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Sample records for ca3 hippocampal slices

  1. Synchronization of GABAergic interneuronal network in CA3 subfield of neonatal rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Khazipov, R; Leinekugel, X; Khalilov, I; Gaiarsa, J L; Ben-Ari, Y

    1997-02-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the generation of GDPs in CA3 pyramidal cells, the interneurons fire bursts of spikes, on average 4.5 +/- 1.4 spikes per burst (cell-attached mode). There bursts were induced by periodical large inward currents (interneuronal GDPs) recorded in whole-cell mode. 3. Interneuronal GDPs revealed typical features of polysynaptic neuronal network-driven events: they were blocked by TTX and by high divalent cation medium and they could be evoked in an all-or-none manner by electrical stimulation in different regions of the hippocampus. The network elements required for the generation of GDPs are present in local CA3 circuits since spontaneous GDPs were present in the isolated CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slice. 4. Interneuronal GDPs were mediated by GABAA and glutamate receptors, since: (i) their reversal potential strongly depended on [Cl-]i; (ii) at the reversal potential of GABAA postsynaptic currents an inward component of GDPs was composed of events with the same kinetics as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated EPSCs; and (iii) once GABAA receptors were blocked intracellularly by dialysis with F(-)-MgATP-free solution, the remaining component of interneuronal GDPs reversed near 0 mV and rectified at membrane potentials more negative than -20 mV, suggesting an important contribution of NMDA receptors in addition to AMPA receptors. 5. In cell-attached recordings from interneurons, electrical stimulation in the stratum radiatum evoked a burst of spikes that corresponded to evoked GDPs. Pharmacological study of this response revealed that excitation of SR-CA3 interneurons during

  2. Synchronization of GABAergic interneuronal network in CA3 subfield of neonatal rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Khazipov, R; Leinekugel, X; Khalilov, I; Gaiarsa, J L; Ben-Ari, Y

    1997-01-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the generation of GDPs in CA3 pyramidal cells, the interneurons fire bursts of spikes, on average 4.5 +/- 1.4 spikes per burst (cell-attached mode). There bursts were induced by periodical large inward currents (interneuronal GDPs) recorded in whole-cell mode. 3. Interneuronal GDPs revealed typical features of polysynaptic neuronal network-driven events: they were blocked by TTX and by high divalent cation medium and they could be evoked in an all-or-none manner by electrical stimulation in different regions of the hippocampus. The network elements required for the generation of GDPs are present in local CA3 circuits since spontaneous GDPs were present in the isolated CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slice. 4. Interneuronal GDPs were mediated by GABAA and glutamate receptors, since: (i) their reversal potential strongly depended on [Cl-]i; (ii) at the reversal potential of GABAA postsynaptic currents an inward component of GDPs was composed of events with the same kinetics as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated EPSCs; and (iii) once GABAA receptors were blocked intracellularly by dialysis with F(-)-MgATP-free solution, the remaining component of interneuronal GDPs reversed near 0 mV and rectified at membrane potentials more negative than -20 mV, suggesting an important contribution of NMDA receptors in addition to AMPA receptors. 5. In cell-attached recordings from interneurons, electrical stimulation in the stratum radiatum evoked a burst of spikes that corresponded to evoked GDPs. Pharmacological study of this response revealed that excitation of SR-CA3 interneurons during

  3. In vitro measurements of extracellular L-glutamate level in region CA3 of mouse hippocampal slices under chemical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hiromi; Deguchi, Yukari; Kanazawa, Ena; Kawai, Jun; Nozawa, Keiichiro; Shoji, Atsushi; Sugawara, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The concentration level of extracellular L-glutamate released from region CA3 of mouse hippocampal slices under tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride and KCl stimulation was measured with independent methods, i.e., a capillary-based enzyme sensor, a patch sensor, and an enzyme-based imaging method. The L-glutamate level was compared with those at regions CA1 and DG. It was found that the enhanced concentration level at CA3 by TEA stimulation is very similar to that at CA1, but it is much lower than that at DG. The order of the regional distribution of L-glutamate, i.e., DG > CA1 ≈ CA3, was the same as that obtained by K(+) stimulation. However, in the presence of an uptake inhibitor, DL-TBOA, KCl stimulation showed the strongest L-glutamate flux at CA1, while TEA stimulation exhibited the strongest flux at CA3. The usefulness of the present approach for knowing the extracellular L-glutamate level in acute hippocampal slices is discussed.

  4. Imbalance between excitation and inhibition among synaptic connections of CA3 pyramidal neurons in cultured hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martín, Alberto; Schweizer, Felix E

    2008-03-01

    A fundamental property of small neuronal ensembles is their ability to be selectively activated by distinct stimuli. One cellular mechanism by which neurons achieve this input selectivity is by modulating the temporal dynamics of excitation and inhibition. We explored the interplay of excitation and inhibition in synapses between pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis field 3 of the hippocampal formation (CA3) in cultured rat hippocampal slices, where activation of a single excitatory cell can readily recruit local interneurons. Simultaneous whole-cell recordings from pairs of CA3 pyramidal neurons revealed that the strength of connections was neither uniform nor balanced. Rather, stimulation of presynaptic neurons elicited distinct combinations of excitatory postsynaptic current-inhibitory postsynaptic current (EPSC-IPSC) amplitudes in the postsynaptic neurons. EPSC-IPSC sequences with small EPSCs had large IPSCs and sequences that contained large EPSCs had small IPSCs. In addition to differences in the amplitudes of the responses, the kinetics of the EPSCs were also different, creating distinct temporal dynamics of excitation and inhibition. Weaker EPSCs had significantly slower kinetics and were efficiently occluded by IPSCs, thereby further limiting their contribution to depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane. Our data suggest that hippocampal pyramidal cells may use an imbalance between excitation and inhibition as a filter to enhance selectivity toward preferential excitatory connections.

  5. Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion Cause Modifications of Postsynaptic Morphology and Activity in the CA3 Area of Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yeon Joo; Suh, Eun Cheng; Lee, Kyung Eun

    2012-12-01

    Brain ischemia leads to overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, referred as excitotoxicity, which mediates neuronal cell death. However, less attention has been paid to changes in synaptic activity and morphology that could have an important impact on cell function and survival following ischemic insult. In this study, we investigated the effects of reperfusion after oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) not only upon neuronal cell death, but also on ultrastructural and biochemical characteristics of postsynaptic density (PSD) protein, in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 area in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. After OGD/reperfusion, neurons were found to be damaged; the organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, dendrites, and synaptic terminals were swollen; and the PSD became thicker and irregular. Ethanolic phosphotungstic acid staining showed that the density of PSD was significantly decreased, and the thickness and length of the PSD were significantly increased in the OGD/reperfusion group compared to the control. The levels of PSD proteins, including PSD-95, NMDA receptor 1, NMDA receptor 2B, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, were significantly decreased following OGD/reperfusion. These results suggest that OGD/reperfusion induces significant modifications to PSDs in the CA3 area of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, both morphologically and biochemically, and this may contribute to neuronal cell death and synaptic dysfunction after OGD/reperfusion.

  6. Caffeine-dependent stimulus-triggered oscillations in the CA3 region of hippocampal slices from rats chronically exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    He, Shui-Jin; Xiao, Cheng; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2004-12-01

    Yoshimura et al. [Yoshimura, H., Sugai, T., Onoda, N., Segami, N., Kato, N., 2002. Age-dependent occurrence of synchronized population oscillation suggestive of a developing functional coupling between NMDA and ryanodine receptors in the neocortex. Dev. Brain Res., 136, 63-68.] have shown that caffeine can elicit synchronized oscillations (10-12 Hz) dependent on calcium-induced calcium release in rat neocortex neurons. In the present work, synchronized oscillations in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus were studied by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in vitro. In the presence of 0.1 mM caffeine, in CA3 of 44 of 45 (97.8%) slices from chronic lead-exposed rats, single electrical stimuli triggered a burst of high-frequency oscillations (approximately 230 Hz), whereas in CA3 of caffeine-treated slices from control rats, such oscillations could be elicited in only 2 of 24 (8.3%) slices. The complete (but fully reversible) block of caffeine-dependent oscillations by 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 20 microM) indicates that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors are necessary for the high-frequency synchronized oscillations. 2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP-5; 50 micoM) partially reduced the amplitude of caffeine-dependent oscillations without significantly altering their frequency. Caffeine-dependent oscillations could be abolished by application of AP-5 and 3 mM Mg2+ during the initial period of bursting, indicating that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the generation of oscillations. The Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA; 5 mM) added in standard artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing 0.1 mM caffeine fully blocked the oscillations. Caffeine-dependent oscillations are insensitive to an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors (10 microM bicuculline), L-type Ca2+ channels (10 mu

  7. Time Cells in Hippocampal Area CA3

    PubMed Central

    Salz, Daniel M.; Tiganj, Zoran; Khasnabish, Srijesa; Kohley, Annalyse; Sheehan, Daniel; Howard, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on time cells in the hippocampus have so far focused on area CA1 in animals performing memory tasks. Some studies have suggested that temporal processing within the hippocampus may be exclusive to CA1 and CA2, but not CA3, and may occur only under strong demands for memory. Here we examined the temporal and spatial coding properties of CA3 and CA1 neurons in rats performing a maze task that demanded working memory and a control task with no explicit working memory demand. In the memory demanding task, CA3 cells exhibited robust temporal modulation similar to the pattern of time cell activity in CA1, and the same populations of cells also exhibited typical place coding patterns in the same task. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial coding patterns of CA1 and CA3 were equivalently robust when animals performed a simplified version of the task that made no demands on working memory. However, time and place coding did differ in that the resolution of temporal coding decreased over time within the delay interval, whereas the resolution of place coding was not systematically affected by distance along the track. These findings support the view that CA1 and CA3 both participate in encoding the temporal and spatial organization of ongoing experience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal “time cells” that fire at specific moments in a temporally structured memory task have so far been observed only in area CA1, and some studies have suggested that temporal coding within the hippocampus is exclusive to CA1. Here we describe time cells also in CA3, and time cells in both areas are observed even without working memory demands, similar to place cells in these areas. However, unlike equivalent spatial coding along a path, temporal coding is nonlinear, with greater temporal resolution earlier than later in temporally structured experiences. These observations reveal both similarities and differences in temporal and spatial coding within the hippocampus of importance to

  8. Topographic specificity of functional connections from hippocampal CA3 to CA1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivanlou, Iman H.; Dantzker, Jami L. M.; Stevens, Charles F.; Callaway, Edward M.

    2004-02-01

    The hippocampus is a cortical region thought to play an important role in learning and memory. Most of our knowledge about the detailed organization of hippocampal circuitry responsible for these functions is derived from anatomical studies. These studies present an incomplete picture, however, because the functional character and importance of connections are often not revealed by anatomy. Here, we used a physiological method (photostimulation with caged glutamate) to probe the fine pattern of functional connectivity between the CA3 and CA1 subfields in the mouse hippocampal slice preparation. We recorded intracellularly from CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons while scanning with photostimulation across the entire CA3 subfield with high spatial resolution. Our results show that, at a given septotemporal level, nearby CA1 neurons receive synaptic inputs from neighboring CA3 neurons. Thus, the CA3 to CA1 mapping preserves neighbor relations.

  9. Inhibition of GABA release by presynaptic ionotropic GABA receptors in hippocampal CA3.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Draguhn, Andreas

    2004-02-09

    Vesicular transmitter release can be regulated by transmitter-gated ion channels at presynaptic axon terminals. The central inhibitory transmitter GABA acts on such presynaptic ionotropic receptors in various cells, including inhibitory interneurons. Here we report that GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibitory currents in CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slices are suppressed by agonists of GABAA receptors. The effect is present for both stimulus-induced and miniature IPSCs, indicating a reduction in the probability of vesicular release by presynaptic, action-potential-independent mechanisms. We conclude that the release of GABA from hippocampal CA3 interneurons is regulated by a negative feedback via presynaptic ionotropic GABA autoreceptors.

  10. Hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells selectively innervate aspiny interneurons.

    PubMed

    Wittner, Lucia; Henze, Darrell A; Záborszky, László; Buzsáki, György

    2006-09-01

    The specific connectivity among principal cells and interneurons determines the flow of activity in neuronal networks. To elucidate the connections between hippocampal principal cells and various classes of interneurons, CA3 pyramidal cells were intracellularly labelled with biocytin in anaesthetized rats and the three-dimensional distribution of their axon collaterals was reconstructed. The sections were double-stained for substance P receptor (SPR)- or metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha (mGluR-1alpha)-immunoreactivity to investigate interneuron targets of the CA3 pyramidal cells. SPR-containing interneurons represent a large portion of the GABAergic population, including spiny and aspiny classes. Axon terminals of CA3 pyramidal cells contacted SPR-positive interneuron dendrites in the hilus and in all hippocampal strata in both CA3 and CA1 regions (7.16% of all boutons). The majority of axons formed single contacts (87.5%), but multiple contacts (up to six) on single target neurons were also found. CA3 pyramidal cell axon collaterals innervated several types of morphologically different aspiny SPR-positive interneurons. In contrast, spiny SPR-interneurons or mGluR-1alpha-positive interneurons in the hilus, CA3 and CA1 regions were rarely contacted by the filled pyramidal cells. These findings indicate a strong target selection of CA3 pyramidal cells favouring the activation of aspiny classes of interneurons.

  11. Intracellular activities related to in vitro hippocampal sharp waves are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Chameh, H; Peng, J; Wu, C; Zhang, L

    2014-09-26

    Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area interconnect intensively via recurrent axonal collaterals, and such CA3-to-CA3 recurrent circuitry plays important roles in the generation of hippocampal network activities. In particular, the CA3 circuitry is able to generate spontaneous sharp waves (SPWs) when examined in vitro. These in vitro SPWs are thought to result from the network activity of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons as SPW-correlating intracellular activities are featured with strong IPSPs in pyramidal neurons and EPSPs or spikes in GABAergic interneurons. In view of accumulating evidence indicating a decrease in subgroups of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in aged animals, we test the hypothesis that the intracellular activities related to in vitro SPWs are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult and aged C57 black mice (ages 3-6 and 24-28months respectively). Population and single-cell activities were examined via extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. CA3 SPW frequencies were not significantly different between the slices of adult and aged mice but SPW-correlating intracellular activities featured weaker IPSC components in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons compared to adult neurons. It was unlikely that this latter phenomenon was due to general impairments of GABAergic synapses in the aged CA3 circuitry as evoked IPSC responses and pharmacologically isolated IPSCs were observed in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. In addition, aged CA3 pyramidal neurons displayed more positive resting potentials and had a higher propensity of burst firing than adult neurons. We postulate that alterations of GABAergic network activity may explain the reduced IPCS contributions to in vitro SPWs in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. Overall, our present observations are supportive of the notion that excitability of hippocampal CA3 circuitry is increased in aged mice.

  12. Network bursting using experimentally constrained single compartment CA3 hippocampal neuron models with adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dur-e-Ahmad, Muhammad; Nicola, Wilten; Campbell, Sue Ann; Skinner, Frances K

    2012-08-01

    The hippocampus is a brain structure critical for memory functioning. Its network dynamics include several patterns such as sharp waves that are generated in the CA3 region. To understand how population outputs are generated, models need to consider aspects of network size, cellular and synaptic characteristics and context, which are necessarily 'balanced' in appropriate ways to produce particular outputs. Thick slice hippocampal preparations spontaneously produce sharp waves that are initiated in CA3 regions and depend on the right balance of glutamatergic activities. As a step toward developing network models that can explain important balances in the generation of hippocampal output, we develop models of CA3 pyramidal cells. Our models are single compartment in nature, use an Izhikevich-type structure and involve parameter values that are specifically designed to encompass CA3 intrinsic properties. Importantly, they incorporate spike frequency adaptation characteristics that are directly comparable to those measured experimentally. Excitatory networks using these model cells are able to produce bursting suggesting that the amount of spike frequency adaptation expressed in the biological cells is an essential contributor to network bursting, and as such, may be important for sharp wave generation. The network bursting mechanism is numerically dissected showing the critical balance between adaptation and excitatory drive. The compact nature of our models allows large network simulations to be efficiently computed. This, together with the linkage of our models to cellular characteristics, will allow us to develop an understanding of population output of CA3 hippocampus with direct biological comparisons.

  13. Sex differences in hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; MacLusky, Neil J

    2017-01-02

    Numerous studies have demonstrated differences between males and females in hippocampal structure, function, and plasticity. There also are many studies about the different predisposition of a males and females for disorders where the hippocampus plays an important role. Many of these reports focus on area CA1, but other subfields are also very important, and unlikely to be the same as area CA1 based on what is known. Here we review basic studies of male and female structure, function, and plasticity of area CA3 pyramidal cells of adult rats. The data suggest that the CA3 pyramidal cells of males and females are distinct in structure, function, and plasticity. These sex differences cannot be simply explained by the effects of circulating gonadal hormones. This view agrees with previous studies showing that there are substantial sex differences in the brain that cannot be normalized by removing the gonads and depleting peripheral gonadal hormones. Implications of these comparisons for understanding sex differences in hippocampal function and dysfunction are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Y; Cherubini, E; Corradetti, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1989-09-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat CA3 hippocampal neurones in vitro during the first eighteen days of postnatal life. The cells had resting membrane potentials more negative than -51 mV, action potentials greater than 55 mV and membrane input resistances of 117 +/- 12 M omega. An unusual characteristic of these cells was the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) which were observed during the first eight postnatal (P) days in over 85% of neurones. They were less frequent between P9 and P12 (48%) and disappeared after P12. 2. The GDPs were synchronously generated by a population of neurones; they reversed polarity at -27 mV when recorded with KCl-containing electrodes and at -51 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes. 3. The GDPs were blocked by bath application of bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM). Exogenously applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.2-1 mM) induced at resting membrane potential a bicuculline-sensitive membrane depolarization which reversed polarity at -25 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes respectively. 4. The GDPs were reduced in frequency or blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP-7; 50 microM), D(-)2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5, 10-50 microM) and (+-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10-50 microM) or NMDA channel blockers phencyclidine (2 microM) and ketamine (20 microM). 5. Stimulation of the hilus during the first week of life evoked a GDP followed by a hyperpolarization. The GDPs were generated by a population of synchronized neurones and reversed polarity at -27 mV with KCl-filled electrodes and at -52 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-containing electrodes. 6. Bath application of bicuculline (1-10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM) reversibly blocked the evoked GDPs in the majority of cells

  15. Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Y; Cherubini, E; Corradetti, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1989-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat CA3 hippocampal neurones in vitro during the first eighteen days of postnatal life. The cells had resting membrane potentials more negative than -51 mV, action potentials greater than 55 mV and membrane input resistances of 117 +/- 12 M omega. An unusual characteristic of these cells was the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) which were observed during the first eight postnatal (P) days in over 85% of neurones. They were less frequent between P9 and P12 (48%) and disappeared after P12. 2. The GDPs were synchronously generated by a population of neurones; they reversed polarity at -27 mV when recorded with KCl-containing electrodes and at -51 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes. 3. The GDPs were blocked by bath application of bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM). Exogenously applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.2-1 mM) induced at resting membrane potential a bicuculline-sensitive membrane depolarization which reversed polarity at -25 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes respectively. 4. The GDPs were reduced in frequency or blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP-7; 50 microM), D(-)2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5, 10-50 microM) and (+-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10-50 microM) or NMDA channel blockers phencyclidine (2 microM) and ketamine (20 microM). 5. Stimulation of the hilus during the first week of life evoked a GDP followed by a hyperpolarization. The GDPs were generated by a population of synchronized neurones and reversed polarity at -27 mV with KCl-filled electrodes and at -52 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-containing electrodes. 6. Bath application of bicuculline (1-10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM) reversibly blocked the evoked GDPs in the majority of cells

  16. Energy deprivation transiently enhances rhythmic inhibitory events in the CA3 hippocampal network in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gee, C E; Benquet, P; Demont-Guignard, S; Wendling, F; Gerber, U

    2010-07-14

    Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to rapid suppression of synaptic transmission. Here we describe an emergence of rhythmic activity at 8 to 20 Hz in the CA3 subfield of hippocampal slice cultures occurring for a few minutes prior to the OGD-induced cessation of evoked responses. These oscillations, dominated by inhibitory events, represent network activity, as they were abolished by tetrodotoxin. They were also completely blocked by the GABAergic antagonist picrotoxin, and strongly reduced by the glutamatergic antagonist NBQX. Applying CPP to block NMDA receptors had no effect and neither did UBP302, an antagonist of GluK1-containing kainate receptors. The gap junction blocker mefloquine disrupted rhythmicity. Simultaneous whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from neighboring or distant CA3 pyramidal cells revealed strong cross-correlation of the incoming rhythmic activity. Interneurons in the CA3 area received similar correlated activity. Interestingly, oscillations were much less frequently observed in the CA1 area. These data, together with the observation that the recorded activity consists primarily of inhibitory events, suggest that CA3 interneurons are important for generating these oscillations. This transient increase in inhibitory network activity during OGD may represent a mechanism contributing to the lower vulnerability to ischemic insults of the CA3 area as compared to the CA1 area.

  17. Spontaneous recurrent network activity in organotypic rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Majid H; Cherubini, Enrico

    2005-07-01

    Organotypic hippocampal slices were prepared from postnatal day 4 rats and maintained in culture for >6 weeks. Cultured slices exhibited from 12 days in vitro spontaneous events which closely resembled giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) recorded in neonatal hippocampal slices. GDP-like events occurred over the entire hippocampus with a delay of 30-60 ms between two adjacent regions as demonstrated by pair recordings from CA3-CA3, CA3-CA1 and interneurone-CA3 pyramidal cells. As in acute slices, spontaneous recurrent events were generated by the interplay of GABA and glutamate acting on AMPA receptors as they were reversibly blocked by bicuculline and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione but not by dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentaoic acid. The equilibrium potentials for GABA measured in whole cell and gramicidin-perforated patch from interconnected interneurones-CA3 pyramidal cells were -70 and -56 mV, respectively. The resting membrane potential estimated from the reversal of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced single-channel currents in cell-attach experiments was -75 mV. In spite of its depolarizing action, in the majority of cases GABA was still inhibitory as it blocked the firing of principal cells. The increased level of glutamatergic connectivity certainly contributed to network synchronization and to the development of interictal discharges after prolonged exposure to bicuculline. In spite of its inhibitory action, in a minority of cells GABA was still depolarizing and excitatory as it was able to bring principal cells to fire, suggesting that a certain degree of immaturity is still present in cultured slices. This was in line with the transient bicuculline-induced block of GDPs and with the isoguvacine-induced increase of GDP frequency.

  18. Blocking brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Raminder; Chang, Philip K-Y; Prenosil, George A; Deane, Emily C; McKinney, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Brain trauma can disrupt synaptic connections, and this in turn can prompt axons to sprout and form new connections. If these new axonal connections are aberrant, hyperexcitability can result. It has been shown that ablating tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can reduce axonal sprouting after hippocampal injury. However, it is unknown whether inhibiting BDNF-mediated axonal sprouting will reduce hyperexcitability. Given this, our purpose here was to determine whether pharmacologically blocking BDNF inhibits hyperexcitability after injury-induced axonal sprouting in the hippocampus. To induce injury, we made Schaffer collateral lesions in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. As reported by others, we observed a 50% reduction in axonal sprouting in cultures treated with a BDNF blocker (TrkB-Fc) 14 days after injury. Furthermore, lesioned cultures treated with TrkB-Fc were less hyperexcitable than lesioned untreated cultures. Using electrophysiology, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of CA3 neurons that showed bursting responses after lesion with TrkB-Fc treatment, whereas we found no change in intrinsic neuronal firing properties. Finally, evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential recordings indicated an increase in network activity within area CA3 after lesion, which was prevented with chronic TrkB-Fc treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that blocking BDNF attenuates injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons. Axonal sprouting has been found in patients with post-traumatic epilepsy. Therefore, our data suggest that blocking the BDNF-TrkB signaling cascade shortly after injury may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy.

  19. Feedforward inhibition underlies the propagation of cholinergically induced gamma oscillations from hippocampal CA3 to CA1.

    PubMed

    Zemankovics, Rita; Veres, Judit M; Oren, Iris; Hájos, Norbert

    2013-07-24

    Gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations are implicated in memory processing. Such rhythmic activity can be generated intrinsically in the CA3 region of the hippocampus from where it can propagate to the CA1 area. To uncover the synaptic mechanisms underlying the intrahippocampal spread of gamma oscillations, we recorded local field potentials, as well as action potentials and synaptic currents in anatomically identified CA1 and CA3 neurons during carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in mouse hippocampal slices. The firing of the vast majority of CA1 neurons and all CA3 neurons was phase-coupled to the oscillations recorded in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region. The predominant synaptic input to CA1 interneurons was excitatory, and their discharge followed the firing of CA3 pyramidal cells at a latency indicative of monosynaptic connections. Correlation analysis of the input-output characteristics of the neurons and local pharmacological block of inhibition both agree with a model in which glutamatergic CA3 input controls the firing of CA1 interneurons, with local pyramidal cell activity having a minimal role. The firing of phase-coupled CA1 pyramidal cells was controlled principally by their inhibitory inputs, which dominated over excitation. Our results indicate that the synchronous firing of CA3 pyramidal cells rhythmically recruits CA1 interneurons and that this feedforward inhibition generates the oscillatory activity in CA1. These findings identify distinct synaptic mechanisms underlying the generation of gamma frequency oscillations in neighboring hippocampal subregions.

  20. Operation and plasticity of hippocampal CA3 circuits: implications for memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rebola, Nelson; Carta, Mario; Mulle, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The CA3 region of the hippocampus is important for rapid encoding of memory. Computational theories have proposed specific roles in hippocampal function and memory for the sparse inputs from the dentate gyrus to CA3 and for the extended local recurrent connectivity that gives rise to the CA3 autoassociative network. Recently, we have gained considerable new insight into the operation and plasticity of CA3 circuits, including the identification of novel forms of synaptic plasticity and their underlying mechanisms, and structural plasticity in the GABAergic control of CA3 circuits. In addition, experimental links between synaptic plasticity of CA3 circuits and memory are starting to emerge.

  1. Endogenous serotonin facilitates hippocampal long-term potentiation at CA3/CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, Boris; Stocca, Gabriella; Corradetti, Renato

    2015-02-01

    Encoding of episodic memory requires long-term potentiation (LTP) of neurotransmission at excitatory synapses of the hippocampal circuitry. Previous data obtained with the application of exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in hippocampal slices indicate that 5-HT blocks LTP, which contrasts with the facilitatory effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on learning and memory observed in vivo. Here, we investigated the effects of endogenous 5-HT, released from terminals by the monoamine releaser 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), on LTP of field EPSPs induced by theta-burst stimulation and recorded at CA3/CA1 synapses of rat hippocampal slices. LTP was greater in the presence of MDMA (10 µM; 45.76 ± 15.75%; n = 28) than in controls (31.26 ± 11.03; n = 21; p < 0.01). This facilitatory effect on LTP persisted when the entry of MDMA in noradrenergic terminals was prevented by the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine (44.90 ± 14.07%; n = 27 vs. 34.49 ± 12.94%; n = 20 in controls; p < 0.05). In both conditions, the facilitation of LTP was abolished by the SSRI citalopram that prevented the entry of MDMA in 5-HT terminals and the subsequent 5-HT release. These data show that, unlike exogenous 5-HT application, release of endogenous 5-HT does not impair cellular mechanisms responsible for induction of LTP, indicating that 5-HT is not detrimental to learning and memory. Moreover, facilitation of LTP by endogenous 5-HT may underlie the in vivo positive effects of augmented 5-HT tone on cognitive performance.

  2. Bidirectional Hebbian plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Galván, Emilio J; Calixto, Eduardo; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-12-24

    Hippocampal area CA3 is critically involved in the formation of nonoverlapping neuronal subpopulations ("pattern separation") to store memory representations as distinct events. Efficient pattern separation relies on the strong and sparse excitatory input from the mossy fibers (MFs) to pyramidal cells and feedforward inhibitory interneurons. However, MF synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which, if unopposed, will degrade pattern separation because MF activation will now recruit additional CA3 pyramidal cells. Here, we demonstrate MF LTP in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons induced by the same stimulation protocol that induces MF LTP in pyramidal cells. This LTP was NMDA receptor (NMDAR) independent and occurred at MF Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptor synapses. LTP was prevented by with voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell soma during high-frequency stimulation (HFS), intracellular injections of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (20 mm), or bath applications of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine (10 microm). We propose that MF LTP in L-M interneurons preserves the sparsity of pyramidal cell activation, thus allowing CA3 to maintain its role in pattern separation. In the presence of the mGluR1alpha antagonist LY367385 [(S)-(+)-a-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid] (100 microm), the same HFS that induces MF LTP in naive slices triggered NMDAR-independent MF LTD. This LTD, like LTP, required activation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel and also was induced after blockade of IP(3) receptors with heparin (4 mg/ml) or the selective depletion of receptor-gated Ca(2+) stores with ryanodine (10 or 100 microm). We conclude that L-M interneurons are endowed with Ca(2+) signaling cascades suitable for controlling the polarity of MF long-term plasticity induced by joint presynaptic and postsynaptic activities.

  3. Bidirectional Hebbian Plasticity at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses on CA3 Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Emilio J; Calixto, Eduardo; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal area CA3 is critically involved in the formation of non-overlapping neuronal subpopulations (“pattern separation”) to store memory representations as distinct events. Efficient pattern separation relies on the strong and sparse excitatory input from the mossy fibers (MF) to pyramidal cells and feed-forward inhibitory interneurons. However, MF synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells undergo LTP, which, if unopposed, will degrade pattern separation as MF activation will now recruit additional CA3 pyramidal cells. Here we demonstrate MF LTP in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons induced by the same stimulation protocol that induces MF LTP in pyramidal cells. This LTP was NMDAR-independent, and occurred at MF Ca2+-impermeable (CI) AMPAR synapses. LTP was prevented by with voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell soma during HFS, intracellular injections of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (20 mM) or bath applications of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine (10 µM). We propose that MF LTP in L-M interneurons preserves the sparsity of pyramidal cell activation, thus allowing CA3 to maintain its role in pattern separation. In the presence of the mGluR1α antagonist LY367385 (100 µM) the same HFS that induces MF LTP in naïve slices triggered NMDAR-independent MF LTD. This LTD, like LTP, required activation of the L-type Ca2+ channel, and also was induced following blockade of IP3 receptors with heparin (4mg/mL) or the selective depletion of receptor-gated Ca2+ stores with ryanodine (10 or100 µM). We conclude that L-M interneurons are endowed with Ca2+ signaling cascades suitable for controlling the polarity of MF long-term plasticity induced by joint pre- and postsynaptic activities. PMID:19109487

  4. Nuclear shrinkage in live mouse hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Kasischke, K; Büchner, M; Ludolph, A C; Riepe, M W

    2001-05-01

    Brain slices are used extensively for biochemical, electrophysiological and molecular investigations. However, only the time frame for electrophysiological and biochemical investigations has as yet been defined. The goal of the present study was to investigate the time course of nuclear structure in live brain slices. Hippocampal slices (300 microm) were prepared from male CD1 mice (25-30 g), stained with Hoechst 33342 (10 microM), calcein-AM (2 microM) and ethidium homodimer (4 microM), and imaged with single- and dual-photon microscopy. The volume of CA1 pyramidal cell nuclei decreased from 759+/-229 microm3 in 40-50 microm depth 25 min after preparation to 453+/-169 microm3 (P<0.001) after 60 min, 315+/-112 microm3 (P<0.001) after 120 min and 128+/-71 microm3 (P<0.001) after 8 h. Similar results were obtained on a prolonged time scale in 70-80 microm depth and with an accelerated time scale in 20-30 microm depth. Live-dead staining showed that cell damage is progressing from the surface to deeper layers of the slices in a time-dependent fashion. We conclude that nuclei of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells show a time- and depth-dependent shrinkage converging 8 h after slice preparation to a volume of 90-130 microm; in any depth between 20 and 80 microm. The nucleus in the superficial 80 microm of each side appears dysfunctional even at times suitable for electrophysiological and biochemical experimentation in hippocampal slices. Molecular analysis of cell regulation in brain slices may, therefore, be time-dependently distorted by progressing cell death in at least half of the tissue under investigation.

  5. Noradrenergic mechanism involved in the nociceptive modulation of hippocampal CA3 region of normal rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hua; Teng, Yueqiu; Zhang, Xuexin; Yang, Chunxiao; Xu, Manying; Yang, Lizhuang

    2014-06-27

    Norepinephrine (NE) is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, and regulates antinociception. However, the mechanism of action of NE on pain-related neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region is not clear. This study examines the effects of NE, phentolamine on the electrical activities of pain-excited neurons (PENs) and pain-inhibited neurons (PINs) in the hippocampal CA3 region of rats. Trains of electric impulses applied to the right sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation. The electrical activities of PENs or PINs in the hippocampal CA3 region were recorded by using a glass microelectrode. Our results revealed that, in the hippocampal CA3 region, the intra-CA3 region microinjection of NE decreased the pain-evoked discharged frequency and prolonged the discharged latency of PEN, and increased the pain-evoked discharged frequency and shortened discharged inhibitory duration (ID) of PIN, exhibiting the specific analgesic effect of NE. While intra-CA3 region microinjection of phentolamine produced the opposite response. It implies that phentolamine can block the effect of endogenous NE to cause the enhanced response of PEN and PIN to noxious stimulation. On the basis of above findings we can deduce that NE, phentolamine and alpha-adrenoceptor are involved in the modulation of nociceptive information transmission in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  6. Excitation/inhibition imbalance and impaired synaptic inhibition in hippocampal area CA3 of Mecp2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multiunit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2(-/y) ). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2(-/y) slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA Rs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2(-/y) mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2(-/y) mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2(-/y) mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2(-/y) mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a

  7. Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance and Impaired Synaptic Inhibition in Hippocampal Area CA3 of Mecp2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multi-unit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2-/y). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2-/y slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2-/y neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAARs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2-/y mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2-/y mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2-/y neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2-/y mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2-/y mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a hyperactive

  8. Cannabinoids attenuate hippocampal γ oscillations by suppressing excitatory synaptic input onto CA3 pyramidal neurons and fast spiking basket cells.

    PubMed

    Holderith, Noémi; Németh, Beáta; Papp, Orsolya I; Veres, Judit M; Nagy, Gergo A; Hájos, Norbert

    2011-10-15

    CB(1) cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) activation by exogenous ligands can impair memory processes, which critically depend on synchronous neuronal activities that are temporarily structured by oscillations. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the cannabinoid-induced decrease in gamma oscillations. We first verified that cannabinoids (CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2) readily suppressed carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of hippocampal slices via activation of CB(1)Rs. The cannabinoid-induced decrease in the peak power of oscillations was accompanied by reduced and less precise firing activity in CA3 pyramidal cells and fast spiking basket cells. By examining the cannabinoid sensitivity of synaptic inputs we found that the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents was significantly suppressed upon CB(1)R activation in both CA3 pyramidal cells and fast spiking basket cells. In contrast, evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA3 pyramidal cells were unaltered. Furthermore, we observed that a CB(1)R agonist-induced decrease in the oscillation power at the beginning of the drug application was accompanied primarily by the reduced discharge of fast spiking basket cells, while pyramidal cell firing was unaltered. This result implies that the dampening of cholinergically induced gamma oscillations in the hippocampus by cannabinoids can be explained by a reduced excitatory input predominantly onto fast spiking basket cells, which leads to a reduction in neuronal firing frequency and precision, and thus to smaller field potentials. In addition, we uncovered that the spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple activities in hippocampal slices could also be suppressed by CB(1)R activation suggesting that cannabinoids profoundly reduce the intrinsically generated oscillatory activities at distinct frequencies in CA3 networks by reducing synaptic neurotransmission.

  9. Both synaptic and intrinsic mechanisms underlie the different properties of population bursts in the hippocampal CA3 area of immature versus adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li-Rong; Dudek, F Edward

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors on CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices from immature rats (i.e. second to third postnatal weeks), compared to CA3 slices from adult rats, is known to cause prolonged burst discharges (i.e. several seconds vs. tens of milliseconds). Synaptic and intrinsic mechanisms responsible for this developmental difference in burst duration were analysed in isolated minislices of the CA3 area. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs in CA3 pyramidal cells were greater in slices from immature than mature rats. In the presence of GABAA- and GABAB-receptor antagonists, the burst discharges of immature CA3 pyramidal cells were still prolonged in thinner slices (350 μm, vs. 450 μm in adults, to compensate for developmental differences in neuronal density) and in NMDA- and mGlu1-receptor antagonists. The AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX blocked the remaining burst discharges, suggesting that differences in recurrent excitatory circuits contributed to the prolonged bursts of immature CA3 pyramidal cells. In slices from immature versus adult rats, the CA3 recurrent synaptic responses showed potentiation to repetitive stimulation, suggestive of a lower transmitter release probability. The intrinsic firing ability was greater in CA3 pyramidal neurons from immature than adult rats, and the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization was smaller. These data suggest that, compared to adults, the CA3 area of immature rats contains a more robust recurrent excitatory synaptic network, greater intrinsic membrane excitability, and an increased capacity for sustained transmitter release, which together may account for the more prolonged network bursts in immature versus adult CA3. PMID:19884320

  10. Differential NMDA receptor-dependent calcium loading and mitochondrial dysfunction in CA1 vs. CA3 hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stanika, Ruslan I.; Winters, Christine A.; Pivovarova, Natalia B.; Andrews, S. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are selectively vulnerable to ischemia, while adjacent CA3 neurons are relatively resistant. Although glutamate receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and dysfunction is a major component of ischemia-induced neuronal death, no direct relationship between selective neuronal vulnerability and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in intact brain preparations. Here, we show that in organotypic slice cultures NMDA induces much larger Ca2+ elevations in vulnerable CA1 neurons than in resistant CA3. Consequently, CA1 mitochondria exhibit stronger calcium accumulation, more extensive swelling and damage, stronger depolarization of their membrane potential, and a significant increase in ROS generation. NMDA-induced Ca2+ and ROS elevations were abolished in Ca2+-free medium or by NMDAR antagonists, but not by zinc chelation. We conclude that Ca2+-overload-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction is a determining factor in the selective vulnerability of CA1 neurons. PMID:19879359

  11. A quantitative theory of the functions of the hippocampal CA3 network in memory

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampal CA3 system as an autoassociation or attractor network used in episodic memory system is described. In this theory, the CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network to enable rapid, one-trial, associations between any spatial location (place in rodents, or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward, and to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, also important in episodic memory. The dentate gyrus (DG) performs pattern separation by competitive learning to produce sparse representations suitable for setting up new representations in CA3 during learning, producing for example neurons with place-like fields from entorhinal cortex grid cells. The dentate granule cells produce by the very small number of mossy fiber (MF) connections to CA3 a randomizing pattern separation effect important during learning but not recall that separates out the patterns represented by CA3 firing to be very different from each other, which is optimal for an unstructured episodic memory system in which each memory must be kept distinct from other memories. The direct perforant path (pp) input to CA3 is quantitatively appropriate to provide the cue for recall in CA3, but not for learning. Tests of the theory including hippocampal subregion analyses and hippocampal NMDA receptor knockouts are described, and support the theory. PMID:23805074

  12. Synaptic currents in anatomically identified CA3 neurons during hippocampal gamma oscillations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oren, Iris; Mann, Edward O; Paulsen, Ole; Hájos, Norbert

    2006-09-27

    Gamma-frequency oscillations are prominent during active network states in the hippocampus. An intrahippocampal gamma generator has been identified in the CA3 region. To better understand the synaptic mechanisms involved in gamma oscillogenesis, we recorded action potentials and synaptic currents in distinct types of anatomically identified CA3 neurons during carbachol-induced (20-25 microM) gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We wanted to compare and contrast the relationship between excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal cells and perisomatic-targeting interneurons, cell types implicated in gamma oscillogenesis, as well as in other interneuron subtypes, and to relate synaptic currents to the firing properties of the cells. We found that phasic synaptic input differed between cell classes. Most strikingly, the dominant phasic input to pyramidal neurons was inhibitory, whereas phase-coupled perisomatic-targeting interneurons often received a strong phasic excitatory input. Differences in synaptic input could account for some of the differences in firing rate, action potential phase precision, and mean action potential phase angle, both between individual cells and between cell types. There was a strong positive correlation between the ratio of phasic synaptic excitation to inhibition and firing rate over all neurons and between the phase precision of excitation and action potentials in interneurons. Moreover, mean action potential phase angle correlated with the phase of the peak of the net-estimated synaptic reversal potential in all phase-coupled neurons. The data support a recurrent mechanism of gamma oscillations, whereby spike timing is controlled primarily by inhibition in pyramidal cells and by excitation in interneurons.

  13. Active dendrites support efficient initiation of dendritic spikes in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyun; Guzman, Segundo J; Hu, Hua; Jonas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    CA3 pyramidal neurons are important for memory formation and pattern completion in the hippocampal network. It is generally thought that proximal synapses from the mossy fibers activate these neurons most efficiently, whereas distal inputs from the perforant path have a weaker modulatory influence. We used confocally targeted patch-clamp recording from dendrites and axons to map the activation of rat CA3 pyramidal neurons at the subcellular level. Our results reveal two distinct dendritic domains. In the proximal domain, action potentials initiated in the axon backpropagate actively with large amplitude and fast time course. In the distal domain, Na+ channel–mediated dendritic spikes are efficiently initiated by waveforms mimicking synaptic events. CA3 pyramidal neuron dendrites showed a high Na+-to-K+ conductance density ratio, providing ideal conditions for active backpropagation and dendritic spike initiation. Dendritic spikes may enhance the computational power of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal network. PMID:22388958

  14. Passive electrotonic properties of rat hippocampal CA3 interneurones.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, R A; Hubbard, A; Jaffe, D B

    1999-03-15

    1. The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 +/- 16 MOmega and the slowest membrane time constant (tau0) was 73 +/- 3 ms. 2. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rm was 61.9 +/- 34.2 Omega cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 +/- 0.3 microF cm-2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. 3. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. 4. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. 5. The 'iso-efficiency' of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs.

  15. Passive electrotonic properties of rat hippocampal CA3 interneurones

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Raymond A; Hubbard, Aida; Jaffe, David B

    1999-01-01

    The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 ± 16 MΩ and the slowest membrane time constant (τ0) was 73 ± 3 ms. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rmwas 61.9 ± 34.2 Ω cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 ± 0.3 μF cm−2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. The ‘iso-efficiency’ of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs. PMID:10066901

  16. Astrocyte calcium signalling orchestrates neuronal synchronization in organotypic hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Abe, Reimi; Nakayama, Ryota; Asada, Akiko; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are thought to detect neuronal activity in the form of intracellular calcium elevations; thereby, astrocytes can regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Little is known, however, about how the astrocyte calcium signal regulates the activity of neuronal populations. In this study, we addressed this issue using functional multineuron calcium imaging in hippocampal slice cultures. Under normal conditions, CA3 neuronal networks exhibited temporally correlated activity patterns, occasionally generating large synchronization among a subset of cells. The synchronized neuronal activity was correlated with astrocyte calcium events. Calcium buffering by an intracellular injection of a calcium chelator into multiple astrocytes reduced the synaptic strength of unitary transmission between pairs of surrounding pyramidal cells and caused desynchronization of the neuronal networks. Uncaging the calcium in the astrocytes increased the frequency of neuronal synchronization. These data suggest an essential role of the astrocyte calcium signal in the maintenance of basal neuronal function at the circuit level. PMID:24710057

  17. Neuroprotection against diisopropylfluorophosphate in acute hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Ferchmin, P. A.; Pérez, Dinely; Cuadrado, Brenda L.; Carrasco, Marimée; Martins, Antonio H.; Eterović, Vesna A.

    2015-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and a surrogate of the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent sarin. The neurotoxicity of DFP was assessed as a reduction of population spike (PS) area elicited by synaptic stimulation in acute hippocampal slices. Two classical antidotes, atropine, and pralidoxime, and two novel antidotes, 4R-cembranotriene-diol (4R) and a caspase 9 inhibitor, were tested. Atropine, pralidoxime, and 4R significantly protected when applied 30 min after DFP. The caspase inhibitor was neuroprotective when applied 5–10 min before or after DFP, suggesting that early synaptic apoptosis is responsible for the loss of PSs. It is likely that apoptosis starts at the synapses and, if antidotes are not applied, descends to the cell bodies, causing death. The acute slice is a reliable tool for mechanistic studies, and the assessment of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection with PS areas is, in general, pharmacologically congruent with in vivo results and predicts the effect of drugs in vivo. 4R was first found to be neuroprotective in slices and later we demonstrated that 4R is neuroprotective in vivo. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of OPs is not well understood, and there is a need for novel antidotes that could be discovered using acute slices. PMID:26438150

  18. GABA mediated excitation in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, E; Rovira, C; Gaiarsa, J L; Corradetti, R; Ben Ari, Y

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular recordings from rat hippocampal neurons in vitro during the first postnatal week revealed the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). These were generated by the synchronous discharge of a population of neurons. GDPs reversed polarity at -27 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl or K-methylsulphate filled electrodes, respectively. GDPs were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 microM). Iontophoretic or bath applications of GABA (10-300 microM) in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM), induced a membrane depolarization or in voltage clamp experiments an inward current which reversed polarity at the same potential as GDPs. The response to GABA was blocked in a non-competitive manner by bicuculline (10 microM) and did not desensitize. GABA mediated GDPs were presynaptically modulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors. Their frequency was reduced or blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists and by the rather specific non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). The frequency of GDPs was enhanced by glycine and D-serine (10-30 microM) in a strychnine insensitive manner. This effect was blocked by AP-5, suggesting that it was mediated by the allosteric modulatory site of the NMDA receptor. These observations suggest that most of the 'excitatory' drive in immature neurons is mediated by GABA acting on GABAA receptors; furthermore excitatory amino acids modulate the release of GABA by a presynaptic action on GABAergic interneurons.

  19. GABA application to hippocampal CA3 or CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare excites an interneuron network.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Katherine L

    2002-03-01

    Whole cell voltage-clamp recording and focal application of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were used to investigate the ability of exogenous GABA applied to different locations within the guinea pig hippocampal slice to trigger a giant GABA-mediated postsynaptic current (GPSC) in pyramidal cells. A GPSC reflects the synchronous release of GABA from a group of interneurons. Recordings were done in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Spontaneous GPSCs occurred rhythmically in pyramidal cells under these conditions. Brief focal pressure application of GABA (500 microM; 30-200 ms) to CA3 stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) or to the border between CA3 s. radiatum (SR) and SLM triggered an "all-or-none" GPSC in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells that looked like the spontaneous GPSCs. During the refractory period following a spontaneous GPSC, application of GABA could not trigger a GPSC. Both spontaneous GPSCs and GPSCs triggered by exogenous GABA were blocked by suppressing synaptic transmission with high Mg(2+)/low Ca(2+) bath solution. On the other hand, focal application of GABA to CA3 s. oriens (SO) or to proximal SR did not trigger a GPSC in the CA3 pyramidal cell; instead it produced a graded response. Focal application of GABA to regions other than CA3 was also tested. Focal application of GABA to CA1 SLM always triggered a GPSC in the CA3 pyramidal cell. Focal application of GABA within the outer two-thirds of the dentate molecular layer often elicited a GPSC in the CA3 pyramidal cell. In contrast, focal application of GABA to CA1 SO, to CA1 SR, or to the hilus elicited no current response in the CA3 pyramidal cell. These data indicate that the GPSC recorded in pyramidal cells that was triggered by focal GABA application resulted from the synchronous synaptic release of GABA from activated interneurons rather than from the binding of exogenous GABA to receptors on the pyramidal cell

  20. Proteolytic degradation of glutamate decarboxylase mediates disinhibition of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells in cathepsin D-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tokiko; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Yamada, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Ukai, Kiyoharu; Koike, Masato; Mine, Kazunori; von Figura, Kurt; Peters, Christoph; Saftig, Paul; Fukuda, Takaichi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Although of clinical importance, little is known about the mechanism of seizure in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). In the present study, we have attempted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the seizure of cathepsin D-deficient (CD-/-) mice that show a novel type of lysosomal storage disease with a phenotype resembling late infantile NCL. In hippocampal slices prepared from CD-/- mice at post-natal day (P)24, spontaneous burst discharges were recorded from CA3 pyramidal cells. At P24, the mean amplitude of IPSPs after stimulation of the mossy fibres was significantly smaller than that of wild-type mice, which was substantiated by the decreased level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in the hippocampus measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At this stage, activated microglia were found to accumulate in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 subfield of CD-/- mice. However, there was no significant change in the numerical density of GABAergic interneurons in the CA3 subfield of CD-/- mice at P24, estimated by counting the number of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive somata. In the hippocampus and the cortex of CD-/- mice at P24, some GABAergic interneurons displayed extremely high somatic granular immunoreactivites for GAD67, suggesting the lysosomal accumulation of GAD67. GAD67 levels in axon terminals abutting on to perisomatic regions of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells was not significantly changed in CD-/- mice even at P24, whereas the total protein levels of GAD67 in both the hippocampus and the cortex of CD-/- mice after P24 were significantly decreased as a result of degradation. Furthermore, the recombinant human GAD65/67 was rapidly digested by the lysosomal fraction prepared from the whole brain of wild-type and CD-/- mice. These observations strongly suggest that the reduction of GABA contents, presumably because of lysosomal degradation of GAD67 and lysosomal accumulation of its degraded forms

  1. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Qiuling; Gao Xiang; Lu Qi; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming . E-mail: bmli@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-08

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation.

  2. The hippocampal CA3 region can generate two distinct types of sharp wave-ripple complexes, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Katharina T; Kandrács, Ágnes; Ulbert, István; Pál, Ildikó; Szabó, Csilla; Héja, László; Wittner, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) occur during slow wave sleep and behavioral immobility and are thought to play an important role in memory formation. We investigated the cellular and network properties of SPW-Rs with simultaneous laminar multielectrode and intracellular recordings in a rat hippocampal slice model, using physiological bathing medium. Spontaneous SPW-Rs were generated in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 regions. These events were characterized by a local field potential gradient (LFPg) transient, increased fast oscillatory activity and increased multiple unit activity (MUA). Two types of SPW-Rs were distinguished in the CA3 region based on their different LFPg and current source density (CSD) pattern. Type 1 (T1) displayed negative LFPg transient in the pyramidal cell layer, and the associated CSD sink was confined to the proximal dendrites. Type 2 (T2) SPW-Rs were characterized by positive LFPg transient in the cell layer, and showed CSD sinks involving both the apical and basal dendrites. In both types, consistent with the somatic CSD source, only a small subset of CA3 pyramidal cells fired, most pyramidal cells were hyperpolarized, while most interneurons increased firing rate before the LFPg peak. Different neuronal populations, with different proportions of pyramidal cells and distinct subsets of interneurons were activated during T1 and T2 SPW-Rs. Activation of specific inhibitory cell subsets-with the possible leading role of perisomatic interneurons-seems to be crucial to synchronize distinct ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells finally resulting in the expression of different SPW-R activities. This suggests that the hippocampus can generate dynamic changes in its activity stemming from the same excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and so, might provide the cellular and network basis for an input-specific and activity-dependent information transmission.

  3. α2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in hippocampal region CA3 control fast network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Heistek, Tim S; Ruiperez-Alonso, Marta; Timmerman, A Jaap; Brussaard, Arjen B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-02-15

    GABA(A) receptors are critically involved in hippocampal oscillations. GABA(A) receptor α1 and α2 subunits are differentially expressed throughout the hippocampal circuitry and thereby may have distinct contributions to oscillations. It is unknown which GABA(A) receptor α subunit controls hippocampal oscillations and where these receptors are expressed. To address these questions we used transgenic mice expressing GABA(A) receptor α1 and/or α2 subunits with point mutations (H101R) that render these receptors insensitive to allosteric modulation at the benzodiazepine binding site, and tested how increased or decreased function of α subunits affects hippocampal oscillations. Positive allosteric modulation by zolpidem prolonged decay kinetics of hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission and reduced the frequency of cholinergically induced oscillations. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors in CA3 altered oscillation frequency in CA1, while modulation of GABA receptors in CA1 did not affect oscillations. In mice having a point mutation (H101R) at the GABA(A) receptor α2 subunit, zolpidem effects on cholinergically induced oscillations were strongly reduced compared to wild-type animals, while zolpidem modulation was still present in mice with the H101R mutation at the α1 subunit. Furthermore, genetic knockout of α2 subunits strongly reduced oscillations, whereas knockout of α1 subunits had no effect. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors was strongly reduced in unitary connections between fast spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons in CA3 of α2H101R mice, but not of α1H101R mice, suggesting that fast spiking interneuron to pyramidal neuron synapses in CA3 contain α2 subunits. These findings suggest that α2-containing GABA(A) receptors expressed in the CA3 region provide the inhibition that controls hippocampal rhythm during cholinergically induced oscillations.

  4. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal dendritic retraction requires CA3 NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Kimberly M.; Miracle, Angela D.; Wellman, Cara L.; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress induces dendritic retraction in the hippocampal CA3 subregion, but the mechanisms responsible for this retraction and its impact on neural circuitry are not well understood. To determine the role of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) receptor (NMDAR)-mediated signaling in this process, we compared the effects of chronic immobilization stress (CIS) on hippocampal dendritic morphology, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and anxiety-related and hippocampus-dependent behaviors, in transgenic male mice in which the NMDAR had been selectively deleted in CA3 pyramidal cells and in non-mutant littermates. We found that CIS exposure for 10 consecutive days in non-mutant mice effectively induces HPA axis activation and dendritic retraction of CA3 short-shaft pyramidal neurons, but not CA3 long-shaft pyramidal neurons, suggesting a differential cellular stress response in this region. Dendritic reorganization of short-shaft neurons occurred throughout the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus and, in particular, in the ventral pole of this structure. We also observed a robust retraction of dendrites in dorsal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the non-mutant C57BL/6 mouse strain. Strikingly, chronic stress-induced dendritic retraction was not evident in any of the neurons in either CA3 or CA1 in the mutant mice that had a functional lack of NMDARs restricted to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the prevention of dendritic retraction in the mutant mice had a minimal effect on HPA axis activation and behavioral alterations that were induced by chronic stress. These data support a role for NMDAR-dependent glutamatergic signaling in CA3 in the cell-type specific induction of dendritic retraction in two hippocampal subregions following chronic stress. PMID:21108993

  5. Penicillin-induced epileptogenesis in immature rat CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Swann, J W; Brady, R J

    1984-02-01

    Penicillin's ability to produce epileptiform discharges in the CA3 region of hippocampus was examined both extracellularly and intracellularly in slices taken from immature rats 3-25 days of age. Comparisons were made to similar recordings from slices taken from mature rats. Between postnatal days 9 and 19 penicillin treatment resulted in spontaneous extracellular epileptiform bursts and coincident intracellular depolarization shifts. These events were more prolonged and less frequent than in slices from mature rats, and the bursts were followed by prolonged afterdischarges, often 20-30 s in duration. Intracellularly these afterdischarges consisted of large, rhythmic slow depolarizing potentials, which resulted in one or more action potentials in individual CA3 pyramidal cells. Extracellular field recordings showed these events to be simultaneous with synchronous discharges of a large population of CA3 pyramidal cells. In pups 1-2 weeks of age the ability of hippocampus to produce prolonged afterdischarges was associated with a slow depolarizing afterpotential, which followed the downstroke of the depolarization shift. Coincident with this afterpotential was a prolonged negative field in the CA3 pyramidal cell body layer. By postnatal days 24 and 25 the tendency to generate afterdischarges was greatly reduced. In addition, afterdischarges were observed infrequently in slices taken during the first postnatal week. Spike trains produced by prolonged intracellular current injection in slices taken on postnatal days 9-19 were followed by large afterhyperpolarizations and were unable to produce afterdischarges in individual CA3 pyramidal cells. Intracellular recordings from presumed glial cells suggest that extracellular K+ accumulation may play a role in the pronounced capacity of hippocampus from 1- and 2-week-old rat pups to generate prolonged afterdischarges.

  6. Input-output features of anatomically identified CA3 neurons during hippocampal sharp wave/ripple oscillation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Karlócai, Mária R; Németh, Beáta; Ulbert, István; Monyer, Hannah; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Freund, Tamás F; Gulyás, Attila I

    2013-07-10

    Hippocampal sharp waves and the associated ripple oscillations (SWRs) are implicated in memory processes. These network events emerge intrinsically in the CA3 network. To understand cellular interactions that generate SWRs, we detected first spiking activity followed by recording of synaptic currents in distinct types of anatomically identified CA3 neurons during SWRs that occurred spontaneously in mouse hippocampal slices. We observed that the vast majority of interneurons fired during SWRs, whereas only a small portion of pyramidal cells was found to spike. There were substantial differences in the firing behavior among interneuron groups; parvalbumin-expressing basket cells were one of the most active GABAergic cells during SWRs, whereas ivy cells were silent. Analysis of the synaptic currents during SWRs uncovered that the dominant synaptic input to the pyramidal cell was inhibitory, whereas spiking interneurons received larger synaptic excitation than inhibition. The discharge of all interneurons was primarily determined by the magnitude and the timing of synaptic excitation. Strikingly, we observed that the temporal structure of synaptic excitation and inhibition during SWRs significantly differed between parvalbumin-containing basket cells, axoaxonic cells, and type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells, which might explain their distinct recruitment to these synchronous events. Our data support the hypothesis that the active current sources restricted to the stratum pyramidale during SWRs originate from the synaptic output of parvalbumin-expressing basket cells. Thus, in addition to gamma oscillation, these GABAergic cells play a central role in SWR generation.

  7. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  8. Network state-dependent inhibition of identified hippocampal CA3 axo-axonic cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Viney, Tim J; Lasztoczi, Balint; Katona, Linda; Crump, Michael G; Tukker, John J; Klausberger, Thomas; Somogyi, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal sharp waves are population discharges initiated by an unknown mechanism in pyramidal cell networks of CA3. Axo-axonic cells (AACs) regulate action potential generation through GABAergic synapses on the axon initial segment. We found that CA3 AACs in anesthetized rats and AACs in freely moving rats stopped firing during sharp waves, when pyramidal cells fire most. AACs fired strongly and rhythmically around the peak of theta oscillations, when pyramidal cells fire at low probability. Distinguishing AACs from other parvalbumin-expressing interneurons by their lack of detectable SATB1 transcription factor immunoreactivity, we discovered a somatic GABAergic input originating from the medial septum that preferentially targets AACs. We recorded septo-hippocampal GABAergic cells that were activated during hippocampal sharp waves and projected to CA3. We hypothesize that inhibition of AACs, and the resulting subcellular redistribution of inhibition from the axon initial segment to other pyramidal cell domains, is a necessary condition for the emergence of sharp waves promoting memory consolidation.

  9. Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Kazu; Quirk, Michael C; Chitwood, Raymond A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yeckel, Mark F; Sun, Linus D; Kato, Akira; Carr, Candice A; Johnston, Daniel; Wilson, Matthew A; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2002-07-12

    Pattern completion, the ability to retrieve complete memories on the basis of incomplete sets of cues, is a crucial function of biological memory systems. The extensive recurrent connectivity of the CA3 area of hippocampus has led to suggestions that it might provide this function. We have tested this hypothesis by generating and analyzing a genetically engineered mouse strain in which the N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor gene is ablated specifically in the CA3 pyramidal cells of adult mice. The mutant mice normally acquired and retrieved spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze, but they were impaired in retrieving this memory when presented with a fraction of the original cues. Similarly, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in mutant mice displayed normal place-related activity in a full-cue environment but showed a reduction in activity upon partial cue removal. These results provide direct evidence for CA3 NMDA receptor involvement in associative memory recall.

