phosphorylation of TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF2), while UDCA cotreatment attenuated this response. We conclude that UDCA specifically inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes by inhibiting TRAF2 activation. Since such actions would serve to dampen mucosal immune responses in vivo, our data support the therapeutic potential of UDCA for IBD. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling mediate organic dust induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial and THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gottipati, Koteswara R.; Bandari, Shiva Kumar; Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Levin, Jeffrey L.; Dooley, Gregory P.; Reynolds, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the agricultural work environment is a risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and chronic lung diseases. Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of tissue injury and disease. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating lung inflammatory responses to agricultural dust are not yet fully understood. We studied the effects of poultry dust extract on molecular regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory cytokine, in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells. Our findings indicate that poultry dust extract potently induces IL-8 levels by increasing IL-8 gene transcription without altering IL-8 mRNA stability. Increase in IL-8 promoter activity was due to enhanced binding of activator protein 1 and NF-κB. IL-8 induction was associated with protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and inhibited by PKC and MAPK inhibitors. IL-8 increase was not inhibited by polymyxin B or l-nitroarginine methyl ester, indicating lack of involvement of lipopolysaccharide and nitric oxide in the induction. Lung epithelial and THP-1 cells share common mechanisms for induction of IL-8 levels. Our findings identify key roles for transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling pathways for IL-8 induction and provide insights into the mechanisms regulating lung inflammatory responses to organic dust exposure. PMID:25398986

  5. Profiling the immunotoxicity of chemicals based on in vitro evaluation by a combination of the Multi-ImmunoTox assay and the IL-8 Luc assay.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yutaka; Fujimura, Chizu; Ito, Yumiko; Takahashi, Toshiya; Terui, Hitoshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2018-06-01

    We established a luciferase reporter assay system, the Multi-ImmunoTox Assay (MITA), which can evaluate the effects of chemicals on the promoter activities of four cytokines: IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-8. We previously reported that MITA correctly reflected the change in mRNA of human whole-blood cells treated with dexamethasone, cyclosporine, FK506, or several other immunosuppressive drugs. In this study, we combined MITA with the IL-8 Luc assay to detect skin sensitization chemicals (OECD 442E) (modified MITA: mMITA) and established a data set of 60 chemicals examined by mMITA. Using the mMITA results, chemicals can be classified based on the lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of chemicals in suppressing or augmenting the promoter activities of the four cytokines. Moreover, we demonstrated that K-means clustering and hierarchical clustering of the 60 chemicals based on the LOEL for their effects on IL-2 and IL-8 promoter activities and the judgment by the IL-8 Luc assay resulted in the same 6-cluster solution: cluster 1 with preferential suppression of IL-8, cluster 2 with suppression of IL-2 and a positive IL-8 Luc assay result, cluster 3 with suppression of both IL-2 and IL-8, cluster 4 with no effects on IL-2 or IL-8 and a negative IL-8 Luc assay result, cluster 5 with suppression of both IL-2 and IL-8 and a negative IL-8 Luc assay result, and cluster 6 with preferential suppression of IL-8. These data suggest that mMITA is a promising novel high-throughput approach for detecting unrecognized immunological effects of chemicals and for profiling their immunotoxic effects.

  6. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako; Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo; Kusunoki, Natsuko

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 Induces IL-6 and IL-8 Production by the EP Receptors/Akt/NF-κB Pathways in Nasal Polyp-Derived Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Sun; Han, In-Hye; Lee, Hye Rim; Lee, Heung-Man

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 participate in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and their levels are increased by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in different cell types. The purposes of this study were to determine whether PGE2 has any effect on the increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and subsequently investigate the possible mechanism of this effect. Different concentrations of PGE2 were used to stimulate NPDFs at different time intervals. NPDFs were treated with agonists and antagonists of E prostanoid (EP) receptors. To determine the signaling pathway for the expression of PGE2-induced IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 was treated with Akt and NF-κB inhibitors in NPDFs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs was performed. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured byenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of Akt and NF-κB was evaluated by western blot analysis. PGE2 significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in NPDFs. The EP2 and EP4 agonists and antagonists induced and inhibited IL-6 expression. However, the EP4 agonist and antagonist were only observed to induce and inhibit IL-8 expression level. The Akt and NF-κB inhibitors significantly blocked PGE2-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8. PGE2 increases IL-6 expression via EP2 and EP4 receptors, and IL-8 expression via the EP4 receptor in NPDFs. It also activates the Akt and NF-κB signal pathways for the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in NPDFs. These results suggest that signaling pathway for IL-6 and IL-8 expression induced by PGE2 might be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of nasal polyposis.

  8. The diagnostic value of CRP, IL-8, PCT, and sTREM-1 in the detection of bacterial infections in pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Karin G E; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Elferink, Rob F M Oude; van Vliet, Michel J; Nijhuis, Claudi S M Oude; Kamps, Willem A; Tissing, Wim J E

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-8, procalcitonin (PCT), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) as predictors for bacterial infection in febrile neutropenia, plus their usefulness in febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis. Plasma was obtained from pediatric oncology patients at presentation with febrile neutropenia (n = 43) and 24-48 h later (n = 17). The patients were classified as having or not having a bacterial infection. Plasma was also obtained of patients in the absence and in the presence of mucositis (n = 26). At presentation with febrile neutropenia, median IL-8 and PCT levels were significantly increased in patients with a bacterial infection, in contrast to CRP and sTREM-1. IL-8 was the most sensitive marker for the early detection of bacterial infection, in combination with clinical parameters or PCT the sensitivity reached 100%. After 24-48 h, only PCT was significantly elevated during bacterial infection. IL-8 levels were significantly increased during mucositis. Mucositis did not cause considerable changes in PCT levels. IL-8 is the most useful marker for the early detection of bacterial infections, compared with CRP, PCT, and sTREM-1. IL-8 in combination with clinical parameters or PCT might be even more useful. Gastrointestinal mucositis alone does not affect PCT levels, in contrast to IL-8 levels, and therefore, PCT might be more useful for the detection of bacterial infections during mucositis than IL-8.

  9. MCPIP-1, alias Regnase-1 controls epithelial inflammation by post-transcriptional regulation of IL-8 production

    PubMed Central

    Dobosz, E.; Wilamowski, M.; Lech, M.; Bugara, B.; Jura, J.; Potempa, J.; Koziel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors are critical for the detection of invading microorganisms. They activate multiple pathways that lead to the induction of pro-inflammatory responses and pathogen clearance. The intensity and duration of this immune reaction must be tightly controlled spatially and temporally in every tissue by different negative regulators. We hypothesized that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1–induced protein-1 (MCPIP-1) might play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis in the epithelium both under physiological conditions and upon bacterial infection. To this end, we examined the distribution of MCPIP-1 transcript and protein in various tissues. The MCPIP-1 protein level was higher in epithelial cells than in myeloid cells. MCPIP-1 exerted RNase activity towards the IL-8 transcript and the life-span of IL-8 was determined by the presence of the stem-loops/hairpin (SL) structures at the 3′ UTR region of IL-8 mRNA. Moreover, using fully active, purified recombinant MCPIP-1 protein, we elucidated the mechanism by which MCPIP-1 controls the IL-8 mRNA level. In conclusion, we uncovered a novel IL-8–dependent mechanism via which MCPIP-1 maintains epithelial homeostasis. This study reveals for the first time that MCPIP-1 plays a crucial anti-inflammatory role not only in myeloid cells but also in epithelial cells. PMID:27513529

  10. T lymphocyte recruitment by interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8-induced degranulation of neutrophils releases potent chemoattractants for human T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Taub, D D; Anver, M; Oppenheim, J J; Longo, D L; Murphy, W J

    1996-01-01

    IL-8 has been shown to be a human neutrophil and T cell chemoattractant in vitro. In an effort to assess the in vivo effects of IL-8 on human leukocyte migration, we examined the ability of rhIL-8 to induce human T cell infiltration using a human/mouse model in which SCID mice were administered human peripheral blood lymphocytes intraperitoneally, followed by subcutaneous injections of rhIL-8. rhIL-8 induced predominantly murine neutrophil accumulation by 4 h after administration while recombinant human macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (rhMIP-1beta) induced both murine monocytes and human T cell infiltration during the same time period as determined by immunohistology. Interestingly, 72 h after chemokine administration, a marked human T cell infiltrate was observed in the IL-8 injection site suggesting that rhIL-8 may be acting indirectly possibly through a murine neutrophil-derived T cell chemoattractant. This hypothesis was confirmed using granulocyte-depleted SCID mice. Moreover, human neutrophils stimulated in vitro with IL-8 were found to release granule-derived factor(s) that induce in vitro T cell and monocyte chemotaxis and chemokinesis. This T cell and monocyte chemotactic activity was detected in extracts of both azurophilic and specific granules. Together, these results demonstrate that neutrophils store and release, upon stimulation with IL-8 or other neutrophil activators, chemoattractants that mediate T cell and monocyte accumulation at sites of inflammation. PMID:8621778

  11. Identification and expression analysis of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-8, in cobia (Rachycentron canadum L.) in response to Streptococcus dysgalactiae infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu; Nguyen, Hai Trong; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2017-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) play pivotal roles in mediating inflammatory responses to invading pathogens. In this study, we identified and analyzed expressions of cobia TNF-α and IL-8 during Streptococcus dysgalactiae infection. The cloned cDNA transcript of cobia TNF-α comprised of 1281 base pairs (bp), with a 774 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 257 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of cobia TNF-α showed a close relationship (84% similarity) with TNF-α of yellowtail amberjack. The cloned IL-8 cDNA sequence was 828 bp long, including a 300-bp ORF encoding 99 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of cobia IL-8 shared 90% identity with IL-8 of striped trumpeter. Cobia challenged with a virulent S. dysgalactiae strain displayed an early significant up-regulation of TNF-α and IL-8 in head kidney, liver, and spleen. Notably, IL-8 expression level increased dramatically in the liver at the severe stage of infection (72 h). In conclusion, a better understanding of TNF-α and IL-8 allows more detailed investigation of immune responses in cobia and furthers study on controlling the infectious disease caused by S. dysgalactiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IL-8 negatively regulates ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux via upregulating miR-183 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Er; Li, Heng; Chen, Ling-Yan; Xia, Xiao-Dan; Zhao, Zhen-Wang; Zheng, Xi-Long; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2018-04-24

    Previous studies suggest that IL-8 has an important role in the regulation of cholesterol efflux, but whether miRNAs are involved in this process is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to explore whether IL-8 promotes cholesterol accumulation by enhancing miR-183 expression in macrophages and its underlying mechanism. Treatment of THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells with IL-8 decreased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. Using bioinformatics analyses and dual-luciferase reporter assays, we found that miR-183 was highly conserved during evolution and directly inhibited ABCA1 protein and mRNA expression by targeting ABCA1 3'UTR. MiR-183 directly regulated endogenous ABCA1 expression levels. Furthermore, IL-8 enhanced the expression of miR-183 and decrease ABCA1 expression. Cholesterol transport assays confirmed that IL-8 dramatically inhibited apolipoprotein AI-mediated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux by increasing miR-183 expression. In contrast, treatment with anti-IL-8 antibody reversed these effects. IL-8 enhances the expression of miR-183, which then inhibits ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. Our studies suggest that the IL-8-miR-183-ABCA1 axis may play an intermediary role in the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipoteichoic Acid of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Attenuates Poly I:C-Induced IL-8 Production in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Kang, Seok-Seong; Woo, Sun-Je; Park, Ok-Jin; Ahn, Ki Bum; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics in livestock feed supplements are considered a replacement for antibiotics that enhance gastrointestinal immunity. Although bacterial cell wall components have been proposed to be associated with probiotic function, little evidence demonstrates that they are responsible for probiotic functions in livestock. The present study demonstrated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp.LTA) confers anti-inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. A synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, poly I:C, dose-dependently induced IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels in IPEC-J2 cells. Lp.LTA, but not lipoprotein or peptidoglycan from L. plantarum, exclusively suppressed poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Compared with LTAs from other probiotic Lactobacillus strains including L. delbrueckii, L. sakei, and L. rhamnosus GG, Lp.LTA had higher potential to suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Dealanylated or deacylated Lp.LTA did not suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production, suggesting that D-alanine and lipid moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were responsible for the inhibition. Furthermore, Lp.LTA attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 kinase as well as the activation of NF-κB, resulting in decreased IL-8 production. Taken together, these results suggest that Lp.LTA acts as an effector molecule to inhibit viral pathogen-induced inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:28983294

  14. IL-8 interacts with metadherin promoting proliferation and migration in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenfeng; Lin, Shuangming; Li, Wenhuan

    It has been reported that IL-8 was involved in the promotion of invasion of Gastric Cancer (GC), however the underlying mechanism by which IL-8 was observed to be able to promote invasion remains unknown. Here, in our study, IL-8 was shown to be significantly up-regulated in GC compared with paired normal control tissues whose expression was markedly associated with inferior overall prognosis; and IL-8 was displayed to be capable of directly interacting with metadherin (MTDH), which in turn can up-regulate IL-8 expression. Blockage of IL-8/MTDH using specific mono-antibody can abolish the invasion IL-8 mediated. Taken together, our results may providemore » a novel explanation of working mechanism of IL-8 in the invasion of GC. - Highlights: • IL-8 was commonly observed to be significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer. • IL-8 was found to be able to be directly interacted with MTDH. • MTDH can up-regulate IL-8 promoting EMT process. • Blockage of IL-8-MTDH complex can abrogate the growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.« less

  15. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken IL-8

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a key mediator in neutrophil-mediated acute proinflammatory response and activates multiple signaling pathways downstream of two receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2). However, there have not been any monoclonal antibodies which specifically detect chicken IL8 (chIL8) and define its b...

  16. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken IL-8

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8) is a CXC-family chemokine produced by fibroblasts and other cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Given that IL-8 attracts lymphocytes to the sites of tissue damage, IL-8 plays a role in the inflammatory response and woun...

  17. Diagnostic value of sTREM-1, IL-8, PCT, and CRP in febrile neutropenia after autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Michel, C S; Teschner, D; Wagner, E M; Theobald, M; Radsak, Markus P

    2017-12-01

    Infections and infectious complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in febrile neutropenic patients after autologous stem cell transplantation. Laboratory biomarkers are helpful for early identification of critically ill patients and optimal therapy management. Several studies in adult non-neutropenic patients proposed sTREM-1 as a superior biomarker for identification of septic patients as well as a predictor for survival in these patients compared with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), or interleukin-8 (IL-8). Here, to assess the utility of PCT, CRP, IL-8, and sTREM-1 in febrile neutropenia, 44 patients presenting with febrile neutropenia after autologous stem cell transplantation were recruited in a single-center prospective pilot study. We analyzed PCT and CRP as well as IL-8 and sTREM-1 levels pre- and post-transplantation at defined time points. In 20 of 44 patients, concentration of sTREM-1 was under the detection level at appearance of febrile neutropenia. Mean levels of PCT, IL-8, and CRP were significantly increased in infections of critically ill patients who by dysfunction or failure of one or more organs/system depend on survival from advanced instruments of monitoring and therapy. However, all tested biomarkers could not distinguish between presence and absence of bloodstream infection. The combination of the biomarkers PCT and IL-8 achieved a high sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 74% for the identification of serious complications in febrile neutropenia, whereas the combination of CRP and PCT or IL-8 achieved a high sensitivity of 100%, but with the addition of a low specificity of 47or 41%. In conclusion, we found that the measurement of sTREM-1 concentration at presentation of febrile neutropenia is not useful to identify bacterial bloodstream infections and critically ill patients. PCT and IL-8 are useful biomarkers for the early identification of critically ill patients, compared to CRP and sTREM-1 in febrile

  18. Ratio between serum IL-8 and pepsinogen A/C: a marker for atrophic body gastritis.

    PubMed

    Sanduleanu, S; Bruïne, A D E; Biemond, I; Stridsberg, M; Jonkers, D; Lundqvist, G; Hameeteman, W; Stockbrügger, R W

    2003-02-01

    Elevated serum gastrin and a low pepsinogen A/C ratio are well-recognized markers for atrophic body gastritis (ABG). We have shown that the presence of body atrophy is also associated with elevated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study tested the hypothesis that serum cytokines provide additional information to gastrin and pepsinogens in screening for ABG. Two hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients were investigated on referral for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: 150 were patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, receiving acid inhibitory medication either with proton pump inhibitors (n = 113) or with histamine2-receptor antagonists (n = 37), and 76 were nontreated controls, who had normal endoscopic findings. Gastric mucosal biopsies were sampled for histological examination (Sydney classification). Serum samples were analyzed for gastrin, chromogranin A (CgA), and pepsinogens A and C by RIA, and for the interleukins (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 by ELISA. Subjects with ABG had significantly higher serum gastrin (P < 0.01) and serum CgA (P < 0.01) levels and significantly lower pepsinogen A/C ratios (P < 0.001) than those without ABG. Additionally, serum IL-1beta, IL-6 and, especially, IL-8 levels were significantly higher in the subjects with than in those without ABG (P < 0.0001, for all cytokines). To optimize the detection of body atrophy we defined the ABG index: the ratio between the simultaneously measured IL-8 and pepsinogen A/C. The area under the ROC curve for the ABG index was significantly greater than that for serum gastrin and for serum pepsinogen A/C alone (0.91 +/- 0.029 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.042, and vs. 0.83 +/- 0.031, P = 0.018 and P = 0.049). Using the ABG index at a cut-off value of 1.8 pg mL-1, 91% of the cases were classified correctly. The ratio between serum IL-8 and pepsinogen A/C accurately predicts the presence of ABG. We therefore propose the ABG index as a noninvasive screening test for ABG in population-based studies.

  19. Caprylic acid and medium-chain triglycerides inhibit IL-8 gene transcription in Caco-2 cells: comparison with the potent histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A

    PubMed Central

    Hoshimoto, Aihiro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) is often administered to patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or short-bowel syndrome. However, little is known about the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and MCT on intestinal inflammation. In this study we examined whether caprylic acid, one of the MCFAs, and MCT suppress IL-8 secretion by differentiated Caco-2 cells.We found for the first time that caprylic acid and MCT suppress IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells at the transcriptional level when precultured together for 24 h. We also tried to clarify the mechanism of IL-8 gene inhibition by examining the activation of NF-κB and other transcription factors by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and found that caprylic acid did not modulate their activation.The result of dual-luciferase assay using Caco-2 cells transfected with IL-8 promoter/luciferase reporter plasmid revealed that caprylic acid inhibited the activation of IL-8 promoter.Similar results were observed when cells were precultured with the well-known potent histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA).We examined the state of H4 acetylation in IL-8 promoter using the technique known as chromatin immunoprecipitation (Chr-IP). TSA rapidly induced H4 acetylation in IL-8 promoter chromatin, whereas caprylic acid did not. These results suggest that the inhibition of IL-8 gene transcription induced by caprylic acid and TSA does not necessarily require the marked suppression of transcription factors, and the mechanism of inhibition of IL-8 gene transcription may be different between caprylic acid and TSA. PMID:12010777

  20. Possible identity of IL-8 converting enzyme in human fibroblasts as a cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kensaku; Sano, Emiko; Nakaki, Toshio; Naruto, Masanobu

    2003-04-01

    A converting activity was characterized in human diploid fibroblasts, which secrete 72IL-8 and 77IL-8 in treatment with IFN-beta and poly I: poly C. 77IL-8 was significantly converted to 72IL-8 by a partially purified fraction of the culture supernatant of human diploid fibroblasts. The converting activity, which was temperature-dependent and optimal at pH 6, was completely inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors, antipain dihydrochloride and E-64, but not by other types of protease inhibitors. These data clearly show that human diploid fibroblasts are capable of processing IL-8 to produce a mature IL-8 and that the putative converting enzyme appears to be a cysteine protease.

  1. IL-8 as mediator in the microenvironment-leukaemia network in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Kuett, Alexander; Rieger, Christina; Perathoner, Deborah; Herold, Tobias; Wagner, Michaela; Sironi, Silvia; Sotlar, Karl; Horny, Hans-Peter; Deniffel, Christian; Drolle, Heidrun; Fiegl, Michael

    2015-12-17

    The bone marrow microenvironment is physiologically hypoxic with areas being as low as 1% O2, e.g. the stem cell niche. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) blasts misuse these bone marrow niches for protection by the local microenvironment, but also might create their own microenvironment. Here we identify IL-8 as a hypoxia-regulated cytokine in both AML cell lines and primary AML samples that is induced within 48 hours of severe hypoxia (1% O2). IL-8 lacked effects on AML cells but induced migration in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), an integral part of the bone marrow. Accordingly, MSC were significantly increased in AML bone marrow as compared to healthy bone marrow. Interestingly, mononuclear cells obtained from healthy bone marrow displayed both significantly lower endogenous and hypoxia-induced production of IL-8. IL-8 mRNA expression in AML blasts from 533 patients differed between genetic subgroups with significantly lower expression of IL-8 in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), while in non APL-AML patients with FLT ITD had the highest IL-8 expression. In this subgroup, high IL-8 expression was also prognostically unfavourable. In conclusion, hypoxia as encountered in the bone marrow specifically increases IL-8 expression of AML, which in turn impacts niche formation. High IL-8 expression might be correlated with poor prognosis in certain AML subsets.

  2. UP-REGULATION OF IL-6, IL-8 AND CCL2 GENE EXPRESSION AFTER ACUTE INFLAMMATION: CORRELATION TO CLINICAL PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Min; Hamza, May; Wu, Tai-Xia; Dionne, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue injury initiates a cascade of inflammatory mediators and hyperalgesic substances including prostaglandins, cytokines and chemokines. Using microarray and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, the present study evaluated changes in gene expression of a cascade of cytokines following acute inflammation and the correlation between the changes in the gene expression level and pain intensity in the oral surgery clinical model of acute inflammation. Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6; 63.3-fold), IL-8 (8.1-fold), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; 8.9-fold), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1; 30.5-fold), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2; 26-fold) and annexin A1 (ANXA1; 12-fold). The up-regulation of IL-6 gene expression was significantly correlated to the up-regulation on the gene expression of IL-8, CCL2, CXCL1 and CXCL2. Interestingly, the tissue injury induced up-regulation of IL-6 gene expression, IL-8 and CCL2 were positively correlated to pain intensity at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. However, ketorolac treatment did not have a significant effect on the gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CXCL2 and ANXA1 at the same time point of acute inflammation. These results demonstrate that up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 gene expression contributes to the development of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain. The lack of effect for ketorolac on the expression of these gene products may be related to the ceiling analgesic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:19233564

  3. Determination of MUC1 in sera of ovarian cancer patients and in sera of patients with benign changes of the ovaries with CA15-3, CA27.29, and PankoMab.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Udo; Wiest, Irmi; Schumacher, Anamur Lan; Kupka, Markus; Rack, Brigitte; Stahn, Renate; Karsten, Uwe; Mayr, Doris; Friese, Klaus; Dian, Darius

    2012-05-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a high molecular weight transmembrane glycoprotein with unique properties which is used as a tumour marker in sera of ovarian cancer patients. The common test kit for the cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is not sufficient for the discrimination between sera from healthy individuals and sera from patients with benign changes of the ovaries. In this study, the newly developed anti-MUC1 antibody PankoMab was tested in normal and patient sera with an ELISA, and the obtained data were compared against data from experiments using the commercial kits for CA15-3 and CA27.29. Sera of 123 patients diagnosed with benign or malignant changes of the ovaries were obtained before surgery. CA15-3 was analysed with an automated ELISA system (Immulite 2000). CA27.29 was measured with the ST AIA-PACK CA27.29 for the AIA-600II-Analyzer (Tosoh Bioscience, Belgium). The release of MUC1 fragments carrying the TA-MUC1 epitope was analysed with an ELISA using the PankoMab antibody. Using the already established markers CA15-3 and CA27.29, significant differences between benign and malignant changes of the ovaries were found. The same result was obtained with the newly developed TA-MUC1 test. In contrast to CA15-3 and CA27.29, however, the median of TA-MUC1 was lower in sera from patients with ovarian cancer compared to sera from patients with benign diseases of the ovary. However, sera of patients with benign ovarian diseases had significantly higher TA-MUC1 values compared to sera of healthy individuals. The risk score of TA-MUC1 achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 78.4% in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a sensitivity of 37% for the prediction of ovarian disease, at 95% specificity. In this study we employed an additional marker for MUC1 which recognizes a more tumour-specific MUC1 epitope (TA-MUC1). We obtained results showing significant differences between detection in benign and malignant ovarian diseases. Although the mean MUC1 values were

  4. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with chicken IL-8

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8) is a CXC-family chemokine produced by fibroblasts and other cell types including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Since IL-8 has functions to attract lymphocytes to sites of tissue damage, it plays a role in inflammatory responses and wound...

  5. Eotaxin, but not IL-8, is increased in upper and lower airways of allergic rhinitis subjects after nasal allergen challenge.

    PubMed

    Semik-Orzech, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Adam; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard; Pierzchała, Władysław

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a single nasal allergen challenge (NAC) on levels of eotaxin and IL-8 and the inflammatory cells in upper and lower airways of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. Twenty-four AR patients and 12 control subjects entered a sequential nasal placebo challenge and NAC study, out of the pollen season. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF) was obtained at baseline, 15 minutes, and 1, 5, and 24 hours postchallenge. Before and 24 hours after placebo/allergen challenge induced sputum was performed. NLF and induced sputum were evaluated for total cell count (TCC) and differential cell count and analyzed for concentrations of eotaxin and IL-8 using ELISA method. NAC in AR subjects was associated with significantly increased sputum (p = 0.008) and NLF (p < 0.001) eotaxin levels. Post-NAC IL-8 levels were significantly increased in NLF (p < 00001) but not in sputum (p = 0.080) of AR subjects. Increased eotaxin levels in NLF positively correlated with the increased TCC and eosinophils. Positive correlations were also found between NLF increased eotaxin level and sputum TCC, eosinophils, and macrophages. NAC is associated with the increased levels of eotaxin in lower airways of AR subjects. Allergen-induced secretion of eotaxin in nasal mucosa of AR subjects is involved in determining the cellular character of both upper and lower airway inflammation.

  6. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  7. Correlation between serum inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10 and Henoch-Schonlein purpura with renal function impairment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liangdong; Wang, Quanyi; Zhang, Shiqi; Zhang, Ling

    2018-04-01

    The changes of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the serum of Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) patients were analyzed to explore the correlation between the above inflammatory factors and progression of the disease. The present study used the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10 and urine protein in 112 cases of patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP), including 54 cases of HSP combined with renal function impairment (group HSPN), and 58 cases not combined with renal function impairment (NHSPN), as well as 50 healthy patients who were selected as the control group. The concentration of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 in the serum of HSP patients were higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-10, and IL-8 between the HSPN group and the NHSPN group (P>0.05), but the level of TNF-α in the serum of HSPN group was significantly higher than that of NHSPN group (P<0.05). TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-10 levels of the acute nephritis, chronic nephritis and nephrotic syndrome groups were all higher than the simple proteinuria group. In addition, the levels of the three factors of the acute nephritis group were all higher than those of the chronic nephritis and nephrotic syndrome groups (P<0.05). IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were positively correlated with the urinary protein levels. The results indicated that the levels of serum TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-10 are correlated with HSPN, and serum TNF-α concentration can be used as an indicator of the severity of HSPN.

  8. Effects of IL8 and Immune Cells on the Regulation of Luteal Progesterone Secretion‡

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Heather; Delaney, Abigail; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Yangsheng; Cushman, Robert A.; Cupp, Andrea; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2α (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5 – 4 h and chemokine expression was analyzed by qPCR. In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. Purified neutrophils were analyzed for migration and activation in response to IL8 and PGF. Purified luteal cell types (steroidogenic, endothelial and fibroblast cells) were used to identify which cells respond to chemokines. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with steroidogenic cells to determine their effect on progesterone production. IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo and. The stimulatory action of PGF on IL8 mRNA expression in vitro was prevented by inhibition of p38 and JNK signaling. IL8, but not PGF, TNF, or TGFB1, stimulated neutrophil migration. IL8 had no apparent action in purified luteal steroidogenic, endothelial, or fibroblast cells, but IL8 stimulated ERK phosphorylation in neutrophils. In co-culture experiments neither IL8 nor activated neutrophils altered basal or LH-stimulated luteal cell progesterone synthesis. In contrast, activated PBMCs inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis from cultured luteal cells. These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. PMID:24686456

  9. Influence of deoxynivalenol on NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 secretion in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Van De Walle, Jacqueline; Romier, Béatrice; Larondelle, Yvan; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2008-04-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. In human intestinal Caco-2 cells, DON activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). We hypothesized a link between DON ingestion and intestinal inflammation, and used Caco-2 cells to assess the effects of DON, at plausible intestinal concentrations (250-10,000 ng/ml), on inflammatory mediators acting downstream the MAPKs cascade i.e. activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. In addition, Caco-2 cells were co-exposed to pro-inflammatory stimuli in order to mimic an inflamed intestinal epithelium. Dose-dependent increases in NF-kappaB activity and IL-8 secretion were observed, reaching 1.4- and 7.6-fold, respectively using DON at 10 microg/ml. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-kappaB (IkappaB) increased (1.6-fold) at DON levels <0.5 microg/ml. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to pro-inflammatory agents, i.e. 25 ng/ml interleukin-1beta, 100 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha or 10 microg/ml lipopolysaccharides, activated NF-kappaB and increased IL-8 secretion. Synergistic interactions between these stimuli and DON were observed. These data show that DON induces NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 secretion dose-dependently in Caco-2 cells, and this effect was accentuated upon pro-inflammatory stimulation, suggesting DON exposure could cause or exacerbate intestinal inflammation.

  10. Increased mast cell expression of PAR-2 in skin inflammatory diseases and release of IL-8 upon PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo Filipe da Silva; Nilsson, Gunnar; Harvima, Ilkka Tapani

    2010-02-01

    Mast cells are increasingly present in the lesional skin of chronic skin inflammatory diseases including psoriasis and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It has previously been shown that proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is expressed by mast cells, and tryptase is a potent activator of this receptor. In this study, skin biopsies from both healthy-looking and lesional skin of patients with psoriasis and superficial spreading BCC were collected and the expression of PAR-2 immunoreactivity in tryptase-positive mast cells was analysed. PAR-2 expression was confirmed in vitro in different mast cell populations. Cord-blood derived mast cells (CBMC) were stimulated with a PAR-2 activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2). Consequently, IL-8 and histamine production was analysed in the supernatants. We observed a significant increase in the percentage of mast cells expressing PAR-2 in the lesional skin of psoriasis and BCC patients compared with the healthy-looking skin. HMC-1.2, LAD-2 and CBMC mast cells all expressed PAR-2 both intracellularly and on the cell surface. CBMC activation with the PAR-2 activating peptide resulted in an increased secretion of IL-8, but no histamine release was observed. Furthermore, both PAR-2 and IL-8 were co-localized to the same tryptase-positive mast cells in the lesional BCC skin. These results show that mast cells express increased levels of PAR-2 in chronic skin inflammation. Also, mast cells can be activated by a PAR-2 agonist to secrete IL-8, a chemokine which can contribute to the progress of inflammation.

  11. Cot kinase plays a critical role in Helicobacter pylori-induced IL-8 expression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sungil; Kim, Jinmoon; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major pathogen causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. Infection of H. pylori induces pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells in the initial inflammatory process. It has been known that H. pylori can modulate Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk signal pathway for IL-8 induction. Recently, it has been shown that another signal molecule, cancer Osaka thyroid oncogene/tumor progression locus 2 (Cot/Tpl2) kinase, activates Mek and Erk and plays a role in the Erk pathway, similar to MAP3K signal molecule Raf kinase. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether Cot kinase might be involved in IL-8 induction caused by H. pylori infection. AGS gastric epithelial cells were infected by H. pylori strain G27 or its isogenic mutants lacking cagA or type IV secretion system followed by treatment with Cot kinase inhibitor (KI) or siRNA specific for Cot kinase. Activation of Erk was assessed by Western blot analysis and expression of IL-8 was measured by ELISA. Treatment with Cot KI reduced both transient and sustained Erk activation. It also reduced early and late IL-8 secretion in the gastric epithelial cell line. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of Cot inhibited early and late IL-8 secretion induced by H. pylori infection. Taken together, these results suggest that Cot kinase might play a critical role in H. pylori type IV secretion apparatus-dependent early IL-8 secretion and CagA-dependent late IL-8 secretion as an alternative signaling molecule in the Erk pathway.

  12. Interleukin (IL)-8 immunoreactivity of injured axons and surrounding oligodendrocytes in traumatic head injury.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ogata, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 has been suggested to be a positive regulator of myelination in the central nervous system, in addition to its principal role as a chemokine for neutrophils. Immunostaining for beta-amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) is an effective tool for detecting traumatic axonal injury, although AβPP immunoreactivity can also indicate axonal injury due to hypoxic causes. In this study, we examined IL-8 and AβPP immunoreactivity in sections of corpus callosum obtained from deceased patients with blunt head injury and from equivalent control tissue. AβPP immunoreactivity was detected in injured axons, such as axonal bulbs and varicose axons, in 24 of 44 head injury cases. These AβPP immunoreactive cases had survived for more than 3h. The AβPP immunostaining pattern can be classified into two types: traumatic (Pattern 1) and non-traumatic (Pattern 2) axonal injuries, which we described previously [Hayashi et al. Int. J. Legal Med. 129 (2015) 1085-1090]. Three of 44 control cases also showed AβPP immunoreactive injured axons as Pattern 2. In contrast, IL-8 immunoreactivity was detected in 7 AβPP immunoreactive and in 2 non-AβPP immunoreactive head injury cases, but was not detected in any of the 44 control cases, including the 3 AβPP immunoreactive control cases. The IL-8 immunoreactive cases had survived from 3 to 24 days, whereas those cases who survived less than 3 days (n=29) and who survived 90 days (n=1) were not IL-8 immunoreactive. Moreover, IL-8 was detected as Pattern 1 axons only. In addition, double immunofluorescence analysis showed that IL-8 is expressed by oligodendrocytes surrounding injured axons. In conclusion, our results suggest that immunohistochemical detection of IL-8 may be useful as a complementary diagnostic marker of traumatic axonal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of p38 MAPK in the selective release of IL-8 induced by chemical allergen in naive THp-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitjans, Montserrat; Viviani, Barbara; Lucchi, Laura; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Corsini, Emanuela

    2008-03-01

    At present, the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals is carried out using animal models. Over the last decade, several in vitro methods mainly using primary dendritic cells have been proposed to identify the potential of chemicals to induce skin sensitization to meet current animal welfare and public opinions. The major limitations of such tests are the donor-to-donor variability, the low levels in the source, and a possible shortage of human sources. The aim of the present investigation was to establish an in vitro test to identify chemical allergens using the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 in order to avoid some of these difficulties. We investigated whether the chemokine interleukin-8 or CXCL8 (IL-8) production could provide a methodology for the detection of both respiratory and contact allergens. THP-1 cells were exposed to contact allergens (cinnamaldehyde, dinitrochlorobenzene, nickel sulfate, penicillin G, p-phenylenediamine, tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to respiratory allergens (ammonium hexachloroplatinate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, trimellitic anhydride) and to irritants (salicylic acid, phenol, sodium lauryl sulphate). Following 48 h of incubation, the release of IL-8 was evaluated by sandwich ELISA. IL-8 production was significantly increased after stimulation with all allergens tested, with the exception of trimellitic anhydride, whereas irritants exposure failed to induce IL-8 release. The lack of IL-8 production by trimellitic anhydride can be explained by the rapid hydrolysis of this chemical in water to trimellitic acid, which is not an allergen. In contrast to IL-8 release, CD54 and CD86 expression did not provide a sensitive method failing to correctly identify approximately 30% of the tested compounds. Although CD86 appears to be a more sensitive marker than CD54 when discriminating allergens from irritants neither of these markers provided robust methodology. We also investigated if a common activation pathway in

  14. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07270.001 PMID:26030852

  15. Collagen XVII (BP180) modulates keratinocyte expression of the proinflammatory chemokine, IL-8.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Françoise; Eliason, Steven L; Burmeister, Brian T; Giudice, George J

    2012-08-01

    Collagen XVII (COL17), a transmembrane protein expressed in epidermal keratinocytes (EK), is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies in bullous pemphigoid. Treatment of EK with anti-COL17 autoantibodies triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we test the hypothesis that COL17 is involved in the regulation of the EK proinflammatory response, using IL-8 expression as the primary readout. The absence of COL17 in EK derived from a junctional epidermolysis bullosa patient or shRNA-mediated knockdown of COL17 in normal EK resulted in a dysregulation of IL-8 responses under various conditions. The COL17-deficient cells showed an abnormally high IL-8 response after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ultraviolet-B radiation or tumor necrosis factor, but exhibited a blunted IL-8 response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate exposure. Induction of COL17 expression in COL17-negative EK led to a normalization of the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Although α6β4 integrin was found to be up-regulated in COL17-deficient EK, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the α6 and β4 subunits revealed that COL17's effects on the LPS IL-8 response are not dependent on this integrin. In LPS-treated cells, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity in COL17-negative EK resulted in a normalization of their IL-8 response, and expression of an NF-kappa B-driven reporter was shown to be higher in COL17-deficient, compared with normal EK. These findings support the hypothesis that COL17 plays an important regulatory role in the EK proinflammatory response, acting largely via NF-kappa B. Future investigations will focus on further defining the molecular basis of this novel control network. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Collagen XVII (BP180) Modulates Keratinocyte Expression of the Proinflammatory Chemokine, IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Françoise; Eliason, Steven L.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Giudice, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Collagen XVII (COL17), a transmembrane protein expressed in epidermal keratinocytes (EK), is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies in bullous pemphigoid. Treatment of EK with anti-COL17 autoantibodies triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we test the hypothesis that COL17 is involved in the regulation of the EK proinflammatory response, using IL-8 expression as the primary readout. The absence of COL17 in EK derived from a junctional epidermolysis bullosa patient or shRNA-mediated knockdown of COL17 in normal EK resulted in a dysregulation of IL-8 responses under various conditions. The COL17-deficient cells showed an abnormally high IL-8 response after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ultraviolet-B radiation or tumor necrosis factor, but exhibited a blunted IL-8 response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate exposure. Induction of COL17 expression in COL17-negative EK led to a normalization of the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Although α6β4 integrin was found to be up-regulated in COL17-deficient EK, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the α6 and β4 subunits revealed that COL17’s effects on the LPS IL-8 response are not dependent on this integrin. In LPS-treated cells, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity in COL17-negative EK resulted in a normalization of their IL-8 response, and expression of an NF-kappa B-driven reporter was shown to be higher in COL17-deficient, compared with normal, EK. These findings support the hypothesis that COL17 plays an important regulatory role in the EK proinflammatory response, acting largely via NF-kappa B. Future investigations will focus on further defining the molecular basis of this novel control network. PMID:22775995

  17. Association of Duffy Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms with IL8 Gene in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC) act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%), -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7%) and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4%) were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis. PMID:24386171

  18. Association of duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC) act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%), -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7%) and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4%) were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis.

  19. Downregulation of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis treated with rebamipide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Shoji, Jun; Sotozono, Chie; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide eyedrops are approved in Japan for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases also manifest dry eye. Earlier we reported that rebamipide suppressed polyI:C-induced inflammatory cytokines in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In the current study we examined the effect of rebamipide eyedrops on the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and total IgE on the ocular surface. We prescribed rebamipide eyedrops to patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) who presented with dry eye (6 eyes in 4 AKC patients) and measured the IL-8, ECP, and total IgE levels in their tears before- and 2, and 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. To measure the IL-8 and total IgE levels in their tears we used BD™ CBA Flex sets; ECP measurements were with ELISA. The level of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of AKC patients was reduced significantly 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. We also recorded subjective symptoms associated with AKC, e.g. itching, foreign body sensation, and eye mucus discharge, by using a patient questionnaire. Their subjective symptoms associated with AKC were also significantly ameliorated at 2 and 4-6 weeks. Our observations suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide eyedrops help to combat human ocular surface inflammation and that they may be a new effective therapy in patients with AKC.

  20. Neutrophil infiltration and release of IL-8 in airway mucosa from subjects with grain dust-induced occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Jung, K S; Hwang, S C; Nahm, D H; Yim, H E

    1998-06-01

    The immuno-pathological mechanism for occupational asthma induced by grain dust (GD) remains to be clarified. There have been few reports suggesting the involvement of neutrophils inducing bronchoconstriction after inhalation of GD. To further understand the role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma. We studied the phenotype of leucocytes of the bronchial mucosa in patients with GD-induced asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained by fibreoptic bronchoscopy from six subjects with GD-induced asthma. Six allergic asthma patients sensitive to house dust mite were enrolled as controls. Bronchial biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to tryptase-containing mast cell (AA1), activated eosinophil (EG2), pan T-lymphocyte (CD3) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Induced sputum was collected before and after the GD-bronchoprovocation test. The IL-8 level in the sputum was measured using ELISA. There was a significant increase in the number of AA1+ and NE+ cells in bronchial mucosa of GD-induced asthma, compared with those of allergic asthma (P=0.01, P=0.01, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the number of EG2+ and CD3+ cells (P = 0.13, P=0.15, respectively). IL-8 was abundant in the sputum of all GD-induced asthma patients and significantly increased after the bronchial challenges compared with the baseline value (P = 0.03). These findings support the view that neutrophil recruitment together with mast cells may contribute to the bronchoconstriction induced by GD. A possible involvement of IL-8 was suggested.

  1. IL-8 predicts pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia at low risk for bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Cost, Carrye R; Stegner, Martha M; Leonard, David; Leavey, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Despite a low bacteremia rate, pediatric oncology patients are frequently admitted for febrile neutropenia. A pediatric risk prediction model with high sensitivity to identify patients at low risk for bacteremia is not available. We performed a single-institution prospective cohort study of pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia to create a risk prediction model using clinical factors, respiratory viral infection, and cytokine expression. Pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia were enrolled between March 30, 2010 and April 1, 2011 and managed per institutional protocol. Blood samples for C-reactive protein and cytokine expression and nasopharyngeal swabs for respiratory viral testing were obtained. Medical records were reviewed for clinical data. Statistical analysis utilized mixed multiple logistic regression modeling. During the 12-month period, 195 febrile neutropenia episodes were enrolled. There were 24 (12%) episodes of bacteremia. Univariate analysis revealed several factors predictive for bacteremia, and interleukin (IL)-8 was the most predictive variable in the multivariate stepwise logistic regression. Low serum IL-8 predicted patients at low risk for bacteremia with a sensitivity of 0.9 and negative predictive value of 0.98. IL-8 is a highly sensitive predictor for patients at low risk for bacteremia. IL-8 should be utilized in a multi-institution prospective trial to assign risk stratification to pediatric patients admitted with febrile neutropenia.

  2. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken IL-8

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited information on chicken cytokines and chemokines hinders progress in understaidng the role of cell-mediated immunity in infections. Interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8) is a CXC-family chemokine produced by fibroblasts and other cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils, a...

  3. Effects of IL8 and immune cells on the regulation of luteal progesterone secretion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2a (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed ...

  4. IL-8 and MCP-1 induced by excessive orthodontic force mediates odontoclastogenesis in periodontal tissues.

    PubMed

    Asano, M; Yamaguchi, M; Nakajima, R; Fujita, S; Utsunomiya, T; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how interleukin (IL)-8 (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant; CINC-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 contribute to root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Forty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to orthodontic force of 10 or 50 g to induce a mesially tipping movement of the upper first molars for 7 days. We determined the expressions of CINC-1, CXCR2, and MCP-1 proteins in root resorption area using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of compression forces (CF) on IL-8 and MCP-1 production by human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. We observed an effect of chemokine treatment on rat odonto/osteoclasts in dentin slices that recapitulated root resorption. The immunoreactivity for CINC-1/CXCR2 and MCP-1 was detected in odontoclasts and PDL fibroblasts by the orthodontic force of 50 g on day 7. CF increased the secretion and the expression of mRNA of IL-8 and MCP-1 from PDL cells in a magnitude-dependent manner. Moreover, CINC-1 and MCP-1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis from rat osteoclast precursor cells. IL-8 (CINC-1) and MCP-1 may therefore facilitate the process of root resorption because of excessive orthodontic force. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates oral bacteria-induced IL-8 expression in gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsook; Jo, Ah-ram; Jang, Da Hyun; Cho, Yong-Joon; Chun, Jongsik; Min, Byung-Moo; Choi, Youngnim

    2012-07-01

    Previously, we reported that various oral bacteria regulate interleukin (IL)-8 production differently in gingival epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern recognition receptor(s) that mediate bacteria-induced IL-8 expression. Among ligands that mimic bacterial components, only a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 ligand enhanced IL-8 expression as determined by ELISA. Both normal and immortalized human gingival epithelial (HOK-16B) cells expressed TLR9 intracellularly and showed enhanced IL-8 expression in response to CpG-oligonucleotide. The ability of eight strains of four oral bacterial species to induce IL-8 expression in HOK-16B cells, and their invasion capacity were examined in the absence or presence of 2% human serum. The ability of purified bacterial DNA (bDNA) to induce IL-8 was also examined. Six out of eight strains increased IL-8 production in the absence of serum. Usage of an endosomal acidification blocker or a TLR9 antagonist inhibited the IL-8 induction by two potent strains. In the presence of serum, many strains lost the ability to induce IL-8 and presented substantially reduced invasion capacity. The IL-8-inducing ability of bacteria in the absence or presence of serum showed a strong positive correlation with their invasion index. The IL-8-inducing ability of bacteria in the absence of human serum was also correlated with the immunostimulatory activity of its bDNA. The observed immunostimulatory activity of the bDNA could not be linked to its CpG motif content. In conclusion, oral bacteria induce IL-8 in gingival epithelial cells through TLR9 and the IL-8-inducing ability depends on the invasive capacity and immunostimulating DNA.

