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Sample records for cabbage

  1. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  2. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Commercial or better in accordance with the United States Standards for Grades of Cabbage, or processing... of Cabbage for Processing due to an insurable cause of loss. Direct marketing. Sale of the insured.... Commercial for fresh market cabbage; or (b) U.S. No. 2 for processing cabbage. Planted acreage. In addition...

  3. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Commercial or better in accordance with the United States Standards for Grades of Cabbage, or processing... of Cabbage for Processing due to an insurable cause of loss. Direct marketing. Sale of the insured.... Commercial for fresh market cabbage; or (b) U.S. No. 2 for processing cabbage. Planted acreage. In addition...

  4. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Commercial or better in accordance with the United States Standards for Grades of Cabbage, or processing... of Cabbage for Processing due to an insurable cause of loss. Direct marketing. Sale of the insured.... Commercial for fresh market cabbage; or (b) U.S. No. 2 for processing cabbage. Planted acreage. In addition...

  5. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Commercial or better in accordance with the United States Standards for Grades of Cabbage, or processing... of Cabbage for Processing due to an insurable cause of loss. Direct marketing. Sale of the insured.... Commercial for fresh market cabbage; or (b) U.S. No. 2 for processing cabbage. Planted acreage. In addition...

  6. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Commercial or better in accordance with the United States Standards for Grades of Cabbage, or processing.... Commercial for fresh market cabbage; or (b) U.S. No. 2 for processing cabbage. Planted acreage. In addition... initially be planted in rows wide enough to permit mechanical cultivation. Cabbage planted or seeds planted...

  7. Evaluation of pesticide residue dynamics in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower.

    PubMed

    Kocourek, František; Stará, Jitka; Holý, Kamil; Horská, Tereza; Kocourek, Vladimír; Kováčová, Jana; Kohoutková, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hajšlová, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Pesticide residues from the time of application until harvest were analysed for 20, 17 and 18 active insecticidal and fungicidal substances in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower, respectively. In total, 40 mathematical models of residue degradation were developed using a first-order kinetic equation, and from these models it was possible to forecast the action pre-harvest interval for a given action threshold for low-residue production in Brassica vegetables as a percentage of the maximum residue level. Additionally, it was possible to establish an action pre-harvest interval based on an action threshold of 0.01 mg kg ‒1 for the production of Brassica vegetables for baby food. Among the evaluated commodities, the speed of residue degradation was highest in head cabbage, medium in Chinese cabbage and lowest in cauliflower. The half-lives of pesticide in various vegetables were also determined: they ranged from 1.55 to 5.25 days in Chinese cabbage, from 0.47 to 6.54 days in head cabbage and from 1.88 to 7.22 days in cauliflower.

  8. Temperature Relationships in Eastern Skunk Cabbage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Barbara J.; Halkin, Sylvia L.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is presented in which students determine where metabolic heat is primarily generated in blooming eastern skunk cabbage ("Symplocarpus foetidus") plants. Students consider how color, shape, and orientation of spathes, and stage of flower maturation, may affect metabolic heat production and retention of both metabolic and solar…

  9. Veggie Project - Harvesting Chinese Cabbage aboard the ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-17

    At Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Veggie Project Manager Nicole Dufour instructs astronaut Peggy Whitson during the harvest of Chinese cabbage aboard the International Space Station. While the space station crew will get to eat some of the Chinese cabbage, the rest is being saved for scientific study back at Kennedy Space Center. This is the fifth crop grown aboard the station, and the first Chinese cabbage.

  10. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  11. A Head for Science: Using Cabbage to Teach Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifting, Inez Fugate

    1988-01-01

    Using ordinary household items--vinegar, ammonia, and cabbage juice--teachers can demonstrate properties of acids, bases, and neutrals. Students are encouraged to discuss results and hypothesize about experiments. A guide to the project is provided. (JL)

  12. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plantsmore » sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.« less

  13. The impact of red cabbage fermentation on bioavailability of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Romaszko, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of red cabbage fermentation on anthocyanin bioavailability and plasma antioxidant capacity in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study, 13 volunteers consumed fresh and fermented red cabbage. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after consumption. Analyses of anthocyanins by HPLC-MS/MS and plasma antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence assay were conducted. Red cabbage products contained 20 different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with the main structure of cyanidin triglucosides. The anthocyanins ingested were present in physiological fluids in form of 18 native anthocyanins and 12 metabolites (methylated, glucuronided, sulfated). Among cyanidin metabolites identified, methylated forms were predominant. Bioavailability of anthocyanin from fresh red cabbage was over 10% higher than from fermented red cabbage. Upon fresh cabbage consumption, volunteers plasma showed higher antioxidant capacity than after fermented cabbage intake. The study has shown that fermentation process affects red cabbage anthocyanins bioavailability and human plasma antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does boiling affect the bioaccessibility of selenium from cabbage?

    PubMed

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, J Fermín

    2015-08-15

    The bioaccessible selenium species from cabbage were studied using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) which establishes conditions that simulate the gastric and gastrointestinal phases of human digestion. Samples of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown in peat fortified with different concentrations of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were analysed, and several enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin and amylase) were used in the PBET. The effect of boiling before extraction was also assayed. Selenium speciation in the PBET extracts was determined using anionic exchange and LC-ICP/MS. The selenocompounds in the extracts were Se(IV), SeMet and, mostly, Se(VI) species. The results show that the activity of the enzymes increased the concentration of the selenocompounds slightly, although the use of amylase had no effect on the results. The PBET showed the concentration of inorganic selenium in the extracts from boiled cabbage decreased as much as 4-fold while the release of SeMet and its concentration increased (up to 6-fold), with respect to raw cabbage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  17. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  18. Dissipation and residues of emamectin benzoate in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuaigang; Zhang, Fengzu; Wang, Lei; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    Emamectin benzoate residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at GAP conditions were studied. An HPLC-MS analytical method for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and soil was developed. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate on cabbage and soil were observed from 71% to 102% at fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The reported limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.01 mg/kg. The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T(1/2)) of emamectin benzoate was around 1 days. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 7 and 12 days, emamectin benzoate residue was observed to be below the LOQ.

  19. A magical biological insecticide extracted from seeds of Millettia pachyarpa to kill cabbage aphids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tianxing; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan

    2018-04-01

    Millettia pachycarpa Benth is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the genus Millettia, as it is widely used in traditional practices like agricultural pesticides, blood tonics, fish poison, and treatments for cancer and infertility. The crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa had insecticidal activity on cabbage aphids. The conventional extract approach with three kinds of organic solvents: methanol, ethanol, and acetone was used for extracting of crude extract of seeds of M. pachycarpa. The leaf immersion method in a petri dish was used to measure contact activity on cabbage aphids. The field measurement method in a cabbage field was used to measure the control effect. The result indicated that the average mortality rate of cabbage aphids reached 91.3 percent under the action of crude extract of the seeds of M. pachycarpa, indicating that contacting activity against cabbage aphid was strong. After the crude extract was sprayed for 2 days, the proofread control effect of 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract against cabbage aphid was 85.0 percent. After 7 days of spraying, this number increased to 92.2 percent. The study concluded that crude extract of the seeds of M. pachyarpa extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone had demonstrable contact activity against cabbage aphid and 1000 μg / mL ethanol crude extract had significant control effect against the larvae of cabbage aphid.

  20. Copper toxicity and bioaccumulation in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Wang, Hai

    2005-04-01

    Copper is among the major heavy metal contaminants in the environment with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Human health risk from heavy metal bioaccumulation in vegetables has been a subject of growing concern in recent years. To investigate Cu phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation in the popular vegetable Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr) as well as the implications for human health due to Cu in the vegetable supply, seed germination and pot culture experiments with this vegetable were carried out. Six levels (0, 0.008, 0.031, 0.125, 0.5, and 2.0 mM/L) and 3 levels (0, 0.2, and 1.0 mM/kg) of Cu treatments were performed for the seed germination and pot culture experiments, respectively. The LC(50) of Cu for seed germination of Chinese cabbage was 0.348 mM/L. In the pot culture experiments, Cu treatments significantly increased electrolyte leakage and peroxidase activity of shoot tissues, demonstrating Cu phytotoxicity to the plants. On the other hand, Cu treatments significantly stimulated, instead of reduced, chlorophyll content. Cu treatments did not show a significant effect on shoot biomass. Compared to the control, Cu treatments significantly elevated the Cu content of the shoots-9.9, 42.5, and 119.0 mg/kg (DW) of Cu were detected in the 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mM/kg treatments, respectively. These results showed that although the plants accumulated an elevated copper content and suffered damage to some extent under Cu treatment, they looked healthy. It was suggested that Chinese cabbage with an elevated Cu content and without showing visible symptoms of damage possibly could cause a risk to human health from the transfer of the metal in food.

  1. Decontamination of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage and cauliflower through household processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kar, Abhijit; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-04-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the residues of chlorantraniliprole on cabbage and cauliflower. Three applications of chlorantraniliprole at 10 days interval were made @ 9.25 and 18.50 g a.i. ha(-1). The samples of marketable size heads and curds of cabbage and cauliflower were collected at 0 and 1 day after the last application. QuEChERS sample preparation was used for the determination of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage heads and cauliflower curds. The residues of chlorantraniliprole were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photo diode array (PDA) detector and confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Washing of cabbage and cauliflower with tap water removed about 17%-40% of chlorantraniliprole residues. However, boiling removed 100% of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage and cauliflower in both the cases.

  2. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated onto fresh-cut chopped cabbage using electron-beam processing.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Uribe-Rendon, Roberto M; Lee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade there were more than 50 reported outbreaks involving leafy green vegetables contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Leafy greens, including cabbage, are fresh foods rarely heated before consumption, which enables foodborne illness. The need for improved safety of fresh food drives the demand for nonthermal food processes to decrease the risk of pathogens while maintaining fresh quality. This study examines the efficacy of electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation in decreasing indigenous microflora on fresh-cut cabbage and determines the optimal dosage to pasteurize fresh-cut cabbage inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12. Fresh-cut cabbage (100 g) was inoculated with ∼8 log E. coli K-12 and e-beam irradiated at doses of 0, 1.0, 2.3, or 4.0 kGy. At 2.3 kGy there was <1.0 log indigenous microflora remaining, indicating greater than a 4.0-log reduction by e-beam. At a 4.0-kGy dose there was >7-log reduction of E. coli K-12 in the fresh-cut cabbage. The D(10)-value for E. coli K-12 in fresh-cut cabbage was 0.564 kGy. E-beam irradiation is thus a viable nonthermal treatment that extends the shelf life and increases the safety of fresh cabbage by reducing or eliminating indigenous microflora and unwanted pathogens.

  4. [Component and content changes of volatiles from Chinese cabbage damaged by Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng; Wei, Hui

    2004-11-01

    The study showed that Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris could release a variety of volatiles, especially when infested by Plutella xylostella larvae. Among these volatiles, saturated hydrocarbon was dominant, aromatic hydrocarbon was the second, and unsaturated hydrocarbon, aldehyde, alcohol, ketone, acid and heteroaromatic compounds were existed with a small amount. Chinese cabbage damaged by Plutella xylostella larvae produced 3 times of volatiles in amount with more species than the control. The volatiles from control plants were mostly of small molecular weight, and those from Chinese cabbage damaged by Plutella xylostella were mostly of high molecular weight.

  5. Nitrogen fertilization and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments affected amino acid content of cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursun, Atilla; Yildirim, Ertan; Ekinci, Melek; Turan, Metin; Kul, Raziye; Karagöz, Fazilet P.

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of a nitrogen fixing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation (seed coating and seedling dipping) and 6 doses of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) application on amino acid contents of cabbage. Coating and seedling dipping applications caused a significant increase in values histidine, glycine, thionin, arginine and alanine of cabbage. Highest glutamate, serine, asparagines and glutamine contents were obtained from 160-200 kg ha-1 nitrogen dose applied plants. As a result, the use of bacteria treatments provides means of improving amino acid contents in cabbage.

  6. [Characteristics of arthropod community in alpine cabbage fields].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-ping; Zhang, Zhong-ning

    2007-01-01

    The study on the community structure of arthropod in the alpine cabbage fields of Hubei Province showed that the dominant pests were Brevicoryne brassicae, Mamestra brassicae and Plutella xylostella, while the dominant natural enemies were Diaeretiella rapae, Cotesia plutella, Erigonidum gramiaicolum and Syrphus corollae. The richness, diversity index, evenness index and dominance index of pest and natural enemy sub-communities all changed with time. The dominance index of pest sub-community was higher, while its diversity and evenness indices were lower than those of natural enemy sub-community. Based on fuzzy clustering analysis, the pest and natural enemy subcommunities of 14 time sequences were grouped into 4 and 3 sorts, respectively.

  7. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress.

  8. Physiological and Transcriptomic Responses of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that severely impact plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the physiological and transcriptomic responses of Chinese cabbage “Qingmaye” to salt stress, a main variety in North China. Our results showed that the growth and photosynthesis of Chinese cabbage were significantly inhibited by salt treatment. However, as a glycophyte, Chinese cabbage could cope with high salinity; it could complete an entire life cycle at 100 mM NaCl. The high salt tolerance of Chinese cabbage was achieved by accumulating osmoprotectants and by maintaining higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. Transcriptomic responses were analyzed using the digital gene expression profiling (DGE) technique after 12 h of treatment by 200 mM NaCl. A total of 1235 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 740 up- and 495 down-regulated genes were identified. Functional annotation analyses showed that the DEGs were related to signal transduction, osmolyte synthesis, transcription factors, and antioxidant proteins. Taken together, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of salt tolerance in Chinese cabbage and provides valuable information for further improvement of salt tolerance in Chinese cabbage breeding programs. PMID:28895882

  9. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (∼60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake of PAHs by cabbage root and leaf in vegetable plots near a large coking manufacturer and associations with PAHs in cabbage core.

    PubMed

    Xiong, GuanNan; Zhang, YunHui; Duan, YongHong; Cai, ChuanYang; Wang, Xin; Li, JingYa; Tao, Shu; Liu, WenXin

    2017-08-01

    Samples of ambient air (including gaseous and particulate phases), dust fall, surface soil, rhizosphere soil, core (edible part), outer leaf, and root of cabbage from eight vegetable plots near a large coking manufacturer were collected during the harvest period. Concentrations, compositions, and distributions of parent PAHs in different samples were determined. Our results indicated that most of the parent PAHs in air occurred in the gaseous phase, dominated by low molecular weight (LMW) species with two to three rings. Specific isomeric ratios and principal component analysis were employed to preliminarily identify the local sources of parent PAHs emitted. The main emission sources of parent PAHs could be apportioned as a mixture of coal combustion, coking production, and traffic tailing gas. PAH components with two to four rings were prevailing in dust fall, surface soil, and rhizosphere soil. Concentrations of PAHs in surface soil exhibited a significant positive correlation with topsoil TOC fractions. Compositional profiles in outer leaf and core of cabbage, dominated by LMW species, were similar to those in the local air. Overall, the order of parent PAH concentration in cabbage was outer leaf > root > core. Partial correlation analysis and multivariate linear stepwise regression revealed that PAH concentrations in cabbage core were closely associated with PAHs present both in root and in outer leaf, namely, affected by adsorption, then absorption, and translocation of PAHs from rhizosphere soil and ambient air, respectively.

  11. Growth of Listeria spp. in shredded cabbage is enhanced by a mild heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ells, Timothy C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2010-03-01

    Mild thermal processing can enhance the shelf life of cut fruits and vegetables by delaying the onset of spoilage and preserving the organoleptic properties of shredded cabbage. However, food safety issues related to this process have not been fully investigated. Therefore, the survival and growth of Listeria spp. on cabbage treated in this manner was examined. Experimentally, 24 strains of Listeria spp. (including L. monocytogenes) were inoculated onto cut and intact cabbage tissues and stored at 5 degrees C. All strains on intact tissues exhibited a moderate decline in numbers (up to 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) over the 28-day storage period. Conversely, cut tissue supported growth of most strains during the first 7 to 14 days of incubation with maximum increases of 1.2 log CFU/cm(2). Subsequently, the survival or growth on heat-treated (50 degrees C for 3 min) and untreated shredded cabbage of four L. monocytogenes and four nonpathogenic Listeria spp. strains were compared during storage for 21 days at 5 degrees C. Growth on untreated shred for all strains was similar to the results observed on cut tissue with a maximum increase of approximately 1.0 log CFU/g. However, in the heat-treated cabbage shred all strains displayed a rapid increase in growth (up to 2.5 log CFU/g) during the first 7 days of incubation, which may be indicative of the destruction of an endogenous growth-inhibiting compound within the cabbage. In conclusion, this study shows that mild thermal treatments of cut cabbage may promote pathogen growth if other inimical barriers are not implemented downstream of the thermal treatment.

  12. Plant growth regulator-mediated anti-herbivore responses of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) against cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian M; Samara, R; Renaud, J B; Sumarah, M W

    2017-09-01

    Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses. The objective of this study was to determine whether insects feeding on Brassica crops might be negatively affected by SA inducible defenses combined with an inhibitor of detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes that regulate the insect response to the plant's defenses. The relative growth rate of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed induced cabbage Brassica oleraceae leaves with the inhibitor, quercetin, was significantly less than those fed control cabbage with and without the inhibitor. The reduced growth was related to the reduction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by the combination of quercetin and increased levels of indole glucosinolates in the cabbage treated with BTH at 2.6× the recommended application rate. These findings may offer a novel combination of elicitor and synergist that can provide protection from plant disease and herbivores in cabbage and other Brassica crops. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound improves antimicrobial effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium on purple cabbage.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Lúcia Almeida; do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; de Souza, Hygor Lendell Silva; de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Carneiro, Joel Camilo Souza; Silva, Pollyanna Ibrahim; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2018-03-23

    The consumer's interest in ready-to-eat, fast-ready, nutritious and fresh foods is a major challenge for the food industry. Thus, studies on new sanitization methods are relevant. The effect of Sodium Hypochlorite (SH), Benzalkonium Chloride (BC), and Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (SD) isolated or combined with Ultrasound (US) in purple cabbage quality over 7 days of storage at 8 ± 1 °C was evaluated. The natural microbiota (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and coliforms), intentionally inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium, physicochemical quality (anthocyanins, pH, total titratable acidity, instrumental color and mass loss) and sensorial quality (multiple comparison test and visual sensory acceptance) were analyzed. The best treatments for natural microbiota reduction were BC and US + BC, which in general reduced between 1.9 and 3.2 log cfu/g. US improved (p < .05) the effect of SD reducing almost 4 log cycles in the population of S. Typhimurium adhered to cabbage. The treatments with benzalkonium chloride resulted in important physicochemical changes in cabbage. The treatments SD and US + SD did not alter the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of purple cabbage. Therefore, ultrasound combined with sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a promising alternative for the reduction of microbiological contaminants of purple cabbage without physicochemical, sensory and anthocyanin content loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Li, Yanjie; Du, Fengpei; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A LC-ESI-MS/MS method with QuEChERS for analysis of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil was established. At fortification levels of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg in cabbage, apple and soil, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 75.9 to 97.0 percent with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.4-19.0 percent. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.001 mg/kg for cabbage, apple and soil. The dissipation half-lives of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil were 1.34-1.72 day, 2.75-3.09 day and 1.89-4.89 day, respectively. The final residues of emamectin benzoate ranged from 0.001 to 0.052 mg/kg in cabbages, 0.003 to 0.090 mg/kg in apples and 0.001 to 0.089 mg/kg in soils, respectively. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems if emamectin benzoate was applied according to the use pattern suggested by the manufactures on the label. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  16. A repellent net as a new technology to protect cabbage crops.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Palix, R; Kamal, A; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2013-08-01

    Floating row covers or insect-proof nets with fine mesh are effective at protecting vegetable crops against aphids but negatively impact plant health, especially under warm conditions. Furthermore, in control of cabbage insect pests, aphid parasitoids cannot enter the fine-mesh nets, leading to frequent aphid outbreaks. To surmount these difficulties, a 40-mesh-size repellent net treated with alphacypermethrin was studied in laboratory and field tests. Results showed both irritant and repellent effects of the alphacypermethrin-treated net on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Under field conditions, there were no pests on cabbage protected with the repellent net. The repellent net allowed combining a visual and repellent barrier against aphids. Because of this additive effect, repellent nets allowed covering cabbage permanently with adequate protection against all pests.

  17. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Choi, Su Ryun; Wang, Yunbo; Sung, Chang-keun; Im, Subin; Ramchiary, Nirala; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line “747” is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line “748” is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of “747” seems to be larger than those of “748” at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of “747” were larger than those of “748” at the pre-heading and maturity stages. “747” had thinner epidermis cell wall than “748” at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of “747” and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting. PMID:26536356

  18. Correlations between Colonization of Onion Thrips and Leaf Reflectance Measures across Six Cabbage Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana – considered resistant – and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor – considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340–400 nm) and visible (401–650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E) was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management. PMID:24040093

  19. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  20. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  1. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  2. Risk assessment and decontamination of Quinalphos under different culinary processes in/on cabbage.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Md Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Purkait, Swarnali; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2010-04-01

    Quinalphos 20 AF was applied at the rate of 500 and 1,000 g a.i. ha(-1) in cabbage for two consecutive seasons and the samples harvested at intervals of 0 (3 h after application), 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days interval after application. The calculated half-life values were 1.27-1.38 days and 1.12-1.24 days for cabbage heads and cropped soil, respectively. The calculated safe waiting period based on field dissipation study was 5.28-6.7 days, which indicated its persistence nature. Thus, to reduce the safe waiting period, efforts were made to decontaminate the Quinalphos residue from cabbage head by various household preparations (viz. washing, cooking, washing plus cooking, salt water dipping, dipping in boiled salt water, dipping in detergent solution, and dipping in boiled detergent solution). Statistical analysis of the data using Duncan's multiple range test revealed that various household processing substantially reduced the residue of Quinalphos in cabbage heads in the range of 27.72-75.01% irrespective of any dose and seasons, but none were able to satisfactorily bring down the residue below the tolerance level of 0.05 mg kg(-1).

  3. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  4. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-1057] Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a safety zone in the Captain...

  5. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  6. Purification and characterization of an antifungal protein, C-FKBP, from Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jung Ro; Shin, Sun-Oh; Jung, Ji Hyun; Lee, Young Mee; Son, Hyosuk; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2007-06-27

    An antifungal protein was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by buffer-soluble extraction and two chromatographic procedures. The results of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that the isolated Chinese cabbage protein was identical to human FK506-binding protein (FKBP). A cDNA encoding FKBP was isolated from a Chinese cabbage leaf cDNA library and named C-FKBP. The open reading frame of the gene encoded a 154-amino acid polypeptide. The amino acid sequence of C-FKBP exhibits striking degrees of identity with the corresponding mouse (61%), human (60%), and yeast (56%) proteins. Genomic Southern blot analyses using the full-length C-FKBP cDNA probe revealed a multigene family in the Chinese cabbage genome. The C-FKBP mRNA was highly expressed in vegetative tissues. We also analyzed the antifungal and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of recombinant C-FKBP protein expressed in Escherichia coli. This protein inhibited pathogenic fungal strains, including Candida albicans, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichoderma viride, whereas it exhibited no activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These results suggest that recombinant C-FKBP is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of antifungal agents.

  7. Efficacy of mosquito netting for sustainable small holders' cabbage production in Africa.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Assogba-Komlan, F; Houndete, T; Hougard, J M; Chandre, F

    2006-04-01

    The efficacy of a mosquito netting to protect cabbages, Brassica oleracea L., against pests was investigated in field trials in Benin, West Africa. A polyester net covered the plants at night by using a wood armature. The net was removed during the day to prevent overheating and excessive shade, both problems of insect-proof screens used under tropical conditions. The number of all lepidopteran larvae with netting protection and foliar insecticide sprays was significantly lower than the unprotected control. The number of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was significantly lower with netting protection compared with foliar insecticide sprays and control. Netting treated with deltamethrin gave total protection of young plants against the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). At harvest, the number of marketable cabbages protected with untreated netting was significantly higher compared with the production with foliar insecticide sprays. The protection of cabbages with netting can be an economically viable method. Considering the price of cabbages on local markets (US dollars 1/unit), the net returns per 100 m2 were US dollars 247 by using netting, US dollars 149 by using insecticides, and US dollars 117 for controls. The net returns for using netting are based on replacing the netting each crop cycle. But netting can be reused several times, depending upon conditions, increasing the profit margin. The netting protection may be an alternative to the growing unsustainable practices of vegetable cropping in peri-urban areas of tropical countries.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain J19, Isolated from Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of a newly discovered probiotic strain, Enterococcus faecium J19, which was isolated from cabbage. Strain J19 has shown antagonistic effects against the human foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in coculture and in different food matrices. PMID:29622613

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  10. Appropriate NH4+: NO3- ratio improves low light tolerance of mini Chinese cabbage seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed Mujitaba; Yu, Jihua; Lv, Jian

    2017-01-23

    In northwest of China, mini Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is highly valued by consumers, and is widely cultivated during winter in solar-greenhouses where low light (LL) fluence (between 85 and 150 μmol m -2 s -1 in day) is a major abiotic stress factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The mechanisms with which various NH 4 + : NO 3 - ratios affected growth and photosynthesis of mini Chinese cabbage under normal (200 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and low (100 μmol m -2 s -1 ) light conditions was investigated. The four solutions with different ratios of NH 4 + : NO 3 - applied were 0:100, 10:90, 15:85 and 25:75 with the set up in a glasshouse in hydroponic culture. The most appropriate NH 4 + : NO 3 - ratio that improved the tolerance of mini Chinese cabbage seedlings to LL was found in our current study. Under low light, the application of NH 4 + : NO 3 - (10:90) significantly stimulated growth compared to only NO 3 - by increasing leaf area, canopy spread, biomass accumulation, and net photosynthetic rate. The increase in net photosynthetic rate was associated with an increase in: 1) maximum and effective quantum yield of PSII; 2) activities of Calvin cycle enzymes; and 3) levels of mRNA relative expression of several genes involved in Calvin cycle. In addition, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and total carbohydrate, which are the products of CO 2 assimilation, accumulated most in the cabbage leaves that were supplied with NH 4 + : NO 3 - (10:90) under LL condition. Low light reduced the carbohydrate: nitrogen (C: N) ratio while the application of NH 4 + : NO 3 - (10:90) alleviated the negative effect of LL on C: N ratio mainly by increasing total carbohydrate contents. The application of NH 4 + :NO 3 - (10:90) increased rbcL, rbcS, FBA, FBPase and TK expression and/or activities, enhanced photosynthesis, carbohydrate accumulation and improved the tolerance of mini Chinese cabbage seedlings to LL. The results of this study would provide

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; P Niksic, Miomir

    2016-09-01

    The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes , ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films.

  13. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5% NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance.

  14. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field.

  15. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T.; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24302714

  16. Characterization of Nanofibrillated Cellulose Produced by Different Methods from Cabbage Outer Leaves.

    PubMed

    Khukutapan, Donnapa; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2018-06-01

    The potential use of cabbage outer leaves as a starting material for the production of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was investigated. Chemical-free pretreatment methods, namely, autoclaving, ultrasonication (US), and high-shear homogenization (HS), were applied to remove noncellulosic components from cabbage cell walls prior to defibrillation, which was conducted by subjecting a pretreated sample to HS and then high-pressure homogenization. The sample undergone autoclaving at 130 °C for 2 hr was noted to contain a significantly higher cellulose content (36.5% dry mass) compared with the fresh leaves (12.48% dry mass). This led to an increase in the crystallinity index (CI) of the autoclaved cabbages from 30.8% to 50.7%. Further increase in the cellulose content (47.0% to 49.2% dry mass) was observed when subjecting the autoclaved sample to either US at 37 kHz for 1 hr, HS at 3800 × g for 15 min or HS followed by US at the aforementioned conditions. After pretreatment and defibrilllation, a suspension of NFC with the diameters of 4 to 50 nm was obtained, with the CI of 59.1% to 66.7%. Such a suspension exhibited a gel-like behavior with tan δ in the range of 0.12 to 0.13; the suspension exhibited a similar behavior to that prepared by the conventional chemical pretreatment method. NFC could be produced from cabbage outer leaves, which are an abundantly available by-product of a vegetable processing plant, via the combined hydrothermal and mechanical pretreatment without the use of any chemicals. This chemical-free preparation process is highly desirable as it leaves no residues in the product and causes no chemical waste that needs to be treated. Cabbage-based NFC also exhibits similar characteristics to that prepared via a chemically treated route. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Comparison of cauliflower-insect-fungus interactions and pesticides for cabbage root fly control.