  10. Inhibition of a slow synaptic response by a metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Gerber, U; Lüthi, A; Gähwiler, B H

    1993-11-22

    The effects of a novel antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors were investigated in CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slice cultures of the rat. Earlier experiments showed that selective activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors with low concentrations of an agonist, 1S, 3R-1-amino-cyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD), induced an inward current associated with a decrease in membrane conductance and inhibition of the slow calcium-dependent potassium current. These responses were strongly and reversibly reduced by the antagonist, (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, 0.5-1 mM). In the presence of antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors, stimulation of the afferent mossy fibres evoked postsynaptic responses in CA3 pyramidal cells which paralleled those observed with exogenously applied metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, i.e. a slow inward current and a reduction of calcium-dependent potassium current. Both responses were greatly reduced by bath-applied MCPG (1 mM). These results show that MCPG acts as an effective antagonist at metabotropic glutamate receptors coupled to potassium conductances in the hippocampus. Furthermore, they confirm that glutamate release from presynaptic terminals can modulate postsynaptic properties by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of mild hypoxia in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seh Hyun; Lee, Woo Soon; Lee, Na Mi; Yun, Sin Weon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of mild hypoxia in the mature and immature brain. Methods We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus and used hippocampal tissue cultures at 7 and 14 days in vitro (DIV) to represent the immature and mature brain, respectively. Tissue cultures were exposed to 10% oxygen for 60 minutes. Twenty-four hours after this hypoxic insult, propidium iodide fluorescence images were obtained, and the damaged areas in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) were measured using image analysis. Results In the 7-DIV group compared to control tissue, hypoxia-exposed tissue showed decreased damage in two regions (CA1: 5.59%±2.99% vs. 4.80%±1.37%, P=0.900; DG: 33.88%±12.53% vs. 15.98%±2.37%, P=0.166), but this decrease was not statistically significant. In the 14-DIV group, hypoxia-exposed tissue showed decreased damage compared to control tissues; this decrease was not significant in the CA3 (24.51%±6.05% vs. 18.31%±3.28%, P=0.373) or DG (15.72%±3.47% vs. 9.91%±2.11%, P=0.134), but was significant in the CA1 (50.91%±5.90% vs. 32.30%±3.34%, P=0.004). Conclusion Although only CA1 tissues cultured for 14 DIV showed significantly less damage after exposure to hypoxia, the other tissues examined in this study showed a tendency towards less damage after hypoxic exposure. Therefore, mild hypoxia might play a protective role in the brain. PMID:25932036

  12. Cholesterol and perhaps estradiol protect against corticosterone-induced hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in gonadectomized female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J B; McLaughlin, K J; Hamilton, G F; Baran, S E; Campbell, A N; Conrad, C D

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress or glucocorticoid exposure simplifies hippocampal Cornu Ammonis region 3 (CA3) apical dendritic arbors in male rats. In contrast to males, chronic stress either reduces CA3 basal branching or exerts no observable morphological effects in gonadally intact female rats. Under conditions that females display stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction, such as that following ovariectomy, chronic exposure to 17β-estradiol or cholesterol can negate these changes. Whether glucocorticoids produce CA3 dendritic retraction in ovariectomized females and whether neuroprotection from 17β-estradiol or cholesterol is sex-specific remains unknown. The current study examined the effects of chronic glucocorticoid exposure, in conjunction with 17β-estradiol or cholesterol administration, on hippocampal CA3 dendritic complexity. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were gonadectomized and implanted with 25% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol, 100% cholesterol, or blank Silastic capsules. Rats were then assigned to either a 21-day corticosterone (CORT) drink (400μg/ml CORT, 2.4% ethanol in tap water) or tap water (Tap, 2.4% ethanol in tap water) treatment. Brains were processed for Golgi staining, and hippocampal CA3 dendritic architecture was quantified. Results showed 21-day CORT administration reduced hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic branch points, CA3 apical dendritic length, body weight gain, and adrenal weights compared to male and female control counterparts. Furthermore, male and female rats implanted with Silastic capsules containing cholesterol or 25% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol were protected from CORT-induced CA3 apical dendritic branch reduction. No effects were observed in the CA3 basal dendritic arbors. The present results demonstrate that CORT produces hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in gonadectomized male and female rats and that cholesterol and 25% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol prevent this dendritic simplification.

  13. Cholesterol and Perhaps Estradiol Protect Against Corticosterone-Induced Hippocampal CA3 Dendritic Retraction in Gonadectomized Female and Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, J. Bryce; McLaughlin, Katie J.; Hamilton, Gillian F.; Baran, Sarah E.; Campbell, Alyssa N.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress or glucocorticoid exposure simplifies hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic arbors in male rats. In contrast to males, chronic stress either reduces CA3 basal branching or exerts no observable morphological effects in gonadally intact female rats. Under conditions that females display stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction, such as following ovariectomy, chronic exposure to 17β-estradiol or cholesterol can negate these changes. Whether glucocorticoids produce CA3 dendritic retraction in ovariectomized females and whether neuroprotection from 17β-estradiol or cholesterol is sex-specific remains unknown. The current study examined the effects of chronic glucocorticoid exposure, in conjunction with 17β-estradiol or cholesterol administration, on hippocampal CA3 dendritic complexity. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were gonadectomized and implanted with 25% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol, 100% cholesterol, or blank Silastic capsules. Rats were then assigned to either a 21-day corticosterone (CORT) drink (400µg/mL CORT, 2.4% ethanol in tap water) or tap water (Tap, 2.4% ethanol in tap water) treatment. Brains were processed for Golgi staining, and hippocampal CA3 dendritic architecture was quantified. Results showed 21-day CORT administration reduced hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic branch points, CA3 apical dendritic length, body weight gain, and adrenal weights compared to male and female control counterparts. Furthermore, male and female rats implanted with Silastic capsules containing cholesterol or 25% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol were protected from CORT-induced CA3 apical dendritic branch reduction. No effects were observed in the CA3 basal dendritic arbors. The present results demonstrate that CORT produces hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in gonadectomized male and female rats and that cholesterol and 25% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol prevent this dendritic simplification. PMID:23618757

  14. Endogenous opioid peptides contribute to associative LTP in the hippocampal CA3 region.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlo O; Do, Viet H; Derrick, Brian E

    2011-09-01

    The medial and lateral perforant path projections to the hippocampal CA3 region display distinct mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) induction, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and opioid receptor dependent, respectively. However, medial and lateral perforant path projections to the CA3 region display associative LTP with coactivation, suggesting that while they differ in receptors involved in LTP induction they may share common downstream mechanisms of LTP induction. Here we address this interaction of LTP induction mechanisms by evaluating the contribution of opioid receptors to the induction of associative LTP among the medial and lateral perforant path projections to the CA3 region in vivo. Local application of the opioid receptor antagonists naloxone or Cys2-Tyr3-Orn5-Pen7-amide (CTOP) normally block induction of lateral perforant path-CA3 LTP. However, these opioid receptor antagonists failed to block associative LTP in lateral perforant path-CA3 synapses when it was induced by strong coactivation of the medial perforant pathway which displays NMDAR-dependent LTP. Thus strong activation of non-opioidergic afferents can substitute for the opioid receptor activation required for lateral perforant path LTP induction. Conversely, medial perforant path-CA3 associative LTP was blocked by opioid receptor antagonists when induced by strong coactivation of the opioidergic lateral perforant path. These data indicate endogenous opioid peptides contribute to associative LTP at coactive synapses when induced by strong coactivation of an opioidergic afferent system. These data further suggest that associative LTP induction is regulated by the receptor mechanisms of the strongly stimulated pathway. Thus, while medial and lateral perforant path synapses differ in their mechanisms of LTP induction, associative LTP at these synapses share common downstream mechanisms of induction.

  15. Hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors are crucial for memory acquisition of one-time experience.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Kazu; Sun, Linus D; Quirk, Michael C; Rondi-Reig, Laure; Wilson, Matthew A; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-04-24

    Lesion and pharmacological intervention studies have suggested that in both human patients and animals the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the rapid acquisition and storage of information from a novel one-time experience. However, how the hippocampus plays this role is poorly known. Here, we show that mice with NMDA receptor (NR) deletion restricted to CA3 pyramidal cells in adulthood are impaired in rapidly acquiring the memory of novel hidden platform locations in a delayed matching-to-place version of the Morris water maze task but are normal when tested with previously experienced platform locations. CA1 place cells in the mutant animals had place field sizes that were significantly larger in novel environments, but normal in familiar environments relative to those of control mice. These results suggest that CA3 NRs play a crucial role in rapid hippocampal encoding of novel information for fast learning of one-time experience.

  16. Convergence of entorhinal and CA3 inputs onto pyramidal neurons and interneurons in hippocampal area CA1--an anatomical study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Riichi; Wouterlood, Floris G; Sah, Anupam; Boekel, Amber J; Baks-te Bulte, Luciënne T G; Witter, Menno P

    2008-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) conveys information to hippocampal field CA1 either directly by way of projections from principal neurons in layer III, or indirectly by axons from layer II via the dentate gyrus, CA3, and Schaffer collaterals. These two pathways differentially influence activity in CA1, yet conclusive evidence is lacking whether and to what extent they converge onto single CA1 neurons. Presently we studied such convergence. Different neuroanatomical tracers injected into layer III of EC and into CA3, respectively, tagged simultaneously the direct entorhino-hippocampal fibers and the indirect innervation of CA1 neurons by Schaffer collaterals. In slices of fixed brains we intracellularly filled CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (LM) and stratum radiatum (SR). Sections of these slices were scanned in a confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D-reconstruction was used to determine whether boutons of the labeled input fibers were in contact with the intracellularly filled neurons. We analyzed 12 pyramidal neurons and 21 interneurons. Perforant path innervation to pyramidal neurons in our material was observed to be denser than that from CA3. All pyramidal neurons and 17 of the interneurons received contacts of both perforant pathway and Schaffer input on their dendrites and cell bodies. Four interneurons, which were completely embedded in LM, received only labeled perforant pathway input. Thus, we found convergence of both projection systems on single CA1 pyramidal and interneurons with dendrites that access the layers where perforant pathway fibers and Schaffer collaterals end.

  17. Plasticity-dependent, full detonation at hippocampal mossy fiber–CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses

    PubMed Central

    Vyleta, Nicholas P; Borges-Merjane, Carolina; Jonas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices. Unitary EPSPs failed to initiate a spike in CA3 neurons under control conditions, but reliably discharged them after induction of presynaptic short-term plasticity. Remarkably, PTP switched mossy fiber synapses into full detonators for tens of seconds. Plasticity-dependent detonation may be critical for efficient coding, storage, and recall of information in the granule cell–CA3 cell network. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17977.001 PMID:27780032

  18. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M; Tort, Adriano B L; Kullander, Klas

    2012-11-01

    The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types has been hampered by the lack of cell-specific tools. We identified a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we found that OLM cells are important for gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). Furthermore, we found that OLM cells were interconnected by gap junctions, received direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents and accounted for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus.

  19. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M.; Tort, Adriano BL; Kullander, Klas

    2012-01-01

    The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types have been hampered by the lack of cell specific tools. Here we report a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining novel transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we demonstrate that OLM cells have a key role in gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). We further demonstrate that OLM cells are interconnected by gap junctions, receive direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents, and account for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus. PMID:23042082

  20. Simultaneous activation of gamma and theta network oscillations in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yacov; Wittner, Lucia; Freund, Tamas F; Gähwiler, Beat H

    2002-03-15

    Hippocampal activity in vivo is characterized by concurrent oscillations at theta (4-15 Hz) and gamma (20-80 Hz) frequencies. Here we show that cholinergic receptor activation (methacholine 10-20 nm) in hippocampal slice cultures induces an oscillatory mode of activity, in which the intrinsic network oscillator (located in the CA3 area) expresses simultaneous theta and gamma network oscillations. Pyramidal cells display synaptic theta oscillations, characterized by cycles consisting of population EPSP-IPSP sequences that are dominated by population IPSPs. These rhythmic IPSPs most probably result from theta-modulated spiking activity of several interneurons. At the same time, the majority of interneurons consistently display synaptic gamma oscillations. These oscillatory cycles consist of fast depolarizing rhythmic events that are likely to reflect excitatory input from CA3 pyramidal cells. Interneurons comprising this functional group were identified morphologically. They include four known types of interneurons (basket, O-LM, bistratified and str. lucidum-specific cells) and one new type of CA3 interneuron (multi-subfield cell). The oscillatory activity of these interneurons is only weakly correlated between neighbouring cells, and in about half of these (44 %) is modulated by depolarizing theta rhythmicity. The overall characteristics of acetylcholine-induced oscillations in slice cultures closely resemble the rhythmicity observed in hippocampal field and single cell recordings in vivo. Both rhythmicities depend on intrinsic synaptic interactions, and are expressed by different cell types. The fact that these oscillations persist in a network lacking extra-hippocampal connections emphasizes the importance of intrinsic mechanisms in determining this form of hippocampal activity.

  1. Encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of contextual memory: Differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subregions

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Francés, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting as an autoassociative memory network and the CA1 area as a critical output structure. In order to understand the respective roles of the CA3- and CA1-hippocampal areas in the formation of contextual memory, we studied the effects of the reversible inactivation by lidocaine of the CA3 or CA1 areas of the dorsal hippocampus on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of a contextual fear conditioning. Whereas infusions of lidocaine never impaired elementary tone conditioning, their effects on contextual conditioning provided interesting clues about the role of these two hippocampal regions. They demonstrated first that the CA3 area is necessary for the rapid elaboration of a unified representation of the context. Secondly, they suggested that the CA1 area is rather involved in the consolidation process of contextual memory. Third, they showed that CA1 or CA3 inactivation during retention test has no effect on contextual fear retrieval when a recognition memory procedure is used. In conclusion, our findings point as evidence that CA1 and CA3 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus play important and different roles in the acquisition and consolidation of contextual fear memory, whereas they are not required for context recognition. PMID:16027176

  2. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs

    2011-06-14

    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3(-/-) but not in mGluR2(-/-) mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity.

  3. Active Summation of Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials in Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Nathaniel N.; Barrionuevo, German

    1998-09-01

    The manner in which the thousands of synaptic inputs received by a pyramidal neuron are summed is critical both to our understanding of the computations that may be performed by single neurons and of the codes used by neurons to transmit information. Recent work on pyramidal cell dendrites has shown that subthreshold synaptic inputs are modulated by voltage-dependent channels, raising the possibility that summation of synaptic responses is influenced by the active properties of dendrites. Here, we use somatic and dendritic whole-cell recordings to show that pyramidal cells in hippocampal area CA3 sum distal and proximal excitatory postsynaptic potentials sublinearly and actively, that the degree of nonlinearity depends on the magnitude and timing of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials, and that blockade of transient potassium channels linearizes summation. Nonlinear summation of synaptic inputs could have important implications for the computations performed by single neurons and also for the role of the mossy fiber and perforant path inputs to hippocampal area CA3.

  4. Unstable periodic orbits in human epileptic hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pen-Ning Yu; Min-Chi Hsiao; Dong Song; Liu, Charles Y; Heck, Christi N; Millett, David; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    Inter-ictal activity is studied in hippocampal slices resected from patients with epilepsy using local field potential recording. Inter-ictal activity in the dentate gyrus (DG) is induced by high-potassium (8 mM), low-magnesium (0.25 mM) aCSF with additional 100 μM 4-aminopyridine(4-AP). The dynamics of the inter-ictal activity is investigated by developing the first return map with inter-pulse intervals. Unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) are detected in the hippocampal slice at the DG area according to both the topological recurrence method and the periodic orbit transform method. Surrogate analysis suggests the presence of UPOs in hippocampal slices from patients with epilepsy. This finding also suggests that inter-ictal activity is a chaotic system and will allow us to apply chaos control techniques to manipulate inter-ictal activity.

  5. Short- and long-term plasticity of the perforant path synapse in hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Barrionuevo, German

    2002-07-01

    The direct perforant path (PP) projection to CA3 is a major source of cortical input to the hippocampal region, yet relatively little is known about the basic properties of physiology and plasticity in this pathway. We tested whether PP long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA3 possesses the Hebbian property of associativity; i.e., whether the firing of fibers of different orders can induce PP LTP. We stimulated PP with weak trains of high-frequency stimulation (HFS), which by itself was below the threshold for LTP induction. The identical HFS was effective in inducing LTP when the mossy fiber pathway (MF) was activated simultaneously, thus demonstrating associative plasticity between the two pathways. We also demonstrated associative LTP between PP and recurrent collateral fibers (RC). PP LTP was blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid in both the associative and homosynaptic induction conditions. Neither MF nor RC fiber HFS alone resulted in permanent changes in PP field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) amplitude. However, HFS delivered to either MF or RC alone led to transient heterosynaptic depression of the PP fEPSP. Our results support the conceptual framework that regards CA3 as an autoassociative memory network in which efficient retrieval of previously stored activity patterns is mediated by associative plasticity of the PP synapse.

  6. mGluRs modulate strength and timing of excitatory transmission in hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Galván, Emilio J; Barrionuevo, Germán; Meriney, Stephen D

    2011-08-01

    Excitatory transmission within hippocampal area CA3 stems from three major glutamatergic pathways: the perforant path formed by axons of layer II stellate cells in the entorhinal cortex, the mossy fiber axons originating from the dentate gyrus granule cells, and the recurrent axon collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells. The synaptic communication of each of these pathways is modulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors that fine-tune the signal by affecting both the timing and strength of the connection. Within area CA3 of the hippocampus, group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) are expressed postsynaptically, whereas group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3) and III mGluRs (mGluR4, mGluR7, and mGluR8) are expressed presynaptically. Receptors from each group have been demonstrated to be required for different forms of pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity and also have been implicated in regulating short-term plasticity. A recent observation has demonstrated that a presynaptically expressed mGluR can affect the timing of action potentials elicited in the postsynaptic target. Interestingly, mGluRs can be distributed in a target-specific manner, such that synaptic input from one presynaptic neuron can be modulated by different receptors at each of its postsynaptic targets. Consequently, mGluRs provide a mechanism for synaptic specialization of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus. This review will highlight the variability in mGluR modulation of excitatory transmission within area CA3 with an emphasis on how these receptors contribute to the strength and timing of network activity within pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  7. Terminal field and firing selectivity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons in the hippocampal CA3 area.

    PubMed

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas

    2011-12-07

    Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons.

  8. Progressive alterations of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng; Ren, Wei; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2014-12-15

    Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent psychiatric condition, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown, although multiple hypotheses have been proposed. The aim of this study was to characterize the progressive alteration of neuronal plasticity in the male rat hippocampus during depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), an established animal model of depression. The data in the hippocampus were collected on days 7, 14 and 21 after the onset of three-week CUMS. When analyzed on day 21, three-week CUMS induced typically depressive-like behaviors, impaired LTP induction, and decreased basal synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses recorded in vivo, which was accompanied by decreased density of dendritic spines in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. The levels of both Kalirin-7 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were decreased at the same time. On day 14 (middle phase), some depressive-like behaviors were observed, which was accompanied by depressed basal synaptic transmission and enhanced LTP induction at the CA3-CA1 synapses. However, BDNF expression was decreased without alteration of Kalirin7 expression in comparison with no-stress control. Depressed basal synaptic transmission occurred in the middle phase of CUMS may contribute to decreased expression of BDNF. On day 7, depressive-like behaviors were not observed, and LTP induction, spine density, Kalirin-7 and BDNF expression were not altered by CUMS in comparison with no-stress control. These results showed that the functional changes at CA3-CA1synapses occurred earlier than the structural alteration during three-week CUMS as a strategy of neural adaptation, and rats required three weeks to develop depressive-like behaviors during CUMS. Our results suggest an important role of Kalirin-7 in CUMS-mediated alterations in spine density, synaptic function and overall depressive-like behaviors on day 21.

  9. Terminal Field and Firing Selectivity of Cholecystokinin-Expressing Interneurons in the Hippocampal CA3 Area

    PubMed Central

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J.; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. PMID:22159120

  10. Long-lasting modification of the synaptic properties of rat CA3 hippocampal neurones induced by kainic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Y; Gho, M

    1988-01-01

    1. The action of a short bath application of kainic acid (KA, 200-250 nM, 3-5 min) on the CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices has been studied with intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. 2. KA evoked bursts which persisted for 10-15 min. In addition, after KA, electrical stimulation of various inputs to CA3 which elicited an EPSP-IPSP sequence in control conditions evoked an EPSP followed by a burst. This evoked response persisted for several hours after removal of KA suggesting the occurrence of a long-lasting modification of the synaptic properties of CA3 neurones. 3. Intracellular recordings showed the spontaneous and evoked bursts to consist of five to ten action potentials riding on a depolarizing shift 10-25 mV in amplitude and 40-100 ms in duration. Both spontaneous and evoked bursts were followed by a long-lasting hyperpolarization 15-25 mV in amplitude and 1-1.5 s in duration. 4. We propose that both spontaneous and evoked synchronized bursts are generated by a polysynaptic network since: (a) intracellularly recorded bursts were synchronized with the bursts in extracellular field recording; (b) bursts disappeared when synaptic transmission or Na+ action potential were blocked by cobalt (1 mM) or TTX (1 microM) respectively; (c) bursts were suppressed by elevated divalent cation concentration; (d) burst occurrence was independent of the membrane potential of the cell; (e) the depolarization shift that underlies the bursts was a linear function of the membrane potential and reversed in polarity at 0 mV. In addition, the evoked bursts were all-or-none events with a variable latency. 5. Laminar profile analysis of the spontaneous and evoked bursts suggests that they were generated by synapses located on the distal apical segments of the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells. 7. The persistence of the evoked bursts was neither due to a persistent change in cell excitability nor to a long-lasting reduction in GABAergic synaptic inhibition. 8. Bath

  11. Different patterns of synaptic transmission revealed between hippocampal CA3 stratum oriens and stratum lucidum interneurons and their pyramidal cell targets.

    PubMed

    Aaron, G B; Wilcox, K S; Dichter, M A

    2003-01-01

    Stratum lucidum (SL) interneurons likely mediate feedforward inhibition between the dentate gyrus mossy fibers and CA3 pyramidal cells, while stratum oriens (SO) interneurons likely provide both feedforward and feedback inhibition within the CA3 commissural/associational network. Using dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings between interneurons and CA3 pyramidal cells, we have examined SL and SO interneurons and their synapses within organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Biocytin staining revealed different morphologies between these interneuron groups, both being very similar to those found previously in acute slices. The kinetics of IPSCs were similar between the two groups, but the reliability of synaptic transmission of SL interneuron (SL-INT) IPSCs was significantly lower than the virtually 100% reliability (non-existent failure rates) of SO-INT IPSCs. The SL-INT IPSCs also had a lower quantal content than the SO-INT IPSCs. In addition, SL-INTs were less likely than SO-INTs to innervate or to be innervated by nearby CA3 pyramidal cells. Paired-pulse stimulation at 100 ms interstimulus intervals produced similar paired-pulse depression in both interneuron synapses, despite the significantly higher failure rate of IPSCs produced by the SL-INTs compared with SO-INTs. CV analysis supported the hypothesis that paired-pulse depression was presynaptic. During repetitive, high frequency stimulation (>10 Hz for 500 ms) the two different synapses exhibited distinctly different forms of short-term plasticity: all SL interneurons displayed significant short-term facilitation (mean 113% facilitation, n=4), while, by contrast, SO interneuron synapses displayed either short-term depression (mean 42% depression, n=5 of 8) or no net facilitation or depression (n=3 of 8). These results indicate that the synaptic properties of interneurons can be quite different for interneurons in different hippocampal circuits.

  12. Chloride-cotransport blockade desynchronizes neuronal discharge in the "epileptic" hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Hochman, D W; Schwartzkroin, P A

    2000-01-01

    Antagonism of the chloride-cotransport system in hippocampal slices has been shown to block spontaneous epileptiform (i.e., hypersynchronized) discharges without diminishing excitatory synaptic transmission. Here we test the hypotheses that chloride-cotransport blockade, with furosemide or low-chloride (low-[Cl(-)](o)) medium, desynchronizes the firing activity of neuronal populations and that this desynchronization is mediated through nonsynaptic mechanisms. Spontaneous epileptiform discharges were recorded from the CA1 and CA3 cell body layers of hippocampal slices. Treatment with low-[Cl(-)](o) medium led to cessation of spontaneous synchronized bursting in CA1 >/=5-10 min before its disappearance from CA3. During the time that CA3 continued to burst spontaneously but CA1 was silent, electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals showed that hyperexcited CA1 synaptic responses were maintained. Paired intracellular recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells showed that during low-[Cl(-)](o) treatment, the timing of action potential discharges became desynchronized; desynchronization was identified with phase lags in firing times of action potentials between pairs of neurons as well as a with a broadening and diminution of the CA1 field amplitude. Continued exposure to low-[Cl(-)](o) medium increased the degree of the firing-time phase shifts between pairs of CA1 pyramidal cells until the epileptiform CA1 field potential was abolished completely. Intracellular recordings during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) treatment showed that prolonged low-[Cl(-)](o) exposure did not diminish the frequency or amplitude of spontaneous postsynaptic potentials. CA3 antidromic responses to Schaffer collateral stimulation were not significantly affected by prolonged low-[Cl(-)](o) exposure. In contrast to CA1, paired intracellular recordings from CA3 pyramidal cells showed that chloride-cotransport blockade did not cause a significant desynchronization of action potential firing times in the

  13. Multiple forms of LTP in hippocampal CA3 neurons use a common postsynaptic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yeckel, M F; Kapur, A; Johnston, D

    1999-07-01

    We investigated long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. Using Ca2+ imaging techniques, we show here that when postsynaptic Ca2+ was sufficiently buffered so that [Ca2+]i did not rise during synaptic stimulation, the induction of mossy fiber LTP was prevented. In addition, induction of mossy fiber LTP was suppressed by postsynaptic injection of a peptide inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Finally, when ionotropic glutamate receptors were blocked, LTP depended on the postsynaptic release of Ca2+ from internal stores triggered by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. These results support the conclusion that mossy fiber LTP and LTP at other hippocampal synapses share a common induction mechanism involving an initial rise in postsynaptic [Ca2+].

  14. Subthreshold membrane-potential oscillations in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed

    Psarropoulou, C; Avoli, M

    1995-12-15

    Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) were recorded intracellularly in 31 of 43 (>70%) immature CA3 hippocampal neurones (from 3-17 days postnatally). MPOs (3-5 mV, 3-15 Hz) occurred at resting membrane potential (RMP) in 20 of 31 neurones, or following depolarization (11 of 31 neurones); with sufficient depolarization spontaneous action potentials (APs) were generated from the positive-going phase of MPOs. In all cells, MPOs were blocked by steady membrane hyperpolarization. Tetrodotoxin abolished MPOs (n = 4); Co(2+) markedly reduced them (n = 3), and tetraethylammonium, added in the presence of TTX, revealed lower frequency oscillatory activity (n = 2). We conclude that subthreshold MPOs in immature hippocampus, possibly linked to theta rhythm generation and memory acquisition, depend on voltage-dependent Na+ electrogenesis and they might be additionally controlled by Ca(2+) and K+ conductances.

  15. The Characteristics of LTP Induced in Hippocampal Slices Are Dependent on Slice-Recovery Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godaux, Emile; Ris, Laurence; Capron, Brigitte; Sindic, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In area CA1 of hippocampal slices which are allowed to recover from slicing "in interface" and where recordings are carried out in interface, a single 1-sec train of 100-Hz stimulation triggers a short-lasting long-term potentiation (S-LTP), which lasts 1-2 h, whereas multiple 1-sec trains induce a long-lasting LTP (L-LTP), which lasts several…

  16. Optimal recall from bounded metaplastic synapses: predicting functional adaptations in hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    Savin, Cristina; Dayan, Peter; Lengyel, Máté

    2014-02-01

    A venerable history of classical work on autoassociative memory has significantly shaped our understanding of several features of the hippocampus, and most prominently of its CA3 area, in relation to memory storage and retrieval. However, existing theories of hippocampal memory processing ignore a key biological constraint affecting memory storage in neural circuits: the bounded dynamical range of synapses. Recent treatments based on the notion of metaplasticity provide a powerful model for individual bounded synapses; however, their implications for the ability of the hippocampus to retrieve memories well and the dynamics of neurons associated with that retrieval are both unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical framework for memory storage and recall with bounded synapses. We formulate the recall of a previously stored pattern from a noisy recall cue and limited-capacity (and therefore lossy) synapses as a probabilistic inference problem, and derive neural dynamics that implement approximate inference algorithms to solve this problem efficiently. In particular, for binary synapses with metaplastic states, we demonstrate for the first time that memories can be efficiently read out with biologically plausible network dynamics that are completely constrained by the synaptic plasticity rule, and the statistics of the stored patterns and of the recall cue. Our theory organises into a coherent framework a wide range of existing data about the regulation of excitability, feedback inhibition, and network oscillations in area CA3, and makes novel and directly testable predictions that can guide future experiments.

  17. GABAergic input onto CA3 hippocampal interneurons remains shunting throughout development.

    PubMed

    Banke, Tue G; McBain, Chris J

    2006-11-08

    In hippocampus, the net flow of excitability is controlled by inhibitory input provided by the many populations of local circuit inhibitory interneurons. In principal cells, GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic input undergoes a highly coordinated shift from depolarizing early in life to a more conventional hyperpolarizing inhibition on maturation. This switch in inhibitory input polarity is controlled by the developmental regulation of two chloride cotransporters (NKCC1 and KCC2) that results in a net shift from high to low intracellular Cl(-). Whether inhibitory input onto inhibitory interneurons demonstrates a similar developmental shift in intracellular Cl(-) is unexplored. Using the gramicidin perforated-patch configuration, we recorded from CA3 hippocampal stratum lucidum interneurons and pyramidal cells to monitor inhibitory input across a broad developmental range. GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic input onto stratum lucidum inhibitory interneurons was shunting in nature across the entire developmental age range tested, as resting membrane potential and the IPSC reversal potential remained within a few millivolts (1-4 mV) between postnatal day 5 (P5) and P31. Furthermore, sensitivity to block of the two chloride cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1 did not differ across the same age range, suggesting that their relative expression is fixed across development. In contrast, pyramidal cell synaptic inhibition demonstrated the well described switch from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing over the same age range. Thus, in contrast to principal cells, inhibitory synaptic input onto CA3 interneurons remains shunting throughout development.

  18. Effects of third trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure on Cl− co-transporter expression, network activity, and GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Julie C.; Licón-Muñoz, Yamhilette; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are often associated with structural and functional hippocampal abnormalities, leading to long-lasting learning and memory deficits. The mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether ethanol exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters spontaneous network activity that is involved in neuronal circuit development in the CA3 hippocampal region. This activity is driven by GABAA receptors, which can have excitatory actions in developing neurons as a consequence of greater expression of the Cl− importer, NKCC1, with respect to expression of the Cl− exporter, KCC2, resulting in high [Cl−]i. Rat pups were exposed to ethanol vapor from postnatal day (P) 2 to 16 (4 hr/day). Weight gain was significantly reduced in pups exposed to ethanol compared to control at P15 and 16. Brain slices were prepared immediately after the end of the 4-hr exposure on P4–16 and experiments were also performed under ethanol-free conditions at the end of the exposure paradigm (P17–22). Ethanol exposure did not significantly affect expression of KCC2 or NKCC1, nor did it affect network activity in the CA3 hippocampal region. Ethanol exposure significantly decreased the frequency (at P9–11) and increased the amplitude (at P5–8 and P17–21) of GABAA receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. These data suggest that repeated in vivo exposure to ethanol during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region, an effect that could lead to abnormal circuit maturation and perhaps contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:22703993

  19. Effects of third trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure on Cl(-) co-transporter expression, network activity, and GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Everett, Julie C; Licón-Muñoz, Yamhilette; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are often associated with structural and functional hippocampal abnormalities, leading to long-lasting learning and memory deficits. The mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether ethanol exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters spontaneous network activity that is involved in neuronal circuit development in the CA3 hippocampal region. This activity is driven by GABA(A) receptors, which can have excitatory actions in developing neurons as a consequence of greater expression of the Cl(-) importer, NKCC1, with respect to expression of the Cl(-) exporter, KCC2, resulting in high [Cl(-)](i). Rat pups were exposed to ethanol vapor from postnatal day (P) 2-16 (4 h/day). Weight gain was significantly reduced in pups exposed to ethanol compared to control at P15 and 16. Brain slices were prepared immediately after the end of the 4-h exposure on P4-16 and experiments were also performed under ethanol-free conditions at the end of the exposure paradigm (P17-22). Ethanol exposure did not significantly affect expression of KCC2 or NKCC1, nor did it affect network activity in the CA3 hippocampal region. Ethanol exposure significantly decreased the frequency (at P9-11) and increased the amplitude (at P5-8 and P17-21) of GABA(A) receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. These data suggest that repeated in vivo exposure to ethanol during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region, an effect that could lead to abnormal circuit maturation and perhaps contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  20. Age-Related Synapse Loss In Hippocampal CA3 Is Not Reversed By Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michelle M.; Donohue, Howard S.; Linville, M. Constance; Iversen, Elizabeth A.; Newton, Isabel G.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is a reduction of total caloric intake without a decrease in micronutrients or a disproportionate reduction of any one dietary component. While CR attenuates age-related cognitive deficits in tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular mechanisms by which CR improves this cognitive decline are poorly understood. Previously, we have reported age-related decreases in key synaptic proteins in the CA3 region of the hippocampus that are stabilized by lifelong CR. In the present study, we examined possible age-related changes in the functional microcircuitry of the synapses in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SL-M) of the CA3 region of the hippocampus, and whether lifelong CR might prevent these age-related alterations. We used serial electron microscopy to reconstruct and classify SL-M synapses and their postsynaptic spines. We analyzed synapse number and size as well as spine surface area and volume in young (10 mos.) and old (29 mos) ad libitum fed rats and in old rats that were calorically restricted from 4 months of age. We limited our analysis to SL-M because previous work demonstrated age-related decreases in synaptophysin confined to this specific layer and region of the hippocampus. The results revealed an age-related decrease in macular axo-spinous synapses that was not reversed by CR that occurred in the absence of changes in the size of synapses or spines. Thus, the benefits of CR for CA3 function and synaptic plasticity may involve other biological effects including the stabilization of synaptic proteins levels in the face of age-related synapse loss. PMID:20854882

  1. Oxygen/glucose deprivation induces a reduction in synaptic AMPA receptors on hippocampal CA3 neurons mediated by mGluR1 and adenosine A3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Siobhan H; Jaafari, Nadia; Cimarosti, Helena; Hanley, Jonathan G; Henley, Jeremy M; Mellor, Jack R

    2011-08-17

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are highly sensitive to ischemic damage, whereas neighboring CA3 pyramidal neurons are less susceptible. It is proposed that switching of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits on CA1 neurons during an in vitro model of ischemia, oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), leads to an enhanced permeability of AMPARs to Ca(2+), resulting in delayed cell death. However, it is unclear whether the same mechanisms exist in CA3 neurons and whether this underlies the differential sensitivity to ischemia. Here, we investigated the consequences of OGD for AMPAR function in CA3 neurons using electrophysiological recordings in rat hippocampal slices. Following a 15 min OGD protocol, a substantial depression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission was observed at CA3 associational/commissural and mossy fiber synapses but not CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. The depression of synaptic transmission following OGD was prevented by metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) or A(3) receptor antagonists, indicating a role for both glutamate and adenosine release. Inhibition of PLC, PKC, or chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) also prevented the depression of synaptic transmission. Inclusion of peptides to interrupt the interaction between GluA2 and PICK1 or dynamin and amphiphysin prevented the depression of transmission, suggesting a dynamin and PICK1-dependent internalization of AMPARs after OGD. We also show that a reduction in surface and total AMPAR protein levels after OGD was prevented by mGluR1 or A(3) receptor antagonists, indicating that AMPARs are degraded following internalization. Thus, we describe a novel mechanism for the removal of AMPARs in CA3 pyramidal neurons following OGD that has the potential to reduce excitotoxicity and promote neuroprotection.

  2. Oxygen/glucose Deprivation Induces a Reduction in Synaptic AMPA Receptors on Hippocampal CA3 Neurons Mediated by mGluR1 and A3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Siobhan H.; Jaafari, Nadia; Cimarosti, Helena; Hanley, Jonathan G.; Henley, Jeremy M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are highly sensitive to ischemic damage, whereas neighbouring CA3 pyramidal neurons are less susceptible. It is proposed that switching of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits on CA1 neurons during an in vitro model of ischemia, oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), leads to an enhanced permeability of AMPARs to Ca2+ resulting in delayed cell death. However, it is unclear if the same mechanisms exist in CA3 neurons and whether this underlies the differential sensitivity to ischemia. Here, we investigated the consequences of OGD for AMPAR function in CA3 neurons using electrophysiological recordings in rat hippocampal slices. Following a 15 minute OGD protocol a substantial depression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission was observed at CA3 associational/commissural and mossy fiber synapses but not CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. The depression of synaptic transmission following OGD was prevented by mGluR1 or A3 receptor antagonists, indicating a role for both glutamate and adenosine release. Inhibition of PLC, PKC or chelation of intracellular Ca2+ also prevented the depression of synaptic transmission. Inclusion of peptides to interrupt the interaction between GluA2 and PICK1 or dynamin and amphiphysin prevented the depression of transmission, suggesting a dynamin and PICK1-dependent internalisation of AMPARs after OGD. We also show a reduction in surface and total AMPAR protein levels after OGD was prevented by mGluR1 or A3 receptor antagonists indicating that AMPARs are degraded following internalisation. Thus, we describe a novel mechanism for the removal of AMPARs in CA3 pyramidal neurons following OGD that has the potential to reduce excitotoxicity and promote neuroprotection. PMID:21849555

  3. Sparse and Specific Coding during Information Transmission between Co-cultured Dentate Gyrus and CA3 Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Daniele; Thiagarajan, Srikanth; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli. We used the evoked responses in CA3 to decode the stimulation sites in DG (and vice-versa) by means of learning algorithms for classification (support vector machine, SVM). The device was placed over an 8 × 8 grid of extracellular electrodes (micro-electrode array, MEA) in order to provide a platform for monitoring development, self-organization, and improved access to stimulation and recording at multiple sites. The micro-tunnels were designed with dimensions 3 × 10 × 400 μm allowing axonal growth but not migration of cell bodies and long enough to exclude traversal by dendrites. Paired-pulse stimulation (inter-pulse interval 50 ms) was applied at 22 different sites and repeated 25 times in each chamber for each sub-region to evoke time-locked activity. DG-DG and CA3-CA3 networks were used as controls. Stimulation in DG drove signals through the axons in the tunnels to activate a relatively small set of specific electrodes in CA3 (sparse code). CA3-CA3 and DG-DG controls were less sparse in coding than CA3 in DG-CA3 networks. Using all target electrodes with the three highest spike rates (14%), the evoked responses in CA3 specified each stimulation site in DG with optimum uniqueness of 64%. Finally, by SVM learning, these evoked responses in CA3 correctly decoded the stimulation sites in DG for 43% of the

  4. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-03-22

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus.

  5. Reversible loss of dendritic spines and altered excitability after chronic epilepsy in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, M; Gähwiler, B H; Rietschin, L; Thompson, S M

    1993-01-01

    The morphological and functional consequences of epileptic activity were investigated by applying the convulsants bicuculline and/or picrotoxin to mature rat hippocampal slice cultures. After 3 days, some cells in all hippocampal subfields showed signs of degeneration, including swollen somata, vacuolation, and dendritic deformities, whereas others displayed only a massive reduction in the number of their dendritic spines. Intracellular recordings from CA3 pyramidal cells revealed a decrease in the amplitude of evoked excitatory synaptic potentials. gamma-Aminobutyric acid-releasing interneurons and inhibitory synaptic potentials were unaffected. Seven days after withdrawal of convulsants, remaining cells possessed a normal number of dendritic spines, thus demonstrating a considerable capacity for recovery. The pathological changes induced by convulsants are similar to those found in the hippocampi of human epileptics, suggesting that they are a consequence, rather than a cause, of epilepsy. Images PMID:8093558

  6. Stochastic neural network model for spontaneous bursting in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Biswal, B; Dasgupta, C

    2002-11-01

    A biologically plausible, stochastic, neural network model that exhibits spontaneous transitions between a low-activity (normal) state and a high-activity (epileptic) state is studied by computer simulation. Brief excursions of the network to the high-activity state lead to spontaneous population bursting similar to the behavior observed in hippocampal slices bathed in a high-potassium medium. Although the variability of interburst intervals in this model is due to stochasticity, first return maps of successive interburst intervals show trajectories that resemble the behavior expected near unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) of systems exhibiting deterministic chaos. Simulations of the effects of the application of chaos control, periodic pacing, and anticontrol to the network model yield results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained in experiments on hippocampal slices. Estimation of the statistical significance of UPOs through surrogate data analysis also leads to results that resemble those of similar analysis of data obtained from slice experiments and human epileptic activity. These results suggest that spontaneous population bursting in hippocampal slices may be a manifestation of stochastic bistable dynamics, rather than of deterministic chaos. Our results also question the reliability of some of the recently proposed, UPO-based, statistical methods for detecting determinism and chaos in experimental time-series data.

  7. Base excision repair activities in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Rolseth, Veslemøy; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Neurauter, Christine Gran; Yndestad, Arne; Luna, Luisa; Aukrust, Pål; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Bjørås, Magnar

    2008-06-01

    The capacity for DNA repair is likely to be one of the factors that determine the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic stress and may influence the pathological outcome of stroke. In this report, initiation of base excision repair (BER) was assessed by analysis of enzyme activity and gene expression level of DNA glycosylases and AP-endonucleases in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) - an in vitro model of stroke. Under basal conditions, AP-endonuclease activity and base removal of ethenoadenine and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were higher (by approximately 20-35 %) in CA3/fascia dentata (FD) than in CA1. Base removal of uracil did not differ between the two hippocampal regions, while removal of 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) was slightly less efficient in CA3/FD than in CA1. Analyses performed immediately after 30 min of OGD revealed a decreased AP-endonuclease activity (by approximately 20%) in CA1 as well as CA3/FD, and an increased ethenoadenine activity (by approximately 25%) in CA1. Activities for 8-oxoG, 5-OHU and uracil showed no significant changes at this time point. At 8h after OGD, none of the enzyme activities differed from control values. Real-time RT-PCR showed that transcription of DNA glycosylases, including Ogg1, Nth1, Ung, Aag, Neil1 and Neil2 were not changed in response to OGD treatment (t=0 h). The hippocampal expression of Neil2 was low compared with the other DNA glycosylases. These data indicate that CA1 has a lower capacity than CA3/FD for removal of base lesions under basal conditions. The relatively low capacity for BER in basal conditions and the apparent failure to upregulate repair of oxidative damage after OGD might contribute to the high vulnerability of CA1 to ischemic injury.

  8. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  9. Cutting of living hippocampal slices by a highly pressurised water jet (macromingotome).

    PubMed

    Bingmann, D; Wiemann, M; Speckmann, E J; Köhling, R; Straub, H; Dunze, K; Wittkowski, W

    2000-10-15

    Living brain slices are usually cut with razor blades, which compress a ca. 50-microm-thick layer of tissue. This results in cell debris and lesioned cells which, e.g. form diffusion barriers between the bath and living neurons underneath, thereby prolonging response times of neurons to drugs in the bath saline and impeding the experimental access to intact neurons. To avoid such drawbacks, a macromingotome was developed which cuts nervous tissue with water jets. Physiological saline under pressures of 100-1800 bar was ejected through nozzles of 35-100 microm to cut 300-500-microm-thick hippocampal slices. Systematic variations of pressure and nozzle diameter revealed best results at 400-600 bar and with nozzle diameters of 60-80 microm. Under these conditions, intact CA1- and CA3-neurons as well as granule cells were detected with infrared microscopy at less than 10 microm underneath the surface of the slice. Superficial neurons with intact fine structures were also seen when the slices were studied by light-microscopy. Intra- and extracellular recordings from superficial neurons showed normal membrane- and full action potentials and the development of stable epileptiform discharges in 0 Mg(2+)-saline. These results indicate that the macromingotome offers an alternative way of cutting slices which may facilitate electrophysiological/neuropharmacological or fluorometric studies on superficial neurons.

  10. GABA B receptor modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission onto rat CA3 hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lei, Saobo; McBain, Chris J

    2003-01-15

    Hippocampal stratum radiatum inhibitory interneurons receive glutamatergic excitatory innervation via the recurrent collateral fibers of CA3 pyramidal neurons and GABAergic inhibition from other interneurons. We examined both presynaptic- and postsynaptic-GABA(B) receptor-mediated responses at both synapse types. Postsynaptic GABA(B) receptor-mediated responses were absent in recordings from young (P16-18) but present in recordings from older animals (> or =P30) suggesting developmental regulation. In young animals, the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen, inhibited the amplitude of evoked EPSCs and IPSCs, an effect blocked by prior application of the selective antagonist CGP55845. Baclofen enhanced the paired-pulse ratio and coefficient of variation of evoked EPSCs and IPSCs, consistent with a presynaptic mechanism of regulation. In addition, baclofen reduced the frequency of miniature IPSCs but not mEPSCs. However, baclofen reduced the frequency of KCl-induced mEPSCs; an effect blocked by Cd(2+), implicating presynaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels as a target for baclofen modulation. In contrast, although Cd(2+) prevented the KCl-induced increase in mIPSC frequency, it failed to block baclofen's reduction of mIPSC frequency. Whereas N- and P/Q-types of Ca(2+) channels contributed equally to GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition of EPSCs, more P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels were involved in GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition of IPSCs. Finally, baclofen blocked the frequency-dependent depression of EPSCs and IPSCs, but was less effective at blocking frequency-dependent facilitation of EPSCs. Our results demonstrate that presynaptic GABA(B) receptors are expressed on the terminals of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses onto CA3 interneurons and that their activation modulates essential components of the release process underlying transmission at these two synapse types.

  11. Network hyperexcitability in hippocampal slices from Mecp2 mutant mice revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging

    PubMed Central

    Calfa, Gaston; Hablitz, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Dysfunctions of neuronal and network excitability have emerged as common features in disorders associated with intellectual disabilities, autism, and seizure activity, all common clinical manifestations of Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Here, we evaluated the consequences of Mecp2 mutation on hippocampal network excitability, as well as synapse structure and function using a combination of imaging and electrophysiological approaches in acute slices. Imaging the amplitude and spatiotemporal spread of neuronal depolarizations with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD) revealed that the CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampal slices from symptomatic male Mecp2 mutant mice are highly hyperexcitable. However, only the density of docked synaptic vesicles and the rate of release from the readily releasable pool are impaired in Mecp2 mutant mice, while synapse density and morphology are unaffected. The differences in network excitability were not observed in surgically isolated CA1 minislices, and blockade of GABAergic inhibition enhanced VSD signals to the same extent in Mecp2 mutant and wild-type mice, suggesting that network excitability originates in area CA3. Indeed, extracellular multiunit recordings revealed a higher level of spontaneous firing of CA3 pyramidal neurons in slices from symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice. The neuromodulator adenosine reduced the amplitude and spatiotemporal spread of VSD signals evoked in CA1 of Mecp2 mutant slices to wild-type levels, suggesting its potential use as an anticonvulsant in RTT individuals. The present results suggest that hyperactive CA3 pyramidal neurons contribute to hippocampal dysfunction and possibly to limbic seizures observed in Mecp2 mutant mice and RTT individuals. PMID:21307327

  12. Modulation of LTP at rat hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses by direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, F; Podda, M V; Riccardi, E; Frisullo, G; Dileone, M; Profice, P; Pilato, F; Di Lazzaro, V; Grassi, C

    2012-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can produce a lasting polarity-specific modulation of cortical excitability in the brain, and it is increasingly used in experimental and clinical settings. Recent studies suggest that the after-effects of tDCS are related to molecular mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here we investigated the effect of DCS on the induction of one of the most studied N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. We show that DCS applied to rat brain slices determines a modulation of LTP that is increased by anodal and reduced by cathodal DCS. Immediate early genes, such as c-fos and zif268 (egr1/NGFI-A/krox24), are rapidly induced following neuronal activation, and a specific role of zif268 in the induction and maintenance of LTP has been demonstrated. We found that both anodal and cathodal DCS produce a marked subregion-specific increase in the expression of zif268 protein in the cornus ammonis (CA) region, whereas the same protocols of stimulation produce a less pronounced increase in c-fos protein expression in the CA and in dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression was also investigated, and it was found to be reduced in cathodal-stimulated slices. The present data demonstrate that it is possible to modulate LTP by using DCS and provide the rationale for the use of DCS in neurological diseases to promote the adaptive and suppress the maladaptive forms of brain plasticity.

  13. Temporal sequence compression by an integrate-and-fire model of hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    August, D A; Levy, W B

    1999-01-01

    Cells in the rat hippocampus fire as a function of the animal's location in space. Thus, a rat moving through the world produces a statistically reproducible sequence of "place cell" firings. With this perspective, spatial navigation can be viewed as a sequence learning problem for the hippocampus. That is, learning entails associating the relationships among a sequence of places that are represented by a sequence of place cell firing. Recent experiments by McNaughton and colleagues suggest the hippocampus can recall a sequence of place cell firings at a faster rate than it was experienced. This speedup, which occurs during slow-wave sleep, is called temporal compression. Here, we show that a simplified model of hippocampal area CA3, based on integrate-and-fire cells and unsupervised Hebbian learning, reproduces this temporal compression. The amount of compression is proportional to the activity level during recall and to the relative timespan of associativity during learning. Compression seems to arise from an alteration of network dynamics between learning and recall. During learning, the dynamics are paced by external input and slowed by a low overall level of activity. During recall, however, external input is absent, and the dynamics are controlled by intrinsic network properties. Raising the activity level by lowering inhibition increases the rate at which the network can transition between previously learned states and thereby produces temporal compression. The tendency for speeding up future activations, however, is limited by the temporal range of associations that were present during learning.

  14. Properties and functional implications of I (h) in hippocampal area CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warren D; Galván, Emilio J; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Thiels, Edda; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2011-12-01

    The present study examines the biophysical properties and functional implications of I (h) in hippocampal area CA3 interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare. Characterization studies showed a small maximum h-conductance (2.6 ± 0.3 nS, n = 11), shallow voltage dependence with a hyperpolarized half-maximal activation (V (1/2) = -91 mV), and kinetics characterized by double-exponential functions. The functional consequences of I (h) were examined with regard to temporal summation and impedance measurements. For temporal summation experiments, 5-pulse mossy fiber input trains were activated. Blocking I (h) with 50 μM ZD7288 resulted in an increase in temporal summation, suggesting that I (h) supports sensitivity of response amplitude to relative input timing. Impedance was assessed by applying sinusoidal current commands. From impedance measurements, we found that I (h) did not confer theta-band resonance, but flattened the impedance-frequency relations instead. Double immunolabeling for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated proteins and glutamate decarboxylase 67 suggests that all four subunits are present in GABAergic interneurons from the strata considered for electrophysiological studies. Finally, a model of I (h) was employed in computational analyses to confirm and elaborate upon the contributions of I (h) to impedance and temporal summation.

  15. Persistent current oscillations produced by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Aniksztejn, L; Sciancalepore, M; Ben Ari, Y; Cherubini, E

    1995-04-01

    1. The single-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to study the effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) agonist 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD, ACPD, 3-10 microM) on CA3 hippocampal neurons during the 1st 10 days of postnatal (P) life and in adulthood. 2. Repeated applications of 1S,3R-ACPD, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM), tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl 10 mM), and CsCl (2 mM), induced in immature but not in adult neurons periodic inward currents (PICs) that persisted for several hours after the last application of the agonist. 3. PICs, which were generated by nonspecific cationic currents, reversed polarity at 2.8 +/- 3 (SD) mV. They were reversibly blocked by kynurenic acid (1 mM), suggesting that they were mediated by glutamate acting on ionotropic receptors. They were also abolished in a nominally Ca(2+)-free medium. 4. PICs were irreversibly abolished by thapsigargin (10 microM) but were unaffected by ryanodine (10-40 microM). Caffeine (2 mM) also reversibly blocked PICs; this effect was independent from adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation, inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ current, or blockade of adenosine receptors. 5. We suggest that, in neonatal slices, mGluRs-induced PICs are triggered by elevation of [Ca2+]i, after mobilization of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive stores. This will lead to a persistent, pulsatile release of glutamate from presynaptic nerve terminals, a phenomenon that is probably maintained via a calcium-induced-calcium release process.

  16. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  17. Influence of slow oscillation on hippocampal activity and ripples through cortico-hippocampal synaptic interactions, analyzed by a cortical-CA3-CA1 network model

    PubMed Central

    Taxidis, Jiannis; Mizuseki, Kenji; Mason, Robert; Owen, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SWRs) involve the synchronous discharge of thousands of cells throughout the CA3-CA1-subiculum-entorhinal cortex axis. Their strong transient output affects cortical targets, rendering SWRs a possible means for memory transfer from the hippocampus to the neocortex for long-term storage. Neurophysiological observations of hippocampal activity modulation by the cortical slow oscillation (SO) during deep sleep and anesthesia, and correlations between ripples and UP states, support the role of SWRs in memory consolidation through a cortico-hippocampal feedback loop. We couple a cortical network exhibiting SO with a hippocampal CA3-CA1 computational network model exhibiting SWRs, in order to model such cortico-hippocampal correlations and uncover important parameters and coupling mechanisms controlling them. The cortical oscillatory output entrains the CA3 network via connections representing the mossy fiber input, and the CA1 network via the temporoammonic pathway (TA). The spiking activity in CA3 and CA1 is shown to depend on the excitation-to-inhibition ratio, induced by combining the two hippocampal inputs, with mossy fiber input controlling the UP-state correlation of CA3 population bursts and corresponding SWRs, whereas the temporoammonic input affects the overall CA1 spiking activity. Ripple characteristics and pyramidal spiking participation to SWRs are shaped by the strength of the Schaffer collateral drive. A set of in vivo recordings from the rat hippocampus confirms a model-predicted segregation of pyramidal cells into subgroups according to the SO state where they preferentially fire and their response to SWRs. These groups can potentially play distinct functional roles in the replay of spike sequences. PMID:23386827

  18. Inhibition dominates in shaping spontaneous CA3 hippocampal network activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ernest C Y; Zhang, Liang; Skinner, Frances K

    2009-02-01

    We have assessed the balance of excitation and inhibition in in vitro rodent hippocampal slices exhibiting spontaneous, basal sharp waves (bSPWs). A defining signature of a network exhibiting bSPWs is the rise and fall in local field activities with frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 Hz. This variation of extracellular local field activities manifests at the intracellular level as postsynaptic potentials (PSPs). In correspondence with the local field bSPWs, we consider "sparse" and "synchronous" parts of bSPWs at the intracellular level. We have used intracellular data of bSPW-associated PSPs together with mathematical extraction techniques to quantify the mean and variance of synaptic conductances that a neuron experiences during bSPW episodes. We find that inhibitory conductances dominate in pyramidal cells and in a putative interneuron, and that inhibitory variances are much greater than excitatory ones during synchronous parts of bSPWs. Specifically, we find that there is at least a twofold increase in inhibitory conductance dominance from "sparse" to "synchronous" bSPW states and that this transition is associated with inhibitory fluctuations of greater than 10% of the change in mean inhibitory conductance. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that such inhibitory fluctuations during transition may be a physiological feature of systems expressing such population activities. In summary, our results provide a quantified basis for understanding the interaction of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal subpopulations in bSPW activities.

  19. Myricetin protects hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and improves learning and memory impairments in rats with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Matin; Darbandi, Niloufar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Hashemi, Azam

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no treatment for effectively slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease, so early prevention is very important. Numerous studies have shown that flavonoids can improve memory impairment. The present study investigated the effects of myricetin, a member of the flavonoids, on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced neuronal loss and memory impairment in rat models of Alzheimer's disease. Myricetin at 5 or 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into rats over 21 days. Control rats were treated with 10 mL/kg saline. Behavioral test (the shuttle box test) was performed on day 22 to examine learning and memory in rats. Immediately after that, hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the morphological change in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Myricetin greatly increased the number of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and improved learning and memory impairments in rats with Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that myricetin is beneficial for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:28197195

  20. Impaired retention of spatial memory after transection of longitudinally oriented axons of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffenach, Hill-Aina; Sloviter, Robert S.; Moser, Edvard I.; Moser, May-Britt

    2002-03-01

    Longitudinally oriented axon collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells may be critical for integrating distributed information in the hippocampus. To investigate the possible role of this pathway in the retention of spatial memory, we made a single transversely oriented cut through the dorsal CA3 region of each hippocampus. Although the lesion involved <3% of the hippocampal volume, it nonetheless disrupted memory retention in a water maze in preoperatively trained rats. New learning in a different water maze was attenuated. No significant impairment occurred in rats with longitudinally oriented cuts, or in animals with ibotenic acid-induced lesions of similar magnitude. To characterize the effect of a focal lesion on the integrity of longitudinally projecting axons, we stained degenerating cells and fibers in rats with unilateral CA3 transections by using FluoroJade-B. Degenerating terminals were seen across a wide region posterior to the cut, and were present in the strata of areas CA3 and CA1 that are innervated by CA3 pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the integrity of longitudinally oriented, translamellar axons of CA3 pyramidal cells may be necessary for efficient acquisition and retention of spatial memory.

  1. Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kellie A.; Ribic, Adema; Laage Gaupp, Fabian M.; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; Dulla, Chris G.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-01-01

    Select adhesion proteins control the development of synapses and modulate their structural and functional properties. Despite these important roles, the extent to which different synapse-organizing mechanisms act across brain regions to establish connectivity and regulate network properties is incompletely understood. Further, their functional roles in different neuronal populations remain to be defined. Here, we applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a modality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to map connectivity changes in knock-out (KO) mice lacking the synaptogenic cell adhesion protein SynCAM 1. This identified reduced fractional anisotropy in the hippocampal CA3 area in absence of SynCAM 1. In agreement, mossy fiber refinement in CA3 was impaired in SynCAM 1 KO mice. Mossy fibers make excitatory inputs onto postsynaptic specializations of CA3 pyramidal neurons termed thorny excrescences and these structures were smaller in the absence of SynCAM 1. However, the most prevalent targets of mossy fibers are GABAergic interneurons and SynCAM 1 loss unexpectedly reduced the number of excitatory terminals onto parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in CA3. SynCAM 1 KO mice additionally exhibited lower postsynaptic GluA1 expression in these PV-positive interneurons. These synaptic imbalances in SynCAM 1 KO mice resulted in CA3 disinhibition, in agreement with reduced feedforward inhibition in this network in the absence of SynCAM 1-dependent excitatory drive onto interneurons. In turn, mice lacking SynCAM 1 were impaired in memory tasks involving CA3. Our results support that SynCAM 1 modulates excitatory mossy fiber inputs onto both interneurons and principal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area to balance network excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study advances our understanding of synapse-organizing mechanisms on two levels. First, the data support that synaptogenic proteins guide connectivity and can function in distinct brain regions even if they are

  2. The Control of Seizure-Like Activity in the Rat Hippocampal Slice

    PubMed Central

    Khosravani, Houman; Carlen, Peter L.; Velazquez, Jose L. Perez

    2003-01-01

    The sudden and transient hypersynchrony of neuronal firing that characterizes epileptic seizures can be considered as the transitory stabilization of metastable states present within the dynamical repertoire of a neuronal network. Using an in vitro model of recurrent spontaneous seizures in the rat horizontal hippocampal slice preparation, we present an approach to characterize the dynamics of the transition to seizure, and to use this information to control the activity and avoid the occurrence of seizure-like events. The transition from the interictal activity (between seizures) to the seizure-like event is aborted by brief (20–50 s) low-frequency (0.5 Hz) periodic forcing perturbations, applied via an extracellular stimulating electrode to the mossy fibers, the axons of the dentate neurons that synapse onto the CA3 pyramidal cells. This perturbation results in the stabilization of an interictal-like low-frequency firing pattern in the hippocampal slice. The results derived from this work shed light on the dynamics of the transition to seizure and will further the development of algorithms that can be used in automated devices to stop seizure occurrence. PMID:12524321

  3. Measurement of Inositol Triphosphate Levels from Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Inositol triphosphate (IP3) is an important second messenger that participates in signal transduction pathways in diverse cell types including hippocampal neurons. Stimulation of phospholipase C in response to various stimuli (hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, neuromodulators, odorants, light, etc) results in hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane, and leads to the production of IP3 and diacylglycerol. Binding of IP3 to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) induces Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and enables the initiation of intracellular Ca2+-dependent signaling. Here we describe a procedure for the measurement of cellular IP3 levels in tissue homogenates prepared from rat hippocampal slices. PMID:27468425

  4. Influences of nanoparticle zinc oxide on acutely isolated rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxia; Xu, Lanju; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Guogang; Yang, Zhuo

    2009-03-01

    The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) on the properties of voltage-dependent sodium, potassium currents and evoked action potentials were studied in acutely isolated rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons at postnatal ages of 10-14 days rats using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results indicated that: (1) in the present of final concentration of 10(-4)g/ml nano-ZnO, the current-voltage curve of sodium current (I(Na)) was decreased, and the peak amplitudes of I(Na) were increased considerably from -50 to +20mV (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the inactivation and the recovery from inactivation of I(Na) were also promoted by the nano-ZnO solution (10(-4)g/ml) (p<0.01). However, the steady-state activation curve of I(Na) was not shifted by the nano-ZnO. (2) The amplitudes of transient outward potassium current (I(A)) were increased by the nano-ZnO solution (10(-4)g/ml), while the current-voltage curve of delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) was significantly increased from +20 to +90mV (p<0.05). However, it is apparent that the nano-ZnO solution did not shift the steady-state activation curve of I(A) and I(K), and neither had significant effects on the inactivation and the recovery from inactivation of I(A). (3) Peak amplitude and overshoot of the evoked single action potential were increased and half-width was diminished in the presence of the 10(-4)g/ml nano-ZnO solution (p<0.05). Simultaneously, a prolonged depolarizing current injection enhanced (p<0.05) repetitive firing evoked firing rate. These results suggested that 10(-4)g/ml nano-ZnO solution can lead to an enhancement in the current amplitudes of I(Na) and I(K) by increasing the opening number of sodium channels, delaying rectifier potassium channels, and enhancing the excitability of neurons, which lead to Na(+) influx and the accumulation of intracellular Na(+), as well as K(+) efflux plus the loss of cytoplasmic K(+). These may disturb the ionic homeostasis and the physiological

  5. Atorvastatin enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengzhang; Wang, Jiangang; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Yali; Liu, Zhihua; Guo, Fang Li; Wang, Xiao Fang; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Lu, Cheng Biao

    2016-09-01

    Atorvastatin has been shown to affect cognitive functions in rodents and humans. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Because hippocampal gamma oscillations (γ, 20-80 Hz) are associated with cognitive functions, we studied the effect of atorvastatin on persistent kainate-induced γ oscillation in the CA3 area of rat hippocampal slices. The involvement of NMDA receptors and multiple kinases was tested before and after administration of atorvastatin. Whole-cell current-clamp and voltage-clamp recordings were made from CA3 pyramidal neurons and interneurons before and after atorvastatin application. Atorvastatin increased γ power by ~ 50% in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting dominant frequency. Whereas atorvastatin did not affect intrinsic properties of both pyramidal neurons and interneurons, it increased the firing frequency of interneurons but not that of pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, whereas atorvastatin did not affect synaptic current amplitude, it increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents, but did not affect the frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents. The atorvastatin-induced enhancement of γ oscillations was prevented by pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor H89, the ERK inhibitor U0126, or the PI3K inhibitor wortmanin, but not by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that atorvastatin enhanced the kainate-induced γ oscillation by increasing interneuron excitability, with an involvement of multiple intracellular kinase pathways. Our study suggests that the classical cholesterol-lowering agent atorvastatin may improve cognitive functions compromised in disease, via the enhancement of hippocampal γ oscillations.