  6. [Concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-8) in the cerebrospinal fluid and the course of bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Garlicki, Aleksander; Kalinowska-Nowak, Anna; Mach, Tomasz

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is still associated with high mortality rate and severe neurological sequels. The aim of the study was to assess correlation between concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and patient condition described on the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), changes in the CSF (pleocytosis, protein and glucose level), mortality rate and occurrence of neurological complications. 42 patients with bacterial meningitis have been analysed. Control group consisted of 25 patients with viral meningitis and 23 patients without meningitis. In analysed group with bacterial meningitis the correlation between number of scores aggregated by patients in GCS and outcome has been observed. Concentration of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 in CSF of patient with bacterial meningitis was significantly higher (mean value; 705.2 pg/ml, 401.1 pg/ml and 1696.0 pg/ml) than in control group (viral meningitis: 7.93 pg/ml, 31.89 pg/ml, 405.28 pg/ml, without meningitis: 0.38 pg/ml, 2.55 pg/ml, 32.56 pg/ml). Negative correlation between concentration of investigated cytokines in the CSF of patient with bacterial meningitis and GCS has been observed. Furthermore TNF-alpha and IL-8 levels correlated with pleocytosis, and protein and glucose levels, whereas IL-1 beta correlated with pleocytosis and protein level in CSF. Connection between TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta but not IL-8 level and outcome of bacterial meningitis has been observed. High TNF-alpha in the CSF (median value 953 pg/ml) was associated with significant risk of patient death. IL-1 beta has been better prognostic indicator. Patients who developed neurological sequels had median value of IL-1 beta level 401.3 pg/ml, and those who died had 585.9 pg/ml vs 244.7 pg/ml in the group who survived without any complications. Analysis of the ROC curve-revealed, that concentration of IL-1 beta > or = 289.9 pg/ml with 88.9% sensitivity and 67.7% specifity differentiate cases who

  7. IL-17A acts via p38 MAPK to increase stability of TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 mRNA in human ASM.

    PubMed

    Henness, Sheridan; van Thoor, Eveline; Ge, Qi; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret; Ammit, Alaina J

    2006-06-01

    Human airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays an immunomodulatory role in asthma. Recently, IL-17A has become of increasing interest in asthma, being found at elevated levels in asthmatic airways and emerging as playing an important role in airway neutrophilia. IL-17A predominantly exerts its neutrophil orchestrating role indirectly via the induction of cytokines by resident airway structural cells. Here, we perform an in vitro study to show that although IL-17A did not induce secretion of the CXC chemokine IL-8 from ASM cells, IL-17A significantly potentiates TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 protein secretion and gene expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Levels of IL-8 protein produced after 24 h of incubation with TNF-alpha were enhanced 2.7-fold in the presence of IL-17A, and conditioned media significantly enhanced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro. As IL-17A had no effect on the activity of NF-kappaB, a key transcriptional regulator of IL-8 gene expression, we then examined whether IL-17A acts at the posttranscriptional level. We found that IL-17A significantly augmented TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 mRNA stability. Interestingly, this enhanced stability occurred via a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. The decay of IL-8 mRNA transcripts proceeded at a significantly faster rate when cells were pretreated with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (-0.05763 +/- 0.01964, t(1/2) = 12.0 h), compared with vehicle (-0.01030 +/- 0.007963, t(1/2) = 67.3 h) [results are expressed as decay constant (means +/- SE) and half-life (t(1/2) in h): P < 0.05]. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-17A amplifies the synthetic function of ASM cells, acting via a p38 MAPK-dependent posttranscriptional pathway to augment TNF-alpha-induced secretion of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 from ASM cells.

  8. A model combining age, equivalent uniform dose and IL-8 may predict radiation esophagitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shulian; Campbell, Jeff; Stenmark, Matthew H; Stanton, Paul; Zhao, Jing; Matuszak, Martha M; Ten Haken, Randall K; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2018-03-01

    To study whether cytokine markers may improve predictive accuracy of radiation esophagitis (RE) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 129 patients with stage I-III NSCLC treated with radiotherapy (RT) from prospective studies were included. Thirty inflammatory cytokines were measured in platelet-poor plasma samples. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the risk factors of RE. Stepwise Akaike information criterion (AIC) and likelihood ratio test were used to assess model predictions. Forty-nine of 129 patients (38.0%) developed grade ≥2 RE. Univariate analysis showed that age, stage, concurrent chemotherapy, and eight dosimetric parameters were significantly associated with grade ≥2 RE (p < 0.05). IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-13, IL-15, IL-1α, TGFα and eotaxin were also associated with grade ≥2 RE (p < 0.1). Age, esophagus generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD), and baseline IL-8 were independently associated grade ≥2 RE. The combination of these three factors had significantly higher predictive power than any single factor alone. Addition of IL-8 to toxicity model significantly improves RE predictive accuracy (p = 0.019). Combining baseline level of IL-8, age and esophagus EUD may predict RE more accurately. Refinement of this model with larger sample sizes and validation from multicenter database are warranted. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of average of normals (AON) procedure for outlier-free datasets including qualitative values below limit of detection (LoD): an application within tumor markers such as CA 15-3, CA 125, and CA 19-9.

    PubMed

    Usta, Murat; Aral, Hale; Mete Çilingirtürk, Ahmet; Kural, Alev; Topaç, Ibrahim; Semerci, Tuna; Hicri Köseoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Average of normals (AON) is a quality control procedure that is sensitive only to systematic errors that can occur in an analytical process in which patient test results are used. The aim of this study was to develop an alternative model in order to apply the AON quality control procedure to datasets that include qualitative values below limit of detection (LoD). The reported patient test results for tumor markers, such as CA 15-3, CA 125, and CA 19-9, analyzed by two instruments, were retrieved from the information system over a period of 5 months, using the calibrator and control materials with the same lot numbers. The median as a measure of central tendency and the median absolute deviation (MAD) as a measure of dispersion were used for the complementary model of AON quality control procedure. The u bias values, which were determined for the bias component of the measurement uncertainty, were partially linked to the percentages of the daily median values of the test results that fall within the control limits. The results for these tumor markers, in which lower limits of reference intervals are not medically important for clinical diagnosis and management, showed that the AON quality control procedure, using the MAD around the median, can be applied for datasets including qualitative values below LoD.

  10. Novel Roles for Hypoxia and Prostaglandin E2 in the Regulation of IL-8 During Endometrial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Hirani, Nikhil; Jabbour, Henry N.; Critchley, Hilary O.D.

    2011-01-01

    The endometrium has a remarkable capacity for efficient repair; however, factors involved remain undefined. Premenstrual progesterone withdrawal leads to increased prostaglandin (PG) production and local hypoxia. Here we determined human endometrial expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the roles of PGE2 and hypoxia in its regulation. Endometrial biopsy specimens (n = 51) were collected. Endometrial cells and explants were exposed to 100 nmol/L of PGE2 or 0.5% O2. The endometrial IL-8 concentration peaked during menstruation (P < 0.001) and had a significant proangiogenic effect. IL-8 was increased by PGE2 and hypoxia in secretory but not proliferative explants, which suggests that exposure to progesterone is essential. In vitro progesterone withdrawal induced significant IL-8 up-regulation in proliferative explants primed with progestins, but only in the presence of hypoxia. Epithelial cells treated simultaneously with PGE2 and hypoxia demonstrated synergistic increases in IL-8. Inhibition of HIF-1 by short hairpin RNA abolished hypoxic IL-8 induction, and inhibition of NF-κB by an adenoviral dominant negative inhibitor decreased PGE2-induced IL-8 expression (P > 0.05). Increased menstrual IL-8 is consistent with a role in repair. Progesterone withdrawal, hypoxia, and PGE2 regulate endometrial IL-8 by acting via HIF-1 and NF-κB. Hence, progesterone withdrawal may activate two distinct pathways to initiate endometrial repair. PMID:21356375

  11. IL-8 gene variants are associated with lung function decline and multidimensional BODE index in COPD patients but not with disease susceptibility: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; Baz-Dávila, Rebeca; Espinoza-Jiménez, Adriana; Rodríguez-Pérez, María C; Varo, Nerea; de-Torres, Juan P; González-Almeida, Delia; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Casanova, Ciro

    2015-02-01

    COPD is a leading cause of dead worldwide and tobacco smoking is its major risk factor. IL8 is a proinflammatory chemokine mainly involved in the acute inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to test the association of IL-8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 gene variants and COPD susceptibility as part of a replication study and explore the effect of these variations in disease progression. 9 tagSNPs were genotyped in 728 Caucasian individuals (196 COPD patients, 80 smokers and 452 non-smoking controls). Pulmonary compromise was evaluated using spirometry and clinical parameters at baseline and annually over a 2 years period. We also determined plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-16 in COPD patients. There was a lack of association between gene variants or haplotypes with predisposition to COPD. No correlation was observed between the polymorphisms and cytokines levels. Interestingly, significant associations were found between carriers of the rs4073A (OR = 3.53, CI 1.34-9.35, p = 0.01), rs2227306C (OR = 5.65, CI 1.75-18.88, p = 0.004) and rs2227307T (OR = 4.52, CI = 1.49-12.82, p = 0.007) alleles in the IL-8 gene and patients who scored higher in the BODE index and showed an important decrease in their FEV1 and FVC during the 2 years follow-up period (p < 0.05). Despite no association was found between the studied genes and COPD susceptibility, three polymorphisms in the IL-8 gene appear to be involved in a worse progression of the disease, with an affectation beyond the pulmonary function and importantly, a reduction in lung function along the follow-up years.

  12. Radiation results in IL-8 mediated intercellular signaling that increases adhesion between monocytic cells and aortic endothelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucik, Dennis; Babitz, Stephen; Dunaway, Chad; Steele, Chad

    cells (HAECs) in vitro under conditions that mimic the shear stress in the bloodstream. For both heavy ions and x-rays, these adhesiveness changes are independent of adhesion molecule expression levels, but are chemokine dependent. Here we identify the specific endothelial chemokine responsible for this radiation-induced adhesiveness. X-irradiation increased IL-8 secretion almost 5-fold, while having little or no effect on expression of 15 other chemokines. Adhesiveness was then assayed under physiological shear stress using a flow chamber adhesion assay. Radiation significantly increased endothelial adhesiveness. The radiation-induced adhesiveness was specifically blocked by anti-IL-8 antibody, with no effect on baseline, radiation-independent adhesion. Addition of recombinant human IL-8 to un-irradiated HAECs was sufficient to increase adhesion to the same level as x-rays. Therefore, radiation-induced IL-8 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for radiation effects on aortic endothelial adhesiveness. This IL-8 induced adhesiveness may explain, at least in part, the mechanism by which radiation accelerates development of atherosclerosis. A better understanding of this mechanism can provide the basis for future countermeasure development.

  13. Effects of cranberry components on IL-1β-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF by human TMJ synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tipton, David A; Christian, James; Blumer, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in the TMJ is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and secondary inflammatory changes. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid of TMJ with internal derangement and bony changes. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contains polyphenolic compounds that inhibit production of pro-inflammatory molecules by gingival cells in response to several stimulators. This study examined effects of cranberry components on IL-1β-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production by human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells. Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) was derived from cranberry juice. Human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells from joints with degenerative OA and an ankylosed TMJ without degeneration were incubated with IL-1β (0.001-1nM)±NDM (25-250μg/ml) (2h preincubation). Viability was assessed via activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA; NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors were measured in nuclear extracts via binding to specific oligonucleotides. ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. NDM did not affect cell viability but inhibited IL-1β stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production in all cell lines (p<0.05). NDM partially reduced nuclear levels of NF-κB and AP-1 (p<0.04), depending upon cell line and time of exposure to IL-1β+NDM. Cranberry NDM inhibition of IL-1β-stimulated IL- 6, IL-8, and VEGF production by TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells suggests that cranberry components may be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat inflammatory arthropathies of the TMJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma IL-8 signature correlates with pain and depressive symptomatology in patients with burning mouth syndrome: Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barry, Alison; O'Halloran, Ken D; McKenna, Joseph P; McCreary, Christine; Downer, Eric J

    2018-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a neuropathic orofacial pain condition of unknown aetiology that encompasses intra-oral burning pain without abnormal clinical findings. Psychological, neural and inflammatory processes are associated with BMS pathogenesis. Currently, studies characterising plasma cytokine/chemokine profiles with pain and depression in patients with BMS are lacking. Considering that inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of BMS, and that inflammation is closely associated with pain and depression, we aimed to correlate depressive symptomatology and oral cavity pain with plasma cytokine/chemokine signatures in a cohort of patients with BMS. In this study, plasma protein levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12p70, TNF-α), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-13) and the chemokine IL-8 were assessed in patients with BMS (n = 10) and healthy volunteers (n = 10), using pro-inflammatory-10-plex assays. Clinical histories, alongside self-rated oral cavity pain intensities and depressive symptomatology were assessed using a visual analogue scale and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology questionnaires, respectively. We present evidence that BMS is associated with increased depressive symptomatology and enhanced oral cavity pain. Plasma isolated from BMS patients display enhanced expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8, when compared to plasma from healthy individuals. Plasma IL-8 signature correlates with pain and depressive symptomatology in the study cohort. Overall, these findings indicate that plasma IL-8 profiles are dysregulated in BMS and that modulation of IL-8 production in the disorder may be a tool in the management of BMS symptomatology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stimulation of IL-8 release from epithelial cells by gas cooker PM10: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dick, C; Dennekamp, M; Howarth, S; Cherrie, J; Seaton, A; Donaldson, K; Stone, V

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To measure the effect of matter collected by a method that has a 50% efficiency for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm (PM10), generated by gas and electric cooking, on A549 epithelial cells with and without nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
METHOD—Multiple indoor PM10 samples were collected on Teflon filters during the use of gas or electric cookers. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations were measured with a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system.
RESULTS—Treatment of A549 cells with PM10 generated from gas cooking resulted in increased concentrations of IL-8 compared with untreated cells; particles from the electric cooker had no effect. NO2 did not alter the concentration of IL-8.
CONCLUSION—PM10 generated by gas cooking has the potential to cause proinflammatory effects in lung cells. This may have implications for susceptible people.


Keywords: indoor air pollution; PM10; interleukin-8 PMID:11171935

  16. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES INDUCE IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS THROUGH A POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafine carbon particles induce IL-8 expression in human airway
    epithelial cells through a post-transcritpional mechanism
    Epidemiological studies suggest that ultrafine particles contribute to
    particulate matter (PM) - induced adverse health effects. IL-8 is an
    i...

  17. Lycopene Inhibits NF-kB-Mediated IL-8 Expression and Changes Redox and PPARγ Signalling in Cigarette Smoke–Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Rossella E.; Russo, Marco; Catalano, Assunta; Monego, Giovanni; Froehlich, Kati; Boehm, Volker; Palozza, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that lycopene, the major carotenoid present in tomato, may be preventive against smoke-induced cell damage. However, the mechanisms of such a prevention are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lycopene on the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 induced by cigarette smoke and the possible mechanisms implicated. Therefore, human THP-1 macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), alone and following a 6-h pre-treatment with lycopene (0.5–2 µM). CSE enhanced IL-8 production in a time- and a dose-dependent manner. Lycopene pre-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of CSE-induced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. NF-kB controlled the transcription of IL-8 induced by CSE, since PDTC prevented such a production. Lycopene suppressed CSE-induced NF-kB DNA binding, NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of IKKα and IkBα. Such an inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in CSE-induced ROS production and NOX-4 expression. Lycopene further inhibited CSE-induced phosphorylation of the redox-sensitive ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs. Moreover, the carotenoid increased PPARγ levels which, in turn, enhanced PTEN expression and decreased pAKT levels in CSE-exposed cells. Such effects were abolished by the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. Taken together, our data indicate that lycopene prevented CSE-induced IL-8 production through a mechanism involving an inactivation of NF-kB. NF-kB inactivation was accompanied by an inhibition of redox signalling and an activation of PPARγ signalling. The ability of lycopene in inhibiting IL-8 production, NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation, and redox signalling and in increasing PPARγ expression was also found in isolated rat alveolar macrophages exposed to CSE. These findings provide novel data on new molecular mechanisms by which lycopene regulates cigarette smoke-driven inflammation in human macrophages. PMID:21625550

  18. Over Expression of Long Non-Coding RNA PANDA Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting Senescence Associated Inflammatory Factor IL8.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuanhui; Hu, Wendi; Weng, Xiaoyu; Tong, Rongliang; Cheng, Shaobing; Ding, Chaofeng; Xiao, Heng; Lv, Zhen; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2017-06-23

    It has been reported that long non-coding RNA PANDA was disregulated in varieties types of tumor, but its expression level and biological role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains contradictory. We detected PANDA expression in two independent cohorts (48 HCC patients following liver transplantation and 84 HCC patients following liver resection), and found that PANDA was down-regulated in HCC. Thereafter we explored its function in cancer biology by inversing its low expression. Surprisingly, overexpression of PANDA promoted HCC proliferation and carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, PANDA repressed transcriptional activity of senescence associated inflammatory factor IL8, which leaded to inhibition of cellular senescence. Therefore, our research help to better understand the complex role of PANDA in HCC, and suggest more thoughtful strategies should be applied before it can be treated as a potential therapeutic target.

  19. Adipose tissue IL-8 is increased in normal weight women after menopause and reduced after gastric bypass surgery in obese women.

    PubMed

    Alvehus, Malin; Simonyte, Kotryna; Andersson, Therése; Söderström, Ingegerd; Burén, Jonas; Rask, Eva; Mattsson, Cecilia; Olsson, Tommy

    2012-11-01

    The menopausal transition is characterized by increased body fat accumulation, including redistribution from peripheral to central fat depots. This distribution is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are linked to low-grade inflammation. We determined whether postmenopausal women have higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared with premenopausal women. We also wanted to determine whether these markers are reduced by stable weight loss in obese women. Anthropometric data, blood samples and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from normal weight premenopausal and postmenopausal women and obese women before and 2 years after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. Serum protein levels and adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers were investigated. IL-8 expression in adipose tissue and circulating levels were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. IL-8 expression was associated with waist circumference, independent of menopausal status. IL-6 expression and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. Two years after GBP surgery, adipose expression of IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α and MCP-1 decreased significantly. Serum insulin levels were associated with inflammation-related gene expression before GBP surgery, but these associations disappeared after surgery. Postmenopausal women have an increased inflammatory response in the subcutaneous fat and circulation. Inflammatory markers in adipose tissue decreased significantly after surgery-induced weight loss. This effect may be beneficial for metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk after weight loss. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Sequential cancer immunotherapy: targeted activity of dimeric TNF and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Nicole; Siebenborn, Uta; Fadle, Natalie; Plesko, Margarita; Fischer, Eliane; Wüest, Thomas; Stenner, Frank; Mertens, Joachim C.; Knuth, Alexander; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd J.; Renner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are potent effectors of inflammation and their attempts to respond to cancer are suggested by their systemic, regional and intratumoral activation. We previously reported on the recruitment of CD11b+ leukocytes due to tumor site-specific enrichment of TNF activity after intravenous administration of a dimeric TNF immunokine with specificity for fibroblast activation protein (FAP). However, TNF-induced chemo-attraction and extravasation of PMNs from blood into the tumor is a multistep process essentially mediated by interleukin 8. With the aim to amplify the TNF-induced and IL-8-mediated chemotactic response, we generated immunocytokines by N-terminal fusion of a human anti-FAP scFv fragment with human IL-8 (IL-872) and its N-terminally truncated form IL-83-72. Due to the dramatic difference in chemotaxis induction in vitro, we favored the mature chemokine fused to the anti-FAP scFv for further investigation in vivo. BALB/c nu/nu mice were simultaneously xenografted with FAP-positive or -negative tumors and extended chemo-attraction of PMNs was only detectable in FAP-expressing tissue after intravenous administration of the anti-FAP scFv-IL-872 construct. As TNF-activated PMNs are likewise producers and primary targets for IL-8, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of co-administration of both effectors: Sequential application of scFv-IL-872 and dimeric IgG1-TNF fusion proteins significantly enhanced anti-tumor activity when compared either to a single effector treatment regimen or sequential application of non-targeted cytokines, indicating that the tumor-restricted sequential application of IL-872 and TNF is a promising approach for cancer therapy. PMID:19267427

  1. Acidic microenvironments induce lymphangiogenesis and IL-8 production via TRPV1 activation in human lymphatic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Masako, E-mail: n-masako@wakayama-med.ac.jp; Morita, Yoshihiro; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Seichokai Hannan Municipal Hospital, Hannan, Osaka 599-0202

    Local acidosis is one of the characteristic features of the cancer microenvironment. Many reports indicate that acidosis accelerates the proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, whether acidic conditions affect lymphatic metastasis is currently unknown. In the present study, we focused on the effects of acidosis on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to assess the relationship between acidic microenvironments and lymph node metastasis. We demonstrated that normal human LECs express various acid receptors by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acidic stimulation with low pH medium induced morphological changes in LECs to a spindle shape, and significantly promoted cellular growthmore » and tube formation. Moreover, real-time PCR revealed that acidic conditions increased the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-8. Acidic stimulation increased IL-8 production in LECs, whereas a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, 5′-iodoresiniferatoxin, decreased IL-8 production. IL-8 accelerated the proliferation of LECs, and inhibition of IL-8 diminished tube formation and cell migration. In addition, phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was induced by acidic conditions, and inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced acid-induced IL-8 expression. These results suggest that acidic microenvironments in tumors induce lymphangiogenesis via TRPV1 activation in LECs, which in turn may promote lymphatic metastasis. - Highlights: • Acidity accelerates the growth, migration, and tube formation of LECs. • Acidic condition induces IL-8 expression in LECs. • IL-8 is critical for the changes of LECs. • IL-8 expression is induced via TRPV1 activation.« less

  2. IL-8 signaling is up regulated in alcoholic hepatitis and DDC fed mice with Mallory Denk Bodies (MDBs) present

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; French, Barbara A.; Nelson, Tyler J.; Li, Jun; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are involved in oncogenesis and in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Various chemokines also promote cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of stressed cells. The chemokine CXCL8, also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8), is a proinflammatory molecule that has functions within the tumor microenvironment. Deregulation of IL-8 signaling is shown to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) are prevalent in various liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and are formed in mice livers by feeding DDC. By comparing AH livers where MDBs had formed with normal livers, there were significant changes of IL-8 signaling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses. Real-time PCR analysis of CXCR2 further shows a 6-fold up regulation in AH livers and a 26-fold up regulation in the livers of DDC re-fed mice. IL-8 mRNA was also significantly up regulated in AH livers and DDC re-fed mice livers. This indicates that CXCR2 and IL-8 may be crucial for liver MDB formation. MDB containing balloon hepatocytes in AH livers had increased intensity of staining of the cytoplasm for both CXCR2 and IL-8. Over expression of IL-8 leads to an increase of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and exacerbates the inflammatory cycle. These observations constitute a demonstration of the altered regulation of IL-8 signaling in the livers of AH and mice fed DDC where MDBs formed, providing further insight into the mechanism of MDB formation mediated by IL-8 signaling in AH. PMID:26260904

  3. IL-8 signaling is up-regulated in alcoholic hepatitis and DDC fed mice with Mallory Denk Bodies (MDBs) present.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; French, Barbara A; Nelson, Tyler J; Li, Jun; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W

    2015-10-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are involved in oncogenesis and in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Various chemokines also promote cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of stressed cells. The chemokine CXCL8, also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8), is a proinflammatory molecule that has functions within the tumor microenvironment. Deregulation of IL-8 signaling is shown to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) are prevalent in various liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and are formed in mice livers by feeding DDC. By comparing AH livers where MDBs had formed with normal livers, there were significant changes of IL-8 signaling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses. Real-time PCR analysis of CXCR2 further shows a 6-fold up-regulation in AH livers and a 26-fold up-regulation in the livers of DDC re-fed mice. IL-8 mRNA was also significantly up-regulated in AH livers and DDC re-fed mice livers. This indicates that CXCR2 and IL-8 may be crucial for liver MDB formation. MDB containing balloon hepatocytes in AH livers had increased intensity of staining of the cytoplasm for both CXCR2 and IL-8. Overexpression of IL-8 leads to an increase of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and exacerbates the inflammatory cycle. These observations constitute a demonstration of the altered regulation of IL-8 signaling in the livers of AH and mice fed DDC where MDBs formed, providing further insight into the mechanism of MDB formation mediated by IL-8 signaling in AH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strawberry tannins inhibit IL-8 secretion in a cell model of gastric inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Marco; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piazza, Stefano; Colombo, Elisa; Gasperotti, Mattia; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Fabiani, Emma; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we chemically profiled tannin-enriched extracts from strawberries and tested their biological properties in a cell model of gastric inflammation. The chemical and biological features of strawberry tannins after in vitro simulated gastric digestion were investigated as well. The anti-inflammatory activities of pure strawberry tannins were assayed to get mechanistic insights. Tannin-enriched extracts from strawberries inhibit IL-8 secretion in TNFα-treated human gastric epithelial cells by dampening the NF-κB signaling. In vitro simulated gastric digestion slightly affected the chemical composition and the biological properties of strawberry tannins. By using pure compounds, we found that casuarictin may act as a pure NF-κB inhibitor while agrimoniin inhibits IL-8 secretion also acting on other biological targets; in our system procyanidin B1 prevents the TNFα-induced effects without interfering with the NF-κB pathway. We conclude that strawberry tannins, even after in vitro simulated gastric digestion, exert anti-inflammatory activities at nutritionally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin sensitizer identification by IL-8 secretion and CD86 expression on THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Parise, Carolina Bellini; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa Moura; Moraes, Jane Zveiter

    2015-12-25

    Substantial progress has been made in the development of alternative methods for skin sensitization in the last decade in several countries around the world. Brazil is experiencing an increasing concern about using animals for product development, since the publication of the Law 9605/1998, which prohibits the use of animals when an alternative method is available. In this way, an in vitro test to evaluate allergenic potential is a pressing need.This preliminary study started setting the use of myelomonocytic THP-1 cell line, according to the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), already under validation process. We found that 48-h chemical exposure was necessary to identify 22 out of 23 sensitizers by the analyses of CD86 expression. In addition, the CD54 expression analyses presented a poor efficiency to discriminate sensitizers from non-sensitizers in our conditions. In view of these results, we looked for changes of pro-inflammatory interleukin profile. The IL-8 secretion analyses after 24-h chemical incubation seemed to be an alternative for CD54 expression assessing.Altogether, our findings showed that the combination of the analyses of CD86 expression and IL-8 secretion allowed predicting allergenicity.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles activate IL8-related inflammatory pathways in human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Kristin; Cossais, François; Neve, Horst; Klempt, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are widely used as food additive or coating material in products of the food and pharmaceutical industry. Studies on various cell lines have shown that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) induced the inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. However, the influences of TiO2 NPs' exposure on inflammatory pathways in intestinal epithelial cells and their differentiation have not been investigated so far. This study demonstrates that TiO2 NPs with particle sizes ranging between 5 and 10 nm do not affect enterocyte differentiation but cause an activation of inflammatory pathways in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. 5 and 10 nm NPs' exposures transiently induce the expression of ICAM1, CCL20, COX2 and IL8, as determined by quantitative PCR, whereas larger particles (490 nm) do not. Further, using nuclear factor (NF)-κB reporter gene assays, we show that NP-induced IL8 mRNA expression occurs, in part, through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

  7. IL-8 induces miR-424-5p expression and modulates SOCS2/STAT5 signaling pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsuan-Yu; Jiang, Shih-Sheng; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Hsiao, Michael; Hsu, Yuan-Ming; Wu, Guan-Hsun; Chang, Wei-Min; Chang, Jang-Yang; Jin, Shiow-Lian Catherine; Shiah, Shine-Gwo

    2016-06-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative feedback regulators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Dysregulation of SOCS protein expression in cancers can be one of the mechanisms that maintain STAT activation, but this mechanism is still poorly understood in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here, we report that SOCS2 protein is significantly downregulated in OSCC patients and its levels are inversely correlated with miR-424-5p expression. We identified the SOCS2 protein, which modulates STAT5 activity, as a direct target of miR-424-5p. The miR-424-5p-induced STAT5 phosphorylation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, and cell migration and invasion were blocked by SOCS2 restoration, suggesting that miR-424-5p exhibits its oncogenic activity through negatively regulating SOCS2 levels. Furthermore, miR-424-5p expression could be induced by the cytokine IL-8 primarily through enhancing STAT5 transcriptional activity rather than NF-κB signaling. Antagomir-mediated inactivation of miR-424-5p prevented the IL-8-induced cell migration and invasion, indicating that miR-424-5p is required for IL-8-induced cellular invasiveness. Taken together, these data indicate that STAT5-dependent expression of miR-424-5p plays an important role in mediating IL-8/STAT5/SOCS2 feedback loop, and scavenging miR-424-5p function using antagomir may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of OSCC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Norepinephrine upregulates VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 expression in human melanoma tumor cell lines: implications for stress-related enhancement of tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eric V.; Kim, Seung-jae; Donovan, Elise L.; Chen, Min; Gross, Amy C.; Webster Marketon, Jeanette I.; Barsky, Sanford H.; Glaser, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that stress can be a co-factor for the initiation and progression of cancer. The catecholamine stress hormone, norepinephrine (NE), may influence tumor progression by modulating the expression of factors implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of NE on the expression of VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 by the human melanoma cell lines, C8161, 1174MEL, and Me18105. Cells were treated with NE and levels of VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 were measured using ELISA and real-time PCR. The expression of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) mRNA and protein were also assessed. Finally, immunohistochemitry was utilized to examine the presence of β1- and β2-AR in primary and metastatic human melanoma biopsies. We show that NE treatment upregulated production of VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 in C8161 cells and to a lesser extent 1174MEL and Me18105 cells. The upregulation was associated with induced gene expression. The effect on C8161 cells was mediated by both β1- and β2-ARs. Furthermore, 18 of 20 melanoma biopsies examined expressed β2-AR while 14 of 20 melanoma biopsies expressed β1-AR. Our data support the hypothesis that NE can stimulate the aggressive potential of melanoma tumor cells, in part, by inducing the production VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6. This line of research further suggests that interventions targeting components of the activated sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, or the utilization of β-AR blocking agents, may represent new strategies for slowing down the progression of malignant disease and improving cancer patients’ quality of life. PMID:18996182

  9. Allyl methyl disulfide inhibits IL-8 and IP-10 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells via the NF-кB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongchun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Kaiming; Liu, Guangpu; Yang, Min; Luan, Yuxia; Zhao, Zhongxi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Cao, Xinke; Zhang, Daizhou

    2015-07-01

    Garlic and its active constituents have shown versatile medicinal activities in the prevention and treatment of various disorders. Allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS) was identified as one of the major bioactive components in an effective inhalation fork remedy using fresh garlic paste in our previous study. In this work, we investigated the immunological properties of AMDS to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the fork inhalation treatment using fresh garlic. The inhibition effect of AMDS on TNF-α-induced IL-8 and IP-10 production in intestinal epithelial cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 was first evaluated. Pretreatment of the cells with AMDS attenuated IL-8 and IP-10 secretion induced by TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner in the non-cytotoxic concentration range of 20 to 150 μM. Mechanistic studies revealed that AMDS suppressed the accumulation of IL-8 mRNA and inhibited IкBα degradation and NF-кB p65 translocation into the nucleus at both the transcriptional and translational levels, suggesting that the attenuation effort of AMDS on cytokine IL-8 secretion might at least be partially related to the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results suggest that AMDS may be a promising phytochemical agent in the treatment of immunological disorders, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, intestinal inflammatory diseases and others. In addition, the mechanistic study data indicated that immune modulation could be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of the effective fork treatment containing AMDS as one of the major components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Regulation of IL-1beta and IL-8 production by mu-, delta-opiate receptors agonists in vitro].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gorshkova, K G; Tendriakova, S P

    2008-07-01

    The beta-endorphin 10(-7-)-10(-11) M in LPS (lypopolisaccharide) presence and in spontaneous cultures promoted the IL-1beta production in mixed leukocyte fraction. LPS-induced IL-8 production in leukocyte fraction was inhibited by beta-endorphin 10(-7), 10(-11) M. The enchasing effect of beta-endorphin on IL-1beta production was not blocked by naloxone and naltrindole. The inhibitory effect of beta-endorphin on IL-8 production was blocked by naloxone and naltrindole. In mononuclear and neutrophile fractions beta-endorphin and delta-agonist DADLE enchased IL-1beta production in spontaneous and LPS-stimulating cultures, when IL-8 production inhibited beta-endorphin and delta-agonist DADLE only in LPS presence. No effect of mu-agonist DAGO were observed on IL-1beta production, whereas LPS-induced IL-8 secretion in neutrophile fraction inhibited by DAGO.

  11. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF FINE PARTICLES IN THE U.S. AND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN INFLAMMATORY MARKER IL -8

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The association between PM sources and inflammatory marker IL-8 was evaluated in this study.

  12. Plasma cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Aisiku, Imo P; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Doshi, Pratik; Benoit, Julia S; Gopinath, Shankar; Goodman, Jerry C; Robertson, Claudia S

    2016-09-15

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). TBI and ARDS pathophysiologic mechanisms are known to independently involve significant inflammatory responses. The literature on the association between plasma inflammatory cytokines and ARDS in patients with TBI is sparse. The study was a secondary analysis of the safety of a randomized trial of erythropoietin and transfusion threshold in patients with severe TBI. Inflammatory markers within the first 24 hours after injury were compared in patients who developed ARDS and patients without ARDS, using Cox proportional hazards models. There were 200 patients enrolled in the study. The majority of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine levels were obtained within 6 hours. Plasma proinflammatory markers IL-6 and IL-8 and anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 were associated with the development of ARDS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, confidence interval (CI) = 1.14, 2.11, P = 0.005 for IL-6; adjusted HR = 1.32, CI = 1.10, 1.59, P = 0.003 for IL-8). Plasma markers of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are associated with ARDS in patients with severe TBI. NCT00313716 registered 4/2006.

  13. Zinc Deprivation Mediates Alcohol-Induced Hepatocyte IL-8 Analog Expression in Rodents via an Epigenetic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yantao; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xiuhua; Song, Zhenyuan; Clemens, Dahn L.; Kang, Y. James; McClain, Craig J.; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil infiltration caused by IL-8 production is a central mechanism in alcohol-induced hepatitis. This study was performed to examine if an epigenetic mechanism is involved in alcohol-induced IL-8 production. Mice were pair-fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 4 weeks. Alcohol exposure induced hepatitis as indicated by increased expression of keratinocyte-derived cytokine (mouse IL-8) and neutrophil infiltration. Alcohol exposure induced histone 3 hyperacetylation owing to inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in association with NF-κB activation. Cell culture studies showed that alcohol exposure induced IL-8 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1, rat IL-8) production in human VL-17A cells and rat H4IIEC3 cells, respectively, dependent on acetaldehyde production, oxidative stress, and zinc release. Zinc deprivation alone induced CINC-1 production and acted synergistically with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-α on CINC-1 production. Zinc deprivation induced histone 3 hyperacetylation at lysine 9 through suppression of HDAC activity. Zinc deprivation caused nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and reduced HDAC binding to NF-κB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that zinc deprivation caused histone 3 hyperacetylation as well as increased NF-κB binding to the CINC-1 promoter. In conclusion, inactivation of HDAC caused by zinc deprivation is a novel mechanism underlying IL-8 up-regulation in alcoholic hepatitis. PMID:21708112

  14. Zinc deprivation mediates alcohol-induced hepatocyte IL-8 analog expression in rodents via an epigenetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xiuhua; Song, Zhenyuan; Clemens, Dahn L; Kang, Y James; McClain, Craig J; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2011-08-01

    Neutrophil infiltration caused by IL-8 production is a central mechanism in alcohol-induced hepatitis. This study was performed to examine if an epigenetic mechanism is involved in alcohol-induced IL-8 production. Mice were pair-fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 4 weeks. Alcohol exposure induced hepatitis as indicated by increased expression of keratinocyte-derived cytokine (mouse IL-8) and neutrophil infiltration. Alcohol exposure induced histone 3 hyperacetylation owing to inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in association with NF-κB activation. Cell culture studies showed that alcohol exposure induced IL-8 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1, rat IL-8) production in human VL-17A cells and rat H4IIEC3 cells, respectively, dependent on acetaldehyde production, oxidative stress, and zinc release. Zinc deprivation alone induced CINC-1 production and acted synergistically with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-α on CINC-1 production. Zinc deprivation induced histone 3 hyperacetylation at lysine 9 through suppression of HDAC activity. Zinc deprivation caused nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and reduced HDAC binding to NF-κB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that zinc deprivation caused histone 3 hyperacetylation as well as increased NF-κB binding to the CINC-1 promoter. In conclusion, inactivation of HDAC caused by zinc deprivation is a novel mechanism underlying IL-8 up-regulation in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Entamoeba histolytica-secreted cysteine proteases induce IL-8 production in human mast cells via a PAR2-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah; Nam, Young Hee; Min, Arim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Mirelman, David; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular tissue parasite causing colitis and occasional liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica-derived secretory products (SPs) contain large amounts of cysteine proteases (CPs), one of the important amoebic virulence factors. Although tissue-residing mast cells play an important role in the mucosal inflammatory response to this pathogen, it is not known whether the SPs induce mast cell activation. In this study, when human mast cells (HMC-1 cells) were stimulated with SPs collected from pathogenic wild-type amoebae, interleukin IL-8 mRNA expression and production were significantly increased compared with cells incubated with medium alone. Inhibition of CP activity in the SPs with heat or the CP inhibitor E64 resulted in significant reduction of IL-8 production. Moreover, SPs obtained from inhibitors of cysteine protease (ICP)-overexpressing amoebae with low CP activity showed weaker stimulatory effects on IL-8 production than the wild-type control. Preincubation of HMC-1 cells with antibodies to human protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) did not affect the SP-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that cysteine proteases in E. histolytica-derived secretory products stimulate mast cells to produce IL-8 via a PAR2-independent mechanism, which contributes to IL-8-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the early phase of human amoebiasis. © Y.A. Lee et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  16. The IL-8 Protease SpyCEP/ScpC of Group A Streptococcus Promotes Resistance to Neutrophil Killing

    PubMed Central

    Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Pence, Morgan A.; Locke, Jeffrey B.; Buchanan, John T.; Turner, Claire E.; Mishalian, Inbal; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Hanski, Emanuel; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing fasciitis. Coupling allelic replacement with heterologous gene expression, we show that SpyCEP is necessary and sufficient for IL-8 degradation. SpyCEP decreased IL-8-dependent neutrophil endothelial transmigration and bacterial killing, the latter by reducing neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The knockout mutant lacking SpyCEP was attenuated for virulence in murine infection models, and SpyCEP expression conferred protection to coinfecting bacteria. We also show that the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae possesses a functional homolog of SpyCEP (Cepl) that cleaves IL-8, promotes neutrophil resistance, and contributes to virulence. By inactivating the multifunctional host defense peptide IL-8, the SpyCEP protease impairs neutrophil clearance mechanisms, contributing to the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection. PMID:18692776

  17. The effects of IL-1β, IL-8, G-CSF and TNF-α as molecular adjuvant on the immune response to an E. tarda subunit vaccine in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Cytokines play vital roles in mounting immune responses and activating host defense network. In this study, the expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 (pcN3) encoding four flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 or G-CSF (pcIL-1β, pcTNF-α, pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF) were successfully constructed, and their adjuvant potential on an Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) subunit vaccine OmpV (rOmpV) were comparatively analyzed in vaccinated flounder model. Results revealed that flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF produced the relative percent survivals (RPS) of 71%, 65% and 49% respectively, which were higher than that in flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcTNF-α (39%) or pcN3 (36%, the control group). Immunological analysis showed that: (1) except pcTNF-α, higher levels of anti-E. tarda serum antibodies and sIg + lymphocytes in spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood were significantly enhanced by pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF, however, pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β enhanced higher levels of sIg + lymphocytes and anti-E. tarda antibodies than pcG-CSF; (2) pcTNF-α could promote the up-regulation of genes participated in cellular immunity (MHCIα, IFN-γ, CD8α and CD8β), pcIL-1β could enhance the expression of genes related to humoral immunity (CD4-1, CD4-2, MHCIIα and IgM), and all the detected genes were augmented by pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF; Among the four cytokines, pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β could strengthen the highest levels of genes participated in cellular immunity and humoral immunity, respectively. These results demonstrated that pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β could enhance stronger cellular and/or humoral immunity induced by rOmpV than pcG-CSF and pcTNF-α, and evoked higher RPS against E. tarda challenge in flounder, which indicated that pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β are promising adjuvants of vaccines in controlling E. tarda infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ARSENITE ACTIVATES KB-DEPENDENT IL-8 GENE EXPRESSION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIM IN THE ABSENCE OF NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATION OF NF-KB

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airway epithelial cells respond to certain environmental stresses by mounting a proinflammatory response, which is characterized by enhanced synthesis and release of the neutrophil chemotactic and activating factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 expression is regulated at the transcr...

  19. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, 234 G.M. Trout Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1224; Gray, Jennifer S.

    2006-06-15

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 andmore » IL-1{beta} intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38{sup +} cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14{sup +} monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response.« less

  20. 15d-PGJ2 upregulates synthesis of IL-8 in endothelial cells through induction of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jozkowicz, Alicja; Was, Halina; Taha, Hevidar; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Mleczko, Katarzyna; Cisowski, Jaroslaw; Weigel, Guenter; Dulak, Jozef

    2008-12-01

    15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is a cyclopentenone prostaglandin regarded as antiinflammatory mediator, which can act through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) or through G protein-coupled surface receptors. It has been demonstrated that 15d-PGJ(2) potently increases the generation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1s); however, the mechanism of this induction is not known. The aim of the study was to find the pathway involved in 15d-PGJ(2)-mediated IL-8 stimulation. Our data confirmed that the effect of 15d-PGJ(2) is independent of PPARgamma. For the first time, we excluded the activation of G proteins and the contribution of G protein-coupled surface receptors in endothelial cells treated with 15d-PGJ(2). Instead, we demonstrated that stimulation of IL-8 involved induction of oxidative stress, activation of p38 kinases, and increase in stability of IL-8 mRNA. Upregulation of IL-8 promoter, although measurable, seemed to play a less-pronounced role. Additionally, our results indicate the involvement of cAMP elevation and may suggest a role for ATF2 transcription factor. Concomitant induction of heme oxygenase-1 in HMEC-1s did not influence the synthesis of IL-8. In summary, we showed that 15d-PGJ(2), acting through oxidative stress, may exert proinflammatory effects. The upregulation of IL-8 is mostly associated with p38-mediated stabilization of mRNA.

  1. Mitomycin C upregulates IL-8 and MCP-1 chemokine expression via mitogen-activated protein kinases in corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chou, San-Fang; Chang, Shu-Wen; Chuang, Jia-Ling

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the expression of chemokines and their signaling pathways after application of mitomycin C (MMC) to corneal fibroblasts. Primary porcine and human corneal fibroblasts from passages 3 to 6 were treated with MMC at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/mL for 1, 2, 5, or 10 minutes. The relative expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were investigated with reverse transcription, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects of MMC on the activation of kinases were analyzed by Western blot analysis with specific antiphosphokinase antibodies. The signaling pathways by which MMC regulates the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 were evaluated by pharmacological kinase-specific inhibitors. The expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 were upregulated after MMC treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the upregulated expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 increased with longer incubation time. MMC treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK at different time points. The MMC-related IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was inhibited by both a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). A JNK inhibitor (SP600125) reduced the expression of MMC-induced MCP-1 but not of IL-8. MMC treatment upregulated the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA and protein secretion by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in corneal fibroblasts.