    PubMed

    Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Glucosinolate Profiles in Cabbage Genotypes Influence the Preferential Feeding of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Hossain, Mohammad Rashed; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Hye R.; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L., is a devastating pest of cabbage worldwide whose feeding attributes are influenced by glucosinolate profiles of the plant. Identifying the specific glucosinolates associated with plants’ resistance mechanism can provide cues to novel points of intervention in developing resistant cultivars. We studied the DBM larval feeding preference and extent of damage on cabbage leaves via controlled glass-house and in vitro multiple- and two-choice feeding tests. These feeding attributes were associated with the individual glucosinolate profiles, analyzed by HPLC, of each of the eight cabbage genotypes using multivariate analytical approach to identify the glucosinolates that may have roles in resistance. Both the glass-house and in vitro multiple-choice feeding tests identified the genotype BN4303, BN4059, and BN4072 as the least preferred (resistant) and Rubra, YR Gold and BN3383 as most preferred (susceptible) genotypes by DBM larvae. The principal component analysis separated the genotypes based on lower feeding scores in association with higher contents of glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin in one direction and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, glucoraphanin, and progoitrin in opposite direction in a way to explain the major variation in resistant versus susceptible genotypes based on their extent of preference and leaf area damage. The simultaneous presence (or higher contents) of glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, and glucoiberverin and the absence (or lower contents) of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, glucoraphanin, and progoitrin in the least preferred genotypes and vice-versa in most preferred genotypes indicated their apparent role as putative repellents and attractants of DBM larvae in cabbage genotypes, respectively. These novel findings add to the current knowledgebase on the roles of glucosinolates in plant–herbivore interactions and will be helpful in setting breeding priorities for improving the

  19. Residue behaviors and risk assessment of flonicamid and its metabolites in the cabbage field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Cao, Xiaolin; Shao, Yong; Wang, Jian; She, Yongxin; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Hui; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Jing; Shao, Hua; Zheng, Lufei

    2018-06-13

    Flonicamid, a novel selective systemic pesticide, can effectively control a broad range of insect pests. However, the dissipation behaviors and the terminal residues of flonicamid and its metabolites in some crops and soils remain unclear. Herein, an easy, sensitive and reliable method using a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of flonicamid and its metabolites in cabbage and soil was developed. Based on this method, the dissipation behaviors of flonicamid and its metabolites as well as their persistence in cabbage and soil during harvest were investigated. Flonicamid degraded rapidly, and the half-lives of flonicamid only and total residues (the sum of flonicamid and its metabolites) were 1.49-4.59 and 1.97-4.99 days in cabbage, and 2.12-7.97 and 2.04-7.62 days in soil, respectively. When 50% flonicamid WG was sprayed once or twice at the recommended dose and 1.5-fold the recommended dose, the highest residues of total flonicamid in cabbage and soil from different pre-harvest intervals (3, 7 and 14 days) were 0.070 and 0.054 mg kg -1 , respectively. The risk quotient (RQ) of flonicamid based on the consumption data from China was below 16.84%, indicating that the use of flonicamid is non-hazardous to humans. These results could not only guide the safe and responsible use of flonicamid in agriculture but also help the Chinese government establish the maximum residue level (MRL) for flonicamid in cabbage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Chameleonic Change of Red Cabbage Depending on Broad pH Range for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Eun Mi; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from red cabbage as a sensitizer. In this work, we investigated the adsorption characteristics and the electrochemical behavior for harvesting sunlight and electron transfer in red cabbage DSSCs under different solvents and pH. For the red cabbage dye-sensitized electrode adsorbed at pH 3.5, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.60 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Vcc) of 0.46 V, and a fill factor of 0.55, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.41%.

  1. Effects of salinity and flooding on seedlings of cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto).

    PubMed

    Perry, L; Williams, K

    1996-03-01

    Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. ex Schultes (cabbage palm) dominates the coastal limit of many forests in North Florida and Georgia, United States. Changes in saltwater flooding due to sea level rise have been credicted with pushing the coastal limit of cabbage palms inland, eliminating regeneration before causing death of mature trees. Localized freshwater discharge along the coast causes different forest stands to experience tidal flooding with waters that differ in salinity. To elucidate the effect of such variation on regeneration failure under tidal flooding, we examined relative effects of flooding and salinity on the performance of cabbage palm seedlings. We examined the relationship between seedling establishment and degree of tidal inundation in the field, compared the ability of seedlings to withstand tidal flooding at two coastal sites that differed in tidal water salinity, and investigated the physiological responses of cabbage palm seedlings to salinity and flooding in a factorial greenhouse experiment. Seedling survival was inversely correlated with depth and frequency of tidal flooding. Survival of seedlings at a coastal site flooded by waters low in salinity [c. 3 parts per thousand (ppt)] was greater than that at a site flooded by waters higher in salinity (up to 23 ppt). Greenhouse experiments revealed that leaves of seedlings in pots flushed twice daily with salt solutions of 0 ppt and 8 ppt exhibited little difference in midmorning net CO 2 assimilation rates; those flushed with solutions of 15 ppt and 22 ppt, in contrast, had such low rates that they could not be detected. Net CO 2 assimilation rates also declined with increasing salinity for seedlings in pots that were continuously inundated. Continuous root zone inundation appeared to ameliorate effects of salinity on photosynthesis, presumably due to increased salt concentrations and possibly water deficits in periodically flushed pots. Such problems associated with periodic flushing by salt

  2. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P < 0.05), and was concurrently extremely positively correlated with Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P < 0.01). Soil pH increased by 1.8%-45.5% and 6.1%-54.3% in the presence of zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and

  3. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural equation modeling of PAHs in ambient air, dust fall, soil, and cabbage in vegetable bases of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YunHui; Hou, DeYi; Xiong, GuanNan; Duan, YongHong; Cai, ChuanYang; Wang, Xin; Li, JingYa; Tao, Shu; Liu, WenXin

    2018-08-01

    A series of field samples including ambient air (gaseous and particulate phases), dust fall, surface soil, rhizosphere soil and cabbage tissues (leaf, root and core), were collected in vegetable bases near a large coking manufacturer in Shanxi Province, Northern China, during a harvest season. A factor analysis was employed to apportion the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the statistical results indicated coal combustion was the dominant emission source that accounted for different environmental media and cabbage tissues, while road traffic, biomass burning and the coking industry contributed to a lesser extent. A structural equation model was first developed to quantitatively explore the transport pathways of PAHs from surrounding media to cabbage tissues. The modeling results showed that PAHs in ambient air were positively associated with those in dust fall, and a close relationship was also true for PAHs in dust fall and in surface soil due to air-soil exchange process. Furthermore, PAHs in surface soil were correlated with those in rhizosphere soil and in the cabbage leaf with the path coefficients of 0.83 and 0.39, respectively. PAHs in the cabbage leaf may dominantly contribute to the accumulation of PAHs in the edible part of cabbages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation dynamics of emamectin benzoate on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmail; Chahil, G S; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-07-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) was applied to cabbage at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, during the head initiation stage. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method, for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, was developed. Average recoveries of emamectin benzoate ranged from 92 % to 96 % at different fortification levels (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg kg⁻¹). The initial deposits, 0.11 and 0.21 mg kg⁻¹ of emamectin benzoate at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, dissipated below the determination limit of 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ in 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  6. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    SciTech Connect

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr; Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri; Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (Thismore » research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).« less

  7. Geographic variation in ultraviolet reflectance of the wings of the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Ozawa, Gaku; Fukano, Yuya

    2008-11-01

    The British and Japanese subspecies of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae , differ in terms of the UV reflectance of their wings ( Obara and Majerus, 2000 ). We studied the biogeographical distribution of the female cabbage butterfly having wings with UV reflectance around the Eurasian continent, and between Britain and Japan. For the study, we collected specimens from various locations. A gradient in the UV reflectance of the wings appears to exist along the west-east axis; reflectance was higher toward the east and reached a peak in butterflies in Japan. The UV-reflecting Japanese subspecies Pieris rapae crucivora was found exclusively along the east coast of the Eurasian continent. This suggests that the Japanese subspecies has evolved from a continental ancestor, with females having UV-absorbing wings. We discuss the results of our study with regard to the evolution and adaptive significance of UV coloration in the Japanese subspecies.

  8. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  9. Host plant driven transcriptome plasticity in the salivary glands of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, David A.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Felton, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    Generalist herbivores feed on a wide array of plants and need to adapt to varying host qualities and defenses. One of the first insect derived secretions to come in contact with the plant is the saliva. Insect saliva is potentially involved in both the pre-digestion of the host plant as well as induction/suppression of plant defenses, yet how the salivary glands respond to changes in host plant at the transcriptional level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how the labial salivary gland transcriptome varies according to the host plant on which the insect is feeding. In order to determine this, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae were reared on cabbage, tomato, and pinto bean artificial diet. Labial glands were dissected from fifth instar larvae and used to extract RNA for RNASeq analysis. Assembly of the resulting sequencing reads resulted in a transcriptome library for T. ni salivary glands consisting of 14,037 expressed genes. Feeding on different host plant diets resulted in substantial remodeling of the gland transcriptomes, with 4,501 transcripts significantly differentially expressed across the three treatment groups. Gene expression profiles were most similar between cabbage and artificial diet, which corresponded to the two diets on which larvae perform best. Expression of several transcripts involved in detoxification processes were differentially expressed, and transcripts involved in the spliceosome pathway were significantly downregulated in tomato-reared larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates that the transcriptomes of the salivary glands of the cabbage looper are strongly responsive to diet. It also provides a foundation for future functional studies that can help us understand the role of saliva of chewing insects in plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:28792546

  10. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Excellent electrochemical performances of cabbage-like polyaniline fabricated by template synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chenglong; Chen, Shaoyun; Wang, Yuan; Peng, Xianghong; Zhang, Weihong; Chen, Jian

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we explore a novel route to fabricate cabbage-like polyaniline (PANI) by in situ polymerization of aniline using the hydroxylated poly (methyl methacrylate) nanospheres (i.e. PMMAsbnd OHsbnd NS) as a template. A maximum specific capacitance of 584 F/g (the current density is 0.1 A/g) is achieved at 10 mV s-1 as well as a high stability of over 3000 cycles (the decrease in the SC is ∼9.1%), which suggests the potential application of the cabbage-like polyaniline in supercapacitors. The predominant electrochemical performances of the cabbage-like polyaniline can be attributed to their large surface area and larger-scale π-π conjugated system present in the quinoid structure of the PANI molecular chain, which can drastically facilitate electron diffusion and improve the utilization of the electroactive PANI during the charge/discharge processes. Accordingly, the facility of charge transfer can decrease resistance along with the PANI molecular chain to improve the electrochemical stability and achieve high-capacitance response characteristics. The present study introduces a new synthesis method for the development of various morphology of other conducting polymer, which may find potential applications in a variety of high-performance electrochemical devices.

  12. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypnotic Effect of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Azar; Sobhanifar, Mohammad-Ali; Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Aghaee, Azita; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of red cabbage and its fractions on sleeping behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The extract and its fractions were injected to mice and sleep duration as well as sleep latency were recorded. Furthermore, toxicity of the extract was determined both in vivo and in vitro. Results: The extract increased sleep duration at doses of 50–200mg/kg (P < 0.001). This observed hypnotic effect was comparable to that of diazepam (3mg/kg) (P < 0.001 in comparison with control group). Ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions could increase sleep duration (P < 0.001). The sleep latency was decreased by the extract (P < 0.001) and only ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.001). LD50 value for red cabbage extract was 2.4g/kg. There was no toxic effect on viability of cultured neuronal cells (PC12). Rotarod test results showed that there were no significant differences between the extract groups and the control group. Conclusion: The results suggest that red cabbage potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without any toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be intermediate polar agent(s) such as flavonoids, which are found in ethyl acetate fraction of this plant. PMID:29657508

  14. Antioxidant enzymes activity and phenolic compounds content in red cabbage seedlings exposed to copper stress.

    PubMed

    Posmyk, M M; Kontek, R; Janas, K M

    2009-02-01

    The phenolics: anthocyanin (ATH), sinapoyl esters and activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR), in red cabbage seedlings subjected to Cu2+ stress were investigated. Cu2+ at low doses (0.5 mM), increased the levels of ATH and sinapoyl derivatives in red cabbage. High Cu2+ concentration (2.5 mM) provoked oxidative stress and enhanced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in tissues. A lower level of TBARS was correlated with high ATH content. It seems that synthesis of these isoflavonoids is an effective strategy against reactive oxygen species (ROS). The analysis of the antioxidant enzymes activity suggested that peroxidases were the most active enzymes in red cabbage seedlings exposed to Cu2+ stress. It could results from the fact that phenolic compounds (PhC), which could be also substrates for different peroxidases, were the first line of defence against metal stress.

  15. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  16. Shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce and cabbage treated with gaseous chlorine dioxide and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Ragaert, Peter; Jeyachchandran, Visvalingam; Debevere, Johan; Devlieghere, Frank

    2008-01-15

    Gaseous ClO2 was evaluated for effectiveness in prolonging the shelf-life of minimally processed (MP) lettuce and MP cabbage, previously immersed in a cysteine solution in order to inhibit browning occurring during ClO2 treatment. Each vegetable was shredded, washed, and separated in two portions, one to be treated with ClO2 gas and the other to remain untreated as reference sample. The batch to be treated with ClO2 gas was immersed for 1 min in a 0.5% solution of HCl.L-cysteine monohydrate. Then both batches were spun dried. MP vegetables were decontaminated in a cabinet at 90-91% relative humidity and 22-25 degrees C up to 10 min, including 30 s of ClO2 injection into the cabinet. The ClO2 concentration rose to 1.74 mg/L (MP lettuce) and 1.29 mg/L (MP cabbage). Then samples were stored under modified atmosphere at 7 degrees C for shelf-life studies. Changes in O2 and CO2 headspace concentrations, microbiological quality (aerobic plate count (APC), psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts), sensory quality, and pH were followed during storage. The respiration rate of the minimally processed vegetables was significantly increased by the ClO2 gas treatment only in the case of MP cabbage (P<0.05). The gas treatment reduced initially APC and psychrotroph count of MP lettuce and APC, psychrotroph counts, yeast counts and pH of MP cabbage (P<0.05). ClO2 treatment did not cause initially any significant (P<0.05) sensorial alteration, except for a weak off-odour in MP lettuce. Interestingly, no browning was observed after treating, which can be accounted to the use of L-cysteine. Although an initial microbiological reduction was observed due to ClO2 gas treatment, APC and psychrotroph counts reached in the samples treated with ClO2 higher levels than in those non-treated with ClO2 before the third day of the shelf-life study. Untreated and treated samples of MP lettuce were sensorial unacceptable due to bad overall visual quality after 4 days, while treated and

  17. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas.

  18. Observation of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) through dual energy K-edge subtraction imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yunyun; Sanchez, Carlos; Yue, Yuan; ...

    2016-03-25

    Background: The potential transfer of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) from plants into the food chain has raised widespread concerns. In order to investigate the effects of ENPs on plants, young cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) were exposed to a hydroponic system containing yttrium oxide (yttria) ENPs. The objective of this study was to reveal the impacts of NPs on plants by using K-edge subtraction imaging technique. Results: Using synchrotron dual-e nergy X-ray micro-tomography with K-edge subtraction technique, we studied the uptake, accumulation, distribution and concentration mapping of yttria ENPs in cabbage plants. It was found that yttria ENPs were uptaken by themore » cabbage roots but did not effectively transferred and mobilized through the cabbage stem and leaves. This could be due to the accumulation of yttria ENPs blocked at primary-lateral-root junction. Instead, non-yttria minerals were found in the xylem vessels of roots and stem. Conclusions: Synchrotron dual-energy X-ray micro-tomography is an effective method to observe yttria NPs inside the cabbage plants in both whole body and microscale level. Furthermore, the blockage of a plant's roots by nanoparticles is likely the first and potentially fatal environmental effect of such type of nanoparticles.« less

  19. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  20. Impacts of spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than λ-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to λ-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies.

  1. Assessment of bioactive metabolites and hypolipidemic effect of polyphenolic-rich red cabbage extract.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alice Buss; Pitz, Heloísa da Silva; Veber, Bruno; Bini, Larissa Alida; Maraschin, Marcelo; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and the consumption of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra DC. - Brassicaceae) has been linked with the reduction risk of chronic diseases. The present study assesses the bioactive metabolites and hypolipidemic effect of red cabbage on rats. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity were assessed, while individual phenolic acids and flavonoids were detected using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Acute hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of red cabbage (RC - 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was investigated using a Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg) induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats compared to fenofibrate (65 mg/kg). The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed eight phenolic acids, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-coumaric, syringic, caffeic, cinnamic, dicaffeoylquinic and three flavonoids, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin. Furthermore, the aqueous extract showed higher amounts of total phenolics (116.00 mg/g), flavonoids (161.32 μg/g) and, antioxidant activity (87.19%) than the hydromethanolic (89.33 mg/g, 123.34 μg/g and 75.07%), respectively. The RC significantly (p < 0.001) ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins alterations in hyperlipidemic rats without toxicity. Herein, the RC presented the higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids comparing with the hydromethanolic extract. Additionally, the RC showed as the majority compounds, dicaffeoylquinic and cinnamic acids, and the flavonoids epicatechin and gallocatechin. Furthermore, the RC demonstrated a beneficial effect against hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, demonstrating its potential therapeutic effect on these risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  3. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  4. Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in premixed sewage sludge than premixed chicken manure. Total cabbage and broccoli yields obtained from SS and CM mixed soil were both greater than those obtained from no-mulch (bare) soil. Concentration of Ni in cabbage leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF <1), while BAF values were >1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.

  5. Characterization of a Cadmium-Binding Complex of Cabbage Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical nature of a principal, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves (Wagner and Trotter 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 804-809) was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16663927

  6. Effect of some biorational insecticides on Spodoptera eridania in organic cabbage.

    PubMed

    Michereff-Filho, Miguel; Torres, Jorge B; Andrade, Luzia Nt; Nunes, Maria Urbana C

    2008-07-01

    To reduce pest attack, several biorational products are allowed for use on organic vegetables in Brazil. This study investigated eight biorational products applied singly or in combination against Spodoptera eridania Cramer in field plots of cabbage intercropped with coriander. The treatments were applied once a week over a 5 week period, beginning 34 days after transplanting. The evaluations consisted of counting the larvae of S. eridania on the day before and 7 and 21 days after spraying. The damage to leaves and cabbage head, the commercial weight of head and the percentage of head losses were evaluated. Leaf injury in plots treated with Beauveria bassiana and neem oil (Dalneem) yielded scores of 1.3 and 2.5 (scale ranging from 0 to 4) respectively, in comparison with a score of 3.6 from untreated plots. Head weight losses were 6.1, 5.3 and 4.9% with an aqueous extract of neem leaves, neem oil and B. bassiana respectively, compared with 24.6% lost from untreated plots. Dalneem, B. bassiana and the extract of neem leaves at 20% exhibited the best performance for control of S. eridania.

  7. Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-02-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness.

  8. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Nisin-Resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides for Use in Cabbage Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Breidt, F.; Crowley, K. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains that are resistant to high levels of nisin (up to 25,000 IU/ml in broth) were isolated. These nisin-resistant mutants were evaluated to determine their potential use as starter culture strains for cabbage fermentations. We found that some L. mesenteroides strains could be adapted to high levels of nisin resistance, while others could not. The nisin resistance trait was found to be stable for at least 35 generations, in the absence of nisin selection, for all mutants tested. The effects of nisin and salt, separately and in combination, on growth kinetics of the nisin-resistant strains were determined. Salt was the most influential factor on the specific growth rates of the mutants, and no synergistic effect between nisin and salt on specific growth rates was observed. The nisin-resistant strains were unimpaired in their ability to rapidly produce normal heterolactic fermentation end products. The use of these L. mesenteroides mutants as starter cultures in combination with nisin may extend the heterolactic phase of cabbage fermentations. PMID:16349090

  10. Uptake Kinetics and Trophic Transfer of Tungsten from Cabbage to a Herbivorous Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, James H.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Seiter-Moser, Jennifer M.

    This paper builds on previous studies on military-relevant tungsten (W) to more thoroughly explore environmental pathways and bioaccumulation kinetics during direct soil exposure versus trophic transfer and elucidate its relative accumulation and speciation in different snail organs. The modeled steady-state concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of W from soil into cabbage were 302 mg/kg and 0.55, respectively. Steady-state concentrations (34 mg/kg) and BAF values (0.05) obtained for the snail directly exposed to contaminated soil were lower than trophic transfer by consumption of W-contaminated cabbage (tissue concentration of 86 mg/kg; BAF of 0.36). Thus, consumption of contaminated food is the mostmore » important pathway for W mobility in this food chain. The highest concentrations of W compartmentalization were in the snail’s hepatopancreas based on wet chemistry and synchrotron-based investigations. Chemical speciation via inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry showed a higher degree of polytungstate partitioning in the hepatopancreas relative to the rest of the body. Based on synchrotron analysis, W was incorporated into the shell matrix during exposure, particularly during the regeneration of damaged shell. Finally, this offers the potential for application of the shell as a longer-term biomonitoring and forensics tool for historic exposure.« less

  11. Uptake Kinetics and Trophic Transfer of Tungsten from Cabbage to a Herbivorous Animal Model

    DOE PAGES

    Lindsay, James H.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Seiter-Moser, Jennifer M.; ...

    2017-10-20

    This paper builds on previous studies on military-relevant tungsten (W) to more thoroughly explore environmental pathways and bioaccumulation kinetics during direct soil exposure versus trophic transfer and elucidate its relative accumulation and speciation in different snail organs. The modeled steady-state concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of W from soil into cabbage were 302 mg/kg and 0.55, respectively. Steady-state concentrations (34 mg/kg) and BAF values (0.05) obtained for the snail directly exposed to contaminated soil were lower than trophic transfer by consumption of W-contaminated cabbage (tissue concentration of 86 mg/kg; BAF of 0.36). Thus, consumption of contaminated food is the mostmore » important pathway for W mobility in this food chain. The highest concentrations of W compartmentalization were in the snail’s hepatopancreas based on wet chemistry and synchrotron-based investigations. Chemical speciation via inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry showed a higher degree of polytungstate partitioning in the hepatopancreas relative to the rest of the body. Based on synchrotron analysis, W was incorporated into the shell matrix during exposure, particularly during the regeneration of damaged shell. Finally, this offers the potential for application of the shell as a longer-term biomonitoring and forensics tool for historic exposure.« less

  12. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Research on discrimination of cabbage and weeds based on visible and near-infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu

    2013-05-01

    The automatic identification of weeds forms the basis for precision spraying of crops infest. The canopy spectral reflectance within the 350-2 500 nm band of two strains of cabbages and five kinds of weeds such as barnyard grass, setaria, crabgrass, goosegrass and pigweed was acquired by ASD spectrometer. According to the spectral curve characteristics, the data in different bands were compressed with different levels to improve the operation efficiency. Firstly, the spectrum was denoised in accordance with the different order of multiple scattering correction (MSC) method and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing method set by different parameters, then the model was built by combining the principal component analysis (PCA) method to extract principal components, finally all kinds of plants were classified by using the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) taxonomy and the classification results were compared. The tests results indicate that after the pretreatment of the spectral data with the method of the combination of MSC and SG set with 3rd order, 5th degree polynomial, 21 smoothing points, and the top 10 principal components extraction using PCA as a classification model input variable, 100% correct classification rate was achieved, and it is able to identify cabbage and several kinds of common weeds quickly and nondestructively.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of TCP Transcription Factors Involved in the Formation of Leafy Head in Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Guan, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shengnan; Yang, Meng; Ren, Junhui; Guo, Meng; Huang, Zhihui; Zhang, Yaowei

    2018-03-14

    Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp . pekinensis ) is a widely cultivated and economically important vegetable crop with typical leaf curvature. The TCP (Teosinte branched1, Cycloidea, Proliferating cell factor) family proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and play important roles in many plant biological processes, especially in the regulation of leaf curvature. In this study, 39 genes encoding TCP TFs are detected on the whole genome of B. rapa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of TCPs between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa , TCP genes of Chinese cabbage are named from BrTCP1a to BrTCP24b . Moreover, the chromosomal location; phylogenetic relationships among B. rapa , A. thaliana , and rice; gene structures and protein conserved sequence alignment; and conserved domains are analyzed. The expression profiles of BrTCPs are analyzed in different tissues. To understand the role of Chinese cabbage TCP members in regulating the curvature of leaves, the expression patterns of all BrTCP genes are detected at three development stages essential for leafy head formation. Our results provide information on the classification and details of BrTCPs and allow us to better understand the function of TCPs involved in leaf curvature of Chinese cabbage.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of TCP Transcription Factors Involved in the Formation of Leafy Head in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Guan, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shengnan; Yang, Meng; Ren, Junhui; Guo, Meng; Huang, Zhihui

    2018-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a widely cultivated and economically important vegetable crop with typical leaf curvature. The TCP (Teosinte branched1, Cycloidea, Proliferating cell factor) family proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and play important roles in many plant biological processes, especially in the regulation of leaf curvature. In this study, 39 genes encoding TCP TFs are detected on the whole genome of B. rapa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of TCPs between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa, TCP genes of Chinese cabbage are named from BrTCP1a to BrTCP24b. Moreover, the chromosomal location; phylogenetic relationships among B. rapa, A. thaliana, and rice; gene structures and protein conserved sequence alignment; and conserved domains are analyzed. The expression profiles of BrTCPs are analyzed in different tissues. To understand the role of Chinese cabbage TCP members in regulating the curvature of leaves, the expression patterns of all BrTCP genes are detected at three development stages essential for leafy head formation. Our results provide information on the classification and details of BrTCPs and allow us to better understand the function of TCPs involved in leaf curvature of Chinese cabbage. PMID:29538304

  16. Interactive Effects of Soil ph, Halosulfuron Rate, and Application Method on Carryover to Turnip Green and Cabbage.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH; maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO...

  17. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed.

  18. Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Gan; Pan, Yun-Yu; Christie, Peter; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The dose-dependent influence of zinc and cadmium contamination of soil on their uptake and glucosinolate content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba).

    PubMed

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Bączek-Kwinta, Renata; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Anna; Huk, Anna; Manikowska, Anna; Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between the ability to accumulate heavy metals (represented by Cd and Zn) and to synthesize bioactive compounds (represented by glucosinolates [GLS]) was investigated in two cabbage cultivars. Plants were grown in the greenhouse of a phytotron under controlled conditions in soils spiked with two different Zn or Cd concentrations. The measurements of Cd and Zn contents in soil and cabbage (leaf) samples were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas GLS levels in cabbage were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranges of metal contents in soil were 80 to 450 mg/kg dry weight for Zn and 0.3 to 30 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, whereas the levels of accumulated Zn and Cd in cabbage amounted to 15 to 130 and 0.02 to 3 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. After initial symptoms of toxicity, during a later stage of growth, the plants exhibited very good tolerance to both metals. Enhanced biosynthesis of GLS was observed in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to the heavy metals. The GLS content in Zn-exposed cabbage rose from 3.2 to 12 µmol/g dry weight, and the corresponding values for Cd-treated plants were 3.5 to 10 µmol/g dry weight. Thus, the increased soil contamination by metals caused greater accumulation in cabbage, as well as stimulation of GLS biosynthesis. The results obtained point to the high phytoremediation and biofumigation potential of white cabbage. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Comparative persistence of thiacloprid in Bt-transgenic cabbage (Brassica oleracea cv. capitata) vis-à-vis non-transgenic crop and its decontamination.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis; Niwas, Ram; Gopal, Madhuban

    2012-11-01

    Thiacloprid is a systemic neonicotinoid. The study hypothesized that difference may be seen in the rate of dissipation of thiacloprid when applied on non-transgenic and transgenic cabbage. Thiacloprid was estimated by HPLC. Half life of thiacloprid in transgenic as well as in normal cabbage ranged between 12.3-13.1 days in two doses of application. Under field condition, after 15 days, 59.2% and 54.3% dissipation was recorded at lower and higher rates of application in transgenic cabbage, where as the insecticide dissipated 57.5% and 59.1% for single dose and double dose application, respectively in non-transgenic cabbage. The study establishes that there is no significant difference in dissipation of a systemic pesticide in transgenic versus non-transgenic cabbage. Decontamination of thiacloprid contaminated cabbage was carried out by different chemical treatments. The application of 0.5% NaHCO(3) (an edible alkali) may be recommended for decontamination. Thiacloprid residues in the day-3 field samples of cabbage could be reduced below Japanese MRL (1.0 mg kg(-1)) by treating with 0.5% NaHCO(3) solution for 1 h.