  6. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lily M. Y.; Wintzer, Marie E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures. PMID:27022627

  7. Single granule cells reliably discharge targets in the hippocampal CA3 network in vivo.

    PubMed

    Henze, Darrell A; Wittner, Lucia; Buzsáki, György

    2002-08-01

    Processing of neuronal information depends on interactions between the anatomical connectivity and cellular properties of single cells. We examined how these computational building blocks work together in the intact rat hippocampus. Single spikes in dentate granule cells, controlled intracellularly, generally failed to discharge either interneurons or CA3 pyramidal cells. In contrast, trains of spikes effectively discharged both CA3 cell types. Increasing the discharge rate of the granule cell increased the discharge probability of its target neuron and decreased the delay between the onset of a granule cell train and evoked firing in postsynaptic targets. Thus, we conclude that the granule cell to CA3 synapses are 'conditional detonators,' dependent on granule cell firing pattern. In addition, we suggest that information in single granule cells is converted into a temporal delay code in target CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons. These data demonstrate how a neural circuit of the CNS may process information.

  8. Hippocampal CA3 activation alleviates fMRI-BOLD responses in the rat prefrontal cortex induced by electrical VTA stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain- wide networks that are activated by electrical stimulation of either the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or hippocampal CA3 region. Stimulation of either one of these regions caused significant BOLD responses in common structures, such as the septum and left and right hippocampus, but also in unique structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex region/anterior cingulum region (mPFC/ACC) and striatum, which were only activated during VTA stimulation. Concurrent stimulations of the two structures resulted in no additive BOLD responses but significantly reduced BOLD responses in the mPFC/ACC when compared with sole VTA stimulation. This reduction is caused by costimulation of the hippocampal CA3 region, which was itself not sufficient to modify BOLD signal intensities in the mPFC/ACC. Under this experimental condition, functional connectivity between VTA and mPFC/ACC in terms of neurophysiological interactions was causative, driven by direct electrical stimulation of VTA projecting neurons, the resulting functional connectivity in terms of correlated BOLD time series becoming masked as soon as hippocampal projections concurrently coactivated mPFC neurons. This result warns against misinterpretation of the absence of functional connectivity in fMRI data sets, because strong existing neurophysiological interactions can be obscured by unrelated network activities. PMID:28241047

  9. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions. PMID:28115973

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  11. GABAB and adenosine receptors mediate enhancement of the K+ current, IAHP, by reducing adenylyl cyclase activity in rat CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gerber, U; Gähwiler, B H

    1994-11-01

    1. Gamma-aminobuturic acid-B (GABAB) and adenosine A1 receptors, which are expressed in hippocampal pyramidal cells, are linked to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins known to be coupled negatively to the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. This study investigates the electrophysiological consequences of adenylyl cyclase inhibition in response to stimulation of these receptors. 2. Single-electrode voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slice cultures in presence of tetrodotoxin. The calcium-dependent potassium current (IAHP), which is very sensitive to intracellular levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used as an electrophysiological indicator of adenylyl cyclase activity. 3. Application of baclofen (10 microM), a selective agonist at GABAB receptors, or adenosine (50 microM) each resulted in a transient decrease followed by a significant enhancement in the amplitude of evoked IAHP. The initial reduction in amplitude of IAHP probably reflects inadequacies in voltage clamp of electronically distant dendritic sites, due to the shunting caused by concomitant activation of potassium conductance by baclofen/adenosine. Comparable increases in membrane conductance in response to the GABAA agonist, muscimol, caused a similar reduction in IAHP. The enhancement of IAHP is consistent with an inhibition of constitutively active adenylyl cyclase. 4. The receptor mediating the responses to adenosine was identified as belonging to the A1 subtype on the basis of its sensitivity to the selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Different input and output properties characterize parvalbumin-positive basket and Axo-axonic cells in the hippocampal CA3 subfield.

    PubMed

    Papp, Orsolya I; Karlócai, Mária R; Tóth, Irén E; Freund, Tamás F; Hájos, Norbert

    2013-10-01

    In the hippocampus, parvalbumin-expressing basket (BC) and axo-axonic cells (AAC) show different discharge patterns during distinct network states, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these differences are not well understood. Using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, we investigated the single-cell properties and excitatory synaptic features of anatomically identified BCs and AACs in the CA3 region of mouse hippocampal slices. The results showed that BCs had lower threshold for action potential (AP) generation and lower input resistance, narrower AP and afterhyperpolarization than AACs. In addition, BCs fired with higher frequencies and with more modest accommodation compared with AACs. The kinetic properties of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC), the rectification of AMPA receptor-mediated currents, the fraction of the NMDA receptor-mediated component in EPSCs, and the EPSC magnitude necessary to evoke an AP were similar in both cell types. However, smaller excitatory postsynaptic potential and lower intensity fiber stimulation in stratum oriens was necessary to drive firing in BCs. Moreover, the rate of spontaneous EPSCs in BCs was higher than in AACs. Neurolucida analysis revealed that the dendrites of BCs in strata radiatum and oriens were longer and more extensively ramified. Since the density of the excitatory synapses was estimated to be comparable in both cell types, we conclude that the more elaborated dendritic arbor of BCs ensures that they receive a larger number of proximal excitatory inputs. Thus, CA3 pyramidal cells more profoundly innervate BCs than AACs, which could explain, at least in part, their distinct spiking behavior under different hippocampal network activities.

  13. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  14. Melatonin protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation by decreasing extracellular glutamate and Nox-derived ROS in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Paloma; Parada, Esther; Farré-Alins, Victor; Molz, Simone; Cacabelos, Ramón; Marco-Contelles, José; López, Manuela G; Tasca, Carla I; Ramos, Eva; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic interventions on pathological processes involved in the ischemic cascade, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and/or apoptosis, are of urgent need for stroke treatment. Melatonin regulates a large number of physiological actions and its beneficial properties have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin mediates neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) and glutamate excitotoxicity. Thus, we describe here that melatonin significantly reduced the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released in the OGD-treated slices, reverted neuronal injury caused by OGD-reoxygenation in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, restored the reduction of GSH content of the hippocampal slices induced by OGD, and diminished the oxidative stress produced in the reoxygenation period. Furthermore, melatonin afforded maximum protection against glutamate-induced toxicity and reversed the glutamate released almost basal levels, at 10 and 30μM concentration, respectively. Consequently, we propose that melatonin might strongly and positively influence the outcome of brain ischemia/reperfusion.

  15. CREB Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Administration into the Dorsal Hippocampal CA3 Region Impairs Long- but Not Short-Term Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Cedrick; Mons, Nicole; Roullet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) has a pivotal role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. We recently demonstrated that the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region is involved in memory consolidation of spatial information tested on a Morris water maze in mice. To test whether…

  16. Electroosmotic sampling. Application to determination of ectopeptidase activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongjuan; Guy, Yifat; Hamsher, Amy; Shi, Guoyue; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesize that peptide-containing solutions pulled through tissue should reveal the presence and activity of peptidases in the tissue. Using the natural zeta-potential in the organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC), physiological fluids can be pulled through the tissue with an electric field. The hydrolysis of the peptides present in the fluid drawn through the tissue can be determined using capillary HPLC with electrochemical detection of the biuret complexes of the peptides following a postcolumn reaction. We have characterized this new sampling method by measuring the flow rate, examining the use of internal standards, and examining cell death caused by sampling. The sampling flow rate ranges from 60 to 150 nL/min with a 150 microm (ID) sampling capillary with an electric field (at the tip of the capillary) from 30 to 60 V/cm. Cell death can be negligible with controlled sampling conditions. Using this sampling approach, we have electroosmotically pulled Leu-enkephalin through OHSCs to identify ectopeptidase activity in the CA3 region. These studies show that a bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidase may be critical for the hydrolysis of exogenous Leu-enkephalin, a neuropeptide present in the CA3 region of OHSCs.

  17. Electroosmotic Sampling. Application to Determination of Ectopeptidase Activity in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongjuan; Guy, Yifat; Hamsher, Amy; Shi, Guoyue; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that peptide-containing solutions pulled through tissue should reveal the presence and activity of peptidases in the tissue. Using the natural ζ-potential in the organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC), physiological fluids can be pulled through the tissue with an electric field. The hydrolysis of the peptides present in the fluid drawn through the tissue can be determined using capillary HPLC with electrochemical detection of the biuret complexes of the peptides following a postcolumn reaction. We have characterized this new sampling method by measuring the flow rate, examining the use of internal standards, and examining cell death caused by sampling. The sampling flow rate ranges from 60 to 150 nL/min with a 150 μm (ID) sampling capillary with an electric field (at the tip of the capillary) from 30 to 60 V/cm. Cell death can be negligible with controlled sampling conditions. Using this sampling approach, we have electroosmotically pulled Leu-enkephalin through OHSCs to identify ectopeptidase activity in the CA3 region. These studies show that a bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidase may be critical for the hydrolysis of exogenous Leu-enkephalin, a neuropeptide present in the CA3 region of OHSCs. PMID:20669992

  18. Transgenic inhibition of synaptic transmission reveals role of CA3 output in hippocampal learning.

    PubMed

    Nakashiba, Toshiaki; Young, Jennie Z; McHugh, Thomas J; Buhl, Derek L; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2008-02-29

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain involved in learning and memory. It contains parallel excitatory pathways referred to as the trisynaptic pathway (which carries information as follows: entorhinal cortex --> dentate gyrus --> CA3 --> CA1 --> entorhinal cortex) and the monosynaptic pathway (entorhinal cortex --> CA1 --> entorhinal cortex). We developed a generally applicable tetanus toxin-based method for transgenic mice that permits inducible and reversible inhibition of synaptic transmission and applied it to the trisynaptic pathway while preserving transmission in the monosynaptic pathway. We found that synaptic output from CA3 in the trisynaptic pathway is dispensable and the short monosynaptic pathway is sufficient for incremental spatial learning. In contrast, the full trisynaptic pathway containing CA3 is required for rapid one-trial contextual learning, for pattern completion-based memory recall, and for spatial tuning of CA1 cells.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 is essential for LPS-induced sensitization and tolerance to oxygen-glucose deprivation in murine neonatal organotypic hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Markus, Tina; Cronberg, Tobias; Cilio, Corrado; Pronk, Cornelis; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Ley, David

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and ischemia have a synergistic damaging effect in the immature brain. The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors 1 and 2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sensitization and tolerance to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was evaluated in neonatal murine hippocampal organotypic slices. Hippocampal slices from balb/c, C57BL/6 TNFR1(-/-), TNFR2(-/-), and wild-type (WT) mice obtained at P6 were grown in vitro for 9 days. Preexposure to LPS immediately before OGD increased propidium iodide-determined cell death in regions CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus from 4 up to 48 h after OGD (P<0.001). Extending the time interval between LPS exposure and OGD to 72 h resulted in tolerance, that is reduced neuronal cell death after OGD (P<0.05). Slices from TNFR1(-/-) mice showed neither LPS-induced sensitization nor LPS-induced tolerance to OGD, whereas both effects were present in slices from TNFR2(-/-) and WT mice. Cytokine secretion (TNFalpha and interleukin-6) during LPS exposure was decreased in TNFR1(-/-) slices and increased in TNFR2(-/-) as compared with WT slices. We conclude that LPS induces sensitization or tolerance to OGD depending on the time interval between exposure to LPS and OGD in murine hippocampal slice cultures. Both paradigms are dependent on signaling through TNFR1.

  20. Copper Inhibits NMDA Receptor-Independent LTP and Modulates the Paired-Pulse Ratio after LTP in Mouse Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Weber, Nina L.; Smith, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    Copper misregulation has been implicated in the pathological processes underlying deterioration of learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Supporting this, inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) by copper (II) has been well established, but the exact mechanism is poorly characterized. It is thought that an interaction between copper and postsynaptic NMDA receptors is a major part of the mechanism; however, in this study, we found that copper (II) inhibited NMDA receptor-independent LTP in the CA3 region of hippocampal slices. In addition, in the CA3 and CA1 regions, copper modulated the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) in an LTP-dependent manner. Combined, this suggests the involvement of a presynaptic mechanism in the modulation of synaptic plasticity by copper. Inhibition of the copper-dependent changes in the PPR with cyclothiazide suggested that this may involve an interaction with the presynaptic AMPA receptors that regulate neurotransmitter release. PMID:22028985

  1. Delivery of recombinant alphavirus into hippocampal slice tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2012-08-01

    The alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) have been used frequently as expression vectors in vitro and in vivo. Usually, these systems consist of replication-deficient vectors that require a helper vector for packaging of recombinant particles. Replication-proficient vectors have also been engineered. Alphaviral vectors can be used as nucleic-acid-based vectors (DNA and RNA) or infectious particles. High-titer viral production is achieved in <2 d. The broad host range of alphaviruses facilitates studies in mammalian and nonmammalian cell lines, primary cells in culture, and in vivo. The strong preference for expression in neuronal cells has made alphaviruses particularly useful in neurobiological studies. Unfortunately, their strong cytotoxic effect on host cells, relatively short-term transient expression patterns, and the reasonably high cost of viral production remain drawbacks. However, novel mutant alphaviruses have shown reduced cytotoxicity and prolonged expression. This protocol describes gene delivery of recombinant alphavirus to hippocampal slice cultures. Organotypic slices are covered by a layer of glial cells that impedes the penetration of viral particles to the neurons. Thus, viral particles should be injected manually into the extracellular space of the tissue.

  2. Medium afterhyperpolarization and firing pattern modulation in interneurons of stratum radiatum in the CA3 hippocampal region.

    PubMed

    Savić, N; Pedarzani, P; Sciancalepore, M

    2001-05-01

    Stratum (st.) radiatum interneurons represent a heterogeneous class of hippocampal cells with as yet poorly characterized physiological properties. Intracellular staining with biocytin, in situ hybridization, and patch-clamp recording have been combined to investigate the morphological and electrophysiological properties of these cells in the CA3 hippocampal region in young rats [postnatal days 10 to 21 (P10-21)]. Labeled cells presented a heterogeneous morphology with various soma shapes, often found multipolar, and dendritic arborizations confined to st. radiatum. The passive membrane properties of these st. radiatum interneurons showed instead no significant differences between P10 and P21. Low resting potential, high-input resistance, and short time constants characterized CA3 st. radiatum interneurons, which were silent at rest. Action potentials, elicited by brief current pulses, were lower and shorter than in pyramidal cells and followed by a Ca(2+)-dependent medium-duration afterhyperpolarizing potential (mAHP). Prolonged depolarizing current injection generated trains of action potentials that fired at constant frequency after a slight accommodation. The maximum steady-state firing rate was 31 +/- 4 (SD) Hz. Hyperpolarizing current pulses revealed a prominent inward rectification characterized by a "sag," followed by a depolarizing rebound that triggered action potentials. Sag and anodal brake excitation were blocked by Cs(+), suggesting that they were mediated by a hyperpolarization-activated cation conductance (I(h)). In the presence of tetrodotoxin and tetraethylammonium, biphasic tail currents were elicited in voltage clamp after a depolarizing step inducing Ca(2+) influx. Tail currents presented a fast Ca(2+)-activated and apamin-sensitive component (I(AHP)) and were further reduced by carbachol. The presence of I(AHP) was consistent with the high expression level of the apamin-sensitive SK2 subunit transcript in CA3 st. radiatum interneurons as

  3. Postpartum corticosterone administration reduces dendritic complexity and increases the density of mushroom spines of hippocampal CA3 arbours in dams.

    PubMed

    Workman, J L; Brummelte, S; Galea, L A M

    2013-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers after giving birth. A complete understanding of depression during the postpartum period has yet to be established, although disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress during the postpartum may be involved. To model these components in rats, we administered high corticosterone (CORT) postpartum, which increases immobility in the forced swim test (FST), and reduces maternal care, body weight and hippocampal cell proliferation in dams. The hippocampus is altered in response to chronic stress, exposure to high glucocorticoids and in major depression in humans. In the present study, we examined whether high CORT reduced dendritic complexity and spines in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Additionally, housing complexity was manipulated so that dams and litters were housed either with tubes (complex) or without tubes (impoverished) to investigate the consequences of new animal care regulations. Dams received 40 mg/kg/day of CORT or oil starting on day 2 postpartum for 23 days. Maternal behaviours were assessed on postpartum days 2-8 and dams were tested using the FST on days 21 and 22. Dams were killed on day 24 and brains were processed for Golgi impregnation. Pyramidal cells in the CA3 subfield were traced using a camera lucida and analysed for branch points and dendritic complexity, as well as spine density and type on both basal and apical arbours. As previously established, high CORT postpartum reduced maternal care and increased immobility in the FST, which is a measure of depressive-like behaviour. High CORT postpartum reduced the complexity of basal arbours and increased mushroom spines on both apical and basal dendrites. Housing complexity had no effect on spines of CA3 pyramidal cells but modest effects on cell morphology. These data show that chronic high CORT in postpartum females alters hippocampal morphology and may provide insight regarding the neurobiological

  4. Critical involvement of postsynaptic protein kinase activation in LTP at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Emilio J.; Cosgrove, Kathleen E.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Card, J. Patrick; Thiels, Edda; Meriney, Stephen D.; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses on area CA3 lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons are capable of undergoing a Hebbian form of NMDAR-independent LTP induced by the same type of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) that induces LTP at MF synapses on pyramidal cells. LTP of MF input to L-M interneurons occurs only at synapses containing mostly calcium impermeable (CI)-AMPARs. Here, we demonstrate that HFS-induced LTP at these MF-interneuron synapses requires postsynaptic activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Brief extracellular stimulation of PKA with forskolin (FSK) alone or in combination with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) induced a long-lasting synaptic enhancement at MF synapses predominantly containing CI-AMPARs. However, the FSK/IBMX-induced potentiation in cells loaded with the specific PKA inhibitor peptide PKI6–22 failed to be maintained. Consistent with these data, delivery of HFS to MFs synapsing onto L-M interneurons loaded with PKI6–22 induced posttetanic potentation (PTP) but not LTP. Hippocampal sections stained for the catalytic subunit of PKA revealed abundant immunoreactivity in interneurons located in strata radiatum and L-M of area CA3. We also found that extracellular activation of PKC with phorbol 12,13-diacetate induced a pharmacological potentiation of the isolated CI-AMPAR component of the MF EPSP. However, HFS delivered to MF synapses on cells loaded with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine exhibited PTP followed by a significant depression. Together, our data indicate that MF LTP in L-M interneurons at synapses containing primarily CI-AMPARs requires some of the same signaling cascades as does LTP of glutamatergic input to CA3 or CA1 pyramidal cells. PMID:20181582

  5. Biophysical Properties of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels in CA3 Hippocampal Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obregón-Herrera, Armando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Onetti, Carlos G.

    2004-09-01

    Single-channel activity of glucose-sensitive channels from CA3 neurons of the rat hippocampus, was studied in cell-attached membrane patches. Single-channel activity was totally abolished at 20 mM external glucose. Glucose-sensitive channels were selective to K+ ions; the unitary conductance was 170 pS in 140 mM K+, and the K+ permeability was 3.86×10-13 cmṡs-1. The open-state probability (PO) increased with membrane depolarization as a result of mean open time enhancement and shortening of the closure periods. The activation midpoint was -79 mV. Glucose-sensitive K+ channel of CA3 neurons could be considered as an ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

  6. Temperature effects on evoked potentials of hippocampal slices from euthermic chipmunks, hamsters and rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, D. C.; Martin, S. M.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    1. Neural activity was recorded in hippocampal slices from euthermic chipmunks, hamsters and rats. 2. While recording the evoked potentials, the temperature of the Ringer's solution bathing the slice was varied by controlling the temperature of an outer chamber jacketing the recording chamber. 3. The temperature just below that at which a population spike could be evoked, Tt, was 10.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C (mean +/- SEM) for chipmunk slices, 14.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C for rat slices and 14.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C for hamster slices. Tt was significantly lower in the chipmunk slices (P<0.01) than in the rat and hamster slices. 4. Data were interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis that chipmunk hippocampal neurons are intrinsically cold resistant.

  7. A functionally active presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor in the rat hippocampal CA3 subregion.

    PubMed

    Malva, J O; Ambrósio, A F; Cunha, R A; Ribeiro, J A; Carvalho, A P; Carvalho, C M

    1995-02-09

    We studied the modulation of the intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) by kainate/AMPA receptor activation in synaptosomes isolated from whole rat hippocampus, or from its CA1, CA3 or dentate gyrus subregions. The receptor was activated either by 100 microM S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolopropionic acid (AMPA) (EC50 = 26.6 +/- 4.9 microM) or by 100 microM kainate (EC50 = 0.81 +/- 0.1 microM), but the effects of these agonists were not additive. The response to either AMPA or kainate was competitively inhibited by 10 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dioxine. Higher [Ca2+]i responses to 100 microM AMPA or to 100 microM kainate were observed in the CA3 subregion (43.2 +/- 2.5 nM or 42.8 +/- 2.3 nM, respectively) than in the whole hippocampus (22.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 22.4 +/- 1.6, respectively), in the CA1 subregion (26.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 26.6 +/- 2.6 nM, respectively) or in dentate gyrus (24.6 +/- 1.4 nM or 21.5 +/- 1.0 nM, respectively). These results indicate that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus is enriched in a presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor which modulates the [Ca2+]i in nerve terminals.

  8. Hyperexcitability in combined entorhinal/hippocampal slices of adult rat after exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, H E

    1997-08-01

    Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in area CA3, the dentate gyrus, and medial entorhinal cortex were examined electrophysiologically by bath application of BDNF in slices containing the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Bath application of 25-100 ng/ml BDNF for 30-90 min increased responses to single afferent stimuli in selective pathways in the majority of slices. In area CA3, responses to mossy fiber stimulation increased in 73% of slices and entorhinal cortex responses to white matter stimulation increased in 64% of slices. After exposure to BDNF, these areas also demonstrated evidence of hyperexcitability, because responses to repetitive stimulation (1-Hz paired pulses for several s) produced multiple population spikes in response to mossy fiber stimulation in CA3 or multiple field potentials in response to white matter stimulation in the entorhinal cortex. Repetitive field potentials persisted after repetitive stimulation ended and usually were followed by spreading depression. Enhancement of responses to single stimuli and hyperexcitability were never evoked in untreated slices or after bath application of boiled BDNF or cytochrome C. The tyrosine kinase antagonist K252a (2 microM) blocked the effects of BDNF. In area CA3, both the potentiation of responses to single stimuli and hyperexcitability showed afferent specificity, because responses to mossy fiber stimulation were affected but responses to fimbria or Schaffer collateral stimulation were not. In addition, regional specificity was demonstrated in that the dentate gyrus was much less affected. The effects of BDNF in area CA3 were similar to those produced by bath application of low doses of kainic acid, which is thought to modulate glutamate release from mossy fiber terminals by a presynaptic action. These results suggest that BDNF has acute effects on excitability in different areas of the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit. These effects appear to be greatest in areas that are highly

  9. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67-positive hippocampal interneurons undergo a permanent reduction in number following kainic acid-induced degeneration of ca3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A K; Turner, D A

    2001-06-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons leads to synaptic reorganization and hyperexcitability in both dentate gyrus and CA1 region of the hippocampus. We hypothesize that the substrate for hippocampal inhibitory circuitry incurs significant and permanent alterations following degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons. We quantified changes in interneuron density (N(v)) in all strata of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 subfields of adult rats at 1, 4, and 6 months following intracerebroventricular (icv) KA administration, using glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) immunocytochemistry. At 1 month postlesion, GAD-67-positive interneuron density was significantly reduced in all strata of every hippocampal region except stratum pyramidale of CA1. The reduction in GAD-67-positive interneuron density either persisted or exacerbated at 4 and 6 months postlesion in every stratum of all hippocampal regions. Further, the soma of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield showed significant hypertrophy. Thus, both permanent reductions in the density of GAD-67-positive interneurons in all hippocampal regions and somatic hypertrophy of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield occur following icv KA. In contrast, the density of interneurons visualized with Nissl in CA1 and CA3 regions was nearly equivalent to that in the intact hippocampus at all postlesion time points. Collectively, these results suggest that persistent reductions in GAD-67-positive interneuron density observed throughout the hippocampus following CA3 lesion are largely due to a permanent loss of GAD-67 expression in a significant fraction of interneurons, rather than widespread degeneration of interneurons. Nevertheless, a persistent decrease in interneuron activity, as evidenced by permanent down-regulation of GAD-67 in a major fraction of interneurons, would likely enhance the degree of hyperexcitability in the CA3

  10. Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

  11. Abnormal tau phosphorylation in the thorny excrescences of CA3 hippocampal neurons in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Ávila, Jesús; DeFelipe, Javier

    2011-01-01

    A key symptom in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of declarative memory. The anatomical substrate that supports this kind of memory involves the neural circuits of the medial temporal lobe, and in particular, of the hippocampal formation and adjacent cortex. A main feature of AD is the abnormal phosphorylation of the tau protein and the presence of tangles. The sequence of cellular changes related to tau phosphorylation and tangle formation has been studied with an antibody that binds to diffuse phosphotau (AT8). Moreover, another tau antibody (PHF-1) has been used to follow the pathway of neurofibrillary (tau aggregation) degeneration in AD. We have used a variety of quantitative immunocytochemical techniques and confocal microscopy to visualize and characterize neurons labeled with AT8 and PHF-1 antibodies. We present here the rather unexpected discovery that in AD, there is conspicuous abnormal phosphorylation of the tau protein in a selective subset of dendritic spines. We identified these spines as the typical thorny excrescences of hippocampal CA3 neurons in a pre-tangle state. Since thorny excrescences represent a major synaptic target of granule cell axons (mossy fibers), such aberrant phosphorylation may play an essential role in the memory impairment typical of AD patients.

  12. Multiple Kinases Involved in the Nicotinic Modulation of Gamma Oscillations in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, JianGang; He, XiaoLong; Guo, Fangli; Cheng, XiangLin; Wang, Yali; Wang, XiaoFang; Feng, ZhiWei; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Lu, ChengBiao

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal synchronization at gamma band frequency (20–80 Hz, γ oscillations) is closely associated with higher brain function, such as learning, memory and attention. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and modulate hippocampal γ oscillations, but the intracellular mechanism underlying such modulation remains elusive. We explored multiple kinases by which nicotine can modulate γ oscillations induced by kainate in rat hippocampal area CA3 in vitro. We found that inhibitors of cyclic AMP dependent kinase (protein kinase A, PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptors, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), each individually could prevent the γ oscillation-enhancing effect of 1 μM nicotine, whereas none of them affected baseline γ oscillation strength. Inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase Akt increased baseline γ oscillations and partially blocked its nicotinic enhancement. We propose that the PKA-NMDAR-PI3K-ERK pathway modifies cellular properties required for the nicotinic enhancement of γ oscillations, dependent on a PKC-ERK mediated pathway. These signaling pathways provide clues for restoring γ oscillations in pathological conditions affecting cognition. The suppression of γ oscillations at 100 μM nicotine was only dependent on PKA-NMDAR activation and may be due to very high intracellular calcium levels. PMID:28321180

  13. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-07

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns.

  14. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P.; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns. PMID:24344272

  15. Spatiotemporal evidence of apoptosis-mediated ischemic injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seongeun; Liu, Danni; Fairman, Denise; Li, Ping; Jenkins, Lorayne; McGonigle, Paul; Wood, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuron-specific cell death in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Neuronal death was first evident in the CA1 region 24 h after the injury as assessed by propidium iodide (PI) labeling, and continued to extend to the CA3/4 region up to 72 h. At 6 days post-OGD, PI labeling was weak and diffuse with no clear demarcation of pyknotic nuclei. To characterize biochemical changes produced by OGD, cellular efflux of three key amino acid neurotransmitters was evaluated. OGD elicited large increases in the release of GABA and aspartate (55- and 4.5-fold increase over basal, respectively), while there were no detectable changes in extracellular glutamate levels. In order to ascertain the existence of the synaptic pool of glutamate, sister cultures were treated with sodium azide. This evoked a strong increase in glutamate release, suggesting the intactness of the glutamate system. Further studies revealed a time-dependent activation of caspase 3 following OGD, shown by immunoblot analysis as well as by confocal laser scanning microscopy. While we did not observe the activation of caspases 1, 2, or 8 in our model, the activation of caspase 9 was evident, peaking at 12 h post-OGD. Despite no apparent increase in glutamate release by ischemic slices, treatment with a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist or an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) antagonist significantly reduced neuronal death. Furthermore, a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk), but not the caspase 3 inhibitor (DEVD-fmk), provided partial neuroprotection. Inhibition of a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease, calpain, by MDL28170 also elicited partial neuroprotective effects.

  16. Holographic Photolysis for Multiple Cell Stimulation in Mouse Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Ventalon, Cathie; Angulo, María Cecilia; Emiliani, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced light microscopy offers sensitive and non-invasive means to image neural activity and to control signaling with photolysable molecules and, recently, light-gated channels. These approaches require precise and yet flexible light excitation patterns. For synchronous stimulation of subsets of cells, they also require large excitation areas with millisecond and micrometric resolution. We have recently developed a new method for such optical control using a phase holographic modulation of optical wave-fronts, which minimizes power loss, enables rapid switching between excitation patterns, and allows a true 3D sculpting of the excitation volumes. In previous studies we have used holographic photololysis to control glutamate uncaging on single neuronal cells. Here, we extend the use of holographic photolysis for the excitation of multiple neurons and of glial cells. Methods/Principal Findings The system combines a liquid crystal device for holographic patterned photostimulation, high-resolution optical imaging, the HiLo microscopy, to define the stimulated regions and a conventional Ca2+ imaging system to detect neural activity. By means of electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in acute hippocampal slices, we show that the use of excitation patterns precisely tailored to the shape of multiple neuronal somata represents a very efficient way for the simultaneous excitation of a group of neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that fast shaped illumination patterns also induce reliable responses in single glial cells. Conclusions/Significance We show that the main advantage of holographic illumination is that it allows for an efficient excitation of multiple cells with a spatiotemporal resolution unachievable with other existing approaches. Although this paper focuses on the photoactivation of caged molecules, our approach will surely prove very efficient for other probes, such as light-gated channels, genetically encoded photoactivatable

  17. Pharmacological Intervention of Hippocampal CA3 NMDA Receptors Impairs Acquisition and Long-Term Memory Retrieval of Spatial Pattern Completion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellini, Laetitia; Florian, Cedrick; Courtey, Julie; Roullet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Pattern completion is the ability to retrieve complete information on the basis of incomplete retrieval cues. Although it has been demonstrated that this cognitive capacity depends on the NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) of the hippocampal CA3 region, the role played by these glutamatergic receptors in the pattern completion process has not yet been…

  18. An enzyme-entrapped agarose gel for visualization of ischemia-induced L-glutamate fluxes in hippocampal slices in a flow system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Shoji, Atushi; Sugawara, Masao

    2015-01-01

    An agarose gel slip containing L-glutamate oxidase (GluOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a dye DA-64 is proposed as a tool for visualizing ischemia-induced L-glutamate release in hippocampal slices in a flow system. The agarose slip with a detection limit of 6.0 ± 0.8 μmol L(-1) for L-glutamate enabled us to visualize L-glutamate fluxes in a flow system. The leak of a dye from the agarose gel was negligible and a diffusion blur due to spreading of Bindshedler's Green (BG) within the gel was suppressed. Monitoring the time-dependent change of ischemia-induced L-glutamate fluxes at neuronal regions CA1, DG and CA3 of hippocampal slices is demonstrated.

  19. Nitrous oxide directly inhibits action potential-dependent neurotransmission from single presynaptic boutons adhering to rat hippocampal CA3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahito; Kotani, Naoki; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Akaike, Norio

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of N2O on synaptic transmission using a preparation of mechanically dissociated rat hippocampal CA3 neurons that allowed assays of single bouton responses evoked from native functional nerve endings. We studied the effects of N2O on GABAA, glutamate, AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents (IGABA, IGlu, IAMPA and INMDA) elicited by exogenous application of GABA, glutamate, (S)-AMPA, and NMDA and spontaneous, miniature, and evoked GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (sIPSC, mIPSC, eIPSC, sEPSC, mEPSC and eEPSC) in mechanically dissociated CA3 neurons. eIPSC and eEPSC were evoked by focal electrical stimulation of a single bouton. Administration of 70% N2O altered neither IGABA nor the frequency and amplitude of both sIPSCs and mIPSCs. In contrast, N2O decreased the amplitude of eIPSCs, while increasing failure rates (Rf) and paired-pulse ratios (PPR) in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, N2O decreased IGlu, IAMPA and INMDA. Again N2O did not change the frequency and amplitude of either sEPSCs of mEPSCs. N2O also decreased amplitudes of eEPSCs with increased Rf and PPR. The decay phases of all synaptic responses were unchanged. The present results indicated that N2O inhibits the activation of AMPA/KA and NMDA receptors and also that N2O preferentially depress the action potential-dependent GABA and glutamate releases but had little effects on spontaneous and miniature releases.

  20. Direct excitation of inhibitory interneurons by extracellular ATP mediated by P2Y1 receptors in the hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Masahito; Gachet, Christian; Inoue, Kazuhide; Kato, Fusao

    2004-12-01

    ATP is an important cell-to-cell signaling molecule mediating the interactions between astrocytes and neurons in the CNS. In the hippocampal slices, ATP suppresses excitatory transmission mostly through activation of adenosine A1 receptors, because the ectoenzyme activity for the extracellular breakdown of ATP to adenosine is high in slice preparations in contrast to culture environments. Because the hippocampus is also rich in the expression of P2 receptors activated specifically by ATP, we examined whether ATP modulates neuronal excitability in the acute slice preparations independently of adenosine receptors. Although ATP decreased the frequency of spontaneously occurring EPSCs in the CA3 pyramidal neurons through activation of adenosine A1 receptors, ATP concurrently increased the frequency of IPSCs in a manner dependent on action potential generation. This effect was mediated by P2Y1 receptors because (1) 2-methylthio-ATP (2meSATP) was the most potent agonist, (2) 2'-deoxy-N6-methyladenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate diammonium (MRS2179) abolished this effect, and (3) this increase in IPSC frequency was not observed in the transgenic mice lacking P2Y1 receptor proteins. Application of 2meSATP elicited MRS2179-sensitive time- and voltage-dependent inward currents in the interneurons, which depolarized the cell to firing threshold. Also, it increased [Ca2+]i in both astrocytes and interneurons, but, unlike the former effect, the latter was entirely dependent on Ca2+ entry. Thus, in hippocampal slices, in addition to activating A1 receptors of the excitatory terminals after being converted to adenosine, ATP activates P2Y1 receptors in the interneurons, which is linked to activation of unidentified excitatory conductance, through mechanisms distinct from those in the astrocytes.

  1. Restoration of Calbindin After Fetal Hippocampal CA3 Cell Grafting Into the Injured Hippocampus in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi

    2013-01-01

    Degeneration of the CA3 pyramidal and dentate hilar neurons in the adult rat hippocampus after an intracerebroventricular kainic acid (KA) administration, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy, leads to permanent loss of the calcium binding protein calbindin in major fractions of dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons. We hypothesize that the enduring loss of calbindin in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield after CA3-lesion is due to disruption of the hippocampal circuitry leading to hyperexcitability in these regions; therefore, specific cell grafts that are capable of both reconstructing the disrupted circuitry and suppressing hyper-excitability in the injured hippocampus can restore calbindin. We compared the effects of fetal CA3 or CA1 cell grafting into the injured CA3 region of adult rats at 45 days after KA-induced injury on the hippocampal calbindin. The calbindin immunoreactivity in the dentate granule cells and the CA1 pyramidal neurons of grafted animals was evaluated at 6 months after injury (i.e. at 4.5 months post-grafting). Compared with the intact hippocampus, the calbindin in “lesion-only” hippocampus was dramatically reduced at 6 months post-lesion. However, calbindin expression was restored in the lesioned hippocampus receiving CA3 cell grafts. In contrast, in the lesioned hippocampus receiving CA1 cell grafts, calbindin expression remained less than the intact hippocampus. Thus, specific cell grafting restores the injury-induced loss of calbindin in the adult hippocampus, likely via restitution of the disrupted circuitry. Since loss of calbindin after hippocampal injury is linked to hyperexcitability, re-expression of calbindin in both dentate gyrus and CA1 subfield following CA3 cell grafting may suggest that specific cell grafting is efficacious for ameliorating injury-induced hyperexcitability in the adult hippocampus. However, electrophysiological studies of KA-lesioned hippocampus receiving CA3 cell grafts are required in future

  2. Use-dependent shift from inhibitory to excitatory GABAA receptor action in SP-O interneurons in the rat hippocampal CA3 area.

    PubMed

    Lamsa, Karri; Taira, Tomi

    2003-09-01

    Cortical inhibitory interneurons set the pace of synchronous neuronal oscillations implicated in synaptic plasticity and various cognitive functions. The hyperpolarizing nature of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in interneurons has been considered crucial for the generation of oscillations at beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (30-100 Hz) frequency. Hippocampal basket cells and axo-axonic cells in stratum pyramidale-oriens (S-PO) play a central role in the synchronization of the local interneuronal network as well as in pacing of glutamatergic principal cell firing. A lack of conventional forms of plasticity in excitatory synapses onto interneurons facilitates their function as stable neuronal oscillators. We have used gramicidin-perforated and whole cell clamp recordings to study properties of GABAAR-mediated transmission in CA3 SP-O interneurons and in CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices during electrical 5- to 100-Hz stimulation and during spontaneous activity. We show that GABAergic synapses onto SP-O interneurons can easily switch their mode from inhibitory to excitatory during heightened activity. This is based on a depolarizing shift in the GABAA reversal potential (EGABA-A), which is much faster and more pronounced in interneurons than in pyramidal cells. We also found that the shift in interneuronal function was frequency dependent, being most prominent at 20- to 40-Hz activation of the GABAergic synapses. After 40-Hz tetanic stimulation (100 pulses), GABAA responses remained depolarizing for approximately 45 s in the interneurons, promoting bursting in the GABAergic network. Hyperpolarizing EGABA-A was restored >60 s after the stimulus train. Similar but spontaneous GABAergic bursting was induced by application of 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) to slices. A shift to depolarizing IPSPs by the GABAAR permeant weak acid anion formate provoked interneuronal population bursting, supporting the role of GABAergic excitation in burst generation

  3. Glutamate controls the induction of GABA-mediated giant depolarizing potentials through AMPA receptors in neonatal rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Bolea, S; Avignone, E; Berretta, N; Sanchez-Andres, J V; Cherubini, E

    1999-05-01

    Glutamate controls the induction of GABA-mediated giant depolarizing potentials through AMPA receptors in neonatal rat hippocampal slices. Giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) are generated by the interplay of the depolarizing action of GABA and glutamate. In this study, single and dual whole cell recordings (in current-clamp configuration) were performed from CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices obtained from postnatal (P) days P1- to P6-old rats to evaluate the role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in GDP generation. Superfusion of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) (10-40 microM) completely blocked GDPs. However, in the presence of CNQX, it was still possible to re-induce the appearance of GDPs with GABA (20 microM) or (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxadepropionate (AMPA) (5 microM). This effect was prevented by the more potent and selective AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 53655 (50-100 microM). In the presence of GYKI 53655, both kainic or domoic acid (0.1-1 microM) were unable to induce GDPs. In contrast, bath application of D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (50 microM) or (+)-3-(2carboxy-piperazin-4-yl)-propyl-L-phosphonic acid (20 microM) produced only a 37 +/- 9% (SE) and 36 +/- 11% reduction in GDPs frequency, respectively. Cyclothiazide, a selective blocker of AMPA receptor desensitization, increased GDP frequency by 76 +/- 14%. Experiments were also performed with an intracellular solution containing KF to block GABAA receptor-mediated responses. In these conditions, a glutamatergic component of GDP was revealed. GDPs could still be recorded synchronous with those detected simultaneously with KCl-filled electrodes, although their amplitude was smaller. Similar results were found in pair recordings obtained from minislices containing only a small portion of the CA3 area. These data suggest that GDP generation requires activation of AMPA receptors by local release of glutamate from recurrent collaterals.

  4. HERC 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutation Affects Neocortical, CA3 Hippocampal and Spinal Cord Projection Neurons: An Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Bachiller, Sara; Rosa, José Luis; Armengol, José Angel

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity. PMID:27147983

  5. HERC 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutation Affects Neocortical, CA3 Hippocampal and Spinal Cord Projection Neurons: An Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Bachiller, Sara; Rosa, José Luis; Armengol, José Angel

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity.

  6. Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wannan; Szokol, Karolina; Jensen, Vidar; Enger, Rune; Trivedi, Chintan A; Hvalby, Øivind; Helm, P Johannes; Looger, Loren L; Sprengel, Rolf; Nagelhus, Erlend A

    2015-02-18

    To date, it has been difficult to reveal physiological Ca(2+) events occurring within the fine astrocytic processes of mature animals. The objective of the study was to explore whether neuronal activity evokes astrocytic Ca(2+) signals at glutamatergic synapses of adult mice. We stimulated the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers in acute hippocampal slices from adult mice transduced with the genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator GCaMP5E driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Two-photon imaging revealed global stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca(2+) signals with distinct latencies, rise rates, and amplitudes in fine processes and somata. Specifically, the Ca(2+) signals in the processes were faster and of higher amplitude than those in the somata. A combination of P2 purinergic and group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists reduced the amplitude of the Ca(2+) transients by 30-40% in both astrocytic compartments. Blockage of the mGluRs alone only modestly reduced the magnitude of the stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) signals in processes and failed to affect the somatic Ca(2+) response. Local application of group I or I/II mGluR agonists or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) elicited global astrocytic Ca(2+) signals that mimicked the stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca(2+) responses. We conclude that stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) signals in astrocytic processes at CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice (1) differ from those in astrocytic somata and (2) are modulated by glutamate and ATP.

  7. Stimulation-Evoked Ca2+ Signals in Astrocytic Processes at Hippocampal CA3–CA1 Synapses of Adult Mice Are Modulated by Glutamate and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Szokol, Karolina; Jensen, Vidar; Enger, Rune; Trivedi, Chintan A.; Hvalby, Øivind; Helm, P. Johannes; Looger, Loren L.; Sprengel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    To date, it has been difficult to reveal physiological Ca2+ events occurring within the fine astrocytic processes of mature animals. The objective of the study was to explore whether neuronal activity evokes astrocytic Ca2+ signals at glutamatergic synapses of adult mice. We stimulated the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers in acute hippocampal slices from adult mice transduced with the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator GCaMP5E driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Two-photon imaging revealed global stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca2+ signals with distinct latencies, rise rates, and amplitudes in fine processes and somata. Specifically, the Ca2+ signals in the processes were faster and of higher amplitude than those in the somata. A combination of P2 purinergic and group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists reduced the amplitude of the Ca2+ transients by 30–40% in both astrocytic compartments. Blockage of the mGluRs alone only modestly reduced the magnitude of the stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in processes and failed to affect the somatic Ca2+ response. Local application of group I or I/II mGluR agonists or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) elicited global astrocytic Ca2+ signals that mimicked the stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca2+ responses. We conclude that stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at CA3–CA1 synapses of adult mice (1) differ from those in astrocytic somata and (2) are modulated by glutamate and ATP. PMID:25698739

  8. Topiramate modulates pH of hippocampal CA3 neurons by combined effects on carbonic anhydrase and Cl-/HCO3- exchange.

    PubMed

    Leniger, Tobias; Thöne, Jan; Wiemann, Martin

    2004-07-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an anticonvulsant whose impact on firing activity and intracellular pH (pHi) regulation of CA3 neurons was investigated. Using the 4-aminopyridine-treated hippocampal slice model bathed in bicarbonate-buffered solution, TPM (25-50 microm) reduced the frequency of epileptiform bursts and action potentials without affecting membrane potential or input resistance. Inhibitory effects of TPM were reversed by trimethylamine-induced alkalinization. TPM also lowered the steady-state pHi of BCECF-AM-loaded neuronal somata by 0.18+/-0.07 pH units in CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-buffered solution. Subsequent to an ammonium prepulse, TPM reduced the acidotic peak but clearly slowed pHi recovery. These complex changes were mimicked by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. Alkalosis upon withdrawal of extracellular Cl(-) was augmented by TPM. Furthermore, at decreased pHi due to the absence of extracellular Na(+), TPM reversibly increased pHi. These findings demonstrate that TPM modulates Na(+)-independent Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. In the nominal absence of extracellular CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) buffer, both steady-state pHi and firing of epileptiform bursts remained unchanged upon adding TPM. However, pHi recovery subsequent to an ammonium prepulse was slightly increased, as was the case in the presence of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor acetazolamide. Thus, a slight reduction of intracellular buffer capacity by TPM may be due to an inhibitory effect on intracellular CA. Together, these findings show that TPM lowers neuronal pHi most likely due to a combined effect on Na(+)-independent Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and CA. The apparent decrease of steady-state pHi may contribute to the anticonvulsive property of TPM.

  9. SCH 58261 differentially influences quinolinic acid-induced effects in striatal and in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2002-08-30

    The influence of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-trizolo[1,5-c] pyrimidine) (50, 200 nM, 1 microM) on quinolinic acid effects has been studied in rat striatal and hippocampal slices. Quinolinic acid induced disappearance of field potentials at concentrations of 500 microM and 2 mM in hippocampal and corticostriatal slices, respectively. We found that 1 microM SCH 58261 prevented quinolinic acid-induced field potential disappearance in corticostriatal but not in hippocampal slices. This finding demonstrates that the peculiar binding profile of SCH 58261 and the predominance in the hippocampus of "atypical" adenosine A(2A) receptor population (not recognized by SCH 58261) could have a functional relevance in the occurrence of region-specific neuroprotective effects.

  10. Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition on Cholinergic Transmission in the Hippocampal Slice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-08

    examined using a completely different experimental paradigm involving the biochemical measurement of sodium fluxes in slices of hippocampus . All of the...Sum OR. Acetylcholinesterase, long-term effects, hippocampus IS. A AC 4rCO.hImaw so M if weem’y andid Wit Ufy ft 61W& awmwrr is research program is...physiological response has been identified in ,the in vitro hippocampal slice, (2) the response of the hippocampus to repeated applications of cholTnerg-g

  11. Low concentrations of alcohol inhibit BDNF-dependent GABAergic plasticity via L-type Ca2+ channel inhibition in developing CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zucca, Stefano; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2010-05-12

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is associated with learning and memory alterations that could be, in part, a consequence of hippocampal damage. The CA3 hippocampal subfield is one of the regions affected by ethanol (EtOH), including exposure during the third trimester-equivalent (i.e., neonatal period in rats). However, the mechanism of action of EtOH is poorly understood. In CA3 pyramidal neurons from neonatal rats, dendritic BDNF release causes long-term potentiation of the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (LTP-GABAA) and this mechanism is thought to play a role in GABAergic synapse maturation. Here, we show that short- and long-term exposure of neonatal male rats to low EtOH concentrations abolishes LTP-GABAA by inhibiting L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These findings support the recommendation that even light drinking should be avoided during pregnancy.

  12. Regional differences in GABAergic modulation for TEA-induced synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuko; Okada, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a K(+)-channel blocker, reportedly induces long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA1 synaptic responses, but at CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG), the characteristics of TEA-induced plasticity and modulation by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. This study recorded field EPSPs from CA1, CA3 and DG to examine the involvement of GABAergic modulation in TEA-induced synaptic plasticity for each region. In Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses and associational fiber (AF)-CA3 synapses, bath application of TEA-induced LTP in the presence and absence of picrotoxin (PTX), a GABA(A) receptor blocker, whereas TEA-induced LTP at mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses was detected only in the absence of GABA(A) receptor blockers. MF-CA3 LTP showed sensitivity to Ni(2+), but not to nifedipine. In DG, synaptic plasticity was modulated by GABAergic inputs, but characteristics differed between the afferent lateral perforant path (LPP) and medial perforant path (MPP). LPP-DG synapses showed TEA-induced LTP during PTX application, whereas at MPP-DG synapses, TEA-induced long-term depression (LTD) was seen in the absence of PTX. This series of results demonstrates that TEA-induced DG and CA3 plasticity displays afferent specificity and is exposed to GABAergic modulation in an opposite manner.

  13. Repeating Spatial-Temporal Motifs of CA3 Activity Dependent on Engineered Inputs from Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Live Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Aparajita; Desai, Harsh; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical and behavioral studies, and in vivo and slice electrophysiology of the hippocampus suggest specific functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA3 subregions, but the underlying activity dynamics and repeatability of information processing remains poorly understood. To approach this problem, we engineered separate living networks of the DG and CA3 neurons that develop connections through 51 tunnels for axonal communication. Growing these networks on top of an electrode array enabled us to determine whether the subregion dynamics were separable and repeatable. We found spontaneous development of polarized propagation of 80% of the activity in the native direction from DG to CA3 and different spike and burst dynamics for these subregions. Spatial-temporal differences emerged when the relationships of target CA3 activity were categorized with to the number and timing of inputs from the apposing network. Compared to times of CA3 activity when there was no recorded tunnel input, DG input led to CA3 activity bursts that were 7× more frequent, increased in amplitude and extended in temporal envelope. Logistic regression indicated that a high number of tunnel inputs predict CA3 activity with 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Compared to no tunnel input, patterns of >80% tunnel inputs from DG specified different patterns of first-to-fire neurons in the CA3 target well. Clustering dendrograms revealed repeating motifs of three or more patterns at up to 17 sites in CA3 that were importantly associated with specific spatial-temporal patterns of tunnel activity. The number of these motifs recorded in 3 min was significantly higher than shuffled spike activity and not seen above chance in control networks in which CA3 was apposed to CA3 or DG to DG. Together, these results demonstrate spontaneous input-dependent repeatable coding of distributed activity in CA3 networks driven by engineered inputs from DG networks. These functional configurations at measured times

  14. The effects of glucose, mannose, fructose and lactate on the preservation of neural activity in the hippocampal slices from the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Wada, H; Okada, Y; Uzuo, T; Nakamura, H

    1998-03-30

    Using hippocampal slices from guinea pigs, we investigated the effect of different concentrations of glucose and replacement of glucose with mannose, fructose and lactate on neural activity. As an index of neural activity, the population spikes (PS) were recorded in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the pyramidal cell layer of the CA3 area in the hippocampal slices. Lowering the concentration of glucose from 10 mM to 5, 3, 2, 1 and 0 mM caused a reduction in the PS amplitude. There were differences in the decay times of the PS evoked in these two regions. PS evoked in CA3 region decayed faster even at a concentration of 3 mM glucose at which PS in granule cell layer was well maintained. The decay time of the PS in the CA3 region in the presence of glucose up to a concentration of 3 mM was shorter than that evoked in the DG. After the replacement of glucose with mannose, fructose or lactate, the PS disappeared within 35 min and there were no significant differences between the decay times in the two regions of slices incubated in the same medium. ATP, creatine phosphate (CrP) and lactate levels in each slice were determined. To investigate whether mannose and fructose could be metabolized or not in the tissue slice, anaerobic production of lactate from glucose, mannose and fructose were measured during oxygen and glucose deprivation. Under anaerobic conditions for 60 min, the levels of high-energy phosphates decreased to 50% of the initial level and lactate was produced from glucose, mannose or fructose. However, there were significant differences in the rate of lactate production between the DG and CA3 areas during application of 3 mM glucose, 10 mM mannose and 10 mM fructose. These results indicate that mannose, fructose and lactate can be metabolized and are available for maintaining the levels of high-energy phosphates but not for neural activity in the tissue slices and that the presence of glucose is indispensable for the maintenance of

  15. Neuroprotective effects of α-tocotrienol on kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Won, Ran; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2013-09-05

    Vitamin E, such as alpha-tocopherol (ATPH) and alpha-tocotrienol (ATTN), is a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents the chain propagation step during lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ATTN on KA-induced neuronal death using organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) and compared the neuroprotective effects of ATTN and ATPH. After 15 h KA (5 µM) treatment, delayed neuronal death was detected in the CA3 region and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation were also increased. Both co-treatment and post-treatment of ATPH (100 µM) or ATTN (100 µM) significantly increased the cell survival and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the CA3 region. Increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence and levels of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) were decreased by ATPH and ATTN treatment. These data suggest that ATPH and ATTN treatment have protective effects on KA-induced cell death in OHSC. ATTN treatment tended to be more effective than ATPH treatment, even though there was no significant difference between ATPH and ATTN in co-treatment or post-treatment.

  16. Effects of deprivation of oxygen or glucose on the neural activity in the guinea pig hippocampal slice--intracellular recording study of pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Takata, T; Okada, Y

    1995-06-12

    The block of synaptic transmission and neural activity during deprivation of oxygen or glucose has been simply attributed to the lack of energy due to the disorder of energy production. To clarify the interrelation between neural activity and energy metabolism during hypoxia or glucose deprivation, we studied the changes in ATP levels and electrical events of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region and [Ca2+]i mobilization of the dendritic and cellular region of CA3 area, using guinea pig hippocampal slices. The studies of field potentials and intracellular recording from the pyramidal cell of CA3 area during hypoxia or glucose deprivation revealed that the cessation of synaptic activity and the depolarization of resting potential occurred earlier than during glucose deprivation while the increase of [Ca2+]i was slow during hypoxia but rapid during glucose deprivation although the ATP level of CA3 area was maintained at its original level for 20 min during both conditions. When glucose was replaced by lactate, ATP concentration was not reduced but the electrical activity decayed and [Ca2+]i increased with the similar time course as observed during lack of glucose, only. These results suggest that different mechanisms underlie the block of synaptic transmission in the CA3 pyramidal neurons during hypoxia and glucose deprivation and that lactate cannot substitute for glucose in the maintenance of neural activity.

  17. Thermal dependence of neural activity in the hamster hippocampal slice preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Thomas, M. P.; Eckerman, P.

    1987-01-01

    1. Neural activity was recorded in an in vitro hamster hippocampal slice preparation while the temperature of the Ringer's solution bathing in the slice was controlled at selected levels. 2. The amplitude of the population spike (action potentials from a group of pyramidal cells) was measured as bath temperature was lowered from 35 degrees C to temperatures where a response could not be evoked. 3. Plots of population spike amplitude versus temperature have bell-shaped curves. The population spikes increased in amplitude as temperature was lowered from 35 degrees C, reached a peak amplitude between 25 and 20 degrees C, and then decreased until a response could not be evoked when temperature was further lowered. 4. These in vitro results obtained in the slice preparation are related to in vivo hippocampal studies. Results are interpreted as consistent with the proposal reviewed here that neural activity in the hippocampus plays a role at specific stages of entrance into and arousal from hibernation.

  18. Pertussis toxin prevents neomycin-induced calcium-dependent electrophysiological effects in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Longo, R; Sagratella, S

    1994-09-01

    1. The influence of pertussis toxin has been studied on the effects of neomycin on CA1 field potentials in rat hippocampal slices in order to determine a role played by G protein in the modulation of synaptic transmission by the drug. 2. Neomycin (500 microM), within 30 min significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the magnitude of the somatic CA1 excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) and population spike (PS) in control hippocampal slices. 3. Neomycin (500 microM), within 30 min failed to significantly affect the magnitude of the somatic CA1 EPSP and PS in slices obtained from animals treated intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with 1-2 micrograms of pertussis toxin 3 days before. 4. The results demonstrated that pertussis toxin prevents some electrophysiological effects of neomycin, suggesting a role of G protein in the modulation of the aminoglycoside antibiotic on central synaptic transmission.

  19. Preparation of postsynaptic density fraction from hippocampal slices and proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dosemeci, Ayse . E-mail: dosemeca@mail.nih.gov; Tao-Cheng, J.-H.; Vinade, Lucia; Jaffe, Howard

    2006-01-13

    Hippocampal slices offer an excellent experimental system for the study of activity-induced changes in the postsynaptic density (PSD). While studies have documented electrophysiological and structural changes at synapses in response to precise manipulations of hippocampal slices, parallel biochemical and proteomic analyses were hampered by the lack of subcellular fractionation techniques applicable to starting tissue about three orders of magnitude smaller than that used in conventional protocols. Here, we describe a simple and convenient method for the preparation of PSD fractions from hippocampal slices and the identification of its components by proteomic techniques. The 'micro PSD fraction' obtained following two consecutive extractions of a synaptosomal fraction with Triton X-100 shows a significant enrichment in the marker protein PSD-95. Thin section electron microscopy shows PSDs similar to those observed in situ. However, other particulate material, especially myelin, and membrane vesicles are also present. The composition of the PSD fraction from hippocampal slices was analyzed by 2D LC/MS/MS. The proteomic approach which utilizes as little as 10 {mu}g total protein allowed the identification of >100 proteins. Many of the proteins detected in the fraction are the same as those identified in conventional PSD preparations including specialized PSD-scaffolding proteins, signaling molecules, cytoskeletal elements as well as certain contaminants. The results show the feasibility of the preparation of a PSD fraction from hippocampal slices of reasonable purity and of sufficient yield for proteomic analyses. In addition, we show that further purification of PSDs is possible using magnetic beads coated with a PSD-95 antibody.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of arachidonic acid against oxidative stress on rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Liang, Cui-Ling; Li, Guang-Mei; Yu, Cai-Yi; Yin, Ming

    2006-11-07

    Arachidonic acid (AA), 5,8,11,14-eicosateraenoic acid is abundant, active and necessary in the human body. In the present study, we reported the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of arachidonic acid on hippocampal slices insulted by glutamate, NaN(3) or H(2)O(2)in vitro. Different types of models of brain injury in vitro were developed by 1mM glutamate, 10mM NaN(3) or 2mM H(2)O(2). After 30 min of preincubation with arachidonic acid or linoleic acid, hippocampal slices were subjected to glutamate, NaN(3) or H(2)O(2), then the tissue activities were evaluated by using the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride method. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, GSH-PX and catalase) in hippocampal slices were evaluated during the course of incubation. MK886 (5 microM; a noncompetitive inhibitor of proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]alpha), BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether; 100 microM; an antagonist of PPARgamma) and cycloheximide (CHX; 30 microM; an inhibitor of protein synthesis) were tested for their effects on the neuroprotection afforded by arachidonic acid. Population spikes were recorded in randomly selected hippocapal slices. Arachidonic acid (1-10 microM) dose dependently protected hippocampal slices from glutamate and H(2)O(2) injury (P<0.01), and arachidonic acid (10 microM) can significantly improve the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD in hippocampal slices after 1h incubation. In addition, 10 microM arachidonic acid significantly increased the activity of Mn-SOD and catalase, and decreased the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD to control value after 3h incubation. These secondary changes of SOD during incubation can be reversed by indomethacine (10 microM; a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or AA 861 (20 microM; a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor). Its neuroprotective effect was completely abolished by BADGE and CHX. These observations reveal that arachidonic acid can defense against oxidative stress by boosting the internal antioxidant system of hippocampal slices

  1. Effects of neurosteroids on epileptiform activity induced by picrotoxin and 4-aminopyridine in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Patricia; Tapia, Ricardo; Rogawski, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The neurosteroids allopregnanolone (5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one; 5alpha,3alpha-P) and its 5beta-epimer pregnanolone (5beta,3alpha-P), and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) were examined for effects on spontaneous epileptiform discharges induced by 100 microM picrotoxin (PTX) and 55 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampal slice. At a concentration of 10 microM, 5alpha,3alpha-P partially reduced PTX-induced bursting and at 30 and 90 microM completely suppressed bursting. In contrast, 100 microM 5beta,3alpha-P failed to alter the discharge frequency. 5alpha,3alpha-P depressed 4-AP-induced bursting with similar potency as in the PTX model; 100 microM 5beta,3alpha-P was also partially effective. In the 4-AP model, 5alpha,3alpha-P inhibited both the more frequent predominantly positive-going potentials as well as the less frequent negative-going potentials that may be generated by synchronous GABAergic interneuron firing. PS enhanced the PTX bursting frequency and, in the 4-AP model, increased the frequency of negative potentials but did not alter the frequency of positive potentials. By itself, PS did not induce bursting. The effects of the steroids in the in vitro seizure models largely correspond with their activities on GABA(A) receptors; suppression of discharges may occur as a result of direct activation of these receptors rather than modulation of GABA-mediated synaptic responses. PTX and 4-AP-induced bursting in the hippocampal slice are useful models for directly assessing neurosteroid effects on seizure susceptibility under conditions that eliminate the factor of brain bioavailability.

  2. Alteration in NMDA receptor subunit mRNA expression in vulnerable and resistant regions of in vitro ischemic rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Small, D L; Poulter, M O; Buchan, A M; Morley, P

    1997-08-29

    Brain insults, including cerebral ischemia, can alter glutamate receptor subunit expression in vulnerable neurons. Understanding these post-ischemic changes in glutamate receptors could enhance our ability to identify specific, novel neuroprotective compounds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification was used to quantify the altered expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) NR2A, NR2B and NR2C subunits relative to one another in rat hippocampal slices in resistant and vulnerable regions following in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation. Ninety minutes after re-oxygenation and return to 10 mM glucose, there was a significant increase in the expression of NR2C relative to NR2B and NR2A in the slice as a whole, as well as in the selectively vulnerable CA1 region and the resistant CA3 and dentate gyrus regions.