  2. RNAi-based therapeutic nanostrategy: IL-8 gene silencing in pancreatic cancer cells using gold nanorods delivery vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Nishtha; Yang, Chengbin; Yin, Feng; Yoon, Ho Sup; Swee Chuan, Tjin; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2015-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing possesses great ability for therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. Among various oncogene mutations, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene mutations are found to be overexpressed in many pancreatic cell lines. In this work, we demonstrate IL-8 gene silencing by employing an RNAi-based gene therapy approach and this is achieved by using gold nanorods (AuNRs) for efficient delivery of IL-8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the pancreatic cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1. Upon comparing to Panc-1 cells, we found that the dominant expression of the IL-8 gene in MiaPaCa-2 cells resulted in an aggressive behavior towards the processes of cell invasion and metastasis. We have hence investigated the suitability of using AuNRs as novel non-viral nanocarriers for the efficient uptake and delivery of IL-8 siRNA in realizing gene knockdown of both MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging techniques have been applied to confirm transfection and release of IL-8 siRNA. The ratio of AuNRs and siRNA has been optimized and transfection efficiencies as high as 88.40 ± 2.14% have been achieved. Upon successful delivery of IL-8 siRNA into cancer cells, the effects of IL-8 gene knockdown are quantified in terms of gene expression, cell invasion, cell migration and cell apoptosis assays. Statistical comparative studies for both MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells are presented in this work. IL-8 gene silencing has been demonstrated with knockdown efficiencies of 81.02 ± 10.14% and 75.73 ± 6.41% in MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells, respectively. Our results are then compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Oligofectamine, serving as positive control. The gene knockdown results illustrate the potential role of AuNRs as non-viral gene delivery vehicles for RNAi-based targeted cancer therapy applications.

  3. Differential signaling mechanism for HIV-1 Nef-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Kumar, Anil

    2015-06-15

    Variety of HIV-1 viral proteins including HIV-1 Nef are known to activate astrocytes and microglia in the brain and cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is thought to be one of the mechanisms leading to HIV-1- mediated neurotoxicity. IL-6 and IL-8 have been found in the CSF of patients with HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD), suggesting that they might play important roles in HIV-1 neuropathology. In the present study we examined the effects of HIV-1 Nef on IL-6 and IL-8 induction in astrocytes. The results demonstrate that both IL-6 and IL-8 are significantly induced in HIV-1 Nef-transfected SVGA astrocytes and HIV-1 Nef-treated primary fetal astrocytes. We also determined the molecular mechanisms responsible for the HIV-1 Nef-induced increased IL-6 and IL-8 by using chemical inhibitors and siRNAs against PI3K/Akt/PKC, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, CEBP and AP-1. Our results clearly demonstrate that the PI3K/PKC, p38 MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1 pathways are involved in HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-6 production in astrocytes, while PI3K/PKC and NF-κB pathways are involved in HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-8 production. These results offer new potential targets to develop therapeutic strategy for treatment of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, prevalent in > 40% of individuals infected with HIV-1.

  4. IL-17 Promotes Angiogenic Factors IL-6, IL-8, and Vegf Production via Stat1 in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; Duan, Limin; Qian, Xin; Fan, Jinshuo; Lv, Zhilei; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Han, Jieli; Wu, Feng; Guo, Mengfei; Hu, Guorong; Du, Jiao; Chen, Caiyun; Jin, Yang

    2016-11-07

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are two hallmarks of carcinoma. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) facilitates angiogenesis in lung cancer; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, tumour microvessel density (MVD) was positively associated with IL-17, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and it was increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice. Importantly, positive correlations were also detected between IL-17 expression and IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF production, as well as STAT1 phosphorylation, were increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice in vivo and in A549 and H292 cells following IL-17 stimulation in vitro. In addition, STAT1 knockdown using an inhibitor and siRNA attenuated the IL-17-mediated increases in IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in A549 and H292 cells. In conclusion, IL-17 may promote the production of the angiogenic inducers IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF via STAT1 signalling in lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Circulating soluble LIGHT/TNFSF14 is increased and associated with IL-8 concentration in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Kasperska-Zając, Alicja; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Grzanka, Ryszard; Skrzypulec-Frankel, Agnieszka; Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sikora-Żydek, Agnieszka; Jochem, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibiting inducible expression, and competing with herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes) has been involved in various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. LIGHT induces the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which is up-regulated in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). To determine circulating soluble LIGHT concentration and its relationship with IL-8 concentration in patients with CSU. Concentrations of LIGHT, IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in plasma or serum of CSU patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LIGHT plasma concentration was significantly higher in moderate-severe CSU patients as compared with the healthy subjects, but not with mild CSU patients. There were significant correlations between increased LIGHT and IL-8 concentrations, but not with increased CRP in CSU patients. Enhanced plasma concentrations of soluble LIGHT and its association with IL-8 concentration suggest the role of LIGHT in systemic inflammatory activation in CSU patients. We hypothesize that LIGHT-mediated immune-inflammatory response plays a role in severe phenotypes of the disease.

  6. Establishment of an in vitro photoassay using THP-1 cells and IL-8 to discriminate photoirritants from photoallergens.

    PubMed

    Martínez, V; Galbiati, V; Corsini, E; Martín-Venegas, R; Vinardell, M P; Mitjans, M

    2013-09-01

    At present, there are no in vivo or in vitro methods developed which has been adopted by regulatory authorities to assess photosensitization induced by chemicals. Recently, we have proposed the use of THP-1 cells and IL-8 release to identify the potential of chemicals to induce skin sensitization. Based on the assumption that sensitization and photosensitization share common mechanisms, the aim of this work was to explore the THP-1 model as an in vitro model to identify photoallergenic chemicals. THP-1 cells were exposed to 7 photoallergens and 3 photoirritants and irradiated with UVA light or kept in dark. Non phototoxic allergens or irritants were also included as negative compounds. Following 24h of incubation, cytotoxicity and IL-8 release were measured. At subtoxic concentrations, photoallergens produced a dose-related increase in IL-8 release after irradiation. Some photoirritants also produced a slight increase in IL-8 release. However, when the overall stimulation indexes of IL-8 were calculated for each chemical, 6 out of 7 photoallergens tested reached a stimulation index above 2, while the entire set of negative compounds had stimulation indexes below 2. Our data suggest that this assay may become a useful cell-based in vitro test for evaluating the photosensitizing potential of chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α/NF-κB-induced IL-8 expression by targeting PKCδ in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoghyun; Ro, Hyunju; In, Hyun Ju; Choi, Ji-Hee; Kim, Mun-Ock; Lee, Jinhyuk; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Su Ui

    2018-08-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, is a therapeutic agent for respiratory inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, detailed molecular mechanisms regarding the target protein of fisetin remain unknown. Fisetin significantly reduces tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 levels by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors. We show that fisetin prevents interactions between protein kinase C (PKC)δ and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), thereby inhibiting the inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK)/NF-κB downstream signalling cascade. Furthermore, we found that fisetin directly binds to PKCδ in vitro. Our findings provide evidence that fisetin inhibits the TNF-α-activated IKK/NF-κB cascade by targeting PKCδ, thereby mediating inflammatory diseases such as COPD. These data suggest that fisetin is a good therapeutic drug for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, such as COPD, by inhibiting the TNF-α/NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Escherichia coli K1 induces IL-8 expression in human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, Emmanouil; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2006-12-01

    Microbial penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system is essential for the development of meningitis. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding the pathophysiology of meningitis, however, relatively little is known about the early inflammatory events occurring at the time of bacterial crossing of the BBB. We investigated, using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression of the neutrophil chemoattractants alpha-chemokines CXCL1 (Groalpha) and CXCL8 (IL-8), and of the monocyte chemoattractant beta-chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) by human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to the meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218 or its isogenic mutants lacking the ability to bind to and invade HBMEC. A nonpathogenic, laboratory E. coli strain HB101 was used as a negative control. CXCL8 was shown to be significantly expressed in HBMEC 4 hours after infection with E. coli K1, while no significant alterations were noted for CXCL1 and CCL2 expression. This upregulation of CXCL8 was induced by E. coli K1 strain RS218 and its derivatives lacking the ability to bind and invade HBMEC, but was not induced by the laboratory strain HB101. In contrast, no upregulation of CXCL8 was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) after stimulation with E. coli RS218. These findings indicate that the CXCL8 expression is the result of the specific response of HBMEC to meningitis-causing E. coli K1.

  9. High intensity interval exercise decreases IL-8 and enhances the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 in lean and overweight-obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Gilson P; Haddad, Desirée O; Fagundes, Viviane O; Vargas, Bruna K; Kloecker, Alana; Romão, Pedro R T; Peres, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of two interval exercises with different intensities on acute inflammatory response in lean and overweight-obese subjects. Ten lean (BMI<24.9kg/m(2)) and 12 overweight-obese (BMI 25 to <34.9kg/m(2)) males performed two conditions in randomly assigned: (1) high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) 10×60s (85-90%PMax)/75s (50%PMax); (2) moderate intensity interval exercise (MIIE) 10×60s (70-75%PMax)/60s (50%PMax), with blood collections at pre, immediately and 30min post each exercise bouts to evaluate total and differential leukocyte counts, serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and systemic levels of IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17a and CCL2. In lean group, HIIE induced a significant increase in total leukocytes and monocyte, while MIIE session did not change the number of leukocytes. Overweight-obese group presented similar increase in leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes in both HIIE and MIIE sessions. At baseline, overweight-obese group showed high levels of CK, IL-8, IL-6 and CCL2 and lower concentrations of IL-10 compared to lean group. The MIIE did not alter the cytokine concentrations in both groups, independently of the time analysis. The HIIE induced significant decrease in IL-8 levels 30min post session in both the groups, and a progressive elevation in IL-10 levels immediately and 30min post in lean and overweight-obese. Regarding IL-6, overweight-obese subjects presented progressive increase either immediately and 30min after HIIE, while lean individuals presented significant increase only 30min after exercise. The acute inflammatory response to interval exercise is intensity-dependent. Although obesity influences the basal concentrations of several cytokines, only HIIE induced important alterations in IL-8 and IL-10 levels, which may have important implications in the control of chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RANKL/RANK interaction promotes the growth of cervical cancer cells by strengthening the dialogue between cervical cancer cells and regulation of IL-8 secretion.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wen-Qing; Li, Hui; Liu, Li-Bing; Chang, Kai-Kai; Yu, Jia-Jun; Xie, Feng; Li, Ming-Qing; Yu, Jin-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. The interaction between RANKL and its receptor RANK plays an important role in the development and function of diverse tissues. However, the expression and role of RANKL in cervical cancer are still unknown. In the present study, we found that RANKL and RANK were highly co-expressed in cervical cancer. HeLa and SiHa cells secreted soluble RANKL (sRANKL), expressed member RANKL (mRANKL) and RANK. Recombinant human RANKL protein had no effect on the viability of HeLa and SiHa cells. Yet, blocking RANKL with an anti-human RANKL neutralizing antibody (α-RANKL) or recombinant human osteoprotegrin (OPG) protein resulted in the downregulation of Ki-67 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression and an increase in Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression, as well as a high level of viability and a low level of apoptosis in the HeLa and SiHa cells. In addition, α-RANKL led to a decrease in IL-8 secretion. Recombinant human IL-8 protein reversed the effect of α-RANKL on the expression of proliferation- and apoptosis‑related molecules, and proliferation and apoptosis in the HeLa and SiHa cells. The present study suggests that a high level of mRANKL/RANK expression in cervical cancer lesions plays an important role in the rapid growth of cervical cancer cells possibly through strengthening the dialogue between cervical cancer cells and regulation of IL-8 secretion, which may be a possible target for cervical cancer therapy.

  11. Influence of high dose tumescent local anaesthesia with prilocaine on systemic interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    Schmittner, M D; Faulhaber, J; Kemler, B; Koenen, W; Thumfart, J O; Weiss, C; Neumaier, M; Beck, G C

    2010-12-01

    Tumescent local anaesthesia (TLA) with high prilocaine doses leads to formation of methemoglobin (MHb) which is known to be a potent activator of pro-inflammatory endothelial cell response in vitro. As TLA is widely used for large dermatological resections, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high prilocaine doses on the systemic inflammatory response in vivo and its clinical relevance. This prospective study examines the influence of MHb on serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis tumour necrosis (TNF)-α levels up to 72 h after application of TLA with prilocaine in doses higher than 600 mg. A total of 30 patients received prilocaine in a median dose of 1500 mg (range: 880-4160 mg) for large resections. Peak prilocaine serum concentration was reached 4 h (0.72 ± 0.07 μg/mL), the maximum concentration of MHb (7.43 ± 0.87%) and IL-6 (28.4 ± 4.1 U/L) 12 h after TLA application. TNF-α and IL-8 release were not found significantly increased. Three patients developed MHb concentrations >15%. This clinical study shows for the first time that a high prilocaine serum concentration leads in vivo to elevated systemic levels of IL-6 but not of IL-8 and TNF-α because of initial high MHb levels. Because of possible and unpredictable high MHb concentrations, TLA should only be performed with prilocaine in doses of 2.5 mg/kg. In general, new solutions of TLA are necessary to achieve adequate anaesthesia for large dermatological resections to decrease the risk of methemoglobinaemia. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. N-acetylcysteine attenuates TNF-α-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shu; Gon, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Ken; Takeshita, Ikuko; Horie, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2O2 generated by TNF-α can act as signalling intermediates for cytokine induction; therefore, scavenging ROS by anti-oxidants is important for the regulation of cytokine production. However, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which acts as a precursor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, on TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells has not been determined. To clarify these issues, we examined the effect of NAC on TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase, MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6 which are upstream regulators of p38 MAP kinase, and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production. Human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells that had been preincubated with NAC were stimulated with TNF-α and then the activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6 in the cells and IL-8 concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined. Intracellular GSH levels increased in NAC-treated cells. NAC attenuated TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6. NAC attenuated p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by TNF-α-stimulated cells. These results indicate that the cellular reduction and oxidation (redox) regulated by intracellular GSH is critical for TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, and we emphasize that anti-oxidant therapy is an important strategy for the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:11156586

  13. N-acetylcysteine attenuates TNF-alpha-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Gon, Y; Matsumoto, K; Takeshita, I; Horie, T

    2001-01-01

    1. We have previously shown that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H(2)O(2) generated by TNF-alpha can act as signalling intermediates for cytokine induction; therefore, scavenging ROS by anti-oxidants is important for the regulation of cytokine production. However, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which acts as a precursor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, on TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells has not been determined. To clarify these issues, we examined the effect of NAC on TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase, MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6 which are upstream regulators of p38 MAP kinase, and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production. 2. Human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells that had been preincubated with NAC were stimulated with TNF-alpha and then the activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6 in the cells and IL-8 concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined. 3. Intracellular GSH levels increased in NAC-treated cells. 4. NAC attenuated TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6. 5. NAC attenuated p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. 6. These results indicate that the cellular reduction and oxidation (redox) regulated by intracellular GSH is critical for TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, and we emphasize that anti-oxidant therapy is an important strategy for the treatment of acute lung injury.

  14. Effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine GM-CSF and IL-8 on CMT score, somatic cell count, and milk mononuclear cell populations in Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kiku, Yoshio; Ozawa, Tomomi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kushibiki, Shiro; Inumaru, Shigeki; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Nagasawa, Yuya; Watanabe, Atsushi; Hata, Eiji; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2017-09-01

    The effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rbGM-CSF) and interleukin-8 (rbIL-8) on mononuclear cell populations in quarters, somatic cell count (SCC) and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score were investigated. From the selected cows with naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis, one quarter of each cow were selected for the infusions of rbGM-CSF (400 μg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), rbIL-8 (1 mg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), and phosphate-buffered saline (5 mL/quarter, n = 7). The CMT score of both cytokines post infusion temporarily increased between days 0 and 1 and significantly decreased between days 7 and 14 compared to the preinfusion level. The SCC on day 14 after infusions of rbGM-CSF tended to be lower than that of the control group. The percentage of CD14+ cells increased on days 1 and 2 post infusion of rbGM-CSF. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells also increased on days 2 and 3, suggesting that the infusion of rbGM-CSF enhanced cellular immunity in the mammary gland. In contrast, the percentage of CD14+ cells decreased on days 0.25 and 1 post infusion of rbIL-8. No significant changes in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in milk after infusion of rbIL-8 were evident during the experimental period, which suggested that rbIL-8 had little effect on the function of T cells in the mammary gland. These results indicated that rbGM-CSF and rbIL-8 decreased the CMT score by a different mechanism and may have a potential as therapeutic agents for subclinical mastitis.

  15. Lassa and Mopeia virus replication in human monocytes/macrophages and in endothelial cells: different effects on IL-8 and TNF-alpha gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, I S; Maryankova, R; Vladyko, A S; Nashkevich, N; Koleda, S; Djavani, M; Horejsh, D; Voitenok, N N; Salvato, M S

    1999-12-01

    Cells of the mononuclear and endothelial lineages are targets for viruses which cause hemorrhagic fevers (HF) such as the filoviruses Marburg and Ebola, and the arenaviruses Lassa and Junin. A recent model of Marburg HF pathogenesis proposes that virus directly causes endothelial cell damage and macrophage release of TNF-alpha which increases the permeability of endothelial monolayers [Feldmann et al. , 1996]. We show that Lassa virus replicates in human monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells without damaging them. Human endothelial cells (HUVEC) are highly susceptible to infection by both Lassa and Mopeia (a non-pathogenic Lassa-related arenavirus). Whereas monocytes must differentiate into macrophages before supporting even low level production of these viruses, the virus yields in the culture medium of infected HUVEC cells reach more than 7 log10 PFU/ml without cellular damage. In contrast to filovirus, Lassa virus replication in monocytes/macrophages fails to stimulate TNF-alpha gene expression and even down-regulates LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA synthesis. The expression of IL-8, a prototypic proinflammatory CXC chemokine, was also suppressed in Lassa virus infected monocytes/macrophages and HUVEC on both the protein and mRNA levels. This contrasts with Mopeia virus infection of HUVEC in which neither IL-8 mRNA nor protein are reduced. The cumulative down-regulation of TNF-alpha and IL-8 expression could explain the absence of inflammatory and effective immune responses in severe cases of Lassa HF. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Differential intracellular calcium influx, nitric oxide production, ICAM-1 and IL8 expression in primary bovine endothelial cells exposed to nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Anitsi; Carretta, María D; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A

    2016-02-25

    Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are involved in proinflammatory processes in cattle, including in the increased expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NEFAs on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) i) influx, nitric oxide production, and ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs). Myristic (MA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) rapidly increased Ca(2+) i. The calcium response to all tested NEFAs showed an extracellular calcium dependence and only the LA response was significantly inhibited until the intracellular calcium was chelated. The EC50 values for MA and LA were 125 μM and 37 μM, respectively, and the MA and LA effects were dependent on calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum stores and on the L-type calcium channels. Only the calcium response to MA was significantly reduced by GW1100, a selective G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor (GPR40) antagonist. We also detected a functional FFAR1/GPR40 protein in BUVECs by using western blotting and the FFAR1/GPR40 agonist TAK-875. Only LA increased the cellular nitric oxide levels in a calcium-dependent manner. LA stimulation but not MA stimulation increased ICAM-1 and IL-8-expression in BUVECs. This effect was inhibited by GW1100, an antagonist of FFAR1/GPR40, but not by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. These findings strongly suggest that each individual NEFA stimulates endothelial cells in a different way, with clearly different effects on intracellular calcium mobilization, NO production, and IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in primary BUVECs. These findings not only extend our understanding of NEFA-mediated diseases in ruminants, but also provide new insight into the different molecular mechanisms involved during endothelial cell activation by NEFAs.

  17. Gallic acid reduces cell growth by induction of apoptosis and reduction of IL-8 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Kelly Goulart; Krause, Gabriele Catyana; Schuster, Aline Daniele; Catarina, Anderson Velasque; Basso, Bruno Souza; De Mesquita, Fernanda Cristina; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Marczak, Elisa Simon; Martha, Bianca Andrade; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese Filippi; Jaeger, Natália; Thomé, Marcos Paulo; Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; De Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most prevalent primary liver tumor and is among the top ten cancer that affect the world population. Its development is related, in most cases, to the existence of chronic liver injury, such as in cirrhosis. The knowledge about the correlation between chronic inflammation and cancer has driven new researches with anti-inflammatory agents that have potential for the development of antitumor drugs. Gallic acid is a phenolic acid found in many natural products and have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic and antioxidant actions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid on acute and chronic cell proliferation and inflammatory parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), as well as to investigate the mechanisms involved. Results showed that the gallic acid decreased the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner (Trypan blue exclusion assay), without causing necrosis (LDH assay). We observed a significant increase in the percentage of small and regular nuclei (Nuclear Morphometric Analysis assay), a significant induction of apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and no interference with the cell cycle using the FITC BrdU Flow Kit. We observed a significant reduction in the levels of IL-8 and increased levels of IL-10 and IL-12 (Cytometric Bead Array Human Inflammation Assay). Furthermore, gallic acid caused no cancer cells regrowth at a long term (Cumulative Population Doubling assay). According to these results, gallic acid showed a strong potential as an anti-tumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. ZN2+-INDUCED IL-8 EXPRESSION INVOLVES AP-1, JNK, AND ERK ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to zinc-laden particulate matter (PM) in ambient and occupational settings has been associated with proinflammatory responses in the lung. IL-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung and is induced in human airway epithelial cells exposed to zin...

  19. Let-7b inhibits cancer-promoting effects of breast cancer-associated fibroblasts through IL-8 repression

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Bothina; Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2018-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major players in the development and spread of breast carcinomas through non-cell-autonomous signaling. These paracrine effects are under the control of several genes and microRNAs. We present here clear evidence that let-7b, a tumor suppressor microRNA, plays key roles in the persistent activation of breast stromal fibroblasts and their functional interplay with cancer cells. We have first shown that let-7b is down-regulated in CAFs as compared to their corresponding normal adjacent fibroblasts, and transient specific let-7b inhibition permanently activated breast fibroblasts through induction of the IL-6-related positive feedback loop. More importantly, let-7b-deficient cells promoted the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process in breast cancer cells in an IL-8-dependent manner, and also enhanced orthotopic tumor growth in vivo. On the other hand, overexpression of let-7b by mimic permanently suppressed breast myofibroblasts through blocking the positive feedback loop, which inhibited their paracrine pro-carcinogenic effects. Furthermore, we have shown that let-7b negatively controls IL-8, which showed higher expression in the majority of CAF cells as compared to their adjacent normal counterparts, indicating that IL-8 plays a major role in the carcinoma/stroma cross-talk. These findings support targeting active stromal fibroblasts through restoration of let-7b/IL-8 expression as a therapeutic option for breast carcinomas. PMID:29707149

  20. INCREASED IL-8 AND IL-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INCREASED IL-6 AND IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES.
    R Silbajoris1, A G Lenz2, I Jaspers3, J M Samet1. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2GSF-Institute for Inhalation Biology, Neuherberg, Germany; 3 CEMLB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, ...

  1. The presence of IL-8 +781 T/C polymorphism is associated with the parameters of severe Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Czepiel, Jacek; Biesiada, Grażyna; Dróżdż, Mirosław; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Żurańska, Justyna; Marchewka, Jakub; Perucki, William; Wołkow, Paweł; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    There is large variation in the clinical manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We also still can not predict which patients are more susceptible to reinfection with CDI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of proinflammatory cytokines, specifically IL-1β, IL-8 on the development, clinical course and recurrence of CDI. We performed a prospective study of adults (130 people ≥ 18 years) including 65 patients with CDI treated in tertiary hospital and 65 healthy persons. The following 3 variants were analyzed for the occurrence of gene polymorphisms in patients with CDI versus the control group: IL-1β +3953 A/G (rs1143634), IL-1β -31 A/G (rs1143627), and IL-8 +781 T/C (rs2227306). Then, we assessed the correlation between these genetic polymorphisms and biochemical parameters important in CDI course, CDI severity as well as CDI recurrence. The presence of genetic polymorphisms of IL-1β +3953 A/G, -31 A/G and IL-8 +781 T/C did not have an effect on the development or recurrence of CDI. The presence of IL-8 +781 T/C polymorphism is associated with the severe CDI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro exposure to isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol by direct deposition and its effects on COX-2 and IL-8 gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashiro, Maiko; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Jaspers, Ilona; Fry, Rebecca C.; Vizuete, William G.; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene, the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into Earth's atmosphere primarily from terrestrial vegetation, is now recognized as a major contributor to the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden. Anthropogenic pollutants significantly enhance isoprene SOA formation through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous chemistry of epoxide products. Since isoprene SOA formation as a source of fine aerosol is a relatively recent discovery, research is lacking on evaluating its potential adverse effects on human health. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of isoprene-derived SOA on inflammation-associated gene expression in human lung cells using a direct deposition exposure method. We assessed altered expression of inflammation-related genes in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to isoprene-derived SOA generated in an outdoor chamber facility. Measurements of gene expression of known inflammatory biomarkers interleukin 8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in exposed cells, together with complementary chemical measurements, showed that a dose of 0.067 µg cm-2 of SOA from isoprene photooxidation leads to statistically significant increases in IL-8 and COX-2 mRNA levels. Resuspension exposures using aerosol filter extracts corroborated these findings, supporting the conclusion that isoprene-derived SOA constituents induce the observed changes in mRNA levels. The present study is an attempt to examine the early biological responses of isoprene SOA exposure in human lung cells.

  3. Ga(III) Nanoparticles Inhibit Growth of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV and Release of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in Coinfected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Britigan, Bradley E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging due to the prolonged treatment requirements, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. Mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophages) are one of the natural reservoirs for both HIV and M. tuberculosis. Here, the treatment of HIV and M. tuberculosis coinfection was studied by preloading human macrophages with MP-targeted gallium (Ga) nanoparticles to limit subsequent simultaneous infection with both HIV and M. tuberculosis. Ga nanoparticles provided sustained drug release for 15 days and significantly inhibited the replication of both HIV and M. tuberculosis. Addition of Ga nanoparticles to MP already infected with M. tuberculosis or HIV resulted in a significant decrease in the magnitude of these infections, but the magnitude was less than that achieved with nanoparticle preloading of the MP. In addition, macrophages that were coinfected with HIV and M. tuberculosis and that were loaded with Ga nanoparticles reduced the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 secretion for up to 15 days after drug loading. Ga nanoparticles also reduced the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by ionomycin- and lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages, likely by modulating the IκB kinase-β/NF-κB pathway. Delivery of Ga nanoparticles to macrophages is a potent long-acting approach for suppressing HIV and M. tuberculosis coinfection of macrophages in vitro and sets the stage for the development of new approaches to the treatment of these important infections. PMID:28167548

  4. Mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein in normal pregnancies: a prospective evaluation according to parity, gestational age, and fetal gender.

    PubMed

    Bamberg, Christian; Fotopoulou, Christina; Linder, Mattea; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Henrich, Wolfgang; Kalache, Karim

    2011-07-01

    To assess mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in pregnancies with normal outcome and correlate them with gestational week (GW), parity, and fetal gender. Cytokine concentrations were measured within a week of amniocentesis during GW 15+0 to 20+6 and correlated with GW at birth, parity, and fetal gender. After exclusion of women with an adverse pregnancy outcome or those lost to follow-up, 273 consecutive patients were evaluated (median parity: 1; range: 0-5). Ranges for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and LBP were 4.9-2620 pg/mL, 36.2-5843 pg/mL, 8.0-28.2 pg/mL, and 0.06-1.9 μg/mL, respectively. IL-6, IL-8, and LBP values did not respectively differ among time points, but TNF-α values did between the 15(th) and 16(th) and the 15(th) and 18(th) weeks of gestation (P<0.05). No significant correlations between cytokine levels and parity or fetal gender were identified. Cytokine concentrations in amniotic fluid during the mid-trimester did not differ with parity or fetal gender. IL-6, IL-8, and LBP levels appeared stable with GW, whereas GW significantly influenced TNF-α concentrations. Further analyses are warranted to establish the role of cytokines in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Immunological parameters, including CXCL8 (IL-8) characterize cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Szomjak, E; Der, H; Kerekes, G; Veres, K; Csiba, L; Toth, J; Peter, M; Soltesz, P; Szodoray, P

    2010-04-01

    The most commonly occurring atherosclerotic manifestations are peripheral artery diseases (PAD). Immune-mediated processes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, and affect the diseases outcome. The aim of the present study was to assess various immune-competent cells, cytokines and chemokines in patients with PAD and to evaluate whether the base immunological values reflect the subsequent development of cardio/cerebrovascular symptoms. One hundred sixty patients with PAD were followed-up for 42 months. At the time of enrolment, we determined blood lymphocyte subpopulations, both T-helper (Th)1/Th2-type intracytoplasmic cytokines and soluble cytokines, chemokines. Intracellular cytokines were measured on phorbol-myristate-acetate- and ionomycine- stimulated cells. Lymphocyte subgroups were quantified by flow cytometry, soluble cytokines by ELISA and intracellular cytokine levels were measured by flow cytometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), indicator of atherosclerosis, was also evaluated. The clinical results were correlated with the immune-parameters to assess the input of immune-inflammatory events in the propagation of vascular manifestation. CD4(+) T-cell proportions in patients with PAD with cerebro- cardio-vascular manifestations were decreased, which further reduced in patients with fatal outcome. Of circulating chemokines, IL-8 (CXCL-8) was increased in patients with subsequent cerebro- cardio-vascular manifestations, compared to those without the symptoms, and further raised in patients with fatal outcome. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-gamma positive cells showed clear negative correlation with ABI. We conclude that altered peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine/chemokine imbalance play important roles in the proinflammatory cascade and reflect disease severity in patients with PAD.

  6. Effects of linear polarized infrared light irradiation on the transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression in IL-1beta-stimulated human rheumatoid synoviocytes involves phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB RelA subunit.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yasuko; Araki, Hidefumi; Oshitani, Toshiyuki; Imaoka, Asayo; Matsui, Masaru; Miyazawa, Keiji; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2009-03-03

    Although recent clinical studies have shown that laser therapy acts as an anti-inflammatory effector in the treatment of some diseases, little is known about the mechanism by which it acts in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The purpose of our work was to examine how irradiation with linear polarized infrared light (LPIL) suppresses inflammatory responses in the MH7A rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte cell line. We initially confirmed the effects of two disease-modifying anti-rheumatic treatments, LPIL irradiation and dexamethasone (Dex) administration, under experimental inflammatory conditions using gene chip technology. We found that LPIL exerted a smaller effect on gene transcription than Dex; however, IL-1beta-inducible target genes such as the CXCL type chemokines IL-8, IL-1beta and IL-6 were all clearly suppressed by LPIL to the same degree as by Dex. We also found that IL-1beta-induced release of IL-8 from MH7A cells was completely blocked by pretreatment with the (IL-8) inhibitor Bay11-7085, indicating that activation of NF-kappaB signaling plays an important role in the secretion of IL-8. Although the levels of NFKB1 and RELA transcription were unaffected by IL-1beta stimulation, phosphorylation of RelA S276 was suppressed by both LPIL and Dex. Thus LPIL likely exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the release of the inflammatory chemokine IL-8. A fuller understanding of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of LPIL in rheumatoid synoviocytes could serve as the basis for improved treatment of RA patients in the future.

  7. Increased expression of TLR9 associated with pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 in diabetic wounds could lead to unresolved inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with impaired wound healing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Sinha, Pratima; Singh, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia which causes a chain of abrupt biochemical and physiological changes. Immune dys-regulation is the hallmark of T2DM that could contribute to prolonged inflammation causing transformation of wounds into non-healing chronic ulcers. Toll like receptor -9 (TLR9) is a major receptor involved in innate immune regulation. TLR9 activation induces release of pro-inflammatory molecules like S100A8 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by myeloid cells causing migration of myeloid cells to the site of inflammation. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 proteins could cause persistent inflammation in chronic wounds like diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and may contribute to impaired wound healing in T2DM patients. Expression of TLR9 and its downstream effector molecules S100A8, and IL-8 were analyzed in chronic diabetic wound and non-diabetic control wound tissue samples by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. TLR9 message and protein were higher in diabetic wounds compared to control wounds (p=0.03, t=2.21 for TLR9 mRNA; p=<0.001, t=4.21 for TLR9 protein). TLR9 down-stream effector molecules S100A8 and IL-8 were also increased in diabetic wounds (p=0.003, t=3.1 for S100A8 mRNA; p=0.04, t=2.04 for IL-8). CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells were decreased in T2DM as compared to non-diabetic controls (p=0.001, t=3.6). DFU subjects had higher levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells as compared to non-DFU T2DM control (p=0.003, t=2.8). Infection in the wound microenvironment could be the cause of increase in CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells in DFU (p=0.03, t=2.5). The up-regulation of myeloid cell-derived pro-inflammatory molecules S100A8 and IL-8 in combination with lower levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells may cause the impairment of wound healing in

  8. [Genetic polymorphism of the IL8 gene and its associations with milk traits and SCS in Chinese Holstein].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren-Jin; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Mao, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Ying; Chang, Ling-Ling; Ji, De-Jun; Wu, Hai-Tao; Li, Yun-Long; Li, Rui

    2010-12-01

    The polymorphism of Interleukin-8 (IL8) gene were investigated for 610 Chinese Holstein cows of 30 bull families from a dairy farm in Shanghai using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique with a mixed animal model to verify the effects of the polymorphisms on some milk productive performance, tested day milk yield, tested day fat percentage, tested day milk protein percentage, 305 d corrected milk yield, 305 d milk fat yield, 305 d milk protein yield, and somatic cell score (SCS). The aim was to explore the significant molecular marker in practical dairy production. Three genotypes were identified and the genotypic frequencies of KK, KA, and AA were 0.187, 0.451, and 0.362, respectively. The gene frequencies of K and A were 0.412 and 0.588. The results showed highly significant (P < 0.01) association of IL8 mutations with tested day milk yield, 305 d milk protein yield, 305 d corrected milk yield and 305 d milk fat yield, SCS and tested day milk protein percentage (P < 0.05). However, no association (P > 0.05) with tested day milk fat percentage was recorded. The cows with KK genotype had higher tested day milk yield, 305 d milk protein yield, 305 d corrected milk yield and 305 d milk fat yield than those with AA and KA genotypes (P < 0.01). The least square mean of SCS for KK was significantly lower than that with AA and KA genotypes (P < 0.01). AA genotype was significant lower in tested day milk protein percentage than KK and KA genotypes (P < 0.05). The IL8 gene genetic diversity has a great genetic effect on milk traits and mastitis resistance and could be a useful genetic marker for Chinese Holstein breeding.

  9. Expression of CXCR1 (IL-8 receptor A) in splenic, peritoneal macrophages and resident bone marrow cells after acute live or heat killed Staphylococcus aureus stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, Biswadev; Nandi, Ajeya; Dey, Rajen; Adhikary, Rana

    2017-08-01

    Literature reveals that interaction with live Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or heat killed S. aureus (HKSA) promotes secretion of CXCL-8 or interleukin-8 (IL-8) from leukocytes, however, the expressions of CXCR1 in murine splenic (SPM), peritoneal macrophages (PM) and resident fresh bone marrow cells (FBMC) have not been identified. Currently, very few studies are available on the functional characterization of CXCR1 in mouse macrophage subtypes and its modulation in relation to acute S. aureus infection. SPM, PM and FBMCs were infected with viable S. aureus or stimulated with HKSA in presence and absence of anti-CXCR1 antibody in this study. We reported here that CXCR1 was not constitutively expressed by macrophage subtypes and the receptor was induced only after S. aureus stimulation. The CXCR1 band was found specific as we compared with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as a positive control (data not shown). Although, we did not show that secreted IL-8 from S. aureus-infected macrophages promotes migration of PMNs. Blocking of cell surface CXCR1 decreases the macrophage's ability to clear staphylococcal infection, attenuates proinflammatory cytokine production and the increased catalase and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes of the bacteria might indicate their role in scavenging macrophage derived hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The decreased levels of cytokines due to CXCR1 blockade before S. aureus infection appear to regulate the killing of bacteria by destroying H 2 O 2 and nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, functional importance of macrophage subpopulation heterogeneity might be important in designing new effective approaches to limit S. aureus infection induced inflammation and cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ketamine suppresses the substance P-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 by human U373MG glioblastoma/astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Kumakura, Seiichiro; Murakami, Taisuke; Someya, Akimasa; Inada, Eiichi; Nagaoka, Isao

    2017-03-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of neurogenic inflammation within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SP has been shown to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the human brain via the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, functions as a competitive antagonist of the excitatory neurotransmission N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and also antagonizes the NK-1R by interfering with the binding of SP. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine on the SP-induced activation of a human astrocytoma cell line, U373MG, which expresses high levels of NK-1R. The results from our experiments indicated that ketamine suppressed the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 by the U373MG cells. Furthermore, ketamine inhibited the SP-induced activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Taken together, these observations suggest that ketamine may suppress the SP-induced activation (IL-6 and IL-8 production) of U373MG cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (namely ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB), thereby exerting anti‑inflammatory effects. Thus, ketamine may modulate SP-induced inflammatory responses by NK-1R‑expressing cells through the suppression of signaling molecules (such as ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB).

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 Genes as Candidates for Digital Dermatitis Resistance/Susceptibility in Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed; Ateya, Ahmed; Ramadan, Hazem; Saleh, Rasha; Elseady, Yousef; Abo El Fadl, Eman; El-Khodery, Sabry

    2017-04-03

    Relatedness between single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 genes and digital dermatitis resistance/susceptibility was investigated in seventy Holstein dairy cows. Animals were assigned into two groups, affected group (n = 35) and resistant group (n = 35) based on clinical signs and previous history of farm clinical records. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction to ampliy fragments of 267-bp and 382-bp for IL8 and TLR4 genes, respectively. PCR-DNA sequencing revealed three SNPs in each of IL8 and TLR4 genes. The identified SNPs associated with digital dermatitis resistance were C94T, A220G, and T262A for IL8 and C118T for TLR4. However, the G349C and C355A SNPs in TLR4 gene were associated with digital dermatitis susceptibility. Chi-square analysis for comparison the distribution of all identified SNPs in both IL8 and TLR4 genes between resistant and affected animals showed no significant variation among the identified SNPs in IL8 gene. Meanwhile, there was a significant variation in case of TLR4 gene. As a pilot study, the present results revealed that identified SNPs in IL8 and TLR4 genes can be used as a genetic marker and predisposing factor for resistance/susceptibility to digital dermatitis in dairy cows. However, TLR4 gene may be a potential candidate for such disease.

  12. Genetic and physical mapping of 2q35 in the region of NRAMP and IL8R genes: Identification of a polymorphic repeat in exon 2 of NRAMP

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.K.; Shaw, M.A.; Barton, C.H.

    1994-11-15

    Recent interest has focused on the region of conserved synteny between mouse chromosome 1 and human 2q33-q37, particularly over the region encoding the murine macrophage resistance gene Ity/Lsh/Bcg (candidate Nramp) and members of the Il8r interleukin-8 (IL8) receptor gene cluster. In this paper, identification of a restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Il8RB gene in 35 pedigrees previously typed for markers in the 2q33-37 interval provided evidence (lod scores > 3) for linkage between Il8RB and the 2q34-135 markers FN1, TNP1, VIL1, and DES. Physical mapping, using yeast artificial chromosomes isolated with VIL1, confirmed that IL8RA, IL8RB and the IL8RBmore » pseudogene map within the NRAMP-VIL1 interval, with the physical distance (155 kb) from 5{prime} LSH to 3{prime} VIL1 representing {approx}3-fold that observed in the mouse. Partial sequencing of NRAMP confirmed the presence of the N-terminal proline/serine-rich putative SH3 binding domain in exon 2 of the human gene. Further analysis of Brazilian leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis pedigrees identified a rare second allele varying in a 9-nucleotide repeat motif of the exon 2 sequence but segregating independently of the disease phenotype. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  13. Anacardic acid, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, modulates LPS-induced IL-8 expression in a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Objective and design: The histone acetylation processes, which are believed to play a critical role in the regulation of many inflammatory genes, are reversible and regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which promote acetylation, and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which promote deacetylation. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on histone acetylation and its role in the regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression.  Material: A human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in vitro. Methods: Histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region was assessed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The expression and production of IL-8 were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and specific immunoassay. Effects of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), and a HAT inhibitor, anacardic acid, were assessed.  Results: Escherichia coli-derived LPS showed a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 protein production and mRNA expression in A549 cells in vitro. LPS showed a significant stimulatory effect on histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region by ChIP assay. Pretreatment with TSA showed a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 release from A549 cells as compared to LPS alone. Conversely, pretreatment with anacardic acid inhibited IL-8 production and expression in A549 cells.  Conclusion: These data suggest that LPS-mediated proinflammatory responses in the lungs might be modulated via changing chromatin remodeling by HAT inhibition. PMID:24627774

  14. Hepcidin, Cathelicidin-1 and IL-8 as immunological markers of responsiveness in early developmental stages of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula A; Guzmán, Fanny; Forero, Juan C; Luna, Omar F; Mercado, Luis

    2016-09-01

    During the early developmental stage of salmonids, high mortality occurs largely as a result of pathogens. These cause low immune competence in fry, producing disease, decreasing production and finally leading to economic losses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the developmental stages in which rainbow trout acquires immune response capability when challenged with LPS from Pseudomona aeruginosa for 8 h, studying the hepcidin, cathelicidin-1 and IL-8. Total RNA was extracted from fry at 34, 42, 56 and 66 days post hatching (dph). Hepcidin and cathelicidin-1 transcripts were detected only at days 34 and 42, whereas the IL-8 transcript was detected from day 34 to day 66. To analyse the protein expression in the fry, polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies were generated in rabbit. These three immune sera demonstrated the ability to recognise the whole molecule in biological samples. Immunofluorescence showed that skin, gills and intestine mainly responded to the LPS challenge, indicating that these portals of pathogen entry are capturing LPS. This study constitutes a valuable approach, since it has the potential to identify molecules with biological activity that can be used to evaluate the status of fry in culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitiligo-inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8.

    PubMed

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-11-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity.

  16. Vitiligo inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8

    PubMed Central

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches due to loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may play a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH), known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), are increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators interleukin-6 (IL6) and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while over-expression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity. PMID:22696056

  17. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE U.S. AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH LUNG INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IL -8, COX -2 AND HO -1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The association between fine PM sources and lung inflammatory markers IL-8, COX-2, and HO-1 was evaluated in this study.

  18. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Expression of IL-8 by Suppressing Activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Hyun; Cho, Soon Ok; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cytokine response, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced inflammation. H. pylori induces the production of ROS, which may be involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/Stat), and oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and thus, expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in gastric epithelial cells. α-lipoic acid, a naturally occurring thiol compound, is a potential antioxidant. It shows beneficial effects in treatment of oxidant-associated diseases including diabetes. The present study is purposed to investigate whether α-lipoic acid inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by suppressing activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pretreated with or without α-lipoic acid for 2 h and infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate (HP99) at a ratio of 300:1. IL-8 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. IL-8 levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-κB-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Phospho-specific and total forms of MAPK and Jak/Stat were assessed by Western blot analysis. ROS levels were determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. As a result, H. pylori induced increases in ROS levels, mRNA, and protein levels of IL-8, as well as the activation of MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38], Jak/Stat (Jak1/2, Stat3), and NF-κB in AGS cells, which was inhibited by α-lipoic acid. In conclusion, α-lipoic acid may be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of H. pylori infection-associated gastric inflammation.

  19. Targeted delivery of human iPS-ECs overexpressing IL-8 receptors inhibits neointimal and inflammatory responses to vascular injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Samantha; Zhao, Xiangmin; Xing, Daisy; Hage, Fadi; Oparil, Suzanne; Cooke, John P; Lee, Jieun; Nakayama, Karina H; Huang, Ngan F; Chen, Yiu-Fai

    2016-03-15

    Interleukin-8 (IL8) is highly expressed by injured arteries in a variety of diseases and is a chemoattractant for neutrophils which express IL8 receptors IL8RA and RB (IL8RA/B) on their membranes. Neutrophils interact with the damaged endothelium and initiate an inflammatory cascade at the site of injury. We have generated a novel translational targeted cell therapy for acute vascular injury using adenoviral vectors to overexpress IL8RA/B and green fluorescent protein (GFP) on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs). We hypothesize that HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs transfused intravenously into rats with balloon injury of the carotid artery will target to the injured site and compete with neutrophils, thus inhibiting inflammation and neointima formation. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent balloon injury of the right carotid artery and received intravenous transfusion of saline vehicle, 1.5 × 10(6) HiPS-ECs, 1.5 × 10(6) HiPS-Null-ECs, or 1.5 × 10(6) HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs immediately after endoluminal injury. Tissue distribution of HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs was analyzed by a novel GFP DNA qPCR method. Cytokine and chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration were measured in injured and uninjured arteries at 24 h postinjury by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Neointimal, medial areas, and reendothelialization were measured 14 days postinjury. HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs homed to injured arteries, inhibited inflammatory mediator expression and inflammatory cell infiltration, accelerated reendothelialization, and attenuated neointima formation after endoluminal injury while control HiPS-ECs and HiPS-Null-ECs did not. HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs transfused into rats with endoluminal carotid artery injury target to the injured artery and provide a novel strategy to treat vascular injury.