  1. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype. PMID:28265282

  2. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  3. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for flowering time in broccoli × cabbage.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2018-04-01

    A major QTL controlling early flowering in broccoli × cabbage was identified by marker analysis and next-generation sequencing, corresponding to GRF6 gene conditioning flowering time in Arabidopsis. Flowering is an important agronomic trait for hybrid production in broccoli and cabbage, but the genetic mechanism underlying this process is unknown. In this study, segregation analysis with BC 1 P1, BC 1 P2, F 2 , and F 2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines "195" (late-flowering) and "93219" (early flowering) suggested that flowering time is a quantitative trait. Next, employing a next-generation sequencing-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy, we identified a major genomic region harboring a robust flowering time QTL using an F 2 mapping population, designated Ef2.1 on cabbage chromosome 2 for early flowering. Ef2.1 was further validated by indel (insertion or deletion) marker-based classical QTL mapping, explaining 51.5% (LOD = 37.67) and 54.0% (LOD = 40.5) of the phenotypic variation in F 2 and F 2:3 populations, respectively. Combined QTL-seq and classical QTL analysis narrowed down Ef1.1 to a 228-kb genomic region containing 29 genes. A cabbage gene, Bol024659, was identified in this region, which is a homolog of GRF6, a major gene regulating flowering in Arabidopsis, and was designated BolGRF6. qRT-PCR study of the expression level of BolGRF6 revealed significantly higher expression in the early flowering genotypes. Taken together, our results provide support for BolGRF6 as a possible candidate gene for early flowering in the broccoli line 93219. The identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding to improve broccoli and cabbage flowering times.

  4. Microcolumn-based speciation analysis of thallium in soil and green cabbage.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanlong; Xiao, Tangfu; Sun, Jialong; Yang, Fei; Baveye, Philippe C

    2018-07-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic trace metal, whose geochemical behavior and biological effects are closely controlled by its chemical speciation in the environment. However, little tends to be known about this speciation of Tl in soil and plant systems that directly affect the safety of food supplies. In this context, the objective of the present study was to elaborate an efficient method to separate and detect Tl(I) and Tl(III) species for soil and plant samples. This method involves the selective adsorption of Tl(I) on microcolumns filled with immobilized oxine, in the presence of DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), followed by DTPA-enhanced ultrasonic and heating-induced extraction, coupled with ICP-MS detection. The method was characterized by a LOD of 0.037 μg/L for Tl(I) and 0.18 μg/L for Tl(III) in 10  mL samples. With this method, a second objective of the research was to assess the speciation of Tl in pot and field soils and in green cabbage crops. Experimental results suggest that DTPA extracted Tl was mainly present as Tl(I) in soils (>95%). Tl in hyperaccumulator plant green cabbage was also mainly present as Tl(I) (>90%). With respect to Tl uptake in plants, this study provides direct evidence that green cabbage mainly takes up Tl(I) from soil, and transports it into the aboveground organs. In soils, Tl(III) is reduced to Tl(I) even at the surface where the chemical environment promotes oxidation. This observation is conducive to understanding the mechanisms of Tl isotope fractionation in the soil-plant system. Based on geochemical fraction studies, the reducible fraction was the main source of Tl getting accumulated by plants. These results indicate that the improved analytical method presented in this study offers an economical, simple, fast, and sensitive approach for the separation of Tl species present in soils at trace levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiocaesium transfer from volcanic soils to Swiss chard, cabbage and sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Paulina; Castillo, Alejandra; Voigt, Gabriele; Semioshkina, Natalia

    2018-06-18

    The root uptake of radiocaesium by different plant parts of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) and the potential influence of K-fertilising on the transfer behaviour was studied in allophanic volcanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) in Chile under temperate climate and heavy rainfall conditions (∼2660 mm y -1 ) over several vegetation periods. The soils were spiked homogeneously to 0.20 m depth with 100 kBq 134 Cs m -2 and activity concentrations measured. The transfer factor (TF, on a dry mass basis) to Swiss chard had a clear exponential decrease within each crop year for both soil types, either K-fertilised or unfertilised. The highest values of the TFs to Swiss chard were at the beginning of the harvests, and the half-times of TF decrease ranged between 52 and 137 d for umbric andosol and between 40 and 164 d for dystric fluvisol. Over the five seasons there was no consistent ageing effect based on TF in either soil types for the three studied crops. The effect of 134 Cs foliar uptake by Swiss chard from resuspended soil was estimated to account for about 70% (external leaves) and 30% (internal leaves) increase in the TF for the K-unfertilised umbric andosol, and showed an ambiguous behaviour for the K-fertilised umbric andosol. Consequently foliar uptake does not explain the 370 and 500% increase of the TF to Swiss chard leaves determined during the third growing period in the umbric andosol without and with K-fertilisation, respectively. Therefore an uncertainty factor of 3-5 is recommended to be taken into account when using this parameter for dose calculations. The TF to Swiss chard was found to be higher than previously reported values. The TF to cabbage and sweet corn plant parts was found to be within the range of previously reported values. Normal K-fertilisation resulted in about 2.4-fold reduction in 134 Cs TF to Swiss chard, 2

  6. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of homeothermic temperature control in skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takanori; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2005-11-01

    Certain primitive plants undergo orchestrated temperature control during flowering. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, has been demonstrated to maintain an internal temperature of around 20 °C even when the ambient temperature drops below freezing. However, it is not clear whether a unique algorithm controls the homeothermic behavior of S. foetidus, or whether such an algorithm might exhibit linear or nonlinear thermoregulatory dynamics. Here we report the underlying dynamics of temperature control in S. foetidus using nonlinear forecasting, attractor and correlation dimension analyses. It was shown that thermoregulation in S. foetidus was governed by low-dimensional chaotic dynamics, the geometry of which showed a strange attractor named the “Zazen attractor.” Our data suggest that the chaotic thermoregulation in S. foetidus is inherent and that it is an adaptive response to the natural environment.

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of the phytoene synthase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zheng, Aihong; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    Phytoene Synthase (PSY) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata PSY (BocPSY) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocPSY1, BocPSY2 and BocPSY3 genes mapped to chromosomes 2,3 and 9, and contains an open reading frame of 1,248 bp, 1,266 bp and 1,275 bp that encodes a 415, 421, 424 amino acid protein, respectively. Subcellular localization predicted all BocPSY genes were in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocPSY protein is PLN02632. Homology analysis indicates that the levels of identity among BocPSYs were all more than 85%, and the PSY protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of PSY gene function in cabbage.

  9. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the ‘glucosinolate–myrosinase’ system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as ‘the mustard oil bomb’. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn’t affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate–myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. PMID:25563968

  10. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  11. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  12. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  13. Genome-wide SNP identification and QTL mapping for black rot resistance in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Perumal, Sampath; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Hyeon Ju; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Ki-Woung; Nou, Il-Sup; Seo, Joodeok; Yoo, Jaeheung; Suh, Youngdeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, Heebal; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-02-03

    Black rot is a destructive bacterial disease causing large yield and quality losses in Brassica oleracea. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for black rot resistance, we performed whole-genome resequencing of two cabbage parental lines and genome-wide SNP identification using the recently published B. oleracea genome sequences as reference. Approximately 11.5 Gb of sequencing data was produced from each parental line. Reference genome-guided mapping and SNP calling revealed 674,521 SNPs between the two cabbage lines, with an average of one SNP per 662.5 bp. Among 167 dCAPS markers derived from candidate SNPs, 117 (70.1%) were validated as bona fide SNPs showing polymorphism between the parental lines. We then improved the resolution of a previous genetic map by adding 103 markers including 87 SNP-based dCAPS markers. The new map composed of 368 markers and covers 1467.3 cM with an average interval of 3.88 cM between adjacent markers. We evaluated black rot resistance in the mapping population in three independent inoculation tests using F2:3 progenies and identified one major QTL and three minor QTLs. We report successful utilization of whole-genome resequencing for large-scale SNP identification and development of molecular markers for genetic map construction. In addition, we identified novel QTLs for black rot resistance. The high-density genetic map will promote QTL analysis for other important agricultural traits and marker-assisted breeding of B. oleracea.

  14. Molecular and cellular characteristics of hybrid vigour in a commercial hybrid of Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Natsumi; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Ying, Hua; Shimizu, Motoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Taylor, Jennifer M; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-02-17

    Heterosis or hybrid vigour is a phenomenon in which hybrid progeny exhibit superior performance compared to their parental inbred lines. Most commercial Chinese cabbage cultivars are F1 hybrids and their level of hybrid vigour is of critical importance and is a key selection criterion in the breeding system. We have characterized the heterotic phenotype of one F1 hybrid cultivar of Chinese cabbage and its parental lines from early- to late-developmental stages of the plants. Hybrid cotyledons are larger than those of the parents at 4 days after sowing and biomass in the hybrid, determined by the fresh weight of leaves, is greater than that of the larger parent line by approximately 20% at 14 days after sowing. The final yield of the hybrid harvested at 63 days after sowing is 25% greater than the yield of the better parent. The larger leaves of the hybrid are a consequence of increased cell size and number of the photosynthetic palisade mesophyll cells and other leaf cells. The accumulation of plant hormones in the F1 was within the range of the parental levels at both 2 and 10 days after sowing. Two days after sowing, the expression levels of chloroplast-targeted genes in the cotyledon cells were upregulated in the F1 hybrid relative to their mid parent values. Shutdown of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the cotyledon by norflurazon prevented the increased leaf area in the F1 hybrid. In the cotyledons of F1 hybrids, chloroplast-targeted genes were upregulated at 2 days after sowing. The increased activity levels of this group of genes suggested that their differential transcription levels could be important for establishing early heterosis but the increased transcription levels were transient. Inhibition of the photosynthetic process in the cotyledon reduced heterosis in later seedling stages. These observations suggest early developmental events in the germinating seedling of the hybrid may be important for later developmental vigour and yield advantage.

  15. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future.

  18. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  19. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  20. Thallium in flowering cabbage and lettuce: Potential health risks for local residents of the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Chang, Chunying; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Qi; Chen, Manjia; Zhang, Jie

    2018-06-08

    Thallium (Tl), a rare metal, is universally present in the environment with high toxicity and accumulation. Thallium's behavior and fate require further study, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), where severe Tl pollution incidents have occurred. One hundred two pairs of soil and flowering cabbage samples and 91 pairs of soil and lettuce samples were collected from typical farmland protection areas and vegetable bases across the PRD, South China. The contamination levels and spatial distributions of soil and vegetable (flowering cabbages and lettuces) Tl across the PRD were investigated. The relative contributions of soil properties to the bioavailability of Tl in vegetables were evaluated using random forest. Random forest is an accurate learning algorithm and is superior to conventional and correlation-based regression analyses. In addition, the health risks posed by Tl exposure via vegetable intake for residents of the PRD were assessed. The results indicated that rapidly available potassium (K) and total K in soil were the most important factors affecting Tl bioavailability, and the competitive effect of rapidly available K on vegetable Tl uptake was confirmed in this field study. Soil weathering also contributed substantially to Tl accumulation in the vegetables. In contrast, organic matter might not be a major factor affecting the mobility of Tl in most of the lettuce soils. Fe and manganese (Mn) oxides also contributed little to the bioavailability of Tl. A risk assessment suggested that the health risks for Tl exposure through flowering cabbage or lettuce intake were minimal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production.

  2. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  3. 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines with different nuclear backgrounds of cabbage revealed substantial diversity at morphological and molecular levels.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Chander; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Rajender; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Dey, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Reeta; Kumar, Raj

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on characterization and genetic diversity analysis was carried out in 16 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines of cabbage using 14 agro-morphological traits and 29 SSR markers. Agro-morphological characterization depicted considerable variations for different horticultural traits studied. The genotype, ZHA-2, performed better for most of the economically important quantitative traits. Further, gross head weight (0.76), head length (0.60) and head width (0.83) revealed significant positive correlation with net head weight. Dendrogram based on 10 quantitative traits exhibited considerable diversity among different CMS lines and principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that net and gross head weight, and head length and width are the main components of divergence between 16 CMS lines of cabbage. In molecular study, a total of 58 alleles were amplified by 29 SSR primers, averaging to 2.0 alleles in each locus. High mean values of Shannon's Information index (0.62), expected (0.45) and observed (0.32) heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (0.35) depicted substantial polymorphism. Dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient constructed two major groups and eight sub-groups, which revealed substantial diversity among different CMS lines. In overall, based on agro-morphological and molecular studies genotype RRMA, ZHA-2 and RCA were found most divergent. Hence, they have immense potential in future breeding programs for the high-yielding hybrid development in cabbage.

  4. Cgl2 plays an essential role in cuticular wax biosynthesis in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongming; Tang, Jun; Liu, Zezhou; Dong, Xin; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Ye, Zhibiao; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei

    2017-11-28

    The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. Genetic analysis results revealed that the glossy trait of LD10GL is controlled by a single recessive gene, and fine mapping results revealed that the target gene Cgl2 (Cabbage glossy 2) is located within a physical region of 170 kb on chromosome 1. Based on sequence analysis of the genes in the mapped region, the gene designated Bol013612 was speculated to be the candidate gene. Gene Bol013612 is homologous to Arabidopsis CER4, which encodes fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at an intron/exon boundary that results in an insertion of six nucleotides in the cDNA of Bol013612 in LD10GL. The phenotypic defect of LD10GL was confirmed by a functional complementation test with Arabidopsis mutant cer4. Our results indicated that wax crystals of cabbage mutant LD10GL are severely reduced and mutation of gene Bol013612 causes a glossy phenotype in the LD10GL mutant.

  5. Effect of Pseudomonas spp on infection of Peronosporaparasitica (Pers. Fr), the pathogen of downy mildew on Chinese cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiri, N.; Mulawarman; Umayah, A.; Agustin, S. E.; Rahmiyah, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of Pseudomonasspp on infection of Peronosporaparasitica (Pers. Fr), the pathogen of Downy mildew on Chinese cabbage. The research was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse Department of Plant Pests and Diseases Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University, Inderalaya, OganIlir South Sumatra Indonesia. The research was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse Department of Plant Pests and Diseases Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University, Inderalaya, Ogan Ilir South Sumatra Indonesia. The research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with ten treatments including control. ie: isolate A, Isolate B, isolate C, isolate D, isolate E, isolate F, isolate G, isolate H, isolate I and control. Each treatment consists of four replications. Results of the study showed that the application of Pseudomonas spp. can suppress the infection of P. parasitica on Chinese cabbage. The lowest disease intensity was shown by treatment C (isolate Pseudomonas sp.) which was significantly different from control. The best treatment in suppressing disease severity of downy mildew on chinese cabbage was isolate H which had disease severity of 37.07 percent, which was significantly different from control and other treatment.

  6. Sequential diets, metabolic costs, and growth of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding upon dill, lima bean, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Scriber, J Mark

    1981-01-01

    This study illustrates the diversity of feeding responses of individually polyphagous southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania, to plants with differing allelochemics. In spite of the near optimal leaf water and nitrogen contents of the young foliage, it is apparent that vastly different larval growth performance results from dill, lima bean, and cabbage. Cabbage is the poorest food (as measured by larval growth rates and metabolic costs of processing the plant biomass). Unlike the case with certain other plant species or cultivars that are costly to process, with cabbage, S. eridania does not compensate for low efficiencies (E.C.D.'s) with increased consumption rates (R.C.R.'s). Biochemical or physiological reasons for this inability are unknown.A sequence of foods (changed each 18-24 h) apparently did not add sufficient stress upon the MFO system to be detected in the respiratory expenditures of S. eridania larvae, in spite of the fact that dill is known to contain insecticidal and synergistic chemicals (Lichtenstein et al. 1974). The larval growth performances and metabolic expenditures in these sequences were intermediate between the best food (dill) and the worse (cabbage). Significant differences were observed however between the sequential switching sequences, perhaps indicating that particular periods during the instar are especially more sensitive to certain allelochemics. Actual respiratory costs of the lima bean-cabbage-dill (i.e. B-C-D) sequence were 40-50% higher than observed for the other two sequences and more than 50% higher than the theoretical metabolic costs based on the proportions actually eaten and known costs associated with each food.This study and a related one (Scriber 1981a) illustrate how consumption rates, feeding efficiences, and larval growth of Spodoptera eridania are not species, population, or even individual characteristics, (cf. Fox and Morrow 1981), but instead depend largely upon variations in plant allelochemics and plant

  7. Extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using high pressure CO2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jihong; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengfu

    2010-09-01

    The extraction kinetics of anthocyanins from red cabbage using high pressure CO(2) (HPCD) against conventional acidified water (CAW) was investigated. The HPCD time, temperature, pressure and volume ratio of solid-liquid mixture vs. pressurized CO(2) (R((S+L)/G)) exhibited important roles on the extraction kinetics of anthocyanins. The extraction kinetics showed two phases, the yield increased with increasing the time in the first phase, the yield defined as steady-state yield (y(*)) was constant in the second phase. The y(*) of anthocyanins using HPCD increased with higher temperature, higher pressure and lower R((S+L)/G). The general mass transfer model with higher regression coefficients (R(2)>0.97) fitted the kinetic data better than the Fick's second law diffusion model. As compared with CAW, the time (t(*)) to reach the y(*) of anthocyanins using HPCD was reduced by half while its corresponding overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients k(L)xa from the general mass transfer model increased by two folds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly efficient adsorption of cationic dye by biochar produced with Korean cabbage waste.

    PubMed

    Sewu, Divine D; Boakye, Patrick; Woo, Seung H

    2017-01-01

    Biochar was produced from Korean cabbage (KC), rice straw (RS) and wood chip (WC) and the use as alternative adsorbents to activated carbon (AC) in wastewater treatment was investigated. Congo red (CR) and crystal violet (CV) were used as a model anionic and cationic dye, respectively. Initial solution pH had little effect on CR and CV adsorption onto all biochars except for AC on CR. The isotherm models and kinetic data showed that adsorption of CR and CV onto all biochars were dominantly by chemisorption. All biochars had lower adsorption capacity for CR than AC. KC showed higher Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity (1304mg/g) than AC (271.0mg/g), RS (620.3mg/g) and WC (195.6mg/g) for CV. KC may be a good alternative to conventional AC as cheap, superb and industrially viable adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops to Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Velasco, P

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-one cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) varieties, including 16 local varieties and five commercial hybrids, were screened for resistance to the moth Mamestra brassicae L. under natural and artificial conditions in northwestern Spain. Resistance was assessed as the proportion of damaged plants and damaged leaves, leaf feeding injury, and number of larvae present. Correlation coefficients among damage traits showed that a visual scale (general appearance rating) should be a useful indicator of resistance. Most local varieties were highly susceptible to M. brassicae, whereas the commercial hybrids tested were resistant in terms of head foliage consumption and number of larvae per plant. Performance of varieties was similar under natural and artificial infestation although some of them performed differently at each year. Three local varieties (MBG-BRS0057, MBG-BRS0074, and MBG-BRS0452) were highly susceptible at both natural and artificial infestation conditions being MBG-BRS0074 the most damaged variety. Two local varieties (MBG-BRS0402 and MBG-BRS0535) and commercial hybrids were identified as resistant or moderately resistant to M. brassicae. Among them, 'Corazón de Buey' and 'Cabeza negra' were the most resistant and produced compact heads. These varieties could be useful sources of resistance to obtain resistant varieties to M. brassicae or as donors of resistance to other Brassica crops. The possible role of leaf traits, head compactness, and leaf glucosinolate content in relation to M. brassicae resistance is discussed.

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of the ς-carotene desaturase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Zheng, Aihong; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    ς-carotene desaturase (ZDS) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata ZDS (BocZDS) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocZDS gene mapped to Scaffold000363, and contains an open reading frame of 1,686 bp that encodes a 561-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 62.00 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.2. Subcellular localization predicted the BocZDS gene was in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocZDS protein is PLN02487, indicating that it belongs the member of zeta-carotene desaturase. Homology analysis indicates that the ZDS protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution and is most closely related to B. oleracea var. oleracea, B. napus, and B. rapa. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of ZDS gene function in cabbage.

  11. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  12. Growth conditions, elemental accumulation and induced physiological changes in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; Víllora, Gemma; Ruiz, Juan M; Romero, Luis

    2003-08-01

    Soils contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and other trace elements are now frequently used for vegetable growing. In this situation, heavy metals and trace elements from these polluted soils may accumulate in the agricultural plants being grown in them and thereby enter the human food chain. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the effects of growth conditions, manipulated by the crop covers, on the phytoaccumulation of elements, and to investigate the conceivable influences of these conditions on the plant biochemistry. In three consecutive years of field experiments, open air (T(0)), and floating rowcover treatments (T(1): perforated polyethylene 50 micrometers; T(2): polypropylene 17 gm(-2)) were used to produce different environmental conditions for the growth of Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa L. (Pekinensis group) cv. 'Nagaoka 50']. Five samplings (whole tops) were carried out from transplanting to harvest and measurements of B, Al, Ag, Si and Ca concentration as well as phenolics (orto-diphenols, total phenols and anthocyanins), pectic fractions, amino acids (histidine, phenylalanine and tyrosine) and polyphenol oxidase activity, were carried out in samples. The T(1) (perforated polyethylene sheet) gave greater B, Al, Ag and Si concentration and phytoextraction (in weight units) than the open-air control. These findings can help to develop new cost-effective techniques for phytoremediation as the application of plastic covers in the field. The build-up of heavy metals in those crops would make the product less suitable for human consumption.

  13. The response of shoot accumulation of trace elements in Chinese cabbage to microclimate modification.

    PubMed

    Moreno, D A; Villora, M G; Hernández, J; Castilla, N; Romer, L

    2001-01-01

    In three consecutive years of field experiments (1994-96), three different environmental conditions for the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Lour) Rupr. cv. Nagaoka 50) were established by using two cover treatments (T1 and T2) and a control uncovered cultivation (T0). The T1 [50 microm polyethylene cover; 20 degrees C air temperature; 61.9% relative moisture; 207 Wm(-2) irradiance] and T2 [a 17 gm(-2) non-woven fleece; 18 degrees C; 63.4%; 205 Wm(-2) gave rise to differences in environmental conditions with respect to T0 [14 degrees C; 57.5%; 237 Wm(-2)]. We analysed chloride (Cl), barium (Ba). rubidium (Rb) and tin (Sn) in the whole tops of experimental plants. Chloride removal was high for Brassica pekinensis but considerably lower for Rb, giving intermediate values for Ba and Sn. The influence of environmental factors under T1 increased trace-element removal and enhanced the usefulness for phytoremedation.

  14. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour. PMID:26353086

  15. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  16. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  17. Volatile-Mediated Interactions between Cabbage Plants in the Field and the Impact of Ozone Pollution.

    PubMed

    Giron-Calva, Patricia Sarai; Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2017-04-01

    Plants constitutively release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but qualitatively and quantitatively alter their emission of VOCs in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The blend of VOCs emitted reflects the physiological status of the plant. Plants may be exposed to the VOC blend emitted by their near neighbors and gain information that allows them to adjust their own defenses. These plant-plant interactions may potentially be exploited to protect crops from pests, but they can be disturbed by abiotic factors making the process sensitive to environmental perturbation. Despite numerous studies describing plant-plant interactions, relatively few have been conducted with agriculturally significant cultivated plant varieties under field conditions. Here we studied plant-plant interactions in a conspecific association of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) and show that undamaged plants exposed to neighbors damaged by the herbivore Pieris brassicae are primed for stronger volatile emissions upon subsequent herbivore attack. We conducted a field study in an ozone free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) facility with ambient and elevated ozone levels and found that elevated tropospheric ozone significantly alters the priming of VOCs in receiver plants. We conclude that plant-plant interactions may prime defensive attributes of receiver plants under field conditions, but are impaired by ozone pollution. Therefore, when planning the manipulation of plant-plant interactions for agricultural purposes, the potential effects of atmospheric pollutants should be considered.

  18. Plant Bioelectric Potential of Hard-leaf Cabbage to Irradiation-light Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Masaki; Shao, Lixin; Oyabu, Takashi; Nanto, Hidehito

    Bioelectric potential was investigated to examine the availability of vegetable growth control. The potential is a kind of information transmitted by the vegetable and it varies markedly with one’s physiological phenomenon, light, air contaminant and insect which are external factors. Highly-efficient growth control can be made possible due to clarifying the relationship between the external factors and the potential. Vegetable can be used as a sensor in addition. A hard-leaf cabbage (Ancient specie) was adopted as a subjective plant in this study and the bioelectric potential was measured. The analysis was carried out using the summation of the potential (vm1) for one minute. The data was input every 0.1 seconds through a difference amplifier. The potential characteristic was investigated as a function of light frequency emitting from a LED panel. In addition, the potential was studied when ethyl alcohol existed and not existed as an air contaminant. As a result, it becomes obvious that the vm1 is raised when blue and red lights are irradiated. The lights mainly contribute to photosynthesis. The potential increases in the presence of ethyl alcohol which was adopted as a kind of nutrient.

  19. [Research on spectra recognition method for cabbages and weeds based on PCA and SIMCA].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of weed identification, the difference of spectral reflectance was employed to distinguish between crops and weeds. Firstly, the different combinations of Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolutional derivation and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) method were applied to preprocess the raw spectral data. Then the clustering analysis of various types of plants was completed by using principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the feature wavelengths which were sensitive for classifying various types of plants were extracted according to the corresponding loading plots of the optimal principal components in PCA results. Finally, setting the feature wavelengths as the input variables, the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification method was used to identify the various types of plants. The experimental results of classifying cabbages and weeds showed that on the basis of the optimal pretreatment by a synthetic application of MSC and SG convolutional derivation with SG's parameters set as 1rd order derivation, 3th degree polynomial and 51 smoothing points, 23 feature wavelengths were extracted in accordance with the top three principal components in PCA results. When SIMCA method was used for classification while the previously selected 23 feature wavelengths were set as the input variables, the classification rates of the modeling set and the prediction set were respectively up to 98.6% and 100%.

  20. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  1. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  2. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  3. Microbial Community Structure of Korean Cabbage Kimchi and Ingredients with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Wook; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Hae-Won; Yang, Ji-Hee; Lee, Mi-Ai

    2016-06-28

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, the production of which involves brining of Korean cabbage, blending with various other ingredients (red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, salt-pickled seafood, etc.), and fermentation. Recently, kimchi has also become popular in the Western world because of its unique taste and beneficial properties such as antioxidant and antimutagenic activities, which are derived from the various raw materials and secondary metabolites of the fermentative microorganisms used during production. Despite these useful activities, analysis of the microbial community present in kimchi has received relatively little attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacterial community structure from the raw materials, additives, and final kimchi product using the culture-independent method. Specifically, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the 16S rRNA partial sequences of the microflora. One primer set for bacteria, 341F(GC)-518R, reliably produced amplicons from kimchi and its raw materials, and these bands were clearly separated on a 35-65% denaturing gradient gel. Overall, 117 16S rRNA fragments were identified by PCR-DGGE analysis. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc gelidum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant bacteria in kimchi. The other strains identified were Tetragenococcus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, and uncultured bacterium. Comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms could provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of kimchi and help improve its quality. PCR-DGGE analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or other species.