  3. M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell synapses in an input-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Wess, Jürgen; Alzheimer, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Muscarinic receptors have long been known as crucial players in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, but our understanding of the cellular underpinnings and the receptor subtypes involved lags well behind. This holds in particular for the hippocampal CA3 region, where the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity depend on the type of afferent input. Williams and Johnston (Williams S, Johnston D. Science 242: 84-87, 1988; Williams S, Johnston D. J Neurophysiol 64: 1089-1097, 1990) demonstrated muscarinic depression of mossy fiber (MF) long-term potentiation (LTP) through a presynaptic site of action and Maeda et al. (Maeda T, Kaneko S, Satoh M. Brain Res 619: 324-330, 1993) proposed a bidirectional modulation of MF LTP by muscarinic receptor subtypes. Since then, this issue, as well as muscarinic regulation of plasticity at associational/commissural (A/C) fiber-CA3 synapses has remained largely neglected, not least because of the lack of highly selective ligands for the different muscarinic receptor subtypes. In the present study, we performed field potential and whole cell recordings from the hippocampal CA3 region of M(2) receptor knockout mice to determine the role of M(2) receptors in short-term and long-term plasticity at A/C and MF inputs to CA3 pyramidal cells. At the A/C synapse, M(2) receptors promoted short-term facilitation and LTP. Unexpectedly, M(2) receptors mediated the opposite effect on LTP at the MF synapse, which was significantly reduced, most likely involving a depressant effect of M(2) receptors on adenylyl cyclase activity in MF terminals. Our data demonstrate that cholinergic projections recruit M(2) receptors to redistribute the gain of LTP in CA3 pyramidal cells in an input-specific manner.

  4. Electrophysiological observations in hippocampal slices from rats treated with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, C E; Wang, C; Jensen, F E

    1999-11-01

    The electrophysiological effects of the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) were assessed in normal and epileptic [kainic-acid(KA)-treated] adult rats using hippocampal slices. In the first set of experiments, normal rats were fed the KD or a standard control diet for 6-8 weeks (beginning on postnatal day 56, P56), after which they were sacrificed for hippocampal slices. All rats on the KD became ketotic. The baseline effects of the KD were determined by comparing extracellular measures of synaptic transmission and responses to evoked stimulation, and hippocampal excitability was tested in Mg(2+)-free medium. There were no differences in EPSP slope, input/output relationship, responses to evoked stimulation or Mg(2+)-free burst frequency between slices from control and KD-fed rats. In another set of experiments, rats were made epileptic by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) on P54, which caused status epilepticus followed by the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) over the next few weeks. Two days after KA-induced status, rats were divided into a control-fed group and a KD-fed group. Animals on the KD had significantly fewer SRS over the ensuing 8 weeks. In hippocampal slices from KA-treated, KD-fed rats, there were fewer evoked CA1 population spikes than from slices of control-fed rats. These results suggest that the KD does not alter baseline electrophysiological parameters in normal rats. In rats made chronically epileptic by administration of KA, KD treatment was associated with fewer spontaneous seizures and reduced CA1 excitability in vitro. Therefore, at least part of the KD mechanism of action may involve long-term changes in network excitability.

  5. Activation of dentate hilar neurons by stimulation of the fimbria in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    It is has been shown that the major afferent input to the dentate gyrus, the perforant path, excites dentate hilar neurons. However, little is known about the other inputs to hilar cells. Therefore, we examined the responses of hilar neurons to stimulation of the fimbria. We positioned our stimulating electrodes so that granule cells were not excited antidromically by fimbria stimulation, although action potentials were easily triggered in area CA3b and CA3c pyramidal cells by such stimulation. In these experiments, fimbria stimulation evoked responses from every hilar cell tested, including examples of both of the major cell types, the spiny hilar ‘mossy’ cells (n=15) and the relatively aspiny. ‘fast-spiking’ cells (putative interneurons, n=5). Hilar cell responses consisted primarily of EPSPs that could trigger action potentials, but small IPSPs were also evoked in some cases, particularly in the fast-spiking cells. Excitation was blocked by an antagonist of the AMPA/kainate receptor subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione(CNQX, 5μM, n=5), whereas the cholinergic antagonist atropine (10μM) had no effect (n=4). When sequential intracellular recordings were made from hilar cells and area CA3 pyramidal cells in the same slice, hilar cell EPSPs began after action potentials of CA3b pyramidal cells, and stimulus strengths required to evoke hilar cell EPSPs were above threshold for area CA3b pyramidal cells. Taken together with the evidence that area CA3 pyramidal cells use an excitatory amino acid as a neurotransmitter [7, 21], and the demonstrations of area CA3 axon collaterals in the hilus [11, 16], the results raise the possibility that some area CA3 pyramidal cells excite dentate hilar neurons. PMID:8105429

  6. Reduced CA2–CA3 Hippocampal Subfield Volume Is Related to Depression and Normalized by l-DOPA in Newly Diagnosed Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Györfi, Orsolya; Nagy, Helga; Bokor, Magdolna; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal dysfunctions may play an important role in the non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease (PD), including depressive and cognitive symptoms. Fine structural alterations of the hippocampus and their relationship with symptoms and medication effects are unknown in newly diagnosed PD. We measured the volume of hippocampal subfields in 35 drug-naïve, newly diagnosed PD patients without cognitive impairment and 30 matched healthy control individuals. Assessments were performed when the patients did not receive medications and after a 24-week period of l-DOPA treatment. We obtained a T1-weighted 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo image at each assessment. FreeSurfer v6.0 was used for image analysis. Results revealed a selectively decreased CA2–CA3 volume in non-medicated PD patients, which was normalized after the 24-week treatment period. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with smaller CA2–CA3 volumes. These results indicate that the CA2–CA3 subfield is structurally affected in the earliest stage of PD in the absence of cognitive impairment. This structural anomaly, normalized by l-DOPA, is related to depressive non-motor symptoms. PMID:28367136

  7. Dithiothreitol elicits epileptiform activity in CA1 of the guinea pig hippocampal slice

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.M.; Pellmar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a sulfhydryl reducing agent used as a radioprotectant. Exposure of hippocampal slices, for 30 min to 0.5 micromoles DTT irreversibly increased the orthodromic population spike amplitude, promoted repetitive firing and induced spontaneous epileptiform activity in the CA1 subfield. The same concentration of the oxidized form of DTT did not increase hippocampal excitability. Although the slope of the population synaptic response to afferent stimulation (popPSP) was unchanged by DTT, the duration of the popPSP was prolonged. Recurrent inhibition was unaffected. DTT probably exerts its effects through an irreversible chemical reaction with cellular components. Possible mechanisms of DTT-induced epileptiform activity are discussed.

  8. Endogenous 24S-hydroxycholesterol modulates NMDAR-mediated function in hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min-Yu; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Benz, Ann; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a major subtype of glutamate receptors mediating excitatory transmission throughout the central nervous system (CNS), play critical roles in governing brain function and cognition. Because NMDAR dysfunction contributes to the etiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders including stroke and schizophrenia, NMDAR modulators are potential drug candidates. Our group recently demonstrated that the major brain cholesterol metabolite, 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC), positively modulates NMDARs when exogenously administered. Here, we studied whether endogenous 24S-HC regulates NMDAR activity in hippocampal slices. In CYP46A1−/− (knockout; KO) slices where endogenous 24S-HC is greatly reduced, NMDAR tone, measured as NMDAR-to-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) ratio, was reduced. This difference translated into more NMDAR-driven spiking in wild-type (WT) slices compared with KO slices. Application of SGE-301, a 24S-HC analog, had comparable potentiating effects on NMDAR EPSCs in both WT and KO slices, suggesting that endogenous 24S-HC does not saturate its NMDAR modulatory site in ex vivo slices. KO slices did not differ from WT slices in either spontaneous neurotransmission or in neuronal intrinsic excitability, and exhibited LTP indistinguishable from WT slices. However, KO slices exhibited higher resistance to persistent NMDAR-dependent depression of synaptic transmission induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an effect restored by SGE-301. Together, our results suggest that loss of positive NMDAR tone does not elicit compensatory changes in excitability or transmission, but it protects transmission against NMDAR-mediated dysfunction. We expect that manipulating this endogenous NMDAR modulator may offer new treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:26745248

  9. Activity-dependent downregulation of D-type K+ channel subunit Kv1.2 in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jung Ho; Eom, Kisang; Lee, Kyu-Hee; Ho, Won-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic excitability of neurons plays a critical role in the encoding of memory at Hebbian synapses and in the coupling of synaptic inputs to spike generation. It has not been studied whether somatic firing at a physiologically relevant frequency can induce intrinsic plasticity in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells (CA3-PCs). Here, we show that a conditioning train of 20 action potentials (APs) at 10 Hz causes a persistent reduction in the input conductance and an acceleration of the AP onset time in CA3-PCs, but not in CA1-PCs. Induction of such long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) was accompanied by a reduction in the D-type K+ current, and was abolished by the inhibition of endocytosis or protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). Consistently, the CA3-PCs from Kv1.2 knock-out mice displayed no LTP-IE with the same conditioning. Furthermore, the induction of LTP-IE depended on the back-propagating APs (bAPs) and intact distal apical dendrites. These results indicate that LTP-IE is mediated by the internalization of Kv1.2 channels from the distal regions of apical dendrites, which is triggered by bAP-induced dendritic Ca2+ signalling and the consequent activation of PTK. PMID:23981714

  10. Effects of Blast Overpressure on Neurons and Glial Cells in Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anna P.; Shah, Alok S.; Aperi, Brandy V.; Budde, Matthew D.; Pintar, Frank A.; Tarima, Sergey; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Stemper, Brian D.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Due to recent involvement in military conflicts, and an increase in the use of explosives, there has been an escalation in the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) among US military personnel. Having a better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade of events in bTBI is prerequisite for the development of an effective therapy that currently is unavailable. The present study utilized organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) exposed to blast overpressures of 150 kPa (low) and 280 kPa (high) as an in vitro bTBI model. Using this model, we further characterized the cellular effects of the blast injury. Blast-evoked cell death was visualized by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay as early as 2 h post-injury. Quantification of PI staining in the cornu Ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) and the dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h following blast exposure revealed significant time dependent effects. OHCs exposed to 150 kPa demonstrated a slow increase in cell death plateauing between 24 and 48 h, while OHCs from the high-blast group exhibited a rapid increase in cell death already at 2 h, peaking at ~24 h post-injury. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium also revealed a significant increase in cell lysis in both low- and high-blast groups compared to sham controls. OHCs were fixed at 72 h post-injury and immunostained for markers against neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Labeling OHCs with PI, neuronal, and glial markers revealed that the blast-evoked extensive neuronal death and to a lesser extent loss of glial cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in low- and high-blasted OHCs, which reached a statistically significant difference in the high-blast group. These data confirmed that our in vitro bTBI model is a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes after blast exposure. PMID:25729377

  11. Effects of blast overpressure on neurons and glial cells in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna P; Shah, Alok S; Aperi, Brandy V; Budde, Matthew D; Pintar, Frank A; Tarima, Sergey; Kurpad, Shekar N; Stemper, Brian D; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Due to recent involvement in military conflicts, and an increase in the use of explosives, there has been an escalation in the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) among US military personnel. Having a better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade of events in bTBI is prerequisite for the development of an effective therapy that currently is unavailable. The present study utilized organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) exposed to blast overpressures of 150 kPa (low) and 280 kPa (high) as an in vitro bTBI model. Using this model, we further characterized the cellular effects of the blast injury. Blast-evoked cell death was visualized by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay as early as 2 h post-injury. Quantification of PI staining in the cornu Ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) and the dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h following blast exposure revealed significant time dependent effects. OHCs exposed to 150 kPa demonstrated a slow increase in cell death plateauing between 24 and 48 h, while OHCs from the high-blast group exhibited a rapid increase in cell death already at 2 h, peaking at ~24 h post-injury. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium also revealed a significant increase in cell lysis in both low- and high-blast groups compared to sham controls. OHCs were fixed at 72 h post-injury and immunostained for markers against neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Labeling OHCs with PI, neuronal, and glial markers revealed that the blast-evoked extensive neuronal death and to a lesser extent loss of glial cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in low- and high-blasted OHCs, which reached a statistically significant difference in the high-blast group. These data confirmed that our in vitro bTBI model is a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes after blast exposure.

  12. Elevated potassium elicits recurrent surges of large GABAA-receptor-mediated post-synaptic currents in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Shin, Damian Seung-Ho; Yu, Wilson; Sutton, Alex; Calos, Megan; Carlen, Peter Louis

    2011-03-01

    Previously, we found that rat hippocampal CA3 interneurons become hyperactive with increasing concentrations of extracellular K(+) up to 10 mM. However, it is unclear how this enhanced interneuronal activity affects pyramidal neurons. Here we voltage-clamped rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in vitro at 0 mV to isolate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-activated inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) and measured these in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and with 10 mM K(+) bath perfusion. In aCSF, small IPSCs were present with amplitudes of 0.053 ± 0.007 nA and a frequency of 0.27 ± 0.14 Hz. With 10 mM K(+) perfusion, IPSCs increased greatly in frequency and amplitude, culminating in surge events with peak amplitudes of 0.56 ± 0.08 nA, that appeared and disappeared cyclically with durations lasting 2.02 ± 0.37 min repeatedly, up to 10 times over a 30-min bath perfusion of elevated K(+). These large IPSCs were GABA(A)-receptor mediated and did not involve significant desensitization of this receptor. Perfusion of a GABA transporter inhibitor (NO-711), glutamate receptor inhibitors CNQX and APV, or a gap junctional blocker (carbenoxolone) prevented the resurgence of large IPSCs. Pressure ejected sucrose resulted in the abolishment of subsequent surges. No elevated K(+)-mediated surges were observed in CA3 interneurons from the stratum oriens layer. In conclusion, these cyclic large IPSC events observable in CA3 pyramidal neurons in 10 mM KCl may be due to transient GABA depletion from continuously active interneuronal afferents.

  13. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Komolafe, Kayode; Olaleye, Tolulope M.; Seeger, Rodrigo L.; Carvalho, Fabiano B.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.; Klimaczewski, Claudia V.; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A.; Rocha, Joao B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL) or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL) for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity. PMID:25177688

  14. In Vitro Manganese Exposure Disrupts MAPK Signaling Pathways in Striatal and Hippocampal Slices from Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Pedro, Daniela Zótico; de Cordova, Fabiano Mendes; Lopes, Mark William; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Mendes-de-Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel; Walz, Roger; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity, particularly in the immature central nervous system, have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) could represent potential targets of Mn in striatal and hippocampal slices obtained from immature rats (14 days old). The aim of this study was to evaluate if the MAPK pathways are modulated after subtoxic Mn exposure, which do not significantly affect cell viability. The concentrations of manganese chloride (MnCl2; 10–1,000 μM) caused no change in cell viability in slices exposed for 3 or 6 hours. However, Mn exposure significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2/3 phosphorylation at both 3 and 6 hours incubations, in both brain structures. Furthermore, Mn exposure did not change the total content or phosphorylation of TH at the serine 40 site in striatal slices. Thus, Mn at concentrations that do not disrupt cell viability causes activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3) in immature hippocampal and striatal slices. These findings suggest that altered intracellular MAPKs signaling pathways may represent an early event concerning the effects of Mn in the immature brain. PMID:24324973

  15. Intrinsic Hippocampal Excitability Changes of Opposite Signs and Different Origins in CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Neurons Underlie Aging-Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Simkin, Dina; Disterhoft, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related cognitive deficits have been attributed to dysfunction of neurons due to failures at synaptic or intrinsic loci, or both. Given the importance of the hippocampus for successful encoding of memory and that the main output of the hippocampus is via the CA1 pyramidal neurons, much of the research has been focused on identifying the aging-related changes of these CA1 pyramidal neurons. We and others have discovered that the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following a train of action potentials is greatly enlarged in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged animals. This enlarged postburst AHP is a significant factor in reducing the intrinsic excitability of these neurons, and thus limiting their activity in the neural network during learning. Based on these data, it has largely been thought that aging-related cognitive deficits are attributable to reduced activity of pyramidal neurons. However, recent in vivo and ex vivo studies provide compelling evidence that aging-related deficits could also be due to a converse change in CA3 pyramidal neurons, which show increased activity with aging. In this review, we will incorporate these recent findings and posit that an interdependent dynamic dysfunctional change occurs within the hippocampal network, largely due to altered intrinsic excitability in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which ultimately leads to the aging-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27375440

  16. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu

    2014-01-01

    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  17. Spatial memory training induces morphological changes detected by manganese-enhanced MRI in the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminal zone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binbin; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Tjio, Ci'en; Chen, Way Cherng; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Routtenberg, Aryeh

    2016-03-01

    Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) can show plasticity of their axon terminal arbor consequent to learning a spatial memory task. Such plasticity is seen as translaminar sprouting from the stratum lucidum (SL) of CA3 into the stratum pyramidale (SP) and the stratum oriens (SO). However, the functional role of this presynaptic remodeling is still obscure. In vivo imaging that allows longitudinal observation of such remodeling could provide a deeper understanding of this presynaptic growth phenomenon as it occurs over time. Here we used manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), which shows a high-contrast area that co-localizes with the MFs. This technique was applied in the detection of learning-induced MF plasticity in two strains of rats. Quantitative analysis of a series of sections in the rostral dorsal hippocampus showed increases in the CA3a' area in MEMRI of trained Wistar rats consistent with the increased SO+SP area seen in the Timm's staining. MF plasticity was not seen in the trained Lister-Hooded rats in either MEMRI or in Timm's staining. This indicates the potential of MEMRI for revealing neuro-architectures and plasticity of the hippocampal MF system in vivo in longitudinal studies.

  18. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A.; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu

    2014-01-01

    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:24795767

  19. Postnatal maturation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and B-mediated inhibition in the CA3 hippocampal region of the rat.

    PubMed

    Gaiarsa, J L; McLean, H; Congar, P; Leinekugel, X; Khazipov, R; Tseeb, V; Ben-Ari, Y

    1995-03-01

    In the adult central nervous system, GABAergic synaptic inhibition is known to play a crucial role in preventing the spread of excitatory glutamatergic activity. This inhibition is achieved by a membrane hyperpolarization through the activation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and GABAB receptors. In addition, GABA also depress transmitter release acting through presynaptic GABAB receptors. Despite the wealth of data regarding the role of GABA in regulating the degree of synchronous activity in the adult, little is known about GABA transmission during early stages of development. In the following we report that GABA mediates most of the excitatory drive at early stages of development in the hippocampal CA3 region. Activation of GABAA receptors induces a depolarization and excitation of immature CA3 pyramidal neurons and increases intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i)] during the first postnatal week of life. During the same developmental period, the postsynaptic GABAB-mediated inhibition is poorly developed. In contrast, the presynaptic GABAB-mediated inhibition is well developed at birth and plays a crucial role in modulating the postsynaptic activity by depressing transmitter release at early postnatal stages. We have also shown that GABA plays a trophic role in the neuritic outgrowth of cultured hippocampal neurons.

  20. Photolysis of postsynaptic caged Ca2+ can potentiate and depress mossy fiber synaptic responses in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yeckel, Mark F; Johnston, Daniel; Zucker, Robert S

    2004-04-01

    The induction of mossy fiber-CA3 long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) has been variously described as being dependent on either pre- or postsynaptic factors. Some of the postsynaptic factors for LTP induction include ephrin-B receptor tyrosine kinases and a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+ is also believed to be involved in the induction of the various forms of LTD at this synapse. We used photolysis of caged Ca2+ compounds to test whether a postsynaptic rise in [Ca2+]i is sufficient to induce changes in synaptic transmission at mossy fiber synapses onto rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. We were able to elevate postsynaptic [Ca2+]i to approximately 1 microm for a few seconds in pyramidal cell somata and dendrites. We estimate that CA3 pyramidal neurons have approximately fivefold greater endogenous Ca2+ buffer capacity than CA1 neurons, limiting the rise in [Ca2+]i achievable by photolysis. This [Ca2+]i rise induced either a potentiation or a depression at mossy fiber synapses in different preparations. Neither the potentiation nor the depression was accompanied by consistent changes in paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting that these forms of plasticity may be distinct from synaptically induced LTP and LTD at this synapse. Our results are consistent with a postsynaptic locus for the induction of at least some forms of synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber synapses.

  1. Critical involvement of postsynaptic protein kinase activation in long-term potentiation at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Galván, Emilio J; Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Card, J Patrick; Thiels, Edda; Meriney, Stephen D; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2010-02-24

    Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses on area CA3 lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons are capable of undergoing a Hebbian form of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by the same type of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) that induces LTP at MF synapses on pyramidal cells. LTP of MF input to L-M interneurons occurs only at synapses containing mostly calcium-impermeable (CI)-AMPA receptors (AMPARs). Here, we demonstrate that HFS-induced LTP at these MF-interneuron synapses requires postsynaptic activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Brief extracellular stimulation of PKA with forskolin (FSK) alone or in combination with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) induced a long-lasting synaptic enhancement at MF synapses predominantly containing CI-AMPARs. However, the FSK/IBMX-induced potentiation in cells loaded with the specific PKA inhibitor peptide PKI(6-22) failed to be maintained. Consistent with these data, delivery of HFS to MFs synapsing onto L-M interneurons loaded with PKI(6-22) induced posttetanic potentiation (PTP) but not LTP. Hippocampal sections stained for the catalytic subunit of PKA revealed abundant immunoreactivity in interneurons located in strata radiatum and L-M of area CA3. We also found that extracellular activation of PKC with phorbol 12,13-diacetate induced a pharmacological potentiation of the isolated CI-AMPAR component of the MF EPSP. However, HFS delivered to MF synapses on cells loaded with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine exhibited PTP followed by a significant depression. Together, our data indicate that MF LTP in L-M interneurons at synapses containing primarily CI-AMPARs requires some of the same signaling cascades as does LTP of glutamatergic input to CA3 or CA1 pyramidal cells.

  2. Frequency-dependent associative long-term potentiation at the hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapse.

    PubMed

    Derrick, B E; Martinez, J L

    1994-10-25

    The mossy fiber-CA3 synapse displays an N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor-independent mu-opioid-receptor-dependent form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that is thought not to display cooperativity or associativity with coactive afferents. However, because mossy fiber LTP requires repetitive synaptic activity for its induction, we reevaluated cooperativity and associativity at this synapse by using trains of mossy fiber stimulation. Moderate-, but not low-, intensity trains induced mossy fiber LTP, indicating cooperativity. Low-intensity mossy fiber trains that were normally ineffective in inducing LTP could induce mossy fiber LTP when delivered in conjunction with trains delivered to commissural-CA3 afferents. Associative mossy fiber LTP also could be induced with single mossy fiber pulses when delivered with commissural trains in the presence of a mu-opioid-receptor agonist. Our findings suggest a frequency-dependent variation of Hebbian associative LTP induction that is regulated by the release of endogenous opioid peptides.

  3. c-fos modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in mouse hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus neurons.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mei; Wu, Yongfei; Fan, Yunxia; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Jianhua

    2006-05-29

    Excess neuronal excitation by glutamate induces neuron cell death, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous studies using a mouse with hippocampal c-fos gene deletion showed that c-fos regulates neuronal excitability and excitotoxicity. Moreover, a delayed induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression in response to kainic acid (KA) treatment was found in c-fos mutant mice compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that c-fos is important in the temporal control of BDNF induction. To further investigate mechanisms of in vivo regulation of c-fos on BDNF expression, we studied the expression of BDNF mRNA and its colocalization with c-Fos protein in the hippocampal formation in the presence and absence of KA. By in situ hybridization, we observed that the c-fos mutant and wildtype mice exhibited similar basal expression of BDNF in the absence of KA. In contrast, the KA-induced BDNF mRNA levels were significantly different in wildtype and c-fos mutant mice in CA3 and dentate gyrus regions. Our findings indicate that c-fos regulates expression of BDNF in distinct neuron populations of the hippocampal formation in vivo.

  4. Physical Exercise and Antidepressants Enhance BDNF Targeting in Hippocampal CA3 Dendrites: Further Evidence of a Spatial Code for BDNF Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Baj, Gabriele; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Sartori, Cesar R; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tardito, Daniela; Langone, Francesco; Popoli, Maurizio; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple BDNF transcripts, whose function is unclear. We recently showed that a subset of BDNF transcripts can traffic into distal dendrites in response to electrical activity, while others are segregated into the somatoproximal domains. Physical exercise and antidepressant treatments exert their beneficial effects through upregulation of BDNF, which is required to support survival and differentiation of newborn dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. While these DG processes are required for the antidepressant effect, a role for CA1 in antidepressant action has been excluded, and the effect on CA3 neurons remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that physical exercise and antidepressants induce local increase of BDNF in CA3. Voluntary physical exercise for 28 consecutive days, or 2-week treatment with 10 mg/kg per day fluoxetine or reboxetine, produced a global increase of BDNF mRNA and protein in the neuronal somata of the whole hippocampus and a specific increase of BDNF in dendrites of CA3 neurons. This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant. In cultured hippocampal neurons, application of serotonin or norepinephrine (10–50 μM) induced increase in synaptic transmission and targeting of BDNF mRNA in dendrites. The increased expression of BDNF in CA3 dendrites following antidepressants or exercise further supports the neurotrophin hypothesis of antidepressants action and confirms that the differential subcellular localization of BDNF mRNA splice variants provides a spatial code for a selective expression of BDNF in specific subcellular districts. This selective expression may be exploited to design more specific antidepressants. PMID:22318196

  5. Implication of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the release of noradrenaline in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions under oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Milusheva, E A; Baranyi, M

    2003-11-01

    A strong linkage between adrenergic and glutamatergic systems exists in the CNS but it is still unclear whether the excessive release of noradrenaline under ischemic conditions is modulated by excitatory amino acids. We studied the effect of selective glutamate receptor antagonists on the release of [3H]noradrenaline evoked by glucose and oxygen deprivation in hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus subregions. The release of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was measured by HPLC. Omission of oxygen and glucose increased the release of [3H]noradrenaline as well as the release of amino acids. Maximum effect on noradrenaline release was observed in CA1 region. The relative increase of the release after 30 min energy deprivation (R(2)) versus the basal release under normal conditions (R(1)), i.e. the R(2)/R(1) ratio was 7.1+/-1.0, 3.87+/-0.4 and 3.26+/-0.27 for CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus, respectively. The [3H]noradrenaline outflow in response to glucose and oxygen deprivation was abolished at low temperature, but not by Ca(2+) removal, suggesting a cytoplasmic release process. In CA1 and CA3 [3H]noradrenaline release was significantly attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. The AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI-53784 had no effect in CA3, but partly reduced noradrenaline release in CA1. Our results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors seem to be implicated in the massive cytoplasmic release of noradrenaline in CA1 what may contribute to its selective vulnerability.

  6. Physical exercise and antidepressants enhance BDNF targeting in hippocampal CA3 dendrites: further evidence of a spatial code for BDNF splice variants.

    PubMed

    Baj, Gabriele; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Sartori, Cesar R; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tardito, Daniela; Langone, Francesco; Popoli, Maurizio; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple BDNF transcripts, whose function is unclear. We recently showed that a subset of BDNF transcripts can traffic into distal dendrites in response to electrical activity, while others are segregated into the somatoproximal domains. Physical exercise and antidepressant treatments exert their beneficial effects through upregulation of BDNF, which is required to support survival and differentiation of newborn dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. While these DG processes are required for the antidepressant effect, a role for CA1 in antidepressant action has been excluded, and the effect on CA3 neurons remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that physical exercise and antidepressants induce local increase of BDNF in CA3. Voluntary physical exercise for 28 consecutive days, or 2-week treatment with 10 mg/kg per day fluoxetine or reboxetine, produced a global increase of BDNF mRNA and protein in the neuronal somata of the whole hippocampus and a specific increase of BDNF in dendrites of CA3 neurons. This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant. In cultured hippocampal neurons, application of serotonin or norepinephrine (10-50 μM) induced increase in synaptic transmission and targeting of BDNF mRNA in dendrites. The increased expression of BDNF in CA3 dendrites following antidepressants or exercise further supports the neurotrophin hypothesis of antidepressants action and confirms that the differential subcellular localization of BDNF mRNA splice variants provides a spatial code for a selective expression of BDNF in specific subcellular districts. This selective expression may be exploited to design more specific antidepressants.

  7. [Quantitative evaluation of inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythms in the network of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ge, Man-Ling; Guo, Jun-Dan; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Chang; Fu, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Min

    2017-02-25

    Epileptic spike is an indicator of hyper-excitability and hyper-synchrony in the neural networks. The inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms (4-8 Hz) might be helpful to understand the mechanism of epileptic damage on the cognitive functions. To quantitatively evaluate the inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms, intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with both sporadic spikes (SSs) and spike-free transient period between adjacent spikes were selected in 4 patients in the status of rapid eyes movement (REM) sleep with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) under the pre-surgical monitoring. The electrodes of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC) were employed, since CA3 and EC built up one of key loops to investigate cognition and epilepsy. These SSs occurred only in CA3, only in EC, or in both CA3 and EC synchronously. Theta power was respectively estimated around SSs and during the spike-free transient period by Gabor wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. The intermittent extent was then estimated to represent for the loss of theta rhythms during the spike-free transient period. The following findings were obtained: (1) The prominent rhythms were in theta frequency band; (2) The spikes could transiently reduce theta power, and the inhibitory effect was severer around SSs in both CA3 and EC synchronously than that around either SSs only in EC or SSs only in CA3; (3) During the spike-free transient period, theta rhythms were interrupted with the intermittent theta rhythms left and theta power level continued dropping, implying the inhibitory effect was sustained. Additionally, the intermittent extent of theta rhythms was converged to the inhibitory extent around SSs; (4) The average theta power level during the spike-free transient period might not be in line with the inhibitory extent of theta rhythms around SSs. It was concluded that the SSs had negative effects on theta rhythms transiently and directly, the inhibitory effects aroused by

  8. Activity-dependent induction of multitransmitter signaling onto pyramidal cells and interneurons of hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    Romo-Parra, Héctor; Vivar, Carmen; Maqueda, Jasmín; Morales, Miguel A; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) are considered to be glutamatergic, but they contain glutamic acid decarboxylase, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and the vesicular GABA transporter mRNA. Their expression is regulated in an activity-dependent manner and coincides with the appearance of GABAergic transmission from the mossy fibers (MF) to pyramidal cells in area CA3. These data support the hypothesis that MF are able to release glutamate and GABA. Following the principle that a given neuron releases the same neurotransmitter(s) onto all its targets, we here demonstrate the emergence, after a generalized convulsive seizure, of MF GABAergic signaling sensitive to activation mGluR-III onto pyramidal cells and interneurons of CA3. Despite this, excitation overrides inhibition in interneurons, preventing disinhibition. Furthermore, on blockade of GABA and glutamate ionotropic receptors, an M1-cholinergic depolarizing signal is also revealed in both targets, which postsynaptically modulates the glutamatergic and GABAergic fast neurotransmission. The emergence of these nonglutamatergic signals depends on protein synthesis. In contrast to cholinergic responses evoked by associational/commissural fibers activation, cholinergic transmission evoked by DG stimulation is only observed after seizures and is strongly depressed by the activation of mGluR-II, whereas both are depressed by M2-AChR activation. With immunohistological experiments, we show that this cholinergic pathway runs parallel to the MF. Thus seizures compromise a delicate balance of excitation and inhibition, on which a complex interaction of different neurotransmitters emerges to counteract excitation at pre- and postsynaptic sites. Particularly, MF GABAergic inhibition emerges to exert an overall inhibitory action on CA3.

  9. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  10. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr; Ruskin, David N; Masino, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet-fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy.

  11. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, P. A.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Barnikol, U. B.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-07-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  12. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-07-15

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  13. Closed head injury causes hyperexcitability in rat hippocampal CA1 but not in CA3 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, Désirée; Mautes, Angelika M

    2007-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury frequently elicits epileptic seizures hours or days after the impact. The mechanisms on cellular level are poorly understood. Because posttraumatic epilepsy appears in many cases as a temporal-lobe epilepsy which originated the hippocampus, we studied trauma-induced hyperexcitability on the cellular level in this brain area. We used the model of closed head injury to analyse the electrophysiological changes in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and in interneurones of the CA1 field, which is extremely sensitive to ischemia. We found that morphologically closed head injury (CHI) led to a gradual progressive, cell type specific time course in neuronal degeneration. To analyse electrophysiological impairment we measured resting membrane potential, recorded spontaneous action potentials and induced action potentials by current pulses at different times after CHI. We found a dramatic increase in the frequency of spontaneous action potentials of CA1 but not of CA3 pyramidal cells after CHI. This hyperexcitability was maximal at 2 h (4.5-fold higher than sham), was also observed at 24 h after CHI and disappeared after 3 days. We found that CA1 interneurones responded by a much weaker increase of AP frequency after CHI. We conclude that the strong hyperexcitability after CHI is cell-type specific and transient. The understanding of the complex neuronal interactions probably offers a promising possibility for pharmacological intervention to prevent posttraumatic epilepsy.

  14. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  15. The Analysis of Neurovascular Remodeling in Entorhino-hippocampal Organotypic Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chip, Sophorn; Zhu, Xinzhou; Kapfhammer, Josef P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is among the most common and devastating conditions compromising proper brain function and often leads to persisting functional deficits in the affected patients. Despite intensive research efforts, there is still no effective treatment option available that reduces neuronal injury and protects neurons in the ischemic areas from delayed secondary death. Research in this area typically involves the use of elaborate and problematic animal models. Entorhino-hippocampal organotypic slice cultures challenged with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) are established in vitro models which mimic cerebral ischemia. The novel aspect of this study is that changes of the brain blood vessels are studied in addition to neuronal changes and the reaction of both the neuronal compartment and the vascular compartment can be compared and correlated. The methods presented in this protocol substantially broaden the potential applications of the organotypic slice culture approach. The induction of OGD or hypoxia alone can be applied by rather simple means in organotypic slice cultures and leads to reliable and reproducible damage in the neural tissue. This is in stark contrast to the complicated and problematic animal experiments inducing stroke and ischemia in vivo. By broadening the analysis to include the study of the reaction of the vasculature could provide new ways on how to preserve and restore brain functions. The slice culture approach presented here might develop into an attractive and important tool for the study of ischemic brain injury and might be useful for testing potential therapeutic measures aimed at neuroprotection. PMID:25408363

  16. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P; Koudelka-Hep, M; Zimmer, J

    2001-03-30

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn) rats were grown for 4-8 weeks on the perforated silicon chips with silicon nitride surfaces and 40 microm sized holes and compared with corresponding tissue slices grown on conventional semiporous membranes. In terms of preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization, as visualized by Nissl staining, Timm sulphide silver-staining, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, the slice cultures grown on chips did not differ from conventionally grown slice cultures. Neither were there any signs of astrogliosis or neurodegeneration around the upper recording part of the 47-microm-high platinum-tip electrodes. Slice cultures grown on a separate set of chips with platinum instead of silicon nitride surfaces also displayed normal MAP2 and GFAP immunostaining. The width of the GFAP-rich zone (glia limitans) at the bottom surface of the slice cultures was the same ( approximately 20 microm) in cultures grown on chips with silicon nitride and platinum surfaces and on conventional insert membranes. The slice cultures grown on chips maintained a normal, subfield differentiated susceptibility to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT), as demonstrated by the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI), which was used as a reproducible and quantifiable marker for neuronal degeneration. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures can grow on silicon-based three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and develop normally with display of normal subfield differentiated susceptibilities to known excito- and neurotoxins. From this it is anticipated that the set

  17. Perirhinal cortical inactivation impairs object-in-place memory and disrupts task-dependent firing in hippocampal CA1, but not in CA3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inah; Park, Seong-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Objects and their locations can associatively define an event and a conjoint representation of object-place can form an event memory. Remembering how to respond to a certain object in a spatial context is dependent on both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PER). However, the relative functional contributions of the two regions are largely unknown in object-place associative memory. We investigated the PER influence on hippocampal firing in a goal-directed object-place memory task by comparing the firing patterns of CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus between conditions of PER muscimol inactivation and vehicle control infusions. Rats were required to choose one of the two objects in a specific spatial context (regardless of the object positions in the context), which was shown to be dependent on both hippocampus and PER. Inactivation of PER with muscimol (MUS) severely disrupted performance of well-trained rats, resulting in response bias (i.e., choosing any object on a particular side). MUS did not significantly alter the baseline firing rates of hippocampal neurons. We measured the similarity in firing patterns between two trial conditions in which the same target objects were chosen on opposite sides within the same arm [object-in-place (O-P) strategy] and compared the results with the similarity in firing between two trial conditions in which the rat chose any object encountered on a particular side [response-in-place (R-P) strategy]. We found that the similarity in firing patterns for O-P trials was significantly reduced with MUS compared to control conditions (CTs). Importantly, this was largely because MUS injections affected the O-P firing patterns in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3. The results suggest that PER is critical for goal-directed organization of object-place associative memory in the hippocampus presumably by influencing how object information is associated with spatial information in CA1 according to task demand. PMID:23966912

  18. Transition to seizure: ictal discharge is preceded by exhausted presynaptic GABA release in the hippocampal CA3 region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang J; Koifman, Julius; Shin, Damian S; Ye, Hui; Florez, Carlos M; Zhang, Liang; Valiante, Taufik A; Carlen, Peter L

    2012-02-15

    How the brain transitions into a seizure is poorly understood. Recurrent seizure-like events (SLEs) in low-Mg2+/ high-K+ perfusate were measured in the CA3 region of the intact mouse hippocampus. The SLE was divided into a "preictal phase," which abruptly turns into a higher frequency "ictal" phase. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors shortened the preictal phase, abolished interictal bursts, and attenuated the slow preictal depolarization, with no effect on the ictal duration, whereas SLEs were blocked by glutamate receptor blockade. In CA3 pyramidal cells and stratum oriens non-fast-spiking and fast-spiking interneurons, recurrent GABAergic IPSCs predominated interictally and during the early preictal phase, synchronous with extracellularly measured recurrent field potentials (FPs). These IPSCs then decreased to zero or reversed polarity by the onset of the higher-frequency ictus. However, postsynaptic muscimol-evoked GABA(A) responses remained intact. Simultaneously, EPSCs synchronous with the FPs markedly increased to a maximum at the ictal onset. The reversal potential of the compound postsynaptic currents (combined simultaneous EPSCs and IPSCs) became markedly depolarized during the preictal phase, whereas the muscimol-evoked GABA(A) reversal potential remained unchanged. During the late preictal phase, interneuronal excitability was high, but IPSCs, evoked by local stimulation, or osmotically by hypertonic sucrose application, were diminished, disappearing at the ictal onset. We conclude that the interictal and early preictal states are dominated by GABAergic activity, with the onset of the ictus heralded by exhaustion of presynaptic release of GABA, and unopposed increased glutamatergic responses.

  19. Further characterization of the effect of ethanol on voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in developing CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Developmental ethanol exposure damages the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory. Alterations in synaptic transmission and plasticity may play a role in this effect of ethanol. We previously reported that acute and repeated exposure to ethanol during the 3rd trimester-equivalent inhibits long-term potentiation of GABAA receptor-dependent synaptic currents in CA3 pyramidal neurons through a mechanism that depends on retrograde release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor driven by activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Zucca and Valenzuela, 2010). We found evidence indicating that voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are inhibited in the presence of ethanol, an effect that may play a role in its mechanism of action. Here, we further investigated the acute effect of ethanol on the function of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons using Ca2+ imaging techniques. These experiments revealed that acute ethanol exposure inhibits voltage-gated Ca2+ channels both in somatic and proximal dendritic compartments. To investigate the long-term consequences of ethanol on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, we used patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques to assess the function of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels during and following ten days of vapor ethanol exposure. During ethanol withdrawal periods, the function of these channels was not significantly affected by vapor chamber exposure. Taken together with our previous findings, our results suggest that 3rd trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure transiently inhibits L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in CA3 pyramidal neurons and that compensatory mechanisms restore their function during ethanol withdrawal. Transient inhibition of these channels by ethanol may be, in part, responsible for the hippocampal abnormalities associated with developmental exposure to this agent. PMID:26711851

  20. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Shi-Bing; Cheng, Sin-Jhong; Hung, Wei-Chen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Min, Ming-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC) analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE. PMID:26659605

  1. DYNAMIC AND INTERACTING PROFILES OF •NO AND O2 IN RAT HIPPOCAMPAL SLICES

    PubMed Central

    Ledo, Ana; Barbosa, Rui; Cadenas, Enrique; Laranjinha, João

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (•NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that participates in the neuromolecular phenomena associated with memory formation. In the hippocampus, neuronal •NO production is coupled to the activation of the NMDA-type of glutamate receptor. Although, •NO-mediated signaling has been associated with soluble guanylate cyclase activation, cytochrome oxidase is also a target for this gaseous free radical, for which •NO competes with O2. Here, we show, for the first time in a model preserving tissue cytoarchitecture (rat hippocampal slices) and at a physiological O2 concentration, that endogenous NMDA-evoked •NO production inhibits tissue O2 consumption for submicromolar concentrations. The simultaneous real-time recordings reveal a direct correlation between the profiles of •NO and O2 in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampal slice. These results, obtained in a system close to in vivo models, strongly support the current paradigm for O2 and •NO interplay in the regulation of cellular respiration. PMID:20100565

  2. Effects of positive AMPA receptor modulators on calpain-mediated spectrin degradation in cultured hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, Hussam; Yanagihara, Ted; Martinez, Ulises; Bi, Xiaoning; Lynch, Gary; Baudry, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Positive modulators of AMPA receptors (AMPAr), also known as ampakines, are allosteric effectors of the receptors and have been extensively studied in past years due to their potential use as treatment for various diseases and ailments of the central nervous system such as mild cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Ampakines have been shown to improve performance on memory tasks in animals and in human subjects, an effect linked to their ability to increase agonist-mediated ion influx through AMPAr, thus leading to enhanced synaptic responses and facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) induction at glutamatergic synapses. As LTP is associated with calpain activation and spectrin degradation, we determined the effects of ampakine treatment of cultured hippocampal slices on spectrin degradation. Calpain activation was evaluated by determining the levels of the 145-150kDa degradation products of spectrin. Our data indicated that incubation of hippocampal slices with some, but not all positive modulators of AMPA receptors resulted in enhanced spectrin degradation, an effect that was blocked by a calpain inhibitor. In addition, an antagonist of AMPAr but not of NMDAr blocked ampakine-induced spectrin degradation. These results indicate that prolonged treatment with selected ampakines leads to spectrin degradation mediated by activation of the calcium-dependent protease calpain.

  3. Investigation of Synaptic Tagging/Capture and Cross-capture using Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Hui, Neo Sin; Dasgupta, Ananya; Gopinadhan, Suma; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross-tagging are two important mechanisms at cellular level that explain how synapse-specificity and associativity is achieved in neurons within a specific time frame. These long-term plasticity-related processes are the leading candidate models to study the basis of memory formation and persistence at the cellular level. Both STC and cross-tagging involve two serial processes: (1) setting of the synaptic tag as triggered by a specific pattern of stimulation, and (2) synaptic capture, whereby the synaptic tag interacts with newly synthesized plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). Much of the understanding about the concepts of STC and cross-tagging arises from the studies done in CA1 region of the hippocampus and because of the technical complexity many of the laboratories are still unable to study these processes. Experimental conditions for the preparation of hippocampal slices and the recording of stable late-LTP/LTD are extremely important to study synaptic tagging/cross-tagging. This video article describes the experimental procedures to study long-term plasticity processes such as STC and cross-tagging in the CA1 pyramidal neurons using stable, long-term field-potential recordings from acute hippocampal slices of rats. PMID:26381286

  4. Investigation of Synaptic Tagging/Capture and Cross-capture using Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rodents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Hui, Neo Sin; Dasgupta, Ananya; Gopinadhan, Suma; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-09-04

    Synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross-tagging are two important mechanisms at cellular level that explain how synapse-specificity and associativity is achieved in neurons within a specific time frame. These long-term plasticity-related processes are the leading candidate models to study the basis of memory formation and persistence at the cellular level. Both STC and cross-tagging involve two serial processes: (1) setting of the synaptic tag as triggered by a specific pattern of stimulation, and (2) synaptic capture, whereby the synaptic tag interacts with newly synthesized plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). Much of the understanding about the concepts of STC and cross-tagging arises from the studies done in CA1 region of the hippocampus and because of the technical complexity many of the laboratories are still unable to study these processes. Experimental conditions for the preparation of hippocampal slices and the recording of stable late-LTP/LTD are extremely important to study synaptic tagging/cross-tagging. This video article describes the experimental procedures to study long-term plasticity processes such as STC and cross-tagging in the CA1 pyramidal neurons using stable, long-term field-potential recordings from acute hippocampal slices of rats.

  5. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase C Is Not Required for Post-Tetanic Potentiation at the Hippocampal CA3 to CA1 Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Chieh; Weyrer, Christopher; Paturu, Mounica; Fioravante, Diasynou

    2016-01-01

    Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is a widespread form of short-term synaptic plasticity in which a period of elevated presynaptic activation leads to synaptic enhancement that lasts tens of seconds to minutes. A leading hypothesis for the mechanism of PTP is that tetanic stimulation elevates presynaptic calcium that in turn activates calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms to phosphorylate targets and enhance neurotransmitter release. Previous pharmacological studies have implicated this mechanism in PTP at hippocampal synapses, but the results are controversial. Here we combine genetic and pharmacological approaches to determine the role of classic PKC isoforms in PTP. We find that PTP is unchanged in PKC triple knock-out (TKO) mice in which all calcium-dependent PKC isoforms have been eliminated (PKCα, PKCβ, and PKCγ). We confirm previous studies and find that in wild-type mice 10 μm of the PKC inhibitor GF109203 eliminates PTP and the PKC activator PDBu enhances neurotransmitter release and occludes PTP. However, we find that the same concentrations of GF109203 and PDBu have similar effects in TKO animals. We also show that 2 μm GF109203 does not abolish PTP even though it inhibits the PDBu-dependent phosphorylation of PKC substrates. We conclude that at the CA3 to CA1 synapse Ca2+-dependent PKC isoforms do not serve as calcium sensors to mediate PTP. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons dynamically regulate neurotransmitter release through many processes known collectively as synaptic plasticity. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is a widespread form of synaptic plasticity that lasts for tens of seconds that may have important computational roles and contribute to short-term memory. According to a leading mechanism, presynaptic calcium activates protein kinase C (PKC) to increase neurotransmitter release. Pharmacological studies have also implicated this mechanism at hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synapses, but there are concerns about the specificity of PKC

  6. Effects of Relative Hypoglycemia on LTP and NADH Imaging in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Beaver, Christopher J.; Turner, Dennis A.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive and neuronal impairment in diabetes may be associated with iatrogenic hypoglycemia, particularly at low serum glucose levels (< 3 mM). To evaluate cellular impairment, we assessed acute hippocampal slice functioning during decreased ambient glucose, by monitoring evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP), and slice nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence. The effects of lowered glucose levels (60 min) were analyzed by examining the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP), and NADH metabolic imaging in the CA1 region. The basal fEPSP response was reduced by lowered ambient glucose, an effect that was reversible in 2.5 mM glucose, partially reversible in 1.25 mM glucose and irreversible in 0 mM glucose, after 25 min recovery. LTP induction and maintenance declined during glucose restriction, demonstrating reversibly failed maintenance in 5 mM and 2.5 mM ambient glucose, and absent induction in 1.25 mM glucose. Peak NADH levels observed during train-induced biphasic transients were significantly reduced during 1.25 mM and 2.5 mM glucose. Significant functional compromise in our slice model occurred at 2.5 mM ambient glucose, equivalent to <1mM tissue glucose in the slice center, due to diffusion limitations and active glucose utilization. This tissue glucose level correlates with human observations of a serum threshold of <3mM for cognitive impairment, since brain tissue glucose is approximately one third of serum levels. The physiological effects of hypoglycemia in our slice model, assessed through fEPSP, LTP, and NADH responses, replicate closely the in vivo situation, confirming the usefulness of this model in assessing consequences of relative hypoglycemia. PMID:17651706

  7. Effect of the nootropic drug oxiracetam on field potentials of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, A. M.; Corradetti, R.; Ballerini, L.; Pepeu, G.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug oxiracetam on hippocampal neurotransmission was investigated in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slice in vitro by use of extracellular recordings. 2. Superfusion of oxiracetam (0.1-100 microM) produced a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant (greater than 90 min), increase in initial slope and amplitude of the dendritic field excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.). This increase was maximal at a concentration of 1 microM (70%). 3. Input-output curves relating the initial slope to the amplitude of the afferent volley were significantly (P less than 0.05) steeper and showed a greater maximal response in the presence of 1 microM oxiracetam than in control conditions. 4. Two trains of high frequency stimulation (100 Hz, 0.4 s, 5 min apart) delivered in the stratum radiatum 30 min after washout of oxiracetam (1 microM) still elicited a long-term potentiation (LTP) of the field e.p.s.p. However, the absolute magnitude of the LTP produced did not differ from that obtained in untreated slices. 5. After induction and establishment of LTP, oxiracetam (1 microM) had a smaller (27%) and reversible effect on the evoked field e.p.s.p. 6. D-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5), at the same concentration (50 microM) which in our conditions prevented the induction of LTP, blocked the action of 1 microM oxiracetam and strongly depressed the effect of higher concentrations of the nootropic drug. 7. It is concluded that oxiracetam provokes an enduring increase of neurotransmission in the CA1 rat hippocampal region.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1970492

  8. Significant glial alterations in response to iron loading in a novel organotypic hippocampal slice culture model

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Sinead; McMahon, Jill; Owens, Peter; FitzGerald, Una

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant iron deposition in the brain is associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. To study the collective response to iron loading, we have used hippocampal organotypic slices as a platform to develop a novel ex vivo model of iron accumulation. We demonstrated differential uptake and toxicity of iron after 12 h exposure to 10 μM ferrous ammonium sulphate, ferric citrate or ferrocene. Having established the supremacy of ferrocene in this model, the cultures were then loaded with 0.1–100 μM ferrocene for 12 h. One μM ferrocene exposure produced the maximal 1.6-fold increase in iron compared with vehicle. This was accompanied by a 1.4-fold increase in ferritin transcripts and mild toxicity. Using dual-immunohistochemistry, we detected ferritin in oligodendrocytes, microglia, but rarely in astrocytes and never in neurons in iron-loaded slice cultures. Moreover, iron loading led to a 15% loss of olig2-positive cells and a 16% increase in number and greater activation of microglia compared with vehicle. However, there was no appreciable effect of iron loading on astrocytes. In what we believe is a significant advance on traditional mono- or dual-cultures, our novel ex vivo slice-culture model allows characterization of the collective response of brain cells to iron-loading. PMID:27808258

  9. Mitochondrial calcium ion and membrane potential transients follow the pattern of epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Richard; Kardos, Julianna; Heinemann, Uwe; Kann, Oliver

    2005-04-27

    Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Recurrent mitochondrial Ca2+ ion load during seizures might act on mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and proton motive force. By using electrophysiology and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, we investigated the effects of epileptiform activity, as induced by low-Mg2+ ion perfusion in hippocampal slice cultures, on changes in DeltaPsim and in mitochondrial Ca2+ ion concentration ([Ca2+]m). The mitochondrial compartment was identified by monitoring DeltaPsim in the soma and dendrites of patched CA3 pyramidal cells using the mitochondria-specific voltage-sensitive dye rhodamine-123 (Rh-123). Interictal activity was accompanied by localized mitochondrial depolarization that was restricted to a few mitochondria in small dendrites. In contrast, robust Rh-123 release into the cytosol was observed during seizure-like events (SLEs), indicating simultaneous depolarization of mitochondria. This was critically dependent on Ca2+ ion uptake and extrusion, because inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca2+ ion uniporter by Ru360 and the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ ion exchanger by 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4,1-benzothiazepin-2(3H)-one but not the inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cyclosporin A, decreased the SLE-associated mitochondrial depolarization. The Ca2+ ion dependence of simultaneous mitochondrial depolarization suggested enhanced Ca2+ ion cycling across mitochondrial membranes during epileptiform activity. Indeed, [Ca2+]m fluctuated during interictal activity in single dendrites, and these fluctuations spread over the entire mitochondrial compartment during SLEs, as revealed using mitochondria-specific dyes (rhod-2 and rhod-ff) and spatial frequency-based image analysis. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that epileptic activity results in Ca2+ ion-dependent changes in mitochondrial function that might contribute to the

  10. Long-Term Potentiation by Theta-Burst Stimulation Using Extracellular Field Potential Recordings in Acute Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Therese; Lalanne, Txomin; Watt, Alanna J; Sjöström, P Jesper

    2016-06-01

    This protocol describes how to carry out theta-burst long-term potentiation (LTP) with extracellular field recordings in acute rodent hippocampal slices. This method is relatively simple and noninvasive and provides a way to sample many neurons simultaneously, making it suitable for applications requiring higher throughput than whole-cell recording.

  11. Long-Term Potentiation by Theta-Burst Stimulation using Extracellular Field Potential Recordings in Acute Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, Therese; Lalanne, Txomin; Watt, Alanna J.; Sjöström, P. Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This protocol describes how to carry out theta-burst long-term potentiation (LTP) with extracellular field recordings in acute rodent hippocampal slices. This method is relatively simple and noninvasive and provides a way to sample many neurons simultaneously, making it suitable for applications requiring higher throughput than whole-cell recording. PMID:27250947

  12. Imaging cell volume changes and neuronal excitation in the hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Andrew, R D; MacVicar, B A

    1994-09-01

    Brain cell swelling is a consequence of seizure, ischemia or excitotoxicity. Changes in light reflectance from cortical surface are now used to monitor brain activity but these intrinsic signals are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were first, to show that changes in light transmittance were correlated with cell volume and second, to image increases in light transmittance as they related to neuronal activation. Transverse hippocampal slices from the rat were used for the study. Brief exposure (4-6 min) to hypo-osmotic artificial cerebrospinal fluid (-40 mOsm) elevated light transmittance consistently and reversibly in most regions of the slice and particularly in CA1 dendritic regions. Neither zero-Ca2+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid nor tetrodotoxin altered the transmittance increase and its subsequent reversal, suggesting that it was dependent on osmolality but independent of synaptic transmission and neuronal firing. The amplitude of the CA1 population spike evoked from Schaffer collaterals increased concomitantly with the hypo-osmotic increase in light transmittance, providing evidence that the extracellular tissue resistance increased. Hyper-osmotic artificial cerebrospinal fluid (+40 mOsm) containing impermeant mannitol consistently lowered light transmittance and the amplitude of the population spike. Glycerol (+40 mOsm), which is cell permeant, did not have an affect. Taken together these observations indicate that osmotic challenge alters light transmittance by inducing changes in cell volume. Transmittance increases induced by hypo-osmotic artificial cerebrospinal fluid or 10 microM kainate were small in the CA1 cell body region compared to dendritic regions. Similarly, orthodromic stimulation of axons terminating in stratum oriens or in stratum radiatum evoked transmittance increases only in their respective postsynaptic areas. In contrast, the cell body region and its adjacent proximal-apical dendrites (both sites of action potential

  13. Heterogeneous spatial patterns of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Payne Y; Jackson, Meyer B

    2006-01-01

    Although LTP (long-term potentiation) of synaptic transmission has received much attention as a model for learning and memory, its function within a neural circuit context remains poorly understood. To monitor LTP over an extensive circuit, we imaged responses in hippocampal slices using a voltage-sensitive dye. Following theta-burst stimulation, evoked optical signals showed an increase that lasted 40 min or more. Weak stimuli only potentiated the local area around the stimulating electrode, but stronger stimuli induced LTP over a wide area with a complex and non-uniform spatial pattern. The expression of LTP showed distinct peaks and valleys that depended on which axons were activated. Interestingly, the spatial distribution of LTP bore no relation to the spatial distribution of single-shock responses, but closely resembled the distribution of postsynaptic spikes evoked by theta bursts. Thus, postsynaptic spikes during induction constitute a critical determinant for the expression of LTP in intact circuits. PMID:16873414

  14. Anisomycin inhibits the late maintenance of long-term depression in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Frey, Julietta U

    2003-02-27

    Studies were performed to investigate whether electrically-induced long-term depression (LTD) within rat hippocampal slices in vitro shares any common cellular features with LTD in the intact animal, with particular emphasis being placed on mechanisms required for its late maintenance. Our initial studies have led to the development of stimulation protocols which are able to reliably produce different forms of LTD. Depending on the induction protocol applied, we are able to demonstrate a transient protein synthesis-independent early-LTD with a duration of up to 3-4 h, together with a de novo protein synthesis-dependent late-LTD lasting for at least 8 h. Furthermore, we are able to show input-specific LTD within the CA1 region, with expression shown only by those synapses specifically stimulated by a low-frequency protocol. These studies are important pre-requisites to investigate mechanisms of 'synaptic tagging' and 'late-associativity' during LTD.

  15. Extracellular adenosine concentrations during in vitro ischaemia in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Latini, Serena; Bordoni, Francesca; Pedata, Felicita; Corradetti, Renato

    1999-01-01

    The application of an ischaemic insult in hippocampal slices results in the depression of synaptic transmission, mainly attributed to the activation of A1 adenosine receptors by adenosine released in the extracellular space. To estimate the concentration of endogenous adenosine acting at the receptor level during an ischaemic episode, we recorded field e.p.s.ps (fe.p.s.ps) from hippocampal slices, and evaluated the ability of the selective A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), to reverse the fe.p.s.p. depression induced by in vitro ischaemia. A relationship between the IC50 of an antagonist and the endogenous concentration of a neurotransmitter has been used for pharmacological analysis. The complete and reversible depression of fe.p.s.p. in the CA1 region induced by 5 min ischaemia was decreased in the presence of DPCPX (50–500 nM). 8-Phenyltheophylline (10 μM) abolished the depression of fe.p.s.ps during the ischaemic period, while a small (peak effect 12±4%) decrease in fe.p.s.ps was observed during the initial phase of reperfusion. In the time-interval of maximal depression of fe.p.s.ps., IC50 and adenosine concentration changed as function of time with a good degree of correlation. The maximal value of adenosine concentration was 30 μM. Our data provide an estimation of the adenosine concentration reached at the receptor level during an ischaemic episode, with a higher time discrimination (15 s) than that achieved with any biochemical approach. This estimation may be useful in order to establish appropriate concentrations of purinergic compounds to be tested for their pharmacological effects during an ischaemic episode. PMID:10401564

  16. Action potential-independent and nicotinic receptor-mediated concerted release of multiple quanta at hippocampal CA3-mossy fiber synapses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geeta; Grybko, Michael; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2008-03-05

    Presynaptic action potential-independent transmitter release is a potential means of information transfer across synapses. We show that in the hippocampal mossy fiber boutons, activation of the alpha7-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7-nAChRs) results in a large increase in the amplitude of spontaneous events, resulting from concerted release of multiple quanta from the mossy fiber boutons. This amplitude increase is abolished at low temperatures. Activation of alpha7-nAChRs causes a rise in intraterminal calcium at mossy fiber boutons, involving ryanodine receptors. Regulation of concerted release requires the subsequent activation of presynaptic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Activation of CaMKII is required to drive presynaptic action potential-independent transmission at the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. The effects of alpha7-nAChR activation are mediated by biologically relevant doses of nicotine. Our results demonstrate a novel form of synaptic plasticity mediated by presynaptic alpha7-nAChRs and store calcium that is temporally different and might respond to a different history of synaptic activity than that mediated by incoming action potentials.

  17. Active decay of composite excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal slices from young rats.

    PubMed

    Dozmorov, Mikhail; Niu, Yin-Ping; Xu, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Min-Yi; Li, Rui; Sandberg, Mats; Wigström, Holger

    2003-05-23

    NMDA receptor dependent synaptic plasticity was examined in hippocampal slices using a novel pharmacological pairing procedure. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of slices maintained in a low Mg(2+) solution using a stimulus rate of 0.1-0.2 Hz. The NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5) was initially included in the perfusion solution to establish baseline recording of isolated AMPA EPSPs. Washing out AP5 led to the expression of composite EPSPs, containing both AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated components. Following an initial, transient potentiation of the AMPA component, the composite responses gradually decayed for several hours, involving AMPA and NMDA components to a similar extent. This decay was input specific and could be terminated at any stage by reapplication of AP5. Subsequent long-term potentiation (LTP) reversed the effect to an extent inversely related to the degree of depression. Experiments to test the interaction with long-term depression (LTD) revealed a significant but incomplete overlap between the two depression processes. In conclusion, pairing synaptic activation at test stimulus frequency with pharmacological unblocking of NMDA receptors allows for expression of composite EPSPs that decay substantially, due to an active mechanism. The underlying process appears to be at least partly distinct from those involved in homosynaptic LTP and LTD.

  18. Identification and two-photon imaging of oligodendrocyte in CA1 region of hippocampal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Wei; Ge Wooping; Zeng Shaoqun; Duan Shumin; Luo Qingming . E-mail: qluo@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2007-01-19

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) plays a critical role in myelination and axon maintenance in central nervous system. Recent studies show that OL can also express NMDA receptors in development and pathological situations in white matter. There is still lack of studies about OL properties and function in gray matter of brain. Here we reported that some glial cells in CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices (P15-23) had distinct electrophysiological characteristics from the other glia cells in this region, while they displayed uniform properties with OL from white matter in previous report; therefore, they were considered as OL in hippocampus. By loading dye in recording pipette and imaging with two-photon laser scanning microscopy, we acquired the high spatial resolution, three-dimension images of these special cells in live slices. The OL in hippocampus shows a complex process-bearing shape and the distribution of several processes is parallel to Schaffer fiber in CA1 region. When stimulating Schaffer fiber, OL displays a long duration depolarization mediated by inward rectifier potassium channel. This suggested that the OL in CA1 region could sense the neuronal activity and contribute to potassium clearance.