  20. Targeted delivery of human iPS-ECs overexpressing IL-8 receptors inhibits neointimal and inflammatory responses to vascular injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Samantha; Zhao, Xiangmin; Xing, Daisy; Hage, Fadi; Oparil, Suzanne; Cooke, John P.; Lee, Jieun; Nakayama, Karina H.; Huang, Ngan F.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL8) is highly expressed by injured arteries in a variety of diseases and is a chemoattractant for neutrophils which express IL8 receptors IL8RA and RB (IL8RA/B) on their membranes. Neutrophils interact with the damaged endothelium and initiate an inflammatory cascade at the site of injury. We have generated a novel translational targeted cell therapy for acute vascular injury using adenoviral vectors to overexpress IL8RA/B and green fluorescent protein (GFP) on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs). We hypothesize that HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs transfused intravenously into rats with balloon injury of the carotid artery will target to the injured site and compete with neutrophils, thus inhibiting inflammation and neointima formation. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent balloon injury of the right carotid artery and received intravenous transfusion of saline vehicle, 1.5 × 106 HiPS-ECs, 1.5 × 106 HiPS-Null-ECs, or 1.5 × 106 HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs immediately after endoluminal injury. Tissue distribution of HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs was analyzed by a novel GFP DNA qPCR method. Cytokine and chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration were measured in injured and uninjured arteries at 24 h postinjury by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Neointimal, medial areas, and reendothelialization were measured 14 days postinjury. HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs homed to injured arteries, inhibited inflammatory mediator expression and inflammatory cell infiltration, accelerated reendothelialization, and attenuated neointima formation after endoluminal injury while control HiPS-ECs and HiPS-Null-ECs did not. HiPS-IL8RA/B-ECs transfused into rats with endoluminal carotid artery injury target to the injured artery and provide a novel strategy to treat vascular injury. PMID:26801304

  1. Role of IL-8, CRP and epidermal growth factor in depression and anxiety patients treated with mindfulness-based therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Memon, Ashfaque A; Sundquist, Kristina; Ahmad, Abrar; Wang, Xiao; Hedelius, Anna; Sundquist, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and inflammatory markers have been associated with various neuro-psychiatric disorders. However, their role in mild to moderate depression and anxiety patients treated with mindfulness-based group therapy (mindfulness) or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is not known. In this study we analyzed plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and EGF before (baseline) and after treatment (8 weeks) and investigated their role in response to both arms of the treatment. To cover variety of mental symptoms, treatment response was analyzed by four scales, the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS), Hospital anxiety and depression scale- Depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A) and patients health questionnaire-9. EGF levels were significantly decreased after both mindfulness and CBT and were associated with treatment response on all scales independent of the use of tranquilizers and antidepressant treatment. Moreover, baseline EGF levels were significantly associated only with baseline scores of anxiety scale. Levels of inflammatory markers analyzed in this study, were not significantly associated with treatment response on any scale. Our findings suggest that improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety after both mindfulness and CBT is associated with changes in EGF levels but not with the inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of keratinocyte IL-8 expression and secretion by IgG autoantibodies as a novel mechanism of epidermal neutrophil recruitment in a pemphigus variant

    PubMed Central

    O'toole, E A; Mak, L L; Guitart, J; Woodley, D T; Hashimoto, T; Amagai, M; Chan, L S

    2000-01-01

    A subset of pemphigus herpetiformis, a rare pemphigus variant, is characterized histopathologically by subcorneal acantholysis and neutrophilic infiltration. The mechanism of neutrophil infiltration is unknown, but chemokines such as IL-8 may play a role. We investigated the possible role of IL-8 in two such cases. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrated in vivo-bound and circulating IgG epithelial cell surface-binding autoantibodies, both predominated by IgG4 subclass. ELISA and immunoblotting studies revealed that the patients' IgG autoantibodies recognized recombinant desmoglein 1 but not desmoglein 3. Preadsorption of the patients' sera with recombinant desmoglein 1 completely removed the epidermal cell surface immunostaining. Significantly, immunohistochemistry demonstrated intense expression of IL-8, co-localized with in vivo-bound IgG, in the upper epidermis, where the acantholysis took place. Affinity-purified sera IgG from these two patients, a normal individual, and a pemphigus vulgaris patient containing desmoglein 1 autoantibodies, were incubated with normal human keratinocytes in vitro. Cells treated with these patients' IgG secreted a seven-to-nine-fold increase of IL-8 (30–37 pg/ml) compared with the controls (2–4 pg/ml) and expressed a higher intensity of cytoplasmic IL-8 staining. These data demonstrate a novel functional role for IL-8 in the pathogenesis of the neutrophil-dominant subset of pemphigus herpetiformis. The autoantibody-induced epidermal cell IL-8 expression may represent a novel mechanism of epidermal neutrophil recruitment. PMID:10606986

  3. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release in A549 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, M A; Wernke-Dollries, K; Stark, J M

    1998-08-01

    The working hypothesis of the studies described herein was that inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaB degradation would inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene transcription, and IL-8 protein release in A549 cells. Mutational analysis of the 5' flanking region of the IL-8 gene confirmed that an intact NF-kappaB site is necessary for TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 gene transcription. The addition of TNF-alpha to A549 cells resulted in rapid loss of IkappaB from the cytoplasm of cells, associated with a corresponding increase in NF-kappaB-binding activity in nuclear extracts from the cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with the proteasome inhibitor N-cbz-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132, 10 microM) reversed the effects of TNF-alpha on IL-8 release from A549 cells (as determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and on IL-8 gene transcription (as determined with reporter-gene assays). MG-132 reversed the effects of TNF-alpha on IkappaB degradation as determined by Western blot analysis. IkappaB phosphorylation and ubiquination were not altered by MG-132, which implies that the effects of MG-132 were secondary to proteasome inhibition. MG-132 also reversed the increase in NF-kappaB binding in nuclear extracts from TNF-alpha-treated cells. These studies show that inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaB degradation results in inhibition of TNF-alpha induced IL-8 production in A549 cells by limiting NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription.

  4. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero-Lourdes, C., E-mail: cescuder@uaslp.mx; Wu, T.; Camarillo, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβmore » and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation. -- Highlights: ► IL-8 is over-expressed in human MMA

  5. Down-regulation of IL-8 by high-dose vitamin D is specific to hyperinflammatory macrophages and involves mechanisms beyond up-regulation of DUSP1

    PubMed Central

    Dauletbaev, N; Herscovitch, K; Das, M; Chen, H; Bernier, J; Matouk, E; Bérubé, J; Rousseau, S; Lands, L C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is current interest in vitamin D as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Vitamin D transcriptionally up-regulates the anti-inflammatory gene DUSP1, which partly controls production of the inflammatory chemokine IL-8. IL-8 is overabundant in CF airways, potentially due to hyperinflammatory responses of CF macrophages. We tested the ability of vitamin D metabolites to down-regulate IL-8 production in CF macrophages. Experimental Approach CF and healthy monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were treated with two vitamin D metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), or paricalcitol, synthetic analogue of 1,25(OH)2D3. 25OHD3 was tested at doses of 25–150 nM, whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 and paricalcitol at doses of up to 100 nM. IL-8 was stimulated by bacterial virulence factors. As potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of vitamin D metabolites, we assessed up-regulation of DUSP1. Key Results MDM from patients with CF and some healthy donors showed excessive production of stimulated IL-8, highlighting their hyperinflammatory phenotype. Vitamin D metabolites down-regulated stimulated IL-8 only in those hyperinflammatory MDM, and only when used at high doses (>100 nM for 25OHD3, or >1 nM for 1,25(OH)2D3 and paricalcitol). The magnitude of IL-8 down-regulation by vitamin D metabolites or paricalcitol was moderate (∼30% vs. >70% by low-dose dexamethasone). Transcriptional up-regulation of DUSP1 by vitamin D metabolites was seen in all tested MDM, regardless of IL-8 down-regulation. Conclusions and Implications Vitamin D metabolites and their analogues moderately down-regulate IL-8 in hyperinflammatory macrophages, including those from CF. This down-regulation appears to go through DUSP1-independent mechanisms. PMID:26178144

  6. Down-regulation of IL-8 by high-dose vitamin D is specific to hyperinflammatory macrophages and involves mechanisms beyond up-regulation of DUSP1.

    PubMed

    Dauletbaev, N; Herscovitch, K; Das, M; Chen, H; Bernier, J; Matouk, E; Bérubé, J; Rousseau, S; Lands, L C

    2015-10-01

    There is current interest in vitamin D as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Vitamin D transcriptionally up-regulates the anti-inflammatory gene DUSP1, which partly controls production of the inflammatory chemokine IL-8. IL-8 is overabundant in CF airways, potentially due to hyperinflammatory responses of CF macrophages. We tested the ability of vitamin D metabolites to down-regulate IL-8 production in CF macrophages. CF and healthy monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were treated with two vitamin D metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3 ) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), or paricalcitol, synthetic analogue of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . 25OHD3 was tested at doses of 25-150 nM, whereas 1,25(OH)2 D3 and paricalcitol at doses of up to 100 nM. IL-8 was stimulated by bacterial virulence factors. As potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of vitamin D metabolites, we assessed up-regulation of DUSP1. MDM from patients with CF and some healthy donors showed excessive production of stimulated IL-8, highlighting their hyperinflammatory phenotype. Vitamin D metabolites down-regulated stimulated IL-8 only in those hyperinflammatory MDM, and only when used at high doses (>100 nM for 25OHD3 , or >1 nM for 1,25(OH)2 D3 and paricalcitol). The magnitude of IL-8 down-regulation by vitamin D metabolites or paricalcitol was moderate (∼30% vs. >70% by low-dose dexamethasone). Transcriptional up-regulation of DUSP1 by vitamin D metabolites was seen in all tested MDM, regardless of IL-8 down-regulation. Vitamin D metabolites and their analogues moderately down-regulate IL-8 in hyperinflammatory macrophages, including those from CF. This down-regulation appears to go through DUSP1-independent mechanisms. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Muscle Glycogen Depletion Following 75-km of Cycling Is Not Linked to Increased Muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA Expression and Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, David C.; Zwetsloot, Kevin A.; Lomiwes, Dominic D.; Meaney, Mary P.; Hurst, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures. Cyclists (N = 20) participated in a 75-km cycling time trial (168 ± 26.0 min), with blood and vastus lateralis muscle samples collected before and after. Muscle glycogen decreased 77.2 ± 17.4%, muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA increased 18.5 ± 2.8−, 45.3 ± 7.8−, and 8.25 ± 1.75-fold, and muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein increased 70.5 ± 14.1%, 347 ± 68.1%, and 148 ± 21.3%, respectively (all, P < 0.001). Serum myoglobin and cortisol increased 32.1 ± 3.3 to 242 ± 48.3 mg/mL, and 295 ± 27.6 to 784 ± 63.5 nmol/L, respectively (both P < 0.001). Plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 0.42 ± 0.07 to 18.5 ± 3.8, 4.07 ± 0.37 to 17.0 ± 1.8, and 96.5 ± 3.7 to 240 ± 21.6 pg/mL, respectively (all P < 0.001). Increases in muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA were unrelated to any of the outcome measures. Muscle glycogen depletion was related to change in plasma IL-6 (r = 0.462, P = 0.040), with change in myoglobin related to plasma IL-8 (r = 0.582, P = 0.007) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.457, P = 0.043), and muscle MCP-1 protein (r = 0.588, P = 0.017); cortisol was related to plasma IL-8 (r = 0.613, P = 0.004), muscle IL-8 protein (r = 0.681, P = 0.004), and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.442, P = 0.050). In summary, this study showed that muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression after 75-km cycling was unrelated to glycogen depletion and muscle damage, with change in muscle glycogen related to plasma IL-6, and changes in serum myoglobin and cortisol related to the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1. PMID:27729872

  8. Hyperforin, the active component of St. John's wort, induces IL-8 expression in human intestinal epithelial cells via a MAPK-dependent, NF-kappaB-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changcheng; Tabb, Michelle M; Sadatrafiei, Asal; Grün, Felix; Sun, Aixu; Blumberg, Bruce

    2004-11-01

    St. John's wort is widely used as an herbal antidepressant and is among the top-selling botanical products in the United States. Although St. John's wort has been reported to have minimal side effects compared with other antidepressants, here we show that hyperforin, the active component of St. John's wort, can stimulate interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in human intestinal epithelia cells (IEC) and primary hepatocytes. Hyperforin is also able to induce expression of mRNA, encoding another major inflammatory mediator--intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IEC participate in the intestinal inflammatory process and serve as a first line of defense through bidirectional communication between host and infectious pathogens. Although hyperforin is a potent ligand for the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), we found that hyperforin induced IL-8 mRNA through an SXR-independent transcriptional activation pathway. IL-8 induction by hyperforin required the activation of AP-1 but not the NF-kappaB transcription factor, thereby distinguishing it from the NF-kappaB-dependent IL-8 induction mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). Further study revealed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) were required for the hyperforin-induced expression of IL-8. Our results suggest a previously unsuspected effect of St. John's wort in modulating the immune and inflammatory responses.

  9. Human T cells expressing BEND3 on their surface represent a novel subpopulation that preferentially produces IL-6 and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Kitagori, Koji; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Kobayashi, Shio; Aoyama, Takane; Urata, Kozue; Oku, Takuma; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hikida, Masaki; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Watanabe, Takeshi; Shimizu, Jun

    2014-06-01

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has no transmembrane region, is localized in the cytoplasm, and is involved in chromatin function and transcription. We here identified a novel subpopulation of human T cells that expressed BEND3 on their cell surface (BEND3(+) T cells). BEND3(+) T cells consisted of approximately 3% of T cells in the peripheral blood, were present in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and were also observed in cord blood. The stimulation of BEND3(+) T cells through the TCR/CD3 complex led to the production of various kinds of cytokines; however, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 produced by BEND3(+) T cells were higher than those by BEND3(-) T cells. The proportion of BEND3(+) T cells was also increased in some patients with inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results indicate that BEND3(+) T cells are a new subpopulation of T cells in terms of their cytokine profile. Further analyses on BEND3(+) T cells may be of importance and useful in understanding human T cell immunology.

  10. Human T cells expressing BEND3 on their surface represent a novel subpopulation that preferentially produces IL-6 and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Kitagori, Koji; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Kobayashi, Shio; Aoyama, Takane; Urata, Kozue; Oku, Takuma; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hikida, Masaki; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Watanabe, Takeshi; Shimizu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has no transmembrane region, is localized in the cytoplasm, and is involved in chromatin function and transcription. We here identified a novel subpopulation of human T cells that expressed BEND3 on their cell surface (BEND3+ T cells). BEND3+ T cells consisted of approximately 3% of T cells in the peripheral blood, were present in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and were also observed in cord blood. The stimulation of BEND3+ T cells through the TCR/CD3 complex led to the production of various kinds of cytokines; however, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 produced by BEND3+ T cells were higher than those by BEND3− T cells. The proportion of BEND3+ T cells was also increased in some patients with inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results indicate that BEND3+ T cells are a new subpopulation of T cells in terms of their cytokine profile. Further analyses on BEND3+ T cells may be of importance and useful in understanding human T cell immunology. PMID:25400923

  11. Trypsin impaired epithelial barrier function and induced IL-8 secretion through basolateral PAR-2: a lesson from a stratified squamous epithelial model.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jing; Oshima, Tadayuki; Chen, Xin; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2012-11-15

    Immune-mediated injury by the protease-activated receptor-2-interleukin-8 (PAR-2-IL8) pathway may underlie the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the localization of PAR-2 and the mechanism of PAR-2 activation remain unclear. This study aimed to address these questions on an esophageal stratified squamous epithelial model and in the human esophageal mucosa of GERD patients. Normal human esophageal epithelial cells were cultured with the air-liquid interface system to establish the model. SLIGKV-NH2 (PAR-2 synthetic agonist), trypsin (PAR-2 natural activator), and weak acid (pH 4, 5, and 6) were added to either the apical or basolateral compartment to evaluate their effects on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and IL-8 production. PAR-2 localization was examined both in the cell model and biopsies from GERD patients by immunohistochemistry. Apical trypsin stimulation induced IL-8 accompanied by decreased TEER in vitro, whereas the effective concentration from the basolateral side was 10 times lower. SLIGKV-NH2 from basolateral but not apical stimulation induced IL-8 production. Apical weak acid stimulation did not influence TEER or IL-8 production. Immunohistochemistry showed intense reactivity of PAR-2 in the basal and suprabasal layers after stimulation with trypsin. A similar PAR-2 reactivity that was mainly located at the basal and suprabasal layers was detected in GERD patients. In conclusion, the activation of the PAR-2-IL-8 pathway probably occurred at the basal and suprabasal layers, while the esophageal epithelial barrier may influence the activation of PAR-2. Under proton pump inhibitor therapy, refluxed trypsin may remain active and be a potential agent in the pathogenesis of refractory GERD.

  12. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Characterization of Lactobacillus salivarius strains B37 and B60 capable of inhibiting IL-8 production in Helicobacter pylori-stimulated gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Panpetch, Wimonrat; Spinler, Jennifer K; Versalovic, James; Tumwasorn, Somying

    2016-10-18

    Interleukin (IL)-8 is the key agent for initiating an inflammatory response to infection with Helicobacter pylori. Some strains of Lactobacillus spp. are known to colonize the stomach and suppress inflammation caused by H. pylori. In this study, we characterized two gastric-derived lactobacilli, Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) strains B37 and B60, capable of inhibiting H. pylori-induced IL-8 production by gastric epithelial cells. Conditioned media from LS-B37 and LS-B60 suppressed H. pylori-induced IL-8 production and mRNA expression from AGS cells without inhibiting H. pylori growth. These conditioned media suppressed the activation of NF-κB but did not suppress c-Jun activation. IL-8 inhibitory substances in conditioned media of LS-B37 and LS-B60 are heat-stable and larger than 100 kDa in size. The inhibitory activity of LS-B37 was abolished when the conditioned medium was treated with α-amylase but still remained when treated with either proteinase K, trypsin, lipase or lysozyme. The activity of LS-B60 was abolished when the conditioned medium was treated with either amylase or proteinase K but still remained when treated with lysozyme. Treatment with lipase and trypsin also significantly affected the inhibitory activity of LS-B60 although the conditioned medium retained IL-8 suppression statistically different from media control. These results suggest that L. salivarius strains B37 and B60 produce different immunomodulatory factors capable of suppressing H. pylori-induced IL-8 production from gastric epithelial cells. Our results suggest that the large, heat-stable immunomodulatory substance(s) present in the LCM of LS-B37 is a polysaccharide, while the one(s) of LS-B60 is either complex consisting of components of polysaccharide, lipid and protein or includes multiple components such as glycoprotein and lipoprotein.

  14. [CEA, CA-19-9 and il-8, sTNFRII and sil-2R in persons at high risk of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Grotowski, Maciej; Wojtuń, Stanisław

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether elevated concentrations of CEA, CA19-9, IL-8, sTNFRII and sIL-2R occur in persons at high risk of colorectal cancer. A group of 37 persons at high risk of colorectal cancer and 40 healthy subjects (control group) were included into this study. In both groups IL-8, sTNFRII and sIL-2R concentrations were measured by ELISA method (R&D Systems Minneapolis, USA). In the group of persons at high risk of colorectal cancer CEA and CA19-9 concentrations were determined using MEIA kits (Abbott Laboratories, USA). Using the 95th percentiles of the distribution in the control group the upper normal limits of IL-8, sTN-FRII and sIL-2R values were calculated. The cut-off value for CEA was 3 ng/ml and that for CA 19-9 was 37 U/ml. The incidence of elevated concentrations of the studied factors and concentrations of CEA and CA19-9 was compared. The association was assessed of elevated concentrations of the studied factors and CEA and CA19-9 with the results of histological examination of pathological changes in the colon and rectum. In the group of persons at high risk of colorectal cancer only CEA concentration was elevated in 2.7%. The percentages of persons with elevated concentrations of IL-8, sIL-2R and sTNFRII were 29.7, 8.1 and 18.9%, respectively. The percentage of persons with elevated concentrations of IL-8 and sTNFRII was higher in comparison with the percentage of persons with elevated concentrations of CEA and CA19-9 (p < 0.05). Pathological lesions in the colon and rectum were detected in 16 persons (43.2%). High-grade dysplasia was detected in 11 cases. Elevated concentration of IL-8 always accompanied high-grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis. The concentrations of IL-8 were significantly higher in high-grade dysplasia (23.7 pg/ml, SD +/- 7.53) than in cases of its absence (18.9 pg/ml, SD +/- 3.53) (p < 0.05). The obtained results of preliminary studies with IL-8 in persons at high risk of colorectal cancer require a

  15. Hypoxia causes IL-8 secretion, Charcot Leyden crystal formation, and suppression of corticosteroid-induced apoptosis in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Porter, L M; Cowburn, A S; Farahi, N; Deighton, J; Farrow, S N; Fiddler, C A; Juss, J K; Condliffe, A M; Chilvers, E R

    2017-06-01

    Inflamed environments are typically hypercellular, rich in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and profoundly hypoxic. While the effects of hypoxia on neutrophil longevity and function have been widely studied, little is known about the consequences of this stimulus on eosinophils. We sought to investigate the effects of hypoxia on several key aspects of eosinophil biology, namely secretion, survival, and their sensitivity to glucocorticosteroids (GCS), agents that normally induce eosinophil apoptosis. Eosinophils derived from patients with asthma/atopy or healthy controls were incubated under normoxia and hypoxia, with or without glucocorticoids. Activation was measured by flow cytometry, ELISA of cultured supernatants, and F-actin staining; apoptosis and efferocytosis by morphology and flow cytometry; and GCS efficacy by apoptosis assays and qPCR. Hypoxic incubation (3 kPa) caused (i) stabilization of HIF-2α and up-regulation of hypoxia-regulated genes including BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3) and GLUT1 (glucose transporter 1); (ii) secretion of pre-formed IL-8, and Charcot Leyden crystal (CLC) formation, which was most evident in eosinophils derived from atopic and asthmatic donors; (iii) enhanced F-actin formation; (iv) marked prolongation of eosinophil lifespan (via a NF-κB and Class I PI3-kinase-dependent mechanism); and (v) complete abrogation of the normal pro-apoptotic effect of dexamethasone and fluticasone furoate. This latter effect was evident despite preservation of GCS-mediated gene transactivation under hypoxia. These data indicate that hypoxia promotes an eosinophil pro-inflammatory phenotype by enhancing eosinophil secretory function, delaying constitutive apoptosis, and importantly, antagonizing the normal pro-apoptotic effect of GCS. As eosinophils typically accumulate at sites that are relatively hypoxic, particularly during periods of inflammation, these findings may have important implications to understanding the

  16. Specific Inhibition of the Redox Activity of Ape1/Ref-1 by E3330 Blocks Tnf-Α-Induced Activation of Il-8 Production in Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Vascotto, Carlo; Leonardi, Antonio; Kelley, Mark R.; Tiribelli, Claudio; Tell, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    APE1/Ref-1 is a main regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress via DNA-repair function and co-activating activity on the NF-κB transcription factor. APE1 is central in controlling the oxidative stress-based inflammatory processes through modulation of cytokines expression and its overexpression is responsible for the onset of chemoresistance in different tumors including hepatic cancer. We examined the functional role of APE1 overexpression during hepatic cell damage related to fatty acid accumulation and the role of the redox function of APE1 in the inflammatory process. HepG2 cells were stably transfected with functional and non-functional APE1 encoding plasmids and the protective effect of APE1 overexpression toward genotoxic compounds or FAs accumulation, was tested. JHH6 cells were stimulated with TNF-α in the presence or absence of E3330, an APE1 redox inhibitor. IL-8 promoter activity was assessed by a luciferase reporter assay, gene expression by Real-Time PCR and cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) levels measured by ELISA. APE1 over-expression did not prevent cytotoxicity induced by lipid accumulation. E3330 treatment prevented the functional activation of NF-κB via the alteration of APE1 subcellular trafficking and reduced IL-6 and IL-8 expression induced by TNF-α and FAs accumulation through blockage of the redox-mediated activation of NF-κB. APE1 overexpression observed in hepatic cancer cells may reflect an adaptive response to cell damage and may be responsible for further cell resistance to chemotherapy and for the onset of inflammatory response. The efficacy of the inhibition of APE1 redox activity in blocking TNF-α and FAs induced inflammatory response opens new perspectives for treatment of inflammatory-based liver diseases. PMID:23967134

  17. Immunologic changes in TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and IL-8 in pediatric patients treated for psoriasis with the Goeckerman regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Borska, L.; Fiala, Z.; Krejsek, J.

    2007-11-15

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which is often manifested during childhood. The present study investigated changes in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in children with psoriasis. The observed patient group of 26 children was treated with the Goeckerman regimen. This therapy combines dermal application of crude coal tar with ultraviolet radiation. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index decreased significantly after treatment by with the Goeckerman regimen (p < 0.001). Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin decreased after the Goeckerman regimen. The TNF-alpha and sICAM-1more » decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Our findings support the complex role of these immune parameters in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis in children. The serum level of IL-8 increased after the Goeckerman regimen. This fact indicates that the chemokine pathway of IL-8 activity could be modulated by this treatment, most likely by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.« less

  18. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Protein Induces Upregulation of IL-8 Pathways and Production of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Thyroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammerstad, Sara Salehi; Stefan, Mihaela; Blackard, Jason; Owen, Randall P; Lee, Hanna J; Concepcion, Erlinda; Yi, Zhengzi; Zhang, Weijia; Tomer, Yaron

    2017-02-01

    Thyroiditis is one of the most common extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. By binding to surface cell receptor CD81, HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 mediates entry of HCV into cells. Studies have shown that different viral proteins may individually induce host responses to infection. We hypothesized that HCV E2 protein binding to CD81 expressed on thyroid cells activates a cascade of inflammatory responses that can trigger autoimmune thyroiditis in susceptible individuals. Human thyroid cell lines ML-1 and human thyrocytes in primary cell culture were treated with HCV recombinant E2 protein. The expression of major proinflammatory cytokines was measured at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Next-generation transcriptome analysis was used to identify early changes in gene expression in thyroid cells induced by E2. HCV envelope protein E2 induced strong inflammatory responses in human thyrocytes, resulting in production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the E2 protein induced production of several heat shock proteins including HSP60, HSP70p12A, and HSP10, in human primary thyrocytes. In thyroid cell line ML-1, RNA sequencing identified upregulation of molecules involved in innate immune pathways with high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased expression of costimulatory molecules, specifically CD40, known to be a major thyroid autoimmunity gene. Our data support a key role for HCV envelope protein E2 in triggering thyroid autoimmunity through activation of cytokine pathways by bystander mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  19. HCV NS5A Up-Regulates COX-2 Expression via IL-8-Mediated Activation of the ERK/JNK MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Hsu, Shih-hsien; Wang, Shen-Nien; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to intrahepatic inflammation and liver cell injury, which are considered a risk factor for virus-associated hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Inflammatory cytokines are critical components of the immune system and influence cellular signaling, and genetic imbalances. In this study, we found that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were significantly induced by HCV infection and HCV NS5A expression, and induction of COX-2 correlated with HCV-induced IL-8 production. We also found that the ERK and JNK signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of IL-8-mediated COX-2 induction in response to HCV infection. Using a promoter-linked reporter assay, we identified that the C/EBP regulatory element within the COX-2 promoter was the dominant factor responsible for the induction of COX-2 by HCV. Silencing C/EBP attenuated HCV-induced COX-2 expression. Our results revealed that HCV-induced inflammation promotes viral replication, providing new insights into the involvement of IL-8-mediated COX-2 induction in HCV replication. PMID:26231035

  20. An impedimetric immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of IL-8 in human serum and saliva samples: A new surface modification method by 6-phosphonohexanoic acid for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2018-08-01

    In this study, we fabricated a sensitive and label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on 6-phosphonohexanoic acid (PHA) modified ITO electrode for detection of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human serum and saliva. PHA was first employed to cancer biomarker sensing platform. Anti-IL-8 antibody was used as a biorecognition element and the detection principle of this immunosensor was based on monitoring specific interaction between anti-IL-8 antibody and IL-8 antigen. The morphological characterization of each electrode modification step was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) while electrochemical characterization was performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and single frequency impedance (SFI) techniques. Moreover, the antibody immobilization on the electrode surface was proved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. This proposed impedimetric immunosensor exhibited good performances with a wide linear in the range from 0.02 pg/mL to 3 pg/mL as well as a relative low detection limit of 6 fg/mL. The impedimetric immunosensor had a good specificity, stability and reproducibility. This study proved that PHA was a suitable interface material to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Lourdes, C; Wu, T; Camarillo, J M; Gandolfi, A J

    2012-01-01

    The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβ and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IL-8 -251T/A and IL-12B 1188A/C polymorphisms are associated with gout in a Chinese male population.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Yin, C; Chu, N; Han, L; Li, C

    2013-01-01

    Gout is caused by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation of the joints and periarticular tissues. MSU crystals activate NALP3 and mediate interleukin (IL)-1β generation from its inactive pro-form, resulting in cellular activation and an IL-8-mediated neutrophil influx into the joint. IL-8 and IL-12 are important chemokines related to the initiation and amplification of acute and chronic inflammatory processes. In this study, we investigated whether the IL-8 -251T/A and IL-12 1188A/C polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to gout in a Chinese Han male population. Overall, 387 patients with gout and 576 controls were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). An association analysis was carried out using the χ2 test. A genotype-phenotype analysis was also conducted. The T allele of IL-8 -251 was associated with risk of gout [p = 0.031 (odds ratio (OR) 1.229, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.019-1.483]. There was a clear link between the IL-12 1188 AA and AC genotypic and A allelic frequencies between gout cases and controls (p < 0.001, df = 2 by genotype; p < 0.001, OR 1.404, 95% CI 1.165-1.691 by allele). Our results suggest that the IL-8 -251T/A and IL-12B 1188A/C polymorphisms may be relevant host susceptibility factors for the development of gout.

  3. Mechanisms underlying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxin ApxI induced expression of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α in porcine alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) causes fibrino-hemorrhagic necrotizing pleuropneumonia in pigs. Production of proinflammatory mediators in the lungs is an important feature of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. However, bacterial components other than lipopolysaccharide involved in this process remain unidentified. The goals of this study were to determine the role of A. pleuropneumoniae exotoxin ApxI in cytokine induction and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Using real-time quantitative PCR analysis, we found native ApxI stimulated porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) to transcribe mRNAs of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Heat-inactivation or pre-incubation of ApxI with a neutralizing antiserum attenuated ApxI bioactivity to induce cytokine gene expression. The secretion of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α protein from PAMs stimulated with ApxI was also confirmed by quantitative ELISA. In delineating the underlying signaling pathways contributing to cytokine expression, we observed mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) were activated upon ApxI stimulation. Administration of an inhibitor specific to p38 or JNK resulted in varying degrees of attenuation on ApxI-induced cytokine expression, suggesting the differential regulatory roles of p38 and JNK in IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α production. Further, pre-incubation of PAMs with a CD18-blocking antibody prior to ApxI stimulation significantly reduced the activation of p38 and JNK, and subsequent expression of IL-1β, IL-8 or TNF-α gene, indicating a pivotal role of β2 integrins in the ApxI-mediated effect. Collectively, this study demonstrated ApxI induces gene expression of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α in PAMs that involves β2 integrins and downstream MAPKs. PMID:21314908

  4. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2011-04-01

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p < 0.05) and p53 protein expression (p < 0.01). The ROS production and p53 protein expression induced by the organic-soluble extracts were found to be greater than those induced by the water-soluble extracts, for both sampling sites. The results indicated that PM2.5 collected from the e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  5. Effects of Shock Waves on Expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α Expression by Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiyu; Falkensammer, Frank; Andrukhov, Oleh; Chen, Jiang; Mittermayr, Rainer; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) can modulate cell behavior through mechanical information transduction. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) are sensible to mechanical stimulus and can express pro-inflammatory molecules in response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of shock waves on interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression by hPDLF. Material/Methods After being treated by shock waves with different parameters (100–500 times, 0.05–0.19 mJ/mm2), cell viability was tested using CCK-8. IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and IL-6 and IL-8 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at different time points. Results Shock waves with the parameters used in this study had no significant effects on the viability of hPDLF. A statistical inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression during the first few hours was observed (P<0.05). Expression of IL-8 was significantly elevated in the group receiving the most pulses of shock wave (500 times) after 4 h (P<0.05). At 8 h and 24 h, all treated groups demonstrated significantly enhanced IL-6 expression (P<0.05). TNF-α expression in the groups receiving more shock pulses (300, 500 times) or the highest energy shock treatment (0.19 mJ/mm2) was statistically decreased (P<0.05) at 24 h. Conclusions Under the condition of this study, a shock wave with energy density no higher than 0.19 mJ/mm2 and pulses no more than 500 times elicited no negative effects on cell viability of hPDLF. After a uniform initial inhibition impact on expression of inflammatory mediators, a shock wave could cause dose-related up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 and down-regulation of TNF-α. PMID:26994898

  6. Isolation and identification of Malassezia species from Chinese and Korean patients with seborrheic dermatitis and in vitro studies on their bioactivity on sebaceous lipids and IL-8 production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Su Na; Kim, Ah-Reum; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Won-Seok; Lee, John Hwan; Jung, Won Hee; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the distribution of Malassezia yeast in 120 Chinese (20 patients from each of six cities) and 20 Korean patients with scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and dandruff (SD/D) using ITS1 and ITS2 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Bioactivity was studied by quantifying sebum lipid production by human primary sebocytes and inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was studied by exposing HaCaT keratinocytes with extracts of five standard Malassezia strains; M. globosa, M. restricta, M. sympodialis, M. dermatis and M. slooffiae. M. restricta and M. globosa were the most frequently encountered species from both Chinese and Korean patients. These two Malassezia species also promoted neutral lipid synthesis although the result was not statistically significant and induced significant increase in IL-8 production among the five Malassezia species studied. The study suggests a possible role of these organisms in the pathogenesis of SD/D. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. An exploratory study of the effect of regular aquatic exercise on the function of neutrophils from women with fibromyalgia: role of IL-8 and noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Bote, M E; García, J J; Hinchado, M D; Ortega, E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is associated with elevated systemic inflammatory and stress biomarkers, and an elevated innate cellular response mediated by monocytes and neutrophils. Exercise is accepted as a good non-pharmacological therapy for FM. We have previously found that regular aquatic exercise decreases the release of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes from FM patients. However, its effects on the functional capacity of neutrophils have not been studied. The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate, in 10 women diagnosed with FM, the effect of an aquatic exercise program (8months, 2sessions/week, 60min/session) on their neutrophils' function (phagocytic process), and on IL-8 and NA as potential inflammatory and stress mediators, respectively. A control group of 10 inactive FM patients was included in the study. After 4months of the exercise program, no significant changes were observed in neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, or fungicidal capacity) or in IL-8 and NA. However, at the end of the exercise program (8months), a neuro-immuno-endocrine adaptation was observed, manifested by a significant decrease to values below those in the basal state in neutrophil chemotaxis, IL-8, and NA. No significant seasonal changes in these parameters were observed during the same period in the group of non-exercised FM patients. After the 8months of the exercise program, the FM patients had lower concentrations of IL-8 and NA together with reduced chemotaxis of neutrophils compared with the values determined in the same month in the control group of non-exercised FM women. These results suggest that "anti-inflammatory" and "anti-stress" adaptations may be contributing to the symptomatic benefits that have been attributed to regular aquatic exercise in FM syndrome, as was corroborated in the present study by the scores on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Piperine treatment suppresses Helicobacter pylori toxin entry in to gastric epithelium and minimizes β-catenin mediated oncogenesis and IL-8 secretion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Park, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Woo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yang, Ji Yeong; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer initiation has been studied widely. The objective of our present study was to evaluate the effect of a single compound piperine on H. pylori infection and its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in vitro. Cytotoxicity was tested by Ez-cytox cell viability assay kit. Effects of piperine on H. pylori toxin gene expression and IL-8 expression in mammalian cells during infection were assessed by RT-PCR. Effects of piperine on toxin entry into host cells, E-cadherin cleavage by H. pylori, and the changes in H. pylori mediated β-catenin expression and IL-8 secretion were determined by immunoblotting. Piperine treatment restrained the entry of CagA and VacA into AGS cells. Piperine administration in H. pylori infection reduced E-cadherin cleavage in stomach epithelium. In addition, H. pylori induced β-catenin up-regulation was reduced. Piperine administration impaired IL-8 secretion in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. As we reported previously piperine restrained H. pylori motility. The possible reason behind the H. pylori inhibition mechanism of piperine could be the dwindled motility, which weakened H. pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. The reduced adhesion decreased the toxin entry thereby secreting less amount of IL-8. In addition, piperine treatment suppressed H. pylori protease led to reduction of E-cadherin cleavage and β-catenin expression resulting in diminished β-catenin translocation into the nucleus thus decreasing the risk of oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the preliminary report of piperine mediated H. pylori infection control on gastric epithelial cells in-vitro. PMID:27158376

  9. An in vitro test to screen skin sensitizers using a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Yutaka; Saito, Rumiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-8 can serve as a biomarker for discrimination of skin sensitizers from nonsensitizers. We established a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8, which harbors SLO and SLR luciferase genes under the control of IL-8 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoters, respectively. After 6 h treatment with chemicals, normalized SLO luciferase activity (nSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing SLO-LA by SLR-LA, and the fold induction of nSLO-LA (FInSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing nSLO-LA of chemically treated cells by that of nontreated cells. The nSLO-LA of THP-G8 cells increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and several sensitizers. The FInSLO-LA in THP-G8 cells induced by LPS or sensitizers positively correlated with their induction of IL-8 messenger RNA in THP-1 cells. The nSLO-LA value of THP-G8 cells was significantly increased (FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4) by 13 of the 15 sensitizers as well as by 5 of the 7 nonsensitizers. Interestingly, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine suppressed the increase in FInSLO-LA induced by all sensitizers (inhibition index (II) ≤ 0.8) but did not suppress that induced by most of the nonsensitizers. We then evaluated the performance of this assay using values of FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4 and II ≤ 0.8 in at least two of three independent experiments as the criteria of a sensitizer, which resulted in test accuracies of 82% for the 22 chemicals used and of 88% for the chemicals proposed by European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods. This newly developed assay is a candidate replacement for animal tests of skin sensitization because of its accuracy, convenience, and high throughput performance.

  10. Vascular and inflammatory high fat meal responses in young healthy men; a discriminative role of IL-8 observed in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Oosterink, Els; op 't Roodt, Jos; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2013-01-01

    High fat meal challenges are known to induce postprandial low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. This assumption is largely based on studies performed in older populations or in populations with a progressed disease state and an appropriate control meal is often lacking. Young healthy individuals might be more resilient to such challenges. We therefore aimed to characterize the vascular and inflammatory response after a high fat meal in young healthy individuals. In a double-blind randomized cross-over intervention study, we used a comprehensive phenotyping approach to determine the vascular and inflammatory response after consumption of a high fat shake and after an average breakfast shake in 20 young healthy subjects. Both interventions were performed three times. Many features of the vascular postprandial response, such as FMD, arterial stiffness and micro-vascular skin blood flow were not different between shakes. High fat/high energy shake consumption was associated with a more pronounced increase in blood pressure, heart rate, plasma concentrations of IL-8 and PBMCs gene expression of IL-8 and CD54 (ICAM-1), whereas plasma concentrations of sVCAM1 were decreased compared to an average breakfast. Whereas no difference in postprandial response were observed on classical markers of endothelial function, we did observe differences between consumption of a HF/HE and an average breakfast meal on blood pressure and IL-8 in young healthy volunteers. IL-8 might play an important role in dealing with high fat challenges and might be an early marker for endothelial stress, a stage preceding endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Whey protein hydrolysates decrease IL-8 secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated respiratory epithelial cells by affecting LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Michèle M; Dauletbaev, Nurlan; Kubow, Stan; Mawji, Nadir; Lands, Larry C

    2013-07-14

    Whey proteins (WP) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Hyperbaric pressurisation of whey increases its digestibility and changes the spectrum of peptides released during digestion. We have shown that dietary supplementation with pressurised whey improves nutritional status and systemic inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Both clinical indices are largely affected by airway processes, to which respiratory epithelial cells actively contribute. Here, we tested whether peptides released from the digestion of pressurised whey can attenuate the inflammatory responses of CF respiratory epithelial cells. Hydrolysates of pressurised WP (pWP) and native WP (nWP, control) were generated in vitro and tested for anti-inflammatory properties judged by the suppression of IL-8 production in CF and non-CF respiratory epithelial cell lines (CFTE29o- and 1HAEo-, respectively). We observed that, in both cell lines, pWP hydrolysate suppressed IL-8 production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to a greater magnitude compared with nWP hydrolysate. Neither hydrolysate suppressed IL-8 production induced by TNF-α or IL-1β, suggesting an effect on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway, the cellular sensor for LPS. Further, neither hydrolysate affected TLR4 expression or neutralised LPS. Both pWP and nWP hydrolysates similarly reduced LPS binding to surface TLR4, while pWP tended to more potently increase extracellular antioxidant capacity. (1) anti-inflammatory properties of whey are enhanced by pressurisation; (2) suppression of IL-8 production may contribute to the clinical effects of pressurised whey supplementation on CF; (3) this effect may be partly explained by a combination of reduced LPS binding to TLR4 and enhanced extracellular antioxidant capacity.

  12. A New Biomarkers Feature Pattern Consisting of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-8 for Blood Stasis Syndrome with Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianxin; Chuo, Wenjing; Liu, Lei; Lian, Hongjian; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yong; Xie, Hua; Luo, Liangtao; Zheng, Chenglong; Fu, Bangze; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore new diagnostic patterns for syndromes to overcome the insufficiency of obtainable macrocharacteristics and specific biomarkers. Methods. Chinese miniswines were subjected to Ameroid constrictor, placed around the proximal left anterior descending branch. On the 4th week, macrocharacteristics, coronary angiography, echocardiography, and hemorheology indices were detected for diagnosis. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and hsCRP in serum were detected, and Decision Tree was built. Results. According to current official-issued standard, model animals matched the diagnosis of blood stasis syndrome with myocardial ischemia based on findings, including >90% occlusion, attenuated left ventricular segmental motion, dark red or purple tongues, and higher blood viscosity. Significant decrease of IL-10 and increase of TNF-α were found in model animals. However, in the Decision Tree, besides IL-10 and TNF-α, IL-8 helped to increase the accuracy of classification to 86%. Conclusions. The Decision Tree building with TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-8 is helpful for the diagnosis of blood stasis syndrome in myocardial ischemia animals. What is more is that our data set up a new path to the differentiation of syndrome by feature patterns consisting of multiple biomarkers not only for animals but also for patients. We believe that it will contribute to the standardization and international application of syndromes. PMID:24371451

  13. Green and black tea inhibit cytokine-induced IL-8 production and secretion in AGS gastric cancer cells via inhibition of NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Stephens, Brian R; Neilson, Andrew P; Green, Rodney; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Bomser, Joshua A

    2010-10-01

    Consumption of tea is associated with a reduced risk for several gastrointestinal cancers. Inflammatory processes, such as secretion of IL-8 from the gastric epithelium in response to chronic chemokine or antigen exposure, serve both as a chemoattractant for white blood cells and a prerequisite for gastric carcinogenesis. In this study, the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS was used to investigate the effect of green tea extract, black tea extract, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in tea, on cytokine-induced inflammation. AGS cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to initiate inflammation, followed by exposure to either tea extracts or EGCG. We found that both green and black tea extracts at concentrations of 20 and 2 µM total catechins, respectively, significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production and secretion to a similar extent. Treatment of AGS cells with EGCG (8 µM) produced similar reductions in IL-1β-induced IL-8 production and secretion. Inhibition of NF-κB activity was found to be responsible, in part, for these observed effects. Our findings demonstrate that both green and black tea extracts with distinctly different catechin profiles, are capable of disrupting the molecular link between inflammation and carcinogenesis via inhibition of NF-κB activity in AGS cells. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Elucidation of Distinct Roles of Guinea Pig CXCR1 and CXCR2 in Neutrophil Migration toward IL-8 and GROα by Specific Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kento; Yoshitomi, Tomomi; Hirahara, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    Chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are conserved between guinea pigs and humans, but the distinct role of each receptor in chemotactic responses of neutrophils against chemokine ligands has not been elucidated due in part to the lack of specific inhibitors against these receptors in guinea pigs. In this study, we investigated the roles of guinea pig CXCR1 and CXCR2 on neutrophils in chemotactic responses to guinea pig interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)α by using specific inhibitory antibodies against these receptors. Neutrophil migration induced by IL-8 was partially inhibited by either anti-CXCR1 antibody or anti-CXCR2 antibody. In addition, the migration was inhibited completely when both anti-CXCR1 and anti-CXCR2 antibodies were combined. On the other hand, neutrophil migration induced by GROα was not inhibited by anti-CXCR1 antibody while inhibited profoundly by anti-CXCR2 antibody. These results indicated that CXCR1 and CXCR2 mediated migration induced by the IL-8 synergistically and only CXCR2 mediated migration induced by GROα in guinea pig neutrophils. Our findings on ligand selectivity of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in guinea pigs are consistent with those in humans.