  4. Sulfur, chromium, and selenium accumulated in Chinese cabbage under direct covers.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; Víllora, Gemma; Soriano, Maria T; Castilla, Nicolás; Romero, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Currently, pollution of our agricultural soils and waters is increasing and is often associated with many human health ailments. Soils contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and other trace elements are frequently used for growing vegetable crops and in such a situation, these toxic contaminants often accumulate in the edible portions of these agricultural plants and thereby enter the human food chain. In 3 consecutive years of field experiments (1994-1996), two different crop-covering treatments--T (50 microm perforated polyethylene), and T2 (17 gm(-2) non-woven polypropylene)--were used to modify the environmental conditions for the growth of Chinese cabbage 'Nagaoka 50' [Brassica rapa L. (Pekinensis group)]. Open-air plots (T(0)) were used as controls. Analytical determinations of chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), two forms of sulfur (total-S and sulfate-S), and amino acids (Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, serine, threonine, and valine) were performed utilizing plant shoots for analysis. The T1 and T2 treated plants contained concentrations of lysine, methionine, serine, and threonine higher than in T(0). Under T1, the extent of Cr and Se removal in the field was more favorable. Direct covers could be used in contaminated agricultural zones for a variety of plant species, not just for use with those plants previously reported to be efficient at bio-accumulating toxic elements because the thermal effect created by the covers favors phytoextraction processes. However, it is clear that the accumulation of these toxic substances in the plants (Cr) would deem the plant material unsuitable for human consumption and use as animal fodder.

  5. Paenibacillus brassicae sp. nov., isolated from cabbage rhizosphere in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Miao; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Ji; Liu, Jun; Sun, Yan-hua; Wang, Yu-jiong; Sun, Jian-guang

    2013-03-01

    A novel Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain 112(T), was isolated from cabbage rhizosphere in Beijing, China. The strain was found to grow at 10-40 °C and pH 4-11, with an optimum of 30 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain 112(T) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus. High levels of 16S rRNA gene similarities were found between strain 112(T), Paenibacillus sabinae DSM 17841(T) (97.82 %) and Paenibacillus forsythiae DSM 17842(T) (97.22 %). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 112(T) and the type strains of these two species were 10.36 and 6.28 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone was found to be menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown aminophospholipids. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 55.4 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the value of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain 112(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus brassicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 112(T) (= ACCC 01125(T) = DSM 24983(T)).

  6. Inhibitory effects of an extract from non-host plants on physiological characteristics of two major cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Dastranj, M; Borzoui, E; Bandani, A R; Franco, O L

    2018-06-01

    The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and small white cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) are the two main serious pests of cruciferous crops (Brassicaceae) that have developed resistance to chemical control methods. In order to avoid such resistance and also the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on the environment, alternative methods have usually been suggested, including the use of plant enzyme inhibitors. Here, the inhibitory effects of proteinaceous inhibitors extracted from wheat, canola, sesame, bean and triticale were evaluated against the digestive α-amylases, larval growth, development and nutritional indecs of the diamondback moth and small white cabbage butterfly. Our results indicated that triticale and wheat extracts inhibited α-amylolytic activity in an alkaline pH, which is in accordance with the moth and butterfly gut α-amylase optimum pH. Dose-dependent inhibition of two crucifer pests by triticale and wheat was observed using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Implementation of specificity studies showed that wheat and triticale-proteinaceous extract were inactive against Chinese and purple cabbage amylase. Triticale and wheat were resistant against insects' gut proteases. Results of the feeding bioassay indicated that triticale-proteinaceous extract could cause a significant reduction in survival and larval body mass. The results of the nutritional indecs also showed larvae of both species that fed on a Triticale proteinaceous inhibitor-treated diet had the lowest values for the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and relative growth rate. Our observations suggested that triticale shows promise for use in the management of crucifer pests.

  7. Complete genome of Pieris rapae, a resilient alien, a cabbage pest, and a source of anti-cancer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    The Small Cabbage White ( Pieris rapae) is originally a Eurasian butterfly. Being accidentally introduced into North America, Australia, and New Zealand a century or more ago, it spread throughout the continents and rapidly established as one of the most abundant butterfly species. Although it is a serious pest of cabbage and other mustard family plants with its caterpillars reducing crops to stems, it is also a source of pierisin, a protein unique to the Whites that shows cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To better understand the unusual biology of this omnipresent agriculturally and medically important butterfly, we sequenced and annotated the complete genome from USA specimens. At 246 Mbp, it is among the smallest Lepidoptera genomes reported to date. While 1.5% positions in the genome are heterozygous, they are distributed highly non-randomly along the scaffolds, and nearly 20% of longer than 1000 base-pair segments are SNP-free (median length: 38000 bp). Computational simulations of population evolutionary history suggest that American populations started from a very small number of introduced individuals, possibly a single fertilized female, which is in agreement with historical literature. Comparison to other Lepidoptera genomes reveals several unique families of proteins that may contribute to the unusual resilience of Pieris. The nitrile-specifier proteins divert the plant defense chemicals to non-toxic products. The apoptosis-inducing pierisins could offer a defense mechanism against parasitic wasps. While only two pierisins from Pieris rapae were characterized before, the genome sequence revealed eight, offering additional candidates as anti-cancer drugs. The reference genome we obtained lays the foundation for future studies of the Cabbage White and other Pieridae species. PMID:28163896

  8. Effect of the pasteurization process on the contents of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the pasteurization process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. Pasteurization was run at a temperature of 80 °C for 5-30 min. Significant changes were only observed in contents of ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane. The total content of the compounds analyzed in cabbage pasteurized for 10-30 min was found to be decreased by ca. 20%, and the losses were due to thermal degradation of the predominating ascorbigen. Pasteurization was found not to exert any considerable effect on contents of indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol in cabbage nor did it affect contents of the compounds analyzed in juice.

  9. [The influence of colonizing methylobacteria on morphogenesis and resistance of sugar beet and white cabbage plants to Erwinia carotovora].

    PubMed

    Pigoleva, S V; Zakharchenko, N S; Pigolev, A V; Trotsenko, Iu A; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of colonization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) plants by methylotrophic bacteria Methylovorus mays on the growth, rooting, and plant resistance to phytopathogen bacteria Erwinia carotovora was investigated. The colonization by methylobacteria led to their steady association with the plants which had increased growth speed, root formation and photosynthetic activity. The colonized plants had increased resistance to Erwinia carotovora phytopathogen and were better adapted to greenhouse conditions. The obtained results showed the perspectives for the practical implementation of methylobacteria in the ecologically clean microbiology substances used as the plant growth stimulators and for the plant protection from pathogens.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Phosphorus-Solubilizing Bacterium from Rhizosphere Soils and Its Colonization of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Guoyi; Ma, Pengda; Lin, Yanbing; Yang, Xiangna; Cao, Cuiling

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can promote the dissolution of insoluble phosphorus (P) in soil, enhancing the availability of soluble P. Thus, their application can reduce the consumption of fertilizer and aid in sustainable agricultural development. From the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage plants grown in Yangling, we isolated a strain of PSB (YL6) with a strong ability to dissolve P and showed that this strain promoted the growth of these plants under field conditions. However, systematic research on the colonization of bacteria in the plant rhizosphere remains deficient. Thus, to further study the effects of PSB on plant growth, in this study, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to study the colonization of YL6 on Chinese cabbage roots. GFP expression had little effect on the ability of YL6 to grow and solubilize P. In addition, the GFP-expressing strain stably colonized the Chinese cabbage rhizosphere (the number of colonizing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil was 4.9 lg CFU/g). Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed a high abundance of YL6-GFP bacteria at the Chinese cabbage root cap and meristematic zone, as well as in the root hairs and hypocotyl epidermal cells. High quantities of GFP-expressing bacteria were recovered from Chinese cabbage plants during different planting periods for further observation, indicating that YL6-GFP had the ability to endogenously colonize the plants. This study has laid a solid and significant foundation for further research on how PSB affects the physiological processes in Chinese cabbage to promote plant growth. PMID:28798725

  11. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat.

  12. Comparative effect of integrated pest management and farmers' standard pest control practice for managing insect pests on cabbage (Brassica spp.).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P

    2011-08-01

    Studies were conducted on experimental cabbage plantings in 2009 and on experimental and commercial plantings in 2010, comparing farmers' current chemical standard pesticide practices with an integrated pest management (IPM) program based on the use of neem (Aza-Direct) and DiPel (Bacillus thuringiensis). In experimental plantings, the IPM program used six or eight applications of neem and DiPel on a rotational basis. The standard-practice treatments consisted of six or eight applications of carbaryl and malathion or control treatment. The IPM treatments reduced pest populations and damage, resulting in a better yield than with the standard chemical or control treatment. When IPM treatment included three applications of neem plus three applications of DiPel (on a rotational basis in experimental fields), it again reduced the pest population and damage and produced a better yield than the standard practice. The lower input costs of the IPM program resulted in better economic returns in both trials. The IPM components neem and DiPel are suitable for use in an IPM program for managing insect pests on cabbage (Brassica spp.). Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health, growth, and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Linee; Nath, Anil; Sutradhar, Sweety; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kalamdhad, Ajay; Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-09-15

    Utilization of different types of solid wastes through composting is important for environmental sustainability and restoring soil quality. Although drum composting is an efficient technology, the possibility of heavy metal contamination restricts its large-scale use. In this research, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of water hyacinth drum compost (DC) and traditional vermicompost (VC) on soil quality and crop growth in an agro-ecosystem cultivated intensively with tomato and cabbage as test crops. A substantial improvement in soil health was observed with respect to nutrient availability, physical stability, and microbial diversity due to the application of drum compost and traditional vermicompost. Moreover, soil organic carbon was enriched through increased humic and fulvic acid carbon. Interestingly, heavy metal contamination was less significant in vermicompost-treated soils than in those receiving the other treatments. The use of VC and DC in combination with recommended chemical fertilization effectively stimulated crop growth, yield, product quality, and storage longevity for both tomato and cabbage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjie; Yu, Nan; Mu, Guangmao; Shinwari, Kamran I; Shen, Zhenguo; Zheng, Luqing

    2017-04-07

    With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd) is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L.) cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations) on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference ( p < 0.05) in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  15. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjie; Yu, Nan; Mu, Guangmao; Shinwari, Kamran I.; Shen, Zhenguo; Zheng, Luqing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd) is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations) on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation. PMID:28387709

  16. Recovery of turgor by wilted, excised cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake : a new factor in drought acclimation.

    PubMed

    Levitt, J

    1986-09-01

    Cabbage leaves excised from a fully turgid plant wilt within 20 minutes to 2 hours (depending on plant age) with a loss of about 10% relative water content (RWC). If droughted for 2 to 4 days in a high relative humidity leaf chamber, they may acclimate, recovering their turgor without the absorption of water, in fact at a loss of 15 to 25% RWC. This turgor recovery in the absence of water uptake occurs only if (a) the rate of water loss is slow enough (about 1-5% RWC per day after the first 24 hours drought loss of about 15% RWC), (b) if the leaves are no longer growing actively. Osmotic adjustment accompanies the turgor adjustment, but cannot be the cause in the absence of water uptake. The recovery of turgor by wilted cabbage leaves in the absence of water uptake cannot be explained by (a) transfer of reserve water from apoplast to symplast either from the cell walls or from the vessel lumens by cavitation or (b) metabolic loss of dry matter and gain of water. It can be explained by a contraction of the cell walls around the partially dehydrated protoplasts, until they regain their elastic extensibility. These proposed cell wall changes during drought acclimation are therefore the opposite of those occurring during growth. This hypothesis therefore explains the long recognized inverse relation between growth and acclimation. Two predictions of this hypothesis were tested and substantiated.

  17. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrition versus defense: Why Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) prefers and performs better on young leaves of cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Plant leaves of different ages differ in nutrients and toxic metabolites and thus exhibit various resistance levels against insect herbivores. However, little is known about the influence of leaf ontogeny on plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects. In this study, we found that the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, preferred to settle on young cabbage leaves compared with mature or old leaves, although young leaves contained the highest concentration of glucosinolates. Furthermore, aphids feeding on young leaves had higher levels of glucosinolates in their body, but aphids performed better on young leaves in terms of body weight and population growth. Phloem sap of young leaves had higher amino acid:sugar molar ratio than mature leaves, and aphids feeding on young leaves showed two times longer phloem feeding time and five times more honeydew excretion than on other leaves. These results indicate that aphids acquired the highest amount of nutrients and defensive metabolites when feeding on young cabbage leaves that are strong natural plant sinks. Accordingly, we propose that aphids generally prefer to obtain more nutrition rather than avoiding host plant defense, and total amount of nutrition that aphids could obtain is significantly influenced by leaf ontogeny or source-sink status of feeding sites. PMID:29684073

  19. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions.

    PubMed

    Yim, Woo-Jong; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Palaniappan, Pitchai; Siddikee, M A; Sa, Tongmin

    2009-04-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were found to be the members of the genera Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium belonging to alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria groups. These strains were also efficient in producing IAA and ACC deaminase though they produced low levels of ethylene and no phosphate solubilization. In addition, inoculation of selected diazotrophic bacterial strains significantly increased seedling length, dry weight, and total nitrogen when compared to uninoculated control. The colonization of crop plants by diazotrophic bacteria can be affected by many biotic and abiotic factors, and further studies are oriented towards investigating the factors that could influence the establishment of a selected bacterial community.

  20. The effectiveness of cabbage leaf application (treatment) on pain and hardness in breast engorgement and its effect on the duration of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Boi, Boh; Koh, Serena; Gail, Desley

    Breast engorgement is a condition that affects breastfeeding mothers early in the postpartum. The discomfort and tenderness as a result of the engorgement is a major contributing factor to the early cessation of breastfeeding. Many treatments for breast engorgement have been attempted and explored. To examine the effectiveness of cabbage leaf treatment on pain and hardness of the engorged breasts of post-partum women and its influence on the duration of breastfeeding in women with breast engorgement. Postpartum lactating mothers 13 to 50 years of age and of any parity in the first two weeks postpartum with breast engorgement.Cabbage leaf treatment on breast engorgement in reducing pain, hardness and increasing the duration of breastfeeding.Primary outcomes: engorgement, severity of the distention, hardness to touch and pain associated with breast engorgement. Secondary outcome: duration of breastfeeding.Quantitative studies including RCTs, quasi-randomized trials and quasi-experimental studies. Studies in English language from inception of the relevant databases to 2010 were considered for inclusion in this review.The databases searched included: CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct. The search for unpublished studies included: Google Scholar, Mednar, Proquest. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity using standardised critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using the standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The results were presented in narrative format as the meta-analysis was not appropriate because study methods were heterogeneous. Four studies were included in this review: one RCT and two quasi-randomised studies and one quasi-experimental study. In one RCT after the first cabbage leaf application, fewer mothers were reporting breast engorgement through their second to fourth assessments as compared to the control group. On the

  1. Seasonal dynamics of three insect pests in the cabbage field in central Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Vidrih, Matej; Bobnar, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of April until the beginning of November 2006, a seasonal dynamics of three harmful insect species--Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii [Kieffer], Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella [L.], Lepidoptera, Plutellidae)--was investigated at the Laboratory Field of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The males were monitored with pheromone traps; the males of Swede midge were trapped with the traps of Swiss producer (Agroscope FAW, Wädenswill), while the adult flea beetles (trap type KLP+) and diamondback moths (trap type RAG) were trapped with the Hungarian traps (Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). The pheromone capsules were changed in 4-week intervals, while the males were counted on about every 7th day. The first massive occurrence of diamondback moth (1.6 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of April, and the pest remained active until the 2nd 10 days period of September. The adults were the most numerous in the period between the end of May until the middle of June, but even then their number did not exceed three males caught per day. In the first 10 days period of May, the first adult flea beetles were recorded in the pheromone traps, while their notable number (0.8 males/trap/day) was stated in the third 10 days period of May. Absolutely the highest number of the beetles was recorded in the second (19 adults/trap/day) and in the third (25 adults/trap/day) 10 days of July, and the pest occurred until the beginning of October. The first massive occurrence of Swede midge (0.4 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of May, while the highest number of males (8/trap/day) were caught in the second 10 days period of July. In the third 10 days period of October, the last adults were found in the traps. Based on the results of monitoring of three cabbage insect pests we ascertained

  2. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  4. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of SMM from Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants.

  6. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  7. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  8. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  9. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  10. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  11. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shelf-life of minimally processed cabbage treated with neutral electrolysed oxidising water and stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Ragaert, Peter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jeyachchandran, Visvalingam; Debevere, Johan; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-06-10

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) have a short shelf-life. Neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEW) is a novel decontamination method. The objective of this study was to test the potential of NEW to extend the shelf-life of a MPV, namely shredded cabbage. Samples of shredded cabbage were immersed in NEW containing 40 mg/L of free chlorine or tap water (control) up to 5 min, and then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Proliferation of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were studied during the shelf-life. Also pH and sensorial quality of the samples as well as O(2) and CO(2) composition of the headspace of the bags was evaluated. From the microbial groups, only psychrotrophic counts decreased significantly (P<0.05) due to the effect of NEW, but the counts in treated samples and controls were similar after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Packaging configurations kept O(2) concentration around 5% and prevented CO(2) accumulation. pH increased from 6.1-6.2 to 6.4 during the shelf-life. No microbial parameter reached unacceptable counts after 14 days at 4 degrees C and 8 days of storage at 7 degrees C. The shelf-life of controls stored at 4 degrees C was limited to 9 days by overall visual quality (OVQ), while samples treated with NEW remained acceptable during the 14 days of the experiment. The shelf-life of controls stored at 7 degrees C was limited to 6 days by OVQ and browning, while that of samples treated with NEW were limited to 9 days by OVQ, browning and dryness. According to these results, a shelf-life extension of at least 5 days and 3 days in samples stored respectively at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C can be achieved by treating shredded cabbage with NEW. NEW seems to be a promising method to prolong the shelf-life of MPV.

  13. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s.

  14. Efficacy of acidified sodium chlorite treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Bari, Md Latiful; Kawasaki, Susumu; Isshiki, Kenji; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2005-02-01

    Efficacy of acidified sodium chlorite for reducing the population of Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens on Chinese cabbage leaves was evaluated. Washing leaves with distilled water could reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 by approximately 1.0 log CFU/g, whereas treating with acidified chlorite solution could reduce the population by 3.0 log CFU/g without changing the leaf color. A similar level of reduction was achieved by washing with sodium chlorite solution containing various organic acids. However, acidified sodium chlorite in combination with a mild heat treatment reduced the population by approximately 4.0 log CFU/g without affecting the color, but it softened the leaves. Moreover, the efficacy of the washing treatment was similar at low (4 degrees C) and room (25 degrees C) temperatures, indicating that acidified sodium chloride solution could be useful as a sanitizer for surface washing of fresh produce.

  15. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5.

  16. Simultaneous determination of flubendiamide its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide residues in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2011-10-01

    A sensitive and simple method for simultaneous analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea has been developed. The residues were extracted with QuEChERS method followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent to remove co extractives, prior to analysis by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis detector. The recoveries of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide were ranged from 85.1 to 98.5% and 85.9 to 97.1% respectively with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 5% and sensitivity of 0.01 μg g(-1). The method offers a less expensive and safer alternative to the existing residue analysis methods for vegetables. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  17. Cabbage compression early breast care on breast engorgement in primiparous women after cesarean birth: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, A-Reum; Song, Ji-Ah; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of cabbage compression early breast care (CCEBC) and early breast care (EBC) on breast pain, breast hardness with general nursing breast care (GNBC) in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Sixty participants were divided to three groups including CCEBC, EBC and GNBC. Each group was treated with its intervention respectively more than 10 minutes before breast feeding from day two to day four after delivery. The primary outcomes were breast pain and breast hardness. Both CCEBC and EBC showed significantly lower pain level than GNBC at day 4 after delivery. There are significant differences of breast hardness among three groups. CCEBC group showed significantly lower breast hardness compared with EBC and GNBC. Neither core body temperature nor breast skin temperature was significantly different among the three groups. In conclusion, CCEBC may effective in relieving breast pain and breast hardness compared with EBC alone and GNBC in primiparous women after a cesarean birth. PMID:26885074

  18. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

    PubMed Central

    Bažok, Renata; Ceranić-Sertić, Mirna; Barčić, Jasminka Igrc; Borošić, Josip; Kozina, Antonela; Kos, Tomislav; Lemić, Darija; Čačija, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. PMID:26466723

  19. Exploratory Study into the Microbiological Quality of Spinach and Cabbage Purchased from Street Vendors and Retailers in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Erika M du; Govender, Sarasha; Pillay, Bala; Korsten, Lise

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the microbiological quality and prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in bacterial isolates from leafy green vegetables supplied by formal suppliers (retailers) and informal suppliers (street vendors) in South Africa is limited. Because leafy vegetables have been implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, 180 cabbage and spinach samples were collected from three major retailers and nine street vendors in Johannesburg, South Africa. Escherichia coli and coliforms were enumerated using Petrifilm plates. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shigella was determined using real-time PCR analysis. Identities of presumptive E. coli isolates from the fresh produce were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy. Isolates were characterized using phenotypic (antibiotic resistance) and genotypic (phylogenetic and virulence gene) analysis. Hygiene indicator bacteria levels on spinach from formal and informal retailers exceeded the maximum level specified by the Department of Health guidelines for fresh fruit and vegetables. E. coli counts for street vendor spinach were higher (P < 0.0789) than those for retailer spinach. E. coli was present in only two cabbage samples, at 0.0035 CFU/g. L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were detected in 7.2 and 5% of the 180 samples, respectively, based on real-time PCR analysis; Shigella was not detected. Of the 29 spinach E. coli isolates, 37.9% were multidrug resistant. Virulence genes eae and stx 1 were present in 14 and 3% of the spinach E. coli isolates, respectively; the stx 2 gene was not detected. Eighty-six percent of these isolates belonged to phylogroup A, 3% belonged to group C, 7% belonged to group E, and 3% belonged to clade 1. The results from the current exploratory study on the microbiological quality of spinach bought from selected retailers highlight the need for continued surveillance on a larger scale, especially

  20. Comparison of sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern and northern populations of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Ping; Tu, Xiao-Yun; He, Hai-Min; Chen, Chao; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the genetic divergence and reproductive incompatibility between closely related species and/or populations is often viewed as an important step toward speciation. In this study, sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern XS population and the northern TA population of the polyandrous cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi was investigated by testing their mating preferences, mating latency, copulation duration, and reproductive performances of post-mating. In choice mating experiments, the percentages of matings were significantly higher in intra-population crosses than in inter-population crosses. Both isolation index (I) and index of pair sexual isolation (IPSI ) indicated partial mating incompatibility or assortative mating in crosses between the two different geographical populations. In single pair mating experiments, XS females in inter-population crosses mated significantly later and copulated significantly shorter than those in intra-population crosses. However, TA females in inter-population crosses mated significantly earlier and copulated longer than those in intra-population crosses, suggesting that larger XS males may enhance heterotypic mating. The lifetime fecundity was highest in XS homotypic matings, lowest in TA homotypic matings, and intermediate in heterotypic matings between their parents. The inter-population crosses resulted in significantly lower egg hatching rate and shorter female longevity than intra-population crosses. These results demonstrated that there exist some incompatibilities in premating, postmating-prezygotic, and postzygotic stages between the southern XS population and northern TA population of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary transcriptome and proteome profiling in cabbage buds of a recessive male sterile mutant provides new insights into male reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jialei; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng

    2018-05-15

    Plant male reproductive development is a very complex biological process that involves multiple metabolic pathways. To reveal novel insights into male reproductive development, we conducted an integrated profiling of gene activity in the developing buds of a cabbage recessive genetic male sterile mutant. Using RNA-Seq and label-free quantitative proteomics, 2881 transcripts and 1245 protein species were identified with significant differential abundance between the male sterile line 83121A and its isogenic maintainer line 83121B. Analyses of function annotations and correlations between transcriptome and proteome and protein interaction networks were also conducted, which suggested that the male sterility involves a complex regulatory pattern. Moreover, several key biological processes, such as fatty acid metabolism, tapetosome biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis and degradation were identified as being of relevance to male reproductive development. A large number of protein species involved in sporopollenin synthesis, amino acid synthesis, ribosome assembly, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and lipid transfer were observed to be significantly down-accumulated in 83121A buds, indicating their potential roles in the regulation of cabbage microspore abortion. In summary, the conjoint analysis of the transcriptome and proteome provided a global picture regarding the molecular dynamics in male sterile buds of 83121A. Male sterile mutants are excellent materials for the study of plant male reproductive development. This study revealed the molecular dynamics of recessive male sterility in cabbage at the transcriptome and proteome levels, which deepens our understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in male development. Moreover, the male sterility-related genes identified in this study could provide a reference for the artificial regulation of cabbage fertility by using genetic engineering technology, which may result in potential

  3. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  5. Fate of Escherichia coli O157 Cells Inoculated into Lightly Pickled Chinese Cabbage during Processing, Storage and Incubation in Artificial Gastric Juice.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohata, Yukiko; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn; Latiful Bari, Md; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps. The population of E. coli O157 (3 log CFU/g to 1 log MPN/g) inoculated into the Chinese cabbage products was reduced less than 0.6 log CFU/g after 2 h-incubation at 37℃ in artificial gastric juice. Prevention from initial contamination of E. coli O157 on the ingredients of Chinese cabbage products is important to reduce the risk of food poisoning because the reduction of the bacterial counts after processing and consumption are limited.

  6. A field study on the dynamic uptake and transfer of heavy metals in Chinese cabbage and radish in weak alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ai, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Bailin; Ren, Liang; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-10-01

    Vegetables and crops can take up heavy metals when grown on polluted lands. The concentrations and dynamic uptake of heavy metals vary at different growth points for different vegetables. In order to assess the safe consumption of vegetables in weak alkaline farmlands, Chinese cabbage and radish were planted on the farmlands of Baiyin (polluted site) and Liujiaxia (relatively unpolluted site). Firstly, the growth processes of two vegetables were recorded. The growth curves of the two vegetables observed a slow growth at the beginning, an exponential growth period, and a plateau towards the end. Maximum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were presented at the slow growth period and showed a downtrend except the radish shoot. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in vegetables of Baiyin were higher than those of Liujiaxia. In the meanwhile, the uptake contents continued to increase during the growth or halted at maximum at a certain stage. The maximum uptake rates were found on the maturity except for the shoot of radish which took place at the exponential growth stages of root. The sigmoid model could simulate the dynamic processes of growth and heavy metals uptake of Chinese cabbage and radish. Conclusively, heavy metals have higher bioaccumulation tendency for roots in Chinese cabbage and for shoots in radish.

  7. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  8. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese

  9. Construction of random sheared fosmid library from Chinese cabbage and its use for Brassica rapa genome sequencing project.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jin-A; Hong, Joon Ki; Jin, Mina; Seol, Young-Joo; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the Multinational Genome Sequencing Project of Brassica rapa, linkage group R9 and R3 were sequenced using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by BAC strategy. The current physical contigs are expected to cover approximately 90% euchromatins of both chromosomes. As the project progresses, BAC selection for sequence extension becomes more limited because BAC libraries are restriction enzyme-specific. To support the project, a random sheared fosmid library was constructed. The library consists of 97536 clones with average insert size of approximately 40 kb corresponding to seven genome equivalents, assuming a Chinese cabbage genome size of 550 Mb. The library was screened with primers designed at the end of sequences of nine points of scaffold gaps where BAC clones cannot be selected to extend the physical contigs. The selected positive clones were end-sequenced to check the overlap between the fosmid clones and the adjacent BAC clones. Nine fosmid clones were selected and fully sequenced. The sequences revealed two completed gap filling and seven sequence extensions, which can be used for further selection of BAC clones confirming that the fosmid library will facilitate the sequence completion of B. rapa. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38°C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g⁻¹ VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g⁻¹ VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions.

  12. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-01-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay. PMID:28181580

  13. Target tracking and 3D trajectory acquisition of cabbage butterfly (P. rapae) based on the KCF-BS algorithm.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang-Yang; He, Dong-Jian; Liu, Cong

    2018-06-25

    Insect behaviour is an important research topic in plant protection. To study insect behaviour accurately, it is necessary to observe and record their flight trajectory quantitatively and precisely in three dimensions (3D). The goal of this research was to analyse frames extracted from videos using Kernelized Correlation Filters (KCF) and Background Subtraction (BS) (KCF-BS) to plot the 3D trajectory of cabbage butterfly (P. rapae). Considering the experimental environment with a wind tunnel, a quadrature binocular vision insect video capture system was designed and applied in this study. The KCF-BS algorithm was used to track the butterfly in video frames and obtain coordinates of the target centroid in two videos. Finally the 3D trajectory was calculated according to the matching relationship in the corresponding frames of two angles in the video. To verify the validity of the KCF-BS algorithm, Compressive Tracking (CT) and Spatio-Temporal Context Learning (STC) algorithms were performed. The results revealed that the KCF-BS tracking algorithm performed more favourably than CT and STC in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  14. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    PubMed

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data.