  19. Desflurane impairs outcome of organotypic hippocampal slices in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Matthias; Höllig, Anke; Liu, Jingjin; Grüsser, Linda; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Decreased mortality and disability after traumatic brain injury is a significant medical challenge. Desflurane, a widely used volatile anesthetic has proven to be neuroprotective in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic brain injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether desflurane exhibits neuroprotective properties in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were prepared from brains of 5–7-day-old C57/BL6 mouse pups. After 14 days of culture, the slices were subjected to a focal mechanical trauma and thereafter incubated with three different concentrations of desflurane (2, 4 and 6%) for 2, 24 and 72 hours. Cell injury was assessed with propodium iodide uptake. Our results showed that after 2 hours of desflurane exposure, no significant change in trauma intensity was observed. However, 2% and 4% desflurane could reduce the trauma intensity significantly in the no trauma group than in the no desflurane and trauma group. Incubation with 4% desflurane for 24 hours doubled the trauma intensity in comparison to the trauma control group and the trauma intensity further increased after 72 hours of incubation. Furthermore, a dose-dependent increase of trauma intensity after 24 hours exposure was observed. Our results suggest that a general neuroprotective attribute of desflurane in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury was not observed. PMID:27826417

  20. Termination of epileptiform activity by cooling in rat hippocampal slice epilepsy models.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Gholam K; Salazar, Patricia; Smith, Eric L; Lesser, Ronald P; Webber, William R S; Ortinski, Pavel I; Vicini, Stefano; Rogawski, Michael A

    2006-08-01

    Cooling has been shown to terminate experimentally induced epileptiform activity in models of epilepsy without causing injury to the cooled brain, suggesting that cooling could represent an approach to seizure control in intractable focal epilepsies. Here we sought to determine the most effective way to apply cooling to abort spontaneous epileptiform discharges in in vitro brain slice models. We induced spontaneous epileptiform activity in rat brain slices by exposure to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 4-AP plus bicuculline, and Mg(2+)-free artificial CSF (aCSF) at 28-34 degrees C. Extracellular field recordings were made at hippocampal or neocortical sites. Slice temperature was reduced by perfusion with cold aCSF. Rapid cooling at rates of 2-5 degrees C/s was compared to cooling at slower rates of 0.1-1 degrees C/s. Cooling at both rates reversibly aborted epileptiform discharges in all three models and at all recording sites. With rapid cooling, small temperature drops were highly effective in terminating discharges, an effect that was sustained for as long as the reduced temperature level was maintained. In contrast, slow cooling required much larger temperature drops to inhibit discharges. With slow cooling, absolute temperature drops to 21-22 degrees C caused a 90% reduction in event frequency, but cooling to 14-15 degrees C was required to terminate discharges. We conclude that rapid cooling as effectively aborts discharges in in vitro epilepsy models as does slow cooling, but the magnitude of the temperature change required is less. Practical devices to inhibit seizure activity may only need to induce small temperature drops, if the cooling can be applied sufficiently rapidly.

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition reveals endogenous nicotinic modulation of glutamate inputs to CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Albuquerque, Edson X; Pereira, Edna F R

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the neurotoxicological effects of soman, a potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and a chemical warfare agent, is not clear. This is partly due to a poor understanding of the role of AChE in brain nAChR-mediated functions. To test the hypothesis that AChE inhibition builds sufficient acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain and facilitates nAChR-dependent glutamate transmission, we used whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) from CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons (SRI) in hippocampal slices. First, the frequency, amplitude and kinetics of EPSCs recorded from slices of control guinea pigs were compared to those recorded from slices of guinea pigs after a single injection of the irreversible AChE inhibitor soman (25.2μg/kg, s.c.). Second, EPSCs were recorded from rat hippocampal slices before and after their superfusion with the reversible AChE inhibitor donepezil (100nM). The frequency of EPSCs was significantly higher in slices taken from guinea pigs 24h but not 7 days after the soman injection than in slices from control animals. In 52% of the rat hippocampal slices tested, bath application of donepezil increased the frequency of EPSCs. Further, exposure to donepezil increased both burst-like and large-amplitude EPSCs, and increased the proportion of short (20-100ms) inter-event intervals. Donepezil's effects were suppressed significantly in presence of 10μM mecamylamine or 10nM methyllycaconitine. These results support the concept that AChE inhibition is able to recruit nAChR-dependent glutamate transmission in the hippocampus and such a mechanism can contribute to the acute neurotoxicological actions of soman.

  2. Neural activity and the levels of high energy phosphates during deprivation of oxygen and/or glucose in hippocampal slices of immature and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nabetani, M; Okada, Y; Kawai, S; Nakamura, H

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between neural activity and cerebral energy metabolism during anoxia or ischemia in neural tissue of different ages, hippocampal slices were prepared from four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats. For the index of the neural activity, the population spikes were recorded in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA3 area. ATP and phosphocreatine levels in the slices were measured during oxygen and/or glucose deprivation. After deprivation of both oxygen and glucose, population spikes of the slices from four, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats ceased completely in 14.2, 11.8, 9.4 and 5.3 min, respectively. The level of ATP at the time of cessation of population spike in four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats was 37.4, 30.2, 28.5 and 56.4% of the original concentrations. After deprivation of glucose only, the decay time of the population spikes of the slices from four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats was 17.8, 14.5, 9.0 and 10.0 min and at the time of population spikes cessation the level of ATP was 99.8, 84.2, 79.3 and 49%, respectively. After deprivation of oxygen only, population spikes of the slices from four, seven- and 10-day old and adult rats ceased completely in 257, 283, 109 and 8.5 min, respectively. The level of ATP at the time of population spikes cessation was 50, 40, 36.6 and 94.4% of the initial values, respectively. These results indicate that the immature rat is extremely resistant to oxygen deprivation from a functional and a metabolic view, whereas in the adult rat, preservation of neural activity depends much on both oxygen and glucose. During glucose deprivation, population spikes of the slices of immature and mature rats ceased rapidly although the level of ATP is preserved at high levels. This suggests that glucose plays an important role in the preservation of neural activity in addition to its major function as an energy substrate especially in immature animals.

  3. Fiber Tract Stimulation Can Reduce Epileptiform Activity in an in-vitro Bilateral Hippocampal Slice Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Toprani, Sheela; Durand, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common medically refractory neurological disease that has been treated with electrical stimulation of gray matter with limited success. However, stimulation of a white matter tract connecting the hippocampi could maximize treatment efficacy and extent. We tested low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a novel target that enables simultaneous targeting of bilateral hippocampi: the ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) with a novel in-vitro slice preparation containing bilateral hippocampi connected by the VHC. The goal of this study is to understand the role of hippocampal interplay in seizure propagation and reduction by commissural fiber tract stimulation. LFS is applied to the VHC as extracellular and intracellular recording techniques are combined with signal processing to estimate several metrics of epilepsy including: (1) total time occupied by seizure activity (%); (2) seizure duration (s); (3) seizures per minute (#); and (4) power in the ictal (V2Hz−1); as well as (5) interictal spectra (V2Hz−1). Bilateral epileptiform activity in this preparation is highly correlated between hippocampi. Application of LFS to the VHC reduces all metrics of epilepsy during treatment in an amplitude and frequency dependent manner. This study lends several insights into the mechanisms of bilateral seizure reduction by LFS of the VHC, including that depolarization blocking, LTD/LTP and GABAA are not involved. Importantly, enhanced post-stimulation 1-Hz spiking correlates with long-lasting seizure reduction and both are heightened by targeting bilateral hippocampi via the VHC. Therefore, stimulating bilateral hippocampi via a single electrode in the VHC may provide an effective MTLE treatment. PMID:23123405

  4. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna P; Shah, Alok S; Aperi, Brandy V; Kurpad, Shekar N; Stemper, Brian D; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h) following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI) indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1), demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in OHCs at 2 h

  5. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anna P.; Shah, Alok S.; Aperi, Brandy V.; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Stemper, Brian D.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h) following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI) indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1), demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in OHCs at 2 h

  6. An organotypic hippocampal slice culture model of excitotoxic injury induced spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges

    PubMed Central

    Ziobro, Julie M.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the major cause of acquired epilepsy in the adult population. The mechanisms of ischemia-induced epileptogenesis are not completely understood, but glutamate is associated with both ischemia-induced injury and epileptogenesis. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro model of epileptogenesis induced by glutamate injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), as observed in stroke-induced acquired epilepsy. OHSCs were prepared from 1-week old Sprague-Dawley rat pups. They were exposed to 3.5 mM glutamate for 35 minutes at 21 days in vitro. Field potential recordings and whole-cell current clamp electrophysiology were used to monitor the development of in vitro seizure events up to 19 days after injury. Propidium iodide uptake assays were used to examine acute cell death following injury. Glutamate exposure produced a subset of hippocampal neurons that died acutely and a larger population of injured but surviving neurons. These surviving neurons manifested spontaneous, recurrent epileptiform discharges in neural networks, characterized by paroxysmal depolarizing shifts and high frequency spiking in both field potential and intracellular recordings. This model also exhibited anticonvulsant sensitivity similar to in vivo models. Our study is the first demonstration of a chronic model of acquired epilepsy in OHSCs following a glutamate injury. This in vitro model of glutamate injury–induced epileptogenesis may help develop therapeutic strategies to prevent epileptogenesis after stroke and elucidate some of the mechanisms that underlie stroke-induced epilepsy in a more anatomically in-tact system. PMID:21111720

  7. Efficacy of a new charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulus in the isolated sciatic nerve and the hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Cappaert, Natalie L M; Ramekers, Dyan; Martens, Hubert C F; Wadman, Wytse J

    2013-02-01

    Most deep brain stimulators apply rectangular monophasic voltage pulses. By modifying the stimulus shape, it is possible to optimize stimulus efficacy and find the best compromise between clinical effect, minimal side effects and power consumption of the stimulus generator. In this study, we compared the efficacy of three types of charge-balanced biphasic pulses (CBBPs, nominal duration 100 μs) in isolated sciatic nerves and in in vitro hippocampal brain slices of the rat. Using these two models, we tested the efficacy of several stimulus shapes exclusively on axons (in the sciatic nerve) and compared the effect with that of stimuli in the more complex neuronal network of the hippocampal slice by considering the stimulus-response relation. We showed that (i) adding an interphase gap (IPG, range 100-500 μs) to the CBBP enhances stimulus efficacy in the rat sciatic nerve and (ii) that this type of stimuli (CBBP with IPG) is also more effective in hippocampal slices. This benefit was similar for both models of voltage and current stimulation. In our two models, asymmetric CBBPs were less beneficial. Therefore, CBBPs with IPG appear to be well suited for application to DBS, since they enhance efficacy, extend battery life and potentially reduce harmful side effects.

  8. Simultaneous monitoring of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and extracellular L-glutamate in mouse hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Shizuko; Ikezawa, Kana; Shoji, Atushi; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Bliss, Tim; Sugawara, Masao

    2011-02-15

    Simultaneous monitoring of amperometric currents at a glass capillary sensor based on recombinant GluOx and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were performed in region CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices. A transient increase in the glutamate current relative to the basal one at control stimulation (0.052Hz) was evoked by stimulation at 2 Hz for 2 min. The magnitude of the glutamate current was dependent on the intensity (current) of a 2 Hz stimulus and reflected the slope of the fEPSP. The in situ calibration of the L-glutamate sensor revealed that the extracellular concentration of L-glutamate released by 2 Hz stimulation before tetanus is in the range from 0.8 to 2.2 μM and it is enhanced after tetanic stimulation. The L-glutamate level at a test stimulus (0.052 Hz) was estimated to be 32 nM. The recombinant GluOx-based sensor exhibited weak responses to glutamine above 300 μM and L-aspartic acid above 200 μM. The potential use of a glass capillary sensor in combination with fEPSP measurements for electrophysiological study is discussed.

  9. Chronic Mild Stress Modulates Activity-Dependent Transcription of BDNF in Rat Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Raffaella; Rossetti, Andrea C; Savino, Elisa; Racagni, Giorgio; Calabrese, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Although activity-dependent transcription represents a crucial mechanism for long-lasting experience-dependent changes in the hippocampus, limited data exist on its contribution to pathological conditions. We aim to investigate the influence of chronic stress on the activity-dependent transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The ex vivo methodology of acute stimulation of hippocampal slices obtained from rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) was used to evaluate whether the adverse experience may alter activity-dependent BDNF gene expression. CMS reduces BDNF expression and that acute depolarization significantly upregulates total BDNF mRNA levels only in control animals, showing that CMS exposure may alter BDNF transcription under basal conditions and during neuronal activation. Moreover, while the basal effect of CMS on total BDNF reflects parallel modulations of all the transcripts examined, isoform-specific changes were found after depolarization. This different effect was also observed in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways related to the neurotrophin. In conclusion, our study discloses a functional alteration of BDNF transcription as a consequence of stress. Being the activity-regulated transcription a critical process in synaptic and neuronal plasticity, the different regulation of individual BDNF promoters may contribute to long-lasting changes, which are fundamental for the vulnerability of the hippocampus to stress-related diseases.

  10. Hybrid voltage sensor imaging of electrical activity from neurons in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; McMahon, Shane; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting with genetically encoded optical voltage sensors brings the methods of voltage imaging to genetically defined neurons and offers a method of studying circuit activity in these selected populations. The present study reports the targeting of genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) to neurons in transgenic mice. The hVOS family of probes employs a membrane-targeted fluorescent protein, which generates voltage-dependent fluorescence changes in the presence of dipicrylamine (DPA) as the result of a voltage-dependent optical interaction between the two molecules. We generated transgenic mice with two different high-performance hVOS probes under control of a neuron-specific thy-1 promoter. Hippocampal slices from these animals present distinct spatial patterns of expression, and electrical stimulation evoked fluorescence changes as high as 3%. Glutamate receptor and Na+ channel antagonists blocked these responses. One hVOS probe tested here harbors an axonal targeting motif (from GAP-43) and shows preferential expression in axons; this probe can thus report axonal voltage changes. Voltage imaging in transgenic mice expressing hVOS probes opens the door to the study of functional activity in genetically defined populations of neurons in intact neural circuits. PMID:22993267

  11. Chondroitin Sulfate Induces Depression of Synaptic Transmission and Modulation of Neuronal Plasticity in Rat Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, Elisa; Gutierrez-Luengo, Javier; Hernández-Juarez, Natalia; Baraibar, Andrés M; Montell, Eulalia; Vergés, Josep; García, Antonio G; Hernández-Guijo, Jesus M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently known that in CNS the extracellular matrix is involved in synaptic stabilization and limitation of synaptic plasticity. However, it has been reported that the treatment with chondroitinase following injury allows the formation of new synapses and increased plasticity and functional recovery. So, we hypothesize that some components of extracellular matrix may modulate synaptic transmission. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effects of chondroitin sulphate (CS) on excitatory synaptic transmission, cellular excitability, and neuronal plasticity using extracellular recordings in the CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. CS caused a reversible depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. CS also reduced the population spike amplitude evoked after orthodromic stimulation but not when the population spikes were antidromically evoked; in this last case a potentiation was observed. CS also enhanced paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation. Our study provides evidence that CS, a major component of the brain perineuronal net and extracellular matrix, has a function beyond the structural one, namely, the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus.

  12. Taurine release modified by GABAergic agents in hippocampal slices from adult and developing mice.

    PubMed

    Saransaari, P; Oja, S S

    2000-01-01

    In order to characterize the possible regulation of taurine release by GABAergic terminals, the effects of several agonists and antagonists of GABA receptors on the basal and K+-stimulated release of [3H]taurine were investigated in hippocampal slices from adult (3-month-old) and developing (7-day-old) mice using a superfusion system. Taurine release was concentration-dependently potentiated by GABA, which effect was reduced by phaclofen, saclofen and (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) at both ages, suggesting regulation by both GABA(B) and GABA(C) receptors. The involvement of GABA(A) receptors could not be excluded since the antagonist bicuculline was able to affect both basal and K+-evoked taurine release. Furthermore, several GABA(B) receptor effectors were able to inhibit K+-stimulated taurine release in the adults, while the GABA(C) receptor agonists trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) potentiated this release. The potentiation of taurine release by agents acting on the three types of GABA receptors in both adult and developing hippocampus further indicates the involvement of transporters operating in an outward direction. This inference is corroborated by the moderate but significant inhibition of taurine uptake by the same compounds.

  13. Histamine H1 and endothelin ETB receptors mediate phospholipase D stimulation in rat brain hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Sarri, E; Picatoste, F; Claro, E

    1995-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter receptor agonists [carbachol, serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-(1S,3R)-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD)], known as stimuli of phospholipase C in brain tissue, were tested for phospholipase D stimulation in [32P]Pi-prelabeled rat brain cortical and hippocampal slices. The accumulation of [32P]phosphatidylethanol was measured as an index of phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation in the presence of ethanol. Among the six neurotransmitter receptor agonists tested, only noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-ACPD stimulated phospholipase D in hippocampus and cortex, an effect that was strictly dependent of the presence of millimolar extracellular calcium concentrations. The effect of histamine (EC50 18 microM) was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine with a Ki constant of 0.7 nM and was resistant to H2 and H3 receptor antagonists (ranitidine and tioperamide, respectively). Endothelin-1-stimulated phospholipase D (EC50 44 nM) was not blocked by BQ-123, a specific antagonist of the ETA receptor. Endothelin-3 and the specific ETB receptor agonist safarotoxin 6c were also able to stimulate phospholipase D with efficacies similar to that of endothelin-1, and EC50 values of 16 and 3 nM, respectively. These results show that histamine and endothelin-1 stimulate phospholipase D in rat brain through H1 and ETB receptors, respectively.

  14. Guanosine controls inflammatory pathways to afford neuroprotection of hippocampal slices under oxygen and glucose deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Dal-Cim, Tharine; Ludka, Fabiana K; Martins, Wagner C; Reginato, Charlise; Parada, Esther; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G; Tasca, Carla I

    2013-08-01

    Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous modulator of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and has been shown to promote neuroprotection in in vivo and in vitro models of neurotoxicity. This study was designed to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of GUO against oxidative damage promoted by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD). GUO (100 μM) reduced reactive oxygen species production and prevented mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by OGD. GUO also exhibited anti-inflammatory actions as inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation and reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase induction induced by OGD. These GUO neuroprotective effects were mediated by adenosine A1 receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and MAPK/ERK. Furthermore, GUO recovered the impairment of glutamate uptake caused by OGD, an effect that occurred via a Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled signaling, blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R), but not via A1 receptor. The modulation of glutamate uptake by GUO also involved MAPK/ERK activation. In conclusion, GUO, by modulating adenosine receptor function and activating MAPK/ERK, affords neuroprotection of hippocampal slices subjected to OGD by a mechanism that implicates the following: (i) prevention of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (ii) reduction of oxidative stress, (iii) regulation of inflammation by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and (iv) promoting glutamate uptake.

  15. Ischaemia differentially regulates GABAB receptor subunits in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cimarosti, Helena; Kantamneni, Sriharsha; Henley, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced synaptic inhibition due to dysfunction of ionotropic GABAA receptors has been proposed as one factor in cerebral ischaemia-induced excitotoxic cell death. However, the participation of the inhibitory metabotropic GABAB receptors in these pathological processes has not been extensively investigated. We used oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) and NMDA-induced excitotoxicity as models to investigate whether ischaemia-like challenges alter the protein levels of GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptor subunits in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Twenty-four hours after the insult both OGD and NMDA produced a marked decrease in the total levels of GABAB2 (~75%), while there was no significant change in the levels of GABAB1 after OGD, but an increase after NMDA treatment (~100%). The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (100 μM) was neuroprotective following OGD or NMDA treatment if added before or during the insult. GABAB receptors comprise heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits and our results suggest that the separate subunits are independently regulated in response to extreme neuronal stress. However, because GABAB2 is required for functional surface expression, down-regulation of this subunit removes an important inhibitory feedback mechanism under pathological conditions. PMID:19328818

  16. Isolated Primary Blast Inhibits Long-Term Potentiation in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Edward W; Effgen, Gwen B; Patel, Tapan P; Meaney, David F; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Morrison, Barclay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 13 years, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has affected over 230,000 U.S. service members through the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, mostly as a result of exposure to blast events. Blast-induced TBI (bTBI) is multi-phasic, with the penetrating and inertia-driven phases having been extensively studied. The effects of primary blast injury, caused by the shockwave interacting with the brain, remain unclear. Earlier in vivo studies in mice and rats have reported mixed results for primary blast effects on behavior and memory. Using a previously developed shock tube and in vitro sample receiver, we investigated the effect of isolated primary blast on the electrophysiological function of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). We found that pure primary blast exposure inhibited long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of memory, with a threshold between 9 and 39 kPa·ms impulse. This deficit occurred well below a previously identified threshold for cell death (184 kPa·ms), supporting our previously published finding that primary blast can cause changes in brain function in the absence of cell death. Other functional measures such as spontaneous activity, network synchronization, stimulus-response curves, and paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) were less affected by primary blast exposure, as compared with LTP. This is the first study to identify a tissue-level tolerance threshold for electrophysiological changes in neuronal function to isolated primary blast.

  17. Valproate decreases frequency facilitation at mossy fiber--CA3 synapses after status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Walker, Matthew C

    2011-02-01

    Mossy fiber to CA3 synapses exhibit metaplasticity during the development of epilepsy, and valproate in control animals can modulate long-term plasticity at this synapse. Here we show that valproate alters frequency facilitation (short-term plasticity) at this synapse in hippocampal slices from post-status epilepticus but not control animals. This indicates that valproate can have specific actions in the "epileptic" brain.

  18. Multiple Single-Unit Long-Term Tracking on Organotypic Hippocampal Slices Using High-Density Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Senčar, Jure; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Jäckel, David; Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Radivojevic, Milos; Hierlemann, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    A novel system to cultivate and record from organotypic brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA) was developed. This system allows for continuous recording of electrical activity of specific individual neurons at high spatial resolution while monitoring at the same time, neuronal network activity. For the first time, the electrical activity patterns of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied during several consecutive weeks at daily intervals. An unsupervised iterative spike-sorting algorithm, based on PCA and k-means clustering, was developed to assign the activities to the single units. Spike-triggered average extracellular waveforms of an action potential recorded across neighboring electrodes, termed “footprints” of single-units were generated and tracked over weeks. The developed system offers the potential to study chronic impacts of drugs or genetic modifications on individual neurons in slice preparations over extended times. PMID:27920665

  19. Long-term potentiation of evoked presynaptic response at CA3-CA1 synapses by transient oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    Ai, Jinglu; Baker, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Physiological activity-dependent long-term changes in synaptic transmission, as long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to be the substrate of learning and memory. However, a form of postsynaptic pathological LTP at the CA3-CA1 synapses has been demonstrated following few minutes of anoxia and aglycemia in vitro. The ischemia LTP shared many molecular mechanisms with the physiological LTP, and was believed to be involved in the delayed neuronal death following ischemia. However, the role of the presynaptic component in this regard is not known. Here we show that a short period of oxygen-glucose deprivation can induce a form of LTP (lasting for hours) of the presynaptic response at the CA3-CA1 synapses. This form of LTP is independent of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but Ca(2+) dependent. This presynaptic LTP may represent a presynaptic hyperexcitability of the afferent fibers following ischemia, and responsible for the excitotoxicity to the CA1 neurons (ischemia-induced increases of glutamate release that kills neurons) and the postsynaptic pathological ischemic LTP.

  20. Kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration and activation of inflammatory processes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor does not prevent neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Juha T; Ruohonen, Saku; Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Plysjuk, Anna; Lopez-Picon, Francisco R; Holopainen, Irma E

    2011-06-01

    In the postnatal rodent hippocampus status epilepticus (SE) leads to age- and region-specific excitotoxic neuronal damage, the precise mechanisms of which are still incompletely known. Recent studies suggest that the activation of inflammatory responses together with glial cell reactivity highly contribute to excitotoxic neuronal damage. However, pharmacological tools to attenuate their activation in the postnatal brain are still poorly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of inflammatory mediators in kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs). A specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS-398) was used to study whether or not it could ameliorate neuronal death. Our results show that KA treatment (24 h) resulted in a dose-dependent degeneration of CA3a/b pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, COX-2 immunoreactivity was pronouncedly enhanced particularly in CA3c pyramidal neurons, microglial and astrocyte morphology changed from a resting to active appearance, the expression of the microglial specific protein, Iba1, increased, and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production increased. These indicated the activation of inflammatory processes. However, the expression of neither proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), nor the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 mRNA was significantly altered by KA treatment as studied by real-time PCR. Despite activation of an array of inflammatory processes, neuronal damage could not be rescued either with the combined pre- and co-treatment with a specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. Our results suggest that KA induces activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes in immature OHCs, and that the timing of anti-inflammatory treatment to achieve neuroprotection is a challenge due to developmental properties and the complexity of inflammatory processes activated by

  1. BK channel activity determines the extent of cell degeneration after oxygen and glucose deprivation: a study in organotypical hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Rundén-Pran, E; Haug, F M; Storm, J F; Ottersen, O P

    2002-01-01

    BK channels are voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium channels whose activation tends to reduce cellular excitability. In hippocampal pyramidal cells, BK channels repolarize somatic action potentials, and recent immunogold and electrophysiological analyses have revealed a presynaptic pool of BK channels that can regulate glutamate release. Agents that modulate BK channel activity would therefore be expected to affect cell excitability and neurotransmitter release also under pathological conditions. We have investigated the role of BK potassium channels in a model of ischemia-induced nerve cell degeneration. Organotypical slice cultures of rat hippocampus were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), and cell death was assessed by the fluorescent dye propidium iodide. OGD induced cell death in the CA1 region and to a lesser extent in CA3. Treatment with the BK channel blockers, paxilline and iberiotoxin, during and after OGD induced increased cell death in CA1 and CA3. Both BK channel blockers also sensitized the relatively resistant granule cells in fascia dentata to OGD. The effect of paxilline and iberiotoxin was evident from 3 h after OGD, indicating a role of BK channels early in the post-ischemic phase or during OGD itself. The BK channel opener, NS1619, turned out to be gliotoxic, and this effect was not counteracted by paxilline and iberiotoxin. Our data show that blockade of BK channels aggravates OGD-induced cell damage and suggest that BK channels act as a kind of 'emergency brake' during and/or after ischemia. Accordingly, the BK channel is a potential molecular target for neuroprotective therapy in stroke.

  2. Effect of short-term exposure to dichlorvos on synaptic plasticity of rat hippocampal slices: Involvement of acylpeptide hydrolase and {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Olmos, Cristina; Sandoval, Rodrigo; Rozas, Carlos; Navarro, Sebastian; Wyneken, Ursula; Zeise, Marc; Morales, Bernardo; Pancetti, Floria

    2009-07-01

    Dichlorvos is the active molecule of the pro-drug metrifonate used to revert the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. A few years ago it was reported that dichlorvos inhibits the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase at lower doses than those necessary to inhibit acetylcholinesterase to the same extent. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to test the hypothesis that dichlorvos can enhance synaptic efficacy through a mechanism that involves acylpeptide hydrolase instead of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. We used long-term potentiation induced in rat hippocampal slices as a model of synaptic plasticity. Our results indicate that short-term exposures (20 min) to 50 {mu}M dichlorvos enhance long-term potentiation in about 200% compared to the control condition. This effect is correlated with approximately 60% inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase activity, whereas acetylcholinesterase activity remains unaffected. Paired-pulse facilitation and inhibition experiments indicate that dichlorvos does not have any presynaptic effect in the CA3 {yields} CA1 pathway nor affect gabaergic interneurons. Interestingly, the application of 100 nM methyllicaconitine, an {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic receptor antagonist, blocked the enhancing effect of dichlorvos on long-term potentiation. These results indicate that under the exposure conditions described above, dichlorvos enhances long-term potentiation through a postsynaptic mechanism that involves (a) the inhibition of the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase and (b) the modulation of {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic receptors.

  3. The organophosphate sarin, at low concentrations, inhibits the evoked release of GABA in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Chebabo, S R; Santos, M D; Albuquerque, E X

    1999-12-01

    In the present study, the whole-cell mode of the patch-clamp technique was applied to neurons of the CA1 pyramidal layer of rat hippocampal slices to investigate the effects of the organophosphate (OP) sarin on field stimulation-evoked and on tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive postsynaptic currents (PSCs) mediated by activation of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors or AMPA-type glutamate receptors. At 0.3-1 nM, sarin reduced the amplitude of GABA-mediated PSCs and had no effect on the amplitude of glutamatergic PSCs evoked by field stimulation of neurons synaptically connected to the neuron under study. The effect of sarin on evoked GABAergic PSCs was unrelated to cholinesterase inhibition, was partially reversed upon washing of the neurons with sarin-free external solution, and was mediated by a direct interaction of the OP with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors present on presynaptic GABAergic neurons. Sarin had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of GABA- or glutamate-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (MPSCs) recorded in the presence of the Na+-channel blocker TTX (300 nM), indicating that the OP does not interact with GABA(A) or glutamate receptors. Further, sarin did not alter the frequency of GABAergic or glutamatergic MPSCs, a finding that led to the conclusion that this OP does not affect the TTX-insensitive release of neurotransmitters. A selective reduction by sarin of the action potential-dependent release of GABA in the hippocampus can account for the occurrence of seizures in intoxicated subjects.

  4. Effects of tetrahydrohyperforin in mouse hippocampal slices: neuroprotection, long-term potentiation and TRPC channels.

    PubMed

    Montecinos-Oliva, C; Schuller, A; Parodi, J; Melo, F; Inestrosa, N C

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahydrohyperforin (IDN5706) is a semi-synthetic compound derived from hyperforin (IDN5522) and is the main active principle of St. John's Wort. IDN5706 has shown numerous beneficial effects when administered to wild-type and double transgenic (APPswe/PSEN1ΔE9) mice that model Alzheimer's disease. However, its mechanism of action is currently unknown. Toward this end, we analysed field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in mouse hippocampal slices incubated with IDN5706 and in the presence of the TRPC3/6/7 activator 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), the TRPC channel blocker SKF96365, and neurotoxic amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers. To study spatial memory, Morris water maze (MWM) behavioural tests were conducted on wild-type mice treated with IDN5706 and SKF96365. In silico studies were conducted to predict a potential pharmacophore. IDN5706 and OAG had a similar stimulating effect on fEPSPs, which was inhibited by SKF96365. IDN5706 protected from reduced fEPSPs induced by Aβ oligomers. IDN5706 improved spatial memory in wild-type mice, an effect that was counteracted by co-administration of SKF96365. Our in silico studies suggest strong pharmacophore similarity of IDN5706 and other reported TRPC6 activators (IDN5522, OAG and Hyp9). We propose that the effect of IDN5706 is mediated through activation of the TRPC3/6/7 channel subfamily. The unveiling of the drug's mechanism of action is a necessary step toward the clinical use of IDN5706 in Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Adenosine actions on CA1 pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Greene, R W; Haas, H L

    1985-09-01

    Intracellular recordings with a bridge amplifier of CA1 pyramidal neurones in vitro were employed to study the mechanisms of action of exogenously applied adenosine in the hippocampal slice preparation of the rat. Adenosine enhanced the calcium-dependent, long-duration after-hyperpolarization (a.h.p.) at least in part by a reduction in the rate of decay of the a.h.p. Both the reduced rate of decay and that of the control can be described with a single exponential. Antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium current (and as a result, the a.h.p.) by bath application of CdCl2 or intracellular injection of EGTA (ethyleneglycolbis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetic acid) did not reduce the adenosine-evoked hyperpolarization or decrease in input resistance. Similarly, TEA (tetraethylammonium), which antagonizes both the voltage- and calcium-sensitive, delayed, outward rectification, had no effect on the adenosine-evoked changes in resting membrane properties. Adenosine did not affect the early, transient, outward rectification. During exposure to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in concentrations sufficient to antagonize this early rectification, the changes in resting membrane properties evoked by adenosine were unaffected. We conclude that the enhancement of the a.h.p. and accommodation by adenosine may be mediated by a change in the regulation of intracellular calcium. However, the mechanism responsible for the hyperpolarization and decrease in input resistance evoked by adenosine is both calcium and voltage insensitive. Thus, it appears distinct from that mediating the enhancement of the a.h.p. and accommodation.

  6. Adenosine actions on CA1 pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, R W; Haas, H L

    1985-01-01

    Intracellular recordings with a bridge amplifier of CA1 pyramidal neurones in vitro were employed to study the mechanisms of action of exogenously applied adenosine in the hippocampal slice preparation of the rat. Adenosine enhanced the calcium-dependent, long-duration after-hyperpolarization (a.h.p.) at least in part by a reduction in the rate of decay of the a.h.p. Both the reduced rate of decay and that of the control can be described with a single exponential. Antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium current (and as a result, the a.h.p.) by bath application of CdCl2 or intracellular injection of EGTA (ethyleneglycolbis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetraacetic acid) did not reduce the adenosine-evoked hyperpolarization or decrease in input resistance. Similarly, TEA (tetraethylammonium), which antagonizes both the voltage- and calcium-sensitive, delayed, outward rectification, had no effect on the adenosine-evoked changes in resting membrane properties. Adenosine did not affect the early, transient, outward rectification. During exposure to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in concentrations sufficient to antagonize this early rectification, the changes in resting membrane properties evoked by adenosine were unaffected. We conclude that the enhancement of the a.h.p. and accommodation by adenosine may be mediated by a change in the regulation of intracellular calcium. However, the mechanism responsible for the hyperpolarization and decrease in input resistance evoked by adenosine is both calcium and voltage insensitive. Thus, it appears distinct from that mediating the enhancement of the a.h.p. and accommodation. PMID:3932644

  7. A testbed to explore the optimal electrical stimulation parameters for suppressing inter-ictal spikes in human hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Min-Chi Hsiao; Pen-Ning Yu; Dong Song; Liu, Charles Y; Heck, Christi N; Millett, David; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    New interventions using neuromodulatory devices such as vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation are available or under study for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Since the actual mechanisms of the onset and termination of the seizure are still unclear, most researchers or clinicians determine the optimal stimulation parameters through trial-and-error procedures. It is necessary to further explore what types of electrical stimulation parameters (these may include stimulation frequency, amplitude, duration, interval pattern, and location) constitute a set of optimal stimulation paradigms to suppress seizures. In a previous study, we developed an in vitro epilepsy model using hippocampal slices from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Using a planar multi-electrode array system, inter-ictal activity from human hippocampal slices was consistently recorded. In this study, we have further transferred this in vitro seizure model to a testbed for exploring the possible neurostimulation paradigms to inhibit inter-ictal spikes. The methodology used to collect the electrophysiological data, the approach to apply different electrical stimulation parameters to the slices are provided in this paper. The results show that this experimental testbed will provide a platform for testing the optimal stimulation parameters of seizure cessation. We expect this testbed will expedite the process for identifying the most effective parameters, and may ultimately be used to guide programming of new stimulating paradigms for neuromodulatory devices.

  8. Protective effect of 20-HETE inhibition in a model of oxygen-glucose deprivation in hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Renic, Marija; Kumar, Suresh N.; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Florence, Matthew A.; Gerges, Nashaat Z.; Falck, John R.; Harder, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that inhibitors of the synthesis of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) may have direct neuroprotective actions since they reduce infarct volume after ischemia reperfusion in the brain without altering blood flow. To explore this possibility, the present study used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation to examine whether 20-HETE is released by organotypic hippocampal slices after OGD and whether it contributes to neuronal death through the generation of ROS and activation of caspase-3. The production of 20-HETE increased twofold after OGD and reoxygenation. Blockade of the synthesis of 20-HETE with N-hydroxy-N′-(4-butyl-2-methylphenol)formamidine (HET0016) or its actions with a 20-HETE antagonist, 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid, reduced cell death, as measured by the release of lactate dehydrogenase and propidium iodide uptake. Administration of a 20-HETE mimetic, 20-hydroxyeicosa-5(Z),14(Z)-dienoic acid (5,14-20-HEDE), had the opposite effect and increased injury after OGD. The death of neurons after OGD was associated with an increase in the production of ROS and activation of caspase-3. These effects were attenuated by HET0016 and potentiated after the administration of 5,14-20-HEDE. These findings indicate that the production of 20-HETE by hippocampal slices is increased after OGD and that inhibitors of the synthesis or actions of 20-HETE protect neurons from ischemic cell death. The protective effect of 20-HETE inhibitors is associated with a decrease in superoxide production and activation of caspase-3. PMID:22245774

  9. Increase of hypoxic tolerance in rat hippocampal slices following 3-nitropropionic acid is not mediated by endogenous nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Riepe, M W; Kasischke, K; Gericke, C A; Löwe, A; Hellweg, R

    1996-06-14

    Chemical preconditioning with low dose inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-np) increases tolerance against succeeding hypoxia. Supraphysiological doses of nerve growth factor (NGF) repeatedly were shown to protect against ischemic damage. We investigated whether increased tolerance against hypoxia results from increased or accelerated production of endogenous NGF. Average recovery of population spike amplitude after 15 min of hypoxia and 45 min of reoxygenation was 31 +/- 9% (mean +/- SE) in control hippocampal slices. After pretreatment with 3-np (single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg body weight 1 h to 3 days prior to slice preparation), recovery exceeded 90% (P < 0.01). However, NGF content did not increase upon slice preparation, hypoxia in vitro, and pretreatment with 3-np in vivo 1 h to 1 day prior to slice preparation with and without additional hypoxia in vitro. We conclude that early-onset tolerance to hypoxia induced by 3-np treatment is not caused by induction of endogenous NGF production.

  10. Ampakine CX516 ameliorates functional deficits in AMPA receptors in a hippocampal slice model of protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kanju, Patrick M; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Sims, Catrina; Bahr, Ben A; Shonesy, Brian C; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

    2008-11-01

    AMPAkines are positive modulators of AMPA receptors, and previous work has shown that these compounds can facilitate synaptic plasticity and improve learning and memory in both animals and humans; thus, their role in the treatment of cognitive impairment is worthy of investigation. In this study, we have utilized an organotypic slice model in which chloroquine-induced lysosomal dysfunction produces many of the pathogenic attributes of Alzheimer's disease. Our previous work demonstrated that synaptic AMPA receptor function is impaired in hippocampal slice cultures exhibiting lysosomal dysfunction leading to protein accumulation. The present study investigated the effect of the AMPAkine CX516 on AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission as well as the CX516 induced modification of single channel AMPA receptor properties in this organotypic slice-culture model. In whole cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in chloroquine-treated slices we observed a significant decrease in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC frequency and amplitude indicating synaptic dysfunction. Following application of CX516, these parameters returned to nearly normal levels. Similarly, we report chloroquine-induced impairment of AMPAR single channel properties (decreased probability of opening and mean open time), and significant recovery of these properties following CX516 administration. These results suggest that AMPA receptors may be potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, and highlights AMPAkines, in particular, as possible therapeutic agents.

  11. Catuaba (Trichilia catigua) prevents against oxidative damage induced by in vitro ischemia-reperfusion in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, Jean Paul; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Kade, Ige Joseph; Wagner, Caroline; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in brain damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion. Natural antioxidants found in some plants used in folk medicine have been indicated as potential neuroprotective agents. Here we investigated whether Trichilia catigua, a traditional Brazilian herbal medicine alleged to exhibit a variety of neuropharmacological properties (antidepressant, anti-neurasthenic, anti-inflammatory etc.), could have neuroprotective properties in rat hippocampal slices subjected to 2 h oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 1 h reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) significantly decreased mitochondrial viability, increased dichlorofluorescein oxidation above control both in the incubation medium and slices homogenates, increased lactate dehydrogenase into the incubation medium and decreased non-protein thiols. T. catigua (40-100 μg/mL) protected slices from the deleterious effects of OGD when present before OGD and during the reperfusion periods. Oxidative stress in the medium was also determined under different conditions and the results demonstrated that T. catigua could not protect slices from I/R when it was added to the medium after ischemic insult. Although the translation to a real in vivo situation of I/R is difficult to be done, the results indicated that T. catigua should be used as preventive and not as a curative agent against brain damage.

  12. Ionotropic glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters are involved in necrotic neuronal cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation of hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Bonde, C; Noraberg, J; Noer, H; Zimmer, J

    2005-01-01

    Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures represent a feasible model for studies of cerebral ischemia and the role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neurodegeneration. New results and a review of existing data are presented in the first part of this paper. The role of glutamate transporters, with special reference to recent results on inhibition of glutamate transporters under normal and energy-failure (ischemia-like) conditions is reviewed in the last part of the paper. The experimental work is based on hippocampal slice cultures derived from 7 day old rats and grown for about 3 weeks. In such cultures we investigated the subfield neuronal susceptibility to oxygen-glucose deprivation, the type of induced cell death and the involvement of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Hippocampal slice cultures were also used in our studies on glutamate transporters reviewed in the last part of this paper. Neurodegeneration was monitored and/or shown by cellular uptake of propidium iodide, loss of immunocytochemical staining for microtubule-associated protein 2 and staining with Fluoro-Jade B. To distinguish between necrotic vs. apoptotic neuronal cell death we used immunocytochemical staining for active caspase-3 (apoptosis indicator) and Hoechst 33342 staining of nuclear chromatin. Our experimental studies on oxygen-glucose deprivation confirmed that CA1 pyramidal cells were the most susceptible to this ischemia-like condition. Judged by propidium iodide uptake, a selective CA1 lesion, with only minor affection on CA3, occurred in cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 30 min. Nuclear chromatin staining by Hoechst 33342 and staining for active caspase-3 showed that oxygen-glucose deprivation induced necrotic cell death only. Addition of 10 microM of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, and 20 microM of the non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist 2,3-dihyroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl

  13. Blast waves from detonated military explosive reduce GluR1 and synaptophysin levels in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marquitta; Piehler, Thuvan; Benjamin, Richard; Farizatto, Karen L; Pait, Morgan C; Almeida, Michael F; Ghukasyan, Vladimir V; Bahr, Ben A

    2016-12-01

    Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1.7-gram assemblies of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) were detonated 15cm outside the tank, creating a distinct shockwave recorded at the culture plate position. Compared to control mock-treated groups of slices that received equal submerge time, 1-3 blast impacts caused a dose-dependent reduction in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1. While only a small reduction was found in hippocampal slices exposed to a single RDX blast and harvested 1-2days later, slices that received two consecutive RDX blasts 4min apart exhibited a 26-40% reduction in GluR1, and the receptor subunit was further reduced by 64-72% after three consecutive blasts. Such loss correlated with increased levels of HDAC2, a histone deacetylase implicated in stress-induced reduction of glutamatergic transmission. No evidence of synaptic marker recovery was found at 72h post-blast. The presynaptic marker synaptophysin was found to have similar susceptibility as GluR1 to the multiple explosive detonations. In contrast to the synaptic protein reductions, actin levels were unchanged, spectrin breakdown was not detected, and Fluoro-Jade B staining found no indication of degenerating neurons in slices exposed to three RDX blasts, suggesting that small, sub-lethal explosives are capable of producing selective alterations to synaptic integrity. Together, these results indicate that blast waves from military explosive cause signs of synaptic compromise without

  14. Effects of a naturally occurring neurosteroid on GABAA IPSCs during development in rat hippocampal or cerebellar slices

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Elizabeth J; Johnston, Graham A R; Edwards, Frances A

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the naturally occurring neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) on GABAA receptor-mediated miniature, spontaneous and evoked IPSCs was tested using patch-clamp techniques in slices of hippocampus and cerebellum from rats at two developmental stages (≈10 and ≈20 days postnatal). The cells studied were hippocampal granule cells and cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells. Most miniature GABAergic currents (mIPSCs) decayed with two exponentials and neurosteroids caused a ≈4-fold increase in the decay time constant of the second exponential at the highest concentration used (2 μm). Similar effects were seen at high concentrations of THDOC (1-2 μm) in all cell groups tested. No effects were seen on amplitude or rise time of mIPSCs. The effects of THDOC (1 μm) were shown to be stereoselective and rapidly reversible, indicating that the neurosteroid binds to the GABAA receptor, rather than acting genomically. At concentrations of THDOC likely to occur physiologically (50–100 nm), the decay time of IPSCs was also enhanced (25–50 %) in all cerebellar cell groups tested. In contrast, at 100 nm THDOC, seven of 11 hippocampal granule cells were sensitive from the 10 day group but the 20 day hippocampal granule cells showed no significant enhancement in the presence of these lower concentrations of THDOC. The differences in sensitivity of hippocampal and cerebellar cells to THDOC are compared to data reported in the literature on regional development of expression of different receptor subunits in the brain and it is suggested that the progressive relative insensitivity of the 20 day hippocampal cells may depend on increasing expression of the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor and possibly an increase in the α4 subunit. PMID:10581314

  15. Selective Inhibition of KCC2 Leads to Hyperexcitability and Epileptiform Discharges in Hippocampal Slices and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Cardarelli, Ross A.; Maguire, Jamie; Kelley, Matt R.; Silayeva, Liliya; Morrow, Danielle H.; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Moore, Yvonne E.; Mather, Robert J.; Duggan, Mark E.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Dunlop, John; Zicha, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors form Cl− permeable channels that mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. The K+/Cl− cotransporter KCC2 is the main mechanism by which neurons establish low intracellular Cl− levels, which is thought to enable GABAergic inhibitory control of neuronal activity. However, the widely used KCC2 inhibitor furosemide is nonselective with antiseizure efficacy in slices and in vivo, leading to a conflicting scheme of how KCC2 influences GABAergic control of neuronal synchronization. Here we used the selective KCC2 inhibitor VU0463271 [N-cyclopropyl-N-(4-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2-[(6-phenyl-3-pyridazinyl)thio]acetamide] to investigate the influence of KCC2 function. Application of VU0463271 caused a reversible depolarizing shift in EGABA values and increased spiking of cultured hippocampal neurons. Application of VU0463271 to mouse hippocampal slices under low-Mg2+ conditions induced unremitting recurrent epileptiform discharges. Finally, microinfusion of VU0463271 alone directly into the mouse dorsal hippocampus rapidly caused epileptiform discharges. Our findings indicated that KCC2 function was a critical inhibitory factor ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:26019342

  16. Novel sulfoglycolipid IG20 causes neuroprotection by activating the phase II antioxidant response in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Punzón, Eva; García-Alvarado, Fernanda; Maroto, Marcos; Fernández-Mendívil, Cristina; Michalska, Patrycja; García-Álvarez, Isabel; Arranz-Tagarro, Juan Alberto; Buendia, Izaskun; López, Manuela G; León, Rafael; Gandía, Luis; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; García, Antonio G

    2017-04-01

    Compound IG20 is a newly synthesised sulphated glycolipid that promotes neuritic outgrowth and myelinisation, at the time it causes the inhibition of glial proliferation and facilitates exocytosis in chromaffin cells. Here we have shown that IG20 at 0.3-10 μM afforded neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slices stressed with veratridine, glutamate or with oxygen plus glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/reox). Excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) elicited by glutamate or ODG/reox was prevented by IG20 that also restored the depressed tissue levels of GSH and ATP in hippocampal slices subjected to OGD/reox. Furthermore, the augmented iNOS expression produced upon OGD/reox exposure was also counteracted by IG20. Additionally, the IG20 elicited neuroprotection was prevented by the presence of inhibitors of the signalling pathways Jak2/STAT3, MEK/ERK1/2, and PI3K/Akt, consistent with the ability of the compound to increase the phosphorylation of Jak2, ERK1/2, and Akt. Thus, the activation of phase II response and the Nrf2/ARE pathway could explain the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and the ensuing neuroprotective actions of IG20.

  17. Beta/gamma oscillatory activity in the CA3 hippocampal area is depressed by aberrant GABAergic transmission from the dentate gyrus after seizures.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario; Vivar, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2007-01-03

    Oscillatory activity in the CA3 region is thought to be involved in the encoding and retrieval of information. These oscillations originate from the recurrent excitation between pyramidal cells that are entrained by the synchronous rhythmic inhibition of local interneurons. We show here that, after seizures, the dentate gyrus (DG) tonically inhibits beta/gamma (20-24 Hz) field oscillations in the CA3 area through GABA-mediated signaling. These oscillations originate in the interneuron network because they are maintained in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, and they can be blocked by GABA(A) receptor antagonists or by perfusion of a calcium-free extracellular medium. Inhibition of this oscillatory activity requires intact DG-to-CA3 connections, and it is suppressed by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). The influence of mGluR activation was reflected in the spontaneous subthreshold membrane oscillations of CA3 interneurons after one seizure but could also be observed in pyramidal cells after several seizures. Coincident stimulation of the DG at and beta/gamma frequencies produced a frequency-dependent excitation of interneurons and the inhibition of pyramidal cells. Indeed, these effects were maximal at the frequency that matched the mGluR-sensitive spontaneous field oscillations, suggesting a resonance phenomenon. Our results shed light on the mechanisms that may underlie the deficits in memory and cognition observed after epileptic seizures.

  18. Dexmedetomidine promotes the recovery of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Chang-Ju; Chung, Jun-Young; Yi, Jae-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Jang, Myung-Soo; Han, Jin-Hee

    2016-09-19

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2 adrenergic agonist, is an anesthetic and sedative agent, and is reported to exert neuroprotective effects after hypoxic ischemia. However, there are few studies on the electrophysiological effect of DEX in hippocampal slices under ischemic conditions. The effects of DEX on field potential in hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were evaluated. Hippocampal slices were prepared from rats, and the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded using the MED 64 system. Hypoxic-ischemia was induced by perfusion with glucose-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) bubbled with 95% N2 and 5% CO2, and hippocampal slices were perfused with DEX-added aCSF before, during, and after OGD induction. In the normal hippocampal slices, perfusion with 1 and 10μM DEX did not significantly decrease the normalized fEPSP amplitude, but 100μM DEX significantly reduced the fEPSP amplitude compared with its baseline control. The induction of OGD remarkably decreased the fEPSP amplitude, whereas the pre-, co-, and post-treatment of 10μM DEX gradually promoted recovery after washing out, and consequently the amplitude of fEPSP in DEX pre-, co-, and post-treated OGD slices were significantly higher than that in the untreated OGD slices at 10min and 60min after washing out. In particular, co-treatment with DEX conspicuously promoted the recovery of the fEPSP amplitude at the beginning of washing out. These results suggest the possibility of DEX as a therapeutic agent to prevent hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and promote functional recovery after ischemia.

  19. Biocompatibility of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and the role of microglia

    PubMed Central

    Pohland, Martin; Glumm, Robert; Wiekhorst, Frank; Kiwit, Jürgen; Glumm, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treatment of neurologic diseases despite the fact that important information concerning their local interactions is still lacking. Due to their small size, SPIO have great potential for magnetically labeling different cell populations, facilitating their MRI tracking in vivo. Before SPIO are applied, however, their effect on cell viability and tissue homoeostasis should be studied thoroughly. We have previously published data showing how citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) affect primary microglia and neuron cell cultures as well as neuron-glia cocultures. To extend our knowledge of VSOP interactions on the three-dimensional multicellular level, we further examined the influence of two types of coated VSOP (R1 and R2) on murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Our data show that 1) VSOP can penetrate deep tissue layers, 2) long-term VSOP-R2 treatment alters cell viability within the dentate gyrus, 3) during short-term incubation VSOP-R1 and VSOP-R2 comparably modify hippocampal cell viability, 4) VSOP treatment does not affect cytokine homeostasis, 5) microglial depletion decreases VSOP uptake, and 6) microglial depletion plus VSOP treatment increases hippocampal cell death during short-term incubation. These results are in line with our previous findings in cell coculture experiments regarding microglial protection of neurite branching. Thus, we have not only clarified the interaction between VSOP, slice culture, and microglia to a degree but also demonstrated that our model is a promising approach for screening nanoparticles to exclude potential cytotoxic effects. PMID:28280327

  20. Changes in intrinsic inhibition in isolated hippocampal slices during ethanol withdrawal; lack of correlation with withdrawal hyperexcitability.

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, M. A.; Little, H. J.; Lambert, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from pyramidal cells in area CA1 in mouse isolated hippocampal slices, after chronic ethanol treatment in vivo. 2. Fast i.p.s.ps were isolated by injection of the impaled neurones with QX314 (to block fast sodium currents and the slow i.p.s.p.) and stimulating the interneurones in the presence of the glutamatergic blockers, CNQX and APV. 3. The isolated fast-inhibitory postsynaptic potential (f.-i.p.s.p.) was measured at intervals during the 7 h withdrawal period. The reversal potential and sensitivity to bicuculline suggested that the isolated f.-i.p.s.p. was mediated by activation of the GABAA receptor-chloride ionophore complex. 4. Measurement of stimulus-response relationships for the f.-i.p.s.ps revealed an initial increase in the maximum size of the i.p.s.p., evoked from a membrane potential of -50 mV, seen at 2 h into ethanol withdrawal. This was attributed to a negative shift in the reversal potential, Ei.p.s.p., with no observed change in conductance, Gi.p.s.p. 5. No differences in f.-i.p.s.ps evoked during ethanol withdrawal or in control slices were seen at 4 h or 6 h. At these times, epileptiform activity was seen in previous field potential recordings. 6. Paired pulse depression of the f.-i.p.s.p. was significantly increased at 2 h into withdrawal, when a 150 ms pulse interval was used. No differences were seen at later times in the ethanol withdrawal period. 7. The results suggest that ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability in isolated hippocampal slices is not caused by primary decreases in inhibition mediated by the GABAA receptor-chloride ionophore complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1330182

  1. Homo- and heteroexchange of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides in rat hippocampal slices by the nucleoside transport system

    PubMed Central

    Sperlágh, Beáta; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Baranyi, Mária; Sylvester Vizi, E

    2003-01-01

    Here, we investigated how nucleotides and nucleosides affect the release of tritiated purines and endogenous adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) from superfused rat hippocampal slices. ATP elicited concentration-dependent [3H]purine efflux from slices preloaded with [3H]adenosine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the effluent showed that the tritium label represented the whole set of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, and ATP significantly increased the outflow of [3H]ATP. Adenosine 5′-diphosphate, adenosine, uridine, uridine 5′-triphosphate, α,β-methylene-ATP and 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP were also active in eliciting [3H]purine release. Adenosine (300 μM) also evoked endogenous ATP efflux from the hippocampal slices. Reverse transcription-coupled-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNAs encoding a variety of P2X and P2Y receptor proteins are expressed in the rat hippocampus. Nevertheless, neither P2 receptor (i.e. pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid, 30 μM, suramin, 300 μM and reactive blue 2, 10 μM), nor adenosine receptor (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 250 nM and dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, 250 nM) antagonists modified the effect of ATP (300 μM) to evoke [3H]purine release. The nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole (10 μM), nitrobenzylthioinosine (10 μM) and adenosine deaminase (2–10 U ml−1), but not the ecto-adenylate kinase inhibitor diadenosine pentaphosphate (200 μM) significantly reduced ATP-evoked [3H]purine efflux. In summary, we found that ATP and other nucleotides and nucleosides promote the release of one another and themselves by the nucleoside transport system. This action could have relevance during physiological and pathological elevation of extracellular purine levels high enough to reverse the nucleoside transporter. PMID:12788822

  2. PROPYLTHIOURACIL (PTU)-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM: EFFECTS ON SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LONG TERM POTENTIATION IN HIPPOCAMPAL SLICES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern has been raised over endocrine effects of some classes of environmental chemicals. Severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to alterations in hippocampal structure, learning deficits, yet neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus...

  3. Fetal hippocampal CA3 cell grafts enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust long-term survival and integration and suppress aberrant mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Muddanna S; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K

    2006-02-01

    Cell transplants that successfully replace the lost neurons and facilitate the reconstruction of the disrupted circuitry in the injured aging hippocampus are invaluable for treating acute head injury, stroke and status epilepticus in the elderly. This is because apt graft integration has the potential to prevent the progression of the acute injury into chronic epilepsy in the elderly. However, neural transplants into the injured middle-aged or aged hippocampus exhibit poor cell survival, suggesting that apt graft augmentation strategies are critical for robust integration of grafted cells into the injured aging hippocampus. We examined the efficacy of pre-treatment and grafting of donor fetal CA3 cells with a blend of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for lasting survival and integration of grafted cells in the injured middle-aged (12 months old) hippocampus of F344 rats. Grafts were placed at 4 days after the kainic-acid-induced hippocampal injury and were analyzed at 6 months post-grafting. We demonstrate that 80% of grafted cells exhibit prolonged survival and 71% of grafted cells differentiate into CA3 pyramidal neurons. Grafts also receive a robust afferent input from the host mossy fibers and project efferent axons into the denervated zones of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield. Consequently, the aberrant sprouting of the dentate mossy fibers, an epileptogenic change that typically ensues after the hippocampal injury, was suppressed. Thus, grafts of fetal CA3 cells enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust integration and dampen the abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus. Because the aberrantly sprouted mossy fibers contribute to the generation of seizures, the results suggest that the grafting intervention using FGF-2 and BDNF is efficacious for suppressing epileptogenesis in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

  4. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-Lopez, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP) followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP) was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK) channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD.

  5. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O.; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-Lopez, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP) followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP) was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK) channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:23898239

  6. Brief anoxia preconditioning and HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition enhances neuronal resistance in organotypic hippocampal slices on model of ischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, Iryna; Orlovsky, Maxim; Dosenko, Victor; Maistrenko, Anastasiia; Skibo, Galina

    2011-04-22

    It is well known that a brief anoxia or hypoxia episodes can render brain resistant to a subsequent ischemia. Recent investigations indicate that mechanisms of such stimulated endogenous neuroprotection are related to the family of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), however there are still little data available on the role of HIF family members in hippocampus-a brain structure, highly sensitive to oxygen deficiency. We have used the model of cultured hippocampal slices and single-cell quantitative RT-PCR to study HIF-1α and HIF-3α mRNA expression following triple 5-min mild anoxia, 30-min oxygen-glucose deprivation and their combination. We also tested the effects of HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition with 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester pre-treatment followed by a 30-min oxygen-glucose deprivation. It was found that neuronal damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation was accompanied by a significant decrease in both HIF-1α and HIF-3α mRNA levels in CA1 but not CA3 neurons. Anoxia preconditioning did not affect cell viability and HIF mRNA levels but applied before oxygen-glucose deprivation prevented neuronal damage and suppression of HIF-1α and HIF-3α mRNA expression. It was also found that effects of the prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor were similar to anoxia preconditioning. These results suggest that anoxia preconditioning increases anti-ischemic neuronal resistance which to a certain extent correlates with the changes of HIF-1α and HIF-3α expression.

  7. GDNF pre-treatment aggravates neuronal cell loss in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal slice cultures: a possible effect of glutamate transporter up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Bonde, C; Sarup, A; Schousboe, A; Gegelashvili, G; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2003-01-01

    Besides its neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons and spinal motoneurons, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia. The protective effect has so far been related to reduced activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAr). This study tested the effects of GDNF on glutamate transporter expression, with the hypothesis that modulation of glutamate transporter activity would affect the outcome of cerebral ischemia. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, derived from 1-week-old rats, were treated with 100 ng/ml GDNF for either 2 or 5 days, followed by Western blot analysis of NMDAr subunit 1 (NR1) and two glutamate transporter subtypes, GLAST and GLT-1. After 5-day exposure to GDNF, expression of GLAST and GLT-1 was up-regulated to 169 and 181% of control values, respectively, whereas NR1 was down-regulated to 64% of control. However, despite these changes that potentially would support neuronal resistance to excitotoxicity, the long-term treatment with GDNF was found to aggravate the neuronal damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The increased cell death, assessed by propidium iodide (PI) uptake, occurred not only among the most susceptible CA1 pyramidal cells, but also in CA3 and fascia dentata. Given that glutamate transporters are able to release glutamate by reversed action during energy failure, it is suggested that the observed increase in OGD-induced cell death in the GDNF-pretreated cultures was caused by the build-up of excitotoxic concentrations of extracellular glutamate released through the glutamate transporters, which were up-regulated by GDNF. Although the extent and consequences of glutamate release via reversal of GLAST and GLT-1 transporters seem to vary in different energy failure models, the present findings should be taken into account in clinical trials of GDNF.