  15. Catechol Groups Enable Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging-Mediated Suppression of PKD-NFkappaB-IL-8 Signaling Pathway by Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acids in Human Intestinal Cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Satsu, Hideo; Bae, Min-Jung; Totsuka, Mamoru; Shimizu, Makoto

    2017-02-20

    Chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA) are phenolic compounds found in coffee, which inhibit oxidative stress-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells, thereby suppressing serious cellular injury and inflammatory intestinal diseases. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CHA and CA, both of which inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced IL-8 transcriptional activity. They also significantly suppressed nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ( NF-κB ) transcriptional activity, nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK). Additionally, upstream of IKK, protein kinase D (PKD) was also suppressed. Finally, we found that they scavenged H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the functional moiety responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CHA and CA was the catechol group. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of catechol groups in CHA and CA allows scavenging of intracellular ROS, thereby inhibiting H₂O₂-induced IL-8 production via suppression of PKD-NF-κB signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Catechol Groups Enable Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging-Mediated Suppression of PKD-NFkappaB-IL-8 Signaling Pathway by Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acids in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Soon; Satsu, Hideo; Bae, Min-Jung; Totsuka, Mamoru; Shimizu, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA) are phenolic compounds found in coffee, which inhibit oxidative stress-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells, thereby suppressing serious cellular injury and inflammatory intestinal diseases. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CHA and CA, both of which inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced IL-8 transcriptional activity. They also significantly suppressed nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcriptional activity, nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK). Additionally, upstream of IKK, protein kinase D (PKD) was also suppressed. Finally, we found that they scavenged H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the functional moiety responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CHA and CA was the catechol group. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of catechol groups in CHA and CA allows scavenging of intracellular ROS, thereby inhibiting H2O2-induced IL-8 production via suppression of PKD-NF-κB signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:28230729

  17. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated

  18. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, Guadalupe; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Camarena, Ángel; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martha; González-Bonilla, César; Grajales-Muñíz, Concepción; Borja-Aburto, Víctor; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2012-11-13

    Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Case-control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07-1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82-10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48-12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated with an elevated number of

  19. Effect of intravenous lidocaine combined with amitriptyline on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Albertoni Giraldes, Ana Laura; Salomão, Reinaldo; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Sakata, Rioko Kimiko

    2016-10-01

    Regarding the use of intravenous lidocaine in fibromyalgia, there are no well-controlled studies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on pain intensity, clinical manifestations and plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8 in fibromyalgia patients. In a randomized double-blind study, group 1 patients received 240 mg of lidocaine in 125 mL of saline solution, while group 2 patients received 125 mL of saline, both once a week for 4 weeks (T1, T2, T3 and T4). All patients received amitriptyline. The following were assessed: pain intensity before treatment (T0) and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment; clinical manifestations; the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) before and at 4 and 8 weeks after; the levels of IL 1, 6 and 8 before and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Lower pain intensity was observed in the lidocaine group at T2, with no difference at the other time points. There was a reduction in pain intensity in both groups. The use of paracetamol and tramadol and plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 did not differ between the groups. Clinical manifestations and side effects did not differ between groups. The combination of 240 mg of intravenous lidocaine (once a week for 4 weeks) with 25 mg of amitriptyline for 8 weeks had no meaningful impact in fibromyalgia patients. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Induction of IL-8(CXCL8) and MCP-1(CCL2) with oxidative stress and its inhibition with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in cell culture model using HK-2 cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Shalmanova, Liliana; Hammad, Abdul; Christmas, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    Renal transplantation can often be complicated due to delayed graft function, which is a direct sequel of ischaemia reperfusion injury. The adverse outcome of delayed graft function is not only short term but the long-term function of the graft is also affected. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of ischaemia reperfusion injury. Reactive oxygen species are the key mediators in ischaemia reperfusion injury causing direct cell damage which also initiate inflammation by inducing chemokines. The presence of inflammation is a marker of severe delayed graft function. However, the effect of oxidative stress on the expression of key chemokines has not been fully established yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the oxidative stress response and the secretion of chemokines in a cell culture model that mimics the effects of ischaemia reperfusion injury in immortalised human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, HK-2. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and markers of oxidative stress response and chemokine release were measured. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide induced a significant increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and the levels of the chemokines Interleukin-8 (IL-8; CXCL8) and MCP-1 (CCL2). A dose related increase of chemokine secretion was also observed. The cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at 1 ng/ml significantly potentiated the expression of both IL-8 (CXCL8) and MCP-1 (CCL2) which showed synergistic response in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) strongly suppressed the induction of both IL-8 and MCP-1 when stimulated with hydrogen peroxide and IL-1β. This study demonstrates the potential of anti-oxidants like N-acetyl cysteine in ameliorating the effects of ischaemia reperfusion injury thus suggesting a new therapeutic approach in renal transplantation. These findings can have potential

  1. Serial urinary IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha, UBC, CYFRA 21-1 and NMP22 during follow-up of patients with bladder cancer receiving intravesical BCG.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Carbayo, M; Urrutia, M; Romani, R; Herrero, M; Gonzalez de Buitrago, J M; Navajo, J A

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the potential role of serial preinstillation levels of several interleukins, TNFalpha and urinary tumor markers to monitor patients with bladder cancer receiving intravesical BCG. 121 urine samples were collected from: patients with bladder cancer treated with BCG (group 1); patients with bladder cancer receiving other intravesical treatment (group 2) and patients with urinary tract infections (group 3). Cytokines [IL-2, IL6 and [L8] and TNFalpha and urinary tumor markers [UBC, CYFRA 21-1 and NMP22] were measured by immunoassays. In 3 out of 15 BCG non-responders that recurred over the period of the study, no cytokine peak for IL-2, IL-6 or TNFa were detected. Urinary tumor markers increased in 2 out of 3 of these patients earlier than scheduled cystoscopies. Cytokine measurement was heterogeneous among 12 out of 15 BCG-responding patients: there were low levels of IL-6 and TNFalpha and peaks of IL-2 and IL-8 in 10 out of 12 and 4 out of 12 patients, respectively. During responding patients' follow-up we observed false-positive results in 7 out of 65 urine samples for UBC, 8 out of 65 for CYFRA 21-1 and 20 out of 65 for NMP22. Urinary tract infections were the main factor associated with non-specific elevations of IL-6 and IL-8 and urinary tumor markers in all groups of patients. Although larger series are required to confirn our preliminary observations, our data argue for a potential predictive role for IL-2 of favourable response to BCG therapy. Monitoring BCG with urinary tumor markers could early detect recurrence in non-responding patients.

  2. Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Girolamo Jose; Sanchez, Gabriela; Gonzalez, Jose Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF) are secretory products of mucin producing cells. They play a key role in the maintenance of the surface integrity of oral mucosa and enhance healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa by a process called restitution. TFF comprises the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2), and the intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). They have an important and necessary role in epithelial restitution within the gastrointestinal tract. Significant amounts of TFF are present in human milk. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between TFF3 isolated from human breast milk and levels of cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and defensins (hBD2 and hBD4) in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29 treated with trefoil. Samples of human milk were collected within 2-4 weeks postpartum from healthy human mothers (18-30-years-old) by manual breast massage, and TFF3 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, isoelectric precipitation, DEAE-chromatography, and gel filtration. In this work we measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of cytokines and defensins by immunoassay (ELISA) and semiquantitative RT-PCR technique, respectively. Also we measured the peroxidase activity. We present the first evidence of human milk TFF3 purification. Here we show that the presence of TFF3 isolated from milk strongly correlates with downregulation of IL8 and IL6 in human intestinal epithelial cells. On the other hand, TFF3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta defensins 2 (hBD2) and beta defensins 4 (hBD4). These findings suggest that TFF can activate intestinal epithelial cells and could actively participate in the immune system of breastfed babies by inducing the production of peptides related to innate defence, such as defensins. PMID:23198942

  3. Topical application of glycolic acid suppresses the UVB induced IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and COX-2 inflammation by modulating NF-κB signaling pathway in keratinocytes and mice skin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheau-Chung; Liao, Pei-Yun; Hung, Sung-Jen; Ge, Jheng-Siang; Chen, Shiou-Mei; Lai, Ji-Ching; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2017-06-01

    Glycolic acid (GA), commonly present in fruits, has been used to treat dermatological diseases. Extensive exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation plays a crucial role in the induction of skin inflammation. The development of photo prevention from natural materials represents an effective strategy for skin keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycolic acid (GA)-induced reduction of UVB-mediated inflammatory responses. We determined the effects of different concentrations of GA on the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes HaCaT cells and C57BL/6J mice dorsal skin. After GA was topically applied, HaCaT and mice skin were exposed to UVB irradiation. GA reduced the production of UVB-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1)] at both mRNA and protein levels. GA inhibited the UVB-induced promoter activity of NF-κB in HaCaT cells. GA attenuated the elevation of senescence associated with β-galactosidase activity but did not affect the wound migration ability. The topical application of GA inhibited the genes expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and MCP-1 in UVB-exposed mouse skin. The mice to UVB irradiation after GA was topically applied for 9 consecutive days and reported that 1-1.5% of GA exerted anti-inflammatory effects on mouse skin. We clarified the molecular mechanism of GA protection against UVB-induced inflammation by modulating NF-κB signaling pathways and determined the optimal concentration of GA in mice skin exposed to UVB irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro progesterone modulation on bacterial endotoxin-induced production of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1α, and MMP-9 in pre-labor human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ruíz, G; Flores-Espinosa, P; Preciado-Martínez, E; Bermejo-Martínez, L; Espejel-Nuñez, A; Estrada-Gutierrez, G; Maida-Claros, R; Flores-Pliego, A; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica

    2015-10-07

    During human pregnancy, infection/inflammation represents an important factor that increases the risk of developing preterm labor. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-treatment with progesterone has an immunomodulatory effect on human placenta production of endotoxin-induced inflammation and degradation of extracellular matrix markers. Placentas were obtained under sterile conditions from pregnancies delivered at term before the onset of labor by cesarean section. Explants from central cotyledons of 10 human placentas were pre-treated with different concentrations of progesterone (0.01, 01, 1.0 μM) and then stimulated with 1000 ng/mL of LPS of Escherichia coli. Cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-10 concentrations in the culture medium were then measured by specific ELISA. Secretion profile of MMP-9 was evaluated by ELISA and zymogram. Statistical differences were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by the appropriate ad hoc test; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In comparison to the explants incubated with vehicle, the LPS treatment led to a significant increase in the level of all cytokines. In comparison to the explants treated only with LPS, pre-treatment with 0.01-1.0 μM progesterone significantly blunted (73, 56, 56, 75, 25, 48 %) the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-10, respectively. The MMP-9 induced by LPS treatment was inhibited only with the highest concentration of progesterone. Mifepristone (RU486) blocked the immunosuppressive effect of progesterone. The present results support the concept that progesterone could be part of the compensatory mechanism that limits the inflammation-induced cytotoxic effects associated with an infection process during gestation.

  5. Independent prognostic impact of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 levels for early breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Michiko; Morimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Takashi; Michishita, Shintaro; Nishimukai, Arisa; Higuchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Yukie; Miyagawa, Yoshimasa; Kira, Ayako; Murase, Keiko; Araki, Kazuhiro; Takatsuka, Yuichi; Oh, Koshi; Masai, Yoshikazu; Akazawa, Kouhei; Miyoshi, Yasuo

    2018-02-12

    Although the prognosis for operable breast cancers is reportedly worse if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels are above normal, the usefulness of this prognosis is limited due to the low sensitivity and specificity; in addition, the optimal cutoff levels remain unknown. A total of 1076 patients who were operated for breast cancers (test set = 608, validation set = 468) without evidence of metastasis were recruited, and their baseline and postoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were analyzed. The optimal cutoff values of CEA and CA15-3 for disease-free survival (DFS) were 3.2 ng/mL and 13.3 U/mL, respectively, based on receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve analyses. The DFS of patients with high CEA levels (CEA-high: n = 191, 5-year DFS 70.6%) was significantly worse (p < 0.0001) than that of CEA-low patients (n = 885, 5-year DFS 87.2%). There was a significant difference in DFS (p < 0.0001) between CA15-3-high and CA15-3-low patients (n = 314 and n = 762, respectively; 5-year DFS 71.8 vs. 89.3%). Significant associations between DFS and CA15-3 levels were observed irrespective of the subtypes. Multivariable analysis indicated that tumor size, lymph node metastasis, tumor grade, and CEA (p = 0.0474) and CA15-3 (p < 0.0001) levels were independent prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] 1.520, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005-2.245 for CEA; HR 2.088, 95% CI 1.457-2.901 for CA15-3). These findings suggest that CEA and CA15-3 levels might be useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with operable early breast cancer irrespective of the subtype. Serum levels at baseline may reflect tumor characteristics for metastatic potential even when these levels are within the normal ranges.

  6. Plasma levels and diagnostic utility of VEGF, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the diagnostics of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Monika; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    We investigated plasma levels and diagnostic utility of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in comparison to cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). Plasma levels of tested parameters were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while CA 15-3 with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). The plasma levels of VEGF, TIMP-2 showed significantly higher than CA 15-3 values of the diagnostic sensitivity, the predictive values of positive and negative test results (PPV, NPV) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) in early stages of breast cancer (BC). The combined use of the tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in the increase in sensitivity, NPV and AUC, especially in the combination with VEGF (83%; 72%; 0.888) and TIMP-2 (83%; 72%; 0.894). The highest values were obtained for combination of all three parameters (93%; 85%; 0.923). These findings suggest the usefulness of the tested parameters in the diagnosis of BC, especially VEGF and TIMP-2 with CA 15-3 in early stages of BC, which could be a new diagnostic panel.

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. Methods T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe+2/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. Conclusions The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa. PMID:24969238

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Abood, Walaa Najm; Fahmi, Iman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-06-27

    Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe(+2)/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa.

  9. Andrographolide Antagonizes TNF-α-Induced IL-8 via Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase/ROS/NF-κB and Src/MAPKs/AP-1 Axis in Human Colorectal Cancer HCT116 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Miaomiao; Meng, Wei; Liao, Wenzhen; Lian, Sen

    2018-05-14

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is used as a functional food in Japan, Korea, India, and China. Andrographolide, a naturally occurring phytochemical identified in Andrographis paniculata, has been discovered to present anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Highly expressed interleukin (IL-8) has been detected in colorectal cancer and is implicated in angiogenesis. However, the effect and molecular mechanisms of IL-8 expression by andrographolide remain obscure in human colorectal cancer cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of andrographolide on TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression and its underlying mechanisms. We found that andrographolide concentration-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced IL-8 mRNA (2.23 ± 0.15 fold at 20 μM) and protein expression (4.78 ± 0.31 fold at 20 μM) and reduced the IL-8 transcriptional activity (2.59 ± 0.25 fold at 20 μM). TNF-α stimulated the membrane translocation of p47 phox to activate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX). Furthermore, TNF-α induced Src and MAPKs (Erk1/2, p38 MAPK) phosphorylation, as well as NF-κB and AP-1 binding activities. We found that NF-κB and AP-1 were the critical transcription factors for TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression. Specific inhibitors and mutagenesis studies indicated that Src, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK are related to TNF-α-induced IL-8. NOX-derived ROS and Src/MAPKs (Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK) functioned as upstream activators of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. Taken together, andrographolide antagonizes TNF-α-induced IL-8 via inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB and Src/MAPKs/AP-1 signaling pathways in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells and then suppresses angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.

  10. Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1, 6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) Blocks the Chemotaxis of Neutrophils by Inhibiting Signal Transduction through IL-8 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masafumi; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Kamohara, Hidenobu; Hidaka, Hideaki; Ikeda, Osamu; Ogawa, Michio; Baba, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the impact of curcumin on neutrophils. Chemotactic activity via human recombinant IL-8 (hrIL-8) was significantly inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin reduced calcium ion flow induced by internalization of the IL-8 receptor. We analyzed flow cytometry to evaluate the status of the IL-8 receptor after curcumin treatment. The change in the distribution of receptors intracellularly and on the cell surface suggested that curcumin may affect the receptor trafficking pathway intracellulary. Rab11 is a low molecular weight G protein associated with the CXCR recycling pathway. Following curcumin treatment, immunoprecipitation studies showed that the IL-8 receptor was associated with larger amounts of active Rab11 than that in control cells. These data suggest that curcumin induces the stacking of the Rab11 vesicle complex with CXCR1 and CXCR2 in the endocytic pathway. The mechanism for antiinflammatory response by curcumin may involve unique regulation of the Rab11 trafficking molecule in recycling of IL-8 receptors. PMID:17710245

  11. The expression of Helicobacter pylori tfs plasticity zone cluster is regulated by pH and adherence, and its composition is associated with differential gastric IL-8 secretion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno; Nunes, Alexandra; Vale, Filipa F; Rocha, Raquel; Gomes, João Paulo; Dias, Ricardo; Oleastro, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori virulence is associated with different clinical outcomes. The existence of an intact dupA gene from tfs4b cluster has been suggested as a predictor for duodenal ulcer development. However, the role of tfs plasticity zone clusters in the development of ulcers remains unclear. We studied several H. pylori strains to characterize the gene arrangement of tfs3 and tfs4 clusters and their impact in the inflammatory response by infected gastric cells. The genome of 14 H. pylori strains isolated from Western patients, pediatric (n=10) and adult (n=4), was fully sequenced using the Illumina platform MiSeq, in addition to eight pediatric strains previously sequenced. These strains were used to infect human gastric cells, and the secreted interleukin-8 (IL-8) was quantified by ELISA. The expression of virB2, dupA, virB8, virB10, and virB6 was assessed by quantitative PCR in adherent and nonadherent fractions of H. pylori during in vitro co-infection, at different pH values. We have found that cagA-positive H. pylori strains harboring a complete tfs plasticity zone cluster significantly induce increased production of IL-8 from gastric cells. We have also found that the region spanning from virB2 to virB10 genes constitutes an operon, whose expression is increased in the adherent fraction of bacteria during infection, as well as in both adherent and nonadherent fractions at acidic conditions. A complete tfs plasticity zone cluster is a virulence factor that may be important for the colonization of H. pylori and to the development of severe outcomes of the infection with cagA-positive strains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Helicobacter pylori antigen HP0986 (TieA) interacts with cultured gastric epithelial cells and induces IL8 secretion via NF-κB mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Mégraud, Francis; Tenguria, Shivendra; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-02-01

    The envisaged roles and partly understood functional properties of Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 are significant in the context of proinflammatory and or proapoptotic activities, the two important facilitators of pathogen survival and persistence. In addition, sequence analysis of this gene predicts a restriction endonuclease function which remained unknown thus far. To evaluate the role of HP0986 in gastric inflammation, we studied its expression profile using a large number of clinical isolates but a limited number of biopsies and patient sera. Also, we studied antigenic role of HP0986 in altering cytokine responses of human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells including its interaction with and localization within the AGS cells. For in vitro expression study of HP0986, 110 H. pylori clinical isolates were cultured from patients with functional dyspepsia. For expression analysis by qRT PCR of HP0986, 10 gastric biopsy specimens were studied. HP0986 was also used to detect antibodies in patient sera. AGS cells were incubated with recombinant HP0986 to determine cytokine response and NF-κB activation. Transient transfection with HP0986 cloned in pEGFPN1 was used to study its subcellular localization or homing in AGS cells. Out of 110 cultured H. pylori strains, 34 (31%) were positive for HP0986 and this observation was correlated with in vitro expression profiles. HP0986 mRNA was detected in 7 of the 10 biopsy specimens. Further, HP0986 induced IL-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner via NF-κB pathway. Serum antibodies against HP0986 were positively associated with H. pylori positive patients. Transient transfection of AGS cells revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of HP0986. HP0986 was moderately prevalent in clinical isolates and its expression profile in cultures and gastric biopsies points to its being naturally expressed. Collective observations including the induction of IL-8 via TNFR1 and NF

  13. IL-6, IL-8, MMP-2, MMP-9 are overexpressed in Fanconi anemia cells through a NF-κB/TNF-α dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Epanchintsev, Alexey; Shyamsunder, Pavithra; Verma, Rama S; Lyakhovich, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder associated with a bone-marrow failure, genome instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents and a predisposition to cancer. Mutations have been documented in 16 FA genes that participate in the FA-BRCA DNA repair pathway, a fundamental pathway in the development of the disease and the presentation of its symptoms. FA cells have been characterized by an overproduction of cytokines, MAPKs, and Interleukins. Through this study we have identified the overexpression of additional secretory factors such as IL-6, IL-8, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in FA cells and in cells depleted of FANCA or FANCC and proved that their expression is under the control of NF-κB/TNF-α signaling pathways. We also demonstrated that these overexpressed secretory factors were effective in promoting the proliferation, migration, and invasion of surrounding tumor cells a fundamental event in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and that they also modulated the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin and SNAIL. Overall our data suggest that the upregulation of EMT promoting factors in FA may contribute to predisposing FA patients to cancer, thereby providing new insights into possible therapeutic interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Common polymorphisms in interleukin genes (IL4, IL6, IL8 and IL12) are not associated with alcoholic liver disease or alcoholism in Spanish men.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Miguel; Pastor, Isabel; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary data suggest that polymorphisms in cytokine genes may be involved in the genetic predisposition to alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol use disorders. We thus analyze the association between these diseases and the following polymorphisms: -33T>C IL4, -174 G>C IL6, -251 T>A IL8 and 1188 A>C IL12B. 258 male alcoholics (161 without liver disease and 97 with liver cirrhosis) and 101 healthy controls were genotyped for the above mentioned polymorphisms. We examined the relationship between genotype and allele frequencies and the presence of disease, as well as the correlation with combinations of putative pro-inflammatory genotypes. Haplotypes were inferred using the expectation-maximization algorithm and haplotype frequencies were compared. We found no statistically significant association between any of these polymorphisms or the combinations of pro-inflammatory polymorphisms and the risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol abuse or dependence. Haplotype analysis of the IL4 and IL12B polymorphisms did not show any statistical relationship either. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the analyzed polymorphisms confer differences in alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol use disorders susceptibility.

  15. Effect of an intraosseous injection of depo-medrol on pulpal concentrations of PGE2 and IL-8 in untreated irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Isett, James; Reader, Al; Gallatin, Eric; Beck, Mike; Padgett, David

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the pulpal concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in untreated teeth with irreversible pulpitis after the administration of an intraosseous injection of Depo-Medrol. Forty emergency patients with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis experiencing moderate to severe pain participated. After receiving local anesthesia, patients randomly received, in a double-blind manner, an intraosseous injection of either 1 ml of Depo-Medrol (40 mg) (20 patients) or 1 ml of sterile saline placebo (control) (20 patients). No endodontic treatment was initiated. At 1 or 3 days after the intraosseous injection, the teeth were extracted and the pulpal tissue harvested. Prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-8 concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) lower concentration of prostaglandin E2 compared to the saline group at day 1. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the two groups at day 3. The pulpal concentrations of prostaglandin E2 were reduced at 1 day after the intraosseous injection of Depo-Medrol.

  16. Solution NMR characterization of chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 monomer and dimer binding to glycosaminoglycans: structural plasticity mediates differential binding interactions

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Prem Raj B.; Mosier, Philip D.; Desai, Umesh R.; Rajarathnam, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a crucial role in directing neutrophils and oligodendrocytes to combat infection/injury and tumour cells in metastasis development. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers and interaction of both forms with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate these diverse cellular processes. However, very little is known regarding the structural basis underlying CXCL8–GAG interactions. There are conflicting reports on the affinities, geometry and whether the monomer or dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. To resolve these issues, we characterized the binding of a series of heparin-derived oligosaccharides [heparin disaccharide (dp2), heparin tetrasaccharide (dp4), heparin octasaccharide (dp8) and heparin 14-mer (dp14)] to the wild-type (WT) dimer and a designed monomer using solution NMR spectroscopy. The pattern and extent of binding-induced chemical shift perturbation (CSP) varied between dimer and monomer and between longer and shorter oligosaccharides. NMR-based structural models show that different interaction modes coexist and that the nature of interactions varied between monomer and dimer and oligosaccharide length. MD simulations indicate that the binding interface is structurally plastic and provided residue-specific details of the dynamic nature of the binding interface. Binding studies carried out under conditions at which WT CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers provide unambiguous evidence that the dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. Together, our data indicate that a set of core residues function as the major recognition/binding site, a set of peripheral residues define the various binding geometries and that the structural plasticity of the binding interface allows multiplicity of binding interactions. We conclude that structural plasticity most probably regulates in vivo CXCL8 monomer/dimer–GAG interactions and function. PMID:26371375

  17. Theophylline Represses IL-8 Secretion from Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Independently of Phosphodiesterase Inhibition. Novel Role as a Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator.

    PubMed

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Rumzhum, Nowshin N; Oliver, Brian G; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-06-01

    Theophylline is an old drug experiencing a renaissance owing to its beneficial antiinflammatory effects in chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multiple modes of antiinflammatory action have been reported, including inhibition of the enzymes that degrade cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE). Using primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we recently revealed that PDE4 inhibitors can potentiate the antiinflammatory action of β2-agonists by augmenting cAMP-dependent expression of the phosphatase that deactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address whether theophylline repressed cytokine production in a similar, PDE-dependent, MKP-1-mediated manner. Notably, theophylline did not potentiate cAMP release from ASM cells treated with the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Moreover, theophylline (0.1-10 μM) did not increase formoterol-induced MKP-1 messenger RNA expression nor protein up-regulation, consistent with the lack of cAMP generation. However, theophylline (at 10 μM) was antiinflammatory and repressed secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine IL-8, which is produced in response to TNF-α. Because theophylline's effects were independent of PDE4 inhibition or antiinflammatory MKP-1, we then wished to elucidate the novel mechanisms responsible. We investigated the impact of theophylline on protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, a master controller of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways, and show that theophylline increases TNF-α-induced PP2A activity in ASM cells. Confirmatory results were obtained in A549 lung epithelial cells. PP2A activators have beneficial effects in ex vivo and in vivo models of respiratory disease. Thus, our study is the first to link theophylline with PP2A activation as a novel mechanism to control respiratory inflammation.

  18. Enhanced IL-1{beta}-induced IL-8 production in cystic fibrosis lung epithelial cells is dependent of both mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-{kappa}B signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Muselet-Charlier, Celine; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris, UMR-S719, F-75012; Roque, Telma

    2007-06-01

    Transcription nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is hyperactivated in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung epithelial cells, and participates in exaggerated IL-8 production in the CF lung. We recently found that rapid activation of NF-{kappa}B occurred in a CF lung epithelial IB3-1 cell line (CF cells) upon IL-1{beta} stimulation, which was not observed in its CFTR-corrected lung epithelial S9 cell line (corrected cells). To test whether other signaling pathways such as that of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) could be involved in IL-1{beta}-induced IL-8 production of CF cells, we investigated ERK1/2, JNK, and p38MAP signaling compared to NF-{kappa}B. Within 30 min, exposure to IL-1{beta} causedmore » high activation of NF-{kappa}B, ERK1/2, p38MAP but not JNK in CF cells compared to corrected cells. Treatment of IL-1{beta}-stimulated CF cells with a series of chemical inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B, ERK1/2, and p38MAP, when used separately, reduced slightly IL-8 production. However, when used together, these inhibitors caused a blockade in IL-1{beta}-induced IL-8 production in CF cells. Understanding of the cross-talk between NF-{kappa}B and MAPKs signaling in CF lung epithelial cells may help in developing new therapeutics to reduce lung inflammation in patients with CF.« less

  19. Association of IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms with Tourette syndrome in a family-based association study in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Yi, Mingji; Wang, Meijian; Sun, Yuping; Che, Fengyuan; Ma, Xu

    2011-05-16

    An earlier study indicated a possible relationship between Tourette syndrome (TS) and the cytokines. To explore this further, we analyzed the association of the polymorphisms, IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G, in the IL8, IL12B and TNF-α cytokine genes with TS in a Chinese Han population. A total of 108 patients diagnosed with TS and their parents were recruited for the study. The genetic contributions of the IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C, and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion (PCR-RFLP) and haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) statistics. Our results revealed no significant associations between the IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms and TS (for IL8 -251A/T, TDT=0.418, df=1, P=0.518; HRR=2.17, X(2)=3.000, P=0.083, 95%CI: 0.900-5.230; for IL12B -1188A/C, TDT=1.131, df=1, P=0.288; HRR=1.27, X(2)=0.35, P=0.549, 95%CI: 0.580-2.790; for TNF-α -238A/G, TDT=2.793, df=1, P=0.095; HRR=0.27, X(2)=2.90, P=0.089, 95%CI: 0.061-1.217). This result was confirmed using haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) which allows the two alleles in each genotype to be considered separately. Our data suggests that the IL-8 -251A/T, IL-12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to TS in the Chinese Han population studied. However, these results need to be replicated using larger datasets collected from different populations. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of Sardinian wild thistles (Onopordum spp.) inhibit TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and NF-κB pathway in human gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Arianna; Fumagalli, Marco; Sanna, Cinzia; Maxia, Andrea; Piazza, Stefano; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2018-01-10

    Thistles species (Family: Compositae) are traditionally used in the Mediterranean area, particularly in Sardinia. They are usually gathered from the wild and used for both food and therapeutic purposes, including gastrointestinal disorders. This work aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of eight wild thistles from Sardinia, in an in vitro model of gastric inflammation, and to identify the major active compounds in the extracts. The hydro-alcoholic extract of the aerial part of each species was prepared. After the induction of inflammation by the addition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (10ng/mL), AGS cells were treated with extracts/pure compounds under study. The inhibition of interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, IL-8 and NF-κB promoter activities and NF-κB nuclear translocation were evaluated. Extracts main components were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Only Onopordum horridum Viv. and Onopordum illyricum L. hydro-alcoholic extracts reduced, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells AGS. The effect was partially due to the NF-κB pathway impairment. Onopordum hydro-alcoholic extracts were also chemically profiled, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were the main compounds identified in the extract. Further investigations showed that 3,5 dicaffeoylquinic acid highly inhibited IL-8 secretion in AGS cells (IC 50 0.65μM), thus suggesting that this compound contributed, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity elicited by O. illyricum extracts. Our results suggest that Onopordum species may exert beneficial effects against gastric inflammatory diseases. Thus, these wild plants deserve further investigations as preventive or co-adjuvant agents in gastric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition by New Glucocorticoid Antedrugs [16α, 17α-d] Isoxazoline and [16α, 17α-d]-3′-Hydroxy-Iminoformyl Isoxazoline Derivatives of Chemotaxis and CCL26, CCL11, IL-8, and RANTES Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, LeeShawn D.; Keller, Thomas C.S.; Lee, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    The underlying inflammation present in chronic airway diseases is orchestrated by increased secretion of CC and CXC chemokines that selectively recruit the leukocyte populations into the pulmonary system. Human chemokines, eotaxins (CCL11 and CCL26), RANTES, and interleukin (IL)-8, are dramatically upregulated through G-protein receptors in cell inflammation, including human asthma. In previous studies, a series of new glucocorticoid antedrugs (GCAs) were synthesized as derivatives of isoxazoline and oxime, and their pharmacological properties based on the antedrug concepts were evaluated. Utilizing both human airway epithelium (HAE) and eosinophil (EOS) cell culture models, we carried out studies to test the hypothesis that new GCA cell treatment would ameliorate Th-1/Th-2-driven secretion of these asthmatic biomarkers, eotaxins (CCL11 and CCL26), RANTES, and IL-8 chemokines, that would in turn decrease recruitment, proliferation, and activation of EOS cells. Results demonstrate that isoxazoline and oxime derivatives exhibit concentration-dependent inhibition, and specifically the compound No. 7 decreases significantly the secretion of eotaxins, RANTES, and IL-8 in cytokine-stimulated HAE cells. It was shown that EOS proliferation and activation were reduced considerably, and cell apoptosis occurred when exposed to nonfluorinated isoxazoline derivatives. These results provide evidence that concentration and structural manipulation of GCAs could increase the anti-inflammatory potency in treatment of chronic diseases, including asthma. PMID:23679817

  2. Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Rafael; Girard, Denis

    2016-09-30

    Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction between a given NP and human eosinophils themselves. In this study, freshly isolated human eosinophils were incubated with ZnO and several cellular functions were studied. We found that ZnO delay human eosinophil apoptosis, partially by inhibiting caspases and by preventing caspase-4 and Bcl-xL degradation. ZnO do not induce production of reactive oxygen species but increase de novo protein synthesis. In addition, ZnO were found to increase the production of the proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrated that inhibition of caspase-1 reversed the ability of ZnO to induce IL-1β and IL-8 production, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 only reversed that of IL-8. Our results indicate the necessity of conducting studies to determine the potential of using NP as nanotherapies, particularly in diseases in which eosinophils may be involved. We conclude that, indeed, human eosinophils represent potential new direct targets to NPs, ZnO in the present case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 Impair In Vitro Migration and Induce Apoptosis of Gingival Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells, Delaying Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Basso, Fernanda G; Pansani, Taisa N; Turrioni, Ana Paula S; Soares, Diana G; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-08-01

    Multiple factors affect oral mucosal healing, such as the persistence of an inflammatory reaction. The present study evaluates effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 on epithelial cells (ECs) and human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) in vitro. GFs and ECs were seeded in 96-well plates (1 × 10(4) cells/well) in plain culture medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]) containing 1% antibiotic/antimycotic solution and 10% fetal bovine serum, and incubated for 24 hours. Both cell lines were exposed for 24 hours to the following cytokines: 1) TNF-α (100 ng/mL); 2) IL-1β (1 ng/mL); 3) IL-6 (10 ng/mL); and 4) IL-8 (10 ng/mL). All cytokines were diluted in serum-free DMEM. Control cultures were exposed only to serum-free DMEM. Effects of exposure to inflammatory cytokines were determined by means of: 1) apoptosis (anexin V); 2) cell migration (wound healing assay); 3) inflammatory cytokine synthesis (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Increased apoptosis rates were noted when cells were exposed to inflammatory cytokines, except ECs exposed to IL-1β. Cell migration was negatively affected by all inflammatory cytokines for both cell lines. ECs and GFs exposed to IL-6 and IL-8 significantly increased synthesis of TNF-α and IL-1β. Demonstrated results indicate negative effects of tested inflammatory cytokines on ECs and GFs, inducing apoptosis and impairing cell migration. These results can justify delayed oral mucosa healing in the presence of inflammatory reaction.

  4. CECs and IL-8 Have Prognostic and Predictive Utility in Patients with Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian Cancer: Biomarker Correlates from the Randomized Phase-2 Trial of Olaparib and Cediranib Compared with Olaparib in Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Min; Trepel, Jane B; Choyke, Peter; Cao, Liang; Sissung, Tristan; Houston, Nicole; Yu, Minshu; Figg, William D; Turkbey, Ismail Baris; Steinberg, Seth M; Lee, Min-Jung; Ivy, S Percy; Liu, Joyce F; Matulonis, Ursula A; Kohn, Elise C

    2015-01-01

    Olaparib (O), a polyADPribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, and cediranib (C), a VEGF receptor (VEGFR)1-3 inhibitor together had greater activity than O alone in women with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (OvCa). The objective of this study is to identify potential lead biomarker candidates for response to O + C in the setting of a multi-institutional phase II study of O with and without C in recurrent platinum-sensitive OvCa. A self-selected group of patients participated in a prospectively planned exploratory biomarker substudy of the randomized phase II study of O versus O + C. Whole blood for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and plasma isolation was collected prior to and on day 3 of treatment. Quantitation of circulating endothelial cells (CEC), IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and soluble VEGFR-2 plasma concentrations, and polyADPribose (PAR) incorporation were performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of XRCC1 280H, R194W, and Q399R was done. Dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed at baseline and day 3 of treatment. Parameter changes were compared between the two arms using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to examine survival outcome. Thirteen patients elected to participate in the translational substudy, seven patients on O and six patients on O + C. Patients on O + C had a greater decrease in IL-8 concentration and larger CEC fold increase compared with those on O alone (p = 0.026, p = 0.032). The fold increase in CEC on day 3 was associated with duration of progression-free survival (PFS) (R (2) = 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-0.97, p < 0.001). IL-8 post-pretreatment changes correlate with PFS (p = 0.028). XRCC1 DNA polymorphisms were not related to PFS. All patients had reduction in PAR incorporation, and all except one had reduction in vascular flow on DCE-MRI. Our exploratory correlative studies indicate that CEC and IL-8 changes may be

  5. Association of glutathione S-transferase Ω 1-1 polymorphisms (A140D and E208K) with the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) in humans chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Escobar-García, D M; Del Razo, L M; Sanchez-Peña, L C; Mandeville, P B; Lopez-Campos, C; Escudero-Lourdes, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Human exposure to arsenicals is associated with inflammatory-related diseases including different kinds of cancer as well as non-cancerous diseases like neuro-degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Interindividual susceptibility has been mainly addressed by evaluating the role of genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes in inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolism. Glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 (GSTO1-1), which had been associated with iAs metabolism, is also known to participate in inflammatory and apoptotic cellular responses. The polymorphism A140D of GSTO1-1 has been not only associated with distinct urinary profile of arsenic metabolites in populations chronically exposed to iAs in drinking water, but also with higher risk of childhood leukemia and lung disease in non-exposed populations, suggesting that GSTO1-1 involvement in other physiologic processes different from toxics metabolism could be more relevant than is thought. We evaluated the association of the presence of A140D and E208K polymorphisms of GSTO1-1 gene with the expression of genes codifying for proteins involved in the inflammatory and apoptotic response in a human population chronically exposed to iAs through drinking water. A140D polymorphism was associated with higher expression of genes codifying for IL-8 and Apaf-1 mainly in heterozygous individuals, while E208K was associated with higher expression of IL-8 and TGF- gene, in both cases, the association was independently of iAs exposure level; however, the exposure to iAs increased slightly but significantly the influence of A140D and E208K polymorphisms on such genes expression. These results suggest an important role of GSTO1-1 in the inflammatory response and the apoptotic process and indicate that A140D and E208K polymorphisms could increase the risk of developing inflammatory and apoptosis-related diseases in As-exposed populations.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of chlorogenic acid on the IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells and the dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis symptoms in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Satsu, Hideo; Bae, Min-Jung; Zhao, Zhaohui; Ogiwara, Haru; Totsuka, Mamoru; Shimizu, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CHA) is an antioxidant polyphenol prevalent in human diet, with coffee, fruits, and vegetables being its main source. Effects of CHA and CHA metabolites were evaluated on the IL-8 production in human intestinal Caco-2 cells induced by combined stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and H2O2. CHA and caffeic acid (CA) inhibited TNFα- and H2O2-induced IL-8 production. We also examined the in vivo effects of CHA and CA using dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. CHA attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, diarrhea, fecal blood, and shortening of colon and dramatically improved colitis histological scores. Furthermore, increases in the mRNA expression of colonic macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and IL-1β, which were induced by DSS, were significantly suppressed by CHA supplementation. These results suggest that dietary CHA use may aid in the prevention of intestinal inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  9. IL-33 promotes mouse keratinocyte-derived chemokine, an IL-8 homologue, expression in airway smooth muscle cells in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Yuzhu; He, Xinliang; Lu, Yan; Guo, Yali; Yin, Zhuoran; Xie, Jungang; Zhao, Jianping

    2014-12-01

    Although it is recognized that IL-33 plays a key role in the onset of asthma, it is currently unclear whether IL-33 acts on any other target cells besides mast cells and Th2 cells in asthma. We investigated that whether airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) could contribute to asthma via stimulation with IL-33. To create a mouse model of acute asthma, murine ASMCs were isolated and cultured in vitro with IL-33. The ASMCs were divided into two groups, ASMCs from normal mice and ASMCs from ovalbumin-sensitized mice. The release of mouse KC was analyzed by PCR and ELISA. Immunocytochemical Staining of murine ASMCs for ST2 and IL-1RAcP was performed. IL-33 promoted KC expression, both in terms of mRNA and protien levels, in ASMCs from ovalbumin-sensitized mice. ST2 and IL-1RAcP were expressed in the membrane of ASMCs in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. IL-33 may contribute to the inflammation in the airways by acting on airway smooth muscle cells. IL-33 and ST2 may play important roles in allergic bronchial asthma.

  10. [Determination of the dynamic levels of interleukin-8 in gingival crevicular fluid of porcelain teeth with three different alloys].

    PubMed

    Xu, Weixing; Su, Jiansheng

    2012-06-01

    To study the interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy at different time periods, and to uncover the degree of stimulation by these alloys on gingiva at different time periods. 45 cases of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy were selected randomly, with 15 cases in each group. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the concentration and total amount of IL-8 in GCF. The assay was done before treatment, as well as at 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. The total amounts of IL-8 and GCF volume in the Ni-Cr alloy coated porcelain teeth were higher in different time period than those before treatment (P<0.05). However, the IL-8 levels in Co-Cr and gold alloy coated porcelain teeth returned to pre-dental restoration after 3 months. Otherwise, the levels of IL-8 concentration in GCF showed no significant difference among the three different alloys coating at different time periods. IL-8 is an important cytokine during tissue inflammation. Therefore, the level of IL-8 in GCF is a useful criteria for the evaluation of stimulation degree on gingiva by different alloy coating materials in porcelain teeth. The clinical choice of different alloy coating for porcelain teeth should be considered accordingly.

  11. BLT1-mediated O-GlcNAcylation is required for NOX2-dependent migration, exocytotic degranulation and IL-8 release of human mast cell induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-secreted LTB4.

    PubMed

    Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2018-05-31

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis. Although mast cell activation is important for provoking tissue inflammation during infection with parasites, information regarding the signaling mechanisms in mast cell activation and T. vaginalis infection is limited. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues that functions as a critical regulator of intracellular signaling, regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). We investigated if O-GlcNAcylation was associated with mast cell activation induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). Modified TvSP collected from live trichomonads treated with the 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor AA861 inhibited migration of mast cells. This result suggested that mast cell migration was caused by stimulation of T. vaginalis-secreted leukotrienes. Using the BLT1 antagonist U75302 or BLT1 siRNA, we found that migration of mast cells was evoked via LTB 4 receptor (BLT1). Furthermore, TvSP induced protein O-GlcNAcylation and OGT expression in HMC-1 cells, which was prevented by transfection with BLT1 siRNA. TvSP-induced migration, ROS generation, CD63 expression and IL-8 release were significantly suppressed by pretreatmemnt with OGT inhibitor ST045849 or OGT siRNA. These results suggested that BLT1-mediated OGlcNAcylation was important for mast cell activation during trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Salivary level of interleukin-8 in oral precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Punyani, Silky Rajesh; Sathawane, Ramhari Shankarrao

    2013-03-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory mediator that belongs to the family of chemokines. Due to its pro-angiogenic characteristic, it may play a vital role in tumour angiogenesis and progression. This study was designed to estimate the levels of salivary IL-8 in oral precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and compare them with healthy controls. The aim was to evaluate its efficacy as a potential biomarker for these diseases. Each group comprised 25 individuals. The salivary IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of salivary IL-8 were found to be significantly elevated in patients with OSCC as compared to the precancer group (p < 0.0001) and healthy controls (p < 0.0001). However, the difference in salivary IL-8 concentrations among the precancer group and controls was statistically non-significant (p = 0.738). Our results suggested that salivary IL-8 can be utilised as a potential biomarker for OSCC. Salivary IL-8 was found to be non-conclusive for oral premalignancy in this preliminary study. Hence, its possible role in transition from premalignancy to malignancy needs further research with larger sample sizes. Saliva as a diagnostic biofluid offers a number of advantages over blood-based testing. The role of IL-8 in oral cancer if validated further by future research can provide an easy diagnostic test as well as a prognostic indicator for patients undergoing treatment. Therefore, if it's role in tumourigenesis can be sufficiently assessed, it could open up new avenues to find out novel treatment modalities for oral cancer.