  15. Accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb in Chinese cabbage as influenced by climatic conditions under protected cultivation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; Víllora, Gemma; Hernández, Joaquín; Castilla, Nicolás; Romero, Luis

    2002-03-27

    Accumulation of heavy metals from agricultural soils contaminated by low levels heavy metals has important implications in the understanding of heavy metal contamination in the food chain. Through field experiments (1994-1996), the influence of thermal regime under different treatments on the accumulation of zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead in Chinese cabbage [Brassica pekinensis (Lour) Rupr. cv. Nagaoka 50] grown in a Calcareous Fluvisol (Xerofluvent) in Granada (southern Spain) was examined. Two floating row covers were used: T(1) (perforated polyethylene, 50 microm thick) and T(2) (17 g m(-2) polypropylene nonwoven fleece). An uncovered cultivation (T(0)) served as control. Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb levels in the whole tops of experimental plants were analyzed. Treatments T(1) and T(2) gave rise to differences in environmental conditions with respect to T(0). The influence of environmental factors manipulated by floating row covers (particularly under T(1)) increased total heavy metal accumulation in the above ground plant biomass with respect to the open-air crop. The total contents of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb were 30, 50, 90, and 40% higher in T(1), respectively, than in T(0). This technique could be used in contaminated zones for different plant species because the thermal effect favors the process of phytoextraction and thus reduces the contamination.

  16. The Effect of Seed Soaking with Rhizobacteria Pseudomonas alcaligenes on the Growth of Swamp Cabbage (Ipomoea reptans Poir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widnyana, I. K.; Ngga, M.; Sapanca, P. L. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of seed soaking with suspense of P. alcaligenes isolate KtSl, TrN2, and TmAl to the growth of swamp cabbage. The research has been initially developed on tomatoes. In this research, Randomized Block Design was chosen as its model while the data analysis was performed by using SPSS v.17 for Windows. Three types of treatment were administered towards P. alcaligenes, namely isolating, soaking, and growing the medium. Some observed parameters were germination and growth. The results showed that seed soaking treatments with suspense P. alcaligenes fostered the germination 25% faster, enhanced the crop up to 24.4%, increased the number of leaves up until 23.15%, lengthen stems to 25%, lengthen the roots up to 46.90%, and increase the fresh weight of stems up until 67.07% and oven-dry weight of stem up to 84.21% compared to the control treatment. The best response of treatment for germination speed was soaking seeds with P. alcaligenes TrN2 for 20 minutes on both NB (Natrium Broth) and PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth) media.

  17. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-06-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.

  18. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Jinfang; Qi, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Gongle; Li, Mingyue; Li, Xingsheng; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104) was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent cations lanthanum (La), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), or copper (Cu). Subcellular localization studies were performed in onion epidermal cells and revealed that BoALMT1 was localized at the plasma membrane. Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique was used to analyze H+ flux. Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing BoALMT1 excreted more H+ under Al treatment. Overexpressing BoALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Al tolerance and increased malate secretion. The results suggested that BoALMT1 functions as an Al-resistant gene and encodes a malate transporter. Expressing BoALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes or A. thaliana indicated that BoALMT1 could increase malate secretion and H+ efflux to resist Al tolerance. PMID:29410672

  19. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    PubMed

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  20. [The course of melanization and its inhibition in pupae of the cabbage whitePieris brassicae L.

    PubMed

    Bückmann, Detlef

    1971-09-01

    The melanization of the Cabbage White pupae varies in response to light conditions. As abdomina, which are isolated by a ligature, become strongly melanized, the control evidently works in the way of gradual inhibition.The melanine patches of light pupae are not paler than those of dark pupae, but they are smaller. Apparently there is a gradient of reactivity to inhibition from the margin of the patches towards their center. Different patches are affected by the inhibition to a different extent.The black patches appear during the first 6 hours after pupation, not simultaneously but in a certain sequence. The first and the last patches of this sequence are most reactive to inhibition. On light pupae they may be entirely absent.A classification of pupal melanization is based on differences in the shape of certain patches, which can easily be recognized even on operated pupae and isolated parts of the body.Equally strong melanization as from ligating results from nerve section between brain an suboesophageal ganglion, somewhat weaker melanization results from section between suboesophageal and prothoracic ganglia.The melanizing effects of ligatures and nerve sections decrease during a critical period. They are entirely lost 12 hours after the prepupa has fastened itself to the ground by spinning the girdle-thread.It is suggested that during this critical period a melanization inhibiting factor is secreted by a thoracic center, which itself is under nervous control of the brain.

  1. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186) was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99) was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps. PMID:23033896

  2. Improving dyeability of modified cotton fabrics by the natural aqueous extract from red cabbage using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Ben Ticha, Manel; Haddar, Wafa; Meksi, Nizar; Guesmi, Ahlem; Mhenni, M Farouk

    2016-12-10

    The concern regarding sustainable utilization of available resources is growing due to its global importance. In this paper, the dyeability of cotton fabrics with natural colorant extracted from red cabbage was improved by applying cationic groups on cotton fibers. Modification of cotton was carried using acid tannic, Rewin Os, Denitex BC and Sera Fast as cationic agents. The dyeing process was done by ultrasonic energy. The effects of the cationising agent amount, the dye bath pH, the dyeing temperature and duration, on the sonicator dyeing quality were studied. The performances of this process were evaluated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the dyeing fastness of the coloured cotton. Besides, modified cotton fibers were characterized by morphology analysis (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and compared to untreated cotton. Moreover, a two-level full factorial design was employed to optimize the sonicator dyeing process. Mathematical model equation and statistical analysis were derived by computer simulation programming applying the least squares method using Minitab 15. Best dyeing conditions were found to be: 10%, pH 11, 60min and 100°C respectively for the Sera Fast amount, dye bath pH, dyeing duration and temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Red cabbage anthocyanin extract alleviates copper-induced cytological disturbances in plant meristematic tissue and human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Posmyk, Małgorzata M; Janas, Krystyna M; Kontek, Renata

    2009-06-01

    Red cabbage is a source of health beneficial substances with antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties. HPLC analysis specifying the content of the investigated extract indicated that mainly anthocyanins (ATH) were responsible for its abilities. Cytological research was conducted with two experimental models: plant tissues--meristematic cells of Vicia faba, and animal tissue elements--human lymphocytes. Positive influence of ATH extract on mitotic activity of Vicia cells exposed to Cu(2+) stress, and inhibitory effect of ATH on cytotoxic actions of Cu(2+) on lymphocytes were demonstrated. In all experimental series with ATH application in combinations with Cu(2+), mitotic index (MI) were higher than those obtained for only Cu(2+) stressed tissues. Preincubation in ATH before Cu(2+) stress had the best effect. Similarly, after ATH applications in all tested series decrease in frequency of micronuclei (MN) appearance was noticed in comparison with only Cu(2+) stressed material. In the case of Vicia cells ATH acted effectively even applied after Cu(2+) stress. It suggests that this ATH mixture not only prevents and limits but also heals the cytological injury caused by Cu(2+) stress.

  4. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Jinfang; Qi, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Gongle; Li, Mingyue; Li, Xingsheng; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104) was cloned from cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent cations lanthanum (La), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), or copper (Cu). Subcellular localization studies were performed in onion epidermal cells and revealed that BoALMT1 was localized at the plasma membrane. Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique was used to analyze H + flux. Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing BoALMT1 excreted more H + under Al treatment. Overexpressing BoALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Al tolerance and increased malate secretion. The results suggested that BoALMT1 functions as an Al-resistant gene and encodes a malate transporter. Expressing BoALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes or A. thaliana indicated that BoALMT1 could increase malate secretion and H+ efflux to resist Al tolerance.

  5. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  6. Evidence for inbreeding depression and pre-copulatory, but not post copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi.

  7. Evidence for Inbreeding Depression and Pre-Copulatory, but Not Post Copulatory Inbreeding Avoidance in the Cabbage Beetle Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi. PMID:24718627

  8. Egg Laying of Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) on Arabidopsis thaliana Affects Subsequent Performance of the Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Blenn, Beatrice; Drechsler, Navina; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunze, Reinhard; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant – herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts) and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants). Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2, a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content. PMID:23527243

  9. Fine Mapping of a Clubroot Resistance Gene in Chinese Cabbage Using SNP Markers Identified from Bulked Segregant RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Peng, Gary; Liu, Xunjia; Deora, Abhinandan; Falk, Kevin C.; Gossen, Bruce D.; McDonald, Mary R.; Yu, Fengqun

    2017-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of canola (Brassica napus) in western Canada and worldwide. In this study, a clubroot resistance gene (Rcr2) was identified and fine mapped in Chinese cabbage cv. “Jazz” using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers identified from bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-Seq) and molecular markers were developed for use in marker assisted selection. In total, 203.9 million raw reads were generated from one pooled resistant (R) and one pooled susceptible (S) sample, and >173,000 polymorphic SNP sites were identified between the R and S samples. One significant peak was observed between 22 and 26 Mb of chromosome A03, which had been predicted by BSR-Seq to contain the causal gene Rcr2. There were 490 polymorphic SNP sites identified in the region. A segregating population consisting of 675 plants was analyzed with 15 SNP sites in the region using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR method, and Rcr2 was fine mapped between two SNP markers, SNP_A03_32 and SNP_A03_67 with 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Rcr2, respectively. Five SNP markers co-segregated with Rcr2 in this region. Variants were identified in 14 of 36 genes annotated in the Rcr2 target region. The numbers of poly variants differed among the genes. Four genes encode TIR-NBS-LRR proteins and two of them Bra019410 and Bra019413, had high numbers of polymorphic variants and so are the most likely candidates of Rcr2. PMID:28894454

  10. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  11. Application of gamma radiation for the reduction of norovirus and the quality stability in optimally ripened cabbage kimchi.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-10-01

    Optimally ripened commercial cabbage kimchi is considered the main cause of enteric norovirus (NoV) outbreaks in Korea. This study investigated the effect of 1-10kGy gamma radiation on the inactivation of murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1; initial inoculum of 5-6log 10 PFU/ml), used as a human NoV surrogate, in kimchi. The effects of gamma radiation on the pH and acidity were also examined to address the index of quality and fermentation, respectively. Titers of MNV-1 significantly reduced (p<0.05) in kimchi subjected to increasing gamma radiation doses: MNV-1 titers in kimchi after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10kGy were 4.82 (0.34-log 10 reduction), 4.45 (0.71-log 10 reduction), 4.18 (0.98-log 10 reduction), 3.71 (1.45-log 10 reduction), and 3.40 (1.76-log 10 reduction) log 10 PFU/ml, respectively. However, the values of pH (4.5-4.6) and acidity (0.6-0.7%) were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated kimchi (p>0.05). The D-value (1-log reduction) for MNV-1 in kimchi, calculated using first-order kinetics, was 5.75kGy (R 2 =0.98, RMSE=0.10). Therefore, this study suggests that the use of ≥5.75kGy gamma radiation in the kimchi manufacturing industry could be very effective in reducing NoV contamination by >90% (1 log), without causing changes in quality and fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ammonia volatilization from a Chinese cabbage field under different nitrogen treatments in the Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Linan; He, Yunfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major pathway of nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems. As vegetable cultivation is one of the most important agricultural land uses worldwide, a deeper understanding of NH3 volatilization is necessary in vegetable production systems. We therefore conducted a 3-year (2010-2012) field experiment to characterize NH3 volatilization and evaluate the effect of different N fertilizer treatments on this process during the growth period of Chinese cabbage. Ammonia volatilization rate, rainfall, soil water content, pH, and soil NH4(+) were measured during the growth period. The results showed that NH3 volatilization was significantly and positively correlated to topsoil pH and NH4(+) concentration. Climate factors and fertilization method also significantly affected NH3 volatilization. Specifically, organic fertilizer (OF) increased NH3 volatilization by 11.77%-18.46%, compared to conventional fertilizer (CF, urea), while organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (OIF) reduced NH3 volatilization by 8.82%-12.67% compared to CF. Furthermore, slow-release fertilizers had significantly positive effects on controlling NH3 volatilization, with a 60.73%-68.80% reduction for sulfur-coated urea (SCU), a 71.85%-78.97% reduction for biological Carbon Power® urea (BCU), and a 77.66%-83.12% reduction for bulk-blend controlled-release fertilizer (BBCRF) relative to CF. This study provides much needed baseline information, which will help in fertilizer choice and management practices to reduce NH3 volatilization and encourage the development of new strategies for vegetable planting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides on important parasitoids of cabbage butterflies in cruciferous ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Firake, D M; Thubru, D P; Behere, G T

    2017-02-01

    Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides. Although, at 72 h after treatment, spinosad and deltamethrin were found harmful (Class-IV) and azadirachtin was moderately harmful (Class-III), whereas Btk was harmless (Class-I). Furthermore, 15-day-old residues of pesticides (except deltamethrin) were harmless to all parasitoid species under semi-field conditions. Notably, adult emergence and pupal duration in pesticide-treated cocoons were not significantly affected; however, their survival decreased after emergence except in Btk. The contact and oral toxicity trends of the pesticides were almost similar for three species of parasitoid females and pupae; however little variability was observed in toxicity to the host caterpillars parasitized by H. ebeninus (HCPHE) and C. glomerata (HCPCG). In semi-field tests, fresh residues of all the pesticides were harmful to HCPHE and HCPCG. However, action of Btk was slightly delayed and toxicity was rather low for HCPCG. In 15-day-old residues, deltamethrin and azadirachtin were slightly harmful to the parasitized caterpillars, whereas those of Btk and spinosad were harmless. Since, Btk appeared to be safe for parasitoids; it could be used for managing cabbage butterflies in brassicaceous crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization and classification of one new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line based on morphological, cytological and molecular markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    PubMed

    Heng, Shuangping; Shi, Dianyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Huang, Tao; Li, Jinping; Liu, Liyan; Xia, Chunxiu; Yuan, Zhenzhen; Xu, Yuejin; Fu, Tingdong; Wan, Zhengjie

    2015-09-01

    A new non-heading Chinese cabbage CMS line M119A was characterized and specific molecular markers were developed to classify different CMS types. One new non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line M119A was obtained by interspecific crosses between the recently discovered hau CMS line of Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, the line was characterized and compared with other five isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines. The M119A line produced six stamens without pollen and only two stamen fused together in fewer flowers. Tissue section indicated that anther abortion in M119A may have occurred during differentiation of the archesporial cells without pollen sac. All the six CMS lines were grouped into three types based on the presence of three PCR fragments of 825, 465 and 772 bp amplified with different mitochondrial genes specific primers. The 825-bp fragment was amplified both in 09-10A and H201A using the specific primer pair P-orf224-atp6, and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of pol CMS. The 465-bp fragment was amplified in 30A and 105A using the primer pair P-orf138 and shared 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of ogu CMS. The 772-bp fragment was amplified in M119A and H203A using the primer pair P-orf288 and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of hau CMS. Therefore, these markers could efficiently distinguish different types of isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage, which were useful for improving the efficiency of cross-breeding and heterosis utilization in cruciferous vegetables.

  15. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage and mizuna), and intraspecific differentiation of cytoplasm in B. rapa and Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Hatono, Saki; Nishimura, Kaori; Murakami, Yoko; Tsujimura, Mai; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for two cultivars of Brassica rapa . After determining the sequence of a Chinese cabbage variety, 'Oushou hakusai', the sequence of a mizuna variety, 'Chusei shiroguki sensuji kyomizuna', was mapped against the sequence of Chinese cabbage. The precise sequences where the two varieties demonstrated variation were ascertained by direct sequencing. It was found that the mitochondrial genomes of the two varieties are identical over 219,775 bp, with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the genomes. Because B. rapa is the maternal species of an amphidiploid crop species, Brassica juncea , the distribution of the SNP was observed both in B. rapa and B. juncea . While the mizuna type SNP was restricted mainly to cultivars of mizuna (japonica group) in B. rapa , the mizuna type was widely distributed in B. juncea . The finding that the two Brassica species have these SNP types in common suggests that the nucleotide substitution occurred in wild B. rapa before both mitotypes were domesticated. It was further inferred that the interspecific hybridization between B. rapa and B. nigra took place twice and resulted in the two mitotypes of cultivated B. juncea .

  17. BrWRKY65, a WRKY Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Three Leaf Senescence-Associated Genes in Chinese Flowering Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhong-Qi; Tan, Xiao-Li; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-06-08

    Plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to function as regulators of leaf senescence, but their association with postharvest leaf senescence of economically important leafy vegetables, is poorly understood. In this work, the characterization of a Group IIe WRKY TF, BrWRKY65, from Chinese flowering cabbage ( Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) is reported. The expression of BrWRKY65 was up-regulated following leaf chlorophyll degradation and yellowing during postharvest senescence. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation assays showed that BrWRKY65 was localized in the nucleus and exhibited trans-activation ability. Further electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and transient expression analysis clearly revealed that BrWRKY65 directly bound to the W-box motifs in the promoters of three senescence-associated genes ( SAGs ) such as BrNYC1 and BrSGR1 associated with chlorophyll degradation, and BrDIN1 , and subsequently activated their expressions. These findings demonstrate that BrWRKY65 may be positively associated with postharvest leaf senescence, at least partially, by the direct activation of SAGs . Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of postharvest leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage.

  18. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  19. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  20. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    PubMed

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Identification, expression, and comparative genomic analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytokinins (CKs) have significant roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, and they are also involved in plant stress adaptations. The fine-tuning of the controlled CK levels in individual tissues, cells, and organelles is properly maintained by isopentenyl transferases (IPTs) and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs). Chinese cabbage is one of the most economically important vegetable crops worldwide. The whole genome sequencing of Brassica rapa enables us to perform the genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families. Results In this study, a total of 13 BrIPT genes and 12 BrCKX genes were identified. The gene structures, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. The isoelectric point, subcellular localization and glycosylation sites of the proteins were predicted. Segmental duplicates were found in both BrIPT and BrCKX gene families. We also analyzed evolutionary patterns and divergence of the IPT and CKX genes in the Cruciferae family. The transcription levels of BrIPT and BrCKX genes were analyzed to obtain an initial picture of the functions of these genes. Abiotic stress elements related to adverse environmental stimuli were found in the promoter regions of BrIPT and BrCKX genes and they were confirmed to respond to drought and high salinity conditions. The effects of 6-BA and ABA on the expressions of BrIPT and BrCKX genes were also investigated. Conclusions The expansion of BrIPT and BrCKX genes after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana is mainly attributed to segmental duplication events during the whole genome triplication (WGT) and substantial duplicated genes are lost during the long evolutionary history. Genes produced by segmental duplication events have changed their expression patterns or may adopted new functions and thus are obtained. BrIPT and BrCKX genes respond well to drought and high salinity stresses, and their transcripts are affected by exogenous

  2. Effect of sprout extract from Tuscan black cabbage on xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Melega, Simone; Canistro, Donatella; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Iori, Renato; Sapone, Andrea; Paolini, Moreno

    2013-02-18

    In recent years, health protection by natural products has received considerable attention, and a multitude of nutraceuticals have been characterized and their use promoted. Dietary consumption of Cruciferous vegetables, rich in glucosinolates (GLs), and their myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis products isothiocyanates (ITCs), were associated with reductions in cancer risk. In this study, the chemo-preventive potential of sprout extract of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala subvar. Laciniata L.) (TBCSE), through modulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing apparatus and antioxidant defenses, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rat liver. TBCSE was administered either orally or intraperitoneally, at a dose of 15mg/kg b.w., daily for twenty-one consecutive days, in the absence or presence of exogenous myrosinase, β-thioglucoside glucohydrolase (MYR), to distinguish the effects of intact GLs and ITCs, in the context of the extract. A complex, mild modulation pattern of P450-related monooxygenases was observed, mainly regarding CYP content (up to 36% loss), NADPH cytochrome (P450) c-reductase (up to 26% loss), CYP1A1 (up to 23% loss), but no evident distinctions among the effects of the extracts containing GLs or ITCs, were noted. In contrast, significant inductions of phase-II enzymes (up to 107% for UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase, and up to 36% for glutathione S-transferase) were recorded only where the GLs to ITCs conversion had occurred. A boosting effect on catalase (up to 38%), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (up to 70%), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (up to 10%) was also recorded, suggesting an indirect antioxidant capacity of the extracts. Overall, the general phase-I inhibition, together with the up-regulation of detoxifying phase-II and antioxidant enzymes, exerted by the TBCSE supplementation, seem to be in line with the classical chemopreventive theory, but whether the addition of exogenous MYR is relevant, still remains to be

  3. Identification and characterisation of seventeen glutathione S-transferase genes from the cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Wang, Wen-Long; Zhang, Bang-Xian; Li, Shi-Guang

    2017-11-01

    Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play essential roles in the detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotic compounds. The cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae, is an economically important agricultural pest. In this study, 17 cDNA sequences encoding putative GSTs were identified in P. rapae. All cDNAs include a complete open reading frame and were designated PrGSTd1-PrGSTz2. Based on phylogenetic analysis, PrGSTs were divided into six classes (delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, theta and zeta). The exon-intron organizations of these PrGSTs were also analysed. Recombinant proteins of eight PrGSTs (PrGSTD1, PrGSTD2, PrGSTE1, PrGSTE2, PrGSTO1, PrGSTS1, PrGSTT1 and PrGSTZ1) were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and all of these proteins displayed glutathione-conjugating activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Expression patterns in various larval tissues, at different life stages, and following exposure to sublethal doses of abamectin, chlorantraniliprole or lambda-cyhalothrin were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The results showed that PrGSTe3, PrGSTs1, PrGSTs2, and PrGSTs4 were mainly transcribed in the fat body, while PrGSTe2 was expressed predominantly in the Malpighian tubules. Four genes (PrGSTe2, PrGSTo4, PrGSTs4 and PrGSTt1) were mainly expressed in fourth-instar larvae, while others were ubiquitously expressed in egg, larval, pupa and/or adult stages. Abamectin treatment significantly upregulated ten genes (PrGSTd1, PrGSTd3, PrGSTe1, PrGSTe2, PrGSTo1, PrGSTo3, PrGSTs1, PrGSTs3, PrGSTs4 and PrGSTt1). Chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin treatment significantly upregulated nine genes (PrGSTd1, PrGSTd2, PrGSTe1, PrGSTe2, PrGSTe3, PrGSTs1, PrGSTs3, PrGSTs4 and PrGSTz1) and ten genes (PrGSTd1, PrGSTd3, PrGSTe1, PrGSTe2, PrGSTo1, PrGSTo2, PrGSTs1, PrGSTs2, PrGSTs3 and PrGSTz2), respectively. These GSTs are potentially involved in the detoxification of insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cabbage Patch Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This activity takes students through the process of fermentation. Requires an entire month for the full reaction to take place. The reaction, catalyzed by bacterial enzymes, produces lactic acid from glucose. (SAH)

  6. Determination of diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator JS-118 residues in cabbage and soil by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, J-Y; Deng, Z-B; Qin, D-M

    2009-12-01

    JS-118 is a diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator used extensively in China now. An analytical method for residues determination of JS-118 in cabbage and soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection was established and optimized. Primary secondary amine solid phase extraction cartridge was used for sample preparation. Mean recoveries for the analyte ranged from 96.6% to 107.0% with CV value less than 4.7%. The limit of quantification is 0.01 mg/kg. Direct confirmation of JS-118 residues in samples was realized by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable to perform and could be utilized for monitoring of pesticides residues.

  7. Copper toxicity in Chinese cabbage is not influenced by plant sulphur status, but affects sulphur metabolism-related gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, M; Stuiver, C E E; Posthumus, F S; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of high copper (Cu) concentrations in the root environment of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) was little influenced by the sulphur nutritional status of the plant. However, Cu toxicity removed the correlation between sulphur metabolism-related gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites. At high tissue Cu levels, there was no relation between sulphur metabolite levels viz. total sulphur, sulphate and water-soluble non-protein thiols, and the expression and activity of sulphate transporters and expression of APS reductase under sulphate-sufficient or-deprived conditions, in the presence or absence of H2 S. This indicated that the regulatory signal transduction pathway of sulphate transporters was overruled or by-passed upon exposure to elevated Cu concentrations. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. A Recombinant Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Genotype IVb Glycoprotein Produced in Cabbage Looper Larvae Trichoplusia ni Elicits Antibody Response and Protection in Muskellunge.

    PubMed

    Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The Novirhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has caused serious fish kills and become endemic throughout the Great Lakes basin of North America. This is troublesome since there are no protective vaccines currently approved against this deadly disease even though recombinant technology has become increasingly common. Herein, we explored the production of a recombinant VHSV-IVb glycoprotein, believed to be important for virus infectivity, and determined its ability to elicit protection against challenge with the wild virus strain. A recombinant baculovirus containing a 5' 6x polyhistidine tag embedded in the VHSV-IVb G gene was used to infect the larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni. A sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of affinity-purified protein yielded apparent VHSV-IVb glycoprotein at the expected molecular weight of ~65 kDa. The recombinant protein (rG) was used successfully in coating microtiter plate wells in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and positive anti-VHSV-IVb antibodies in Muskellunge Esox masquinongy were capable of binding to both the rG and purified whole VHSV-IVb, indicating epitope resemblance. In addition, the rG elicited a protective response in Muskellunge during a VHSV-IVb immersion challenge, resulting in 80% relative percent survival. Our results demonstrate that cabbage looper larvae can serve as an excellent production system for apparently conformationally correct viral glycoprotein. The incorporation of a polyhistidine tag facilitates obtaining highly purified protein in a relatively high concentration, which has potential in the development of an efficacious subunit vaccine against this deadly virus. Received September 11, 2016; accepted March 10, 2017.

  9. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-10-01

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  10. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots.

  11. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  12. Beyond genomic variation--comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-31

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting genomes together with the Chinese cabbage Chiifu reference genome to obtain an impression of the B. rapa pan-genome. The number of genes with protein-coding changes between the three genotypes was lower than that among different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be explained by the smaller effective population size of B. rapa due to its domestication. Based on orthology to a number of non-brassica species, we estimated the date of divergence among the three B. rapa morphotypes at approximately 250,000 YA, far predating Brassica domestication (5,000-10,000 YA). By analysing genes unique to turnip we found evidence for copy number differences in peroxidases, pointing to a role for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in the generation of morphological variation. The estimated date of divergence among three B. rapa morphotypes implies that prior to domestication there was already considerably divergence among B. rapa genotypes. Our study thus provides two new B. rapa reference genomes, delivers a set of computer tools to analyse the resulting pan-genome and uses these to shed light on genetic drivers behind the rich morphological variation found in B. rapa.

  13. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p<0.05). Hyper-salting with 2% PA at a sample-to-water ratio (w/v) of 1:3 and 1:6 for 60 min resulted in a >5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (<1-log CFU/g) all bacteria. Thus, hyper-salting with PA 2% at a sample-to-water ratio of 1:3 for 60 min, followed by salting for 5h, was tested under large-scale production conditions. The results revealed that the initial aerobic plate counts (APC), total coliform counts (TC), and fecal coliform counts (FC) were 6.6, 3.4, and 2.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The selected protocol reduced these values by 3.7-, >2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at <1-log CFU/g; however, the APC recovered somewhat. The pH and salinity of the treated

  14. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae . However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca 2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes. PMID:28066482

  17. Effect of UVC light on growth, incorporation of thymidine, and DNA chain elongation in cells derived from the Indian meal moth and the cabbage looper.

    PubMed

    Styer, S C; Griffiths, T D

    1992-04-01

    After exposure to 10 or 20 J/m2 UVC light, cells of the UMN-PIE-1181 line, an embryonic cell line derived from the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, exhibited a rapid and prolonged depression in the rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine, whereas cells of the TN-368 line, an ovarian cell line derived from Trichoplusia ni, the cabbage looper, showed only a slight drop in incorporation and a rapid recovery after exposure to 10 or 40 J/m2 UVC light. The extent of this depression was not correlated to the amount of cell killing by UVC light in these cell lines or in IAL-PID2 cells. Blockage of fork progression was correlated to the depression in thymidine incorporation. TN-368 cells exhibited little blockage after exposure to 10 or 20 J/m2 UVC light, whereas UMN-PIE-1181 cells exhibited significant blockage at these fluences. Photoreactivation did not entirely relieve blockage, depression in thymidine incorporation, or cell killing, indicating that, although the (5-6) dimer appears to be the major lesion responsible for these effects, other lesions such as the (6-4) photoproduct may play a role.