  8. Neonatal administration of phencyclidine decreases the number of putative inhibitory interneurons and increases neural excitability to auditory paired clicks in the hippocampal CA3 region of freely moving adult mice.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Katayama, T; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Yamada, H; Matsuoka, N; Jodo, E

    2012-11-08

    Animals exposed to phencyclidine (PCP) during the neonatal period have fewer GABAergic interneurons in the corticolimbic area, including the hippocampus, and exhibit abnormal behaviors after attaining maturation that correspond with schizophrenic symptoms. Since a lack of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus has also been reported in postmortem studies of patients with schizophrenia, the deficit may induce abnormal activity of hippocampal neurons that underlies pathological states in schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how PCP treatment during the neonatal period affects the discharge activity of hippocampal neurons in adulthood. In the current study, single unit responses of hippocampal CA3 neurons to paired auditory clicks were recorded in freely moving mice repeatedly injected with PCP or saline during the neonatal period. The recorded neurons were classified into two subpopulations, narrow-spike neurons and broad-spike neurons, based on the spike width. The spontaneous discharge rate was higher in the narrow-spike neurons than in the broad-spike neurons, indicating that the narrow-spike neurons correspond with hippocampal inhibitory neurons. The proportion of narrow-spike neurons was significantly smaller in neonatally PCP-treated mice than in saline-treated mice. The broad-spike neurons that exhibited a response magnitude to the second click as large as that to the first click (E/E-type response) showed longer response duration to the paired clicks in PCP-treated mice than in the saline-treated mice. Further, the number of neurons with E/E-type response was higher in the PCP-treated mice than in the saline-treated mice. Finally, the attenuation of an auditory-evoked potential component, N40, to the second click (sensory gating) was blunted in the PCP-treated mice when compared with that in the saline-treated mice. These results suggest that the neonatal administration of PCP induced a deficit of inhibitory interneurons and altered discharge

  9. Long-term changes in the CA3 associative network of fear-conditioned mice.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Gürsel; Albrecht, Anne; Hollnagel, Jan O; Rösler, Anton; Richter-Levin, Gal; Heinemann, Uwe; Stork, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The CA3 associative network plays a critical role in the generation of network activity patterns related to emotional state and fear memory. We investigated long-term changes in the corticosterone (CORT)-sensitive function of this network following fear conditioning and fear memory reactivation. In acute slice preparations from mice trained in either condition, the ratio of orthodromic population spike (PS) to antidromic PS was reduced compared to unconditioned animals, indicating a decrease in efficacy of neuronal coupling within the associative CA3 network. However, spontaneous sharp wave-ripples (SW-R), which are thought to arise from this network, remained unaltered. Following CORT application, we observed an increase in orthodromic PS and a normalization to control levels of their ratio to antidromic PS, while SW-R increased in slices of fear conditioned and fear reactivated mice, but not in slices of unconditioned controls. Together with our previous observations of altered hippocampal gamma activity under these learning paradigms, these data suggest that fear conditioning and fear reactivation lastingly alters the CORT-sensitive configuration of different network activity patterns generated by the CA3 associational network. Observed changes in the mRNA expression of receptors for glutamate, GABA and cannabinoids in the stratum pyramidale of area CA3 may provide a molecular mechanism for these adaptive changes.

  10. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Katharina; Straub, Heidrun; Hirner, Alfred V; Hippler, Jörg; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krüger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krüger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krüger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA(V) had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA(III) strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 micromol/l (adult rats) and 25 micromol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 micromol/l (adult rats) and 10 micromol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 micromol/l MMA(III) led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Kr

  11. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Straub, Heidrun; Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at

  12. Simulation and experimental study of DC electric field distribution characteristics of rat hippocampal slices in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Lei; Gao, Yang; Qiu, Qian; Li, Ze-yan; Zhao, Zhe; Chen, Rui-juan; Wang, Hui-quan

    2016-06-01

    Direct current (DC) electric field is a noninvasive neuromodulation tool that can inhibit or facilitate excitability of neurons. Despite its efficacy, the dielectric constant of artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the position and direction of brain slices and other factors can affect the field intensity and distribution acting on the surface of rat hippocampus slices, thus causing errors. In this study, we describe a new analytical method optimized for DC electric fields acting on brain slices, and the design of an external DC electric field stimulator to allow scientific evaluation of brain slices. We investigated parameters regarding the uniformity of electric field distribution and identified the maximal parameters using the finite element method. Then, we selected and simplified slice images using magnetic resonance imaging data and calculated the electric field intensity of the original and simplified models. The electric field simulator induced action potential and excitatory postsynaptic current with intensities of 1, 5, and 10 V/m. This study describes the development of a new electric field stimulator and successfully demonstrates its practicability for scientific evaluation of tissue slices.

  13. HIF-1α-mediated upregulation of SERCA2b: The endogenous mechanism for alleviating the ischemia-induced intracellular Ca(2+) store dysfunction in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kopach, Olga; Maistrenko, Anastasiia; Lushnikova, Iryna; Belan, Pavel; Skibo, Galina; Voitenko, Nana

    2016-05-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus possess differential susceptibility to the ischemia-induced damage with the highest vulnerability of CA1 and the lower sensitivity of CA3 neurons. This damage is triggered by Ca(2+)-dependent excitotoxicity and can result in a delayed cell death that might be potentially suspended through activation of endogenous neuroprotection with the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF). However, the molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotection remain poorly understood. Here we show that prolonged (30min) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in situ impairs intracellular Ca(2+) regulation in CA1 rather than in CA3 neurons with the differently altered expression of genes coding Ca(2+)-ATPases: the mRNA level of plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCA1 and PMCA2 subtypes) was downregulated in CA1 neurons, whereas the mRNA level of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCA2b subtype) was increased in CA3 neurons at 4h of re-oxygenation after prolonged OGD. These demonstrate distinct susceptibility of CA1 and CA3 neurons to the ischemic impairments in intracellular Ca(2+) regulation and Ca(2+)-ATPase expression. Stabilization of HIF-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α hydroxylation prevented the ischemic decrease in both PMCA1 and PMCA2 mRNAs in CA1 neurons, upregulated the SERCA2b mRNA level and eliminated the OGD-induced Ca(2+) store dysfunction in these neurons. Cumulatively, these findings reveal the previously unknown HIF-1α-driven upregulation of Ca(2+)-ATPases as a mechanism opposing the ischemic impairments in intracellular Ca(2+) regulation in hippocampal neurons. The ability of HIF-1α to modulate expression of genes coding Ca(2+)-ATPases suggests SERCA2b as a novel target for HIF-1 and may provide potential implications for HIF-1α-stabilizing strategy in activating endogenous neuroprotection.

  14. BDNF mediates the neuroprotective effects of positive AMPA receptor modulators against MPP+-induced toxicity in cultured hippocampal and mesencephalic slices.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, H; Hamo, L; Oka, T; Seegan, A; Baudry, M

    2009-04-01

    Neurotoxicity is involved in various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), which affects mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). Positive alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor modulators (PARMs, a.k.a. Ampakines, such as CX614) increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in vivo and in cultured hippocampal slices. BDNF is a survival factor for various neuronal cell types including mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Using cultured mesencephalic and hippocampal slices, we investigated whether preincubation with CX614 could provide neuroprotection against MPP(+) toxicity and whether such neuroprotection was mediated by BDNF. Various treatment protocols were tested to demonstrate CX614-induced neuroprotection against MPP(+). Pretreatment with CX614 significantly reduced MPP(+)-induced toxicity and increased BDNF levels in both hippocampal and mesencephalic cultured slices; CX614 pretreatment for 6 h in hippocampal slices and 24 h in mesencephalic slices was sufficient to produce significant neuroprotection as assessed with lactate dehydrogenase release in slice medium and propidium iodide uptake in slices. Both a BDNF scavenger and an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, abrogated CX614-mediated reduction of MPP(+)-induced toxicity. Inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated proteases, calpains, was also protective against MPP(+)-induced toxicity. However, co-application of calpain inhibitor with CX614 abolished CX614-mediated protection, suggesting a dual action of calpains in this model. We conclude that CX614 is neuroprotective against MPP(+)-induced toxicity, an effect mediated by increased BDNF expression and activation of BDNF-dependent signaling pathways. Our results provide support for using PARMs as a new therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.

  15. Induction of long-term oscillations in the γ frequency band by nAChR activation in rat hippocampal CA3 area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ge, X Y; Wang, J G; Wang, Y L; Wang, Y; Yu, Y; Li, P P; Lu, C B

    2015-08-20

    The hippocampal neuronal network oscillation at γ frequency band (γ oscillation) is generated by the precise interaction between interneurons and principle cells. γ oscillation is associated with attention, learning and memory and is impaired in the diseased conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in the regulation of hippocampal neurotransmission and network activity. It is not known whether nicotine modulates plasticity of network activity at γ oscillations in the hippocampus. In this study we investigated the effects of nicotine on the long-term changes of KA-induced γ oscillations. We found that hippocampal γ oscillations can be enhanced by a low concentration of nicotine (1μM), such an enhancement lasts for hours after washing out of nicotine, suggesting a form of synaptic plasticity, named as long-term oscillation at γ frequency band (LTOγ). Nicotine-induced LTOγ was mimicked by the selective α4β2 but not by α7 nAChR agonist and was involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation as well as depended on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that nAChR activation induced plasticity in γ oscillation, which may be beneficial for the improvement of cognitive deficiency in AD and schizophrenia.

  16. Presynaptic Modulation of the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-07

    al., 1987). In addition, the nootropic (cognitive enhancing) drug bifemaline has been shown to increase the magnitude of MF LTP (Satoh et al., 1988...Different susceptibilities of long-term potentiations in CA3 and CAl regions of guinea pig hippocampal slices to nootropic drugs. Neurosci. Lett., 1988; 93

  17. GABA actions in hippocampal area CA3 during postnatal development: differential shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in somatic and dendritic compartments.

    PubMed

    Romo-Parra, Héctor; Treviño, Mario; Heinemann, Uwe; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) activation leads to depolarization of pyramidal cells during the first postnatal week and produces hyperpolarization from the second week. However, immunohistochemical evidence has suggested that during the second and third postnatal weeks the NKCC1 cotransporter relocates from the soma to the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells. We hypothesized that this leads to depolarizing responses in apical dendrites. Here we show that the activation of GABA(A)-R in the distal dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells at P15 by restricted application of muscimol or synaptic activation by stimulation of interneurons in stratum radiatum (SR) causes depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), which are blocked by NKCC1 cotransporter antagonists. By contrast, activation of proximal GABA(A)-R by muscimol application or by stimulation of interneurons in s. oriens (SO) leads to hyperpolarizing PSPs. Activation of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the presence of glutamatergic blockers evokes hyperpolarizing responses during the second postnatal week; however, the reversal potential of the DG-evoked inhibitory (I)PSPs is more depolarized than that of IPSPs evoked by activation of SO interneurons. Despite the shift of GABA action from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing, DG-evoked field potentials (f-PSPs) recorded in s. lucidum/radiatum (SL/R) do not change in polarity until the third week. Current source density analysis yielded results consistent with depolarizing actions of GABA in the dendritic compartment. Our data suggest that GABAergic input to apical dendrites of pyramidal cells of CA3 evokes depolarizing PSPs long after synaptic inhibition has become hyperpolarizing in the somata, in the axon initial segments and in basal dendrites.

  18. Maintaining network activity in submerged hippocampal slices: importance of oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Ellender, Tommas J; Zemankovics, Rita; Mann, Edward O; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Freund, Tamás F; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Studies in brain slices have provided a wealth of data on the basic features of neurons and synapses. In the intact brain, these properties may be strongly influenced by ongoing network activity. Although physiologically realistic patterns of network activity have been successfully induced in brain slices maintained in interface-type recording chambers, they have been harder to obtain in submerged-type chambers, which offer significant experimental advantages, including fast exchange of pharmacological agents, visually guided patch-clamp recordings, and imaging techniques. Here, we investigated conditions for the emergence of network oscillations in submerged slices prepared from the hippocampus of rats and mice. We found that the local oxygen level is critical for generation and propagation of both spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple oscillations and cholinergically induced fast oscillations. We suggest three ways to improve the oxygen supply to slices under submerged conditions: (i) optimizing chamber design for laminar flow of superfusion fluid; (ii) increasing the flow rate of superfusion fluid; and (iii) superfusing both surfaces of the slice. These improvements to the recording conditions enable detailed studies of neurons under more realistic conditions of network activity, which are essential for a better understanding of neuronal network operation.

  19. Dopamine Modulates Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Action Potential Properties in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Acute Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Elke; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2011-01-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a cellular model of Hebbian synaptic plasticity which is believed to underlie memory formation. In an attempt to establish a STDP paradigm in CA1 of acute hippocampal slices from juvenile rats (P15–20), we found that changes in excitability resulting from different slice preparation protocols correlate with the success of STDP induction. Slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF prolonged rise time, reduced frequency adaptation, and decreased latency of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons compared to preparation in conventional ASCF, while other basal electrophysiological parameters remained unaffected. Whereas we observed prominent timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP) to 171 ± 10% of controls in conventional ACSF, STDP was absent in sucrose prepared slices. This sucrose-induced STDP deficit could not be rescued by stronger STDP paradigms, applying either more pre- and/or postsynaptic stimuli, or by a higher stimulation frequency. Importantly, slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF did not eliminate theta-burst stimulation induced LTP in CA1 in field potential recordings in our rat hippocampal slices. Application of dopamine (for 10–20 min) to sucrose prepared slices completely rescued t-LTP and recovered action potential properties back to levels observed in ACSF prepared slices. Conversely, acute inhibition of D1 receptor signaling impaired t-LTP in ACSF prepared slices. No similar restoring effect for STDP as seen with dopamine was observed in response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. ELISA measurements demonstrated a significant reduction of endogenous dopamine levels (to 61.9 ± 6.9% of ACSF values) in sucrose prepared slices. These results suggest that dopamine signaling is involved in regulating the efficiency to elicit STDP in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22065958

  20. Properties of Taurine Release in Glucose-Free Media in Hippocampal Slices from Developing and Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Simo S.; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    The release of preloaded [3H]taurine from hippocampal slices from developing 7-day-old and young adult 3-month-old mice was studied in a superfusion system in the absence of glucose. These hypoglycemic conditions enhanced the release at both ages, the effect being markedly greater in developing mice. A depolarizing K+ concentration accentuated the release, which indicates that it was partially mediated by exocytosis. The anion channel blockers were inhibitory, witnessing the contribution of ion channels. NO-generating agents fomented the release as a sign of the participation of excitatory amino acid receptors. The other second messenger systems were apparently less efficient. The much greater taurine release could be a reason for the well-known greater tolerance of developing nervous tissue to lack of glucose. PMID:26347028

  1. Association of Anxiety and Depression With Microtubule-Associated Protein 2– and Synaptopodin-Immunolabeled Dendrite and Spine Densities in Hippocampal CA3 of Older Humans

    PubMed Central

    Soetanto, Ainie; Wilson, Robert S.; Talbot, Konrad; Un, Ashley; Schneider, Julie A.; Sobiesk, Mark; Kelly, Jeremiah; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A.; Arnold, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Context Chronic psychological distress has deleterious effects on many of the body’s physiological systems. In experimental animal models, chronic stress leads to neuroanatomic changes in the hippocampus, in particular a decrease in the length and branching of dendrites as well as a decrease in the number of dendritic spines. Objectives To examine whether analogous distress-related neuroanatomic changes occur in humans and whether such changes might also be related to cognitive dysfunction observed in older people who report greater psychological distress. Design Postmortem study of brain tissues from participants of the Religious Orders Study, an ongoing population-based clinicopathological study of aging and cognition. Setting The Rush University Religious Orders Study and the University of Pennsylvania Cellular and Molecular Neuropathology Program. Participants Seventy-two deceased participants of the Religious Orders Study. Main Outcome Measures Densities of microtubule-associated protein 2–immunolabeled dendrites and synaptopodin-immunolabeled dendritic spines in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus, quantified using semiautomated image acquisition and analysis. Results Higher levels of trait anxiety and longitudinal depression scores were associated with decreased densities of dendrites and spines in CA3. Dendrite and spine densities did not correlate with an index of global cognition or with densities of common age-related pathological changes. Conclusions Regressive neuronal changes occur in humans who experience greater psychological distress. These changes are analogous to neuronal changes in animal models of chronic stress. PMID:20439826

  2. Gene expression associated with in vivo induction of early phase-long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal mossy fiber-Cornus Ammonis (CA)3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K J; Orfila, J E; Achanta, P; Martinez, J L

    2003-12-01

    Affymetrix microarray technology was used to characterize whole-hippocampus gene expression associated with in vivo N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-R-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mossy fiber (MF)-Cornus Ammonis (CA)3 pathway of adult male F344 rats. Acute MF responses were evoked by stimulation of the MF bundle and recorded in stratum lucidum of CA3. Following recording of baseline responses at 0.05 Hz, animals received either CPP (NMDA-R antagonist, 10 mg/kg) or naloxone (opioid-R antagonist, 10 mg/kg). LTP was induced by two 100 Hz 1-sec trains at the intensity sufficient to evoke 50% of the maximal response. Responses were collected for an additional hour. In controls, MF responses were collected at 0.05 Hz for 1 hr, but 100 Hz trains were not delivered. Hippocampi were harvested prior to total RNA isolation. Fragmented cRNA was hybridized to a rat U34 neurobiology array. F344 rats exhibited characteristic LTP in the presence of CPP and LTP blockade in the presence of naloxone. As a result, genes associated with both NMDA-independent LTP and naloxone-induced blockade were identified. These include genes involved in transmitter transport, intracellular messengers, growth factors and ion channels. Up-regulated include NMDA-R2D, neuropeptide Y (NPY), proenkephalin, BDNF and NGFR. Down-regulated genes include IGF-1 and GABA-B.

  3. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation modulates gamma-aminobutyric acid release from CA1 neurons of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Alkondon, M; Pereira, E F; Barbosa, C T; Albuquerque, E X

    1997-12-01

    In the present study we investigated electrophysiologically the nicotinic responses of pyramidal neurons and interneurons visualized by infrared-assisted videomicroscopy and fluorescence in the CA1 field of hippocampal slices obtained from 8- to 24-day-old rats. Application of nicotinic agonists to CA1 neurons evoked at least four types of nicotinic responses. Of major interest was the ability of these agonists to induce the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from interneurons. Slowly decaying ACh whole-cell currents and GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents could be recorded from pyramidal neurons and interneurons, whereas fast-decaying nicotinic currents and fast current transients were recorded only from interneurons. Nicotinic responses were sensitive to blockade by d-tubocurarine (10 microM), which indicated that they were mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The slowly decaying currents, the postsynaptic currents and the fast current transients were insensitive to blockade by the alpha-7 nAChR-specific antagonist methyllycaconitine (up to 1 microM) or alpha-bungarotoxin (100 nM). On the other hand, the slowly decaying nicotinic currents recorded from the interneurons were blocked by the alpha4beta2 nAChR-specific antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine, and the fast-desensitizing nicotinic currents were evoked by the alpha-7 nAChR-specific agonist choline. In experimental conditions similar to those used to record nicotinic responses from neurons in slice (i. e., in the absence of tetrodotoxin), we observed that nicotinic agonists can also induce the release of GABA from hippocampal neurons in culture. In summary, these results provide direct evidence for more than one subtype of functional nAChR in CA1 neurons and suggest that activation of nAChRs present in GABAergic interneurons can evoke inhibitory activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby modulating processing of information in the hippocampus.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, P2X receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade: a quantitative analysis in organotypical hippocampal slice cultures subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Rundén-Pran, E; Tansø, R; Haug, F M; Ottersen, O P; Ring, A

    2005-01-01

    Cell death was assessed by quantitative analysis of propidium iodide uptake in rat hippocampal slice cultures transiently exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of brain ischemia. The hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3, and fascia dentata were analyzed at different stages from 0 to 48 h after the insult. Cell death appeared at 3 h and increased steeply toward 12 h. Only a slight additional increase in propidium iodide uptake was seen at later intervals. The mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 were activated immediately after oxygen and glucose deprivation both in CA1 and in CA3/fascia dentata. Inhibition of the specific mitogen-activated protein kinase activator mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase by PD98059 or U0126 offered partial protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced cell damage. The non-selective P2X receptor antagonist suramin gave neuroprotection of the same magnitude as the N-methyl-D-aspartate channel blocker MK-801 (approximately 70%). Neuroprotection was also observed with the P2 receptor blocker PPADS. Immunogold data indicated that hippocampal slice cultures (like intact hippocampi) express several isoforms of P2X receptors at the synaptic level, consistent with the idea that the effects of suramin and PPADS are mediated by P2X receptors. Virtually complete neuroprotection was obtained by combined blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, P2X receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. Both P2X receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate influx of calcium. Our results suggest that inhibition of P2X receptors has a neuroprotective potential similar to that of inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. In contrast, our comparative analysis shows that only partial protection can be achieved by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, one of the

  5. Neuroprotection of rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation by enrichment with docosahexaenoic acid and by inhibition of hydrolysis of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids by calcium independent phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Strokin, M; Chechneva, O; Reymann, K G; Reiser, G

    2006-06-30

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the development of pathological states in brain after hypoxia/ischemia. Here, we investigated the role of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in brain phospholipids for neuronal survival. We used organotypic cultures of rat brain hippocampal slices exposed to 40 min of oxygen-glucose deprivation, to study the consequences of experimental ischemia. In [14C]docosahexaenoic acid-labeled cultures, oxygen-glucose deprivation induced significant release of radioactive docosahexaenoic acid. This release could be blocked by the selective inhibitor of the Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2, 4-bromoenol lactone (10 microM), when it was added 30 min prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Addition of 4-bromoenol lactone at 30 min prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation markedly decreased the neuronal damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. The protective effect was substantially higher in dentate gyrus than in CA1 and CA3 areas. Enrichment of the hippocampal tissue with docosahexaenoic acid by incubation with 10 microM docosahexaenoic acid for 24 h exerted the same neuroprotective effect, which was observed after treatment with 4-bromoenol lactone. In contrast to the 24 h-preincubation, simultaneous addition of docosahexaenoic acid with the onset of oxygen-glucose deprivation had no protective effect. This suggests that incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid into phospholipids is required for the protective effect observed. Then the possible involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism in docosahexaenoic acid-induced neuroprotection was tested. Inhibition of prostaglandin production by ibuprofen produced no change in neuroprotection after 24-h incubation of the hippocampal slices with docosahexaenoic acid. Simultaneous inhibition of Ca2+-independent and Ca2+-dependent phospholipases A2 by treatment with the general phospholipase A2 inhibitor methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (3 microM, 30 min prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation

  6. Folic Acid Protects Against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity in Hippocampal Slices Through a Mechanism that Implicates Inhibition of GSK-3β and iNOS.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Molz, Simone; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Martín-de-Saavedra, Maria Dolores; Egea, Javier; Lopéz, Manuela G; Tasca, Carla Ines; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia Severo

    2017-02-10

    Folic acid (folate) is a vitamin of the B-complex group crucial for neurological function. Considering that excitotoxicity and cell death induced by glutamate are involved in many disorders, the potential protective effect of folic acid on glutamate-induced cell damage in rat hippocampal slices and the possible intracellular signaling pathway involved in such effect were investigated. The treatment of hippocampal slices with folic acid (100 μM) significantly abrogated glutamate (1 mM)-induced reduction of cell viability measured by MTT reduction assay and inhibited glutamate-induced D-[(3)H]-aspartate release. To investigate the putative intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the protective effect of folic acid, we used a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, which abolished the protective effects of folic acid against glutamate-induced cell damage and D-[(3)H] aspartate release. Moreover, hippocampal slices incubated with folic acid alone for 30 min presented increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, indicating an inhibition of the activity of this enzyme. Furthermore, folic acid in the presence of glutamate insult in hippocampal slices maintained for an additional period of 6 h in fresh culture medium without glutamate and/or folic acid induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β and β-catenin expression. In addition, glutamate-treated hippocampal slices showed increased iNOS expression that was reversed by folic acid. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the protective effect of folic acid against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity may involve the modulation of PI3K/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway and iNOS inhibition.

  7. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope > 200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX + PCB170 (1-100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached > 250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX + 100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca{sup 2+}-dependence of [{sup 3}H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca{sup 2+} appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs.

  8. Hippocampal neurons in organotypic slice culture are highly resistant to damage by endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Keynes, Robert G; Duport, Sophie; Garthwaite, John

    2004-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to mediate neurodegeneration arising from NMDA receptor activity, but the issue remains controversial. The hypothesis was re-examined using organotypic slice cultures of rat hippocampus, with steps being taken to avoid known artefacts. The NO-cGMP signalling pathway was well preserved in such cultures. Brief exposure to NMDA resulted in a concentration-dependent delayed neuronal death that could be nullified by administration of the NMDA antagonist MK801 (10 microm) given postexposure. Two inhibitors of NO synthesis failed to protect the slices, despite fully blocking NMDA-induced cGMP accumulation. By comparing NMDA-induced cGMP accumulation with that produced by an NO donor, toxic NMDA concentrations were estimated to produce only physiological NO concentrations (2 nm). In studies of the vulnerability of the slices to exogenous NO, it was found that continuous exposure to up to 4.5 microm NO failed to affect ATP levels (measured after 6 h) or cause damage during 24 h, whereas treatment with the respiratory inhibitors myxothiazol or cyanide caused ATP depletion and complete cell death within 24 h. An NO concentration of 10 microm was required for ATP depletion and cell death, presumably through respiratory inhibition. It is concluded that sustained activity of neuronal NO synthase in intact hippocampal tissue can generate only low nanomolar NO concentrations, which are unlikely to be toxic. At the same time, the tissue is remarkably resistant to exogenous NO at up to 1000-fold higher concentrations. Together, the results seriously question the proposed role of NO in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

  9. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Repges, Hendrik; Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V.; Straub, Heidrun; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2007-11-15

    In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

  10. Synaptic GABAA activation induces Ca2+ rise in pyramidal cells and interneurons from rat neonatal hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Leinekugel, X; Tseeb, V; Ben-Ari, Y; Bregestovski, P

    1995-01-01

    1. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by activation of GABAA receptors (synaptic stimulation or application of the GABAA agonist isoguvacine) were studied on pyramidal cells and interneurons from hippocampal slices of rats from two age groups (postnatal days (P) 2-5 and P12-13) using the fluorescent dye fluo-3 and a confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells were loaded with the dye either intracellularly, using patch pipettes containing fluo-3 in the internal solution, or extracellularly, using pressure pulses applied to an extracellular pipette containing the permeant dye fluo-3 AM. 2. Interneurons and pyramidal cells from P2-5 slices loaded with fluo-3 AM responded by an increase in [Ca2+]i to isoguvacine and to glutamate, in contrast to cells from P12-13 slices which responded to glutamate but not to isoguvacine. 3. The isoguvacine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was reversibly blocked by bath application of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (20 microM), suggesting the specific involvement of GABAA receptors. The sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM in the bath) did not prevent the isoguvacine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. 4. The isoguvacine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was reversibly blocked by bath application of the calcium channel blocker D600 (50 microM) suggesting the involvement of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. 5. Electrical stimulation of afferent fibres induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i in neonatal pyramidal cells and interneurons (P5) loaded non-invasively with fluo-3 AM. This elevation of [Ca2+]i was reversibly blocked by bicuculline (20 microM) but not by APV (50 microM) and CNQX (10 microM). 6. During simultaneous electrophysiological recording in the current-clamp mode and [Ca2+]i monitoring from P5 pyramidal cells, electrical stimulation of afferent fibres, in the presence of APV (50 microM) and CNQX (10 microM), caused synaptic depolarization accompanied by a few action potentials and a transient increase

  11. Long-Term Potentiation at CA3–CA1 Hippocampal Synapses with Special Emphasis on Aging, Disease, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in the mammalian central nervous system has been the subject of intense investigation for the past four decades. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a major reflection of synaptic plasticity, is an activity-driven long-lasting increase in the efficacy of excitatory synaptic transmission following the delivery of a brief, high-frequency train of electrical stimulation. LTP is regarded as a principal candidate for the cellular mechanisms involved in learning and offers an attractive hypothesis of how memories are constructed. There are a number of exceptional full-length reviews published on LTP; the current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding hippocampal LTP with special emphasis on aging, diseases, and psychological insults. PMID:21647396

  12. Spatial performance in a complex maze is associated with persistent long-term potentiation enhancement in mouse hippocampal slices at early training stages.

    PubMed

    Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Lohmann, P; Riepe, M W

    2007-06-29

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are principal reflections of synaptic plasticity that have been implicated in learning and memory. We have previously shown that spatial learning in a newly validated complex maze is accompanied by depression of hippocampal CA1 synaptic activity in hippocampal slices of trained mice ("behavioral LTD"). In the present study, we investigated whether behavioral LTD is accompanied by alterations of subsequent LTP induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Moreover, we were interested in the time course of such alterations in relation to training stage. Animals underwent 1, 2, and 8 days of spatial training in the complex maze, respectively. Hippocampal slices were taken 24 h after the last training session. We found a simultaneous decrease of basal synaptic response and increase of HFS induced LTP magnitude compared with slices of untrained animals. Synaptic plasticity was not influenced by repeated running wheel exercise in an additional control group without spatial learning. The mentioned alterations occurred already after day 2 of maze exploration parallel to the most pronounced improvement of behavioral performance but did not change thereafter until day 8 despite further learning progress. They were also found when animals were trained for 2 days and kept at rest for a subsequent 6 days. In conclusion, spatial learning may be reflected by distinct and persistent measurable alterations of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 neurons at early training stages.

  13. Isolation of CA1 nuclear enriched fractions from hippocampal slices to study activity-dependent nuclear import of synapto-nuclear messenger proteins.

    PubMed

    Yuanxiang, Pingan; Bera, Sujoy; Karpova, Anna; Kreutz, Michael R; Mikhaylova, Marina

    2014-08-10

    Studying activity dependent protein expression, subcellular translocation, or phosphorylation is essential to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) induced in acute hippocampal slices are widely accepted as cellular models of learning and memory. There are numerous studies that use live cell imaging or immunohistochemistry approaches to visualize activity dependent protein dynamics. However these methods rely on the suitability of antibodies for immunocytochemistry or overexpression of fluorescence-tagged proteins in single neurons. Immunoblotting of proteins is an alternative method providing independent confirmation of the findings. The first limiting factor in preparation of subcellular fractions from individual tetanized hippocampal slices is the low amount of material. Second, the handling procedure is crucial because even very short and minor manipulations of living slices might induce activation of certain signaling cascades. Here we describe an optimized workflow in order to obtain sufficient quantity of nuclear enriched fraction of sufficient purity from the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices from rat brain. As a representative example we show that the ERK1/2 phosphorylated form of the synapto-nuclear protein messenger Jacob actively translocates to the nucleus upon induction of LTP and can be detected in a nuclear enriched fraction from CA1 neurons.

  14. Unitary inhibitory field potentials in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bazelot, Michaël; Dinocourt, Céline; Cohen, Ivan; Miles, Richard

    2010-06-15

    Glickfeld and colleagues (2009) suggested that single hippocampal interneurones generate field potentials at monosynaptic latencies. We pursued this observation in simultaneous intracellular and multiple extracellular records from the CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices. We confirmed that interneurones evoked field potentials at monosynaptic latencies. Pyramidal cells initiated disynaptic inhibitory field potentials, but did not initiate detectable monosynaptic excitatory fields. We confirmed that inhibitory fields were GABAergic in nature and showed they were suppressed at low external Cl(-), suggesting they originate at postsynaptic sites. Field potentials generated by a single interneuron were detected at multiple sites over distances of more than 800 mum along the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region. We used arrays of extracellular electrodes to examine amplitude distributions of spontaneous inhibitory fields recorded at sites orthogonal to or along the CA3 stratum pyramidale. Cluster analysis of spatially distributed inhibitory field events let us separate events generated by interneurones terminating on distinct zones of somato-dendritic axis. Events generated at dendritic sites had similar amplitudes but occurred less frequently and had somewhat slower kinetics than perisomatic events generated near the stratum pyramidale. In records from multiple sites in the CA3 stratum pyramidale, we distinguished inhibitory fields that seemed to be initiated by interneurones with spatially distinct axonal arborisations.

  15. Altered regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in hippocampus following slice preparation.

    PubMed

    Danzer, S C; Pan, E; Nef, S; Parada, L F; McNamara, J O

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) play important roles in regulating survival, structure, and function of CNS neurons. One method of studying the functions of these molecules has utilized in vitro hippocampal slice preparations. An important caveat to using slices, however, is that slice preparation itself might alter the expression of BDNF, thereby confounding experimental results. To address this concern, BDNF immunoreactivity was examined in rodent slices using two different methods of slice preparation. Rapid and anatomically selective regulation of BDNF content followed slice preparation using both methodologies; however, different patterns of altered BDNF immunoreactivity were observed. First, in cultured slices, BDNF content decreased in the dentate molecular layer and increased in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus after 30 min. Furthermore, an initially "punctate" pattern of BDNF labeling observed in the mossy fiber pathway of control sections changed to homogenous labeling of the pathway in vitro. In contrast to these findings, slices prepared as for acute slice physiology exhibited no change in BDNF content in the molecular layer and mossy fiber pathway 30 min after slicing, but exhibited significant increases in the dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. These findings demonstrate that BDNF protein content is altered following slice preparation, that different methods of slice preparation produce different patterns of BDNF regulation, and raise the possibility that BDNF release and TrkB activation may also be regulated. These consequences of hippocampal slice preparation may confound analyses of exogenous or endogenous BDNF on hippocampal neuronal structure or function.

  16. Effects of the Aconitum alkaloid mesaconitine in rat hippocampal slices and the involvement of α- and β-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Angela

    1998-01-01

    The effects of mesaconitine, the main alkaloid contained in Aconiti tuber, were investigated by use of extracellular recordings of stimulus-evoked population spikes and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.ps) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.At a concentration of 10 nM, mesaconitine evoked excitations, which were manifested as an increase in the amplitude of the orthodromic spike and the appearance of multiple spikes following the first postsynaptic spike, without affecting the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation. The increase in spike amplitude was persistent and was not reversed by up to 90 min of washout. At concentrations of 30 and 100 nM, the alkaloid produced a biphasic effect, that is an excitation followed by an inhibition without having any effect upon the field e.p.s.p. At concentrations above 100 nM, mesaconitine suppressed the orthodromic population spike and the field e.p.s.p.The excitatory effect was also observed when electrical stimulation was stopped completely during the application of mesaconitine (10 nM) and during the first 15 min of washout.The enhancement of the population spike and the appearance of multiple spikes induced by mesaconitine (10–100 nM) were blocked by pretreatment with the β-adrenoceptor antagonists propranolol (1 μM) and timolol (1 μM), whereas the inhibitory effect was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonists yohimbine (1 μM) and phentolamine (10 μM). However, when the β-adrenoceptor antagonist timolol was added 10 min after the application of mesaconitine, it failed to block the long-lasting enhancement of the spike amplitude and the appearance of multiple population spikes.Application of the selective β-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline (500 nM) to the hippocampal slices induced an increase in the amplitude of the orthodromic population spike and elicited 2–3 additional spikes. Mesaconitine (10 nM) did not further potentiate this enhancement of the spike

  17. Fluoride Induces a Volume Reduction in CA1 Hippocampal Slices Via MAP Kinase Pathway Through Volume Regulated Anion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaekwang; Han, Young-Eun; Favorov, Oleg; Tommerdahl, Mark; Whitsel, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell volume is an important aspect of cellular homeostasis during neural activity. This volume regulation is thought to be mediated by activation of specific transporters, aquaporin, and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC). In cultured astrocytes, it was reported that swelling-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation is required to open VRAC, which are thought to be important in regulatory volume decrease and in the response of CNS to trauma and excitotoxicity. It has been also described that sodium fluoride (NaF), a recognized G-protein activator and protein phosphatase inhibitor, leads to a significant MAP kinase activation in endothelial cells. However, NaF's effect in volume regulation in the brain is not known yet. Here, we investigated the mechanism of NaF-induced volume change in rat and mouse hippocampal slices using intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recording, in which we measured relative changes in intracellular and extracellular volume as changes in light transmittance through brain slices. We found that NaF (1~5 mM) application induced a reduction in light transmittance (decreased volume) in CA1 hippocampus, which was completely reversed by MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 (10 µM). We also observed that NaF-induced volume reduction was blocked by anion channel blockers, suggesting that NaF-induced volume reduction could be mediated by VRAC. Overall, our results propose a novel molecular mechanism of NaF-induced volume reduction via MAP kinase signaling pathway by activation of VRAC. PMID:27122993

  18. Impaired tolerance to repetitive hypoxia in hippocampal slices of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Büchner, M; Li, H; Huber, R; Timmler, M; Sehrsam, I; Kasischke, K; Völkel, H; Ludolph, A C; Riepe, M W

    1999-12-03

    Energy metabolism is impaired in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The goal was to investigate tolerance against single and repetitive hypoxia in C57B6SJL-TgN(SOD1-G93A)1GUR mice (G93A mice). Posthypoxic recovery (15 min hypoxia, 45 min recovery) of population spike amplitude in hippocampal region CA1 was 38 +/- 29% (mean +/- SD) in controls and 67 +/- 41% (ns) in G93A mice at day 40. Upon in vivo pretreatment with 20 mg/kg 3-nitropropionate posthypoxic recovery increased to 82 +/- 32% (P < 0.01) in controls and decreased to 35 +/- 33% in G93A mice (P < 0.05 to pretreated controls). Results at day 80 and 110 were similar. We conclude that G93A mice show a long-lasting impairment to sustain repetitive hypoxic episodes whereas tolerance to a single hypoxic episode is comparable to controls.

  19. BK potassium channels control transmitter release at CA3-CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Pedarzani, Paola; Cherubini, Enrico

    2004-05-15

    Large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK channels) activate in response to calcium influx during action potentials and contribute to the spike repolarization and fast afterhyperpolarization. BK channels targeted to active zones in presynaptic nerve terminals have been shown to limit calcium entry and transmitter release by reducing the duration of the presynaptic spike at neurosecretory nerve terminals and at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, their functional role in central synapses is still uncertain. In the hippocampus, BK channels have been proposed to act as an 'emergency brake' that would control transmitter release only under conditions of excessive depolarization and accumulation of intracellular calcium. Here we demonstrate that in the CA3 region of hippocampal slice cultures, under basal experimental conditions, the selective BK channel blockers paxilline (10 microM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) increase the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneously occurring action potential-dependent EPSCs. These drugs did not affect miniature currents recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting that their action was dependent on action potential firing. Moreover, in double patch-clamp recordings from monosynaptically interconnected CA3 pyramidal neurones, blockade of BK channels enhanced the probability of transmitter release, as revealed by the increase in success rate, EPSC amplitude and the concomitant decrease in paired-pulse ratio in response to pairs of presynaptic action potentials delivered at a frequency of 0.05 Hz. BK channel blockers also enhanced the appearance of delayed responses, particularly following the second action potential in the paired-pulse protocol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BK channels are powerful modulators of transmitter release and synaptic efficacy in central neurones.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not neurotrophin-3, prevents ischaemia-induced neuronal cell death in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Pringle, A K; Sundstrom, L E; Wilde, G J; Williams, L R; Iannotti, F

    1996-06-28

    We have investigated the neuroprotective actions of neurotrophins in a model of ischaemia using slice cultures. Ischaemia was induced in organotypic hippocampal cultures by simultaneous oxygen and glucose deprivation. Cell death was assessed 24 h later by propidium iodide fluorescence. Pre- but not post-ischaemic addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced a concentration-dependent reduction in neuronal damage. Neurotrophin-3 was not neuroprotective. These data suggest that BDNF may form part of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism.

  1. Neuroprotection Promoted by Guanosine Depends on Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Transporters Activity in Hippocampal Slices Subjected to Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Dal-Cim, Tharine; Martins, Wagner C; Thomaz, Daniel T; Coelho, Victor; Poluceno, Gabriela Godoy; Lanznaster, Débora; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Tasca, Carla I

    2016-05-01

    Guanosine (GUO) has been shown to act as a neuroprotective agent against glutamatergic excitotoxicity by increasing glutamate uptake and decreasing its release. In this study, a putative effect of GUO action on glutamate transporters activity modulation was assessed in hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of brain ischemia. Slices subjected to OGD showed increased excitatory amino acids release (measured by D-[(3)H]aspartate release) that was prevented in the presence of GUO (100 µM). The glutamate transporter blockers, DL-TBOA (10 µM), DHK (100 µM, selective inhibitor of GLT-1), and sulfasalazine (SAS, 250 µM, Xc(-) system inhibitor) decreased OGD-induced D-aspartate release. Interestingly, DHK or DL-TBOA blocked the decrease in glutamate release induced by GUO, whereas SAS did not modify the GUO effect. GUO protected hippocampal slices from cellular damage by modulation of glutamate transporters, however selective blockade of GLT-1 or Xc- system only did not affect this protective action of GUO. OGD decreased hippocampal glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and GUO recovered GS activity to control levels without altering the kinetic parameters of GS activity, thus suggesting GUO does not directly interact with GS. Additionally, the pharmacological inhibition of GS activity with methionine sulfoximine abolished the effect of GUO in reducing D-aspartate release and cellular damage evoked by OGD. Altogether, results in hippocampal slices subjected to OGD show that GUO counteracts the release of excitatory amino acids, stimulates the activity of GS, and decreases the cellular damage by modulation of glutamate transporters activity.

  2. Ontogeny of kainate-induced gamma oscillations in the rat CA3 hippocampus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tsintsadze, Vera; Minlebaev, Marat; Suchkov, Dimitry; Cunningham, Mark O.; Khazipov, Roustem

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic inhibition, which is instrumental in the generation of hippocampal gamma oscillations, undergoes significant changes during development. However, the development of hippocampal gamma oscillations remains largely unknown. Here, we explored the developmental features of kainate-induced oscillations (KA-Os) in CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices. Up to postnatal day P5, the bath application of kainate failed to evoke any detectable oscillations. KA-Os emerged by the end of the first postnatal week; these were initially weak, slow (20–25 Hz, beta range) and were poorly synchronized with CA3 units and synaptic currents. Local field potential (LFP) power, synchronization of units and frequency of KA-Os increased during the second postnatal week to attain gamma (30–40 Hz) frequency by P15–21. Both beta and gamma KA-Os are characterized by alternating sinks and sources in the pyramidal cell layer, likely generated by summation of the action potential—associated currents and GABAergic synaptic currents, respectively. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors with gabazine completely suppressed KA-Os at all ages indicating that GABAergic mechanisms are instrumental in their generation. Bumetanide, a NKCC1 chloride co-transporter antagonist which renders GABAergic responses inhibitory in the immature hippocampal neurons, failed to induce KA-Os at P2–4 indicating that the absence of KA-Os in neonates is not due to depolarizing actions of GABA. The linear developmental profile, electrographic features and pharmacological properties indicate that CA3 hippocampal beta and gamma KA-Os are fundamentally similar in their generative mechanisms and their delayed onset and developmental changes likely reflect the development of perisomatic GABAergic inhibition. PMID:26041996

  3. Transient depression of excitatory synapses on interneurons contributes to epileptiform bursts during gamma oscillations in the mouse hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Traub, Roger D; Pais, Isabel; Bibbig, Andrea; Lebeau, Fiona E N; Buhl, Eberhard H; Garner, Helen; Monyer, Hannah; Whittington, Miles A

    2005-08-01

    Persistent gamma frequency (30-70 Hz) network oscillations occur in hippocampal slices under conditions of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Excessive mGluR activation generated a bistable pattern of network activity during which epochs of gamma oscillations of increasing amplitude were terminated by synchronized bursts and very fast oscillations (>70 Hz). We provide experimental evidence that, during this behavior, pyramidal cell-to-interneuron synaptic depression takes place, occurring spontaneously during the gamma rhythm and associated with the onset of epileptiform bursts. We further provide evidence that excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in pyramidal cells are potentiated during the interburst gamma oscillation. When these two types of synaptic plasticity are incorporated, phenomenologically, into a network model previously shown to account for many features of persistent gamma oscillations, we find that epochs of gamma do indeed alternate with epochs of very fast oscillations and epileptiform bursts. Thus the same neuronal network can generate either gamma oscillations or epileptiform bursts, in a manner depending on the degree of network drive and network-induced fluctuations in synaptic efficacies.

  4. Metaplastic LTP inhibition after LTD induction in CA1 hippocampal slices involves NMDA Receptor-mediated Neurosteroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; O'Dell, Kazuko A; Zorumski, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) induced by low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to contribute to learning and memory and to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In naïve hippocampal slices from juvenile rats, we previously found that LTD induction can impair subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) via a form of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent metaplasticity, and have recently observed that pharmacologically induced NMDAR-dependent LTP inhibition involves 5α-reduced neurosteroids that augment the actions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, we found that both LFS-induced LTD and subsequent inhibition of LTP induction involve neurosteroid synthesis via NMDAR activation. Furthermore, the timing of 5α-reductase inhibition relative to LFS can dissociate effects on LTD and metaplastic LTP inhibition. These findings indicate that 5α-reduced neurosteroids play an important role in synaptic plasticity and synaptic modulation in the hippocampus. PMID:24303196

  5. Tolerance of guinea pig hippocampal slice CA1 neurons to hyperthermia evaluated by orthodromic and antidromic responses.

    PubMed

    Fujii, S

    1998-01-01

    The tolerance of electrical responses in the CA1 neurons of guinea pig hippocampal slices to elevated temperatures was studied by recording orthodromic and antidromic responses of the population spike (PS). Increasing the temperature of the perfusing medium from 30 degrees C to 49 degrees C resulted in a decreased amplitude of both the orthodromic and antidromic PS, the former disappearing at 42.0 +/- 1.8 degrees C and the latter at 46.2 +/- 1.3 degrees C (n = 8 for both). When the temperature was increased to 44 degrees C, maintained at this level for less than 27 min, then lowered to 30 degrees C, both the orthodromic and antidromic PS recovered within 60 min. When the temperature was increased to 45-49 degrees C, marked irreversible effects were seen with the orthodromic PS, recovery being dependent on the maximum temperature and duration of exposure, the change becoming irreversible after 13 min at 45 degrees C, 6 min at 46 degrees C, 4 min at 47 degrees C or 2.5 min at 48 degrees C. In contrast, the antidromic PS, recorded simultaneously, recovered on lowering the temperature to 30 degrees C in all cases tested, except when the temperature was increased to 46 degrees C and maintained at this level for 25-27 min. These results indicate that, in CA1 neurons, temperatures above 44 degrees C have more potent irreversible effects on synaptic transmission than on axonal or somal function.

  6. Activation of metabotropic glutamate 5 and NMDA receptors underlies the induction of persistent bursting and associated long-lasting changes in CA3 recurrent connections.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Ron; Conquet, François; Zuber, Benoit; Voronin, Leon L; Pralong, Etienne

    2003-07-02

    The aim of this study was to describe the induction and expression mechanisms of a persistent bursting activity in a horizontal slice preparation of the rat limbic system that includes the ventral part of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. Disinhibition of this preparation by bicuculline led to interictal-like bursts in the CA3 region that triggered synchronous activity in the entorhinal cortex. Washout of bicuculline after a 1 hr application resulted in a maintained production of hippocampal bursts that continued to spread to the entorhinal cortex. Separation of CA3 from the entorhinal cortex caused the activity in the latter to become asynchronous with CA3 activity in the presence of bicuculline and disappear after washout; however, in CA3, neither the induction of bursting nor its persistence were affected. Associated with the CA3 persistent bursting, a strengthening of recurrent collateral excitatory input to CA3 pyramidal cells and a decreased input to CA3 interneurons was found. Both the induction of the persistent bursting and the changes in synaptic strength were prevented by antagonists of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) or NMDA receptors or protein synthesis inhibitors and did not occur in slices from mGlu5 receptor knock-out mice. The above findings suggest potential synaptic mechanisms by which the hippocampus switches to a persistent interictal bursting mode that may support a spread of interictal-like bursting to surrounding temporal lobe regions.

  7. Adenosine triphosphate depletion reverses sodium-dependent, neuronal uptake of glutamate in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Madl, J E; Burgesser, K

    1993-10-01

    Extracellular accumulations of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) may mediate ischemic neuronal damage. Metabolic insults can decrease Na+ and K+ plasma membrane gradients, thereby reducing the driving force for uptake of EAAs into cells by Na(+)-dependent EAA cotransporters. EAA accumulations could result from decreased uptake and increased release due to reversal of these cotransporters. ATP depletion, uptake, and release of EAAs were measured by HPLC in slices treated with metabolic inhibitors. Inhibition and reversal of cotransporters were determined by uptake or release of D,L-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (OH-Asp), an EAA analog with high affinity for cotransporters. Moderate ATP depletion (7 > ATP nmol/mg protein > 3) reduced uptake by cotransporters without increasing release of EAAs. When ATP was severely depleted (ATP < 2 nmol/mg protein), increased release of EAAs and preloaded OH-Asp occurred, consistent with reversal of cotransporters. Release of glutamine and asparagine was not increased, confirming that release was not primarily due to nonselective increased membrane permeability. ATP depletion and ouabain acted synergistically to produce EAA release, strongly suggesting release was largely mediated by inhibition of Na/K-ATPases. Severe ATP depletion decreased glutamate-like immunoreactivity primarily in axonal terminal-like structures, suggesting release occurred primarily from terminals. Moderate ATP depletion may increase extracellular EAAs by decreasing uptake. Severe ATP depletion may further increase EAAs by reversing uptake, thereby releasing cytosolic neuronal pools of EAAs.

  8. Electrical coupling of astrocytes in rat hippocampal slices under physiological and simulated ischemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Kimelberg, Harold K; Zhou, Min

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian protoplasmic astrocytes are extensively coupled through gap junction channels but the biophysical properties of these channels under physiological and ischemic conditions in situ are not well defined. Using confocal morphometric analysis of biocytin-filled astrocytic syncytia in rat hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum we found that each astrocyte directly couples, on average, to 11 other astrocytes with a mean interastrocytic distance of 45 microm. Voltage-independent and bidirectional transjunctional currents were always measured between directly coupled astrocyte pairs in dual voltage-clamp recordings, but never from astrocyte-NG2 glia or astrocyte-interneuron pairs. The electrical coupling ratio varied considerably among astrocytes in developing postnatal day 14 rats (P14, 0.5-12.4%, mean = 3.6%), but became more constant in young adult P21 rats (0.18-3.9%, mean = 1.6%), and the coupling ratio declined exponentially with increasing pair distance. Electrical coupling was not affected by short-term oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment, but showed delayed inhibition in an acidic extracellular pH of 6.4. Combination of acidic pH (6.4) and OGD, a condition that better represents cerebral ischemia in vivo, accelerated the inhibition of electrical coupling. Our results show that, under physiological conditions, 20.7-24.2% of K(+) induced currents can travel from any astrocytic soma in CA1 stratum radiatum to the gap junctions of the nearest neighbor astrocytes, but this should be severely inhibited as a consequence of the OGD and acidosis seen in the ischemic brain.

  9. Actions of cromakalim on outward currents of CA1 neurones in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Erdemli, G; Krnjević, K

    1994-01-01

    1. Membrane effects of cromakalim (Crom; 50-300 microM) were examined in CA1 neurones recorded mainly by intracellular, single-electrode voltage-clamping in slices (from Sprague-Dawley rats) kept in an interface chamber at 33 degrees C. 2. In 14 cells held at -63 +/- 3.5 mV, in the presence of tetrodotoxin, kynurenic acid and (in most cases) bicuculline, bath applied Crom produced no consistent change in holding current (-59 +/- 66 pA) or input conductance (GN) (-3.9 +/- 5.2%). 3. Overall there were no significant changes in instantaneous inward rectification or in Q-current inward relaxations. 4. In 18 out of 22 cells, outward currents, evoked by 0.5 s pulses to voltages > -50 and < -20 mV, were depressed by Crom (by 42 +/- 11%, for n = 22). Because this effect was consistently seen in Ca current-blocking media, containing either Mn and low Ca, or Cd (and also carbachol), the K channels depressed by Crom were probably of the delayed rectifier (IDR) type. 5. The Crom-control difference current (ICrom), obtained with slow depolarizing ramps, had a biphasic character, inward in the voltage (V) range > -50 < -20 mV (where outward currents are depressed by Crom) and tending outward for V > or = -20 mV. 6. In 10 out of 11 cells, Crom potentiated a D-like, slowly-inactivating outward current (by 88 +/- 31%, for n = 11).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7530570

  10. How to record a million synaptic weights in a hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2008-06-20

    A key step toward understanding the function of a brain circuit is to find its wiring diagram. New methods for optical stimulation and optical recording of neurons make it possible to map circuit connectivity on a very large scale. However, single synapses produce small responses that are difficult to measure on a large scale. Here I analyze how single synaptic responses may be detectable using relatively coarse readouts such as optical recording of somatic calcium. I model a network consisting of 10,000 input axons and 100 CA1 pyramidal neurons, each represented using 19 compartments with voltage-gated channels and calcium dynamics. As single synaptic inputs cannot produce a measurable somatic calcium response, I stimulate many inputs as a baseline to elicit somatic action potentials leading to a strong calcium signal. I compare statistics of responses with or without a single axonal input riding on this baseline. Through simulations I show that a single additional input shifts the distribution of the number of output action potentials. Stochastic resonance due to probabilistic synaptic release makes this shift easier to detect. With approximately 80 stimulus repetitions this approach can resolve up to 35% of individual activated synapses even in the presence of 20% recording noise. While the technique is applicable using conventional electrical stimulation and extracellular recording, optical methods promise much greater scaling, since the number of synapses scales as the product of the number of inputs and outputs. I extrapolate from current high-speed optical stimulation and recording methods, and show that this approach may scale up to the order of a million synapses in a single two-hour slice-recording experiment.

  11. Opposite modulation of 4-aminopyridine and hypoxic hyperexcitability by A1 and A2 adenosine receptor ligands in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Longo, R; Zeng, Y C; Sagratella, S

    1995-11-10

    The effects of the adenosine receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), and of the adenosine agonists N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA), and 2-[p-(carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosin e (CGS 21680) were investigated on the hyperexcitability induced in the CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices by hypoxia or the epileptogenic agent 4-aminopiridine. Slice perfusion with the mixed adenosine receptor agonist R-PIA (0.2 microM) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased: (i) the number of slices showing a transient CA1 epileptiform bursting during the hypoxic period; (ii) the duration of the hypoxia-induced epileptiform bursting. Conversely, slice perfusion with the selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonists DPCPX (0.2 microM) or with the selective A2 adenosine receptor agonist CGS 21680 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the number of slices showing a transient CA1 epileptiform bursting during the hypoxic period but did not affect the duration of the hypoxia-induced epileptiform bursting. Neither drug significantly affected the number of slices showing functional recovery after hypoxia. Slice perfusion with DPCPX (0.2 microM) also significantly increased (P < 0.05) the number of slices showing a persistent CA1 epileptiform bursting during the reoxygenation period, while the other drugs failed to affect it. Slice perfusion with the selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist CPA (2 microM) or R-PIA (5 microM) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the duration of the CA1 epileptiform bursting induced by 100 microM 4-aminopyridine. CGS 21680 (5 microM) perfused together with CPA (2 microM) significantly (P < 0.05) counteracted the inhibitory effects of the A1 adenosine receptor agonist on 4-aminopyridine epileptiform bursting, while it failed by itself to directly affect the 4-aminopyridine epileptiform bursting duration. The results produce evidence for a selective opposite modulation by A1 and A2 adenosine

  12. Regulating hippocampal hyperexcitability through GABAB Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Min; Moradi‐Chameh, Homeira; Zahid, Tariq; Gane, Jonathan; Wu, Chiping; Valiante, Taufik; Zhang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Disturbances of GABAergic inhibition are a major cause of epileptic seizures. GABA exerts its actions via ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic G protein‐coupled GABAB receptors. Malfunction of GABAA inhibition has long been recognized in seizure genesis but the role of GABAB receptors in controlling seizure activity is still not well understood. Here, we examined the anticonvulsive, or inhibitory effects, of GABAB receptors in a mouse model of hippocampal kindling as well as mouse hippocampal slices through the use of GS 39783, a positive allosteric GABAB receptor modulator, and CGP 55845, a selective GABAB receptor antagonist. When administered via intraperitoneal injections in kindled mice, GS 39783 (5 mg/kg) did not attenuate hippocampal EEG discharges, but did reduce aberrant hippocampal spikes, whereas CGP 55845 (10 mg/kg) prolonged hippocampal discharges and increased spike incidences. When examined in hippocampal slices, neither GS 39783 at 5 μmol/L nor the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen at 0.1 μmol/L alone significantly altered repetitive excitatory field potentials, but GS 39783 and baclofen together reversibly abolished these field potentials. In contrast, CGP 55845 at 1 μmol/L facilitated induction and incidence of these field potentials. In addition, CGP 55845 attenuated the paired pulse depression of CA3 population spikes and increased the frequency of EPSCs in individual CA3 pyramidal neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that GABABB receptors regulate hippocampal hyperexcitability by inhibiting CA3 glutamatergic synapses. We postulate that positive allosteric modulation of GABAB receptors may be effective in reducing seizure‐related hyperexcitability. PMID:24771688

  13. Electrogenic uptake contributes a major component of the depolarizing action of L-glutamate in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Frenguelli, B. G.; Blake, J. F.; Brown, M. W.; Collingridge, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. A grease-gap technique has been used to measure d.c. potentials, in response to the application of excitatory amino acids and electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway, in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. The actions of L-glutamate (L-Glu) have been quantified and compared to those of structurally related compounds. 2. Perfusion of L-Glu (90s applications) depolarized the tissue with a threshold of approximately 50 microM and a maximum response in excess of 10 mM. L-Aspartate (L-Asp) produced a similar dose-response relationship. By comparison N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) were more potent excitants, producing dose-dependent depolarizations over the range 2-50 microM. 3. Application of the agonists depressed the amplitude of electrically-evoked synaptic responses; an effect that presumably reflects depolarization of neuronal tissue. However, for a given agonist-induced d.c. potential. L-Glu or L-Asp caused smaller depressions of synaptic responses than did either NMDA or AMPA. 4. The combined application of 50 microM D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) and 10 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) substantially depressed synaptic responses and antagonized responses to NMDA and AMPA producing mean (+/- s.e.) dose-ratios of 12.2 +/- 1.2 and 7.0 +/- 0.8, respectively. However, these compounds produced minimal antagonism of responses to L-Glu and L-Asp (dose-ratios of 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 1.5 +/- 0.2, respectively). 5. Responses to the stereoisomers of homocysteate (HCA) were compared over the range 50 microM to 10 mM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1673070

  14. Controlled pulse delivery of electrical stimulation differentially reduces epileptiform activity in Mg2+-free-treated hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Albensi, Benedict C; Toupin, Justin D; Oikawa, Kensuke; Oliver, Derek R

    2008-08-21

    Electrical stimulation for applications in epilepsy has been attempted in multiple brain regions [corrected] using high- or low-frequency stimulation protocols. Data suggest that specific frequencies may have more benefit at controlling seizure activity. To this end, investigators have tested low-frequency stimulation (LFS) protocols (0.1 to 25 Hz) in both animal models and in human epileptic patients and reported reduced epileptiform synchronization, afterdischarge thresholds, and seizure activity in general. Collectively, these studies imply that LFS may have benefit in reducing epileptiform activity, however, the effectiveness of various electrical parameters still needs to be determined in specific targets. This study aimed to systematically control the total number of stimulation pulses when using primarily LFS protocols (0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25 Hz) delivered for the suppression of seizure-like activity in the hippocampal brain slice using a Mg2+-free model of epilepsy. Fifty Hz was also tested as a reference higher frequency protocol. Regulating the total number of pulses also controlled the amount of electrical work delivered. Of the LFS protocols tested, 0.5 Hz, and 1 Hz were optimal and significantly (p<0.05) reduced several measures of epileptiform activity. However, the higher frequency protocol, 50 Hz was similarly effective at significantly (p < 0.05) suppressing several aspects of epileptiform activity (but not for reduction of population-spike amplitude). The data show that these protocols, which had a controlled number of pulses differentially reduced epileptiform activity in our model where increasing the frequency of stimulation did not result in increased attenuation.

  15. Nodule excitability in an animal model of periventricular nodular heterotopia: c-fos activation in organotypic hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Doisy, Emily T.; Wenzel, H. Jürgen; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aberrations in brain development may lead to dysplasic structures such as periventricular nodules. While these abnormal collections of neurons are often associated with difficult-to-control seizure activity, there is little consensus regarding the epileptogenicity of the nodules themselves. Since one common treatment option is surgical resection of suspected epileptic nodules, it is important to determine whether these structures in fact give rise, or essentially contribute, to epileptic activities. Methods To study the excitability of aberrant nodules, we have examined c-fos activation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures generated from an animal model of periventricular nodular heterotopia created by treating pregnant rats with methylazoxymethanol. Using this preparation, we have also attempted to assess tissue excitability when the nodule is surgically removed from the culture. We then compared c-fos activation in this in vitro preparation to c-fos activation generated in an intact rat treated with kainic acid. Results Quantitative analysis of c-fos activation failed to show enhanced nodule excitability compared to neocortex or CA1 hippocampus. However, when we compared cultures with and without a nodule, presence of a nodule did affect the excitability of CA1 and cortex, at least as reflected in c-fos labeling. Surgical removal of the nodule did not result in a consistent decrease in excitability as reflected in the c-fos biomarker. Significance Our results from the organotypic culture were generally consistent with our observations on excitability in the intact rat – as seen not only with c-fos but also in previous electrophysiological studies. At least in this model, the nodule does not appear to be responsible for enhanced excitability (or, presumably, seizure initiation). Excitability is different in tissue that contains a nodule, suggesting altered network function, perhaps reflecting the abnormal developmental pattern that gave rise to

  16. Kindling induces transient fast inhibition in the dentate gyrus--CA3 projection.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R; Heinemann, U

    2001-04-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) send a strong glutamatergic projection, the mossy fibre tract, toward the hippocampal CA3 field, where it excites pyramidal cells and neighbouring inhibitory interneurons. Despite their excitatory nature, granule cells contain small amounts of GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), the main synthetic enzyme for the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy results in transient upregulation of GAD and GABA in granule cells, giving rise to the speculation that following overexcitation, mossy fibres exert an inhibitory effect by release of GABA. We therefore stimulated the DG and recorded synaptic potentials from CA3 pyramidal cells in brain slices from kindled and control rats. In both preparations, DG stimulation caused excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)/inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) sequences. These potentials could be completely blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists in control rats, while in the kindled rats, a bicuculline-sensitive fast IPSP remained, with an onset latency similar to that of the control EPSP. Interestingly, this IPSP disappeared 1 month after the last seizure. When synaptic responses were evoked by high-frequency stimulation, EPSPs in normal rats readily summate to evoke action potentials. In slices from kindled rats, a summation of IPSPs overrides that of the EPSPs and reduces the probability of evoking action potentials. Our data show for the first time that kindling induces functionally relevant activity-dependent expression of fast inhibition onto pyramidal cells, coming from the DG, that can limit CA3 excitation in a frequency-dependent manner.