  13. Puerperal Mastitis: a Reproductive Event of Importance Affecting Anti-Mucin Antibody Levels and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Daniel W.; Williams, Kristina; Vitonis, Allison F.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Stuebe, Alison; Welch, William R.; Titus, Linda; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test the hypothesis that puerperal mastitis may alter immunity related to the mucin (MUC) family of glycoproteins and lower risk for ovarian cancer. Methods In two case-control studies conducted in New England between 1998–2008, we examined the association between self-reported mastitis and ovarian cancer in 1,483 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,578 controls. IgG1 antibodies against (MUC1) CA15.3 and (MUC16) CA125 were measured using electrochemiluminescence assays in a subset of controls (n=200). Preoperative CA125 was recorded in 649 cases. The association between ovarian cancer and mastitis was assessed using unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios, OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations between mastitis and anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibodies and preoperative CA125 levels were evaluated using adjusted linear regression models. Results Prior mastitis was associated with a significantly lower risk for ovarian cancer: OR (and 95% CI) of 0.67 (0.48, 0.94) adjusted for parity, breastfeeding, and other potential confounders. The association was strongest with 2 or more episodes of mastitis; and risk declined progressively with increasing number of children and episodes of mastitis. Among controls, prior mastitis was associated with significantly higher anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibody levels and, among cases, with significantly lower preoperative CA125 levels. Conclusion Puerperal that mastitis may produce long-lasting anti-mucin antibodies that may lower the risk for ovarian cancer, plausibly through enhanced immune surveillance. Studying immune reactions related to MUC1 and MUC16 in the 10–20% of breastfeeding women who develop mastitis may suggest ways to duplicate its effects through vaccines based on both antigens. PMID:23925696

  14. Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 Levels Correlate With the Severity of Aplastic Anemia in Children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vineeta; Kumar, Sushil; Sonowal, Rimjhim; Singh, Surya K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in patients with aplastic anemia and its correlation with severity of the disease. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in 40 patients with aplastic anemia in the age group of 4 to 14 years. A total of 40 healthy children served as controls. Quantitative estimation of IL-6 and IL-8 was performed using a solid-phase sandwich ELISA kit. Results were presented as IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in pg/mL. Patients received immunosuppressive therapy per the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Guidelines 2009. Mean age of the patients was 9.78±2.74 years. IL-6 level of patients was elevated compared with controls (193.48±352.3 vs. 4.58±3.39; P<0.001). IL-8 levels were also significantly elevated in patients compared with controls (15.58±18.0 vs. 1.85±0.95; P<0.001). IL levels were also assessed in relation to severity of the disease. Levels were the highest in patients with very severe aplastic anemia (724.33±519.42), followed by severe aplastic anemia (80.51±66.28 pg/mL), and non-severe aplastic anemia (6.01±1.89). Differences were statistically significant. A similar trend was also observed for IL-8 levels, where the levels were 41.02±24.23, 11.34±8.0, and 1.67±0.71 for very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and non-severe aplastic anemia, respectively. The differences were again statistically significant. IL levels were also correlated with the treatment outcome. Responders had lower levels compared with nonresponders, but the difference was not statistically significant (186.36±322.45 vs. 198.74±368.10). Levels of ILs decreased in responders, but were not comparable with that of controls 6 months after therapy. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were observed in children with aplastic anemia. Increased levels showed correlation with disease severity and therefore appear to play an important role in aplastic anemia. However, levels had no significant correlation

  15. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  16. [The levels of selected cytokines in patients with colorectal cancer--a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Grotowski, M; Piechota, W

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of the increased serum levels selected cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) in colorectal cancer and correlation their concentrations with stage of the tumour. The study was done on group consisted of 30 diagnosed colorectal cancer patients, with different location and stage of the tumour. Dukes described the used classification of stage of the tumour. The results were compared with control group consisted of 10 healthy persons. The cytokines were assayed by ELISA method (R&D Systems Minneapolis). In colorectal cancer group the serum levels of IL-6 were increased 3.5 times, IL-8--5 times and IL-10--13 times in comparison with control group. The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 increased with stages of the tumour, whereas IL-10 only in stage D. The serum levels of IL-4 were never elevated. This results permit for further study on usefulness of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 as a markers for colorectal cancer in clinical use.

  17. Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Reduces Saliva Adipokine and Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Erkan; Işıl Saygun, N; Serdar, Muhittin A; Umut Bengi, V; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan

    2016-08-01

    Adipokines enhance the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a role in extracellular matrix degeneration. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of some adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs in the saliva of patients with periodontitis and healthy individuals and to evaluate the changes after non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Of 32 individuals included in the study, 17 had periodontitis and 15 had healthy gingiva. Saliva samples were obtained from all individuals. In patients with periodontitis, samples were recollected 3 and 6 months after NSPT. Visfatin, chemerin, progranulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with periodontitis, all of the parameters measured in the saliva were higher than those of healthy individuals. At 3 months, visfatin, progranulin, IL-8, and MMP-8 levels were significantly decreased compared with baseline values. The levels of other biochemical parameters, chemerin and IL-1β, were significantly decreased compared with baseline values at 6 months, and the levels became similar to those in healthy individuals. In the periodontitis group, positive correlations were found among visfatin and IL-8 (r = 0.909, P <0.01), MMP-8 (r = 0.702, P = 0.02), and MMP-13 (r = 0.781, P = 0.01); chemerin and IL-8 (r = 0.913, P <0.01), MMP-8 (r = 0.770, P <0.01), and MMP-13 (r = 0.788, P <0.01); and progranulin and IL-8 (r = 0.762, P <0.01), MMP-8 (r = 0.845, P <0.01), and MMP-13 (r = 0.813, P <0.01). Adipokines may contribute to the breakdown of periodontal tissue in periodontitis by stimulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs.

  18. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P < 0.001) and showed a strong decreasing trend with increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in all subjects (P trend  < 0.001) as well as in exposed subjects only (P trend  = 0.001). Levels of IL-8 and MIP-1β were significantly lower in workers in the highest exposure tertile of PM 2.5 (>397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of interleukin-8 in patients with multiple sclerosis and its correlation with Q-albumin.

    PubMed

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Sládková, V; Svrčinová, T; Vysloužilová, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2017-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS and is followed by neurodegenerative processes. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. The paraclinical examination methods are an important part of the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the cervical spinal cord and an examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are common paraclinical examinations. An increasing number of studies deal with CSF and serum levels of biomarkers and their role in MS. We hypothesized that the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) could be different in MS patients than in controls. These differences may be related to damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB damage is quantified by the quotient of albumin (Q-alb). CSF and serum levels of IL-8 were assessed in 102 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 102 subjects as a control group. We then correlated these results with Q-alb. Levels of IL-8 in CSF were significantly higher in MS patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.0001). Serum levels of IL-8 were significantly lower in MS patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.018). Spearman's correlation analysis proved a significant correlation between levels of IL-8 and Q-alb. As the etiology of MS is only partially known, research dealing with biomarkers in MS should continue. Better knowledge of etiology can provide a new perspective, especially for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 levels in urine and serum of patents with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Setten, P A; van Hinsbergh, V W; van den Heuvel, L P; Preyers, F; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; van der Velden, T J; Monnens, L A

    1998-06-01

    The epidemic form of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is hallmarked by endothelial cell damage, most predominantly displayed by the glomerular capillaries. The influx of mononuclear (MO) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) into the glomeruli may be an important event in the initiation, prolongation, and progression of glomerular endothelial cell damage in HUS patients. The molecular mechanisms for the recruitment of these leukocytes into the kidney are unclear, but monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 are suggested to be prime candidates. In this study, we analyzed the presence of both chemokines in 24-h urinary (n = 15) and serum (n = 14) samples of HUS children by specific ELISAs. Furthermore, kidney biopsies of three different HUS children were examined for MO and PMN cell infiltration by histochemical techniques and electron microscopy. Whereas the chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 were present in only very limited amounts in urine of 17 normal control subjects, serial samples of HUS patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of both chemokines. HUS children with anuria showed higher initial and maximum chemokine levels than their counterparts without anuria. A strong positive correlation was observed between urinary MCP-1 and IL-8 levels. Whereas initial serum IL-8 levels were significantly increased in HUS children, serum MCP-1 levels were only slightly elevated compared with serum MCP-1 in control children. No correlation was found between urinary and serum chemokine concentrations. Histologic and EM studies of HUS biopsy specimens clearly showed the presence of MOs and to a lesser extent of PMNs in the glomeruli. The present data suggest an important local role for MOs and PMNs in the process of glomerular endothelial-cell damage. The chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8 may possibly be implicated in the pathogenesis of HUS through the recruitment and activation of MOs and PMNs, respectively.

  1. Association of gene polymorphism with serum levels of inflammatory and angiogenic factors in Pakistani patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ambreen, Fareeha; Ismail, Muhammad; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2015-01-01

    To study the association of serum levels of inflammatory mediators and angiogenic factors with genetic polymorphism in Pakistani age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. This was a cross-sectional and case-control study that included 90 AMD patients diagnosed through slit-lamp examination, fundoscopy, and ocular coherence tomography. For reference and comparison purposes, 100 healthy age-matched subjects (controls) were also recruited. IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and CRP levels were estimated in the serum samples of patients and control subjects. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphisms were studied in IL-6 (rs1800795, rs1800796, rs1800797), IL-8 (rs4073, rs2227306, rs2227543), VEGF (rs3025039, rs699947), and CRP genes (rs1205, rs1130864). Since the data were obtained from a sample population, the Box-Cox transformation algorithm was applied to reduce heterogeneity of error. Multivariate analyses of variance (M-ANOVA) were applied on the transformed data to investigate the association of serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and CRP with AMD. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared through χ(2) tests applying Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8, VEGF, and CRP between homozygotes and heterozygotes were compared through one-way ANOVA. Significance level was p<0.05. Compared to control subjects, serum IL-6 (p<0.0001), IL-8 (p<0.0001), VEGF (p<0.0001), and CRP (p<0.0001) levels were significantly elevated in the AMD patients. For rs1800795, patients with the GG genotype showed significantly raised levels of IL-6 compared to those with GC and CC genotypes (p<0.0001). Serum IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients with the GG genotype compared to the GC and CC genotypes for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2227543 (p<0.002). Similarly, significantly higher VEGF levels were detected for genotype TT for rs3025039 SNP (p<0.038). However, no significant alteration in serum CRP levels

  2. Effects of ACL Reconstructive Surgery on Temporal Variations of Cytokine Levels in Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Marco; Gandolla, Marta; Sacerdote, Paola; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gorla, Massimo; Munegato, Daniele; Gaddi, Diego; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J.; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24–72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery). For comparison, a “control” group consisted of individuals presenting chronic ACL tears. Our results indicate that levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 vary significantly over time in reconstruction patients. In the acute phase, the levels of these cytokines in reconstruction patients were significantly greater than those in controls. In the presurgery phase, cytokine levels in reconstruction patients were reduced and comparable with those in controls. Finally, cytokine levels increased again with respect to control group in the postsurgery phase. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α showed no temporal variation. Our data show that the history of an ACL injury, including trauma and reconstruction, has a significant impact on levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in synovial fluid but does not affect levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:27313403

  3. Effects of ACL Reconstructive Surgery on Temporal Variations of Cytokine Levels in Synovial Fluid.

    PubMed

    Bigoni, Marco; Turati, Marco; Gandolla, Marta; Sacerdote, Paola; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gorla, Massimo; Munegato, Daniele; Gaddi, Diego; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24-72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery). For comparison, a "control" group consisted of individuals presenting chronic ACL tears. Our results indicate that levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 vary significantly over time in reconstruction patients. In the acute phase, the levels of these cytokines in reconstruction patients were significantly greater than those in controls. In the presurgery phase, cytokine levels in reconstruction patients were reduced and comparable with those in controls. Finally, cytokine levels increased again with respect to control group in the postsurgery phase. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α showed no temporal variation. Our data show that the history of an ACL injury, including trauma and reconstruction, has a significant impact on levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in synovial fluid but does not affect levels of TNF-α and IL-1β.

  4. Levels of interleukins 2, 6, 8, and 10 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaileshkumar R; Singh, Anshul; Misra, Vatsala; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha; Trivedi, Pawan

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was previously considered as a psychosomatic disorder. But recent studies indicate that inflammation plays a significant role. The present study was undertaken to evaluate role of pro-inflammatory (IL 2, IL 6 and IL 8) and anti-inflammatory (IL 10) cytokines in clinically diagnosed patients of IBS. 51 patients and 29 controls were included in this study. On the basis of history of gastrointestinal infection, patients were divided into Post Infectious (PIIBS) and Non Post Infectious (NPIIBS) groups. All subsequently underwent colonoscopy and a rectosigmoid biopsy as well as measurement of levels of IL 2, 6, 8 and 10. The levels of IL 2 and IL 8 were significantly raised in IBS patients compared to controls with the mean level of IL 2,6 and 8 higher in PIIBS group than NPIIBS group but statistically significant for IL 8 only. The mean level IL-10 was reduced in patients compared to controls but statistically insignificant. Present study shows that Interleukin levels are altered in patients suffering from IBS and may have a key role in its pathogenesis.

  5. Determination of cytokine protein levels in oral secretions in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cytokines may be elevated in tumor and normal tissues following irradiation. Cytokine expression in these tissues may predict for toxicity or tumor control. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of measuring local salivary cytokine levels using buccal sponges in patients receiving chemo-radiation for head and neck malignancies. Patients and methods 11 patients with epithelial malignancies of the head and neck were recruiting to this study. All patients received radiotherapy to the head and neck region with doses ranging between 60 – 67.5 Gy. Chemotherapy was delivered concurrently with radiation in all patients. Salivary samples were obtained from high dose and low dose regions prior to treatment and at three intervals during treatment for assessment of cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, EGF, MCP-1, TNF-α, and VEGF). Results Cytokine levels were detectable in the salivary samples. Salivary cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, EGF, MCP-1, TNF- α , and VEGF were higher in the high dose region compared to the low dose region at all time points (p < 0.05). A trend toward an increase in cytokine levels as radiation dose increased was observed for IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α. Conclusion Assessment of salivary cytokine levels may provide a novel method to follow local cytokine levels during radiotherapy and may provide a mechanism to study cytokine levels in a regional manner. PMID:22537315

  6. Comparative levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, procalcitonin, osteoprotegerin, interleukin-8, hs-C reactive protein, D-dimer in febrile neutropenia, newly diagnosed cancer patients, and infectious fever.

    PubMed

    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Kebapcilar, Levent; Bozkaya, Giray; Çalan, Mehmet; Kırbıyık, Halil; Avci, Meltem; Sari, İsmail; Yuksel, Arif; Isikyakar, Tolgay

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of procalcitonin (PCT), IL-8 (interleukin-8), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor), osteoprotegerin (OPG), hs-CRP and D-dimer during fever above 38.3°C due to various causes. Blood samples taken from a total of consecutive 65 hospitalized patients during fever were prospectively tested for hsCRP, PCT, IL-8, OPG, MIF and D-dimer. Of these patients, there were 26 patients presenting with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia who had no infectious agents found; 23 patients, who had a malignancy with a febrile episode which was neither a microbiologically documented infection nor a chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and 16 patients who did not have a malignancy and were considered to have a clinically and microbiologically documented infection. IL-8 and D-dimer levels were higher in patients with febrile neutropenia than in the other two groups. Although MIF and OPG were higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancers, there were no differences among the three groups regarding PCT and hs-CRP values. High serum IL-8 and D-dimer levels can be useful markers to identify hospitalized chemotherapy-induced neutropenia patients. MIF and OPG were found to be higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation between amniotic fluid infection or cytokine levels and hearing screen failure in infants at 32 wk gestation or less.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Young; Choi, Byung Yoon; Rhee, Jihye; Park, Jaehong; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Park, Kyo Hoon

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether the presence of intra-amniotic infection and elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) are associated with failure in the newborn hearing screen (NHS) test in very preterm neonates. This is a retrospective cohort study of 112 premature singleton neonates born to women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes at ≤32 wk. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were determined. Fourteen (12.5%) neonates failed the NHS test. The prevalence of a positive AF culture was 40% (45/112). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that intra-amniotic infection was significantly associated with failure in the NHS test after adjusting for baseline covariates such as maternal white blood cell count (WBC) and periventricular leukomalacia. However, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels in AF were not significantly associated with hearing screen failure. Moreover, neither gestational age at birth nor birth weight was associated with NHS failure. The presence of intra-amniotic infection, but not elevated levels of AF IL-6 and IL-8, may contribute to the risk for failure in the NHS test in very preterm neonates. This finding suggests that intra-amniotic infection in utero might contribute to the development of congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

  8. Elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in fibromyalgia syndrome patients correlate with body mass index, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yangming; Haynes, Wanda L; Michalek, Joel E; Russell, I Jon

    2013-05-01

    The levels of several inflammatory cytokines are abnormal in many patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and may play a role in its pathogenesis. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the disease activity in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but its role in FMS is unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) is elevated in FMS and whether its levels relate to key biologic or clinical measures. One hundred and five patients with FMS (1990 ACR criteria) and 61 healthy normal controls (HNC) at a ratio of 2:1 were recruited. The serum concentrations of hsCRP, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The hsCRP levels were marginally higher in FMS than in HNC (p = 0.06) and its abnormality rate (>1.5 SD above the HNC mean) was significantly higher in FMS (25 %) compared with HNC (6.8 %) (p = 0.03). Serum IL-8 levels, IL-6 levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in FMS did not differ from those in HNC. Body mass index (BMI), ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels correlated with hsCRP levels in FMS. No associations were found between hsCRP and age, gender, ethnicity, or other clinical measures. Serum CRP levels were higher in FMS and significantly correlated with BMI, ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to the symptoms in some FMS patients, particularly those who are obese. Weight loss and therapies directed against inflammation may be useful in the management of FMS patients with elevated hsCRP.

  9. Increased levels of interleukins 8 and 10 as findings of canine inflammatory mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    de Andrés, Paloma Jimena; Illera, Juan Carlos; Cáceres, Sara; Díez, Lucía; Pérez-Alenza, Maria Dolores; Peña, Laura

    2013-04-15

    Inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) is a distinct form of mammary cancer that affects dogs and women [in humans, IMC is known as inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)], and is characterized by a sudden onset and an aggressive clinical course. Spontaneous canine IMC shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as the best spontaneous animal model for studying IBC, although several aspects remain unstudied. Interleukins (ILs) play an important role in cancer as potential modulators of angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration and tumor growth. The aims of the present study were to assess serum and tumor levels of several ILs (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) by enzyme-immunoassay in dogs bearing benign and malignant mammary tumors, including dogs with IMC, for a better understanding of this disease. Forty-eight dogs were prospectively included. Animals consisted of 7 healthy Beagles used as donors for normal mammary glands (NMG) and serum controls (SCs), 10 dogs with hyperplasias and benign mammary tumors (HBMT), 24 with non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (non-IMC MMT) and 7 dogs with clinical and pathological IMC. IL-8 (serum) and IL-10 (serum and tissue homogenate) levels were higher in the dogs with IMC compared with the non-IMC MMT group. ILs were increased with tumor malignancy as follows: in tumor homogenates IL-6 levels were higher in malignant tumors (IMC and non-IMC MMT) versus HBMT and versus NMG and tumor IL-8 was increased in malignant tumors versus NMG; in serum, IL-1α and IL-8 levels were higher in the malignant groups respect to HBMT and SCs; interestingly, IL-10 was elevated only in the serum of IMC animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that analyzes ILs in IMC and IL-10 in canine mammary tumors. Our results indicate a role for IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in canine mammary malignancy and specific differences in ILs content in IMC versus non-IMC MMT that could

  10. The impact of disease activity and tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy on cytokine levels in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Walters, H M; Pan, N; Lehman, T J A; Adams, A; Kalliolias, G D; Zhu, Y S; Santiago, F; Nguyen, J; Sitaras, L; Cunningham-Rundles, S; Walsh, T J; Toussi, S S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively cytokine levels and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients treated with and without tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. TNF-α inhibitor-naive JIA subjects were followed prospectively for 6 months. Cytokine levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured at baseline for JIA subjects and healthy controls (HCs). Cytokine levels were then measured at four time-points after initiation of TNF-α inhibition for anti-TNF-α-treated (anti-TNF) JIA subjects, and at two subsequent time-points for other JIA (non-TNF) subjects. JIA disease activity by Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) disability index/pain score and physician joint count/global assessment was recorded. Sixteen anti-TNF, 31 non-TNF and 16 HCs were analysed. Among JIA subjects, those with higher baseline disease activity (subsequent anti-TNFs) had higher baseline TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 than those with lower disease activity (non-TNFs) (P < 0·05). TNF-α and IL-10 increased, and IL-6 and IL-8 no longer remained significantly higher after TNF-α inhibitor initiation in anti-TNF subjects. Subgroup analysis of etanercept versus adalimumab-treated subjects showed that TNF-α and IL-17 increased significantly in etanercept but not adalimumab-treated subjects, despite clinical improvement in both groups of subjects. JIA subjects with increased disease activity at baseline had higher serum proinflammatory cytokines. TNF-α inhibition resulted in suppression of IL-6 and IL-8 in parallel with clinical improvement in all anti-TNF-treated subjects, but was also associated with elevated TNF-α and IL-17 in etanercept-treated subjects. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Increased IL-6 levels are not related to NF-κB or HIF-1α transcription factors activity in the vitreous of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Arjamaa, Olli; Pöllönen, Matti; Kinnunen, Kati; Ryhänen, Tuomas; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α transcription factors and the expression levels of inflammation markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] in the vitreous of patients suffering from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) scheduled for elective vitreous surgery in a single academic-based retina practice in a prospective clinical study. Twenty-seven patients with PDR were enrolled in the study. The severity of retinopathy was classified (0, 1, 2, 3, 4) and the activity of neovascularization was graded (0, 1, 2, 3, 4) by the surgeon intraoperatively. Samples of the vitreous were collected during surgery, and the activity of NF-κB and HIF-1α transcription factors and the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured. The majority of samples fell into the retinopathy class 3 (n = 12) or 4 (n = 13). The level of IL-6 increased from 68.9 ± 46.8 pg/ml to 102.7 ± 94.1 pg/ml, and IL-8 increased from 165.1 ± 136.0 pg/ml to 521.0 ± 870.9 pg/ml (mean ± S.D., nonsignificant change: normality test followed with Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test). According to the neovascularization activity, the samples fell into grade 1 (n = 7), 2 (n = 12) or 3 (n = 7). In IL-6, there was a statistically significant increase (P < .05) from grade 2 to 3: 58.6 ± 40.3 pg/ml and 158.4 ± 102.5 pg/ml, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks followed with Dunn's Method). The level of IL-8 was as follows: in grade 1: 118.0 ± 62.4 pg/ml, in grade 2: 192.3 ± 127.1 pg/ml and in grade 3: 884.3 ± 1161.0 pg/ml (statistically nonsignificant change). There was a statistically significant linear regression between IL-6 and IL-8 (P < .001): IL-6 = 51.88 pg/ml + (0.092*IL-8), r = 0.772. Increased activity of the NF-κB and HIF-1α transcription factors was not observed. Interleukin-6 is a candidate to indicate activity of neovascularization process in PDR. It might be a new molecular therapeutic target to

  12. Differential Serum Cytokine Levels and Risk of Lung Cancer between African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Sharon R.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Enewold, Lindsey; Bowman, Elise D.; Ryan, Bríd M.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Chaturvedi, Anil; Caporaso, Neil E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than European Americans. Previous studies suggested that certain circulating cytokines were associated with lung cancer. We hypothesized that variations in serum cytokine levels exist between African Americans and European Americans, and increased circulating cytokine levels contribute to lung cancer differently in the two races. Methods Differences in ten serum cytokine levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between 170 African-American and 296 European-American controls from the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study were assessed. Associations of the serum cytokine levels with lung cancer were analyzed. Statistically significant results were replicated in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Wayne State University (WSU) Karmanos Cancer Institute case-control study. Results Six cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα, were significantly higher among European-American as compared to African-American controls. Elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer among both races in all three studies. Elevated IL-1β, IL-10 and TNFα levels were associated with lung cancer only among African Americans. The association between elevated TNFα levels and lung cancer among European Americans was significant after adjustment for additional factors. Conclusions Serum cytokine levels vary by race and might contribute to lung cancer differently between African Americans and European Americans. Impact Future work examining risk prediction models of lung cancer can measure circulating cytokines to accurately characterize risk within racial groups. PMID:26711330

  13. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy increases local interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in traumatic wounds.

    PubMed

    Labler, Ludwig; Rancan, Mario; Mica, Ladislav; Härter, Luc; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Keel, Marius

    2009-03-01

    Clinical observations are suggesting accelerated granulation tissue formation in traumatic wounds treated with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC). Aim of this study was to determine the impact of VAC therapy versus alternative Epigard application on local inflammation and neovascularization in traumatic soft tissue wounds. Thirty-two patients with traumatic wounds requiring temporary coverage (VAC n = 16; Epigard n = 16) were included. At each change of dressing, samples of wound fluid and serum were collected (n = 80). The cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor-2 were measured by ELISA. Wound biopsies were examined histologically for inflammatory cells and degree of neovascularization present. All cytokines were found to be elevated in wound fluids during both VAC and Epigard treatment, whereas serum concentrations were negligible or not detectable. In wound fluids, significantly higher IL-8 (p < 0.001) and VEGF (p < 0.05) levels were detected during VAC therapy. Furthermore, histologic examination revealed increased neovascularization (p < 0.05) illustrated by CD31 and von Willebrand factor immunohistochemistry in wound biopsies of VAC treatment. In addition, there was an accumulation of neutrophils as well as an augmented expression of VEGF (p < 0.005) in VAC wound biopsies. This study suggests that VAC therapy of traumatic wounds leads to increased local IL-8 and VEGF concentrations, which may trigger accumulation of neutrophils and angiogenesis and thus, accelerate neovascularization.

  14. Plasma cytokine levels in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Goral, Vedat; Celenk, Tahir; Kaplan, Abdurahman; Sit, Dede

    2007-06-01

    Some immunological factors are responsible in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. There is a relationship between cytokines and ulcerative colitis. In this study 20 ulcerative colitis patients (mean age 36.2 years old, 9 women, 11 men) and 20 healthy control groups (mean age 27.2 years old, 11 women, 9 men) were involved in the study. We established that IL-2Rsp, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were different at the patients and control groups (p < 0.005). TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta were similar at the both groups. According to these results, IL-2Rsp, IL-6, 11-8 and IL-10 play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. We consider that these cytokines are beneficial parameters in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ulcerative colitis.

  15. Association between vitamin D levels and inflammatory activity in brain death: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Geisiane; Schwarz, Patrícia; Crispim, Daisy; Moraes, Rafael B; Czepielewski, Mauro; Leitão, Cristiane B; Rech, Tatiana H

    2018-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is linked to several common inflammatory disorders. Brain death (BD) causes a massive catecholamine release, leading to intense inflammatory activity. We aimed to evaluate vitamin D serum levels in brain-dead individuals in comparison to critically ill patients without BD to assess the correlation between vitamin D and cytokine levels. Sixteen brain-dead patients and 32 critically ill controls were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples from 25 brain-dead patients from a previous study were also used for vitamin D quantification. Plasma TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and serum vitamin D levels were compared using Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA. Spearman's test was used to assess the correlation between vitamin D and cytokine levels. Mean vitamin D levels were 16.4 ± 7.9 ng/mL, with 52 patients (71.2%) classified as vitamin D deficient (serum levels < 20 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were similar in 41 brain-dead patients as compared to control subjects (15.6 ± 6.9 ng/mL vs 17.4 ± 9.0 ng/mL; p = 0.383). Moderate direct correlations were observed between vitamin D and IL-8, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the prospective group of 16 brain-dead patients (IL-8: r = 0.5, p = 0.049; IL-10 r = 0.67, p = 0.005; IFN-γ r = 0.6, p = 0.015). Vitamin D was inversely correlated with IL-6 (r = -0.36, p = 0.044) in critically ill controls. Vitamin D serum levels were similarly low in brain-dead and critically ill patients. In brain-dead patients, vitamin D serum levels correlated with plasma IL-8, IL-10 and IFN-γ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Baseline Chromatin Modification Levels May Predict ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genotype, and disease status to explain variability in responsiveness to toxicant exposure; however, these are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate the exposure effects. Unlike these factors, the epigenome is dynamic and shaped by an individual's environment. We sought to determine whether baseline levels of specific chromatin modifications correlated with the interindividual variability in their ozone (03)-mediated induction in an air-liquid interface model using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from a panel of 11 donors. We characterized the relationship between the baseline abundance of 6 epigenetic markers with established roles as key regulators of gene expression-histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), pan­acetyl H4 (H4ac), histone H3K27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3), unmodified H3, and5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)-and the variability in the 03-induced expression of IL-8, IL-6, COX2, and HMOX1. Baseline levels of H3K4me3, H3K27me2/3, and 5-hmC, but not H3K27ac, H4ac, and total H3, correlated with the interindividual variability in 03-mediated induction of HMOX1 and COX2. In contrast, none of the chromatin modifications that we examined correlated with the induction of IL-8 and IL-6. From these findings, we propose an "epigenetic see

  17. Effect of 1.2% of simvastatin gel as a local drug delivery system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid interleukin-6 & interleukin-8 levels in non surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Gunjiganur Vemanaradhya, Gayathri; Emani, Shilpa; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Bhandari, Shilpy

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 1.2% simvastatin gel as local drug delivery (LDD) system on Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in chronic periodontitis patients, in addition to scaling and root planing (SRP). A total of 46 chronic periodontitis patients were equally divided into two groups. Group I patients were treated by SRP; Group II patients were treated by SRP followed by LDD of 1.2% simvastatin (SMV) gel. Plaque index (PI), Gingival index(GI), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), Probing pocket depth (PPD) and Relative clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded & GCF samples were collected at baseline (0day) and at 45th day from both the groups. The collected GCF samples were analysed for IL-6 and IL-8 levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the groups showed significant reduction in all the clinical parameters scores and IL-6 and IL-8 levels after non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP for group I/SRP+1.2% SMV gel for group II) in contrast to baseline values. However, a greater reduction was observed in group II. A non-significant positive correlation was observed between clinical parameters and IL-6 and IL-8 levels except at baseline, a significant correlation was observed between PPD &IL 6 levels in group II. In adjunct to SRP, 1.2% Simvastatin gel acts as an effective local drug delivery agent for the management of chronic periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iris Damage Is Associated With Elevated Cytokine Levels in Aqueous Humor.

    PubMed

    Aketa, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Terumasa; Higa, Kazunari; Yagi-Yaguchi, Yukari; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the association between iris damage and cytokine levels in the aqueous humor (AqH). A total of 201 AqH samples from 201 consecutive patients (mean age 73.7 ± 10.6) were collected at the beginning of corneal transplantation or cataract surgery. Iris damage of each case was assessed from preoperative slit-lamp findings based on its severity. The subjects were classified into three groups: eyes without iris damage (126 eyes), eyes with mild iris damage (51 eyes), and eyes with severe iris damage (24 eyes). The levels of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17a, interferon gamma-induced protein [IP]-10, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, IFN-α, IFN-γ, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MIP-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule [sICAM]-1, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in AqH were measured by multiplex beads immunoassay. The levels of aqueous protein, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, MCP-1, TNF-α, E-selectin, P-selectin, and sICAM-1 in eyes with mild and severe iris damage were higher than in those without iris damage (P < 0.033). Multivariate analyses of clinical factors revealed that iris damage was associated with the history of complicated glaucoma, and the number of previous intraocular surgeries. The levels of AqH IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, MIP-1α, TNF-α, and sICAM-1 were significantly elevated in eyes with mild and severe iris damage in phakic eyes, and the levels of AqH IL-8 and sICAM-1 were significantly elevated in eyes with severe iris damage in pseudophakic eyes, compared with the eyes without iris damage (P < 0.045). Iris damage was associated with the elevation in the levels of aqueous protein and cytokines.

  19. Evaluation of Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Cannabis Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bayazit, Huseyin; Selek, Salih; Karababa, Ibrahim Fatih; Cicek, Erdinc; Aksoy, Nurten

    2017-08-31

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world and it has several adverse effects such as anxiety, panic reactions and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidant, anti-oxidant status and cytokine levels in individuals with cannabis use disorder. Thirty-four patients with cannabis use disorder and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and cytokine levels were investigated in patients with cannabis use disorder and healthy controls. We found increased levels of total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in individuals with cannabis dependency compared to healthy people. When we compared total antioxidant status, IL-12, and interferon (IFN) γ levels, there were no differences in both groups. There was positive correlation between IL-6 and total oxidant status, oxidative stress index levels. The oxidative balance of individuals with cannabis use disorder was impaired and they had higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and indicates increased inflammation compared to healthy controls. Thus, these findings suggest that cannabis increased inflammation and impaired the oxidative balance.

  20. Urinary albumin and interleukin-8 levels are not good indicators of ongoing vesicoureteral reflux in children who have no active urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Badeli, Hamidreza; khoshnevis, Termeh; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Sadeghi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a risk factor for kidney scarring, hypertension and declining renal function. Standard diagnostic methods are invasive and can cause exposure to radiation and urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed to investigate urine albumin and interleukin-8 levels as markers of ongoing VUR and renal damage in children without UTIs. Random urine samples were collected from 51 children, including 16 children with VUR (group A), 17 children with resolved VUR (group B) and 18 normal children (group C). The diagnosis of VUR or resolved VUR was confirmed by voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) or direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC). All children had normal kidney function and had no evidence of UTI in the preceding three months. Random urine specimens were assayed for albumin (Alb), creatinine (Cr) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and mean values were compared by one way ANOVA. In groups A and B, the mean age at first UTI was 31.7 ± 2.4 and 27 ± 2.0 months respectively. In group A, the mean duration between VUR diagnosis and study entrance was 30 ± 9.1 months. In group B, the mean duration between VUR diagnosis and recovery was 19.9 ± 1.3 months. Overall, 76.4% of affected children had bilateral VUR and 41.2% had severe VUR. There were no significant differences in urinary Alb, IL-8, Alb/Cr and IL-8/Cr between the three groups. The current study does not support the hypothesis that microalbuminuria or urinary IL-8 are good indicators of ongoing VUR and renal injury in children.

  1. Overcoming Endocrine Resistance by Targeting ER/FoxA1/IL-8 Axis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    residual disease after 6-month neoadjuvant endocrine therapy 45 . Recent studies unveiled gain-of- function mutations in ESR1 , the gene encoding ER...described previously 61 . SYBR dye (Life Technologies) was used in real- time PCR and the target primer sequences are as follows: ESR1 forward...Breast Cancer Symposium (ed^(eds). Cancer Res (2013). 46. Li S, et al. Endocrine-therapy-resistant ESR1 variants revealed by genomic characterization of

  2. REDUCTION IN INSPIRATORY FLOW ATTENUATES IL-8 RELEASE AND MAPK ACTIVATION OF LUNG OVERSTRETCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung overstretch involves mechanical factors, including large tidal volumes (VT), which induce inflammatory responses. The current authors hypothesised that inspiratory flow contributes to ventilator-induced inflammation. Buffer-perfused rabbit lungs were ventilated for 2 h with ...

  3. MECHANISMS OF NANODIAMOND PARTICLE INDUCED IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanodiamond particles (NDP) prepared by detonation under confined conditions have a number of industrial and analytical applications. Previous in vitro studies have reported NDP to be biologically inert with negligible cytotoxicity, implying that they are potentially suitable for...

  4. Nanodiamond particles induce IL-8 expression through a transcript stabilization mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanodiamond particles (NDP) prepared by detonational processes have a number of industrial and analytical applications. Previous in vitro studies have reported NDP to be biologically inert with negligible cytotoxicity, implying that they are potentially suitable for biomedical ap...

  5. GSTM1 modulation of IL-8 expression in human epithelial cells exposed to ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the major air pollutant ozone can aggravate asthma and other lung diseases. Our recent study in humanvolunteers hasshown that the glutathione S-transferase Mu 1(GSTMI)-null genotype is associated with increased airway neutrophilic inflammation induced by inhaled ozone...

  6. Overcoming Endocrine Resistance by Targeting ER/FoxA1/IL 8 Axis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Approximately 75% of breast cancers express the hormone estrogen receptor α (ER). As a critical determinant in estrogen response and oncogenic...factor of estrogen receptor α (ER)–chromatin binding and function, yet its aberration in endocrine-resistant (Endo-R) breast cancer is unknown. Here, we...positive tumors. FOXA1 | estrogen receptor | breast cancer | transcriptional reprogramming | endocrine resistance About 75% of breast cancers express

  7. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Silveira, Rita de Cassia; Neto, Eurico Camargo; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2015-01-01

    Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet. To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants. Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP. 23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks) were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP. Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  8. [Clinical and prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA153, CEA and TPS levels in patients with primary breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zheng, Yu-hong; Lin, Ying-ying; Hu, Min-hua; Chen, Yan-song

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the clinical and prognostic values of preoperative serum CA153, CEA and TPS levels in patients with primary breast cancer. A total of 386 hospitalized patients with stage I ∼ IV breast cancer from Nov 1998 to Feb 2009 were followed up, and their clinicopathological data were analyzed retrospectively to determine the factors affecting their prognosis. First, preoperative serum CA153 expression level was significantly associated with the age of onset and tumor size (P < 0.05), the expression of serum CEA was correlated with tumor size (P < 0.05), and the expression of serum tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) was correlated with tumor size and lymph node metastases (P < 0.05). Second, the overall survival was significantly shorter among patients with elevated serum CA153, CEA or TPS, respectively (P < 0.05 for overall). Finally, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that estrogen receptor status (ER) and elevated preoperative values of CA 153 are independent prognostic factors for overall survival (P < 0.05), and CA 153 is a risk factor but estrogen receptor status is a protective factor for overall survival. Higher preoperative expression of serum CA153, CEA or TPS is closely correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. The prognosis is poorer in primary breast cancer patients with higher CA15-3 expression level, and pre-treatment CA153 expression level can be used as an independent prognostic parameter in patients with primarily breast cancer.

  9. Sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis is equal to levels during bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Marconi, C; Donders, G G G; Bellen, G; Brown, D R; Parada, C M G L; Silva, M G

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines and sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis (AV) in relation to normal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 682 consecutive non-pregnant women attending the gynecology service were assessed and 408 women were included. Vaginal rinsing samples were collected from 223 women with microscopic finding of BV (n=98), aerobic vaginitis (n=25) and normal flora (n=100). Samples were tested for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and sialidase activity. Compared to women with normal flora, vaginal levels of IL-1β were highly increased in both BV and AV (p<0.0001). Significantly higher vaginal IL-6 was detected in AV (p<0.0001) but not in BV, in relation to normal flora. Women with AV also presented increased IL-8 levels (p<0.001), while those with BV presented levels similar to normal flora. Sialidase was increased in BV and AV compared with the normal group (p<0.0001) but no difference in sialidase activity was observed between BV and AV. A more intense inflammatory host response occurs for AV than for BV when compared with normal flora. Furthermore, the increased sialidase activity in AV and BV indicates that both abnormal vaginal flora types can be harmful to the maintenance of a healthy vaginal environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical and Mucosal Immune Correlates of HIV-1 Semen Levels in Antiretroviral-Naive Men

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Angie K.; Huibner, Sanja; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Liu, Cindy; Contente, Tania; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.; Kovacs, Colin; Benko, Erika; Price, Lance; MacDonald, Kelly S.; Kaul, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. This study was done to characterize parameters associated with semen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load (VL) variability in HIV-infected, therapy-naive men. Methods. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 30 HIV-infected, therapy-naive men who have sex with men, and 13 participants were observed longitudinally for up to 1 year. Human immunodeficiency virus RNA, bacterial load by 16S RNA, herpesvirus (Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) shedding, and semen cytokines/chemokines were quantified, and semen T-cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry. Results. Semen HIV RNA was detected at 93% of visits, with >50% of men shedding high levels of virus (defined as >5000 copies/mL). In the baseline cross-sectional analysis, an increased semen HIV VL correlated with local CMV reactivation, the semen bacterial load, and semen inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-8. T cells in semen were more activated than blood, and there was an increased frequency of Th17 cells and γδ-T-cells. Subsequent prospective analysis demonstrated striking interindividual variability in HIV and CMV shedding patterns, and only semen IL-8 levels and the blood VL were independently associated with semen HIV levels. Conclusions. Several clinical and immune parameters were associated with increased HIV semen levels in antiretroviral therapy-naive men, with induction of local proinflammatory cytokines potentially acting as a common pathway. PMID:28534034

  11. Serum Cytokine Levels in Major Depressive Disorder and Its Role in Antidepressant Response.

    PubMed

    Myung, Woojae; Lim, Shinn-Won; Woo, Hye In; Park, Jin Hong; Shim, Sanghong; Lee, Soo-Youn; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines have been reported to have key roles in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, much less is known about cytokines in MDD and antidepressant treatment due to the diversity of cytokines and the heterogeneity of depression. We investigated the levels of cytokines in patients with MDD compared with healthy subjects and their associations with antidepressant response. We investigated the changes of several cytokines (eotaxin, sCD40L, IL-8, MCP-1alpha, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma and MIP-1alpha) by Luminex assay in 66 patients with MDD and 22 healthy controls. The antidepressant response was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. We found the levels of sCD40L (p=0.001), IL-8 (p=0.004) and MCP-1 (p=0.03) of healthy controls were significantly higher than those of depressive patients. However, the level of eotaxin and TNF-alpha were not associated with MDD. In addition, we found the level of MCP-1 was significantly changed after antidepressant treatment (p=0.01). These findings suggest the roles of cytokines in MDD are complex, and could vary according to the individual characteristics of each patient. Further studies regarding the relationship between cytokines and MDD will be required.

  12. Clinical associations of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative biomarkers and vitamin D levels in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Willis, R; Smikle, M; DeCeulaer, K; Romay-Penabad, Z; Papalardo, E; Jajoria, P; Harper, B; Murthy, V; Petri, M; Gonzalez, E B

    2017-12-01

    Background The abnormal biological activity of cytokines plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Several studies have highlighted the association of vitamin D and certain pro-inflammatory cytokines with disease activity in SLE. However, there are limited data on the association of vitamin D and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) with various proinflammatory biomarkers in these patients and their relative impact on clinical outcomes. Methods The serum levels of several aPL, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFNα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IP10, sCD40L, TNFα and VEGF were measured in 312 SLE patients from the Jamaican ( n = 45) and Hopkins ( n = 267) lupus cohorts using commercial Milliplex and ELISA assays. Oxidized LDL/β2glycoprotein antigenic complexes (oxLβ2Ag) and their associated antibodies were also measured in the Jamaican cohort. Healthy controls for oxidative marker and cytokine testing were used. Results Abnormally low vitamin D levels were present in 61.4% and 73.3% of Hopkins and Jamaican SLE patients, respectively. Median concentrations of IP10, TNFα, sCD40L and VEGF were elevated in both cohorts, oxLβ2Ag and IL-6 were elevated in the Jamaican cohort, and IFNα, IL-1β and IL-8 were the same or lower in both cohorts compared to controls. IP10 and VEGF were independent predictors of disease activity, aPL, IP10 and IL-6 were independent predictors of thrombosis and IL-8, and low vitamin D were independent predictors of pregnancy morbidity despite there being no association of vitamin D with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions Our results indicate that aPL-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production is likely a major mechanism of thrombus development in SLE patients. We provide presumptive evidence of the role IL-8 and hypovitaminosis D play in obstetric pathology in SLE but further studies are required to characterize the subtle

  13. The Relationship of CSF and Plasma Cytokine Levels in HIV Infected Patients with Neurocognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lin; Liu, An; Qiao, Luxin; Sheng, Bo; Xu, Meng; Li, Wei; Chen, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    Although HAD is now rare due to HAART, the milder forms of HAND persist in HIV-infected patients. HIV-induced systemic and localized inflammation is considered to be one of the mechanisms of HAND. The levels of cytokines in CSF were associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection. However, the changes of cytokines involved in cognition impairment in plasma have not been shown, and their relationships between CSF and plasma require to be addressed. We compared cytokine levels in paired CSF and plasma samples from HIV-infected individuals with or without neurocognitive impairment. Cytokine concentrations were measured by Luminex xMAP. In comparing the expression levels of cytokines in plasma and CSF, IFN-α2, IL-8, IP-10, and MCP-1 were significantly higher in CSF. Eotaxin was significantly higher in plasma, whereas G-CSF showed no difference between plasma and CSF. G-CSF (P = 0.0079), IL-8 (P = 0.0223), IP-10 (P = 0.0109), and MCP-1 (P = 0.0497) in CSF showed significant difference between HIV-CI and HIV-NC group, which may indicate their relationship to HIV associated neurocognitive impairment. In addition, G-CSF (P = 0.0191) and IP-10 (P = 0.0377) in plasma were significantly higher in HIV-CI than HIV-NC. The consistent changes of G-CSF and IP-10 in paired plasma and CSF samples might enhance their potential for predicting HAND. PMID:25821806

  14. Elevated basal intestinal mucosal cytokine levels in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Indaram, Anant VK; Nandi, Santa; Weissman, Sam; Lam, Sing; Bailey, Beverly; Blumstein, Meyer; Greenberg, Ronald; Bank, Simmy

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine levels of cytokines in colonic mucosa of asymptomatic first degree relatives of Crohn’s disease patients. METHODS: Cytokines (Interleukin (IL) 1-Beta, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were measured using ELISA in biopsy samples of normal looking colonic mucosa of first degree relatives of Crohn’s disease patients (n = 9) and fro m normal controls (n = 10) with no family history of Crohn’s disease. RESULTS: Asymptomatic first degree relatives of patients with Crohn’s disease had significantly higher levels of basal intestinal mucosal cytokines (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) than normal controls. Whether these increase d cytokine levels serve as phenotypic markers for a genetic predisposition to de veloping Crohn’s disease later on, or whether they indicate early (pre-cli nical) damage has yet to be further defined. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic first degree relatives of Crohn’s disease patients have higher levels of cytokines in their normal-looking intestinal mucosa compared to normal controls. This supports the hypothesis that increased cytokines may be a cause or an early event in the inflammatory cascade of Crohn’s disease and are not merely a result of the inflammatory process. PMID:11819521

  15. Low level light therapy modulates inflammatory mediators secreted by human annulus fibrosus cells during intervertebral disc degeneration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Min Ho; Shin, Jae Hee; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Yoo, Chang Min; Jo, Ga Eun; Kim, Joo Han; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) is one of the important causes of low back pain and is associated with inflammation induced by interaction between macrophages and the human annulus fibrosus (AF) cells. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely known to regulate inflammatory reaction. However, the effect of LLLT on macrophage-mediated inflammation in the AF cells has not been studied till date. The aim of this study is to mimic the inflammatory microenvironment and to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT at a range of wavelengths (405, 532 and 650 nm) on the AF treated with macrophage-like THP-1 cells conditioned medium (MCM) containing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and 8). We observed that AF cells exposed to MCM secrete significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. LLLT markedly inhibited secretion of IL-6 at 405 nm in a time-dependent manner. Level of IL-8 was significantly decreased at all wavelengths in a time-dependent manner. We showed that MCM can induce the inflammatory microenvironment in AF cells and LLLT selectively suppressed IL-6 and 8 levels. The results indicate that LLLT is a potential method of IVD treatment and provide insights into further investigation of its anti-inflammation effect on IVD. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Levels of cytokines and microRNAs in individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and ultrasonographic findings of gout: a bench-to-bedside approach.