  18. Development of edible films from tapioca starch and agar, enriched with red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) as a sausage deterioration bio-indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditya Wardana, Ata; Dewanti Widyaningsih, Tri

    2017-12-01

    Sausage spoilage has been identified as a cause of some food poisoning cases. Development of a bioindicator film is one of the alternative methods to detect sausage deterioration. The objectives of this paper were to develop a bioindicator edible films (BEF) from tapioca starch (TS), agar, and red cabbage juice (RC), and to evaluate its performance on sausage deterioration detection. The experiment had a 3x3 randomized factorial experimental design (agar: 3, 5, 7% by weight of TS; RC: 10, 15, 20% v/v based on 100% of suspension). Glycerol was used as the plasticizer. The results showed that the addition of agar into the film solution increased the thickness, elongation, and tensile strength, and decreased water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). While the addition of RC increased the thickness, but decreased elongation, tensile strength, and WVTR. BEF consisting of 2% tapioca starch, 7% (w/w) agar and 10 % (v/v) RC was chosen to apply on sausage. It could detect an increase in the microbial population and in the pH variations as result of sausage deterioration at 24, 48, and 72 h shown through color changes of BEF from bright purple at 0 h to light purple, dark purple-blue, and purple-green color respectively.

  19. The infective cycle of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) is affected by CRUMPLED LEAF (CRL) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Vielle-Calzada, Jean P; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F

    2009-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious crop losses worldwide. Successful infection by these pathogens depends extensively on virus-host intermolecular interactions that allow them to express their gene products, to replicate their genomes and to move to adjacent cells and throughout the plant. Results To identify host genes that show an altered regulation in response to Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection, a screening of transposant Arabidopsis thaliana lines was carried out. Several genes were identified to be virus responsive and one, Crumpled leaf (CRL) gene, was selected for further characterization. CRL was previously reported by Asano et al., (2004) to affect the morphogenesis of all plant organs and the division of plastids. We report here that CRL expression, during CaLCuV infection, shows a short but strong induction at an early stage (3-5 days post inoculation, dpi). To study the role of CRL in CaLCuV infection, CRL over-expressing and silenced transgenic plants were generated. We compared the replication, movement and infectivity of CaLCuV in transgenic and wild type plants. Conclusion Our results showed that CRL over-expressing plants showed an increased susceptibility to CaLCuV infection (as compared to wt plants) whereas CRL-silenced plants, on the contrary, presented a reduced susceptibility to viral infection. The possible role of CRL in the CaLCuV infection cycle is discussed. PMID:19840398

  20. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P < 0.001), OM (linear effect, P = 0.012), and CP (quadratic effect, P = 0.001) digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P < 0.001) as the level of DCR increased. It was concluded that the inclusion of DCR in broiler diets up to 9% had no negative impact on bird performance and apparent ileal digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. A chloroplast-targeted cabbage DEAD-box RNA helicase BrRH22 confers abiotic stress tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants by affecting translation of chloroplast transcripts.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ghazala; Lee, Kwanuk; Park, Su Jung; Kim, Yeon-Ok; Kang, Hunseung

    2018-06-01

    Although the roles of many DEAD-box RNA helicases (RHs) have been determined in the nucleus as well as in cytoplasm during stress responses, the importance of chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RHs in stress response remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the function of BrRH22, a chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RH in cabbage (Brassica rapa), in abiotic stress responses. The expression of BrRH22 was markedly increased by drought, heat, salt, or cold stress and by ABA treatment, but was largely decreased by UV stress. Expression of BrRH22 in Arabidopsis enhanced germination and plantlet growth under high salinity or drought stress. BrRH22-expressing plants displayed a higher cotyledon greening and better plantlet growth upon ABA treatment due to decreases in the levels of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. Further, BrRH22 affected translation of several chloroplast transcripts under stress. Notably, BrRH22 had RNA chaperone function. These results altogether suggest that chloroplast-transported BrRH22 contributes positively to the response of transgenic Arabidopsis to abiotic stress by affecting translation of chloroplast genes via its RNA chaperone activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The chemical nature of the products obtained by the action of cabbage-leaf phospholipase D on lysolecithin: the structure of lysolecithin

    PubMed Central

    Long, C.; Odavić, R.; Sargent, Elizabeth J.

    1967-01-01

    1. Lysolecithin, prepared by the action of snake-venom phospholipase A on ovolecithin, when incubated with Savoy-cabbage phospholipase D, in the presence of Ca2+ ions, gave two degradation products (designated A and B) in the form of their calcium salts. 2. These calcium salts were separated quantitatively by solvent fractionation and converted into the corresponding sodium salts. 3. Substance B proved to be a lysophosphatidic acid of conventional structure (1-monoacyl-l-3-glycerophosphoric acid). When the phosphate group was removed by means of prostatic acid phosphomonoesterase, a 1-monoglyceride was formed quantitatively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave the theoretical yield of l-3-glycerophosphate. 4. Substance A, on the other hand, had all the properties expected for a cyclic phosphate of a 1-monoglyceride. It was unaffected by phosphomonoesterase. On alkaline hydrolysis, the acyl group was removed and ring opening of the presumed cyclic phosphate group gave an approximately equimolar mixture of 2- and l-3-glycerophosphates. 5. The structures of substances A and B confirm lysolecithin as 1-monoacyl-l-3-glycerylphosphorylcholine. PMID:4291559

  3. Temperature determines size and direction of effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen form on yield quantity and quality of Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Reich, M; van den Meerakker, A N; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) are presumed to have a significant impact on plant growth and yield and also on mineral nutrient composition, and therefore, on nutritional quality of crops and vegetables. To assess the relevance of these effects in future agroecosystems it is important to understand how e[CO2 ] interacts with other environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the interactive effects of e[CO2 ] with temperature and the form in which nitrogen is supplied (nitrate or ammonium nitrate) on growth, amino acid content and mineral nutrient composition of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.), a crop characterised by its high nutritional value and increasing relevance for human nutrition in many developing countries. Higher temperature, ammonium nitrate and e[CO2 ] had a positive impact on net photosynthesis and growth. A stimulating effect of e[CO2 ] on growth was only observed if the temperature was high (21/18 °C, day/night), and an interaction of e[CO2 ] with N form was only observed if the temperature was ambient (15/12 °C, day/night). Mineral nutrient composition was affected in a complex manner by all three factors and their interaction. These results demonstrate how much the effect of e[CO2 ] on mineral quality of crops depends on other environmental factors. Changes in temperature, adapting N fertilisation and the oxidation state of N have the potential to counteract the mineral depletion caused by e[CO2 ]. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Effects of Formic or Acetic Acid on the Storage Quality
 of Mixed Air-Dried Corn Stover and Cabbage Waste,
and Microbial Community Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiwei; Wang, Cong; Fan, Wenguang; Zhang, Bingyun; Li, Zhizhong; Li, Dong

    2018-03-01

    A mixture of air-dried corn stover and cabbage waste was ensiled to preserve lignocellulosic biomass for use as biofuel. Furthermore, the effects of different fresh mass fractions (0.3 and 0.6%) of formic or acetic acid on the mixed silage quality were evaluated to guarantee its quality. The application of formic or acetic acid prior to mixing the silage led to higher water-soluble carbohydrate fractions than the negative control, indicating that both acids contributed to preservation of water-soluble carbohydrates during storage for 170 days. The dry matter content was also increased after storage from 90 to 170 days. It was found that the content of neutral and acid detergent fibre, cellulose and holocellulose (the sum of cellulose and hemicellulose) in mixed silage treated with formic or acetic acid was significantly lower than that obtained in the negative control. The pH and the ratio of ammoniacal nitrogen to total nitrogen in mixed silage treated with acetic acid also significantly decreased. Furthermore, the addition of formic or acetic acid significantly weakened the fermentation intensity of lactic acid, depending on the ratio of lactic to acetic acid, as well as the ratio of lactic acid to total organic acids. The number of bacterial species and their relative abundance shifted during silage mixing, wherein microbial communities at phylum level mainly consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The dominant bacteria were also observed to shift from Lactobacillus and Enterobacter in presilage biomass to Lactobacillus and Paralactobacillus . Specifically, Enterobacter disappeared after 130 days of storage. In conclusion, the addition of a low dose of acetic acid to fresh mass (0.3%) could effectively improve the fermentation quality and is conducive to the preservation of the organic components.

  5. Influence of Interval Between Postharvest Lettuce Residue Management and Subsequent Seeding of Broccoli on Cabbage Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Infestation on Broccoli.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Godfrey, Larry D; Bettiga, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Larval stages of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), attack the roots of Brassica crops and cause severe economic damage. In the Salinas Valley of California, Brassica crops are often planted after successive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops. The interval between postharvest soil incorporation of lettuce residue and the subsequent Brassica crop can be as short as 7 d, which could influence D. radicum infestation on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck). In 2014 and 2015, the effect of intervals between crops (IBC) on D. radicum infestation was evaluated. The treatments were 7, 20, 33, and 48 d IBC, and NL (no lettuce), 7, 21, 36, and 49 d IBC in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Insect counts and feeding damage on broccoli was assessed during 3-6 wk after planting. Adult Delia fly captures were significantly greater at 7 d than 36-49 d IBC in both years. In both years, D. radicum eggs collected were significantly greater at 7 d than at 33 d or 36 d IBC plots. Larvae collected were significantly greater at 7 d IBC than all other treatments in 2014, but not in 2015. Similarly, severity of feeding injury was significantly greater in 7 d than 33 d or 48 d IBC in 2014, but not in 2015. In 2015, broccoli with no prior lettuce had significantly lower Delia flies and D. radicum egg densities than 7 d or 21 d IBC. The implication of these results as a cultural control tactic for D. radicum infestation is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Physiological functions at single-cell level of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage in response to different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Magdalena A; Kocot, Aleksandra M; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-20

    Changes in pH are significant environmental stresses that may be encountered by lactobacilli during fermentation processes or passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the cell response of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage subjected to acid/alkaline treatments at pH 2.5, 7.4 and 8.1, which represented pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among six isolates, four species of Lactobacillus plantarum and two of Lactobacillus brevis were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence-based strategy of combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodine (PI) into a dual-staining assay was used together with epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment. The results showed that the cells maintained esterase activity and membrane integrity at pH 8.1 and 7.4. There was also no loss of culturability as shown by plate counts. In contrast, the majority of 2.5 pH-treated cells had a low extent of esterase activity, and experienced membrane perturbation. For these samples, an extensive loss of culturability was demonstrated. Comparison of the results of an in situ assessment with that of the conventional culturing method has revealed that although part of the stressed population was unable to grow on the growth media, it was deemed viable using a CFDA/PI assay. However, there was no significant change in the cell morphology among pH-treated lactobacilli populations. These analyses are expected to be useful in understanding the cell response of Lactobacillus strains to pH stress and may facilitate future investigation into functional and industrial aspects of this response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  8. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-06

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry.

  9. Incidence, Spread and Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in European Populations of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Højland, Dorte H.; Nauen, Ralf; Foster, Stephen P.; Williamson, Martin S.; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major early season pest of oilseed rape throughout Europe. Pyrethroids have been used for controlling this pest by foliar application, but in recent years control failures have occurred, particularly in Germany due to the evolution of knock-down resistance (kdr). The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in CSFB collected in Germany, Denmark and the United Kingdom during 2014. The level of pyrethroid resistance was measured in adult vial tests and linked to the presence of kdr genotypes. Results Although kdr (L1014F) genotypes are present in all three countries, marked differences in pyrethroid efficacy were found in adult vial tests. Whereas Danish CSFB samples were in general susceptible to recommended label rates, those collected in the UK mostly resist such rates to some extent. Moderately resistant and susceptible samples were found in Germany. Interestingly, some of the resistant samples from the UK did not carry the kdr allele, which is in contrast to German CSFB. Pre-treatment with PBO, prior to exposure to λ-cyhalothrin suggested involvement of metabolic resistance in UK samples. Conclusion Danish samples were mostly susceptible with very low resistance ratios, while most other samples showed reduced sensitivity in varying degrees. Likewise, there was a clear difference in the presence of the kdr mutation between the three countries. In the UK, the presence of kdr genotypes did not always correlate well with resistant phenotypes. This appears to be primarily conferred by a yet undisclosed, metabolic-based mechanism. Nevertheless our survey disclosed an alarming trend concerning the incidence and spread of CSFB resistance to pyrethroids, which is likely to have negative impacts on oilseed production in affected regions due to the lack of alternative modes of action for resistance management purposes

  10. Incidence, Spread and Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in European Populations of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Højland, Dorte H; Nauen, Ralf; Foster, Stephen P; Williamson, Martin S; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major early season pest of oilseed rape throughout Europe. Pyrethroids have been used for controlling this pest by foliar application, but in recent years control failures have occurred, particularly in Germany due to the evolution of knock-down resistance (kdr). The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in CSFB collected in Germany, Denmark and the United Kingdom during 2014. The level of pyrethroid resistance was measured in adult vial tests and linked to the presence of kdr genotypes. Although kdr (L1014F) genotypes are present in all three countries, marked differences in pyrethroid efficacy were found in adult vial tests. Whereas Danish CSFB samples were in general susceptible to recommended label rates, those collected in the UK mostly resist such rates to some extent. Moderately resistant and susceptible samples were found in Germany. Interestingly, some of the resistant samples from the UK did not carry the kdr allele, which is in contrast to German CSFB. Pre-treatment with PBO, prior to exposure to λ-cyhalothrin suggested involvement of metabolic resistance in UK samples. Danish samples were mostly susceptible with very low resistance ratios, while most other samples showed reduced sensitivity in varying degrees. Likewise, there was a clear difference in the presence of the kdr mutation between the three countries. In the UK, the presence of kdr genotypes did not always correlate well with resistant phenotypes. This appears to be primarily conferred by a yet undisclosed, metabolic-based mechanism. Nevertheless our survey disclosed an alarming trend concerning the incidence and spread of CSFB resistance to pyrethroids, which is likely to have negative impacts on oilseed production in affected regions due to the lack of alternative modes of action for resistance management purposes.

  11. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  12. Allelism analysis of BrRfp locus in different restorer lines and map-based cloning of a fertility restorer gene, BrRfp1, for pol CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huamin; Wu, Junqing; Dai, Zihui; Qin, Meiling; Hao, Lingyu; Ren, Yanjing; Li, Qingfei; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-03-01

    In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2). For fine mapping the BrRfp1 locus of 92s105, a BC 1 F 1 population with 487 individuals and a BC 1 F 2 population with 2485 individuals were successively constructed. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Brassica rapa reference genome and InDel markers derived from whole-genome resequencing data of 94c9 and 92s105, BrRfp1 was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein. Based on the nucleotide polymorphisms of the candidate gene sequence between the restoring and nonrestoring alleles, a co-segregating marker SC718 was developed, which would be helpful for hybrid breeding by marker-assisted screening and for detecting new restorer lines.

  13. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes, and transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yao, Qiuju; Yuan, Yuxiang; Li, Xixiang; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wusheng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa) and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants from a mi

  14. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes, and transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yao, Qiuju; Yuan, Yuxiang; Li, Xixiang; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wusheng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa) and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H (+) -ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants from a mi

  15. Cabbages and condoms: packaging and channels of distribution.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1984-12-01

    Contraception is only rarely a therapy for disease. Usually, contraceptives help adults implement informed choices. Therefore, wider channels of distribution and promotion are possible and necessary than in the case of curative therapies. The more channels of distribution that are available for the same method of contraception, the higher the prevalence of use. Establishing new channels of distribution can be as important as developing new methods of contraception. Family planning is an important element in public health, and active promotion enhances the health of individuals and physicians. Other health professionals need to understand the role of non-medical skills and channels of contraceptive distribution.

  16. Regulation of nitrate reductase by nitric oxide in Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Yongsong; Lin, Xianyong; Wang, Yue; Tang, Caixian

    2008-02-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR), a committed enzyme in nitrate assimilation, involves generation of nitric oxide (NO) in plants. Here we show that the NR activity was significantly enhanced by the addition of NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and NONOate (diethylamine NONOate sodium) to the culturing solution, whereas it was decreased by NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). Interestingly, both NO gas and SNP directly enhanced but cPTIO inhibited the NR activities of crude enzyme extracts and purified NR enzyme. The cPTIO terminated the interaction between NR-generated NO and the NR itself. Furthermore, the NR protein content was not affected by the SNP treatment. The investigation of the partial reactions catalysed by purified NR using various electron donors and acceptors indicated that the haem and molybdenum centres in NR were the two sites activated by NO. The results suggest that the activation of NR activity by NO is regulated at the post-translational level, probably via a direct interaction mechanism. Accordingly, the concentration of nitrate both in leaves and roots was decreased after 2 weeks of cultivation with SNP. The present study identifies a new mechanism of NR regulation and nitrate assimilation, which provides important new insights into the complex regulation of N-metabolism in plants.

  17. Gene-edited plants on the plate - the "CRISPR cabbage story".

    PubMed

    Jansson, Stefan

    2018-05-10

    With the advent of gene editing, it has become clearer than ever before that the legislation surrounding genetically modified organisms (Directive 2001/18/EG) is severely outdated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of Biologically Active Human Butyrylcholinesterase in the Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    recombinant human BUChE; Sf, Spodoptera frugiperda ; VX, 0-ethyl S-[2-[bis(I -methylethyl)amino]ethyl]methyl phosphonothiolate; wt, wild-type. 1 To whom...ATCC (Rockville, MD, U.S.A.). Insect cells ( Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and T. ni High 5 cells) and wild-type (wt)-AcNPV were purchased from

  19. Enzymatic comparison and mortality of Beauveria bassiana against cabbage caterpillar Pieris brassicae LINN.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Manish; Joshi, Neelam

    Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is the alternative biocontrol agent exploited against major economic crop pests. Pieris brassicae L. is an emerging pest of the Brassicaceae family. Therefore, in the present study, fungal isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. MTCC 2028, MTCC 4495, MTCC 6291, and NBAII-11, were evaluated for their virulence against third instar larvae of P. brassicae. Among all these fungal isolates, maximum mortality (86.66%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 at higher concentration of spores (10 9 conidia/ml), and the minimum mortality (30.00%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291 at a lower concentration (10 7 conidia/ml) after ten days of treatment. The extracellular cuticle-degrading enzyme activities of fungal isolates were measured. Variability was observed both in the pattern of enzyme secretion and the level of enzyme activities among various fungal isolates. B. bassiana MTCC 4495 recorded the maximum mean chitinase (0.51U/ml), protease (1.12U/ml), and lipase activities (1.36U/ml). The minimum mean chitinase and protease activities (0.37 and 0.91U/ml, respectively) were recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291. The minimum mean lipase activity (1.04U/ml) was recorded in B. bassiana NBAII-11. Our studies revealed B. bassiana MTCC 4495 as the most pathogenic isolate against P. brassicae, which also recorded maximum extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting the possible roles of extracellular enzymes in the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against P. brassicae. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Health statistics aren't born in a cabbage patch: Jesuits, political arithmetic, stigmergy and oligopticons].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Yuri; Yuing, Tuillang

    2013-04-01

    By analyzing the content and network of production of a map from 1751, created by the circular mission of the Jesuits in Chiloé (an archipelago located off the southern coast of Chile), that contains birth, death and population data, this article discusses the role that health statistics play historically, philosophically, technically and sociologically. In doing so, the article seeks to comprehend the genesis of a process of production of data and references in order to debate what health statistics are composed of, what ends they are used for, what their connection is to the formation of collectives and the differential conditions of possibility that exist for producing statistics. We attempt to develop hypotheses that demonstrate statistics as a hybrid articulation between diverse elements, epistemological, biopolitical, historical and philosophical in nature, with facets at once religious and demographic, ontological and ethnic, scientific and governmental.

  1. Fitness of Bt-resistant cabbage loopers on Bt cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Development of resistance to the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insects is the major threat to the continued success of transgenic Bt crops in agriculture. The fitness of Bt-resistant insects on Bt and non-Bt plants is a key parameter that determines the development of Bt resistance in insect populations. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the fitness of Bt-resistant Trichoplusia ni strains on Bt cotton leaves was conducted. The Bt-resistant T. ni strains carried two genetically independent mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The effects of the two resistance mechanisms, individually and in combination, on the fitness of the T. ni strains on conventional non-Bt cotton and on transgenic Bt cotton leaves expressing a single-toxin Cry1Ac (Bollgard I) or two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) were examined. The presence of Bt toxins in plants reduced the fitness of resistant insects, indicated by decreased net reproductive rate (R 0 ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The reduction in fitness in resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was greater than that on Bollgard I leaves. A 12.4-day asynchrony of adult emergence between the susceptible T. ni grown on non-Bt cotton leaves and the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was observed. Therefore, multitoxin Bt plants not only reduce the probability for T. ni to develop resistance but also strongly reduce the fitness of resistant insects feeding on the plants. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    PubMed

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using mortality compost in vegetable production: A comparison between summer and winter composting and its use in cabbage production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of composting to breakdown the carcasses of daily poultry mortality and in the process destroy pathogenic microorganisms that may be present. The study was conducted during the summer and repeated in the winter to determine whether the time of yea...

  4. Effects of Low-Oxygen Environments on the Radiation Tolerance of the Cabbage Looper Moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Condon, Catriona H; White, Sabrina; Meagher, Robert L; Jeffers, Laura A; Bailey, Woodward D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment to mitigate risks from invasive species associated with trade of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commodity producers prefer to irradiate fresh product stored in modified atmosphere packaging that increases shelf life and delays ripening. However, irradiating insects in low oxygen may increase radiation tolerance, and regulatory agencies are concerned modified atmosphere packaging will decrease efficacy of radiation doses. Here, we examined how irradiation in a series of oxygen conditions (0.1-20.9 kPa O2) alters radiotolerance of larvae and pupae of a model lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) (Diptera: Noctuidae). Irradiating in severe hypoxia (0.1 kPa O2) increased radiation tolerance of insects compared with irradiating in atmospheric oxygen (20.9 kPa O2). Our data show irradiating pharate adult pupae at 600 Gy in moderately severe hypoxia (5 kPa O2) increased adult emergence compared with irradiation in atmospheric oxygen (20.9 kPa O2). Our data also show that in one of the three temporal replicates, irradiating T. ni larvae in moderately severe hypoxia (5 kPa O2) can also increase radiotolerance at an intermediate radiation dose of 100 Gy compared with irradiating in atmospheric oxygen conditions, but not at higher or lower doses. We discuss implications of our results in this model insect for the current generic doses for phytosanitary irradiation, including the recently proposed 250 Gy generic dose for lepidioptera larvae, and temporary restriction on irradiating commodities in modified atmosphere packaging that reduces the atmosphere to < 18 kPa O2. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M. Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D.; Dickerson, James H.

    2014-05-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation.We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization procedures, TEM/XRD of samples prepared at different temperature and water content, table of nitrogen adsorption-desorption values of different samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06154j

  6. Of Cabbages and Kings: Concepts and Inferences Curiously Attributed to Lev Vygotsky (Commentary on Mcvee, Dunsmore, and Gavelek, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredler, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in understanding a new theory is that rapid gains in popularity are accompanied by misconceptions and distortions (Valsiner, 1988). A developmental theorist, Lev Vygotsky, has rapidly become a much repeated name at all levels of educational psychology: theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical. And once again, inexplicable…

  7. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  8. Oviposition preference of cabbage white butterflies in the framework of costs and benefits of interspecific herbivore associations

    PubMed Central

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Sabelis, Maurice; Takabayashi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    When deciding where to oviposit, herbivorous insects consider: (i) the plant’s value as a food source, (ii) the risks of competing with con- and heterospecific herbivores, and (iii) the risks of parasitism and predation on the host plant. The presence of con- and/or heterospecific competitors would further affect the oviposition preference, because the preceding herbivores induce direct/indirect defences in plants against forthcoming herbivores, and thereby alter oviposition decisions. In previous studies, the abovementioned factors have not been studied in an integrative manner. We performed here a case study of this by assessing the oviposition preferences of a small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, for plants occupied by combinations of conspecific larvae, heterospecific larvae (Plutella xylostella), specialist parasitoids of Pi. rapae (Cotesia glomerata) and generalist predators (ants). We previously reported that the females showed equal preference for Pl. xylostella-infested and uninfested plants. Here, we showed that Pi. rapae females preferred uninfested plants to conspecific-infested ones, and Pl. xylostella-infested plants to Pi. rapae-infested ones. We discuss these oviposition preferences of Pi. rapae females in the framework of costs and benefits of interspecific herbivore associations from the above point of view. PMID:27019738

  9. Red cabbage microgreens lower circulating LDL, liver cholesterol and inflammatory cytokines in mice fed a high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risks through the modulation of...

  10. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  11. Effects of Low-Oxygen Environments on the radiation tolerance of the cabbage looper moth (Lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ionizing radiation is phytosanitary treatment to mitigate risks associated with trade of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commodity producers wish to irradiate fresh product stored in modified atmosphere packaging that increases shelf life and delays ripening. However, irradiating insects in anoxia incr...

  12. In vitro screening of selected probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented cabbage and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieliński, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (<39 %). The incubation with 0.2 % bile salt solution resulted in a survival rates of 81-94 % after 24 h, whereas after incubation in 2 and 4 % bile salt solution it was 59-94 %. All tested strains showed very good and good resistance to 0.4 % phenol addition, however only Lb. johnsonii K4 was able to multiply. The hydrophobic nature of the cell surface of the tested strains was moderated recording hydrophobicity of Lb. johnsonii K4 and Lb. rhamnosus K3 above 60 %. Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies.

  13. Comprehensive analysis of the flowering genes in Chinese cabbage and examination of evolutionary pattern of CO-like genes in plant kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoming; Duan, Weike; Huang, Zhinan; Liu, Gaofeng; Wu, Peng; Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    In plants, flowering is the most important transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. The flowering patterns of monocots and eudicots are distinctly different, but few studies have described the evolutionary patterns of the flowering genes in them. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary pattern, duplication and expression level of these genes. The main results were as follows: (i) characterization of flowering genes in monocots and eudicots, including the identification of family-specific, orthologous and collinear genes; (ii) full characterization of CONSTANS-like genes in Brassica rapa (BraCOL genes), the key flowering genes; (iii) exploration of the evolution of COL genes in plant kingdom and construction of the evolutionary pattern of COL genes; (iv) comparative analysis of CO and FT genes between Brassicaceae and Grass, which identified several family-specific amino acids, and revealed that CO and FT protein structures were similar in B. rapa and Arabidopsis but different in rice; and (v) expression analysis of photoperiod pathway-related genes in B. rapa under different photoperiod treatments by RT-qPCR. This analysis will provide resources for understanding the flowering mechanisms and evolutionary pattern of COL genes. In addition, this genome-wide comparative study of COL genes may also provide clues for evolution of other flowering genes.

  14. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  15. Belching, Bloating and Flatulence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examples of such food are bran, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and beans. This can result in excess flatulence ... as soda and beer. Foods such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, beans, and bran should be avoided. Milk ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... serving of fruit and vegetables daily. Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, kale, cabbage and brussel sprouts) are especially ... swiss chard, endives, beet greens, romaine Cruciferous vegetables Broccoli, cabbage, turnip, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kohlorabi, bok choy, ...

  17. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods, such as: calcium-set tofu edamame (soybeans) broccoli, collard greens, kale, chard, Chinese cabbage, and other ... Serve more dark green, leafy vegetables (such as broccoli, kale, collard greens, or Chinese cabbage) with meals. ...

  18. Digestive Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... of irritable bowel syndrome. To relieve symptoms, avoid: Broccoli Baked beans Cabbage Carbonated drinks Cauliflower Chewing gum ... break it down. Certain vegetables--baked beans, cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage Certain starches--wheat, oats, corn, potatoes. Rice ...

  19. 40 CFR 180.110 - Maneb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 None Beet, sugar, tops 45 None Broccoli 10 None Brussels sprouts 10 None Cabbage 10 None Cabbage... None Collards 10 None Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 5 None Cranberry 7 None Cucumber...

  20. 40 CFR 180.110 - Maneb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 10 None Beet, sugar, tops 45 None Broccoli 10 None Brussels sprouts 10 None Cabbage 10 None Cabbage... None Collards 10 None Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 5 None Cranberry 7 None Cucumber...