  17. Estrogen induces rapid decrease in dendritic thorns of CA3 pyramidal neurons in adult male rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Mukai, Hideo

    2005-12-02

    Modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by estrogen has been attracting much attention. Thorns of thorny excrescences of CA3 hippocampal neurons are post-synaptic regions whose presynaptic partners are mossy fiber terminals. Here we demonstrated the rapid effect of estradiol on the density of thorns of thorny excrescences, by imaging Lucifer Yellow-injected CA3 neurons in adult male rat hippocampal slices. The application of 1 nM estradiol induced rapid decrease in the density of thorns on pyramidal neurons within 2 h. The estradiol-mediated decrease in the density of thorns was blocked by CNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist) and PD98059 (MAP kinase inhibitor), but not by MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist). ER{alpha} agonist PPT induced the same suppressive effect as that induced by estradiol on the density of thorns, but ER{beta} agonist DPN did not affect the density of thorns. Note that a 1 nM estradiol treatment did not affect the density of spines in the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens. A search for synaptic ER{alpha} was performed using purified RC-19 antibody. The localization of ER{alpha} (67 kDa) in the CA3 mossy fiber terminals and thorns was demonstrated using immunogold electron microscopy. These results imply that estradiol drives the signaling pathway including ER{alpha} and MAP kinase.

  18. β-Adrenoceptor activation depresses brain inflammation and is neuroprotective in lipopolysaccharide-induced sensitization to oxygen-glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation acting in synergy with brain ischemia aggravates perinatal ischemic brain damage. The sensitizing effect of pro-inflammatory exposure prior to hypoxia is dependent on signaling by TNF-α through TNF receptor (TNFR) 1. Adrenoceptor (AR) activation is known to modulate the immune response and synaptic transmission. The possible protective effect of α˜ and β˜AR activation against neuronal damage caused by tissue ischemia and inflammation, acting in concert, was evaluated in murine hippocampal organotypic slices treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequently subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Method Hippocampal slices from mice were obtained at P6, and were grown in vitro for 9 days on nitrocellulose membranes. Slices were treated with β1(dobutamine)-, β2(terbutaline)-, α1(phenylephrine)- and α2(clonidine)-AR agonists (5 and 50 μM, respectively) during LPS (1 μg/mL, 24 h) -exposure followed by exposure to OGD (15 min) in a hypoxic chamber. Cell death in the slice CA1 region was assessed by propidium iodide staining of dead cells. Results Exposure to LPS + OGD caused extensive cell death from 4 up to 48 h after reoxygenation. Co-incubation with β1-agonist (50 μM) during LPS exposure before OGD conferred complete protection from cell death (P < 0.001) whereas the β2-agonist (50 μM) was partially protective (p < 0.01). Phenylephrine was weakly protective while no protection was attained by clonidine. Exposure to both β1- and β2-agonist during LPS exposure decreased the levels of secreted TNF-α, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prevented microglia activation in the slices. Dobutamine remained neuroprotective in slices exposed to pure OGD as well as in TNFR1-/- and TNFR2-/- slices exposed to LPS followed by OGD. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that activation of both β1- and β2-receptors is neuroprotective and may offer mechanistic insights valuable for development of neuro-protective strategies

  19. The rostral migratory stream generates hippocampal CA1 pyramidal-like neurons in a novel organotypic slice co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Singec, Ilyas; Knoth, Rolf; Vida, Imre; Frotscher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) generates large numbers of neuroblasts, which migrate in a distinct pathway, the rostral migratory stream (RMS), and replace specific interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Here, we introduce an organotypic slice culture model that directly connects the RMS to the hippocampus as a new destination. RMS neuroblasts widely populate the hippocampus and undergo cellular differentiation. We demonstrate that RMS cells give rise to various neuronal subtypes and, surprisingly, to CA1 pyramidal neurons. Pyramidal neurons are typically generated before birth and are lost in various neurological disorders. Hence, this unique slice culture model enables us to investigate their postnatal genesis under defined in vitro conditions from the RMS, an unanticipated source for hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:26340944

  20. 17beta-Estradiol potentiates field excitatory postsynaptic potentials within each subfield of the hippocampus with greatest potentiation of the associational/commissural afferents of CA3.

    PubMed

    Kim, M T; Soussou, W; Gholmieh, G; Ahuja, A; Tanguay, A; Berger, T W; Brinton, R D

    2006-08-11

    We sought to determine the impact of 17beta-estradiol throughout the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway and to investigate the afferent fiber systems within CA1 and CA3 in detail. To achieve this objective, we utilized multielectrode arrays to simultaneously record the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1, dentate gyrus, and CA3 of rat hippocampal slices in the presence or absence of 100 pM 17beta-estradiol. We confirmed our earlier findings in CA1, where 17beta-estradiol significantly increased field excitatory postsynaptic potentials amplitude (20%+/-3%) and slope (22%+/-7%). 17beta-Estradiol significantly potentiated the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in dentate gyrus, amplitude (15%+/-4%) and slope (17%+/-5), and in CA3, amplitude (15%+/-4%) and slope (19%+/-5%). Using a high-density multielectrode array, we sought to determine the source of potentiation in CA1 and CA3 by determining the impact of 17beta-estradiol on the apical afferents and the basal afferents within CA1 and on the mossy fibers and the associational/commissural fibers within CA3. In CA1, 17beta-estradiol induced a modest increase in the amplitude (7%+/-2%) and slope (9%+/-3%) following apical stimulation with similar magnitude of increase following basal stimulation amplitude (10%+/-2%) and slope (12%+/-3%). In CA3, 17beta-estradiol augmented the mossy fiber amplitude (15%+/-3%) and slope (18%+/-6%) and the associational/commissural fiber amplitude (31%+/-13%) and slope (40%+/-15%). These results indicate that 17beta-estradiol potentiated synaptic transmission in each subfield of the hippocampal slice, with the greatest magnitude of potentiation at the associational/commissural fibers in CA3. 17beta-Estradiol regulation of CA3 responses provides a novel site of 17beta-estradiol action that corresponds to the density of estrogen receptors within the hippocampus. The implications of 17beta-estradiol potentiation of the field potential in each of the hippocampal subfields

  1. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    PubMed Central

    Belvindrah, Richard; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Francis, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24624057

  2. Mifepristone (RU486) inhibits lateral perforant path long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from prenatally morphine-exposed female rats.

    PubMed

    Velísek, Libor; Vathy, Ilona

    2005-11-01

    In brain slices from prenatally saline-exposed female rats during proestrus and diestrus, long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in the lateral perforant pathway (LPP). Prenatal morphine exposure suppresses LTP induction in the LPP during proestrus. Here we studied synaptic plasticity in the LPP in slices from female rats prenatally exposed to morphine. Two additional factors were investigated: the role of the estrous cycle and role of glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult, prenatally saline- or morphine-exposed female rats. One hour prior to decapitation, vaginal smears were obtained and the rats either in proestrus or diestrus were treated with a non-specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU486) or with a vehicle. LPP was stimulated with high-frequency stimulation. Short-tem plasticity (STP) and the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) were assessed. In all groups of prenatally saline-exposed rats, LTP was induced and maintained with the exception of RU486-treated rats during proestrus where the LTP was induced but not maintained. In prenatally morphine-exposed females in diestrus, both STP and LTP were induced after postnatal vehicle treatment. In morphine-exposed, proestrous females, neither STP nor LTP were induced irrespective of the postnatal treatment. Thus, prenatal morphine exposure suppresses the induction of LTP in the LPP, except during diestrus. Data indicate that the induction and maintenance of LTP in the LPP in hippocampal slices from female rats is multifactorial: ovarian steroids and functionality of glucocorticoid receptors cooperation are necessary for induction and maintenance of the LTP, prenatal morphine exposure interferes with this process possibly by its long-term effects on synaptic plasticity.

  3. Dissociation of CA3 pyramidal cells with attached, functional, identified mossy fiber and interneuronal boutons for studying glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Jesús Q; Reyes, Sebastián; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Viñas, David; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2012-07-15

    Pyramidal cells of CA3 area receive glutamatergic signals from the mossy fibers (MFs), perforant path and collaterals of other pyramidal cells, as well as GABAergic inputs from interneurons. In hippocampal slices, an extracellular stimulation electrode is often used to activate the MFs, with the disadvantage of possibly activating fibers other than MFs. We set-up a preparation that allows the analysis of the glutamatergic input from identified, giant MF boutons as well as of GABAergic inputs from boutons of interneurons on single CA3 pyramidal cells. Mossy fiber boutons were labeled by exposing hippocampal slices to a zinc-reactive fluorescent dye, or by injecting a fluorescent dye in the granule cell layer and allowing its transport along the MFs to their terminals in CA3 area. After conducting an enzyme-free, mechanical dissociation of CA3 area, we obtained pyramidal cells containing fluorescent, giant MF boutons attached to their apical dendrites, as well as boutons of interneuronal origin. Whole cell recordings were then performed, whereby synaptic responses could be evoked by selective stimulation of the identified boutons. The synaptic currents evoked by stimulation of MF boutons, unlike those evoked by stimulation of interneuronal boutons, underwent strong frequency potentiation and were depressed by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which are characteristics of transmission of MF origin. Combination of fluorophores can be used to label different tracts/boutons allowing the study of the different characteristics of neurotransmitter release from a variety of sources on single target cells.

  4. Paired Burst Stimulation Causes GABAA Receptor-Dependent Spike Firing Facilitation in CA1 of Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Takashi; Tominaga, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    The theta oscillation (4–8 Hz) is a pivotal form of oscillatory activity in the hippocampus that is intermittently concurrent with gamma (25–100 Hz) burst events. In in vitro preparation, a stimulation protocol that mimics the theta oscillation, theta burst stimulation (TBS), is used to induce long-term potentiation. Thus, TBS is thought to have a distinct role in the neural network of the hippocampal slice preparation. However, the specific mechanisms that make TBS induce such neural circuit modifications are still unknown. Using electrophysiology and voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI), we have found that TBS induces augmentation of spike firing. The augmentation was apparent in the first couple of brief burst stimulation (100 Hz four pulses) on a TBS-train in a presence of NMDA receptor blocker (APV 50 μM). In this study, we focused on the characterizes of the NMDA independent augmentation caused by a pair of the brief burst stimulation (the first pair of the TBS; paired burst stimulation-PBS). We found that PBS enhanced membrane potential responses on VSDI signal and intracellular recordings while it was absent in the current recording under whole-cell clamp condition. The enhancement of the response accompanied the augmentation of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) to spike firing (E-S) coupling. The paired burst facilitation (PBF) reached a plateau when the number of the first burst stimulation (priming burst) exceeds three. The interval between the bursts of 150 ms resulted in the maximum PBF. Gabazine (a GABAA receptor antagonist) abolished PBF. The threshold for spike generation of the postsynaptic cells measured with a current injection to cells was not lowered by the priming burst of PBS. These results indicate that PBS activates the GABAergic system to cause short-term E-S augmentation without raising postsynaptic excitability. We propose that a GABAergic system of area CA1 of the hippocampus produce the short-term E-S plasticity that could

  5. Development of GABA-mediated, chloride-dependent inhibition in CA1 pyramidal neurones of immature rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Spigelman, I; Carlen, P L

    1991-01-01

    1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated, Cl(-)-dependent inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and GABA currents in immature rat hippocampal CA1 neurones were studied using the whole-cell recording technique in brain slices. 2. IPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation were observed in postnatal 2- to 5- (PN2-5), 8- to 13-(PN8-13) and 15- to 20-(PN15-20)day-old CA1 neurones. In the presence of glutamate receptor blockers 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), the reversal potential for the IPSP (EIPSP) was near the resting membrane potential (RMP) in the PN2-5 neurones, but 13 and 25 mV more negative than the RMP in PN8-13 and PN15-20 neurones respectively. IPSPs and GABA currents were blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonists bicuculline or picrotoxin. 3. The reversal potential for somatic GABA currents (EGABA) was examined in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). There was a strong dependence of the EGABA upon the patch pipette [Cl-] ([Cl-]p). indicating that the GABA currents were mediated by a Cl- conductance. In PN2-5 neurones, EGABA agreed with the value predicted by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation at given concentrations of internal and external anions permeable through GABA-activated Cl- channels, whereas EGABA in older neurones was 8-18 mV more negative. 4. Examination of the relations between EGABA, holding potential, [Cl-]p and resting conductance indicated that the membrane of the PN2-5 neurones was readily permeable to Cl- which followed a passive Donnan equilibrium. Passive distribution of Cl- played a decreasing role in PN8-13 neurones and in PN15-20 neurones. 5. To assess the contribution of outward Cl- co-transport, bath applications of high K+ or furosemide were performed. High K+ and furosemide caused a reversible positive shift of EGABA in PN15-20 neurones. Raising the temperature moved EGABA to a more negative potential, with a Q10 of 5 mV. A similar change of EGABA in response to high K

  6. Postsynaptic potentials mediated by excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in interneurons of stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, J C

    1991-11-01

    1. Because interneurons of stratum pyramidale partly mediate the feed-forward inhibition of pyramidal cells, intracellular postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by activation of afferent fibers were examined in 32 nonpyramidal cells of stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. 2. Electrical stimulation of stratum radiatum at the CA1-CA3 border elicited, in interneurons, PSPs that were composed of four components: a fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), an early inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSPA), a late IPSPB, and in some cells a delayed, slower EPSP. These synaptic potentials summated and elicited single action potentials in 57% of cells (17/30) and burst of action potentials (2-10) in the remaining 43%. 3. The fast EPSP was observed in all cells, and the mean stimulation intensity at its threshold was 53.4 microA. Its amplitude increased with membrane hyperpolarization, and it was associated with a 45.4% decrease in cellular input resistance. The fast EPSP always elicited an action potential at short latencies (3.6-6.4 ms poststimulation). It was reversibly reduced by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3- dione (CNQX), a blocker of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) excitatory amino acid receptors. 4. The IPSPA was observed in 28/32 cells, and the mean intensity of stimulation was 57.6 microA at its threshold. The mean latency of its peak amplitude was 17.4 ms. The mean equilibrium potential (Erev) was -72.8 mV, and it was associated with a 38.9% decrease in cellular input resistance. IPSPA was blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. 5. The IPSPB was seen in 29/32 cells, and the mean intensity of stimulation at its threshold was 80.3 microA. Its latency to peak was 130.6 ms, its Erev was -107.6 mV, and it was associated with a small (7.6%) decrease in cellular input resistance. IPSPB was blocked by the GABAB antagonist phaclofen. 6. In 11/32 cells a slower EPSP was also observed. Its mean latency to peak was 53.3 ms, and the

  7. Induction of c-fos mRNA expression in an in vitro hippocampal slice model of adult rats after kainate but not gamma-aminobutyric acid or bicuculline treatment.

    PubMed

    Massamiri, T; Khrestchatisky, M; Ben-Ari, Y

    1994-01-17

    Levels of gene expression following in vitro treatment of rat hippocampal slices with kainate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), or bicuculline were measured by the reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction method. Following a short-term exposure to kainate, c-fos gene expression was induced by 12-fold in the adult, but not the newborn, hippocampus. Under the same experimental conditions, zifl268 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression were unchanged. Our results also demonstrate a lack of induction of c-fos, zifl268 and BDNF after short-time treatment of either adult or newborn hippocampal slices with GABA or bicuculline. The relevance of the differential induction of gene expression in the adult and newborn in an in vitro hippocampal slice model as compared to previously described in vivo models is discussed.

  8. An ID-like current that is downregulated by Ca2+ modulates information coding at CA3-CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Cherubini, Enrico

    2003-10-15

    Voltage-gated K+ channels localised on presynaptic nerve terminals control information coding by modulating presynaptic firing and synaptic efficacy in target neurones. We found that at CA3-CA3 connections in hippocampal slice cultures, a fast-activating, slowly inactivating K+ conductance similar to the so-called delay current (ID) is responsible for the delayed appearance of the first spike upon membrane depolarisation, for action potential repolarisation and for modulation of transmitter release. The ID-like current was downregulated by intracellular Ca2+, as indicated by the increased delay in the appearance of the first action potential following either the block of Ca2+ flux through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels with Cd2+ or replacement of the bathing solution with one devoid of Ca2+. In both cases, this effect was reversed by blocking this conductance with a low concentration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 10-50 muM). Application of 4-AP shortened the delay to the first spike generation, prevented the effect of Cd2+ and increased the spike duration. The earlier appearance of the first action potential was also observed in the presence of dendrotoxin-1 (100 nM). In voltage-clamp experiments larger currents were recorded in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, thus confirming the downregulation of the ID-like current by Ca2+ due to the positive shift of its inactivation. Spike broadening was associated with an enhancement of synaptic efficacy in target neurones, as assessed by the increase in EPSC amplitude and in the percentage of successes. Moreover, in the presence of 4-AP, EPSCs appeared with a longer latency and were more scattered. This conductance is therefore crucial for setting the timing and strength of synaptic transmission at CA3-CA3 connections. It is conceivable that switching off ID by increasing intracellular Ca2+ following activity-dependent processes may facilitate network synchronisation and crosstalk between CA3 pyramidal cells, leading to

  9. Effect of ageing on CA3 interneuron sAHP and gamma oscillations is activity-dependent.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng B; Hamilton, James B; Powell, Andrew D; Toescu, Emil C; Vreugdenhil, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Normal ageing-associated spatial memory impairment has been linked to subtle changes in the hippocampal network. Here we test whether the age-dependent reduction in gamma oscillations can be explained by the changes in intrinsic properties of hippocampal interneurons. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations, but not spontaneous gamma oscillations, were reduced in slices from aged mice. CA3 interneurons were recorded in slices from young and aged mice using Fura-2-filled pipettes. Passive membrane properties, firing properties, medium- and slow-afterhyperpolarisation amplitudes, basal [Ca(2+)](i) and firing-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients were not different with ageing. Kainate caused a larger depolarisation and increase in [Ca(2+)](i) signal in aged interneurons than in young ones. In contrast to young interneurons, kainate increased the medium- and slow-afterhyperpolarisation and underlying [Ca(2+)](i) transient in aged interneurons. Modulating the slow-afterhyperpolarisation by modulating L-type calcium channels with BAY K 8644 and nimodipine suppressed and potentiated, respectively, kainate-induced gamma oscillations in young slices. The age-dependent and stimulation-dependent increase in basal [Ca(2+)](i), firing-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient and associated afterhyperpolarisation may reduce interneuron excitability and contribute to an age-dependent impairment of hippocampal gamma oscillations.

  10. Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Norris, Christopher M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Roberts, Kelly N; Ansari, Mubeen; Scheff, Stephen W

    2016-02-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC) is a patented mix of bioflavonoids with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we showed that PYC administration to rats within hours after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury significantly protects against the loss of several synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effects of PYC on CA3-CA1 synaptic function following CCI. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received an ipsilateral CCI injury followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of saline vehicle or PYC (10 mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from the injured (ipsilateral) and uninjured (contralateral) hemispheres were prepared at seven and fourteen days post-CCI for electrophysiological analyses of CA3-CA1 synaptic function and induction of long-term depression (LTD). Basal synaptic strength was impaired in slices from the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hemisphere at seven days post-CCI and susceptibility to LTD was enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere at both post-injury timepoints. No interhemispheric differences in basal synaptic strength or LTD induction were observed in rats treated with PYC. The results show that PYC preserves synaptic function after CCI and provides further rationale for investigating the use of PYC as a therapeutic in humans suffering from neurotrauma.

  11. Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sompol, Pradoldej; Roberts, Kelly N.; Ansari, Mubeen

    2015-01-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC) is a patented mix of bioflavonoids with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we showed that PYC administration to rats within hours after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury significantly protects against the loss of several synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effects of PYC on CA3-CA1 synaptic function following CCI. Adult Sprague Dawley rats received an ipsilateral CCI injury followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of saline vehicle or PYC (10mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from the injured (ipsilateral) and uninjured (contralateral) hemispheres were prepared at seven and fourteen days post-CCI for electrophysiological analyses of CA3-CA1 synaptic function and induction of long-term depression (LTD). Basal synaptic strength was impaired in slices from the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hemisphere at seven days post-CCI and susceptibility to LTD was enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere at both post-injury timepoints. No interhemispheric differences in basal synaptic strength or LTD induction were observed in rats treated with PYC. The results show that PYC preserves synaptic function after CCI and provides further rationale for investigating the use of PYC as a therapeutic in humans suffering from neurotrauma. PMID:26607913

  12. BK potassium channels control transmitter release at CA3CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Pedarzani, Paola; Cherubini, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    Large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK channels) activate in response to calcium influx during action potentials and contribute to the spike repolarization and fast afterhyperpolarization. BK channels targeted to active zones in presynaptic nerve terminals have been shown to limit calcium entry and transmitter release by reducing the duration of the presynaptic spike at neurosecretory nerve terminals and at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, their functional role in central synapses is still uncertain. In the hippocampus, BK channels have been proposed to act as an ‘emergency brake’ that would control transmitter release only under conditions of excessive depolarization and accumulation of intracellular calcium. Here we demonstrate that in the CA3 region of hippocampal slice cultures, under basal experimental conditions, the selective BK channel blockers paxilline (10 μm) and iberiotoxin (100 nm) increase the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneously occurring action potential-dependent EPSCs. These drugs did not affect miniature currents recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting that their action was dependent on action potential firing. Moreover, in double patch-clamp recordings from monosynaptically interconnected CA3 pyramidal neurones, blockade of BK channels enhanced the probability of transmitter release, as revealed by the increase in success rate, EPSC amplitude and the concomitant decrease in paired-pulse ratio in response to pairs of presynaptic action potentials delivered at a frequency of 0.05 Hz. BK channel blockers also enhanced the appearance of delayed responses, particularly following the second action potential in the paired-pulse protocol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BK channels are powerful modulators of transmitter release and synaptic efficacy in central neurones. PMID:15034127

  13. OLM interneurons are transiently recruited into field gamma oscillations evoked by brief kainate pressure ejections onto area CA1 in mice hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Kipiani, E

    2009-02-01

    Oscillations (30-100 Hz) are correlated with the cognitive functions of the brain. In the hippocampus interactions between perisomatic and trilaminar interneurons with pyramidal cells are thought to underlie generation of field gamma oscillations. In area CA3 OLM interneurons receive synaptic input in gamma range but generate action potential (AP) output in theta band and are involved in theta oscillations synchronized along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. In slice preparations of CA3 area the spike timing of OLM cells could be modulated by carbachole induced gamma oscillations, although their firing rates are limited to theta frequency. Normally, OLM interneurons are somatostatin positive cells. In this study we tested whether parvalbumin (PV) containing OLM interneurons in area CA1 limit AP output during kainate pressure ejection also to theta frequency. We used focal short applications of kainate in area CA1 to induce filed gamma oscillations with an average frequency of about 44.7+/-4.4 Hz. The duration of field gamma was on average 8.9+/-3.5 s. During such oscillations CA1 PV positive OLM interneurons of mice hippocampus received excitatory synaptic input at gamma frequency. Moreover, their AP output was in gamma range as well. Thus, we show that beside the somatostatin containing OLM interneurons, which generate theta rhythm there are PV containing OLM cells, which could synchronize the distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells to the field gamma oscillations.

  14. Atorvastatin prevents cell damage via modulation of oxidative stress, glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity in hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen/glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Martins, Wagner C; Bertoldo, Daniela B; Mancini, Gianni; Herculano, Bruno A; de Bem, Andreza F; Tasca, Carla I

    2013-06-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in brain cells increases extracellular glutamate concentration leading to excitotoxicity. Glutamate uptake from the synaptic cleft is carried out by glutamate transporters, which are likely to be modulated by oxidative stress. Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with reduced activity of glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase, thus increasing extracellular glutamate levels that may aggravate damage to brain cells. Atorvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering agent, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate if in vivo atorvastatin treatment would have protective effects against hippocampal slices subjected to OGD, ex vivo. Atorvastatin pretreatment promoted increased cell viability after OGD and reoxygenation of hippocampal slices. Atorvastatin-induced neuroprotection may be related to diminished oxidative stress, since it prevented OGD-induced decrement of non-proteic thiols (NPSH) levels and increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Atorvastatin pretreatment also prevented the OGD-induced decrease in glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity, although it had no effect on OGD-induced excitatory aminoacids release. Addition of cholesterol before OGD and reoxygenation, abolished the protective effect of atorvastatin on cellular viability as well as on glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity. Therefore, atorvastatin is capable of preventing OGD-induced cell death, an effect achieved due to modulation of glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity, and associated with diminished oxidative stress. Additionally, atorvastatin effects were dependent on its action on cholesterol synthesis inhibition. Thus, atorvastatin might be a useful strategy in the prevention of glutamate exitotoxicity involved in brain injuries such as vascular disorders.

  15. Hippocampal excitability increases during the estrous cycle in the rat: a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; Mercurio, Thomas C; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Wilson, Marlene A; MacLusky, Neil J

    2003-12-17

    To test the hypothesis that induction of BDNF may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability occurring during the female reproductive cycle, we examined the distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity and changes in CA1 and CA3 electrophysiology across the estrous cycle in rats. Hippocampal BDNF immunoreactivity increased on the day of proestrus as well as on the following morning (estrus), relative to metestrus or ovariectomized animals. Changes in immunoreactivity were clearest in mossy fiber axons of dentate gyrus granule cells, which contain the highest concentration of BDNF. Increased immunoreactivity was also apparent in the neuropil-containing dendrites of CA1 and CA3 neurons. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices showed robust cycle-dependent differences. Evoked responses of CA1 neurons to Schaffer collateral stimulation changed over the cycle, with larger maximum responses at both proestrus and estrus relative to metestrus. In area CA3, repetitive hilar stimuli frequently evoked multiple population spikes at proestrus and estrus but only rarely at other cycle stages, and never in slices of ovariectomized rats. Hyperexcitability in area CA3 at proestrus was blocked by exposure to the high-affinity neurotrophin receptor antagonist K252a, or an antagonist of the alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, whereas it was induced at metestrus by the addition of BDNF to hippocampal slices. These studies suggest that hippocampal BDNF levels change across the estrous cycle, accompanied by neurophysiological responses that resemble the effects of BDNF treatment. An estrogen-induced interaction of BDNF and alpha7 nicotinic receptors on mossy fibers seems responsible for estrous cycle changes in area CA3. Periovulatory changes in hippocampal function may, thus, involve estrogen-induced increases in BDNF expression.

  16. Time-lapse imaging reveals highly dynamic structural maturation of postnatally born dentate granule cells in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Tijana; Jungenitz, Tassilo; Singer, Mathias; Beining, Marcel; Cuntz, Hermann; Vlachos, Andreas; Deller, Thomas; Schwarzacher, Stephan W.

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells (GCs) persists throughout mammalian life and is important for learning and memory. How newborn GCs differentiate and mature into an existing circuit during this time period is not yet fully understood. We established a method to visualize postnatally generated GCs in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures (OTCs) using retroviral (RV) GFP-labeling and performed time-lapse imaging to study their morphological development in vitro. Using anterograde tracing we could, furthermore, demonstrate that the postnatally generated GCs in OTCs, similar to adult born GCs, grow into an existing entorhino-dentate circuitry. RV-labeled GCs were identified and individual cells were followed for up to four weeks post injection. Postnatally born GCs exhibited highly dynamic structural changes, including dendritic growth spurts but also retraction of dendrites and phases of dendritic stabilization. In contrast, older, presumably prenatally born GCs labeled with an adeno-associated virus (AAV), were far less dynamic. We propose that the high degree of structural flexibility seen in our preparations is necessary for the integration of newborn granule cells into an already existing neuronal circuit of the dentate gyrus in which they have to compete for entorhinal input with cells generated and integrated earlier. PMID:28256620

  17. Evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms in the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 on the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Seto, David; Kar, Satyabrata; Quirion, Rémi

    1997-01-01

    The biphasic nature of the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by use of brain slice superfusion.Both the potentiating (10−13 M) and inhibitory (10−9 M) effects of IL-2 on hippocampal ACh release were stimulation-dependent and were blocked by a neutralizing IL-2 receptor antibody, suggesting the activation of typical IL-2 receptors in both cases.Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) failed to block the potentiation of ACh release induced by a very low concentration of IL-2 (10−13M) suggesting a direct effect on cholinergic nerve terminals.In contrast, the inhibitory effect seen at a higher concentration (10−9 M) was TTX-sensitive, and hence indicative of an indirect action.To establish the nature of this intermediate mediator, blockers of nitric oxide synthesis, and of opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were used. Only GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists altered the inhibitory action of IL-2, suggesting the participation of GABA as mediator.Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the potent role of IL-2 in the modulation of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus. PMID:9134229

  18. Slow synaptic transmission mediated by TRPV1 channels in CA3 interneurons of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Noriomi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Sora, Ichiro; Mori, Masahiro

    2016-03-11

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate various neuronal functions in the central nervous system. Many studies reported that mGluRs have linkages to neuronal disorders such as schizophrenia and autism related disorders, indicating that mGluRs are involved in critical functions of the neuronal circuits. To study this possibility further, we recorded mGluR-induced synaptic responses in the interneurons of the CA3 stratum radiatum using rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Electrical stimulation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer evoked a slow inward current in the interneurons at a holding potential of -70mV in the presence of antagonists for AMPA/kainate receptors, NMDA receptors, GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. The slow inward current was blocked in the absence of extracellular calcium, suggesting that this was a synaptic response. The slow excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) reversed near 0mV, reflecting an increase in a non-selective cationic conductance. The slow EPSC is mediated by group I mGluRs, as it was blocked by AP3, a group I mGluR antagonist. Neither a calcium chelator BAPTA nor a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 affected the slow EPSC. La(3+), a general TRP channel blocker or capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 channel antagonist significantly suppressed the slow EPSC. DHPG, a selective group I mGluRs agonist induced an inward current, which was suppressed by capsazepine. These results indicate that in the interneurons of the hippocampal CA3 stratum radiatum group I mGluRs activate TRPV1 channels independently of PLC and intracellular Ca(2+), resulting in the slow EPSC in the interneurons.

  19. TWIK-1 and TREK-1 are potassium channels contributing significantly to astrocyte passive conductance in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Xu, Guangjin; Xie, Minjie; Zhang, Xuexin; Schools, Gary P; Ma, Liqun; Kimelberg, Harold K; Chen, Haijun

    2009-07-01

    Expression of a linear current-voltage (I-V) relationship (passive) K(+) membrane conductance is a hallmark of mature hippocampal astrocytes. However, the molecular identifications of the K(+) channels underlying this passive conductance remain unknown. We provide the following evidence supporting significant contribution of the two-pore domain K(+) channel (K(2P)) isoforms, TWIK-1 and TREK-1, to this conductance. First, both passive astrocytes and the cloned rat TWIK-1 and TREK-1 channels expressed in CHO cells conduct significant amounts of Cs(+) currents, but vary in their relative P(Cs)/P(K) permeability, 0.43, 0.10, and 0.05, respectively. Second, quinine, which potently inhibited TWIK-1 (IC(50) = 85 microm) and TREK-1 (IC(50) = 41 microm) currents, also inhibited astrocytic passive conductance by 58% at a concentration of 200 microm. Third, a moderate sensitivity of passive conductance to low extracellular pH (6.0) supports a combined expression of acid-insensitive TREK-1, and to a lesser extent, acid-sensitive TWIK-1. Fourth, the astrocyte passive conductance showed low sensitivity to extracellular Ba(2+), and extracellular Ba(2+) blocked TWIK-1 channels at an IC(50) of 960 microm and had no effect on TREK-1 channels. Finally, an immunocytochemical study showed colocalization of TWIK-1 and TREK-1 proteins with the astrocytic markers GLAST and GFAP in rat hippocampal stratum radiatum. In contrast, another K(2P) isoform TASK-1 was mainly colocalized with the neuronal marker NeuN in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and was expressed at a much lower level in astrocytes. These results support TWIK-1 and TREK-1 as being the major components of the long-sought K(+) channels underlying the passive conductance of mature hippocampal astrocytes.

  20. Impaired K+ Homeostasis and Altered Electrophysiological Properties of Post-Traumatic Hippocampal Glia

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambrosio, Raimondo; Maris, Donald O.; Grady, M. Sean; Winn, H. Richard; Janigro, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with memory impairment, cognitive deficits, or seizures, all of which can reflect altered hippocampal function. Whereas previous studies have focused on the involvement of neuronal loss in post-traumatic hippocampus, there has been relatively little understanding of changes in ionic homeostasis, failure of which can result in neuronal hyperexcitability and abnormal synchronization. Because glia play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the brain microenvironment, we investigated the effects of TBI on rat hippocampal glia. Using a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model and patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal slices, we have found impaired glial physiology 2 d after FPI. Electrophysiologically, we observed reduction in transient outward and inward K+ currents. To assess the functional consequences of these glial changes, field potentials and extracellular K+ activity were recorded in area CA3 during antidromic stimulation. An abnormal extracellular K+ accumulation was observed in the post-traumatic hippocampal slices, accompanied by the appearance of CA3 afterdischarges. After pharmacological blockade of excitatory synapses and of K+ inward currents, uninjured slices showed the same altered K+ accumulation in the absence of abnormal neuronal activity. We suggest that TBI causes loss of K+ conductance in hippocampal glia that results in the failure of glial K+ homeostasis, which in turn promotes abnormal neuronal function. These findings provide a new potential mechanistic link between traumatic brain injury and subsequent development of disorders such as memory loss, cognitive decline, seizures, and epilepsy. PMID:10479715

  1. The Role of Protein Synthesis and Monoamines in the Production of Long-Term Potentiation in the Rat Hippocampal Slice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    slices. Dingledine, R. ed., Plenum Press, N~Y. pp.145-147. Haas, H.L. and Konnerth, A. (1983) Histamine and noradrenaline decrease calcium-activated...that ~1- receptor stimulation of adenylate cyclase is probably the mechanism of NE’s action in the production of LTP in the dentate. These results...pharmacologic data support the conclusion that both phases of NE-induced potentiation are produced by e1- receptor stimulation of adenylate cyclase. This

  2. Slow feedback inhibition in the CA3 area of the rat hippocampus by synergistic synaptic activation of mGluR1 and mGluR5.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Gerber, Urs

    2002-11-01

    Interneurons are critical in regulating the excitability of principal cells in neuronal circuits, thereby modulating the output of neuronal networks. We investigated synaptically evoked inhibitory responses in CA3 pyramidal cells mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed somatodendritically by interneurons. Although pharmacological activation of mGluRs in interneurons has been shown to enhance their excitability, the inability to record mGluR-mediated synaptic responses has precluded detailed characterization of mGluR function in hippocampal interneurons. We found that a single extracellular pulse in CA3 stratum pyramidale was sufficient to induce disynaptic inhibitory responses mediated by postsynaptic mGluRs of the interneurons in CA3 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slice cultures. The disynaptic inhibitory response followed a short-latency monosynaptic inhibitory response, and was observed at stimulus intensities evoking half-maximal monosynaptic IPSCs. Synergistic activation of mGluR1 and mGluR5 was required to induce the full inhibitory response. When recordings were obtained from interneurons in CA3 stratum radiatum or stratum oriens, a single extracellular stimulus induced a slow inward cationic current with a time course corresponding to the slow inhibitory response measured in pyramidal cells. DCG IV, a group II mGluR agonist, which specifically blocks synaptic transmission through mossy fibres, had no effect on mGluR-mediated synaptic responses in interneurons, suggesting that feed-forward inhibition via mossy fibres is not involved. Thus, postsynaptic mGluR1 and mGluR5 in hippocampal interneurons cooperatively mediate slow feedback inhibition of CA3 pyramidal cells. This mechanism may allow interneurons to monitor activity levels from populations of neighbouring principal cells to adapt inhibitory tone to the state of the network.

  3. Recovery of Syrian hamster hippocampal signaling following its depression during oxygen-glucose deprivation is enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Mack, Jacob; Vitagliano, Nicholas; Hamilton, Jock S; Horowitz, John M; Horwitz, Barbara A

    2016-05-16

    Signal transmission over a hippocampal network of CA3 and CA1 neurons in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), facultative hibernators, has not been fully characterized in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We hypothesized that during OGD, hippocampal signal transmission fails first at the synapse between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons and that recovery of signal processing following OGD is more robust in hippocampal slices at cold temperature, from hamsters vs. rats, and from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters. To test these hypotheses, we recorded fEPSPs and population spikes of CA1 neurons at 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C in 400μm slices over a 15min control period with the slice in oxygenated aCSF containing glucose (control solution), a 10min treatment period (OGD insult) where oxygen was replaced by nitrogen in aCSF lacking glucose, and a 30min recovery period with the slice in the control solution. The initial site of transmission failure during OGD occurred at the CA3-CA1 synapse, and recovery of signal transmission was at least, if not more (depending on temperature), complete in slices from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters, and from non-hibernating hamsters vs. rats. Thus, hamster neuroprotective mechanisms supporting functional recovery were enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of progressive neuronal changes in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqiang; Song, Yu; Dryer, Alexandra; Cogguillo, William; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zhou, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional tissue cultures have been used as effective models for studying different diseases, including epilepsy. High-throughput, nondestructive techniques are essential for rapid assessment of disease-related processes, such as progressive cell death. An ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy (UHR-OCM) system with [Formula: see text] axial resolution and [Formula: see text] transverse resolution was developed to evaluate seizure-induced neuronal injury in organotypic rat hippocampal cultures. The capability of UHR-OCM to visualize cells in neural tissue was confirmed by comparison of UHR-OCM images with confocal immunostained images of the same cultures. In order to evaluate the progression of neuronal injury, UHR-OCM images were obtained from cultures on 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in vitro (DIVs). In comparison to DIV 7, statistically significant reductions in three-dimensional cell count and culture thickness from UHR-OCM images were observed on subsequent time points. In cultures treated with kynurenic acid, significantly less reduction in cell count and culture thickness was observed compared to the control specimens. These results demonstrate the capability of UHR-OCM to perform rapid, label-free, and nondestructive evaluation of neuronal death in organotypic hippocampal cultures. UHR-OCM, in combination with three-dimensional tissue cultures, can potentially prove to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of drugs targeting various disorders.

  5. Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Huguenard, John R.; Buckmaster, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    One potential mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy is recurrent excitation of dentate granule cells through aberrant sprouting of their axons (mossy fibers), which is found in many patients and animal models. However, correlations between the extent of mossy fiber sprouting and seizure frequency are weak. Additional potential sources of granule cell recurrent excitation that would not have been detected by markers of mossy fiber sprouting in previous studies include surviving mossy cells and proximal CA3 pyramidal cells. To test those possibilities in hippocampal slices from epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats, laser scanning glutamate uncaging was used to randomly and focally activate neurons in the granule cell layer, hilus, and proximal CA3 pyramidal cell layer while measuring evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in normotopic granule cells. Consistent with mossy fiber sprouting, a higher proportion of glutamate-uncaging spots in the granule cell layer evoked EPSCs in epileptic rats compared to controls. In addition, stimulation spots in the hilus and proximal CA3 pyramidal cell layer were more likely to evoke EPSCs in epileptic rats, despite significant neuron loss in those regions. Furthermore, synaptic strength of recurrent excitatory inputs to granule cells from CA3 pyramidal cells and other granule cells was increased in epileptic rats. These findings reveal substantial levels of excessive, recurrent, excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from neurons in the hilus and proximal CA3 field. The aberrant development of these additional positive-feedback circuits might contribute to epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22279204

  6. The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 enhances neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat CA1 hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, AM; Traini, C; Cipriani, S; Gianfriddo, M; Mello, T; Giovannini, MG; Galli, A; Pedata, F

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of adenosine A2A receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), a model of cerebral ischaemia, was investigated. Experimental approach: We made extracellular recordings of CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fepsps) followed by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques coupled to Western blots. Key results: OGD (7 or 30 min duration) elicited an irreversible loss of fepsps invariably followed by the appearance of anoxic depolarization (AD), an unambiguous sign of neuronal damage. The application of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-amino-2-{2-furyl}{1,2,4}triazolo{2,3-a}{1,3,5}triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol; 100–500 nmol·L−1) prevented or delayed AD appearance induced by 7 or 30 min OGD and protected from the irreversible fepsp depression elicited by 7 min OGD. Two different selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, SCH58261 and SCH442416, were less effective than ZM241385 during 7 min OGD. The extent of CA1 cell injury was assessed 3 h after the end of 7 min OGD by propidium iodide. Substantial CA1 pyramidal neuronal damage occurred in untreated slices, exposed to OGD, whereas injury was significantly prevented by 100 nmol·L−1 ZM241385. Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunostaining showed that 3 h after 7 min OGD, astrogliosis was appreciable. Western blot analysis indicated an increase in GFAP 30 kDa fragment which was significantly reduced by treatment with 100 nmol·L−1 ZM241385. Conclusions and implications: In the CA1 hippocampus, antagonism of A2A adenosine receptors by ZM241385 was protective during OGD (a model of cerebral ischaemia) by delaying AD appearance, decreasing astrocyte activation and improving neuronal survival. PMID:19422385

  7. Guanosine is neuroprotective against oxygen/glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices via large conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels, phosphatidilinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway activation and glutamate uptake.

    PubMed

    Dal-Cim, T; Martins, W C; Santos, A R S; Tasca, C I

    2011-06-02

    Guanine derivatives (GD) have been implicated in many relevant brain extracellular roles, such as modulation of glutamate transmission and neuronal protection against excitotoxic damage. GD are spontaneously released to the extracellular space from cultured astrocytes and during oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). The aim of this study has been to evaluate the potassium channels and phosphatidilinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway involvement in the mechanisms related to the neuroprotective role of guanosine in rat hippocampal slices subjected to OGD. The addition of guanosine (100 μM) to hippocampal slices subjected to 15 min of OGD and followed by 2 h of re-oxygenation is neuroprotective. The presence of K+ channel blockers, glibenclamide (20 μM) or apamin (300 nM), revealed that neuroprotective effect of guanosine was not dependent on ATP-sensitive K+ channels or small conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels. The presence of charybdotoxin (100 nM), a large conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channel (BK) blocker, inhibited the neuroprotective effect of guanosine. Hippocampal slices subjected to OGD and re-oxygenation showed a significant reduction of glutamate uptake. Addition of guanosine in the re-oxygenation period has blocked the reduction of glutamate uptake. This guanosine effect was inhibited when hippocampal slices were pre-incubated with charybdotoxin or wortmanin (a PI3K inhibitor, 1 μM) in the re-oxygenation period. Guanosine promoted an increase in Akt protein phosphorylation. However, the presence of charybdotoxin blocked such effect. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effect of guanosine involves augmentation of glutamate uptake, which is modulated by BK channels and the activation of PI3K pathway. Moreover, neuroprotection caused by guanosine depends on the increased expression of phospho-Akt protein.

  8. Relationship between hippocampal atrophy and neuropathology markers: A 7T MRI validation study of the EADC-ADNI Harmonized Hippocampal Segmentation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Zarow, Chris; Biado, Kristina; Hurtz, Sona; Boccardi, Marina; Somme, Johanne; Honarpisheh, Hedieh; Blanken, Anna E.; Brook, Jenny; Tung, Spencer; Lo, Darrick; Ng, Denise; Alger, Jeffry R.; Vinters, Harry V.; Bocchetta, Martina; Duvernoy, Henri; Jack, Clifford R.; Frisoni, Giovanni; Bartzokis, George; Csernansky, John G.; de Leon, Mony J.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Killiany, Ronald J.; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pantel, Johannes; Pruessner, Jens C.; Soininen, Hilkka; Watson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objective The pathologic validation of European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Center Harmonized Hippocampal Segmentation Protocol (HarP). Methods Temporal lobes of nine Alzheimer's disease (AD) and seven cognitively normal subjects were scanned post-mortem at 7 Tesla. Hippocampal volumes were obtained with HarP. Six-micrometer-thick hippocampal slices were stained for amyloid beta (Aβ), tau, and cresyl violet. Hippocampal subfields were manually traced. Neuronal counts, Aβ, and tau burden for each hippocampal subfield were obtained. Results We found significant correlations between hippocampal volume and Braak and Braak staging (ρ = −0.75, P = .001), tau (ρ = −0.53, P = .034), Aβ burden (ρ = −0.61, P = .012), and neuronal count (ρ = 0.77, P < .001). Exploratory subfield-wise significant associations were found for Aβ in CA1 (ρ = −0.58, P = .019) and subiculum (ρ = −0.75, P = .001), tau in CA2 (ρ = −0.59, P = .016), and CA3 (ρ = −0.5, P = .047), and neuronal count in CA1 (ρ = 0.55, P = .028), CA3 (ρ = 0.65, P = .006), and CA4 (ρ = 0.76, P = .001). Conclusions The observed associations provide the pathological confirmation of hippocampal morphometry as a valid biomarker for AD and the pathologic validation of HarP. PMID:25620800

  9. An Id-like current that is downregulated by Ca2+ modulates information coding at CA3CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Cherubini, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels localised on presynaptic nerve terminals control information coding by modulating presynaptic firing and synaptic efficacy in target neurones. We found that at CA3CA3 connections in hippocampal slice cultures, a fast-activating, slowly inactivating K+ conductance similar to the so-called delay current (ID) is responsible for the delayed appearance of the first spike upon membrane depolarisation, for action potential repolarisation and for modulation of transmitter release. The Id-like current was downregulated by intracellular Ca2+, as indicated by the increased delay in the appearance of the first action potential following either the block of Ca2+ flux through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels with Cd2+ or replacement of the bathing solution with one devoid of Ca2+. In both cases, this effect was reversed by blocking this conductance with a low concentration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 10-50 μM). Application of 4-AP shortened the delay to the first spike generation, prevented the effect of Cd2+ and increased the spike duration. The earlier appearance of the first action potential was also observed in the presence of dendrotoxin-1 (100 nM). In voltage-clamp experiments larger currents were recorded in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, thus confirming the downregulation of the Id-like current by Ca2+ due to the positive shift of its inactivation. Spike broadening was associated with an enhancement of synaptic efficacy in target neurones, as assessed by the increase in EPSC amplitude and in the percentage of successes. Moreover, in the presence of 4-AP, EPSCs appeared with a longer latency and were more scattered. This conductance is therefore crucial for setting the timing and strength of synaptic transmission at CA3CA3 connections. It is conceivable that switching off ID by increasing intracellular Ca2+ following activity-dependent processes may facilitate network synchronisation and crosstalk between CA3 pyramidal cells, leading to

  10. Bupropion inhibits nicotine-evoked [(3)H]overflow from rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine and from rat hippocampal slices preloaded with [(3)H]norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dennis K; Sumithran, Sangeetha P; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2002-09-01

    Bupropion, an efficacious antidepressant and smoking cessation agent, inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT and NET, respectively). Recently, bupropion has been reported to noncompetitively inhibit alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes or established cell lines. The present study evaluated bupropion-induced inhibition of native alpha3beta2* and alpha3beta4* nAChRs using functional neurotransmitter release assays, nicotine-evoked [(3)H]overflow from superfused rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine ([(3)H]DA), and nicotine-evoked [(3)H]overflow from hippocampal slices preloaded with [(3)H]norepinephrine ([(3)H]NE). The mechanism of inhibition was evaluated using Schild analysis. To eliminate the interaction of bupropion with DAT or NET, nomifensine or desipramine, respectively, was included in the superfusion buffer. A high bupropion concentration (100 microM) elicited intrinsic activity in the [(3)H]DA release assay. However, none of the concentrations (1 nM-100 microM) examined evoked [(3)H]NE overflow and, thus, were without intrinsic activity in this assay. Moreover, bupropion inhibited both nicotine-evoked [(3)H]DA overflow (IC(50) = 1.27 microM) and nicotine-evoked [(3)H]NE overflow (IC(50) = 323 nM) at bupropion concentrations well below those eliciting intrinsic activity. Results from Schild analyses suggest that bupropion competitively inhibits nicotine-evoked [(3)H]DA overflow, whereas evidence for receptor reserve was obtained upon assessment of bupropion inhibition of nicotine-evoked [(3)H]NE overflow. Thus, bupropion acts as an antagonist at alpha3beta2* and alpha3beta4* nAChRs in rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, across the same concentration range that inhibits DAT and NET function. The combination of nAChR and transporter inhibition produced by bupropion may contribute to its clinical efficacy as a smoking cessation agent.

  11. Electroosmotic perfusion of tissue: sampling the extracellular space and quantitative assessment of membrane-bound enzyme activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yangguang; Wu, Juanfang; Sandberg, Mats

    2014-01-01

    This review covers recent advances in sampling fluid from the extracellular space of brain tissue by electroosmosis (EO). Two techniques, EO sampling with a single fused-silica capillary and EO push–pull perfusion, have been developed. These tools were used to investigate the function of membrane-bound enzymes with outward-facing active sites, or ectoenzymes, in modulating the activity of the neuropeptides leu-enkephalin and galanin in organotypic-hippocampal-slice cultures (OHSCs). In addition, the approach was used to determine the endogenous concentration of a thiol, cysteamine, in OHSCs. We have also investigated the degradation of coenzyme A in the extracellular space. The approach provides information on ectoenzyme activity, including Michaelis constants, in tissue, which, as far as we are aware, has not been done before. On the basis of computational evidence, EO push–pull perfusion can distinguish ectoenzyme activity with a ~100 µm spatial resolution, which is important for studies of enzyme kinetics in adjacent regions of the rat hippocampus. PMID:25168111

  12. Effects of long-term lithium and desipramine treatment upon clonidine-induced inhibition of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine release from rat hippocampal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, R.N.; Hollingsworth, P.J.; Smith, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    Long-term treatment with antidepressant agents alters the specific binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine, an alpha/sub 2/ adrenoreceptor agonist, to neural membranes isolated from specific areas of the rat brain. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these changes in binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine represent an alteration in the functional state of the presynaptic alpha/sub 2/ adrenorecepotr. Hippocampal slices were incubated with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (/sup 3/H-NE, 330 nM0 for 20 min, washed with fresh buffer for 30 min and then stimulated (4 Hz, 2 msec duration, 2 min) at 12 min intervals. Cumulative concentration-effect curves were determined of /sup 3/H-NE. Rats were injected, i.p., twice daily for 14 days with lithium chloride (105 mg/kg), desipramine HCl (10 mg/kg) or saline. In controls, the EC50 for clonidine was 2.3 +/- 1.0 nM (n = 3). After lithium treatment, the clonidine concentration-effect curve was shifted to the right, and the EC50 as 12.1 +/- 4.3 nM. Desipramine treatment nearly abolished the inhibitory effect of clonidine upon the release of /sup 3/H-NE by field stimulation. These observations indicate that the long-term administration of desipramine and lithium produce a functional subsensitivity of the alpha/sub 2/ adrenoreceptor which regulates norepinephrine release in the rat brain.

  13. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P; Jakobsen, Birthe; Poulsen, Frantz R; Oliveira, Catarina R; Vezzani, Annamaria; Malva, João O; Zimmer, Jens

    2005-07-20

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects of these cytokines on neuronal death caused by exposure of mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to toxic concentrations of AMPA. Either potentiation of excitotoxicity or neuroprotection was observed, depending on the concentration of the cytokines and the timing of exposure. A relatively high concentration of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) enhanced excitotoxicity when the cultures were simultaneously exposed to AMPA and to this cytokine. Decreasing the concentration of TNF-alpha to 1 ng/ml resulted in neuroprotection against AMPA-induced neuronal death independently on the application protocol. By using TNF-alpha receptor (TNFR) knock-out mice, we demonstrated that the potentiation of AMPA-induced toxicity by TNF-alpha involves TNF receptor-1, whereas the neuroprotective effect is mediated by TNF receptor-2. AMPA exposure was associated with activation and proliferation of microglia as assessed by macrophage antigen-1 and bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry, suggesting a functional recruitment of cytokine-producing cells at sites of neurodegeneration. Together, these findings are relevant for understanding the role of proinflammatory cytokines and microglia activation in acute and chronic excitotoxic conditions.

  14. Aerobic Production and Utilization of Lactate Satisfy Increased Energy Demands Upon Neuronal Activation in Hippocampal Slices and Provide Neuroprotection Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Avital; Gozal, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Ever since it was shown for the first time that lactate can support neuronal function in vitro as a sole oxidative energy substrate, investigators in the field of neuroenergetics have been debating the role, if any, of this glycolytic product in cerebral energy metabolism. Our experiments employed the rat hippocampal slice preparation with electrophysiological and biochemical methodologies. The data generated by these experiments (a) support the hypothesis that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of cerebral aerobic glycolysis; (b) indicate that lactate plays a major and crucial role in affording neural tissue to respond adequately to glutamate excitation and to recover unscathed post-excitation; (c) suggest that neural tissue activation is accompanied by aerobic lactate and NADH production, the latter being produced when the former is converted to pyruvate by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH); (d) imply that NADH can be utilized as an endogenous scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to provide neuroprotection against ROS-induced neuronal damage. PMID:22275901

  15. Subfield-specific neurovascular remodeling in the entorhino-hippocampal-organotypic slice culture as a response to oxygen–glucose deprivation and excitotoxic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Chip, Sophorn; Nitsch, Cordula; Wellmann, Sven; Kapfhammer, Josef P

    2013-01-01

    Transient ischemia causes delayed neurodegeneration in selective brain areas, particularly in the CA1 field of the hippocampus. This is accompanied by neurovascular impairment. It is unknown whether neurodegeneration is the cause or consequence of vascular changes. In an entorhino-hippocampal-organotypic slice culture system with well-preserved blood vessels, we studied the interplay between neurodegeneration and neurovasculature. Short-term oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) resulted in upregulation of hypoxic markers and with a delay of 24 to 48 hours in selective nerve cell death in CA1. In parallel, local vessel density decreased as detected by markers of endothelial cells and of the extracellular matrix. Claudin-5, a tight junction protein and marker of the blood–brain barrier was reduced. Preventing neuronal death with tetrodotoxin or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione rescued blood vessels, suggesting that vessel loss is not due to OGD per se but a consequence of neuronal death. Induction of excitotoxic neuronal death with AMPA caused widespread neurodegeneration, but vessel reduction was confined to CA1. In dentate gyrus without neuronal loss, vessel density increased. We propose that neuronal stress and death influence maintenance, loss and remodeling of the neurovasculature and that the type of vascular response is in addition determined by local factors within the hippocampus. PMID:23232944

  16. Slice orientation and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation determine the involvement of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit GluN2B in hippocampal area CA1 long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The contribution of different GluN2 subunits of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to the induction of bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity is a controversial topic. As both supporting and refuting evidence for the hypothesis of subunit specialization in opposing directions of plasticity has accumulated since it was first proposed a few years ago, we hypothesize that differences in experimental conditions may have in part contributed to some of the inconsistent results from these studies. Here we investigate the controversial hypothesis that long-term depression (LTD) is preferentially induced by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in area CA1 of hippocampal slices. Results We find that brain slices from 2-3 week old rats prepared in the sagittal orientation have GluN2B-independent LTD whereas slices prepared in the coronal orientation have GluN2B-dependent LTD. There was no difference between the orientations in the fraction of the NMDAR EPSC sensitive to a GluN2B-selective antagonist, leading us to believe that the intracellular signaling properties of the NMDARs were different in the two preparations. Coronal slices had greater association of LTD-related intracellular signaling protein RasGRF1 with GluN2B relative to sagittal slices. Antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the sagittal slices returned LTD to a GluN2B-dependent form and increased the association of GluN2B with RasGRF1. Conclusions These results suggest a novel form of NMDAR modulation by mAChRs and clarify some disagreement in the literature. PMID:22082088

  17. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  18. Pattern Separation, Pattern Completion, and New Neuronal Codes within a Continuous CA3 Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampal CA3 subregion is critical for rapidly encoding new memories, which suggests that neuronal computations are implemented in its circuitry that cannot be performed elsewhere in the hippocampus or in the neocortex. Recording studies show that CA3 cells are bound to a large degree to a spatial coordinate system, while CA1 cells can…

  19. Transition between fast and slow gamma modes in rat hippocampus area CA1 in vitro is modulated by slow CA3 gamma oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pietersen, Alexander N J; Ward, Peter D; Hagger-Vaughan, Nicholas; Wiggins, James; Jefferys, John G R; Vreugdenhil, Martin

    2014-02-15

    Hippocampal gamma oscillations have been associated with cognitive functions including navigation and memory encoding/retrieval. Gamma oscillations in area CA1 are thought to depend on the oscillatory drive from CA3 (slow gamma) or the entorhinal cortex (fast gamma). Here we show that the local CA1 network can generate its own fast gamma that can be suppressed by slow gamma-paced inputs from CA3. Moderate acetylcholine receptor activation induces fast (45 ± 1 Hz) gamma in rat CA1 minislices and slow (33 ± 1 Hz) gamma in CA3 minislices in vitro. Using pharmacological tools, current-source density analysis and intracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and fast-spiking stratum pyramidale interneurons, we demonstrate that fast gamma in CA1 is of the pyramidal-interneuron network gamma (PING) type, with the firing of principal cells paced by recurrent perisomal IPSCs. The oscillation frequency was only weakly dependent on IPSC amplitude, and decreased to that of CA3 slow gamma by reducing IPSC decay rate or reducing interneuron activation through tonic inhibition of interneurons. Fast gamma in CA1 was replaced by slow CA3-driven gamma in unlesioned slices, which could be mimicked in CA1 minislices by sub-threshold 35 Hz Schaffer collateral stimulation that activated fast-spiking interneurons but hyperpolarised pyramidal cells, suggesting that slow gamma frequency CA3 outputs can suppress the CA1 fast gamma-generating network by feed-forward inhibition and replaces it with a slower gamma oscillation driven by feed-forward inhibition. The transition between the two gamma oscillation modes in CA1 might allow it to alternate between effective communication with the medial entorhinal cortex and CA3, which have different roles in encoding and recall of memory.

  20. Transition between fast and slow gamma modes in rat hippocampus area CA1 in vitro is modulated by slow CA3 gamma oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Pietersen, Alexander N J; Ward, Peter D; Hagger-Vaughan, Nicholas; Wiggins, James; Jefferys, John G R; Vreugdenhil, Martin

    2014-01-01

    AbstractHippocampal gamma oscillations have been associated with cognitive functions including navigation and memory encoding/retrieval. Gamma oscillations in area CA1 are thought to depend on the oscillatory drive from CA3 (slow gamma) or the entorhinal cortex (fast gamma). Here we show that the local CA1 network can generate its own fast gamma that can be suppressed by slow gamma-paced inputs from CA3. Moderate acetylcholine receptor activation induces fast (45 ± 1 Hz) gamma in rat CA1 minislices and slow (33 ± 1 Hz) gamma in CA3 minislices in vitro. Using pharmacological tools, current-source density analysis and intracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and fast-spiking stratum pyramidale interneurons, we demonstrate that fast gamma in CA1 is of the pyramidal–interneuron network gamma (PING) type, with the firing of principal cells paced by recurrent perisomal IPSCs. The oscillation frequency was only weakly dependent on IPSC amplitude, and decreased to that of CA3 slow gamma by reducing IPSC decay rate or reducing interneuron activation through tonic inhibition of interneurons. Fast gamma in CA1 was replaced by slow CA3-driven gamma in unlesioned slices, which could be mimicked in CA1 minislices by sub-threshold 35 Hz Schaffer collateral stimulation that activated fast-spiking interneurons but hyperpolarised pyramidal cells, suggesting that slow gamma frequency CA3 outputs can suppress the CA1 fast gamma-generating network by feed-forward inhibition and replaces it with a slower gamma oscillation driven by feed-forward inhibition. The transition between the two gamma oscillation modes in CA1 might allow it to alternate between effective communication with the medial entorhinal cortex and CA3, which have different roles in encoding and recall of memory. PMID:24277864

  1. Sensitivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials and synaptic plasticity to TCN 201 and TCN 213 in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F

    2015-02-01

    Whereas ifenprodil has been used as a selective GluN1/GluN2B (NR1/NR2B, B-type) receptor antagonist to distinguish between GluN2B (NR2B) and GluN2A (NR2A)-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), TCN 201 (3-chloro-4-fluoro-N-[4-[[2-(phenylcarbonyl)hydrazino]carbonyl]benzyl]benzenesulphonamide) and TCN 213 [N-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-[{5-[(phenylmethyl)amino]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}thio]acetamide] have been found to be selective GluN1/GluN2A (NR1/NR2A, A-type) antagonists. Based on the premise that A- and B-types are major synaptic NMDARs, we examined whether inhibition of NMDAR excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) by the TCN compounds and ifenprodil are complementary. Contrary to this prediction, inhibition of NMDAR EPSPs by the TCN compounds and ifenprodil were largely overlapping in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from 30-day-old rats. After partial inhibition by ifenprodil, TCN compounds produced little further suppression of NMDAR EPSPs. Similarly, after partial inhibition by TCN compounds ifenprodil failed to further suppress NMDAR EPSPs. However, low micromolar d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, a competitive NMDAR antagonist, which alone only partially inhibits NMDAR EPSPs, markedly suppresses residual NMDAR responses in the presence of ifenprodil or the TCNs, suggesting that low 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate antagonizes both ifenprodil- and TCN-insensitive synaptic NMDARs. These observations can be most readily interpreted if ifenprodil and TCNs act on a similar population of synaptic NMDARs. Recent lines of evidence suggest that the majority of hippocampal synaptic NMDARs are triheteromers. If so, modulation of GluN2A, and not just GluN2B NMDARs, could dampen long-term depression (LTD). Indeed, both TCNs, like ifenprodil, blocked LTD, suggesting the involvement of ifenprodil- and TCN-sensitive NMDARs in LTD induction. However, the TCNs plus ifenprodil failed to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP), suggesting that neither ifenprodil- nor TCN

  2. Updating the lamellar hypothesis of hippocampal organization.

    PubMed

    Sloviter, Robert S; Lømo, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Andersen et al. (1971) proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a "trisynaptic circuit" lying within transverse hippocampal "slices" or "lamellae." In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the "lamellar" distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers), which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly "lamellar" mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with "translamellar" distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis (Amaral and Witter, 1989). We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate "lateral" inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar organization.