    PubMed

    Estevez-Garcia, Irving O; Gallegos-Nava, Selma; Vera-Pérez, Erika; Silveira, Luis H; Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Vancini, Gonzalo; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha A; Gutierrez, Marwin; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez-Henriquez, Pedro; Castillo-Martínez, Diana; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis M

    2018-02-18

    To assess potential associations among serum cytokines and microRNA (miR) levels with ultrasound (US) findings suggestive of urate deposits in chronic asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout. All participants underwent musculoskeletal US and measurements of serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF, MCP-1, and ENA-78, as well as miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 levels. Thirty individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricemia, 31 normouricemic controls, and 30 gouty patients were included. The frequency of synovitis and double contour sign using US was similar between asymptomatic hyperuricemia (67% and 27%, respectively) and gouty participants (77% and 27%), and each had a higher frequency than controls (45% and 0%). Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were similar between patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (69.7±73.4 and 18.5±25.6 pg/ml, respectively) and gout (75.8±47.6 and 24.4±31.7 pg/ml), and higher than controls (28.2±17.6 and 7.4±6.0 pg/ml). A similar distribution was observed for miR-155 levels (0.22±0.18, 0.20±0.14, and 0.08±0.04, respectively). Associations between morphostructural abnormalities suggestive of urate deposits (regardless of clinical diagnosis) and serum markers were assessed. Subjects with urate deposits had higher IL-6 (257.2 versus 47.0 pg/mL; P=0.005), IL-8 (73.2 versus 12.0 pg/mL; P=0.026), and miR-155 (0.21 versus 0.16; P=0.015) levels than those without deposition findings. In asymptomatic individuals with chronic hyperuricemia, the presence of synovitis and double contour sign by US may represent a subclinical manifestation of monosodium urate crystals nucleation, capable of triggering inflammatory pathways (IL-6 and IL-8) and mechanisms of intercellular communication (miR-155) similar to what is observed in gout. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Released in the Vastus Lateralis Muscle of Patients with Fibromyalgia and Healthy Controls during Contractions of the Quadriceps Muscle – A Microdialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Löfgren, Monika; Bjersing, Jan; Kosek, Eva; Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is associated with central hyperexcitability, but it is suggested that peripheral input is important to maintain central hyperexcitability. The primary aim was to investigate the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the vastus lateralis muscle during repetitive dynamic contractions of the quadriceps muscle in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Secondarily, to investigate if the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were correlated with pain or fatigue during these repetitive dynamic contractions. Material and Methods 32 women with fibromyalgia and 32 healthy women (controls) participated in a 4 hour microdialysis session, to sample IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF from the most painful point of the vastus lateralis muscle before, during and after 20 minutes of repeated dynamic contractions. Pain (visual analogue scale; 0–100) and fatigue Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale; 6–20) were assessed before and during the entire microdialysis session. Results The repetitive dynamic contractions increased pain in the patients with fibromyalgia (P < .001) and induced fatigue in both groups (P < .001). Perceived fatigue was significantly higher among patients with fibromyalgia than controls (P < .001). The levels of IL-1β did not change during contractions in either group. The levels of TNF did not change during contractions in patients with fibromyalgia, but increased in controls (P < .001) and were significantly higher compared to patients with fibromyalgia (P = .033). The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 increased in both groups alike during and after contractions (P’s < .001). There were no correlations between pain or fatigue and cytokine levels after contractions. Conclusion There were no differences between patients with fibromyalgia and controls in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and no correlations between levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pain or fatigue. Thus, this study indicates that IL-1β, IL-6, IL

  18. Circulating blood levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 as potential diagnostic biomarkers in gastric cancer: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zauco, Norma; Torres, Javier; Gómez, Alejandro; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Muñoz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Medrano-Guzmán, Rafael; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2017-05-30

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection activates a signaling cascade that induces production of cytokines and chemokines involved in the chronic inflammatory response that drives carcinogenesis. We evaluated circulating cytokines and chemokines as potential diagnostic biomarkers for gastric cancer. We included 201 healthy controls and 162 patients with distal gastric cancer who underwent primary surgical resection between 2009 and 2012 in Mexico City. The clinical and pathological data of patients were recorded by questionnaire, and the cancer subtype was classified as intestinal or diffuse. Pathological staging of cancer was based on the tumor-node-metastasis staging system of the International Union Against Cancer. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and MCP-1 in serum were measured using multiplex analyte profiling technology and concentrations of IL-8, IFN-γ, and TGF-β in plasma were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were significantly higher and that of MCP-1 was lower in gastric cancer patients compared with controls. No differences in IL-8 or TNF-α levels were observed between gastric cancer and controls. IFN-γ and IL-10 were significantly higher in both intestinal and diffuse gastric cancer, whereas IL-1β and IL-6 were higher and TGF-β lower only in intestinal gastric cancer; MCP-1 was lower only in diffuse gastric cancer. IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in early (I/II) and late stage (III/IV) gastric cancer; IL-1β and IL-8 were higher and MCP-1 was lower only in late stage (IV) patients. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that for diagnosis of GC, IL-6 had high specificity (0.97) and low sensitivity (0.39), IL-10 had moderate specificity (0.82) and low sensitivity (0.48), and IL-1β and IFN-γ showed low specificity (0.43 and 0.53, respectively) and moderate

  19. Low serum IGF-1 and increased cytokine levels in tracheal aspirate samples are associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Cansu; Köksal, Nilgün; Özkan, Hilal; Dorum, Bayram Ali; Bağcı, Onur

    2017-01-01

    Yılmaz C, Köksal N, Özkan H, Dorum BA, Bağcı O. Low serum IGF-1 and increased cytokine levels in tracheal aspirate samples are associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 122-129. Despite developments in the perinatal and neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still the most frequently seen long-term complication in preterm infants. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the association between the development of BPD and serial measurements of IGF-1 levels and their relationship with levels of IGF-1 and cytokine in tracheal aspirate fluids. A total of 40 premature infants, born at a gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks, were enrolled in the study. On postnatal day-1, 3, 7, 21 and 28 serum IGF-1 levels and IGF-1 levels, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels in tracheal aspirate fluid samples of intubated cases were examined. Mean gestational age of 40 patients included in the study was 29.41 ± 2.23 weeks, and their mean birth weight was 1,256.85 ± 311.48 g. BPD was detected in 35% of cases. Mean gestational week and birth weight of the cases that developed BPD were 30 ± 3 weeks and 1,150 ± 295 g, respectively. Serum IGF-1 levels on postnatal day-1, 3, 7, 21 and 28 in cases who developed BPD were significantly lower when compared with those without BPD (p < 0.01). Levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in tracheal aspirate samples were significantly higher in cases with BPD compared to those without BPD (p < 0.05). IGF-1 levels in tracheal aspirate fluid samples did not differ significantly based on the presence of BPD (p > 0.05). Severity of BPD was associated with decreased serum IGF-1 levels and increased cytokine levels in tracheal aspirate samples.

  20. Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Arthroplasty Patients and Their Correlation With Inflammatory and Thrombotic Activation Processes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kyle; Banos, Andrew; Abro, Schuharazad; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Rees, Harold; Hopkinson, William

    2016-07-01

    An imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of joint diseases. The aim of this study is to provide additional insights into the relevance of MMP levels in arthroplasty patients in relation to inflammation and thrombosis. Deidentified plasma samples from 100 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty were collected preoperatively, on postoperative day 1, and on postoperative day 3. Tissue inhibitor of MMP 4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), pro-MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, and d-dimer were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. A biochip array was used to profile interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon gamma, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and endothelial growth factor (EGF) levels. The levels of MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, and TNF-α were elevated preoperatively in arthroplasty patients when compared to healthy individuals. The concentrations of MMP1 and MMP9 increased slightly in postsurgical samples. d-Dimer levels were elevated preoperatively, increased postoperatively, and started decreasing on postoperative day 3. Significant correlations between MMP9 with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and EGF were identified. Elevated preoperative MMP1, MMP9, and MMP13 concentrations suggest that they may play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. There is also evidence of increased coagulation activity and possible upregulation of several MMPs postsurgically. Correlation analysis indicates that MMP9 levels may potentially be related to inflammation and thrombosis in arthroplasty patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Cytokine production of the neutrophils and macrophages in time of phagocytosis under influence of infrared low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudik, Dmitry V.; Tikhomirova, Elena I.; Tuchina, Elena S.

    2006-08-01

    Influence of infrared low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on induction of synthesis of some cytokines such as interleykin-1 (Il-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleykin-8 (Il-8) and interleykin-4 (Il-4) by the neutrophils and macrophages in time of bacterial cells phagocytosis that was searched. As the object of analysis we used peritoneal macrophages from white mice and neutrophils from peripheral blood of healthy donors. We used the laser diod with spectrum maximum of 850 nm with doses 300, 900 and 1500 mJ (exposition -60, 180 and 300 s respectively; capacity - 5 mW). We carried out the Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay (ELISA) to determine cytokine content during phagocytosis after 3 h and 6 h. We found dynamics in production of the cytokines, which was different for the neutrophils and macrophages. We showed that the infrared LLLI has significant stimulating activity on the proinflammatory cytokines production by neutrophils and macrophages. Moreover we revealed dynamics changing in the Il-8 and Il-4 production.

  2. A cross-sectional assessment of biomarker levels around implants versus natural teeth in periodontal maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Recker, Erica N; Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo; Fischer, Carol L; Pagan-Rivera, Keyla; Brogden, Kim A; Dawson, Deborah V; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies point to the clinical utility of using peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) as a valuable diagnostic aid for monitoring peri-implant tissue health. The objectives of this study are to determine the levels of key biomarkers in PISF in periodontal maintenance participants and compare them with their corresponding levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained from the same participants. PISF and GCF were collected from an implant and a contralateral natural tooth after the clinical examination of 73 participants. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. The correlation of biomarker concentrations between GCF versus PISF, within GCF or PISF, and with several covariates (age, brushing frequency, days since professional cleaning, probing depth [PD], and plaque index) were also determined. Significantly higher levels of IL-17A (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.03) were noted in PISF when compared with their levels in GCF. Significant positive correlations were noted between the concentrations of cytokines in PISF versus their levels in GCF. Among the covariates, a significant positive correlation was noted between mean PDs around implants and levels of IL-1β (P <0.05) and IL-8 (P <0.05) in PISF. The results of this study point to the differential expression of specific biomarkers in GCF versus their levels in PISF in periodontal maintenance patients, which is critical information before establishing PISF as a diagnostic fluid to monitor peri-implant health.

  3. The levels of 12 cytokines and growth factors in tears: hyperthyreosis vs euthyreosis.

    PubMed

    Mandić, Jelena Juri; Kozmar, Ana; Kusačić-Kuna, Sanja; Jazbec, Anamarija; Mandić, Krešimir; Mrazovac, Danijela; Vukojević, Nenad

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous analyses of the contents and ratios of 12 cytokines and growth factors in single samples of human tears were performed, and the results were compared between a group of healthy subjects and a group of patients with Graves' hyperthyreosis (GH) without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). Determinations and concentration measurements of interleukins (IL-2, IL4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, and IL-1β) interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were performed with single tear samples from 21 patients with hyperthyreosis and 22 healthy subjects. The analyses were performed using a Randox microchip with an Evidence Biochip Array Analyzer. We found significant differences between the healthy donor group and the hyperthyreosis group in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, VEGF, IL-1α, and MCP-1. The concentration of IL-6 was considerably higher in the hyperthyreosis group, IL-10 was higher in the healthy donor group, and VEGF and MPC-1 were higher in the hyperthyreosis group. The IL-8 and IFN-γ levels were higher in the hyperthyreosis group. The ratios of all of the cytokines to anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly elevated in the hyperthyreosis group. There are clear differences in the levels of cytokines and growth factors in the tears of healthy subjects and patients with GH without TAO. Tear cytokine changes and related dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) could be an early sign of occult TAO in Graves' hyperthyreosis patients.

  4. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  5. Environmental Levels of para-Nonylphenol Are Able to Affect Cytokine Secretion in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Bechi, Nicoletta; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Jantra, Silke; Cencini, Marco; Galassi, Gianmichele; Serchi, Tommaso; Corsi, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Paulesu, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Background para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is a metabolite of alkylphenols widely used in the chemical industry and manufacturing. It accumulates in the environment, where it acts with estrogen-like activity. We previously showed that p-NP acts on human placenta by inducing trophoblast differentiation and apoptosis. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of p-NP on cytokine secretion in human placenta. Methods In vitro cultures of chorionic villous explants from human placenta in the first trimester of pregnancy were treated with p-NP (10−13, 10−11, and 10−9 M) in 0.1% ethanol as vehicle. Culture medium was collected after 24 hr and assayed by specific immunoassays for the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results p-NP modulated cytokine secretion by inducing the release of GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10, with a maximum effect at 10−11 M. It reduced the release of TNF-α at 10−13 M, whereas levels of IL-2 and IL-5 remained below the detection limit. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were 100–1,000 times higher than those of other cytokines, and they were not affected by p-NP. We observed significant differences from controls (ethanol alone) only for GM-CSF and IL-10. Conclusion An unbalanced cytokine network at the maternal–fetal interface may result in implantation failure, pregnancy loss, or other complications. The effects of extremely low doses of p-NP on the placental release of cytokines raise considerable concerns about maternal exposure to this endocrine disruptor during pregnancy. PMID:20194071

  6. RELEASE OF IL-8 AND IL-6 BY BEAS-2B CELLS FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO BIODIESEL PM EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Body: Biodiesel, an alkyl ester of plant oils that can be used in an unmodified diesel engine, is a renewable fuel alternative which show signs of becoming a commercially accepted part of our nation¿s energy infrastructure. Biodiesel exhaust has been physicochemically ch...

  7. Sulfur Mustard- and Phosgene- Increased IL-8 in Human Small Airway Cell Cultures: Implications for Medical Countermeasures Against Inhalation Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    TOXICITY Fred M. Cowan, William J . Smith, Ted S. Moran, Michelle M. Parris, Adetunji B. Williams and Alfred M. Sciuto U.S. Army Medical Research...toxicity in rodents (reviewed, 5) and some efficacy in the MEVM (personal communication, Dr. William J . Smith, USAMRICD, APG Md). Ibuprofen (62, 125...and inflammatory response in the toxicity of nerve and blister chemical warfare agents: implications for multi-threat medical countermeasures. J

  8. IL-8, TNF ALPHA, AND LACTOFERRIN IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOSTS WITH EXPERIMENTAL AND BRAZILIAN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS. (R829180)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Ambient particulate matter induces IL-8 expression through an alternative NF-kB mechanism in human airway epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been shown to increase rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine signaling events involved in the expression of the inflamma...

  10. Exposure to Mexicali PM10 Induces IL-8 Expression Through an Alternative NFKB Mechanism In Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown associations between exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) and increased rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the signaling events involved in the expression of inflammatory genes in cultured human ai...

  11. Exposure to Mexicali PM induces NFkb-Dependent IL-8 Transcriptional Activity in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have reported associations between exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) and increased rates of cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to PM of varying size fractions collected in urban (U) and se...

  12. *Assessing differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-l in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-l activation results in the upregulat...

  13. Assessment of complex water pollution with heavy metals and Pyrethroid pesticides on transcript levels of metallothionein and immune related genes.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Haneen A; Abdel-Razek, Mohamed A S; El Nahas, Abeer F; Mahmoud, Shawky

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of immunological function of an aquatic organism can be used as an indicator for evaluating the direct effect of exposure to pollutants. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of complex water pollution with special reference to Pyrethroid pesticides and heavy metals on mRNA transcript levels of Metallothionine and some immune related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromas Niloticus). Residues of six heavy metals and six Pyrethroid were assessed in water as well as fish tissues at three different sites of Lake Burullus, located at Northern Egypt. Variations of water physicochemical properties associated with different levels of heavy metals at the three different sections were recorded. Tissue residues of Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu, Ni exceed water levels in contrast to elevated water level of Pb. All assessed Pyrethroids are detected in fish tissue samples with higher concentration (3-42 folds) than that found in water samples especially Cypermethrin. Significant down-regulation of expression levels of metallothionein (MT) at the three sections of the lake was observed. The expression of immune related genes (IgM) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL.8 and IL.1) were affected. IgM and TNF were significantly down-regulated at eastern and western section of the lake; meanwhile the expression of IL8 is down regulated at the three sections of the lack. IL1 was significantly up-regulated at eastern and middle sections. We conclude that, variable gene expression of MT and immune-related genes at the three sections of the lack impose different response to complex water pollution in relation to variable aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pentraxin levels in noneosinophilic versus eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Tang, Kun; Wang, Meijia; Yang, Qun; Xu, Yongjian; Wang, Jianmiao; Zhao, Jianping; Xie, Jungang

    2018-05-13

    Innate immunity has been thought to be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Pentraxins, acting as soluble pattern recognition molecules, play an important role in humoral innate immunity. Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease of airways and can be classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic asthma. To investigate whether pentraxin levels differ in subjects with eosinophilic versus noneosinophilic asthma. Furthermore, to access the predictive performance of pentraxin levels for discriminating asthma inflammatory phenotypes. 80 asthmatic patients and 24 healthy control subjects underwent sputum induction at study inclusion. Differential leukocyte counts were performed on selected sputum. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and sputum SAP, PTX3, IL-8 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subjects with noneosinophilic asthma had significantly increased pentraxin levels compared with those with eosinophilic asthma and healthy controls, with median (interquartile range) plasma CRP levels of 0.86 (0.28-2.07), 0.26 (0.14-0.85), and 0.15 (0.09-0.45)mg/L (P < 0.001), respectively, plasma SAP levels of 33.69 (19.79-58.39), 19.76 (16.11-30.58), and 20.06 (15.68-31.11)mg/L (P = .003), respectively, and sputum PTX3 levels of 4.9 (1.35-18.72), 0.87 (0.30-2.07), and 1.08 (0.31-4.32)ng/mL (P < 0.001), respectively. Conversely, sputum SAP concentrations of eosinophilic asthmatics (median, 21.49ng/mL; IQR, 6.86-38.79ng/mL) were significantly higher than those of noneosinophilic patients (median, 8.15ng/mL; IQR, 2.82-18.01ng/mL) and healthy controls (median, 8.79ng/mL; IQR, 2.00-16.18ng/mL). Asthma patients with high plasma CRP (P = .004), SAP (P = .005), and sputum PTX3 levels (P < 0.001) also had significantly lower sputum eosinophil percentages. Sputum PTX3 levels had the best power (11.18-fold, P < 0.001) to predict noneosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma patients. Pentraxin levels differed significantly

  15. A Case of Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Head of the Pancrea.

    PubMed

    Nomizu; Katagata; Matsuoka; Suzuki; Yabuta; Watanabe; Yamaki; Saito; Tsuchiya; Abe

    1999-04-25

    A case of breast cancer that metastasized to the head of the pancreas 6 yearsand 8 months after mastectomy is reported. The pancreas head metastasis was associated with general fatigue and obstructive jaundice. The serum levels of CEA, CA15-3 and NCC-ST-439, tumor markers of breast cancer, were within normal limits, but CA15-3 was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the resected metastatic lesion, in a manner similar to lobular carcinoma of the breast.

  16. Microbiology and cytokine levels around healthy dental implants and teeth.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique; DeGiacomo, Marina; Villacres, Maria C; Rich, Sandra K

    2008-09-01

    Elicitation of the relationship of periodontopathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines to bone resorption and formation is significant to a growing body of research known as osteoimmunology. It is essential that clinically healthy peri-implant and periodontal sites are studied to contribute comparison data for investigations that are addressing diseased sites. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in clinically healthy peri-implant and periodontal sites, and to examine whether cytokine levels may be related to specific bacterial/viral pathogens. Eleven subjects (mean age 56.2 +/- 10) participated in the study. Subgingival microbial samples were cultured for periodontopathic bacteria. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction for Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and were tested for the quantification of Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-12p70 using flow cytometry (FACS). Findings for microbiota composition and cytokine levels were compared between implants and teeth (chi square, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney; p < or = .05). Both the frequency (%) and levels (%) of periodontopathic bacteria were higher around teeth than implants. The concentration (picogram per milliliter) of cytokines was more prominent around implants than teeth, reaching nearly twofold differences in some instances. Cytokine levels were higher when the sites analyzed were positive for any bacteria tested. HCMV was not detected. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was unrelated to heavy bacterial challenge. Nevertheless, when periodontopathic bacteria were detected by culture, cytokine levels were increased around both implants and teeth. Studies are needed to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines (especially IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) produced in spite of minimal bacterial accumulation.

  17. Lathe leveler

    SciTech Connect

    Lovelady, III, Michael W.J.

    A lathe leveler for centering a cutting tool in relation to a cylindrical work piece includes a first leveling arm having a first contact point disposed adjacent a distal end of the first leveling arm, a second leveling arm having a second contact point disposed adjacent a distal end of the second leveling arm, a leveling gage, and a leveling plate having a cutting tool receiving surface positioned parallel to a horizontal axis of the leveling gage and on a same plane as a midpoint of the first contact point and the second contact point. The leveling arms and levelingmore » plate are dimensioned and configured such that the cutting tool receiving surface is centered in relation to the work piece when the first and second contact points are in contact with one of the inner surface and outer surface of the cylindrical work piece and the leveling gage is centered.« less

  18. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  19. Cortisol level

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  20. High levels of interleukin-8, soluble CD4 and soluble CD8 in bullous pemphigoid blister fluid. The relationship between local cytokine production and lesional T-cell activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, C C; Wu, J; Wong, T T; Wang, L F; Chuan, M T

    2000-12-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an inflammatory subepidermal blistering disease associated with autoantibodies that recognize hemidesmosomal proteins. In addition to autoantibodies, the cell-mediated immune reaction is considered to play an important part in blister formation. Objectives To investigate some T-cell activation markers and inflammatory cytokines in the blister fluid and sera of patients with BP. We measured soluble CD4 (sCD4) and soluble CD8 (sCD8), which have been, respectively, associated with CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were also used to quantify the production of the leucocyte chemoattractant interleukin (IL) -8 and of the cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the blister fluid and sera of 11 patients with BP. The mean +/- SD level of sCD4 in patients' blisters (42.4 +/- 25.0 units mL-1) was significantly elevated (P < 0.005) compared with that in their sera (11.2 +/- 8.9) and that in the suction blisters of 10 healthy people (11.4 +/- 5.4; P < 0.005). Mean +/- SD IL-8 concentrations in BP blisters (4683.6 +/- 3878.1 pg mL-1) were much higher than those in their sera (17.1 +/- 18.9; P < 0.001), and were very significantly elevated (P < 0.005) in comparison with those in suction blisters of healthy persons (512 +/- 292). sCD4 levels in BP blisters were inversely related to IL-10 levels (P = 0. 03, r2 = 0.85), IL-8 levels were positively related to sCD8 levels (P = 0.01, r2 = 0.54), and IL-1beta levels were positively related to sCD8 concentrations (P < 0.005, r2 = 0.65). The correlations suggest that there is a delicately orchestrated network of cytokines and cell-mediated immunity operating in BP blisters.

  1. Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Im, Su Geun; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Won; Woo, Jong-Min

    2016-06-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-hour exposure to a forest environment on cytokine, anti-oxidant and stress levels among university students and to compare the results to those measured in urban environments. Forty-one subjects were recruited. For our crossover design, subjects were divided into two groups based on similar demographic characteristics. Group A remained in the urban environment and was asked to perform regular breathing for 2 h. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were examined. Subjects were moved to a small town in a rural area for an equal amount of time to exclude carryover effects, and then remained for another 2 h in a forest environment. The second set of blood samples was collected to assess the effect of exposure to the forest environment. Using the same method, Group B was first exposed to the forest environment, followed by exposure to the urban environment. Blood samples collected after the subjects were exposed to the forest environment showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and TNF-α compared to those in samples collected after urban environment exposure (10.76 vs. 9.21, t = 4.559, p < 0.001, and 0.97 vs. 0.87, t = 4.130, p < 0.001). The GPx concentration increased significantly after exposure to the forest environment (LnGPx = 5.09 vs. LnGPx = 5.21, t = -2.039, p < 0.05).

  2. Long-term treatment with budesonide/formoterol attenuates circulating CRP levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients of group D

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hua; Liao, Xi-Ning; Fan, Li-Li; Qu, Yue-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background The systemic inflammation is associated with clinical outcome and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. To investigate the effects of tiotropium (Tio) and/or budesonide/formoterol (Bud/Form) on systemic inflammation biomarkers in stable COPD patients of group D, a randomized, open-label clinical trial was conducted. Methods Eligible participants (n = 324) were randomized and received either Tio 18ug once daily (group I), Bud/Form 160/4.5ug twice daily (group II), Bud/Form 320/9ug twice daily (group III), or Tio 18ug once daily with Bud/Form 160/4.5ug twice daily (group IV) for 6 months. Systemic inflammation biomarkers were measured before randomization and during the treatment, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), serum amyloid A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), and white blood cell (WBC). Results After 6-month treatment, CRP levels in group II, group III and group IV changed by a median (interquartile range) of -1.25 (-3.29, 1.18) mg/L, -1.13 (-2.55, 0.77) mg/L, and -1.56 (-4.64, 0.22) mg/L respectively, all of which with statistical differences compared with group I. In addition, there were no treatment differences in terms of IL-8, SAA, TNF-α, Fib and WBC levels. Conclusions A long-term treatment with Bud/Form alone or together with Tio can attenuate circulating CRP levels in COPD patients of group D, compared with Tio alone. PMID:28832630

  3. Plasma uric acid levels correlate with inflammation and disease severity in Malian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K; van de Hoef, Diana L; Doumbia, Saibou; Konaté, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Traoré, Karim; Diakité, Seidina A S; Remaley, Alan T; Anderson, Jennifer M; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P; Long, Carole A; Diakité, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum elicits host inflammatory responses that cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. One proposed mechanism involves formation of immunostimulatory uric acid (UA) precipitates, which are released from sequestered schizonts into microvessels. Another involves hypoxanthine and xanthine, which accumulate in parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) and may be converted by plasma xanthine oxidase to UA at schizont rupture. These two forms of 'parasite-derived' UA stimulate immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines in vitro. We measured plasma levels of soluble UA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNFα, IP-10, IFNγ, GM-CSF, IL-1β) in 470 Malian children presenting with uncomplicated malaria (UM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) or cerebral malaria (CM). UA levels were elevated in children with NCSM (median 5.74 mg/dl, 1.21-fold increase, 95% CI 1.09-1.35, n = 23, p = 0.0007) and CM (median 5.69 mg/dl, 1.19-fold increase, 95% CI 0.97-1.41, n = 9, p = 0.0890) compared to those with UM (median 4.60 mg/dl, n = 438). In children with UM, parasite density and plasma creatinine levels correlated with UA levels. These UA levels correlated with the levels of seven cytokines [IL-6 (r = 0.259, p<0.00001), IL-10 (r = 0.242, p<0.00001), sTNFRII (r = 0.221, p<0.00001), MCP-1 (r = 0.220, p<0.00001), IL-8 (r = 0.147, p = 0.002), TNFα (r = 0.132, p = 0.006) and IP-10 (r = 0.120, p = 0.012)]. In 39 children, UA levels were 1.49-fold (95% CI 1.34-1.65; p<0.0001) higher during their malaria episode [geometric mean titer (GMT) 4.67 mg/dl] than when they were previously healthy and aparasitemic (GMT 3.14 mg/dl). Elevated UA levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria by activating immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines. While this study cannot identify the cause of elevated UA levels, their association with parasite density and creatinine levels suggest that parasite-derived UA

  4. Let's Start Leveling about Leveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasswell, Kath; Ford, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a revised way of thinking about reading levels, one that promotes a wider and more flexible view of teacher decision making about the use of leveled texts in classrooms. They share five key principles to consider when looking at the use of instruction that involves matching leveled materials with readers.…

  5. Cytokine and chemokine levels in tears from healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Carreño, Ester; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Tesón, Marisa; García-Vázquez, Carmen; Stern, Michael E; Whitcup, Scott M; Calonge, Margarita

    2010-11-01

    There is growing evidence for the existence of an 'immune tone' in normal tears. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of a large panel of cytokines and chemokines in tears obtained from healthy subjects. These levels can then serve as baseline values for comparison with patients suffering from ocular surface diseases. Nine healthy subjects participated in this study, and normal ocular surface health was documented by the results of a dry eye questionnaire, Schirmer strip wetting, and vital staining of the cornea. Four microliters of tears were collected from each eye and analysed separately with multiplex bead-based assays for the concentration of 30 cytokines and chemokines. Twenty-five cytokines/chemokines were detected. CCL11/Eotaxin1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-12p70, IL-15, CX3CL1/Fractalkine, TNF-α, epidermal growth factor, and CCL4/MIP-1β were present at 5-100 pg/ml. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7A, CXCL8/IL-8, and CCL2/MCP-1 were present at 100-400 pg/ml. IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor were present at more than 1000 pg/ml. Multiplex bead-based assays are convenient for cytokine/chemokine detection in tears. Fracktalkine has been detected in human healthy tears for the first time. The knowledge of cytokine/chemokine concentrations in tears from normal subjects is an important reference for further comparison with patients suffering from ocular surface diseases. Variability in their levels can reflect a phenomenon of potential importance for the understanding of the ocular surface cytokine pattern. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  6. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-03

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli.

  7. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  8. Density measurement of Demodex canis by qPCR and analysis of serum cytokine levels in dogs with different clinical forms of demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Naiani Domingos; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; França, Eduardo Luzía; França, Adenilda Cristina Honorio; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; Bortolini, Juliano; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2018-06-15

    To quantify (by qPCR) the density of Demodex canis mites in the skin of dogs with demodicosis and in healthy dogs, as well as measuring the serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumour necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α). Fifty-four dogs were divided into three groups: localized demodicosis (LD, n = 16), generalized demodicosis (GD, n = 22), and control group (CG, n = 16). All dogs were subjected to skin scraping, blood collection, and skin biopsy. DNA extraction was performed and the parasite density was established by qPCR. Serum cytokine concentrations were obtained by flow cytometry. The median number of mites in the skin of the GD (6.2 × 10 4 copies/μL) and LD dogs (1.2 × 10 4 copies/μL) was statistically higher than that in the CG dogs (8.7 × 10 2 copies/μL). Whereas there were no significant differences in median IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels among the study groups, there was a statistically higher IL-6 concentration in the LD dogs than in the healthy dogs. According to our results, qPCR is an effective method for measuring the density of D. canis in the canine integument. In addition, the activation of the acute-phase immune response in localized demodicosis can be induced by IL-6 activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leveling Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  10. Interleukin-8 in sepsis: relation to shock and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Hack, C E; Hart, M; van Schijndel, R J; Eerenberg, A J; Nuijens, J H; Thijs, L G; Aarden, L A

    1992-01-01

    Because of its neutrophil-activating properties, interleukin-8 (IL-8) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We measured circulating IL-8 levels in 47 patients with clinical sepsis. Levels on admission were elevated in 42 of the 47 patients (89%) and were comparable in patients with gram-positive or gram-negative infections. Patients with shock had significantly higher IL-8 levels than normotensive patients (P = 0.0014, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test), whereas no differences in IL-8 levels were found between patients with or without adult respiratory distress syndrome. Patients who died had higher IL-8 levels on admission than the patients who survived. The largest differences in IL-8 levels between survivors and nonsurvivors was found when only patients with positive cultures were considered (P = 0.0342). IL-8 levels appeared to correlate significantly with lactate levels and inversely with leukocyte and platelet numbers and mean arterial pressure. In addition, the IL-8 level in the sepsis patients was found to correlate significantly with levels of IL-6, elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin, and C3a. Serial observations revealed that in most patients IL-8 levels decreased, irrespective of the outcome. Thus, our results demonstrate that IL-8 levels are increased in most patients with sepsis and correlate with some important clinical, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. These findings suggest a role for IL-8 in the pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:1612748

  11. Molecular analysis of the inhibition of interleukin-8 production by dexamethasone in a human fibrosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Mukaida, N; Gussella, G L; Kasahara, T; Ko, Y; Zachariae, C O; Kawai, T; Matsushima, K

    1992-01-01

    In order to analyse the effects of glucocorticoids on interleukin-8 (IL-8) production more precisely, we examined the effects of dexamethasone on IL-8 production at the molecular level in a human fibrosarcoma cell line, 8387, which IL-1 induces to express IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and to secrete IL-8. Over a wide dose range, dexamethasone inhibited IL-8 production induced by IL-1 alpha stimulation. Northern blotting analysis showed that dexamethasone also inhibited the IL-8 mRNA accumulation in a similar dose-related manner. Nuclear run-off assay revealed that dexamethasone decreased the transcription of the IL-8 gene and the degree of inhibition of transcription correlated well with the inhibition of IL-8 production, suggesting that the action of glucocorticoids is mainly at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, transfection with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) expression vectors inserted with the 5'-deleted IL-8 gene demonstrated that the 5'-flanking region which contains the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) was mainly involved in the dexamethasone-induced repression of the IL-8 gene. These data suggest that the inhibition of the IL-8 gene transcription by glucocorticoids occurs through the interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor complex with GRE in the 5'-flanking region of the IL-8 gene. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1592440

  12. Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mRNA biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y-S L; Jordan, L; Chen, H-S; Kang, D; Oxford, L; Plemons, J; Parks, H; Rees, T

    2017-06-01

    More than 100 salivary constituents have been found to show levels significantly different in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from those found in healthy controls, and therefore have been suggested to be potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection. However, many of these potential OSCC salivary biomarkers are also involved in chronic inflammation, and whether the levels of these biomarkers could be affected by the presence of chronic periodontitis was not known. The objective of this pilot study was therefore to measure the levels of seven previously reported potential OSCC salivary mRNA biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis and compare them to levels found in patients with OSCC and healthy controls. The seven salivary mRNAs were interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, dual specificity phosphatase 1, H3 histone family 3A, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1, S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from a total of 105 human subjects from the following four study groups: OSCC; CPNS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, non-smokers); CPS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, smokers); and healthy controls. Levels of each mRNA in patient groups (OSCC or chronic periodontitis) relative to the healthy controls were determined by a pre-amplification reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach with nested gene-specific primers. Results were recorded and analyzed by the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System. Mean fold changes between each pair of patient vs. control groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni corrections. Only S100P showed significantly higher levels in patients with OSCC compared to both patients with CPNS (p = 0.003) and CPS (p = 0.007). The difference in S100P levels between patients with OSCC and healthy controls was also marginally significant (p = 0.009). There was no

  13. Baseline and postoperative levels of C-reactive protein and interleukins as inflammatory predictors of atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Sabashnikov, Anton; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Ryazanov, Mikhail; Tse, Gary; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Liu, Tong; Lotfaliani, Mohammadreza; Sedaghat, Meghdad; Baker, William L; Ghanei, Azam; Yavuz, Senol; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Izadpanah, Payman; Dehghan, Hamidreza; Testa, Luca; Nikfard, Maryam; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Mashhour, Ahmed; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Rezaeisadrabadi, Mohammad; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Zhigalov, Konstantin; Benedetto, Umberto; Aminolsharieh Najafi, Soroosh; Szczechowicz, Marcin; Roever, Leonardo; Meng, Lei; Gong, Mengqi; Deshmukh, Abhishek J; Palmerini, Tullio; Linde, Cecilia; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Stone, Gregg W; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Calkins, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a leading arrhythmia with high incidence and serious clinical implications after cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgery is associated with systemic inflammatory response including increase in cytokines and activation of endothelial and leukocyte responses. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukins (IL), with POAF following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), isolated valvular surgery, or a combination of these procedures. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies evaluating measured baseline (from one week before surgical procedures) and postoperative levels (until one week after surgical procedures) of inflammatory markers in patients with POAF. A compre-hensive search was performed in electronic medical databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) from their inception through May 2017 to identify relevant studies. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. A literature search of all major databases retrieved 1014 studies. After screening, 42 studies were analysed including a total of 8398 patients. Pooled analysis showed baseline levels of CRP (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.457 mg/L, p < 0.001), baseline levels of IL-6 (SMD 0.398 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of CRP (SMD 0.576 mg/L, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-6 (SMD 1.66 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-8 (SMD 0.839 pg/mL, p < 0.001), and postoperative levels of IL-10 (SMD 0.590 pg/mL, p < 0.001) to be relevant inflammatory parameters significantly associated with POAF. Perioperative inflammation is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of POAF. Therefore, perioperative assessment of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 can help clinicians in terms of predicting and monitoring for POAF.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Tear Film Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Contact Lens Users.

    PubMed

    Yüksel Elgin, Cansu; İskeleli, Güzin; Talaz, Serap; Akyol, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    To compare tear films levels of various inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic contact lens (CL) users. CL users of rigid gas-permeable CLs (RGPCL) (group 1) or silicone hydrogel CLs (SiHCL) (group 2) were compared with non-CL-using healthy subjects (group 3). Tear samples were collected from subjects in each group after ensuring that there were no complications secondary to CL wear in the CL-wearing participants. Tear-film levels of interleukins (ILs)-1β, -6, and -8; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (using the Luminex method); and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (using the ELISA method) were determined. Cytokine levels were compared among the three groups using analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) and Kruskall-Wallis tests. There were significant differences in concentrations of IL-1β, GM-CSF and LTB4 among the three groups (p = 0.002, p = 0.021 and p = 0.009, respectively), as shown by the Kruskall-Wallis test comparing all three groups for the three cytokines. There were no significant differences for IL-6 and IL-8 (p = 0.079 and 0.094, respectively) when all three groups were compared. There were substantial statistically significant differences between RGPCL users, SiHCL users and control subjects in levels of tear film cytokines. Although CL users were asymptomatic, changes in tear-film levels of several important inflammatory mediators revealed that a chronic inflammatory process occurs during CL wear.

  15. Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression Associates with Adult Cytokine Levels in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Vitaro, Frank; Szyf, Moshe; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7) and a control group from the same background (n = 25). Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7) = 3.48, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (T(26.9) = 3.76, P = 0.001), lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1) = 4.91, P = 0.00004) and IL-10 (T(29.8) = 2.84, P = 0.008) and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26) = 3.69, P = 0.001). The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects. Conclusions/Significance Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression. PMID:23922720

  16. Enhanced expression of IL-8 in normal human keratinocytes and human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT in vitro after stimulation with contact sensitizers, tolerogens and irritants.

    PubMed

    Mohamadzadeh, M; Müller, M; Hultsch, T; Enk, A; Saloga, J; Knop, J

    1994-12-01

    To investigate the interleukin-8 production of keratinocytes after stimulation in vitro we have used various agents: (i) contact sensitizer (2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, 3-n-pentadecylcatechol); (ii) tolerogen (5-methyl-3-n-pentadecylcatechol); (iii) irritant (sodium lauryl sulfate). Interleukin-8 gene expression was assessed by northern blot hybridization of the total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from subconfluent normal human keratinocyte cultures and the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT using a radiolabeled DNA probe specific for human interleukin-8. Interleukin-8 gene expression was markedly increased upon in vitro stimulation after 1-6 h with contact sensitizers, tolerogen and the irritant. In contrast, interleukin-8 production was not detectable in unstimulated normal human keratinocytes or the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. These results suggest that the induction and production of interleukin-8 is a response to nonspecific stimuli and may play a critical role in the early response to immunogenic or inflammatory signals in man.

  17. Induction by TNF-α of IL-6 and IL-8 in cystic fibrosis bronchial IB3-1 epithelial cells encapsulated in alginate microbeads.

    PubMed

    Borgatti, Monica; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Breveglieri, Giulia; Gambari, Roberto; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microencapsulation procedure for the entrapment and manipulation of IB3-1 cystic fibrosis cells. The applied method is based on generation of monodisperse droplets by a vibrational nozzle. Different experimental parameters were analyzed, including frequency and amplitude of vibration, polymer pumping rate and distance between the nozzle and the gelling bath. We have found that the microencapsulation procedure does not alter the viability of the encapsulated IB3-1 cells. The encapsulated IB3-1 cells were characterized in term of secretomic profile, analyzing the culture medium by Bio-Plex strategy. The experiments demonstrated that most of the analyzed proteins, were secreted both by the free and encapsulated cells, even if in a different extent. In order to determine the biotechnological applications of this procedure, we determined whether encapsulated IB3-1 cells could be induced to pro-inflammatory responses, after treatment with TNF-α. In this experimental set-up, encapsulated and free IB3-1 cells were treated with TNF-α, thereafter the culture media from both cell populations were collected. As expected, TNF-α induced a sharp increase in the secretion of interleukins, chemokines and growth factors. Of great interest was the evidence that induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 occurs also by encapsulated IB3-1 cells.

  18. Change in cytokine levels after administration of saikokaryuukotsuboreito or testosterone in patients with symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Jiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma cytokine levels after treatment with saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), which is a herbal medicine, or androgen replacement treatment (ART), for patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH)-related symptoms. Thirty-one patients over 40 years of age with LOH-related symptoms were included in this study. SKRBT was given orally three times daily to a total of 7.5 g/day for 15 eugonadal patients and ART was give to 16 hypogonadal patients by intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate at 125 mg each time every 2 weeks. Plasma levels of testosterone and 18 cytokines, as well as LOH-related symptoms scored according to the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, were compared before and more than 2 months after treatment. In the ART group, the total AMS score was decreased and testosterone was increased significantly after treatment. No cytokine variables were altered significantly after the treatment. In the SKRBT group, although the total AMS score was significantly decreased, testosterone did not change. From the evaluation of cytokines, a significant increase was found in interleukin (IL)- 8, IL-13, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. We conclude that SKRBT might improve LOH-related symptoms in eugonadal patients through the beneficial effect of cytokines, a mechanism that is quite different from ART.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor and protein level in pleural effusion for differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Da-Wei; Chang, Wei-An; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Yen, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Pleural effusion is associated with multiple benign and malignant conditions. Currently no biomarkers differentiate malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and benign pleural effusion (BPE) sensitively and specifically. The present study identified a novel combination of biomarkers in pleural effusion for differentiating MPE from BPE by enrolling 75 patients, 34 with BPE and 41 with MPE. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, protein, and total cell, neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the pleural effusion were measured. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon γ, transforming growth factor-β1, colony stimulating factor 2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected using cytometric bead arrays. Protein and VEGF levels differed significantly between patients with BPE and those with MPE. The optimal cutoff value of VEGF and protein was 214 pg/ml and 3.35 g/dl respectively, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve. A combination of VEGF >214 pg/ml and protein >3.35 g/dl in pleural effusion presented a sensitivity of 92.6% and an accuracy of 78.6% for MPE, but was not associated with a decreased survival rate. These results suggested that this novel combination strategy may provide useful biomarkers for predicting MPE and facilitating early diagnosis.

  20. Ultratrace level determination and quantitative analysis of kidney injury biomarkers in patient samples attained by zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Alabanza, Anginelle; Gonzalez, Lorelis E.; Wang, Weiwei; Reeves, W. Brian; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    Determining ultratrace amounts of protein biomarkers in patient samples in a straightforward and quantitative manner is extremely important for early disease diagnosis and treatment. Here, we successfully demonstrate the novel use of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) in the ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of two acute kidney injury (AKI)-related protein biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, directly from patient samples. We first validate the ZnO NRs-based IL-8 results via comparison with those obtained from using a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent method in samples from 38 individuals. We further assess the full detection capability of the ZnO NRs-based technique by quantifying TNF-α, whose levels in human urine are often below the detection limits of conventional methods. Using the ZnO NR platforms, we determine the TNF-α concentrations of all 46 patient samples tested, down to the fg per mL level. Subsequently, we screen for TNF-α levels in approximately 50 additional samples collected from different patient groups in order to demonstrate a potential use of the ZnO NRs-based assay in assessing cytokine levels useful for further clinical monitoring. Our research efforts demonstrate that ZnO NRs can be straightforwardly employed in the rapid, ultrasensitive, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of multiple AKI-related biomarkers directly in patient urine samples, providing an unparalleled detection capability beyond those of conventional analysis methods. Additional key advantages of the ZnO NRs-based approach include a fast detection speed, low-volume assay condition, multiplexing ability, and easy automation/integration capability to existing fluorescence instrumentation. Therefore, we anticipate that our ZnO NRs-based detection method will be highly beneficial for overcoming the frequent challenges in early biomarker development and treatment assessment, pertaining to the facile and ultrasensitive quantification

  1. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of interleukin-8 gene in Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Zhang, Hanhua; Yang, Keng; Jiang, Shigui

    2009-05-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), the first known chemokine, is a CXC chemokine, which is cable of attracting neutrophils and inducing them to release lysozomal enzymes, triggering the respiratory burst. In the present study, the cDNA of an IL-8 was cloned from Japanese sea perch Lateolabrax japonicus (designated LjIL-8) by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of LjIL-8 consisted of 803 nucleotides with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 300 bp encoding a polypeptide of 99 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.6 kDa. The high identity of LjIL-8 with IL-8 in other organisms indicated that LjIL-8 should be a new member of the IL-8 family. By fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR, mRNA transcript of LjIL-8 was detectable in all the examined tissues with higher level in spleen and head-kidney. The temporal expression of LjIL-8 mRNA in the spleen was up-regulated by lipopolyssacharide (LPS) stimulation and reached the maximum level at 6 h post-stimulation, and then dropped back to the original level gradually. These results indicated that LjIL-8 was a constitutive and inducible acute-phase protein that perhaps involved in the immune defense of L. japonicus.