  1. Engorgement

    MedlinePlus

    ... alternating sitting up, lying down, and using the football hold. Gently massage your breasts from under the ... after using the cabbage. There is limited clinical research on the use of cabbage for engorgement, and ...

  2. The Genetics of Brassica oleracea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    B. oleracea crops encompass a family of vegetables that are among the most important in the world. The most commonly grown vegetables in this family include common cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Cabbage is the most widely produced of the three, cauliflower is less than cabbage, and broccoli i...

  3. 40 CFR 180.533 - Esfenvalerate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sugar, tops 5.0 Blueberry 1.0 Broccoli 1.0 Cabbage, except Chinese cabbage 3.0 Caneberry subgroup 13A 1...)benzeneacetate, in or on food commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Cabbage, chinese, bok choy 1.0...

  4. Field-based Evaluation of a Novel SPME-GC-MS Method for Investigation of Below-ground Interaction between Brassica Roots and Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    PubMed

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Collection of volatiles from plant roots poses technical challenges due to difficulties accessing the soil environment without damaging the roots. To validate a new non-invasive method for passive sampling of root volatiles in situ, from plants grown under field conditions, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). SPME fibres were inserted into perforated polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tubes positioned in the soil next to broccoli plants for collection of root volatiles pre- and post-infestation with Delia radicum larvae. After sample analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine differences in the profiles of volatiles between samples. GC-MS analysis revealed that this method can detect temporal changes in root volatiles emitted before and after Delia radicum damage. PCA showed that samples collected pre- and post-infestation were compositionally different due to the presence of root volatiles induced by D. radicum feeding. Sulphur containing compounds, in particular, accounted for the differences observed. Root volatiles emission patterns post-infestation are thought to follow the feeding and developmental progress of larvae. This study shows that volatiles released by broccoli roots can be collected in situ using SPME fibres within perforated PTFE tubes under field conditions. Plants damaged by Delia radicum larvae could be distinguished from plants sampled pre-infestation and soil controls on the basis of larval feeding-induced sulphur-containing volatiles. These results show that this new method is a powerful tool for non-invasive sampling of root volatiles below-ground. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Development and Validation of a SPME-GC-MS Method for In situ Passive Sampling of Root Volatiles from Glasshouse-Grown Broccoli Plants Undergoing Below-Ground Herbivory by Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    PubMed

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli. Sampling methods were compared with above surface headspace collection using Tenax TA. The roots were either mechanically damaged or infested with Delia radicum larvae. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effect of damage on the composition of volatiles released by broccoli roots. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with SPME and automated thermal desorption (ATD) confirmed that sulphur compounds, showing characteristic temporal emission patterns, were the principal volatiles released by roots following insect larval damage. Use of SPME with in situ perforated PTFE sampling tubes was the most robust method for out-of-lab sampling. This study describes a new method for non-invasive passive sampling of volatiles in situ from intact and insect damaged roots using SPME. The method is highly suitable for remote sampling and has potential for wide application in chemical ecology/root/soil research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. In vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with sautéing compared with raw or other methods of preparation.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculating bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of can...

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Life Sciences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-29

    tested included kohlrabi, cauliflower , Brussels sprouts, and red and white cabbages. Results indicated that Savoy cabbage retained the highest water...variations in radioactive substance retention were noted. The highest levels were found in cauliflower , along with Vienna Early Savoy cabbage...conchae, larynx and the external ear . Coagulation by the Nd:YAG laser was attained with fiber optics with infiltrating anesthesia in the case of

  8. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...

  9. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...

  10. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., tops 10.0 Blueberry 2.0 Broccoli 2.0 Brussels sprouts 2.0 Cabbage 1.0 Cattle, fat 0.4 Cattle, kidney 0... Tomato, paste 3.0 Tomato, puree 3.0 Vegetable, brassica, leafy, group 5, except broccoli, cabbage...

  11. 76 FR 38037 - Mevinphos; Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... residues of mevinphos on the following commodities: Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, spinach... Field Trials (860.1500)--(broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, grapes, lettuce, peas, peppers... Not required October 1, 2012. 860.1500 Crop Field Trials Not Required September 30, 2013. (broccoli...

  12. 40 CFR 180.414 - Cyromazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bean, succulent 2.0 Broccoli 1.0 Cabbage, abyssinian 10.0 Cabbage, seakale 10.0 Cattle, fat 0.05 Cattle... broccoli 10.0 Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4 7.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 1.0 1There are no...

  13. 40 CFR 180.253 - Methomyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 5 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 5 Cauliflower 2 Celery 3 Collards 6 Corn, field, forage 10 Corn, field, grain 0.1 Corn, field, stover 10 Corn, pop, grain 0.1 Corn, pop, stover 10 Corn, sweet, forage 10 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.1(N) Corn, sweet, stover 10 Cotton...

  14. 40 CFR 180.253 - Methomyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 5 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 5 Cauliflower 2 Celery 3 Collards 6 Corn, field, forage 10 Corn, field, grain 0.1 Corn, field, stover 10 Corn, pop, grain 0.1 Corn, pop, stover 10 Corn, sweet, forage 10 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.1(N) Corn, sweet, stover 10 Cotton...

  15. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  16. Utilization of natural indicators for borax identification in the Indonesian tofu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Lestari, Intan Dwi; Wiyantoko, Bayu; Kurniawati, Puji; Sriadryani, Devi

    2017-03-01

    Borax has been found in food products i.e. on the Indonesian Tofu that is often consumed by people. Generally, the identification of borax in food products hard to do by the public. Indicators of natural materials will allow the public to identify the presence of borax in food easier. Qualitative test for borax on Indonesian Tofu showed purple cabbage and sappanwood are the effective natural indicators. The result of determining borax on Indonesian Tofu indicated natural indicator from purple cabbage had the smallest correction factor (with conventional indicators PP) about 4.8%. The results of the validation method for purple cabbage indicator in acid-base titration showed that the purple cabbage indicator is homogenous but unstable. The natural indicators of purple cabbage could not be used again after three days of extraction time based on the results of control chart.

  17. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, A. L.; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Lindquist, P.; Anderson, O. R.; Rabino, I.

    1975-01-01

    Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated. Images PMID:16659061

  18. iss051e029147

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-29

    iss051e029147 (4/29/2017) --- Russian Cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin prepares to eat some of the Chinese cabbage that was grown in the Veggie Plant Growth facility as part of the Veg-03 investigation. Credits: NASA

  19. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., except cabbage 10 None Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 None Vegetable, foliage of legume, subgroup 7A..., except sugar beet tops 75 None Vegetable, legume, edible podded, subgroup 6A 10 None Vegetable, root and...

  20. 40 CFR 180.169 - Carbaryl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except cabbage 10 None Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 None Vegetable, foliage of legume, subgroup 7A..., except sugar beet tops 75 None Vegetable, legume, edible podded, subgroup 6A 10 None Vegetable, root and...

  1. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  2. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... specify by name) Dry beans, dry peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, taro, other vegetables (system must specify by name) Artichokes, asparagus, beans lima, beans snap, beets, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage...

  3. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bok choy Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cauliflower Collard greens Horseradish Kale Radishes Rutabaga Turnips Watercress Wasabi Why ... nutrients. Vegetables are categorized into five subgroups: dark-green, red and orange, beans and peas (legumes), starchy, ...

  4. 75 FR 864 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... broccoli and mustard greens, the acetone extract is diluted with water and the residues are partitioned... extracted from samples (5 g. for broccoli, cabbage, mustard greens & spinach; 1 g. for hops) with...

  5. 4 Types of Foods that Boost Your Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... message. Getting adequate vegetables, especially cruciferous ones including broccoli, cabbage and dark leafy greens, may help improve ... for a tortilla in your next sandwich wrap. Broccoli stir-fry also is an excellent option for ...

  6. 75 FR 69065 - Endosulfan: Final Product Cancellation Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... approved directions for use on product labeling. List 1.--Phase-Out Group A Almond Apricot Broccoli... Strawberry (perennial/biennial) Vegetable crops for seed (alfalfa, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage...

  7. Construction of Near Isogenic Lines in Brassica oleracea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The single species Brassica oleracea encompasses a remarkable diversity of morphotypes, including cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, marrowstem kale, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts as well as rapid-flowering morphologically simple genotypes reminiscent of Arabidopsis. To dissect the molecular basis of ...

  8. Nourish Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... leafy greens, dark-skinned vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, and turnips) may be especially protective. Vegetables including beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, eggplant, kale, red bell peppers, ...

  9. Healthy food trends - Brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels sprouts ... produce section. You will find them near the broccoli and other greens. Pick Brussels sprouts that are ...

  10. 75 FR 51049 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Broccoli Brussels sprouts Carrots Cauliflower Celery (non-AZ) Citrus (non-bearing) Collard greens Dry beans... Strawberry (perennial/biennial) Vegetable crops for seed (alfalfa, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage...

  11. Healthy food trends - kale

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor. Kale belongs to the same family as broccoli, collard greens, cabbage, and cauliflower. All of these ... year round. You will find it near the broccoli and other dark green veggies. It may come ...

  12. Overview of Kidney Diseases in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... raspberries pineapple cabbage boiled cauliflower mustard greens uncooked broccoli High-potassium fruits and vegetables include oranges melons ... bananas potatoes tomatoes sweet potatoes cooked spinach cooked broccoli Phosphorus . Children with CKD need to control the ...

  13. 40 CFR 180.253 - Methomyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., tops 6 Bermudagrass, forage 10 Bermudagrass, hay 40 Blueberry 6 Broccoli 3 Brussels sprouts 2 Cabbage 5..., brassica, leafy, group 5 6.0 Vegetable, fruiting 0.2(N) Vegetables, leafy [exc. beet (tops), broccoli...

  14. Vitamins

    MedlinePlus

    ... C? citrus fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers Vitamin D ... green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this vitamin ...

  15. The Warm-Blooded Plant of the Swamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camazine, Scott

    1986-01-01

    Describes remarkable characteristics of the skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) which make it an interesting swamp plant to study in February and March: its warm-blooded nature, unpleasant skunky odor, and peculiar root system. (NEC)

  16. Fabrication and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Peng; Yang, Dingyu; Zhu, Xinghua; Sun, Hui; Li, Jitao

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on natural dyes extracting from carrot, mulberry, purple cabbage, potato, and grapes. The ultraviolet-visible spectra suggested purple cabbage and mulberry possess better absorption at 300-550 nm. The solar cells using purple cabbage as dye achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.162% with short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 0.621 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.541 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.484. The Infrared spectra revealed the bond of Osbnd H, Csbnd C, Csbnd O, Csbnd H were existed in purple cabbage. Finally, the optimal extraction time of dyes is also presented.

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  18. Saw Palmetto

    MedlinePlus

    ... information. Common Names: saw palmetto, American dwarf palm tree, cabbage palm Latin Name: Serenoa repens, Serenoa serrulata, ... serrulata Background Saw palmetto is a small palm tree native to the southeastern United States. Its fruit ...

  19. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specify by name) Dry beans, dry peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, taro, other vegetables (system must specify by name) Artichokes, asparagus, beans lima, beans snap, beets, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage...

  20. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specify by name) Dry beans, dry peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, taro, other vegetables (system must specify by name) Artichokes, asparagus, beans lima, beans snap, beets, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage...

  1. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specify by name) Dry beans, dry peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, taro, other vegetables (system must specify by name) Artichokes, asparagus, beans lima, beans snap, beets, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage...

  2. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  3. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nonbasic Commodities Tung nuts; honey, wholesale extracted. Wool and Mohair Wool and mohair. Other Nonbasic... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...

  4. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nonbasic Commodities Tung nuts; honey, wholesale extracted. Wool and Mohair Wool and mohair. Other Nonbasic... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...

  5. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  6. Dyed in the Wool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Lori Jean

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for dying and mordanting wool fibers and for preparing dyes from red onion skin, purple cabbage, pine needles, and purple lilac are presented. Information on the history of dyes and on how dyes work is included. (JN)

  7. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... the game Cut up a batch of bell peppers, carrots, or broccoli. Pre-package them to use ... vegetables such as black beans, sliced red bell peppers, shredded radishes, chopped red cabbage, carrots, or watercress. ...

  8. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Information Center Microgreen Study Shows Health Benefits •ARS scientists studied health benefits of red cabbage microgreens.• ... List USDA Food Composition Databases Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Food and Nutrition Research Briefs Interactive DRI for ...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1016 - Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a plant regulator on plants, seeds, or cuttings and on all food commodities after harvest and when... germination of witchweed in bean (lima and string), cabbage, cantaloupe, collard, corn, cotton, cucumber...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., gingerroot, horseradish, kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut... other containers made of coconut fronds are not approved for use as containers for fruits and vegetables...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut, watercress... other containers made of coconut fronds are not approved for use as containers for fruits and vegetables...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut, watercress... other containers made of coconut fronds are not approved for use as containers for fruits and vegetables...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut, watercress... other containers made of coconut fronds are not approved for use as containers for fruits and vegetables...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., kale, kudzu, leek, lettuce, onions, Portuguese cabbage, turnip, udo, water chestnut, watercress... other containers made of coconut fronds are not approved for use as containers for fruits and vegetables...

  15. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF GAMMA RADIATION ON PLANT YIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.; Cawse, P.A.; Smith, S.R.

    1962-09-01

    the effects of low doses of gamma radiation from Co/sup 60/ were tested on dormant seeds of flax, radish, and cabbage, and on young plants of flax, cabbage, lettuce, ciover, duckweed, and pine. Fresh or dry weights were taken as a measure of yieid at harvest. Only in the case of pine seedlings was significant stimulation noticed: this occurred in the dose range 2 to 6 rad after 9 months growth. (auth)

  17. 40 CFR 180.414 - Cyromazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cabbage, abyssinian 10.0 Cabbage, seakale 10.0 Cattle, fat 0.05 Cattle, kidney 0.2 Cattle, meat 0.05 Cattle, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.05 Egg 0.25 Garlic 0.2 Garlic, great-headed, bulb 0.2 Goat, fat 0.05 Goat, kidney 0.2 Goat, meat 0.05 Goat, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.05 Hanover salad...

  18. Effect of the spray application technique on the deposition of entomopathogenic nematodes in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-03-01

    The present study compared entomopathogenic nematode delivery at the base of savoy cabbage and cauliflower, at the lower side of savoy cabbage and cauliflower leaves and in leek stems and the ground deposition using a five-nozzle spray boom equipped with an ISO 08 flat fan, an air induction flat fan and Twinjet spray nozzles. Additionally, an air support system and a row application system were evaluated. Approximately 40% of the applied nematodes did not reach the foot of the cabbage plants. The use of an air support system or a row application system improved nematode deposition at the savoy cabbage base. Relative nematode deposition on the lower side of savoy cabbage leaves was 27.20%, while only 2.64% of the applied nematodes reached the lower side of cauliflower leaves. After spraying leek with a standard boom, a low relative nematode deposition (26.64%) was measured in the leek stem. Nozzle type affected the distribution of nematodes in droplet spots. Nozzle type has a minor effect on the number of entomopathogenic nematodes delivered on difficult-to-reach targets. The use of modified spray application techniques directing the spray to the target site are necessary to increase the chances of contact of entomopathogenic nematodes with their target. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms representing two trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Johnson, David R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lindsay, James H; Boyd, Robert E; Bednar, Anthony J; Allison, Paul G

    2012-09-04

    Metallic tungsten has civil and military applications and was considered a green alternative to lead. Recent reports of contamination in drinking water and soil have raised scrutiny and suspended some applications. This investigation employed the cabbage Brassica oleracae and snail Otala lactea as models to determine the toxicological implications of sodium tungstate and an aged tungsten powder-spiked soil containing monomeric and polymeric tungstates. Aged soil bioassays indicated cabbage growth was impaired at 436 mg of W/kg, while snail survival was not impacted up to 3793 mg of W/kg. In a dermal exposure, sodium tungstate was more toxic to the snail, with a lethal median concentration of 859 mg of W/kg. While the snail significantly bioaccumulated tungsten, predominately in the hepatopancreas, cabbage leaves bioaccumulated much higher concentrations. Synchrotron-based mapping indicated the highest levels of W were in the veins of cabbage leaves. Our results suggest snails consuming contaminated cabbage accumulated higher tungsten concentrations relative to the concentrations directly bioaccumulated from soil, indicating the importance of robust trophic transfer investigations. Finally, synchrotron mapping provided evidence of tungsten in the inner layer of the snail shell, suggesting potential use of snail shells as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination.

  20. DNA-based identification of Brassica vegetable species for the juice industry.

    PubMed

    Etoh, Kazumi; Niijima, Noritaka; Yokoshita, Masahiko; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi

    2003-10-01

    Since kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a cruciferous vegetable with a high level of vitamins and functional compounds beneficial to health and wellness, has become widely used in the juice industry, a precise method for quality control of vegetable species is necessary. We describe here a DNA-based identification method to distinguish kale from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), a closely related species, which can be inadvertently mixed with kale during the manufacturing process. Using genomic DNA from these vegetables and combinatory sets of nucleotide primers, we screened for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments and found three cabbage-specific fragments. These RAPD fragments, with lengths of 1.4, 0.5, and 1.5 kb, were purified, subcloned, and sequenced. Based on sequence-tagged sites (STS), we designed sets of primers to detect cabbage-specific identification (CAI) DNA markers. Utilizing the CAI markers, we successfully distinguished more than 10 different local cabbage accessions from 20 kale accessions, and identified kale juices experimentally spiked with different amounts of cabbage.

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    PubMed

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-04-25

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource.

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution and Ecological Assessment around the Jinsha Coal-Fired Power Plant (China).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianfei; Hu, Jiwei; Qin, Fanxin; Quan, Wenxuan; Cao, Rensheng; Fan, Mingyi; Wu, Xianliang

    2017-12-18

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, 41 soil samples and 32 cabbage samples were collected from the area surrounding the Jinsha coal-fired power plant (JCFP Plant) in Guizhou Province, southwest China. Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cu and Cr concentrations in soil samples and cabbage samples were analysed to study the pollution sources and risks of heavy metals around the power plant. The results indicate that the JCFP Plant contributes to the Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, and Cr pollution in nearby soils, particularly Hg pollution. Cu and Cr in soils from both croplands and forestlands in the study area derive mainly from crustal materials or natural processes. Pb, Cd and As in soils from croplands arise partly through anthropogenic activities, but these elements in soils from forestlands originate mainly from crustal materials or natural processes. Hg pollution in soils from both croplands and forestlands is caused mainly by fly ash from the JCFP Plant. The cabbages grown in the study area were severely contaminated with heavy metals, and more than 90% of the cabbages had Pb concentrations exceeding the permissible level established by the Ministry of Health and the Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China. Additionally, 30% of the cabbages had As concentrations exceeding the permissible level. Because forests can protect soils from heavy metal pollution caused by atmospheric deposition, close attention should be given to the Hg pollution in soils and to the concentrations of Pb, As, Hg and Cr in vegetables from the study area.

  3. Optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on TiO2 as photosensitizers for application of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2018-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the alternative energy that can convert light energy into electrical energy. The component of DSSC consists of FTO substrates, TiO2, electrolyte, dye sensitizer, and counter electrode. This study aim was to determine the effect of optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The dye sensitizer used can be extracted from anthocyanin pigments such as dragon fruit, black rice, and red cabbage. The red cabbage sensitizer shows lower absorbance value in the visible range (450-580 nm), than dragon fruit and black rice. The chemical structure of each dye molecules has an R group (carbonyl and hydroxyl) that forms a bond with the oxide layer. Red cabbage dye cell has the highest efficiency, 0.06% then dragon fruit and black rice, 0.02% and 0.03%.

  4. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended. PMID:28690627

  5. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  6. [The extracellular proteases of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris].

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, E E; Chernyshova, M P; Ignatov, V V

    2003-01-01

    The culture liquids of three Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strains were found to possess proteolytic activity. The culture liquid of strain B-611 with the highest proteolytic activity was fractionated by salting-out with ammonium sulfate, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The electrophoretic analysis of active fractions showed the presence of two proteases in the culture liquid of strain B-611, the major of which being serine protease. The treatment of cabbage seedlings with the proteases augmented the activity of peroxidase in the cabbage roots by 28%.

  7. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Richards, Jeff; Spencer, LaShelle; Hummerick, Mary; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond; Douglas, Grace; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Spinach, lettuce, chard, beet, mizuna, and Chinese cabbage were grown in plant chambers to assess their potential as candidate crops for space food production systems. The species and varieties were compared in terms of biomass yields, size, nutrient value, and taste factors, as determined by a taste panel. Although other species might be considered for future studies, Chinese cabbage ranked number one from the testing, chard second, mizuna third, and red-leaf lettuce fourth. Results from the testing and analyses will be presented.

  8. iss051e038158

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    iss051e038158 (5/8/2017) --- Chinese cabbage is grown in the Veggie facility on the International Space Station. The sprouts form in a low-maintenance foam pillow and are grown using a special light to help the plants thrive.

  9. Veggie System on International Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-03

    Charles Spern, project manager on the Engineering Services Contract, communicates instructions for the Veggie system to astronaut Peggy Whitson aboard the International Space Station during the initiation of the second Chinese cabbage to be grown aboard the orbiting laboratory on April 3, 2017.

  10. Degradation of plant wastes by anaerobic process using rumen bacteria.

    PubMed

    Seon, J; Creuly, C; Duchez, D; Pons, A; Dussap, C G

    2003-01-01

    An operational reactor has been designed for the fermentation of a pure culture of Fibrobacter succinogenes with the constraints of strict anaerobic condition. The process is controlled by measurements of pH, redox, temperature and CO2 pressure; it allows an efficient degradation (67%) of lignocellulosic wastes such as a mixture of wheat straw, soya bean cake and green cabbage.

  11. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01 Coffee... Lettuce 0.01 Lime 0.01 Mango 0.01 Millet, grain 0.1 Mushroom 0.01 Nut, brazil 0.1 Oat, grain 0.1 Okra 0.01...

  12. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01 Coffee... Lettuce 0.01 Lime 0.01 Mango 0.01 Millet, grain 0.1 Mushroom 0.01 Nut, brazil 0.1 Oat, grain 0.1 Okra 0.01...

  13. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01 Coffee... Lettuce 0.01 Lime 0.01 Mango 0.01 Millet, grain 0.1 Mushroom 0.01 Nut, brazil 0.1 Oat, grain 0.1 Okra 0.01...

  14. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01 Coffee... Lettuce 0.01 Lime 0.01 Mango 0.01 Millet, grain 0.1 Mushroom 0.01 Nut, brazil 0.1 Oat, grain 0.1 Okra 0.01...

  15. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01 Coffee... Lettuce 0.01 Lime 0.01 Mango 0.01 Millet, grain 0.1 Mushroom 0.01 Nut, brazil 0.1 Oat, grain 0.1 Okra 0.01...

  16. Doppler weather radar detects emigratory flights of noctuids during a major pest outbreak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An outbreak of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)), cabbage looper, (Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)), and other lepidopteran pests devastated cotton production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley TX, in 1995. Major infestations occurred later in the year several hundred kilometers away in other cotton ...

  17. STUDIES ON RADIATION PRESERVATION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES PRODUCTS. Report No. 6 (Annual) for December 1, 1956-November 30, 1957

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, L.H.; Salunkhe, D.K.

    1959-10-31

    A study was made of the effects of radiation dose, radiation rates storage period, and can condition on flavor and chemical changes in irradiated fruits and vegetables. Data are included on yellow sweet corns tomatoes, carrots, onions, potatoes, pears, cherry delights apricot and peach nectars, peach halves, asparagus, cabbage, strawberries, and string beans. (C.H.)

  18. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... uses as follows: Commodity PCT Almond 35% Apple 10% Apricot 10% Barley 1% Bell pepper 10% Black bean seed 5% Blackberry 20% Blueberry 20% Broad bean (succulent) 2.5% Broad bean seed 5% Broccoli 5% Cabbage...% Grape 25% Grapefruit 25% Great northern bean seed 5% Green onion 15% Head lettuce 5% Leaf lettuce 5...

  19. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  20. Three gastroenteritis outbreaks in South Korea caused by the consumption of kimchi tainted by norovirus GI.4.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Jung, Sunyoung; Shin, Jaeseung; Lee, Jeong Su; Joo, In Sun; Lee, Deog-Yong

    2015-03-01

    In April 2013, outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis were reported at three schools in Jeonju, South Korea. Epidemiological investigations were performed to characterize the outbreaks and implement appropriate control measures. Retrospective cohort studies were performed at these schools. Stool and environmental samples were collected for bacterial and viral assessment. A food supplier of the schools, food company X, was inspected, and samples of cabbage kimchi and groundwater were tested for norovirus by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The relatedness of the detected norovirus strains was evaluated by phylogenetic analysis. Of the 3347 questionnaires distributed, 631 (attack rate: 18.9%) met the case definition. Among the consumed food items, kimchi products (i.e., cabbage and fresh kimchi) were significantly associated with illness. The kimchi products were supplied by food company X. Among stool samples from 95 students and 34 food handlers at the 3 schools, 39 (41.1%) and 14 (41.2%) samples, respectively, were positive for norovirus. The samples of groundwater and cabbage kimchi at food company X were positive for norovirus. The predominant genotype of norovirus detected in the patient, groundwater, and cabbage kimchi samples, GI.4, shared high nucleotide identity. Kimchi products tainted with norovirus GI.4 from contaminated groundwater were linked to the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. Therefore, kimchi manufacturers in South Korea should apply chlorine disinfection when using groundwater. Moreover, more stringent sanitation requirements and strict regulations for food companies are recommended.

  1. Determination of six parabens residues in fresh-cut vegetables using QuEChERS with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, an optimized QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to analyze residues of six parabens: methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, and isobutyl-paraben in five fresh-cut vegetables (potato, broccoli, carrot, celery and cabbage) with high performance liquid chromatogr...

  2. Tolerance of broccoli cultivars to pre-transplanting clomazone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clomazone has been used for weed management in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., capitata group) production in the U.S. for over 20 years; however, the herbicide is not currently registered for other crop groups within B. oleracea. The U.S. specialty crop pesticide registration program (The IR-4 Proje...

  3. Genotyping-by-sequencing of glossy mutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glossy mutants are a common occurrence in Brassica oleracea L. and they have been documented in most crop varieties of the species including cabbage, kale, broccoli, and collard. Glossy phenotypes have been of particular interest to researchers due to observations that they influence insect behavior...

  4. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    broccoli and cabbage. Isothiocyanates induce expression of cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes in multiple prostate tumor cell lines (26, 31) promote...83-90. 29. Caruso AJ, Yegnasubramanian S, Lin X, Kesler TW, Nelson WG. Hot water extracts from broccoli sprouts trigger induction of carcinogen

  5. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., peppers and broccoli (PP 4F4333). Therefore, based on these changes, EPA conducted an additional risk...-2005-0541 titled ``Mancozeb: Human Health Risk Assessment to Support Proposed New Uses on Broccoli..., cabbage, leaf lettuce, peppers and broccoli). In the meantime, EPA is moving forward to establish a time...

  6. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Vegetables Cruciferous vegetables include broccoli , broccoli sprouts, cauliflower, radishes, cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, collard greens, and... broccoli sprout extract containing isothiocyanates increases phase 2 enzyme activity in the prostate. [28] Interestingly, a recent study indicated...that rats fed a combination tomato and broccoli diet had greater suppression of prostate tumors than rats fed either tomato or broccoli alone

  7. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)and compatibility with chemical insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi...

  8. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., succulent 0.02 Cabbage 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.02 Corn, field, grain 0.02 Corn, field, stover 0.02 Corn, sweet, forage 0.02 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.02 Corn, sweet, stover 0.02...

  9. 40 CFR 180.330 - S-(2-(Ethylsulfinyl)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Brussels sprouts 1.0 Cabbage 2.0 Cauliflower 1.0 Clover, forage 5.0 Clover, hay 10.0 Corn, sweet, forage 1.0 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.5 Corn, sweet, stover 3.0 Cotton, undelinted...

  10. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., succulent 0.02 Cabbage 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.02 Corn, field, grain 0.02 Corn, field, stover 0.02 Corn, sweet, forage 0.02 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.02 Corn, sweet, stover 0.02...

  11. 40 CFR 180.121 - Methyl parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cabbage 1.0 1/24/09 Corn, field, forage 1.0 None Corn, field, grain 1.0 None Corn, pop, grain 1.0 None Corn, sweet, forage 1.0 None Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 1.0 None Cotton...