  3. Weak Sinusoidal Electric Fields Entrain Spontaneous Ca Transients in the Dendritic Tufts of CA1 Pyramidal Cells in Rat Hippocampal Slice Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kazuma; Maruyama, Ryuichi; Nagae, Toru; Inoue, Masashi; Aonishi, Toru; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Neurons might interact via electric fields and this notion has been referred to as ephaptic interaction. It has been shown that various types of ion channels are distributed along the dendrites and are capable of supporting generation of dendritic spikes. We hypothesized that generation of dendritic spikes play important roles in the ephaptic interactions either by amplifying the impact of electric fields or by providing current source to generate electric fields. To test if dendritic activities can be modulated by electric fields, we developed a method to monitor local Ca-transients in the dendrites of a neuronal population in acute rat hippocampal slices by applying spinning-disk confocal microscopy and multi-cell dye loading technique. In a condition in which the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons show spontaneous Ca-transients due to added 50 μM 4-aminopyridine to the bathing medium and adjusted extracellular potassium concentration, we examined the impact of sinusoidal electric fields on the Ca-transients. We have found that spontaneously occurring fast-Ca-transients in the tufts of the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons can be blocked by applying 1 μM tetrodotoxin, and that the timing of the transients become entrained to sub-threshold 1-4 Hz electric fields with an intensity as weak as 0.84 mV/mm applied parallel to the somato-dendritic axis of the neurons. The extent of entrainment increases with intensity below 5 mV/mm, but does not increase further over the range of 5-20 mV/mm. These results suggest that population of pyramidal cells might be able to detect electric fields with biologically relevant intensity by modulating the timing of dendritic spikes. PMID:25811836

  4. Clodronate inhibits the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and NO by isolated microglial cells and reduces the number of proliferating glial cells in excitotoxically injured organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Faramarz; Conrad, Ariane; Kohl, Angelika; Korf, Horst-Werner; Hailer, Nils P

    2004-10-01

    Treatment of excitotoxically injured organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) with clodronate is known to result in the inhibition of microglial activation. We hypothesized that this is due to direct effects of clodronate on microglial cells, and investigated microglial proliferation in OHSC, and cytokine and NO secretion in isolated microglial cells. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) lesioning of OHSC resulted in a massive increase in the number of proliferating, bromo-desoxy-uridine (BrdU)-labeled cells that was reduced to control levels after treatment with clodronate (0.1, 1, 10 microg/ml). Triple-labeling revealed that clodronate abrogated the proliferation of both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4)-labeled microglial cells. Furthermore, isolated microglial cells were treated with clodronate after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Clodronate (0.01, 0.1, 1 microg/ml) significantly down-regulated the LPS-stimulated microglial secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, Interleukin (IL)-1beta and NO, but not of IL-6. In contrast, clodronate significantly reduced the microglial IL-6-release induced by M-CSF, indicating different intracellular pathways. The number and morphology of isolated microglial cells did not change significantly after treatment with clodronate. In summary, the number of proliferating microglial cells and astrocytes after excitotoxic injury is reduced to control levels after treatment with clodronate. Furthermore, clodronate inhibits microglial secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and NO. Clodronate could therefore prove to be a useful tool in the investigation of interactions between damaged neurons and microglial cells.

  5. Neuroprotection by JM-20 against oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices: Involvement of the Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Jeney; Simões Pires, Elisa Nicoloso; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Fonseca-Fonseca, Luis Arturo; Ruiz-Reyes, Alberto; Ochoa-Rodríguez, Estael; Verdecia-Reyes, Yamila; Delgado-Hernández, René; Souza, Diogo O; Salbego, Christianne

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia is the third most common cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Beyond a shortage of essential metabolites, ischemia triggers many interconnected pathophysiological events, including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanisms of JM-20, a novel synthetic molecule, focusing on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt survival pathway and glial cell response as potential targets of JM-20. For this purpose, we used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to achieve ischemic/reperfusion damage in vitro. Treatment with JM-20 at 0.1 and 10 μM reduced PI incorporation (indicative of cell death) after OGD. OGD decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (pro-survival) and GSK 3β (pro-apoptotic), resulting in respective inhibition and activation of these proteins. Treatment with JM20 prevented the reduced phosphorylation of these proteins after OGD, representing a shift from pro-apoptotic to pro-survival signaling. The OGD-induced activation of caspase-3 was also attenuated by JM-20 treatment at 10 μM. Moreover, in cultures treated with JM-20 and exposed to OGD conditioning, we observed a decrease in activated microglia, as well as a decrease in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release into the culture medium, while the level of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 increased. GFAP immunostaining and IB4 labeling showed that JM-20 treatment significantly augmented GFAP immunoreactivity after OGD, when compared with cultures exposed to OGD only, suggesting the activation of astroglial cells. Our results confirm that JM-20 has a strong neuroprotective effect against ischemic injury and suggest that the mechanisms involved in this effect may include the modulation of reactive astrogliosis, as well as neuroinflammation and the anti-apoptotic cell signaling pathway.

  6. Tamoxifen mediated estrogen receptor activation protects against early impairment of hippocampal neuron excitability in an oxygen/glucose deprivation brain slice ischemia model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqiu; Xie, Minjie; Schools, Gary P.; Feustel, Paul F.; Wang, Wei; Lei, Ting; Kimelberg, Harold K.; Zhou, Min

    2009-01-01

    Pretreatment of ovarectomized rats with estrogen shows long-term protection via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). However, it remains unknown whether activation of the ER can provide protection against early neuronal damage when given acutely, we simulated ischemic conditions by applying oxygen and glucose deprived (OGD) solution to acute male rat hippocampal slices and examined the neuronal electrophysiological changes. Pyramidal neurons and interneurons showed a time-dependent membrane potential depolarization and reduction in evoked action potential frequency and amplitude over a 10 to 15 minute OGD exposure. These changes were largely suppressed by 10 μM TAM. The TAM effect was neuron-specific as the OGD induced astrocytic membrane potential depolarization was not altered. The TAM effect was mediated through ER activation because it could be simulated by 17β-estradiol and was completely inhibited by the ER inhibitor ICI 182, 780, and is therefore an example of TAM’s selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) action. We further show that TAM effects on OGD- induced impairment of neuronal excitability was largely due to activation of neuroprotective BK channels, as the TAM effect was markedly attenuated by the BK channel inhibitor paxilline at10 μM. TAM also significantly reduced the frequency and amplitude of AMPA receptor mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in pyramidal neurons which is an early consequence of OGD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that both 17β-estradiol and TAM attenuate neuronal excitability impairment early on in simulated ischemia model via ER activation mediated potentiation of BK K+ channels and reduction in enhanced neuronal AMPA/NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. PMID:18992727

  7. Tamoxifen mediated estrogen receptor activation protects against early impairment of hippocampal neuron excitability in an oxygen/glucose deprivation brain slice ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiu; Xie, Minjie; Schools, Gary P; Feustel, Paul F; Wang, Wei; Lei, Ting; Kimelberg, Harold K; Zhou, Min

    2009-01-09

    Pretreatment of ovarectomized rats with estrogen shows long-term protection via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). However, it remains unknown whether activation of the ER can provide protection against early neuronal damage when given acutely. We simulated ischemic conditions by applying oxygen and glucose deprived (OGD) solution to acute male rat hippocampal slices and examined the neuronal electrophysiological changes. Pyramidal neurons and interneurons showed a time-dependent membrane potential depolarization and reduction in evoked action potential frequency and amplitude over a 10 to 15 min OGD exposure. These changes were largely suppressed by 10 microM TAM. The TAM effect was neuron-specific as the OGD-induced astrocytic membrane potential depolarization was not altered. The TAM effect was mediated through ER activation because it could be simulated by 17beta-estradiol and was completely inhibited by the ER inhibitor ICI 182, 780, and is therefore an example of TAM's selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) action. We further show that TAM's effects on OGD-induced impairment of neuronal excitability was largely due to activation of neuroprotective BK channels, as the TAM effect was markedly attenuated by the BK channel inhibitor paxilline at 10 microM. TAM also significantly reduced the frequency and amplitude of AMPA receptor mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in pyramidal neurons which is an early consequence of OGD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that both 17beta-estradiol and TAM attenuate neuronal excitability impairment early on in a simulated ischemia model via ER activation mediated potentiation of BK K(+) channels and reduction in enhanced neuronal AMPA/NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

  8. An in situ measurement of extracellular cysteamine, homocysteine, and cysteine concentrations in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures by integration of electroosmotic sampling and microfluidic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juanfang; Xu, Kerui; Landers, James P; Weber, Stephen G

    2013-03-19

    We demonstrate an all-electric sampling/derivatization/separation/detection system for the quantitation of thiols in tissue cultures. Extracellular fluid collected from rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) by electroosmotic flow through an 11 cm (length) × 50 μm (i.d.) sampling capillary is introduced to a simple microfluidic chip for derivatization, continuous flow-gated injection, separation, and detection. With the help of a fluorogenic, thiol-specific reagent, ThioGlo-1, we have successfully separated and detected the extracellular levels of free reduced cysteamine, homocysteine, and cysteine from OHSCs within 25 s in a 23 mm separation channel with a confocal laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector. Attention to the conductivities of the fluids being transported is required for successful flow-gated injections. When the sample conductivity is much higher than the run buffer conductivities, the electroosmotic velocities are such that there is less fluid coming by electroosmosis into the cross from the sample/reagent channel than is leaving by electroosmosis into the separation and waste channels. The resulting decrease in the internal fluid pressure in the injection cross pulls flow from the gated channel. This process may completely shut down the gated injection. Using a glycylglycine buffer with physiological osmolarity but only 62% of physiological conductivity and augmenting the conductivity of the run buffers solved this problem. Quantitation is by standard additions. Concentrations of cysteamine, homocysteine, and cysteine in the extracellular space of OHSCs are 10.6 ± 1.0 nM (n = 70), 0.18 ± 0.01 μM (n = 53), and 11.1 ± 1.2 μM (n = 70), respectively. This is the first in situ quantitative estimation of endogenous cysteamine in brain tissue. Extracellular levels of homocysteine and cysteine are comparable with other reported values.

  9. Mild hypothermia, but not propofol, is neuroprotective in organotypic hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Feiner, John R; Bickler, Philip E; Estrada, Sergio; Donohoe, Paul H; Fahlman, Christian S; Schuyler, Jennifer A

    2005-01-01

    The neuroprotective potency of anesthetics such as propofol compared to mild hypothermia remains undefined. Therefore, we determined whether propofol at two clinically relevant concentrations is as effective as mild hypothermia in preventing delayed neuron death in hippocampal slice cultures (HSC). Survival of neurons was assessed 2 and 3 days after 1 h oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) either at 37 degrees C (with or without 10 or 100 microM propofol) or at an average temperature of 35 degrees C during OGD (mild hypothermia). Cell death in CA1, CA3, and dentate neurons in each slice was measured with propidium iodide fluorescence. Mild hypothermia eliminated death in CA1, CA3, and dentate neurons but propofol protected dentate neurons only at a concentration of 10 microM; the more ischemia vulnerable CA1 and CA3 neurons were not protected by either 10 microM or 100 microM propofol. In slice cultures, the toxicity of 100 muM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 500 microM glutamate, and 20 microM alpha-amino-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) was not reduced by 100 microM propofol. Because propofol neuroprotection may involve gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated indirect inhibition of glutamate receptors (GluRs), the effects of propofol on GluR activity (calcium influx induced by GluR agonists) were studied in CA1 neurons in HSC, in isolated CA1 neurons, and in cortical brain slices. Propofol (100 and 200 microM, approximate burst suppression concentrations) decreased glutamate-mediated [Ca2+]i increases (Delta[Ca2+]i) responses by 25%-35% in isolated CA1 neurons and reduced glutamate and NMDA Delta[Ca2+]i in acute and cultured hippocampal slices by 35%-50%. In both CA1 neurons and cortical slices, blocking GABAA receptors with picrotoxin reduced the inhibition of GluRs substantially. We conclude that mild hypothermia, but not propofol, protects CA1 and CA3 neurons in hippocampal slice cultures subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. Propofol was not

  10. TRPV1 receptors augment basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, F; Eslamizade, M J; Mousavi, S M M; Abraki, S B; Hadjighassem, M R; Gorji, A

    2016-02-09

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in human and animals is attributed to alterations in brain function especially hippocampus formation. Changes in synaptic activity might be causally related to the alterations during epileptogenesis. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) as one of the non-selective ion channels has been shown to be involved in synaptic transmission. However, the potential role of TRPV1 receptors in synaptic function in the epileptic brain needs to be elucidated. In the present study, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to assess hippocampal TRPV1 mRNA expression, protein content, and distribution. Moreover, the effects of pharmacologic activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors on the slope of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were analyzed in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, after 3months of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). SE induced an upregulation of TRPV1 mRNA and protein content in the whole hippocampal extract, as well as its distribution in both CA1 and CA3 regions. Activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors (via capsaicin 1μM and capsazepine 10μM, respectively) did not influence basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 regions of control slices, however, capsaicin increased and capsazepine decreased synaptic transmission in both regions in tissues from epileptic animals. Taken together, these findings suggest that a higher expression of TRPV1 in the epileptic condition is accompanied by alterations in basal synaptic transmission.

  11. Ischemic preconditioning decreases intracellular zinc accumulation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Takahiro; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Kato, Kengo; Shimazaki, Kuniko

    2004-05-27

    In normal gerbils, intracellular zinc ions ([Zn2+]i) and calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) accumulate in hippocampal CA1 neurons after global ischemia. We examined whether ischemic preconditioning modifies these changes in gerbil hippocampal slices. In normal slices, large increases in [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i were observed in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 area after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In preconditioned slices, there were significantly decreased peak levels of [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i in CA1. However, there were no differences in the peak levels of these ions in CA3 and dentate gyrus. These results suggest that modified [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i accumulation after an ischemic insult might be important for the mechanisms of ischemic tolerance induced by preconditioning.

  12. Relative contributions of CA3 and medial entorhinal cortex to memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Kally C.; Alarcon, Juan M.; Ferbinteanu, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 field processes spatial information, but the relative importance of intra- vs. extra-hippocampal sources of input into CA1 for spatial behavior is unclear. To characterize the relative roles of these two sources of input, originating in the hippocampal field CA3 and in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), we studied effects of discrete neurotoxic lesions of CA3 or MEC on concurrent spatial and nonspatial navigation tasks, and on synaptic transmission in afferents to CA1. Lesions in CA3 or MEC regions that abolished CA3-CA1, or reduced MEC-CA1 synaptic transmission, respectively, impaired spatial navigation and unexpectedly interfered with cue response, suggesting that in certain conditions of training regimen, hippocampal activity may influence behavior otherwise supported by nonhippocampal neural networks. MEC lesions had milder and temporary behavioral effects, but also markedly amplified transmission in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Extensive behavioral training had a similar, but more modest effect on CA3-CA1 transmission. Thus, cortical input to the hippocampus modulates CA1 activity both directly and indirectly, through heterosynaptic interaction, to control information flow in the hippocampal loop. Following damage to hippocampal cortical input, the functional coupling of separate intra- and extra-hippocampal inputs to CA1 involved in normal learning may initiate processes that support recovery of behavioral function. Such a process may explain how CA3 lesions, which do not significantly modify the basic features of CA1 neural activity, nonetheless impair spatial recall, whereas lesions of EC input to CA1, which reduce the spatial selectivity of CA1 firing in foraging rats, have only mild effects on spatial navigation. PMID:25221487

  13. EPSP-spike potentiation during primed burst-induced long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, A M; Ballerini, L; Passani, M B; Corradetti, R

    1994-10-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus exhibits EPSP-spike potentiation. This consists of an increase in population spike amplitude exceeding that predicted by EPSP potentiation alone. This phenomenon is apparently due to an increase in pyramidal cell excitability. Patterns of afferent stimuli which activate pyramidal cells to reproduce the theta rhythm observed in the hippocampus under physiological conditions, have been shown to induce LTP-like enhancement of synaptic responses in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of EPSP-spike potentiation and/or changes in pyramidal cell excitability during the long-term potentiation induced in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices by theta-like patterns of stimuli: the primed burst and the patterned stimulation. Using extracellular recording, a significant leftward shift in the EPSP-spike relationship was found 30 min after primed burst or patterned stimulation. The magnitude of EPSP-spike potentiation induced by patterned stimulation was similar to that produced by high-frequency stimulation. Both were significantly greater than that induced by a primed burst, indicating that only a subset of pyramidal cells were potentiated by this kind of afferent activation. Modifications in synaptic efficacy and cell excitability brought about by a primed burst were investigated in 25 intracellularly recorded pyramidal cells. Consistent with extracellular results, it was found that only 11 out of 25 neurons receiving a primed burst were potentiated. In these cells the increase in probability of firing action potentials elicited by synaptic activation with test shocks was accompanied by enhanced cell excitability, but not by an increase in EPSP slope. High-frequency stimulation delivered 40 min after a primed burst invariably increased the EPSP slope, the probability of firing upon synaptic stimulation, and the excitability of cells. The presence of

  14. The CA3 “Backprojection” to the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is typically described in the context of the trisynaptic circuit, a pathway that relays information from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus, dentate to area CA3, and CA3 to area CA1. Associated with this concept is the assumption that most hippocampal information processing occurs along the trisynaptic circuit. However, the entorhinal cortex may not be the only major extrinsic input to consider, and the trisynaptic circuit may not be the only way information is processed in hippocampus. Area CA3 receives input from a variety of sources, and may be as much of an “entry point” to hippocampus as the dentate gyrus. The axon of CA3 pyramidal cells targets diverse cell types, and has commissural projections, which together make it able to send information to much more of the hippocampus than granule cells. Therefore, CA3 pyramidal cells seem better designed to spread information through hippocampus than the granule cells. From this perspective, CA3 may be a point of entry that receives information which needs to be “broadcasted,” whereas the dentate gyrus may be a point of entry that receives information with more selective needs for hippocampal processing. One aspect of the argument that CA3 pyramidal cells have a widespread projection is based on a part of its axonal arbor that has received relatively little attention, the collaterals that project in the opposite direction to the trisynaptic circuit, “back” to the dentate gyrus. The evidence for this “backprojection” to the dentate gyrus is strong, particularly in area CA3c, the region closest to the dentate gyrus, and in temporal hippocampus. The influence on granule cells is indirect, through hilar mossy cells and GABAergic neurons of the dentate gyrus, and appears to include direct projections in the case of CA3c pyramidal cells of ventral hippocampus. Physiological studies suggest that normally area CA3 does not have a robust excitatory influence on granule cells, but serves

  15. The CA3 "backprojection" to the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is typically described in the context of the trisynaptic circuit, a pathway that relays information from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus, dentate to area CA3, and CA3 to area CA1. Associated with this concept is the assumption that most hippocampal information processing occurs along the trisynaptic circuit. However, the entorhinal cortex may not be the only major extrinsic input to consider, and the trisynaptic circuit may not be the only way information is processed in hippocampus. Area CA3 receives input from a variety of sources, and may be as much of an "entry point" to hippocampus as the dentate gyrus. The axon of CA3 pyramidal cells targets diverse cell types, and has commissural projections, which together make it able to send information to much more of the hippocampus than granule cells. Therefore, CA3 pyramidal cells seem better designed to spread information through hippocampus than the granule cells. From this perspective, CA3 may be a point of entry that receives information which needs to be "broadcasted," whereas the dentate gyrus may be a point of entry that receives information with more selective needs for hippocampal processing. One aspect of the argument that CA3 pyramidal cells have a widespread projection is based on a part of its axonal arbor that has received relatively little attention, the collaterals that project in the opposite direction to the trisynaptic circuit, "back" to the dentate gyrus. The evidence for this "backprojection" to the dentate gyrus is strong, particularly in area CA3c, the region closest to the dentate gyrus, and in temporal hippocampus. The influence on granule cells is indirect, through hilar mossy cells and GABAergic neurons of the dentate gyrus, and appears to include direct projections in the case of CA3c pyramidal cells of ventral hippocampus. Physiological studies suggest that normally area CA3 does not have a robust excitatory influence on granule cells, but serves instead to inhibit

  16. Role of Sialidase in Long-Term Potentiation at Mossy Fiber-CA3 Synapses and Hippocampus-Dependent Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Akira; Saito, Masakazu; Mamada, Shou; Ieno, Daisuke; Hikita, Tomoya; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acid bound to glycans in glycolipids and glycoproteins is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory. Sialidase (EC 3.2.1.18), which has 4 isozymes including Neu1, Neu2, Neu3 and Neu4, regulates the sialylation level of glycans by removing sialic acid from sialylglycoconjugate. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of sialidase activity in rat hippocampus and the role of sialidase in hippocampal memory processing. We previously developed a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, BTP3-Neu5Ac. BTP3-Neu5Ac was cleaved efficiently by rat Neu2 and Neu4 at pH 7.3 and by Neu1 and Neu3 at pH 4.6. When a rat hippocampal acute slice was stained with BTP3-Neu5Ac at pH 7.3, mossy fiber terminal fields showed relatively intense sialidase activity. Thus, the role of sialidase in the synaptic plasticity was investigated at mossy fiber terminal fields. The long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses was impaired by 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), a sialidase inhibitor. DANA also failed to decrease paired-pulse facilitation after LTP induction. We also investigated the role of sialidase in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory by using the Morris water maze. The escape latency time to reach the platform was prolonged by DANA injection into the hippocampal CA3 region or by knockdown of Neu4 without affecting motility. The results show that the regulation of sialyl signaling by Neu4 is involved in hippocampal memory processing. PMID:27783694

  17. Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in region CA3 of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Giocomo, Lisa M; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2005-09-01

    Cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus appears to be involved in learning, memory and attentional processes. In brain slice preparations of hippocampal region CA3, we have explored the effect of nicotine on the afferent connections of stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) vs. the intrinsic connections of stratum radiatum (SR). Nicotine application had a lamina-selective effect, causing changes in synaptic transmission only in SLM. The nicotinic effect in SLM was characterized by a transient decrease in synaptic potential size followed by a longer period of enhancement of synaptic transmission. The effect was blocked by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic antagonists, indicating the role of GABAergic interneurons in the observed nicotinic effect. The biphasic nature of the nicotinic effect could be due to a difference in receptor subtypes, as supported by the effects of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine and methyllycaconitine. Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission could complement muscarinic suppression of intrinsic connections, amplifying incoming information and providing a physiological mechanism for the memory-enhancing effect of nicotine.

  18. Spontaneous rhythmic field potentials of isolated mouse hippocampal-subicular-entorhinal cortices in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, C P; Huang, H L; Asl, M Nassiri; He, J W; Gillis, J; Skinner, F K; Zhang, L

    2006-10-15

    The rodent hippocampal circuit is capable of exhibiting in vitro spontaneous rhythmic field potentials (SRFPs) of 1-4 Hz that originate from the CA3 area and spread to the CA1 area. These SRFPs are largely correlated with GABA-A IPSPs in pyramidal neurons and repetitive discharges in inhibitory interneurons. As such, their generation is thought to result from cooperative network activities involving both pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons. Considering that the hippocampus, subiculum and entorhinal cortex function as an integrated system crucial for memory and cognition, it is of interest to know whether similar SRFPs occur in hippocampal output structures (that is, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex), and if so, to understand the cellular basis of these subicular and entorhinal SRFPs as well as their temporal relation to hippocampal SRFPs. We explored these issues in the present study using thick hippocampal-subicular-entorhinal cortical slices prepared from adult mice. SRFPs were found to spread from the CA1 area to the subicular and entorhinal cortical areas. Subicular and entorhinal cortical SRFPs were correlated with mixed IPSPs/EPSPs in local pyramidal neurons, and their generation was dependent upon the activities of GABA-A and AMPA glutamate receptors. In addition, the isolated subicular circuit could elicit SRFPs independent of CA3 inputs. We hypothesize that the SRFPs represent a basal oscillatory activity of the hippocampal-subicular-entorhinal cortices and that the subiculum functions as both a relay and an amplifier, spreading the SRFPs from the hippocampus to the entorhinal cortex.

  19. The functional nature of synaptic circuitry is altered in area CA3 of the hippocampus in a mouse model of Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jesse E; Blank, Martina; Valenzuela, Ricardo A; Garner, Craig C; Madison, Daniel V

    2007-02-15

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of mental retardation, and memory impairments are more severe in DS than in most if not all other causes of mental retardation. The Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS, exhibits phenotypes of DS, including memory impairments indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. We examined functional synaptic connectivity in area CA3 of the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice using organotypic slice cultures as a model. We found reductions in multiple measures of synaptic function in both excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal neurons in CA3 of the Ts65Dn hippocampus. However, associational synaptic connections between pyramidal neurons were more abundant and more likely to be active rather than silent in the Ts65Dn hippocampus. Synaptic potentiation was normal in these associational connections. Decreased overall functional synaptic input onto pyramidal neurons expressed along with the specific hyperconnectivity of associational connections between pyramidal neurons will result in predictable alterations of CA3 network function, which may contribute to the memory impairments seen in DS.

  20. The Role of Chloride Transport in Postsynaptic Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misgeld, U.; Deisz, R. A.; Dodt, H. U.; Lux, H. D.

    1986-06-01

    Hippocampal inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are depolarizing in granule cells but hyperpolarizing in CA3 neurons because the reversal potentials and membrane potentials of these cells differ. Here the hippocampal slice preparation was used to investigate the role of chloride transport in these inhibitory responses. In both cell types, increasing the intracellular chloride concentration by injection shifted the reversal potential of these responses in a positive direction, and blocking the outward transport of chloride with furosemide slowed their recovery from the injection. In addition, hyperpolarizing and depolarizing inhibitory responses and the hyperpolarizing and depolarizing responses to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ - aminobutyric acid decreased in the presence of furosemide. These effects of furosemide suggest that the internal chloride activity of an individual hippocampal neuron is regulated by two transport processes, one that accumulates chloride and one that extrudes chloride.

  1. Ontogenesis of presynaptic GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; McLean, H A; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    1998-03-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid-B(GABAB) receptor-dependent and -independent components of paired-pulse depression (PPD) were investigated in the rat CA3 hippocampal region. Intracellular and whole cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons were performed on hippocampal slices obtained from neonatal (5-7 day old) and adult (27-34 day old) rats. Electrical stimulation in the hilus evoked monosynaptic GABAA postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) isolated in the presence of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 microM) and D(-)2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (-AP5, 50 microM) with 2(triethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl) acetamine (QX314) filled electrodes. In adult CA3 pyramidal neurons, when a pair of identical stimuli was applied at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 50 to 1,500 ms the amplitude of the second eIPSC was depressed when compared with the first eIPSC. This paired-pulse depression (PPD) was partially blocked by P-3-aminoprophyl -P-diethoxymethylphosphoric acid (CGP35348, 0.5 mM), a selective GABAB receptor antagonist. In neonates, PPD was restricted to ISIs shorter than 200 ms and was not affected by CGP35348. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs in a dose-dependent manner with the same efficiency in both adults and neonates. Increasing the probability of transmitter release with high Ca2+ (4 mM)/low Mg2+ (0.3 mM) external solution revealed PPD in neonatal CA3 pyramidal neurons that was 1) partially prevented by CGP35348, 2) independent of the membrane holding potential of the recorded cell, and 3) not resulting from a change in the reversal potential of GABAA eIPSCs. In adults the GABA uptake blocker tiagabine (20 microM) increased the duration of eIPSCs and the magnitude of GABAB receptor-dependent PPD. In neonates, tiagabine also increased duration of eIPSCs but to a lesser extent than in adult and did not reveal a GABAB receptor-dependent PPD. These results demonstrate that

  2. Differential Needs of Zinc in the CA3 Area of Dorsal Hippocampus for the Consolidation of Contextual Fear and Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceccom, Johnatan; Bouhsira, Emilie; Halley, Helene; Daumas, Stephanie; Lassalle, Jean Michel

    2013-01-01

    One peculiarity of the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals is the co-release of zinc and glutamate upon synaptic transmission. How these two players act on hippocampal-dependent memories is still unclear. To decipher their respective involvement in memory consolidation, a pharmacological approach was chosen. Using two hippocampal-dependent…

  3. Functional interconnections between CA3 and the dentate gyrus revealed by current source density analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, K; Canning, K J; Leung, L S

    1998-01-01

    The physiological interactions between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 were studied in urethane-anesthetized rats by using field potential recording and current source density (CSD) analysis. Stimulation of CA3b resulted in a short-latency (<2.5-ms onset latency) antidromic population spike in both the DG and CA3c. An excitation (current sink) at the middle molecular layer (MML) was observed at 3-ms latency, possibly mediated by the backfiring of perforant path fibers that projected to both DG and CA3. CA3 stimulation also resulted in a sink at the dendritic layers of CA3c, which was likely mediated by excitatory CA3 recurrent collaterals. It was inferred that the DG was excited at the inner molecular layer (IML) after stimulation near the CA3b/CA3c border. This IML excitation (sink) probably resulted from orthodromic CA3 or hilar projections to the IML and not from mossy fiber backfiring. The IML and the CA3c dendritic sinks were blocked by an intracerebroventricular injection of a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, but not by a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor antagonist, bicuculline. CA3b stimulation evoked population spike bursts (3-7-ms latency) in both DG and CA3c when GABA(A) inhibition was suppressed by bicuculline, thus confirming that the excitatory afferents project from CA3b to DG and CA3c. A CA3 conditioning stimulus pulse given 30-200 ms before a perforant-path test pulse increased the amplitude of the perforant-path-evoked DG population spike (as compared with the test response without conditioning). After a moderate-intensity stimulation of CA3, a late (<20-ms latency) excitation of the MML of the DG was found. The late DG excitation was blocked by procaine injection at the medial perforant path, suggesting its origin from the medial entorhinal cortex. In conclusion, rich interactions between CA3 and other hippocampal structures were studied quantitatively by CSD analysis in vivo. We

  4. Control theory-based regulation of hippocampal CA1 nonlinear dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Min-Chi; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a biomimetic electronic neural prosthesis to replace regions of the hippocampal brain area that have been damaged by disease or insult. Our previous study has shown that the VLSI implementation of a CA3 nonlinear dynamic model can functionally replace the CA3 subregion of the hippocampal slice. As a result, the propagation of temporal patterns of activity from DG-->VLSI-->CA1 reproduces the activity observed experimentally in the biological DG-->CA3-->CA1 circuit. In this project, we incorporate an open-loop controller to optimize the output (CA1) response. Specifically, we seek to optimize the stimulation signal to CA1 using a predictive dentate gyrus (DG)-CA1 nonlinear model (i.e., DG-CA1 trajectory model) and a CA1 input-output model (i.e., CA1 plant model), such that the ultimate CA1 response (i.e., desired output) can be first predicted by the DG-CA1 trajectory model and then transformed to the desired stimulation through the inversed CA1 plant model. Lastly, the desired CA1 output is evoked by the estimated optimal stimulation. This study will be the first stage of formulating an integrated modeling-control strategy for the hippocampal neural prosthetic system.

  5. Network mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-10-01

    Neural networks of the brain display multiple patterns of oscillatory activity. Some of these rhythms are generated intrinsically within the local network, and can therefore be studied in isolated preparations. Here we discuss local-circuit mechanisms involved in hippocampal CA3 gamma oscillations, one of the best understood locally generated network patterns in the mammalian brain. Perisomatic inhibitory cells are crucial players in gamma oscillogenesis. They provide prominent rhythmic inhibition to CA3 pyramidal cells and are themselves synchronized primarily by excitatory synaptic inputs derived from the local collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells. The recruitment of this recurrent excitatory-inhibitory feedback loop during hippocampal gamma oscillations suggests that local gamma oscillations not only control when, but also how many and which pyramidal cells will fire during each gamma cycle.

  6. Differential Vulnerability of CA1 versus CA3 Pyramidal Neurons After Ischemia: Possible Relationship to Sources of Zn2+ Accumulation and Its Entry into and Prolonged Effects on Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, Yuliya V; Ji, Sung G; Yin, Hong Z; Weiss, John H

    2017-01-18

    Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons degenerating preferentially after global ischemia and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) entry, it is apparent that Zn(2+) also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through postsynaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn(2+)-binding proteins such as metallothionein-III (MT-III). Using mouse hippocampal slices to study acute oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-triggered neurodegeneration, we found evidence for early contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) accumulation in both CA1 and CA3, as indicated by the ability of Zn(2+) chelators or Ca(2+) entry blockers to delay pyramidal neuronal death in both regions. However, using knock-out animals (of MT-III and vesicular Zn(2+) transporter, ZnT3) and channel blockers revealed substantial differences in relevant Zn(2+) sources, with critical contributions of presynaptic release and its permeation through Ca(2+)- (and Zn(2+))-permeable AMPA channels in CA3 and Zn(2+) mobilization from MT-III predominating in CA1. To assess the consequences of the intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation, we used OGD exposures slightly shorter than those causing acute neuronal death; under these conditions, cytosolic Zn(2+) rises persisted for 10-30 min after OGD, followed by recovery over ∼40-60 min. Furthermore, the recovery appeared to be accompanied by mitochondrial Zn(2+) accumulation (via the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter MCU) in CA1 but not in CA3 neurons and was markedly diminished in MT-III knock-outs, suggesting that it depended upon Zn(2+) mobilization from this protein.

  7. Nearly Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields in In Vivo Focal T2-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Wang, Hongzhi; Pluta, John; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Craige, Caryne; Avants, Brian B.; Weiner, Michael W.; Mueller, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    We present and evaluate a new method for automatically labeling the subfields of the hippocampal formation in focal 0.4×0.5×2.0mm3 resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that can be acquired in the routine clinical setting with under 5 min scan time. The method combines multi-atlas segmentation, similarity-weighted voting, and a novel learning-based bias correction technique to achieve excellent agreement with manual segmentation. Initial partitioning of MRI slices into hippocampal ‘head’, ‘body’ and ‘tail’ slices is the only input required from the user, necessitated by the nature of the underlying segmentation protocol. Dice overlap between manual and automatic segmentation is above 0.87 for the larger subfields, CA1 and dentate gyrus, and is competitive with the best results for whole-hippocampus segmentation in the literature. Intraclass correlation of volume measurements in CA1 and dentate gyrus is above 0.89. Overlap in smaller hippocampal subfields is lower in magnitude (0.54 for CA2, 0.62 for CA3, 0.77 for subiculum and 0.79 for entorhinal cortex) but comparable to overlap between manual segmentations by trained human raters. These results support the feasibility of subfield-specific hippocampal morphometry in clinical studies of memory and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:20600984

  8. Ketogenic diet sensitizes glucose control of hippocampal excitability1

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masahito; Ruskin, David N.; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Boison, Detlev; Masino, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    A high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy, yet myriad metabolic effects in vivo have not been reconciled clearly with neuronal effects. A KD limits blood glucose and produces ketone bodies from β-oxidation of lipids. Studies have explored changes in ketone bodies and/or glucose in the effects of the KD, and glucose is increasingly implicated in neurological conditions. To examine the interaction between altered glucose and the neural effects of a KD, we fed rats and mice a KD and restricted glucose in vitro while examining the seizure-prone CA3 region of acute hippocampal slices. Slices from KD-fed animals were sensitive to small physiological changes in glucose, and showed reduced excitability and seizure propensity. Similar to clinical observations, reduced excitability depended on maintaining reduced glucose. Enhanced glucose sensitivity and reduced excitability were absent in slices obtained from KD-fed mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs); in slices from normal animals effects of the KD could be reversed with blockers of pannexin-1 channels, A1Rs, or KATP channels. Overall, these studies reveal that a KD sensitizes glucose-based regulation of excitability via purinergic mechanisms in the hippocampus and thus link key metabolic and direct neural effects of the KD. PMID:25170119

  9. Symmetric spike timing-dependent plasticity at CA3CA3 synapses optimizes storage and recall in autoassociative networks

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rajiv K.; Kim, Sooyun; Guzman, Segundo J.; Jonas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CA3CA3 recurrent excitatory synapses are thought to play a key role in memory storage and pattern completion. Whether the plasticity properties of these synapses are consistent with their proposed network functions remains unclear. Here, we examine the properties of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at CA3CA3 synapses. Low-frequency pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and action potentials (APs) induces long-term potentiation (LTP), independent of temporal order. The STDP curve is symmetric and broad (half-width ∼150 ms). Consistent with these STDP induction properties, AP–EPSP sequences lead to supralinear summation of spine [Ca2+] transients. Furthermore, afterdepolarizations (ADPs) following APs efficiently propagate into dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and EPSPs summate with dendritic ADPs. In autoassociative network models, storage and recall are more robust with symmetric than with asymmetric STDP rules. Thus, a specialized STDP induction rule allows reliable storage and recall of information in the hippocampal CA3 network. PMID:27174042

  10. Coincidence detection of convergent perforant path and mossy fibre inputs by CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Eduardo; Galván, Emilio J; Card, J Patrick; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-06-01

    We performed whole-cell recordings from CA3 s. radiatum (R) and s. lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons in hippocampal slices to examine the temporal aspects of summation of converging perforant path (PP) and mossy fibre (MF) inputs. PP EPSPs were evoked from the s. lacunosum-moleculare in area CA1. MF EPSPs were evoked from the medial extent of the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus. Summation was strongly supralinear when examining PP EPSP with MF EPSP in a heterosynaptic pair at the 10 ms ISI, and linear to sublinear at longer ISIs. This pattern of nonlinearities suggests that R and L-M interneurons act as coincidence detectors for input from PP and MF. Summation at all ISIs was linear in voltage clamp mode demonstrating that nonlinearities were generated by postsynaptic voltage-dependent conductances. Supralinearity was not detected when the first EPSP in the pair was replaced by a simulated EPSP injected into the soma, suggesting that the conductances underlying the EPSP boosting were located in distal dendrites. Supralinearity was selectively eliminated with either Ni2+ (30 microm), mibefradil (10 microm) or nimodipine (15 microm), but was unaffected by QX-314. This pharmacological profile indicates that supralinearity is due to recruitment of dendritic T-type Ca2+channels by the first subthreshold EPSP in the pair. Results with the hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) channel blocker ZD 7288 (50 microm) revealed that Ih restricted the time course of supralinearity for coincidently summed EPSPs, and promoted linear to sublinear summation for asynchronous EPSPs. We conclude that coincidence detection results from the counterbalanced activation of T-type Ca2+ channels and inactivation of Ih.

  11. Coincidence detection of convergent perforant path and mossy fibre inputs by CA3 interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Calixto, Eduardo; Galván, Emilio J; Card, J Patrick; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-01-01

    We performed whole-cell recordings from CA3 s. radiatum (R) and s. lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons in hippocampal slices to examine the temporal aspects of summation of converging perforant path (PP) and mossy fibre (MF) inputs. PP EPSPs were evoked from the s. lacunosum-moleculare in area CA1. MF EPSPs were evoked from the medial extent of the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus. Summation was strongly supralinear when examining PP EPSP with MF EPSP in a heterosynaptic pair at the 10 ms ISI, and linear to sublinear at longer ISIs. This pattern of nonlinearities suggests that R and L-M interneurons act as coincidence detectors for input from PP and MF. Summation at all ISIs was linear in voltage clamp mode demonstrating that nonlinearities were generated by postsynaptic voltage-dependent conductances. Supralinearity was not detected when the first EPSP in the pair was replaced by a simulated EPSP injected into the soma, suggesting that the conductances underlying the EPSP boosting were located in distal dendrites. Supralinearity was selectively eliminated with either Ni2+ (30 μm), mibefradil (10 μm) or nimodipine (15 μm), but was unaffected by QX-314. This pharmacological profile indicates that supralinearity is due to recruitment of dendritic T-type Ca2+channels by the first subthreshold EPSP in the pair. Results with the hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) channel blocker ZD 7288 (50 μm) revealed that Ih restricted the time course of supralinearity for coincidently summed EPSPs, and promoted linear to sublinear summation for asynchronous EPSPs. We conclude that coincidence detection results from the counterbalanced activation of T-type Ca2+ channels and inactivation of Ih. PMID:18388134

  12. 5-HT4-Receptors Modulate Induction of Long-Term Depression but Not Potentiation at Hippocampal Output Synapses in Acute Rat Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Wawra, Matthias; Fidzinski, Pawel; Heinemann, Uwe; Mody, Istvan; Behr, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The subiculum is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cells and mediates hippocampal output to various cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. The majority of subicular pyramidal cells are burst-spiking neurons. Previous studies indicated that high frequency stimulation in subicular burst-spiking cells causes presynaptic NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) whereas low frequency stimulation induces postsynaptic NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD). In the present study, we investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 (5-HT4) receptor activation and blockade on both forms of synaptic plasticity in burst-spiking cells. We demonstrate that neither activation nor block of 5-HT4 receptors modulate the induction or expression of LTP. In contrast, activation of 5-HT4 receptors facilitates expression of LTD, and block of the 5-HT4 receptor prevents induction of short-term depression and LTD. As 5-HT4 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1), 5-HT4 receptors might modulate PKA activity through AC1. Since LTD is blocked in the presence of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, our data are consistent with 5-HT4 receptor activation by ambient serotonin or intrinsically active 5-HT4 receptors. Our findings provide new insight into aminergic modulation of hippocampal output. PMID:24505387

  13. Control of Spike Transfer at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses In Vivo by GABAA and GABAB Receptor-Mediated Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zucca, Stefano; Griguoli, Marilena; Malézieux, Meryl; Grosjean, Noëlle; Carta, Mario; Mulle, Christophe

    2017-01-18

    Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0.05 Hz). Upon increasing the frequency of stimulation, a biphasic response was observed consisting of a brief mf EPSP followed by an inhibitory response lasting on the order of 100 ms. Spike transfer at DG-CA3 interneurons recorded in the juxtacellular mode was efficient at low presynaptic stimulation frequency and appeared insensitive to an increased frequency of GC activity. Overall, this resulted in a robust and slow feedforward inhibition of spike transfer at mf-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. Short-term plasticity of EPSPs with increasing frequency of presynaptic activity allowed inhibition to be overcome to reach spike discharge in CA3 PCs. Whereas the activation of GABAA receptors was responsible for the direct inhibition of light-evoked spike responses, the slow inhibition of spiking activity required the activation of GABAB receptors in CA3 PCs. The slow inhibitory response defined an optimum frequency of presynaptic activity for spike transfer at ∼10 Hz. Altogether these properties define the temporal rules for efficient information transfer at DG-CA3 synaptic connections in the intact circuit.

  14. Prenatal protein malnutrition results in increased frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rat CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ming; Galler, Janina R; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2003-08-01

    Electrophysiological studies have revealed an increase in the level of tonic inhibition in the hippocampus following prenatal protein malnutrition in rats. In the present study, whole cell patch clamp recordings of bipolar interneurons in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield were used to determine whether this increase in inhibition can be accounted for by a change in the electrophysiological properties of GABAergic interneurons. Hippocampal slices were prepared from juvenile rats whose dams were fed either a normal (25% casein) or low (6% casein) protein diet throughout pregnancy. Intrinsic membrane and action potential properties were unaltered by the prenatal nutritional insult. In most respects the characteristics of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and the modulation of such currents by the benzodiazepine agonist zolpidem were also similar in cells from the two nutritional groups. While the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory currents was unaltered, miniature (Tetrodotoxin resistant) inhibitory currents occurred at a significantly increased frequency in interneurons from prenatally protein malnourished rats. Thus, while the basic membrane properties of interneurons are preserved, there is a significant increase in the probability of GABA release from interneurons following prenatal protein malnutrition.

  15. How Informative Are Spatial CA3 Representations Established by the Dentate Gyrus?

    PubMed Central

    Cerasti, Erika; Treves, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    In the mammalian hippocampus, the dentate gyrus (DG) is characterized by sparse and powerful unidirectional projections to CA3 pyramidal cells, the so-called mossy fibers. Mossy fiber synapses appear to duplicate, in terms of the information they convey, what CA3 cells already receive from entorhinal cortex layer II cells, which project both to the dentate gyrus and to CA3. Computational models of episodic memory have hypothesized that the function of the mossy fibers is to enforce a new, well separated pattern of activity onto CA3 cells, to represent a new memory, prevailing over the interference produced by the traces of older memories already stored on CA3 recurrent collateral connections. Can this hypothesis apply also to spatial representations, as described by recent neurophysiological recordings in rats? To address this issue quantitatively, we estimate the amount of information DG can impart on a new CA3 pattern of spatial activity, using both mathematical analysis and computer simulations of a simplified model. We confirm that, also in the spatial case, the observed sparse connectivity and level of activity are most appropriate for driving memory storage – and not to initiate retrieval. Surprisingly, the model also indicates that even when DG codes just for space, much of the information it passes on to CA3 acquires a non-spatial and episodic character, akin to that of a random number generator. It is suggested that further hippocampal processing is required to make full spatial use of DG inputs. PMID:20454678

  16. CAPS1 stabilizes the state of readily releasable synaptic vesicles to fusion competence at CA3–CA1 synapses in adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Yo; Ishii, Chiaki; Fukazawa, Yugo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Ishii, Yuki; Sano, Yoshitake; Iwasato, Takuji; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) regulates exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells and of synaptic vesicles in neurons. However, the synaptic function of CAPS1 in the mature brain is unclear because Caps1 knockout (KO) results in neonatal death. Here, using forebrain-specific Caps1 conditional KO (cKO) mice, we demonstrate, for the first time, a critical role of CAPS1 in adult synapses. The amplitude of synaptic transmission at CA3–CA1 synapses was strongly reduced, and paired-pulse facilitation was significantly increased, in acute hippocampal slices from cKO mice compared with control mice, suggesting a perturbation in presynaptic function. Morphological analysis revealed an accumulation of synaptic vesicles in the presynapse without any overall morphological change. Interestingly, however, the percentage of docked vesicles was markedly decreased in the Caps1 cKO. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAPS1 stabilizes the state of readily releasable synaptic vesicles, thereby enhancing neurotransmitter release at hippocampal synapses. PMID:27545744

  17. Testosterone depletion in adult male rats increases mossy fiber transmission, LTP, and sprouting in area CA3 of hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Skucas, Vanessa A.; Duffy, Aine M.; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Radman, Thomas; Chakraborty, Goutam; Schroeder, Charles E.; MacLusky, Neil J.; Scharfman, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    Androgens have dramatic effects on neuronal structure and function in hippocampus. However, androgen depletion does not always lead to hippocampal impairment. To address this apparent paradox, we evaluated the hippocampus of adult male rats after gonadectomy (Gdx) or sham surgery. Surprisingly, Gdx rats showed increased synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of the mossy fiber (MF) pathway. Gdx rats also exhibited increased excitability and MF sprouting. We then addressed the possible underlying mechanisms, and found that Gdx induced a long-lasting upregulation of MF brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity. Antagonism of Trk receptors, which bind neurotrophins such as BDNF, reversed the increase in MF transmission, excitability and LTP in Gdx rats, but there were no effects of Trk antagonism in sham controls. To determine which androgens were responsible, the effects of testosterone metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol were examined. Exposure of slices to 50 nM DHT decreased the effects of Gdx on MF transmission but 50 nM 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol had no effect. Remarkably, there was no effect of DHT in control males. The data suggest that a Trk- and androgen receptor-sensitive form of MF transmission and synaptic plasticity emerges after Gdx. We suggest that androgens may normally be important in area CA3 to prevent hyperexcitability and aberrant axon outgrowth, but limit MF synaptic transmission and some forms of plasticity. The results also suggest a potential explanation for the maintenance of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function after androgen depletion: a reduction in androgens may lead to compensatory upregulation of MF transmission and plasticity. PMID:23392664

  18. Simultaneous monitoring of tissue P2 and NADH fluorescence during synaptic stimulation and spreading depression reveals a transient dissociation between oxygen utilization and mitochondrial redox state in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Galeffi, Francesca; Somjen, George G; Foster, Kelley A; Turner, Dennis A

    2011-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) imaging can be used to monitor neuronal activation and ascertain mitochondrial dysfunction, for example during hypoxia. During neuronal stimulation in vitro, NADH normally becomes more oxidized, indicating enhanced oxygen utilization. A subsequent NADH overshoot during activation or on recovery remains controversial and reflects either increased metabolic activity or limited oxygen availability. Tissue P2 measurements, obtained simultaneously with NADH imaging in area CA1 in hippocampal slices, reveal that during prolonged train stimulation (ST) in 95% O2, a persistent NADH oxidation is coupled with increased metabolic demand and oxygen utilization, for the duration of the stimulation. However, under conditions of either decreased oxygen supply (ST-50% O2) or enhanced metabolic demand (K+-induced spreading depression (K+-SD) 95% O2) the NADH oxidation is brief and the redox balance shifts early toward reduction, leading to a prolonged NADH overshoot. Yet, oxygen utilization remains elevated and is correlated with metabolic demand. Under these conditions, it appears that the rate of NAD+ reduction may transiently exceed oxidation, to maintain an adequate oxygen flux and ATP production. In contrast, during SD in 50% O2, the oxygen levels dropped to a point at which oxidative metabolism in the electron transport chain is limited and the rate of utilization declined. PMID:20736960

  19. Action potential initiation and propagation in CA3 pyramidal axons.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Mennerick, Steven

    2007-05-01

    Thin, unmyelinated axons densely populate the mammalian hippocampus and cortex. However, the location and dynamics of spike initiation in thin axons remain unclear. We investigated basic properties of spike initiation and propagation in CA3 neurons of juvenile rat hippocampus. Sodium channel alpha subunit distribution and local applications of tetrodotoxin demonstrate that the site of first threshold crossing in CA3 neurons is approximately 35 microm distal to the soma, somewhat more proximal than our previous estimates. This discrepancy can be explained by the finding, obtained with simultaneous whole cell somatic and extracellular axonal recordings, that a zone of axon stretching to approximately 100 microm distal to the soma reaches a maximum rate of depolarization nearly synchronously by the influx of sodium from the high-density channels. Models of the proximal axon incorporating observed distributions of sodium channel staining recapitulated salient features of somatic and axonal spike waveforms, including the predicted initiation zone, characteristic spike latencies, and conduction velocity. The preferred initiation zone was unaltered by stimulus strength or repetitive spiking, but repetitive spiking increased threshold and significantly slowed initial segment recruitment time and conduction velocity. Our work defines the dynamics of initiation and propagation in hippocampal principal cell axons and may help reconcile recent controversies over initiation site in other axons.

  20. The engram formation and the global oscillations of CA3

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The investigation on the conditions which cause global population oscillatory activities in neural fields, originated some years ago with reference to a kinetic theory of neural systems, as been further deepened in this paper. In particular, the genesis of sharp waves and of some rhythmic activities, such as theta and gamma rhythms, of the hippocampal CA3 field, behaviorally important for their links to learning and memory, has been analyzed with more details. To this aim, the modeling-computational framework previously devised for the study of activities in large neural fields, has been enhanced in such a way that a greater number of biological features, extended dendritic trees—in particular, could be taken into account. By using that methodology, a two-dimensional model of the entire CA3 field has been described and its activity, as it results from the several external inputs impinging on it, has been simulated. As a consequence of these investigations, some hypotheses have been elaborated about the possible function of global oscillatory activities of neural populations of Hippocampus in the engram formation. PMID:19003462

  1. The engram formation and the global oscillations of CA3.

    PubMed

    Ventriglia, Francesco

    2008-12-01

    The investigation on the conditions which cause global population oscillatory activities in neural fields, originated some years ago with reference to a kinetic theory of neural systems, as been further deepened in this paper. In particular, the genesis of sharp waves and of some rhythmic activities, such as theta and gamma rhythms, of the hippocampal CA3 field, behaviorally important for their links to learning and memory, has been analyzed with more details. To this aim, the modeling-computational framework previously devised for the study of activities in large neural fields, has been enhanced in such a way that a greater number of biological features, extended dendritic trees-in particular, could be taken into account. By using that methodology, a two-dimensional model of the entire CA3 field has been described and its activity, as it results from the several external inputs impinging on it, has been simulated. As a consequence of these investigations, some hypotheses have been elaborated about the possible function of global oscillatory activities of neural populations of Hippocampus in the engram formation.

  2. In vitro detection of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neurodegeneration and pharmacological neuroprotection based on hippocampal stratum pyramidale width.

    PubMed

    Öz, Pınar; Saybaşılı, Hale

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the most prominent risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The effects of oxygen and glucose depletion in hippocampal tissue due to ischemia can be mimicked in vitro using the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In this study, we applied OGD on acute rat hippocampal slices in order to design an elementary yet quantitative histological technique that compares the neuroprotective effects of (l)-carnitine to known neuroprotectors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen. The level of neurodegeneration and the efficiency of pharmacological applications were estimated via stratum pyramidale width measurements in CA1 and CA3 regions of Nissl-stained 200-μm thick hippocampal slices. We demonstrated that (l)-carnitine is an effective pharmacological target against the neurodegeneration induced by in vitro ischemia in a narrow range of concentrations. Even though the effect of chemical neuroprotection was significant, full recovery was not achieved in the dose interval of 5-100μM. In addition to chemical applications, hypothermia was used as a physical neuroprotection against ischemia-related neurodegeneration. Our results showed that incubation of slices for 60min at 4°C provided the same level of neuroprotection as the most effective doses of memantine, baclofen, and (l)-carnitine.

  3. Oxygen glucose deprivation causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cultivated rat hippocampal slices: protective effects of CsA, its immunosuppressive congener [D-Ser](8)CsA, the novel non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative Cs9, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801.

    PubMed

    Trumbeckaite, Sonata; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Arandarcikaite, Odeta; Röhnert, Peter; Vielhaber, Stefan; Malesevic, Miroslav; Fischer, Gunter; Seppet, Enn; Striggow, Frank; Gellerich, Frank Norbert

    2013-09-01

    We have introduced a sensitive method for studying oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced mitochondrial alterations in homogenates of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (slices) by high-resolution respirometry. Using this approach, we tested the neuroprotective potential of the novel non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin (CsA) derivative Cs9 in comparison with CsA, the immunosuppressive CsA analog [D-Ser](8)CsA, and MK 801, a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. OGD/reperfusion reduced the glutamate/malate dependent (and protein-related) state 3 respiration to 30% of its value under control conditions. All of the above drugs reversed this effect, with an increase to >88% of the value for control slices not exposed to OGD. We conclude that Cs9, [D-Ser](8)CsA, and MK 801, despite their different modes of action, protect mitochondria from OGD-induced damage.

  4. What Is the Functional Significance of Chronic Stress-Induced CA3 Dendritic Retraction Within the Hippocampus?

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic stress produces consistent and reversible changes within the dendritic arbors of CA3 hippocampal neurons, characterized by decreased dendritic length and reduced branch number. This chronic stress-induced dendritic retraction has traditionally corresponded to hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits. However, anomalous findings have raised doubts as to whether a CA3 dendritic retraction is sufficient to compromise hippocampal function. The purpose of this review is to outline the mechanism underlying chronic stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction and to explain why CA3 dendritic retraction has been thought to mediate spatial memory. The anomalous findings provide support for a modified hypothesis, in which chronic stress is proposed to induce CA3 dendritic retraction, which then disrupts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, leading to dysregulated glucocorticoid release. The combination of hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction and elevated glucocorticoid release contributes to impaired spatial memory. These findings are presented in the context of clinical conditions associated with elevated glucocorticoids. PMID:16816092

  5. Anatomically heterogeneous populations of CB1 cannabinoid receptor-expressing interneurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus show homogeneous input-output characteristics.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Gergely G; Papp, Orsolya I; Máté, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Hájos, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    A subpopulation of GABAergic cells in cortical structures expresses CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 ) on their axon terminals. To understand the function of these interneurons in information processing, it is necessary to uncover how they are embedded into neuronal circuits. Therefore, the proportion of GABAergic terminals expressing CB1 and the morphological and electrophysiological properties of CB1 -immunoreactive interneurons should be revealed. We investigated the ratio and the origin of CB1 -expressing inhibitory boutons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we estimated that ∼40% of GABAergic axon terminals in different layers of CA3 also expressed CB1 . To identify the inhibitory cell types expressing CB1 in this region, we recorded and intracellularly labeled interneurons in hippocampal slices. CB1 -expressing interneurons showed distinct axonal arborization, and were classified as basket cells, mossy-fiber-associated cells, dendritic-layer-innervating cells or perforant-path-associated cells. In each morphological category, a substantial variability in axonal projection was observed. In contrast to the diverse morphology, the active and passive membrane properties were found to be rather similar. Using paired recordings, we found that pyramidal cells displayed large and fast unitary postsynaptic currents in response to activating basket and mossy-fiber-associated cells, while they showed slower and smaller synaptic events in pairs originating from interneurons that innervate the dendritic layer, which may be due to dendritic filtering. In addition, CB1 activation significantly reduced the amplitude of the postsynaptic currents in each cell pair tested. Our data suggest that CB1 -expressing interneurons with different axonal projections have comparable physiological characteristics, contributing to a similar proportion of GABAergic inputs along the somato-dendritic axis of CA3 pyramidal cells.

  6. Endogenous activation of nAChRs and NMDA receptors contributes to the excitability of CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons in rat hippocampal slices: effects of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2011-10-15

    CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons (SRIs) express α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) and receive inputs from glutamatergic neurons/axons that express α3β4β2 nAChRs. To test the hypothesis that endogenously active α7 and/or α3β4β2 nAChRs control the excitability of CA1 SRIs in the rat hippocampus, we examined the effects of selective receptor antagonists on spontaneous fast current transients (CTs) recorded from these interneurons under cell-attached configuration. The frequency of CTs, which represent action potentials, increased in the absence of extracellular Mg(2+) and decreased in the presence of the α3β4β2 nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 μM) or the NMDA receptor antagonist APV (50 μM). However, it was unaffected by the α7 nAChR antagonist MLA (10 nM) or the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX (10 μM). Thus, in addition to synaptically and tonically activated NMDA receptors, α3β4β2 nAChRs that are present on glutamatergic axons/neurons synapsing onto SRIs and are activated by basal levels of acetylcholine contribute to the maintenance of the excitability of these interneurons. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived kynurenine metabolite whose levels are increased in the brains of patients with schizophrenia, also controls the excitability of SRIs. At high micromolar concentrations, KYNA, acting primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist, decreased the CT frequency recorded from the interneurons. At 2 μM, KYNA reduced the CA1 SRI excitability via mechanisms independent of NMDA receptor block. KYNA-induced reduction of excitability of SRIs may contribute to sensory gating deficits that have been attributed to deficient hippocampal GABAergic transmission and high levels of KYNA in the brain of patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Bicarbonate efflux via GABAA receptors depolarizes membrane potential and inhibits two-pore domain potassium channels of astrocytes in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bao-Feng; Xie, Min-Jie; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the functional expression of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAA-R) in astrocytes. However, it remains controversial in regard to the intracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]i) and the functional role of anion-selective GABAA-R in astrocytes. In gramicidin perforated-patch recordings from rat hippocampal CA1 astrocytes, GABA and GABAA-R specific agonist THIP depolarized astrocyte membrane potential (Vm), and the THIP induced currents reversed at the voltages between −75.3 to −78.3 mV, corresponding to a [Cl−]i of 3.1 – 3.9 mM that favors a passive distribution of Cl− anions across astrocyte membrane. Further analysis showed that GABAA-R induced Vm depolarization is ascribed to HCO3− efflux, while a passively distributed Cl− mediates no net flux or influx of Cl-that leads to an unchanged or hyperpolarized Vm. In addition to a rapidly activated GABAA-R current component, GABA and THIP also induced a delayed inward current (DIC) in 63% of astrocytes. The DIC became manifest after agonist withdrawal and enhanced in amplitude with increasing agonist application duration or concentrations. Astrocytic two-pore domain K+ channels (K2Ps), especially TWIK-1, appeared to underlie the DIC, because 1) acidic intracellular pH, as a result of HCO3− efflux, inhibited TWIK-1; 2) the DIC remained in the Cs+ recording solutions that inhibited conventional K+ channels and 3) the DIC was completely inhibited by 1 mM quinine but not by blockers for other cation/anion channels. Altogether, HCO3− efflux through activated GABAA-R depolarizes astrocyte Vm and induces a delayed inhibition of K2Ps K+ channels via intracellular acidification. PMID:22855415

  8. Neural Activity Propagation in an Unfolded Hippocampal Preparation with a Penetrating Micro-electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Reyes, Luis E.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for preparing a new in vitro flat hippocampus preparation combined with a micro-machined array to map neural activity in the hippocampus. The transverse hippocampal slice preparation is the most common tissue preparation to study hippocampus electrophysiology. A longitudinal hippocampal slice was also developed in order to investigate longitudinal connections in the hippocampus. The intact mouse hippocampus can also be maintained in vitro because its thickness allows adequate oxygen diffusion. However, these three preparations do not provide direct access to neural propagation since some of the tissue is either missing or folded. The unfolded intact hippocampus provides both transverse and longitudinal connections in a flat configuration for direct access to the tissue to analyze the full extent of signal propagation in the hippocampus in vitro. In order to effectively monitor the neural activity from the cell layer, a custom made penetrating micro-electrode array (PMEA) was fabricated and applied to the unfolded hippocampus. The PMEA with 64 electrodes of 200 µm in height could record neural activity deep inside the mouse hippocampus. The unique combination of an unfolded hippocampal