  2. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in relation to circulating levels of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Stefan; Lind, Lars; Söderberg, Stefan; Zilmer, Mihkel; Hulthe, Johannes; Ingelsson, Erik

    2013-07-01

    Previous epidemiological studies together with animal studies have suggested an association between adiponectin and oxidative stress and inflammation, but community-based studies are lacking. Our objective was to investigate the relative importance of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, representing different pathways in relation to adiponectin. In a cross-sectional sample of 929 70-year-old individuals (50% women) of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study, relations between serum adiponectin and oxidative stress [conjugated dienes (CD), homocysteine, total antioxidant capacity, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), OxLDL antibodies, baseline CD of LDL, glutathione (GSH), total glutathione (TGSH), glutathione disulfide], circulation interleukins (IL-6, IL-8), other cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor], cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin), and systemic inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count] in separate models were investigated. In age- and sex-adjusted, as well as multivariable-adjusted models, adiponectin was significantly and positively associated with GSH, log TGSH, whereas an inverse association was observed for CD and log EGF. An inverse association between adiponectin and MCP-1, log E-selectin, and log CRP was significant in age- and sex-adjusted models, but not in multivariable-adjusted models. Our results imply that higher levels of adiponectin are associated with a more beneficial oxidative stress profile, with higher levels of principal anti-oxidative GSH and total GSH together with lower levels of lipid peroxidation, possibly through shared pathways. Further studies are needed to investigate whether changes in the oxidative stress profile may be a mechanism linking adiponectin with type

  3. Cytokine profiling reveals decreased serum levels of CCL2 in active ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rey, Amanda; Molins, Blanca; Llorenç, Victor; Pelegrín, Laura; Mesquida, Marina; Adán, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of ocular disease. Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is probably the principal cause of tissue destruction in immunodeficiency states, hypersensitivity and inflammatory responses may underlie severe disease in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. The purpose of the current investigation was to study the cytokine profiles in serum from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis and to compare them with those obtained from healthy control subjects. Using a multiplex assay, we determined the serum concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in patients with inactive ocular toxoplasmosis (n=48), active ocular toxoplasmosis (n=21), and an age-matched and sex-matched healthy control group (n=25). In a subgroup of 17 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive. Cytokine profiles were correlated with disease activity, severity and visual outcome. Levels of CCL2 were significantly reduced in patients with active ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the control group (564 ± 42 pg/mL vs 455 ± 35 pg/mL, p<0.05). Moreover, CCL2 levels were significantly lower during active ocular toxoplasmosis compared to inactive disease (569 ± 32 pg/mL vs 433 ± 32 pg/mL, p<0.01). GCSF and TNFα were elevated in patients with toxoplasmosis with poor visual outcome. No significant correlations were found with specific cytokine profiles and disease severity. Decreased serum levels of CCL2 may be associated with active ocular toxoplasmosis and could therefore serve as a marker of disease activity.

  4. Circulating Levels of Hormones, Lipids, and Immune Mediators in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A 3-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Mladen; Bendelja, Krešo; Savić Mlakar, Ana; Vojvoda, Valerija; Aberle, Neda; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rabatić, Sabina; Sabioncello, Ante; Vidović, Anđelko

    2015-01-01

    A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e., correlations over time. Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32), all men, were assessed at two time points separated by 3 months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, and C-reactive protein were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines [interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α], adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1), chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α), sCD40L, nerve growth factor, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or non-parametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa] were also calculated. Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S [F(1,75) = 8.14, p = 0.006)] and lower levels of prolactin [F(1,75) = 5.40, p = 0.023] were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC = 0.50; prolactin, ICC = 0.79). Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after 3 months was observed in the PTSD group (t = 6.87, p < 0.001). IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t = 4.37, p < 0.001) but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC = −0.08). Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after 3 months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High

  5. Plasma Uric Acid Levels Correlate with Inflammation and Disease Severity in Malian Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; van de Hoef, Diana L.; Doumbia, Saibou; Konaté, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Traoré, Karim; Diakité, Seidina A. S.; Remaley, Alan T.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P.; Long, Carole A.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum elicits host inflammatory responses that cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. One proposed mechanism involves formation of immunostimulatory uric acid (UA) precipitates, which are released from sequestered schizonts into microvessels. Another involves hypoxanthine and xanthine, which accumulate in parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) and may be converted by plasma xanthine oxidase to UA at schizont rupture. These two forms of ‘parasite-derived’ UA stimulate immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Methods and Findings We measured plasma levels of soluble UA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNFα, IP-10, IFNγ, GM-CSF, IL-1β) in 470 Malian children presenting with uncomplicated malaria (UM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) or cerebral malaria (CM). UA levels were elevated in children with NCSM (median 5.74 mg/dl, 1.21-fold increase, 95% CI 1.09–1.35, n = 23, p = 0.0007) and CM (median 5.69 mg/dl, 1.19-fold increase, 95% CI 0.97–1.41, n = 9, p = 0.0890) compared to those with UM (median 4.60 mg/dl, n = 438). In children with UM, parasite density and plasma creatinine levels correlated with UA levels. These UA levels correlated with the levels of seven cytokines [IL-6 (r = 0.259, p<0.00001), IL-10 (r = 0.242, p<0.00001), sTNFRII (r = 0.221, p<0.00001), MCP-1 (r = 0.220, p<0.00001), IL-8 (r = 0.147, p = 0.002), TNFα (r = 0.132, p = 0.006) and IP-10 (r = 0.120, p = 0.012)]. In 39 children, UA levels were 1.49-fold (95% CI 1.34–1.65; p<0.0001) higher during their malaria episode [geometric mean titer (GMT) 4.67 mg/dl] than when they were previously healthy and aparasitemic (GMT 3.14 mg/dl). Conclusions Elevated UA levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria by activating immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines. While this study cannot identify the cause of

  6. Expression of lnterleukin-8 Correlates with Angiogenesis, Tumorigenicity, and Metastasis of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Implanted Orthotopically in Nude Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin Kim; Uehara, Hisanori; Karashima, Takashi; Mccarty, Marya; Shih, Nancy; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We determined whether the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human prostate cancer cells correlates with induction of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and production of metastasis. Low and high IL-8-producing clones were isolated from the heterogeneous PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line. The secretion of IL-8 protein correlated with transcriptional activity and levels of IL-8 mRNA. All PC-3 cells expressed both IL-8 receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. The low and high IL-8-producing clones were injected into the prostate of nude mice. Titration studies indicated that PC-3 cells expressing high levels of IL-8 were highly tumorigenic, producing rapidly growing, highly vascularized prostate tumors with and a 100% incidence of lymph node metastasis. Low IL-8-expressing PC-3 cells were less tumorigenic, producing slower growing and less vascularized primary tumors and a significantly lower incidence of metastasis. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis of the tumors for expression of genes that regulate angiogenesis and metastasis showed that the expression level of IL-8, matrix metalloproteinases, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and E-cadherin corresponded with microvascular density and biological behavior of the prostate cancers in nude mice. Collectively, the data show that the expression level of IL-8 in human prostate cancer cells is associated with angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. PMID:11326314

  7. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels.

    PubMed

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Dwi Astuti, Eny; Sulistyawati, Rini; Santosa, Djoko; Susandarini, Ratna; Nurrochmad, Arief; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n -hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL). We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).

  8. Minor changes in serum levels of cytokines after removal of amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Lars; Brokstad, Karl A; Moen, Ketil; Jonsson, Roland

    2012-06-01

    Dental amalgam restorations release mercury and silver which is absorbed and distributed in the body. Animal studies have shown that both elements may interfere with the host by activation of the immune system in genetically susceptible strains at exposure levels relevant to those from dental amalgam restorations. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of no change over time in concentrations of a number of immune mediators in serum after removal of all dental amalgam restorations in patients with health complaints attributed to their amalgam restorations and compare with a healthy reference group. Twenty patients previously examined at a specialty unit for health complaints attributed to dental materials were included in a clinical trial and had all amalgam restorations replaced with other dental restorative materials. Serum samples were collected before amalgam removal and 3 and 12 months after the removal was finished. Twenty blood donors matched for age and gender were used as comparison group. A fluorescent bead-based (Luminex) immunoassay kit was used to measure cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in serum. At baseline, the patient group had slightly higher values for GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-2R, IFN-alpha, IL-7, and IL-12p40/p70 compared with the reference group. After amalgam removal a decrease towards the median value of the reference group was found for GM-CSF, IL-8, and IL-7. In conclusion, removal of all dental amalgam restorations and replacement with other dental restorative materials was associated with decreased concentrations of Th1-type proinflammatory markers in serum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Making a Laser Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a laser level. This laser level can be made using a typical 4' (or shorter) bubble level and a small laser point. The laser unit is detachable, so the bubble level can also be used in the conventional way. However, the laser level works better than a simple bubble level. Making this inexpensive device is an…

  10. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allbright, Bruce; Holup, John

    This guide lists the competencies expected to be developed in four levels of the marketing education curriculum in Idaho: the career sustaining level, the specialist level, the supervisory level, and the entrepreneurial level. For the career sustaining and specialist levels, 15 competencies are listed: define and apply the role of marketing in the…

  11. Elevated serum levels of IL-2R, IL-1RA, and CXCL9 are associated with a poor prognosis in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Muhammad A.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Ziesmer, Steven C.; Slager, Susan L.; Habermann, Thomas; Macon, William R.; Link, Brian K.; Syrbu, Sergei; Witzig, Thomas; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Press, Oliver; LeBlanc, Michael; Cerhan, James R.; Novak, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Serum cytokines and chemokines may reflect tumor biology and host response in follicular lymphoma (FL). To determine whether the addition of these biological factors may further refine prognostication, 30 cytokines and chemokines were measured in pretreatment serum specimens from newly diagnosed FL patients (n = 209) and from 400 matched controls. Cytokine levels were correlated with clinical outcome in patients who were observed or received single agent rituximab, or those who received chemotherapy. Correlations with outcome in chemotherapy treated patients were further examined in a separate cohort of 183 South West Oncology Group (SWOG) patients and all patients were then included in a meta-analysis. Six cytokines were associated with outcome in the Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) after adjusting for the FL international prognostic index. In patients who were observed or treated with rituximab alone, increased serum IL-12 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) (P = .005 and .02) were associated with a shorter event-free survival. In patients receiving chemotherapy, hepatocyte growth factor, IL-8, IL-1RA, and CXCL9 (P = .015, .048, .004, and .0005) predicted a shorter EFS. When the MER chemotherapy treated patients and SWOG patients were combined in a meta-analysis, IL-2R, IL-1RA, and CXCL9 (P = .013, .042, and .0012) were associated with a poor EFS. PMID:25422100

  12. Involvement of interleukin-8 in dialysis-related arthritis.

    PubMed

    Takayama, F; Miyazaki, T; Aoyama, I; Tsukushi, S; Sato, M; Yamazaki, C; Shimokata, K; Niwa, T

    1998-04-01

    To elucidate the role of interleukin (IL)-8, a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, in dialysis-related arthritis (DRA) of patients on long-term hemodialysis, the concentration of IL-8 was measured in the synovial fluids of DRA patients with acute arthralgia and joint swelling, and was compared with those in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients with osteoarthritis (OA). We noted a marked elevation of IL-8 in the joint fluids of patients with DRA and RA as compared with OA. Furthermore, to determine the role of IL-8 in synovitis, we examined the in vivo effect of intra-articular injection of human recombinant IL-8 on leukocyte infiltration into the joint space of rabbits. A single injection of IL-8 to the joints of rabbits induced rapid infiltration of neutrophils into the joint space and synovial tissues, which reached a maximum in four hours. The oral administration of indometacin farnesil (a prodrug that is converted to indomethacin after intestinal absorption) before the injection of IL-8 alleviated the infiltration of neutrophils. When human synovial cells were incubated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, the expression of IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 production in the cultured synovial cells were increased. The TNF-alpha-stimulated expression of IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 production in the cultured synovial cells were markedly inhibited by dexamethasone. In conclusion, IL-8 levels were markedly elevated in the joint fluids of patients with DRA. Interleukin-8 released from synovial cells may be an important factor to induce acute inflammation in DRA. Dexamethasone and indomethacin may be effective for DRA by inhibiting the production and chemotactic actions of IL-8, respectively.

  13. Impact of chorioamnionitis on exhaled nitric oxide and endotracheal aspirate levels of nitrites-nitrates and interleukin-8 in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Salvia-Roiges, Maria Dolors; Rodriguez-Miguélez, J Manuel; Miracle-Echegoyen, Xavier; Botet-Mussons, Francesc; Marín-Soria, J Luís; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    To assess the influence of maternal chorioamnionitis on early exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and levels of nitrites-nitrates and interleukin (IL)-8 in endotracheal aspirate fluid in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates. Cross-sectional study. PATIENT-SUBJECT SELECTION: Between September 2007 and August 2009, 54 mechanically ventilated preterm neonates were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of maternal chorioamnionitis, and those without chorioamnionitis (controls) were further stratified into two subgroups by birth weight < or ≥ 2,000 g. The ventilator used was a Babylog 8000. The NO level assessed was the plateau value given by the software of the Sievers NOA apparatus. Collection of endotracheal aspirate fluid samples was performed coinciding with routine aspirations and using the dry technique. The two groups of control neonates showed statistically significant differences in exhaled NO expressed as nl/min and normalized exhaled NO expressed as either nl/min or nl/min/kg, so they are not homogeneous and cannot be used in clinical practice. Serum C-reactive protein and endotracheal aspirate levels of nitrites-nitrates were significantly higher in the chorioamnionitis group than in controls (3.6 vs. 1.07 µmol/L; P = 0.035). Nitrites-nitrates levels were positively correlated with exhaled NO in ppb (ρ = 0.367; P = 0.006). Minute exhaled endogenous NO was significantly higher in the chorioamnionitis group (0.48 vs. 0.27 nl/min/kg; P = 0.021). In mechanically ventilated preterm infants weighing <2,000 g, maternal chorioamnionitis was associated with an increase of early exhaled NO (nl/min/kg) and serum levels of C-reactive protein and levels of nitrites-nitrates in endotracheal aspirate fluid. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. IBS-like Symptoms in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in Deep Remission Are Associated with Increased Levels of Serum Cytokines and Poor Psychological Well-being.

    PubMed

    Jonefjäll, Börje; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus; Strid, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms (GI) compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission. The causes of these symptoms remain to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate prevalence and factors associated with IBS-like symptoms in patients with UC in deep remission. We included 298 patients with UC and used Mayo score, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal calprotectin to define deep remission versus active disease. Presence of IBS-like symptoms according to the Rome III criteria, severity of GI, extraintestinal and psychological symptoms, stress levels, and quality of life were measured with validated questionnaires. Serum cytokines and high-sensitive C-reactive peptide were determined. The criteria for deep remission was fulfilled by 132 patients (44%) and 24 of these fulfilled the Rome III criteria for IBS (18%). Patients with UC in deep remission with IBS-like symptoms had comparable levels of GI symptoms, non-GI somatic symptoms, and quality of life as patients with active UC. The patients with UC in deep remission with IBS-like symptoms had similar levels of fecal calprotectin as patients in deep remission without IBS-like symptoms (18 versus 31 μg/g, P = 0.11), but higher levels of serum cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-13, IL-10 and IL-8, P < 0.05) and higher levels of anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P = 0.02) and perceived stress (P = 0.03). IBS-like symptoms in patients with UC in deep remission are common, but not as prevalent as previously reported. Poor psychological well-being and increased serum cytokine levels, but not colonic low-grade inflammation, were associated with IBS-like symptoms.

  15. Drinking Levels Defined

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary ... of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL. This typically occurs ...

  16. Brain region and epilepsy-associated differences in inflammatory mediator levels in medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kenneth I; Elisevich, Kost V

    2016-10-13

    Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays. Brain mediator levels were compared between regions and between epileptic and nonepileptic cases, showing a number of regional and possible epilepsy-associated differences. Eotaxin, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-12 p70, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 levels were highest in the hippocampus, the presumptive site of epileptogenesis. Surprisingly, IL-1β and IL-1α were lowest in the hippocampus, compared to cortical regions. In the temporal cortex, IL-1β, IL-8, and MIP-1α levels were highest, compared to the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. The most pronounced epilepsy-associated differences were decreased levels of eotaxin, IL-1β, C-reactive protein, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and increased IL-12 p70 levels. Caution must be used in interpreting these results, however, because nonepileptic subjects were emergent neurosurgical cases, not a control group. Correlation analyses of each mediator in each brain region yielded valuable insights into the regulation of these mediator levels in the brain. Over 70 % of the associations identified were between different mediators in a single brain region, providing support for local control of mediator levels. Correlations of

  17. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Karin B.; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7–10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20–25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS. PMID:26907493

  18. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Karin B; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20-25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS.

  19. Exposure to medium and high ambient levels of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hofer; Donde, Aneesh; Frelinger, Jessica; Dalton, Sarah; Ching, Wendy; Power, Karron; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, the specific biological mechanisms mediating ozone-associated cardiovascular effects are unknown. To determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of ozone causes changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease including heart rate variability (HRV), systemic inflammation, and coagulability, 26 subjects were exposed to 0, 100, and 200 ppb ozone in random order for 4 h with intermittent exercise. HRV was measured and blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 h), immediately after (4 h), and 20 h after (24 h) each exposure. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 20 h after exposure. Regression modeling was used to examine dose-response trends between the endpoints and ozone exposure. Inhalation of ozone induced dose-dependent adverse changes in the frequency domains of HRV across exposures consistent with increased sympathetic tone [increase of (parameter estimate ± SE) 0.4 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 in low- to high-frequency domain HRV ratio per 100 ppb increase in ozone at 4 h and 24 h, respectively (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01)] and a dose-dependent increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) across exposures at 24 h [increase of 0.61 ± 0.24 mg/l in CRP per 100 ppb increase in ozone (P = 0.01)]. Changes in HRV and CRP did not correlate with ozone-induced local lung inflammatory responses (BAL granulocytes, IL-6, or IL-8), but changes in HRV and CRP were associated with each other after adjustment for age and ozone level. Inhalation of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects that may contribute to the cardiovascular mortality associated with short-term exposure. PMID:25862833

  20. Readability versus Leveling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Shows some similarities and differences between readability formulas and leveling procedures and reports some current large-scale uses of readability formulas. Presents a dictionary definition of readability and leveling, and a history and background of readability and leveling. Discusses what goes into determining readability and leveling scores.…

  1. Serum cytokine levels related to exposure to volatile organic compounds and PM2.5 in dwellings and workplaces in French farmers - a mechanism to explain nonsmoking COPD.

    PubMed

    Audi, Christelle; Baïz, Nour; Maesano, Cara N; Ramousse, Ollivier; Reboulleau, Damien; Magnan, Antoine; Caillaud, Denis; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Although French farmers smoke less on average than individuals from the general population, they suffer more from COPD. Exposure to biological and chemical air pollutants in the farm may be the cause of these higher COPD rates. This study investigates the role of bio-contaminants, including the relationship of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and fine particulate matter (of diameter of 2.5 µm [PM 2.5 ]) objectively measured in the farm settings (dwellings and workplaces) to serum cytokines involved in COPD, in a sample of 72 farmers from 50 farms in the Auvergne region, France. Mean concentrations of VOCs were highest inside the home, while levels of PM 2.5 were highest in workplaces (stables and granaries). After adjusting for confounders, high exposure to PM 2.5 was significantly associated with a decreased level of serum cytokines (among others, IL13: β: -0.94, CI: -1.5 to -0.2, P -value =0.004; IL8: β: -0.82, CI: -1.4 to -0.2, P -value =0.005) and high exposure to VOCs according to a VOC global score with a decreased IL13 level (β: -0.5, CI: -0.9 to -0.1, P -value =0.01). Moreover, respiratory symptoms and diseases, including COPD, were associated with a decreased level of serum cytokines significantly in the case of IL5. An alteration of immune response balance in terms of cytokine levels in relation to indoor chemical air pollution exposure may contribute to respiratory health impairment in farmers.

  2. The rise of soluble TWEAK levels in severely obese subjects after bariatric surgery may affect adipocyte-cytokine production induced by TNFα.

    PubMed

    Maymó-Masip, Elsa; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Garcia España, Antonio; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Tinahones, Francisco Jóse; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Garrifo-Sanchez, Lourdes; Rodriguez, Maria del Mar; Vendrell, Joan; Chacón, Matilde R

    2013-08-01

    Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is generated by the intracellular proteolytic cleavage of full-length membrane-bound TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (mTWEAK). sTWEAK levels are reduced in diseases with an inflammatory component. Additionally, sTWEAK hampers TNFα activity in human cells. The objectives of the study were as follows: 1) to determine circulating sTWEAK in severe obesity and after bariatric surgery; 2) to study m/sTWEAK and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) protein expression in sc adipose tissue (SAT) of severely obese subjects, in SAT stromal vascular fraction (SVF), and isolated adipocytes and in human monocyte-derived macrophages; and 3) to explore, on human adipocytes, the sTWEAK effect on TNFα proinflammatory activity. sTWEAK levels were measured in cohort 1: severely obese subjects (n = 23) and a control group (n = 35); and in cohort 2: (n = 23) severely obese subjects before and after surgery. The m/sTWEAK and Fn14 expressions were determined in SAT biopsies, SVF, and isolated adipocytes from severely obese and control subjects and in human monocyte-derived macrophages. In human primary cultured adipocytes, sTWEAK pretreated and TNFα challenged, IL-6, IL-8, and adiponectin protein and gene expressions were determined and nuclear factor-κ B and MAPK signaling analyzed. sTWEAK levels were reduced in severely obese subjects. After surgery, sTWEAK levels rose in 69% of patients. mTWEAK protein expression was increased in SAT and SVF of severely obese subjects, whereas Fn14 was up-regulated in isolated adipocytes. M2 human monocyte-derived macrophages overexpress mTWEAK. In human adipocytes, sTWEAK down-regulates TNFα cytokine production by hampering TNFα intracellular signaling events. The decrease of sTWEAK in severely obese patients may favor the proinflammatory activity elicited by TNFα.

  3. MISR Level 3 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-04

    ... nm), approximated from visible bands. Derived from a linear combination of MISR bands found in the Level 2 LAND, DHR field. Weiss et ... Level 2 ALBEDO, AlbedoRestrictive field. Local Albedo Local albedo, for 4 MISR spectral bands + broadband ...

  4. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  5. Therapeutic drug levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003430.htm Therapeutic drug levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Therapeutic drug levels are lab tests to look for the presence ...

  6. CERES Product Level Details

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-02-28

    ... CERES Product Level Details   Level 1B:  Data products are processed to sensor units. The BDS product contains CERES ... position and velocity, and all raw engineering and status data from the instrument. Level 2:  Data products are derived ... between average global net TOA flux imbalance and ocean heat storage). ...

  7. Levels in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    Leveled reading, in which students select "just right" books based on their assessed reading level, has become a significant part of elementary reading instruction. However, libraries remain places where students can select books to read outside their reading levels. Based on observations of 1st-grade students, the author describes how…

  8. Measurement of four tumor marker antigens in the sera of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cheli, C D; Morris, D L; Neaman, I E; Dai, J; Allard, W J; Yeung, K K

    1999-01-01

    We sought to determine the maternal serum levels of four tumor-associated antigens during the three trimesters of pregnancy in healthy women. CEA, CA 228, CA 15-3, and Her2/neu oncogene product p105 assay values were determined for 90 healthy pregnant women during the three trimesters of pregnancy at five participating evaluation sites. Results were compared to means and cut-off values determined for healthy nonpregnant women. Differences in assay values in the 1st and 3rd trimester were analyzed for statistical significance (Student's t-test). CEA, CA 228 and CA 15-3 assay values in general were found to be within the normal range. CA 15-3 and Her2/neu p105 serum assay values were above the cut-off (3.3% and 8.2%, respectively) and were significantly elevated in the 3rd trimester as compared to the 1st trimester of pregnancy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). CEA and CA 228 may be of potential value in monitoring pregnant women with malignant disease. Normal elevations in 3rd trimester serum Her2/neu p105 and CA 15-3 assay values should be considered when monitoring a pregnant patient with malignant disease.

  9. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  10. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  11. Liquid level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

  12. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.; Boro, Carl O.; Farris, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  13. Cytokine and neuropeptide levels are associated with pain relief in patients with chronically painful total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Knutson, Keith L

    2017-01-14

    There are few studies with an assessment of the levels of cytokines or neuropeptides as correlates of pain and pain relief in patients with painful joint diseases. Our objective was to assess whether improvements from baseline to 2-months in serum cytokine, chemokine and substance P levels were associated with clinically meaningful pain relief at 2-months post-injection in patients with painful total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Using data from randomized trial of 60 TKAs, we assessed the association of change in cytokine/chemokine/Substance P levels with primary study outcome, clinically important improvement in Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale at 2-months post-injection using Student's t-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient (non-parametric). Patients were categorized as pain responders (20-point reduction or more on 0-100 WOMAC pain) vs. pain non-responders. Sensitivity analysis used 0-10 daytime pain numeric rating scale (NRS) instead of WOMAC pain subscale. In a pilot study, compared to non-responders (n = 23) on WOMAC pain scale at 2-months, pain responders (n = 12) had significantly greater increase in serum levels of IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, eotaxin, interferon gamma and TNF-α from baseline to 2-months post-injection (p < 0.05 for all). Change in several cytokine/chemokine and substance P levels from pre-injection to 2-month follow-up correlated significantly with change in WOMAC pain with correlation coefficients ranging -0.37 to -0.51: IL-2, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-16, IL-12p, GCSF, IFN gamma, IP-10, MCP, MIP1b, TNF-α and VEGF (n = 35). Sensitivity analysis showed that substance P decreased significantly more from baseline to 2-months in the pain responders (0.54 ± 0.53; n = 10) than in the pain non-responders (0.48 ± 1.18; n = 9; p = 0.023) and that this change in serum substance P correlated significantly with change in daytime NRS pain, correlation coefficient was 0.53 (p = 0

  14. Theater Level Distribution Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-19

    The United States Military’s theater level distribution management system is analyzed for adequacy and efficiency through a review of the current...considered. In order to maximize efficiency within the distribution management system it is important that more specific doctrine governing theater level

  15. Learning across Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this year's Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 2013 conference--"To see the world 'and' a grain of sand: Learning across levels of space, time and scale"--targets a provocative challenge for CSCL, namely that the interactions of collaborative learning be understood, supported and analysed at multiple levels. As the…

  16. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  17. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  18. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  19. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  20. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina; Casciari, Joseph; Rogers, Andrea; Taylor, Paul

    2012-09-11

    An inflammatory component is present in the microenvironment of most neoplastic tissues. Inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival in many types of cancer.Vitamin C has been suggested as having both a preventative and therapeutic role in a number of pathologies when administered at much higher-than-recommended dietary allowance levels.Since in vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways by millimolar concentrations of vitamin C, we decided to analyze the effects of high dose IVC therapy in suppression of inflammation in cancer patients. 45 patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, skin cancer and B-cell lymphoma were treated at the Riordan Clinic by high doses of vitamin C (7.5 g -50 g) after standard treatments by conventional methods.CRP and tumor markers were measured in serum or heparin-plasma as a routine analysis. In addition, serum samples were collected before and after the IVCs for the cytokine kit tests. According to our data positive response to treatment, which was demonstrated by measurements of C- reactive protein, was found in 75% of patients and progression of the inflammation in 25% of patients. IVC treatments on all aggressive stage cancer patients showed the poor response of treatment.There was correlation between tumor markers (PSA, CEA, CA27.29 and CA15-3) and changes in the levels of C-reactive protein.Our test of the effect of IVC on pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated that inflammation cytokines IL-1α, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, chemokine eotaxin and CRP were reduced significantly after treatments. The high dose intravenous ascorbic acid therapy affects C-reactive protein levels and pro-inflammation cytokines in cancer patients. In our study, we found that modulation of inflammation by IVC correlated with decreases in tumor marker levels.In summary, our data support the hypothesis that

  1. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An inflammatory component is present in the microenvironment of most neoplastic tissues. Inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival in many types of cancer. Vitamin C has been suggested as having both a preventative and therapeutic role in a number of pathologies when administered at much higher-than-recommended dietary allowance levels. Since in vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways by millimolar concentrations of vitamin C, we decided to analyze the effects of high dose IVC therapy in suppression of inflammation in cancer patients. Methods 45 patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, skin cancer and B-cell lymphoma were treated at the Riordan Clinic by high doses of vitamin C (7.5 g -50 g) after standard treatments by conventional methods. CRP and tumor markers were measured in serum or heparin-plasma as a routine analysis. In addition, serum samples were collected before and after the IVCs for the cytokine kit tests. Results According to our data positive response to treatment, which was demonstrated by measurements of C- reactive protein, was found in 75% of patients and progression of the inflammation in 25% of patients. IVC treatments on all aggressive stage cancer patients showed the poor response of treatment. There was correlation between tumor markers (PSA, CEA, CA27.29 and CA15-3) and changes in the levels of C-reactive protein. Our test of the effect of IVC on pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated that inflammation cytokines IL-1α, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, chemokine eotaxin and CRP were reduced significantly after treatments. Conclusions The high dose intravenous ascorbic acid therapy affects C-reactive protein levels and pro-inflammation cytokines in cancer patients. In our study, we found that modulation of inflammation by IVC correlated with decreases in tumor marker levels. In

  2. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  3. Increased serum miR-300 level serves as a potential biomarker of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by targeting IκBα.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Dai, Hong; Yang, Shengqing; Liu, Zhijun; Yi Chen, Qian

    2017-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are reported to play key roles in various disease models. In this study, the functional role of miR-300 in the regulation of lung injury was explored to assess the feasibility of serum miR-300 as a potential biomarker for lung injury. Firstly, the expression of miR-300 was studied in the serum of 50 lung injury patients and 50 healthy controls. And the expression of miR-300 was also explored in the serum and lung tissues of mouse models. To further explore the possible mechanism in which miR-300 may contribute to lung injury, the target genes of miR-300 were predicted by TargetScan and validated using dual luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, the expression of inflammation factors was studied after transfection of miR-300 mimics and inhibitors into A549 cells. Here, we first identified that the level of miR-300 was significantly upregulated in the blood samples of acute lung injury patients compared with healthy control. Meanwhile, miR-300 was also found to be enhanced in the blood samples and lung tissues of LPS-induced mouse models. Further study showed that miR-300 significantly suppressed the expression of IκBα and luciferase reporter assay showed that IκBα was a target gene of miR-300. More importantly, the levels of inflammatory factors, such as TNFα, COX-2, iNOS, IL-6 and IL8, were significantly upregulated accompanied by overexpression of miR-300 in A549 cells. In summary, enhanced miR-300 expression in the peripheral blood contributed to the lung injury mainly by inhibiting the expression of IκBα.

  4. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low potassium level include: Medicines, such as diuretics (water pills), certain antibiotics Diarrhea or vomiting Using ... potassium through a vein (IV). If you need diuretics, your provider may: Switch you to a form ...

  5. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  6. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  7. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... for nerves, muscles, and other body tissues to work properly. When the amount of sodium in fluids outside cells drops below normal, water moves into the cells to balance the levels. This causes the cells to swell ...

  9. Technology Readiness Level Guidebook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-09-01

    This guidebook provides the necessary information for conducting a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Assessment. TRL Assessments are a tool for determining the maturity of technologies and identifying next steps in the research process. This guidebook...

  10. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  11. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  12. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL Home Page introduces risk assessors to Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goals PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculations for the assessment of human Health.

  13. Changing Sea Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  14. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-14

    with expected changes due to climate change. (tropicals and extra-tropicals) Ivan provided some good information on work being done on tropical...Pattiaratchi, C., Jensen, J., 2013. Estimating extreme water level probabilities: a comparison of the direct methods and recommendations for best practise ...sites: site-by-site analyses. Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory , Internal Document, No. 65, 229pp. Dixon, M.J., Tawn, J.A. (1995) Extreme sea-levels

  15. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  16. Serum cytokine levels related to exposure to volatile organic compounds and PM2.5 in dwellings and workplaces in French farmers – a mechanism to explain nonsmoking COPD

    PubMed Central

    Audi, Christelle; Baïz, Nour; Maesano, Cara N; Ramousse, Ollivier; Reboulleau, Damien; Magnan, Antoine; Caillaud, Denis; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Although French farmers smoke less on average than individuals from the general population, they suffer more from COPD. Exposure to biological and chemical air pollutants in the farm may be the cause of these higher COPD rates. This study investigates the role of bio-contaminants, including the relationship of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and fine particulate matter (of diameter of 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) objectively measured in the farm settings (dwellings and workplaces) to serum cytokines involved in COPD, in a sample of 72 farmers from 50 farms in the Auvergne region, France. Mean concentrations of VOCs were highest inside the home, while levels of PM2.5 were highest in workplaces (stables and granaries). After adjusting for confounders, high exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with a decreased level of serum cytokines (among others, IL13: β: −0.94, CI: −1.5 to −0.2, P-value =0.004; IL8: β: −0.82, CI: −1.4 to −0.2, P-value =0.005) and high exposure to VOCs according to a VOC global score with a decreased IL13 level (β: −0.5, CI: −0.9 to −0.1, P-value =0.01). Moreover, respiratory symptoms and diseases, including COPD, were associated with a decreased level of serum cytokines significantly in the case of IL5. An alteration of immune response balance in terms of cytokine levels in relation to indoor chemical air pollution exposure may contribute to respiratory health impairment in farmers. PMID:28503065

  17. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  18. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  19. Liquid-level detector

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  20. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  1. Middle Level Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child…

  2. School Sound Level Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California has conducted on-site sound surveys of 36 different schools to determine the degree of noise, and thus disturbance, within the learning environment. This report provides the methodology and results of the survey, including descriptive charts and graphs illustrating typical desirable and undesirable sound levels. Results are presented…

  3. Levels of Valence

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  4. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  5. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, symptoms of low magnesium may develop. Common causes of low magnesium include: Alcohol use Burns that affect a large area of ...

  6. Ecological Soil Screening Level

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Eco-SSL derivation process is used to derive a set of risk-based ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for many of the soil contaminants that are frequently of ecological concern for plants and animals at hazardous waste sites.

  7. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  8. Assessment without Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Sarah; Davies, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is primarily a matter of judgement rather than measurement, yet for too long the nation has been pretending that pupils' attainment and measurement can be measured in increasingly fine detail (one APS "point" being one sixth of an original National Curriculum level). The lack of validity and reliability of this approach…

  9. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  10. Targeted Delivery of Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells Overexpressing Interleukin-8 Receptors Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinyan; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Zhao, Xiangmin; Creighton, Judy; Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Hage, Fadi G.; Oparil, Suzanne; Xing, Daisy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-8 (IL8) receptors IL8RA and IL8RB (ILRA/B) on neutrophil membranes bind to IL8 with high affinity and play a critical role in neutrophil recruitment to sites of injury and/or inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of rat pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (ECs) overexpressing IL8RA/B can accelerate the adhesion of ECs to the injured lung and inhibit monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary inflammation, arterial thickening and hypertension, and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. Approach and Results The treatment groups included 10-wk-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats that received s.c. injection of phosphate-buffered-saline (Vehicle); a single injection of MCT (MCT alone, 60 mg/kg, s.c.); MCT followed by i.v. transfusion of ECs transduced with the empty adenoviral vector (Null-EC); and MCT followed by i.v. transfusion of ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B (IL8RA/B-EC, 1.5×106 cells/rat). Two days or 4 wks after MCT treatment, eNOS, iNOS, CINC-2β (IL8 equivalent in rat) and MCP-1 expression; neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into pulmonary arterioles, and arteriolar and alveolar morphology were measured by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine protein levels were measured by Multiplexed rat specific magnetic beads based sandwich immunoassay in total lung homogenates. Transfusion of IL8RA/B-ECs significantly reduced MCT-induced neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-8, MCP-1, iNOS, CINC and MIP-2) expression in lungs and pulmonary arterioles and alveoli, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary arteriole and RV hypertrophy and remodeling. Conclusion These provocative findings suggest that targeted delivery of ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B is effective in repairing the injured pulmonary vasculature. PMID:24790141

  11. Floor Plans Level 15 Load Platform, Level 17 Lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Level 15 Load Platform, Level 17 Lower Platform, Level 22 and Upper Platform, and Level 27 - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Superiorization with level control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegielski, Andrzej; Al-Musallam, Fadhel

    2017-04-01

    The convex feasibility problem is to find a common point of a finite family of closed convex subsets. In many applications one requires something more, namely finding a common point of closed convex subsets which minimizes a continuous convex function. The latter requirement leads to an application of the superiorization methodology which is actually settled between methods for convex feasibility problem and the convex constrained minimization. Inspired by the superiorization idea we introduce a method which sequentially applies a long-step algorithm for a sequence of convex feasibility problems; the method employs quasi-nonexpansive operators as well as subgradient projections with level control and does not require evaluation of the metric projection. We replace a perturbation of the iterations (applied in the superiorization methodology) by a perturbation of the current level in minimizing the objective function. We consider the method in the Euclidean space in order to guarantee the strong convergence, although the method is well defined in a Hilbert space.

  13. WHO at country level.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A

    1998-03-07

    WHO's activities at country level have earned the organisation both criticism and praise. The organisation's technical publications are esteemed as authoritative guidelines for disease control. Successful disease-control programmes and contributions to health research have heightened WHO's reputation. The organisation has also provided the focus for evolution of important ideas, such as primary health care and the relevance of equity and other ethical issues. But WHO has been criticised for not adapting rapidly and logically to changes in the health field. With increasing national capacity in the more advanced developing countries, and with the involvement of new participants in the health sphere, the organisation needs to reassess its role at country level. My recommendation is that WHO improves its analytical capacity so that its programmes take into consideration the health needs of the country, its national capacity, and the contributions from other external agencies.

  14. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  15. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  16. Level up Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  17. Convulxin, a C-type lectin-like protein, inhibits HCASMCs functions via WAD-motif/integrin-αv interaction and NF-κB-independent gene suppression of GRO and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2017-03-15

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern. A Trp-Ala-Asp (WAD)-containing octapeptide, MTWADAEK, was thereafter synthesized and analyzed in functional assays. In the case of specific integrin antagonists as positive controls, the anti-angiogenic effects of CVX on HCASMCs were investigated by series of functional analyses. CVX showed to exhibit multiple inhibitory activities toward HCASMCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion with a dose- and integrin αvβ3-dependent fashion. However, the WAD-octapeptide exerting a minor potency could also work as an active peptidomimetic. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated both the intact CVX and synthetic peptide can specifically interact with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and CVX was shown to have a down-regulatory effect on the gene expression of CXC-chemokines, such as growth-related oncogene and interleukin-8. According to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation assay and Western blotting analysis, the NF-κB activation was not involved in the signaling events of CVX-induced gene expression. In conclusion, CVX may act as a disintegrin-like protein via the interactions of WAD-motif in CVX-β with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and it also is a gene suppressor with the ability to diminish the expression of two CXC-chemokines in a NF-κB-independent manner. Indeed, more extensive investigations are needed and might create a new avenue for the development of a novel angiostatic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A pilot microdialysis study in brain tumor patients to assess changes in intracerebral cytokine levels after craniotomy and in response to treatment with a targeted anti-cancer agent.

    PubMed

    Portnow, Jana; Badie, Behnam; Liu, Xueli; Frankel, Paul; Mi, Shu; Chen, Mike; Synold, Timothy W

    2014-05-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis enables continuous measurement of changes in brain biochemistry. In this study intracerebral microdialysis was used to assess changes in cytokine levels after tumor resection and in response to treatment with temsirolimus. Brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy participated in this non-therapeutic study. A 100 kDa molecular weight cut-off microdialysis catheter was placed in peritumoral tissue at the time of resection. Cohort 1 underwent craniotomy only. Cohort 2 received a 200 mg dose of intravenous temsirolimus 48 h after surgery. Dialysate samples were collected continuously for 96 h and analyzed for the presence of 30 cytokines. Serial blood samples were collected to measure systemic cytokine levels. Dialysate samples were obtained from six patients in cohort 1 and 4 in cohort 2. Seventeen cytokines could be recovered in dialysate samples from at least 8 of 10 patients. Concentrations of interleukins and chemokines were markedly elevated in peritumoral tissue, and most declined over time, with IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1β, IL-6, IL-12p40/p70, MIP1α, IFN-α, G-CSF, IL-2R, and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly (p < 0.05) decreasing over 96 h following surgery. No qualitative changes in intracerebral or serum cytokine concentrations were detected after temsirolimus administration. This is the first intracerebral microdialysis study to evaluate the time course of changes in macromolecule levels in the peritumoral microenvironment after a debulking craniotomy. Initial elevations of peritumoral interleukins and chemokines most likely reflected an inflammatory response to both tumor and surgical trauma. These findings have implications for development of cellular therapies that are administered intracranially at the time of surgery.

  19. High Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Reproductive Tract of Women with BV and Engaging in Intravaginal Douching: A Cross-Sectional Study of Participants in the Women Interagency HIV Study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Brown, Megan R; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Roach, Margaret; Fichorova, Raina N; Jones, Deborah L; Pahwa, Savita; Fischl, Margaret A

    2017-04-01

    High levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract suggest mucosal vulnerability and increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. Intravaginal douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women in the United States, and both douching and BV are linked to HIV and STI acquisition. This study evaluates inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract to increase understanding of the effects of both BV and intravaginal douching to the vaginal mucosa. A cross-sectional study of participants in the Miami WIHS investigated 72 reproductive age women (45 HIV + and 27 high-risk HIV - ) who completed intravaginal douching questionnaires and underwent collection of vaginal swabs and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs). BV was assessed using the Nugent score. Inflammatory cytokines in the CVLs (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], interferon [IFN]α2, chemokine C ligand 5 (CCL5), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor [SLPI]) were measured. Fourteen (19%) women reported intravaginal douching; 24 (33%) had BV. BV, intravaginal douching, and HIV were associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines. After controlling for demographic and risk factors and HIV status, women who had BV and douched had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than those without BV and who did not douche, or who only had BV or only douched. These findings suggest that BV and douching are associated with greater mucosal inflammation and may facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission. Although longitudinal studies are needed to determine temporal associations and causality, interventions to decrease rates of intravaginal douching and BV could significantly decrease women's risks of acquiring STIs and HIV and limit the spread of HIV.

  20. Endothelin-1 increases expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and production of interlukin-8 in hunan pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Cai, Ying; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qing-Hua; Li, Yun; Zhou, Rui; Fang, Xiang

    2008-03-01

    Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inflammatory cytokines play important roles in inflammatory processes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) might be also involved in the pathophysilogical processes in COPD. In the present study, we determined whether ET-1 could regulate the expression of COX-2 and alter the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Induced sputum samples were collected from 13 stable COPD patients and 14 healthy subjects. The COX-2 protein, ET-1, PGE(2) and IL-8 in these sputum samples were analyzed. A549 cells were incubated with ET-1 in the presence or absence of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. The expression of COX-2 protein in the cell and the amounts of PGE(2) and IL-8 in the medium were measured. The levels of COX-2 protein, ET-1, PGE(2) and IL-8 were significantly increased in induced sputum from COPD patients when compared to healthy subjects. ET-1 increased the expression of COX-2 protein, as well as the production of PGE(2) in A549 cells. Increased production of PGE(2) was inhibited by celecoxib. ET-1 also increased the production of IL-8. Interestingly, ET-1-induced production of IL-8 was also inhibited by celecoxib. These findings indicate that ET-1 plays important roles in regulating COX-2 expression and production of IL-8 in A549 cells. ET-1 mediated production of IL-8 is likely through a COX-2-dependent mechanism.

  1. Controlling nuclear RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Manfred; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2018-05-10

    RNA turnover is an integral part of cellular RNA homeostasis and gene expression regulation. Whereas the cytoplasmic control of protein-coding mRNA is often the focus of study, we discuss here the less appreciated role of nuclear RNA decay systems in controlling RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-derived transcripts. Historically, nuclear RNA degradation was found to be essential for the functionalization of transcripts through their proper maturation. Later, it was discovered to also be an important caretaker of nuclear hygiene by removing aberrant and unwanted transcripts. Recent years have now seen a set of new protein complexes handling a variety of new substrates, revealing functions beyond RNA processing and the decay of non-functional transcripts. This includes an active contribution of nuclear RNA metabolism to the overall cellular control of RNA levels, with mechanistic implications during cellular transitions.

  2. System level electrochemical principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  3. Switch wear leveling

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  4. High Level Mandatory Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    standards against which they are  measured.  Definition High Level Mandatory Requirements (HLMRs) describe a set of capabilities which a project  under ...capability gap (which may already be extant, which may be developing  due to a changing  strategic  environment or which may be the result of the impending...prospective project. They  are cri