  12. 40 CFR 180.330 - S-(2-(Ethylsulfinyl)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Brussels sprouts 1.0 Cabbage 2.0 Cauliflower 1.0 Clover, forage 5.0 Clover, hay 10.0 Corn, sweet, forage 1.0 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.5 Corn, sweet, stover 3.0 Cotton, undelinted...

  13. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., succulent 0.02 Cabbage 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.02 Corn, field, grain 0.02 Corn, field, stover 0.02 Corn, sweet, forage 0.02 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.02 Corn, sweet, stover 0.02...

  14. 40 CFR 180.330 - S-(2-(Ethylsulfinyl)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Brussels sprouts 1.0 Cabbage 2.0 Cauliflower 1.0 Clover, forage 5.0 Clover, hay 10.0 Corn, sweet, forage 1.0 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.5 Corn, sweet, stover 3.0 Cotton, undelinted...

  15. 40 CFR 180.330 - S-(2-(Ethylsulfinyl)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Brussels sprouts 1.0 Cabbage 2.0 Cauliflower 1.0 Clover, forage 5.0 Clover, hay 10.0 Corn, sweet, forage 1.0 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.5 Corn, sweet, stover 3.0 Cotton, undelinted...

  16. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., succulent 0.02 Cabbage 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.02 Corn, field, grain 0.02 Corn, field, stover 0.02 Corn, sweet, forage 0.02 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.02 Corn, sweet, stover 0.02...

  17. 40 CFR 180.121 - Methyl parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cabbage 1.0 1/24/09 Corn, field, forage 1.0 None Corn, field, grain 1.0 None Corn, pop, grain 1.0 None Corn, sweet, forage 1.0 None Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 1.0 None Cotton...

  18. Pathogenicity and control of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne spp. on some cruciferous plant cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pathogenicity of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica on cabbage cvs. Balady, Brunswick and Ganzouri, cauliflower cv. Balady, turnip cv. Balady, and radish cv. Balady was determined in several greenhouse ...

  19. Food safety assessment of planting patterns of four vegetable-type crops grown in soil contaminated by electronic waste activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Li, Yuefang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of crop and planting pattern on levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) in crops grown in soil contaminated by electronic waste. The crops were maize (Zea mays L. var. Shentian-1), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Zhongshu-4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. Jingfeng-1), and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis (L.) Makino. var. Youdonger-Hangzhou). The planting patterns were crop monoculture, crop co-planted with a legume, and crop co-planted with another crop. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of the crops varied with types of metals and crops. Pb concentration was higher in leafy vegetables (cabbage and pakchoi) than in maize or tomato, Cd concentration was higher in tomato and pakchoi than in maize or cabbage, and Cu concentration was higher in maize and pakchoi than in tomato or cabbage. Metal concentrations in the edible part were also influenced by planting pattern. Relative to monoculture, co-planting and especially co-planting with Japanese clover tended to decrease Pb accumulation and increase Cd accumulation. According to the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) standard of the National Standard Agency in China, only maize (under all planting patterns) could be safely consumed. Because co-planting tended to increase Cd accumulation even in maize, however, the results suggest that maize monoculture is the optimal crop and planting pattern for this kind of contaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.E.; Baker, F.E.; Koblitsky, L.

    Experiments were performed to determine what effects lead arsenate added to soils had on the germination, growth, and yield of garden vegetables. The vegetables used were asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, corn, popcorn, pepper, cucumber, eggplant, endive, kohlrabi, lettuce, okra, onion, parsley, parsnip, pea, pumpkin, radish, squash, tomato, turnip, watermelon, beets, muskmelon, spinach, lima beans, and string beans.

  2. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    S) mulletbush (B. halimifolia) (S) American barberry (Berchemia scandens) (L) Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) (L) winged sumac...include coastal red cedar {Juniperus silicicola), red bay ( Persea borbonia), live oak (Quercus virginiana) and cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto; Stalter...scattered pines. The canopy is composed of live oak, slash pine, myrtle oak (Quercus myrtifolia), American olive (Osmanthus americanus), Chapman’s oak

  4. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...; tobacco, Types 61 and 62; barley; beans, dry edible; cottonseed; peas, dry field; flaxseed; hay, all baled...

  5. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...; tobacco, Types 61 and 62; barley; beans, dry edible; cottonseed; peas, dry field; flaxseed; hay, all baled...

  6. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloups, carrots, cauliflower, celery..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets...; tobacco, Types 61 and 62; barley; beans, dry edible; cottonseed; peas, dry field; flaxseed; hay, all baled...

  7. Nitrogen accumulation profiles of selected grain and vegetable crops: A bibliography (1940-1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Meischen, S.J.; Byrd, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    A bibliography of nitrogen accumulation profile data for 25 vegetable and grain crops reported between 1940 and 1992 is presented. The selected crops are asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, field bean, field pea, garlic, lettuce, onions, and peppers.

  8. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-05

    who was born in Krasny Brod, over an enor- mous bowl of typical "pirohy" (a noodle dough filled with cottage cheese, meat, and cabbage). He was...control which are used by us. The first phase of the so-called instant program is the introduction of the Skoda Works everywhere in the world that

  9. The Effect of Pickling on Blue Borscht Gelatin and Other Interesting Diffusive Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lawrence C.; Chou, Nancy C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents some simple demonstrations that students can construct for themselves in class to learn the difference between diffusion and convection rates. Uses cabbage leaves and gelatin and focuses on diffusion in ungelified media, a quantitative diffusion estimate with hydroxyl ions, and a quantitative diffusion estimate with photons. (DDR)

  10. Whittier Narrows Flood Control Basin Historic Resources Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-15

    crops; other spots yielded lettuce, cauliflower , and cabbage. Still other farm areas were devoted to growing flowers for seed. In a few places, where...gicai search’ing cculd begin o-n n p;, ears t rci., L-. evaidence now available) to be the, probabl e crigin a]- it <’ f 3e 1-1 i sion, as indicated

  11. A Causal Analysis of Interrelationships among Exercise, Physical Fitness, and Well-Being in U.S. Navy Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    p<.O01 **** p<.0001 Discussion The increasing interest in physical exercise programs over recent ! ears reflects, in part, the conviction that physical...products (e.g., cakes, pies, cookies, candy) eat "leafy" vegetables (e.g., broccoli, cauliflower , cabbage, greens) eat "starchy" vegetables (e.g

  12. Food Choice in the Common Snail (Helix Aspersa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; Howell, Pauline

    1985-01-01

    The easily obtained common snail shows interesting dietary preferences which can be the source of several simple experiments. Specific student instructions are given for quantitative and comparative studies using cabbage, lettuce, carrot, rutabaga, and onion. Suggestions for laboratory setup and further work are included. (DH)

  13. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  14. Brassica oleracea: the dog of the plant world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  15. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  16. 78 FR 23557 - Fipronil; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemptions, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... your concerns and suggest alternatives. vii. Explain your views as clearly as possible, avoiding the... population who, as a result of their location, cultural practices, or other factors, may have atypical or... that an emergency situation exists based upon three factors: A severe increase in cabbage maggot...

  17. Paper Chromatography and UV-Vis Spectroscopy to Characterize Anthocyanins and Investigate Antioxidant Properties in the Organic Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Novak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, blueberries, Concord grapes, blackberries, strawberries, peaches, eggplant, red cabbage, and red onions, contain flavonoid compounds known as anthocyanins that are responsible for the blue-red color and the astringent taste associated with such foods. In addition, anthocyanins exhibit a…

  18. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  19. Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyung Uk; Mun, Hye Yeon; Oh, Hyung Keun; Kim, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2010-08-01

    To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the diamondback moth was investigated on a Chinese cabbage leaf housed in a round plastic cage (Ø 10 x 6 cm). 72 h after spraying the cabbage leaf with LBB and NB cultures containing the bacterial strain, the mortalities of the larvae were determined to be 91.7% and 88.3%, respectively. In addition, the insecticidal activity on potted cabbage containing 14 leaves in a growth cage (165 x 83 x 124 cm) was found to be similar to that of the plastic cage experiment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the insecticidal activity of the liquid culture of a Serratia species against the diamondback moth.

  20. Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

  1. Brassica oleracea; The dog of the plant world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  2. A Head for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanshumaker, William

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that a cabbage can be used to produce a universal indicator of pH. Describes the methods for producing the indicator, experiments students can do on ordinary household chemicals, and a student take-home assignment for producing pH indicators. (TW)

  3. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Revocation Date Broccoli1 1.0 12/31/12 Cabbage2 1.0 12/31/12 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 12/31/13 Potato 0.1... the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Tomato 2.0 12/31/13 (d) Indirect...

  4. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../Revocation Date Broccoli1 1.0 12/31/12 Cabbage2 1.0 12/31/12 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 12/31/13 Potato 0.1... the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Tomato 2.0 12/31/13 (d) Indirect...

  5. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../Revocation Date Broccoli1 1.0 12/31/12 Cabbage2 1.0 12/31/12 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 12/31/13 Potato 0.1... the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Tomato 2.0 12/31/13 (d) Indirect...

  6. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../Revocation Date Broccoli1 1.0 12/31/12 Cabbage2 1.0 12/31/12 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 12/31/13 Potato 0.1... the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Tomato 2.0 12/31/13 (d) Indirect...

  7. Germination and early plant development of 10 plant species exposed to Nano TiO2 and CeO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano-TiO2 or CeO2 (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ug/l) and followed to examine effects on germination and early seedling development. For TiO2, cabbage showed increased and corn decreased percent germination, while ...

  8. VEG-03

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-26

    iss053e047057 (Sept. 26, 2017) --- Flight Engineer Joe Acaba installs botany gear for the Veggie facility to demonstrate plant growth in space for the Veg-03 experiment. The botany study uses the Veggie plant growth facility to cultivate cabbage, lettuce and mizuna, which are harvested on-orbit with samples returned to Earth for testing.

  9. VEG-03 Consumption Harvest no. 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-08

    iss055e001193 (March 8, 2018) --- NASA astronaut Scott Tingle eats a piece of lettuce harvested as part of the ongoing space crop study VEG-03. The botany experiment uses the Veggie plant growth facility to cultivate a type of cabbage, lettuce and mizuna which are harvested on-orbit with some samples consumed by astronauts and others returned to Earth for testing.

  10. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution.

  11. RAPESEED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HYDROLYSIS TO PHOSPHATIDIC ACID USING PLANT EXTRACTS WITH PHOPSPHOLIPASE D.

    PubMed

    Pasker, Beata; Sosada, Marian; Fraś, Paweł; Boryczka, Monika; Górecki, Michał; Zych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. For that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. PA is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. PA may be easily prepared by hydrolysis of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), using cabbage phospholipase D (PLD). Hydrolytic activity of purified by us PLD extracts from cabbage towards rapeseed phosphatidylcholine (RPC) was investigated. Hydrolysis was carried out in the biphasic system (water/diethyl ether) at pH 6,5 and temp 30°C. Influence of enzymatic extracts from three cabbage varieties, reaction time, Ca2+ concentration and enzyme extracts/PC ratio, on activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed phosphatidic acid (RPA) formation were examined. Our study shows that the PLD extracts from savoy cabbage (PLDsc), white cabbage (PLDwc) and brussels sprouts (PLDbs) used in experiments exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed RPA with different yield. The highest activity towards RPC shows PLD extract from PLDsc with the RPC conversion degree to RPA (90%) was observed at 120 mM Ca2+ concentration, reaction time 60 min and ratio of PLD extract to RPC 6 : 1 (w/w). Our study shows that purified by us PLDsc extracts exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC giving new RPA with satisfying conversion degree for use in pharmacy, cosmetics and as a standard in analytical chemistry.

  12. Herbivore-Specific, Density-Dependent Induction of Plant Volatiles: Honest or “Cry Wolf” Signals?

    PubMed Central

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Kugimiya, Soichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; van Wijk, Michiel; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Takabayashi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori) also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae) larvae and attract more (naive) parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata) when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori) release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis) of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale) respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala) is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata) as a “cry wolf” signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike. PMID:20808961

  13. Biogeochemical transfer and dynamics of iodine in a soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Yan, Ai-Lan; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qin, Ya-Chao; Pan, Lehua; Xie, Ling-Li

    2009-06-01

    Radioactive iodide (125I) is used as a tracer to investigate the fate and transport of iodine in soil under various leaching conditions as well as the dynamic transfer in a soil-plant (Chinese cabbage) system. Results show that both soils (the paddy soil and the sandy soil) exhibit strong retention capability, with the paddy soil being slightly stronger. Most iodine is retained by soils, especially in the top 10 cm, and the highest concentration occurs at the top most section of the soil columns. Leaching with 1-2 pore volume water does not change this pattern of vertical distributions. Early breakthrough and long tailing are two features observed in the leaching experiments. Because of the relatively low peak concentration, the early breakthrough is really not an environmental concern of contamination to groundwater. The long tailing implies that the retained iodine is undergoing slow but steady release and the soils can provide a low but stable level of mobile iodine after a short period. The enrichment factors of 125I in different plant tissues are ranked as: root > stem > petiole > leaf, and the 125I distribution in the young leaves is obviously higher than that in the old ones. The concentrations of 125I in soil and Chinese cabbage can be simulated with a dual-chamber model very well. The biogeochemical behaviors of iodine in the soil-cabbage system show that cultivating iodized cabbage is an environmentally friendly and effective technique to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Planting vegetables such as cabbage on the 129I-contaminated soil could be a good remediation technique worthy of consideration.

  14. Intraspecific variation of host plant and locality influence the lepidopteran-parasitoid system of Brassica oleracea crops.

    PubMed

    Santolamazza-Carbone, S; Velasco, P; Selfa, J; Soengas, P; Cartea, M E

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the attractiveness to herbivores and parasitoids of two cultivars of Brassica oleracea L., namely, B. oleracea variety acephala (kale) and B. oleracea variety capitata (cabbage), that exhibit differences of morphological and biochemical traits. To this end, field samplings were replicated at seven localities in Galicia (northwestern Spain). Three specialist and three generalist lepidopteran species were sampled. In total, 7,050 parasitoids were obtained, belonging to 18 genera and 22 species. The results showed that 1) parasitism rate and parasitoid species richness changed with locality and was higher in cabbage, although this crop had lower herbivore abundance; 2) the proportion of specialist herbivores was higher in cabbage crops, whereas generalists dominated in kale crops; 3) the abundance of the parasitoids Telenomus sp. (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae), Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and Diadegma fenestrale (Holmgren) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) was higher in kale crops; and 4) parasitism rate of Pieris rapae larvae and pupae and Mamestra brassicae eggs were higher in kale crops. In contrast with the notion that plant structural complexity provides physical refuge to the hosts and can interfere with parasitoid foraging, parasitism rate was higher on cabbage plants, which form heads of overlapped leaves. Possibly, different chemical profiles of cultivars also influenced the host-parasitoid relationship. These results suggest that top-down and bottom-up forces may enhance cabbage crops to better control herbivore pressure during the studied season. In Spain, information on natural occurring parasitoid guilds of Brassica crops is still scarce. The data provided here also represent a critical first step for conservation biological control plans of these cultivations.

  15. Heavy Metal Pollution and Ecological Assessment around the Jinsha Coal-Fired Power Plant (China)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiwei; Qin, Fanxin; Quan, Wenxuan; Cao, Rensheng; Wu, Xianliang

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, 41 soil samples and 32 cabbage samples were collected from the area surrounding the Jinsha coal-fired power plant (JCFP Plant) in Guizhou Province, southwest China. Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cu and Cr concentrations in soil samples and cabbage samples were analysed to study the pollution sources and risks of heavy metals around the power plant. The results indicate that the JCFP Plant contributes to the Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, and Cr pollution in nearby soils, particularly Hg pollution. Cu and Cr in soils from both croplands and forestlands in the study area derive mainly from crustal materials or natural processes. Pb, Cd and As in soils from croplands arise partly through anthropogenic activities, but these elements in soils from forestlands originate mainly from crustal materials or natural processes. Hg pollution in soils from both croplands and forestlands is caused mainly by fly ash from the JCFP Plant. The cabbages grown in the study area were severely contaminated with heavy metals, and more than 90% of the cabbages had Pb concentrations exceeding the permissible level established by the Ministry of Health and the Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China. Additionally, 30% of the cabbages had As concentrations exceeding the permissible level. Because forests can protect soils from heavy metal pollution caused by atmospheric deposition, close attention should be given to the Hg pollution in soils and to the concentrations of Pb, As, Hg and Cr in vegetables from the study area. PMID:29258250

  16. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively.

  17. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    PubMed

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ( 88 Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using 88 Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide 90 Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  18. Intracellular Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration in Brassica oleracea leaf induces differential expression of transporter and stress-related genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, Jungeun; Choi, Jae-Pil; Lee, MiYe; Kim, Min Keun; Lee, Young Han; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Park, Sang Un; Min, Sung Ran; Kim, HyeRan

    2016-03-09

    One of the most important members of the genus Brassica, cabbage, requires a relatively high level of calcium for normal growth (Plant Cell Environ 7: 397-405, 1984; Plant Physiol 60: 854-856, 1977). Localized Ca(2+) deficiency in cabbage leaves causes tip-burn, bringing about serious economic losses (Euphytica 9:203-208, 1960; Ann Bot 43:363-372, 1979; Sci Hortic 14:131-138, 1981). Although it has been known that the occurrence of tip-burn is related to Ca(2+) deficiency, there is limited information on the underlying mechanisms of tip-burn or the relationship between Ca(2+) and tip-burn incidence. To obtain more information on the genetic control of tip-burn symptoms, we focused on the identification of genes differentially expressed in response to increasing intracellular Ca(2+) and K(+) concentrations in B. oleracea lines derived from tip-burn susceptible, tip-burn resistant cabbages (B. oleracea var. capitata), and kale (B. oleracea var. acephala). We compared the levels of major macronutrient cations, including Ca(2+) and K(+), in three leaf segments, the leaf apex (LA), middle of leaf (LM), and leaf base (LB), of tip-burn susceptible, tip-burn resistant cabbages, and kale. Ca(2+) and K(+) concentrations were highest in kale, followed by tip-burn resistant and then tip-burn susceptible cabbages. These cations generally accumulated to a greater extent in the LB than in the LA. Transcriptome analysis identified 58,096 loci as putative non-redundant genes in the three leaf segments of the three B. oleracea lines and showed significant changes in expression of 27,876 loci based on Ca(2+) and K(+) levels. Among these, 1844 loci were identified as tip-burn related phenotype-specific genes. Tip-burn resistant cabbage and kale-specific genes were largely related to stress and transport activity based on GO annotation. Tip-burn resistant cabbage and kale plants showed phenotypes clearly indicative of heat-shock, freezing, and drought stress tolerance compared to tip

  19. The biochemical basis for thermoregulation in heat-producing flowers

    PubMed Central

    Umekawa, Yui; Seymour, Roger S.; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoregulation (homeothermy) in animals involves a complex mechanism involving thermal receptors throughout the body and integration in the hypothalamus that controls shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The flowers of some ancient families of seed plants show a similar degree of physiological thermoregulation, but by a different mechanism. Here, we show that respiratory control in homeothermic spadices of skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) is achieved by rate-determining biochemical reactions in which the overall thermodynamic activation energy exhibits a negative value. Moreover, NADPH production, catalyzed by mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase in a chemically endothermic reaction, plays a role in the pre-equilibrium reaction. We propose that a law of chemical equilibrium known as Le Châtelier’s principle governs the homeothermic control in skunk cabbage. PMID:27095582

  20. Effectiveness of irradiation treatments in inactivating Listeria monocytogenes on fresh vegetables at refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Juneja, Vijay K; Isshiki, K; Kawamoto, S

    2005-02-01

    Ionizing radiation can be effective in controlling the growth of food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic bacteria. This study reports on an investigation of the effectiveness of irradiation treatment to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes on laboratory-inoculated broccoli, cabbage, tomatoes, and mung bean sprouts. Irradiation of broccoli and mung bean sprouts at 1.0 kGy resulted in reductions of approximately 4.88 and 4.57 log CFU/g, respectively, of a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes. Reductions of approximately 5.25 and 4.14 log CFU/g were found with cabbage and tomato, respectively, at a similar dose. The appearance, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptability did not undergo significant changes after 7 days of postirradiation storage at 4 degrees C, in comparison with control samples. Therefore, low-dose ionizing radiation treatment could be an effective method for eliminating L. monocytogenes on fresh and fresh-cut produce.

  1. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol-1 L s-1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage

  3. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  4. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad Junaid Hassan; Rauf, Khalid; Mahmood, Wajahat; Khan, Ikarmullah; Abbas, Ghulam

    2017-11-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic). In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments.

  5. Translocation and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis living inside of plants

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Capdeville, Guy; Jones, Gareth; Martins, Érica Soares; Praça, Lilian; Cordeiro, Bruno Arrivabene; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Dos Santos, Roseane Cavalcante; Berry, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Summary The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of a strain marked by production of green fluorescent protein (GFP). After inoculation of this preparation close to the roots of cotton and cabbage seedlings, GFP‐marked bacteria could be re‐isolated from all parts of the plant, having entered the roots and migrated through the xylem. Leaves taken from the treated plants were able to cause toxicity when fed to the Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (cotton) and Plutella xylostella (cabbage). These results open up new horizons for understanding the natural ecology and evolution of B. thuringiensis and use of B. thuringiensis in insect control. PMID:21255282

  6. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The scale of landscape fragmentation affects herbivore response to vegetation heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Banks, John E

    1998-11-01

    Using alternating bands of weeds and broccoli I experimentally manipulated vegetation composition and the spatial scale at which the landscape was fragmented in a factorial design. This experimental approach allowed me to distinguish the effect of spatial scale from that of simple crop heterogeneity on crop herbivores. The importance of scale depended on which insect species were examined. Cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) were influenced by vegetation composition at all tested scales of fragmentation; cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae) were not affected by scale or by composition and flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae) revealed a striking dependence on scale of fragmentation as well as an interaction between scale and composition. This approach shows the importance of dissecting out the effects of scale from other aspects of landscape manipulation, and emphasizes the challenge of developing a theory that will enable prediction of species-specific responses to scale.

  8. [Epigenetics of plant vernalization regulated by non-coding RNAs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Feng; Li, Xiao-Rong; Sun, Chuan-Bao; He, Yu-Ke

    2012-07-01

    Many higher plants must experience a period of winter cold to accomplish the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. This biological process is called vernalization. Some crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) produce seeds as edible organs, and therefore special measures of rotation and cultivation are necessary for plants to go through an early vernalization for flower differentiation and development, whereas the other crops such as Chinese cabbage (B rapa ssp. pekinenesis) and cabbage (Brassica napus L.) produce leafy heads as edible organs, and additional practice should be taken to avoid vernalization for a prolonged and fully vegetative growth. Before vernalization, flowering is repressed by the action of a gene called Flowering Locus C (FLC). This paper reviewed the function of non-coding RNAs and some proteins including VRN1, VRN2, and VIN3 in epigenetic regulation of FLC during vernalization.

  9. Capacity and degree of iodine absorbed and enriched by vegetable from soil.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Weng, Jing-Ke; Yong, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xiang-Wu; Zhong, Hang

    2003-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemical transfer of iodine, the absorbability and bioaccumulation of iodine in tested vegetables (radish, spinach and Chinese cabbage) are examined by applying iodic fertilizer composed of kelp and diatomaceous earth. The experimental results show that when iodine in soil is not excessive, the concentrations of iodine in tested vegetables increase as the content of iodine in soil increases. The absorbability and enrichment degree of iodine in various vegetables and in various parts of the same vegetable a redifferent, which explains that the concentration of iodine in plant is determined by the plant type and the physiological action of plant. The patience order of tested vegetables to excessive iodine is Chinese cabbage > spinach > radish. These results have theoretical and practical significance in opening up a new way for ameliorating poor iodine environment with artificial means.

  10. GMC oxidoreductase, a highly expressed protein in a potent biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum Cong:1-2, is dispensable for biocontrol activity.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Masato; Okabe Onokubo, Akiko; Arimoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Takanobu; Azegami, Koji; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    A spontaneous non-pathogenic variant (Cong:1-2) derived from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Cong: 1-1), a causal agent of cabbage yellows, carries biocontrol activity for cabbage yellows. We found a GMC oxidoreductase (ODX1) among the proteins expressed much more in Cong:1-2 than Cong:1-1 by 2D-DIGE comparison. GMC oxidoreductases have been reported to be involved in biocontrol activity of several plant pathogenic fungi. The gene encoding ODX1 in Cong:1-2 was cloned, and targeted disruption of the gene in Cong:1-2 did not affect its biocontrol activity, suggesting that GMC oxidoreductase is dispensable for biocontrol activity in the fungal biocontrol agent.

  11. Comparative study of mycelial growth and basidiomata formation in seven different species of the edible mushroom genus Hericium.

    PubMed

    Ko, Han Gyu; Park, Hyuk Gu; Park, Sang Ho; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Won Mok

    2005-09-01

    The potential of using several agricultural by-products as supplements of sawdust substrate for the production of edible mushroom Hericium was evaluated using seven Hericium species. All the tested supplements (rice bran, wheat bran, barley bran, Chinese cabbage, egg shell, and soybean powder) were found to be suitable for the mycelial growth of all the tested species. In mycelial growth, soybean powder was the best supplement for Hericium americanum, Hericium coralloides, and Hericium erinaceum while barley bran was the best for Hericium alpestre, Hericium laciniatum, and Hericium erinaceus. For Hericium abietis, rice bran and Chinese cabbage was the best. The possibility of mushroom production on oak sawdust substrate with 20% rice bran supplement was demonstrated with H. coralloides, H. americanum, H. erinaceus, and H. erinaceum which showed 26-70% biological efficiency. Our results also showed that strain selection is important to improve biological efficiency and mushroom yield in Hericium cultivation.

  12. Parasitic contamination of vegetables in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Damen, J G; Banwat, E B; Egah, D Z; Allanana, J A

    2007-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are very common in developing countries including Nigeria. There are diverse ways of their transmission; the study attempts to determine the level of intestinal parasitic contamination on vegetables sold in Jos. Sample of 200 each of Tomatoes (Lycopersium sativus), Letus (Loctus satival) Carrot (Davcus carota L) Cabbage (Brassica Denceal) and Green leafy vegetables were analyzed using standardized Centrifugal-floatation technique methods. Of the 1250 samples of vegetables examined, 450 (36.0%) were positive for intestinal parasites, cabbage recorded the highest prevalence of 64% while tomatoes had the least prevalence of 20%. Vegetables in Jos are heavily contaminated with intestinal parasites and there is need for public enlightenment campaign on the danger of consuming inadequately washed and prepared vegetables.

  13. 40 CFR 180.498 - Sulfentrazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Parts per million Asparagus 0.15 Bean, lima, succulent 0.15 Cabbage 0.20 Corn, field, forage 0.20 Corn, field, grain 0.15 Corn, field, stover 0.30 Horseradish 0.20 Pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean... Expiration/revocation date Bean, succulent seed without pod (lima bean & cowpea) 0.1 12/31/07 Flax, seed 0.20...

  14. 40 CFR 180.379 - Fenvalerate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 4/2/10 Almond, hulls 15.0 4/2/10 Apple 2.0 4/2/10 Artichoke, globe 0.2 4/2/10 Bean, dry, seed 0.25 4/2/10 Bean, snap, succulent 2.0 4/2/10 Broccoli 2.0 4/2/10 Blueberry 3.0 4/2/10 Cabbage 10.0 4/2/10...

  15. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  16. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cabbage 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.02 Corn, field, grain 0.02 Corn, field, stover 0.02 Corn, pop, grain 0.02 Corn, pop, stover 0.02 Corn, sweet, forage 0.02 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.02 Corn, sweet, stover 0.02 Cucumber 0.02 Hop, dried cones 0.02 Peppermint, tops 0.02 Pineapple 0.02...

  17. Effect of spray volume on the deposition, viability and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes in a foliar spray on vegetables.

    PubMed

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-10-01

    Spray volume can influence the amount of free water on the leaf surface and subsequently the ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to move. In this study, an investigation was made of the effect of spray volume (548, 730 and 1095 L ha(-1) ) on the deposition, viability and infectivity of EPNs against Galleria mellonella on savoy cabbage, cauliflower and leek. Increasing spray volume decreased nematode deposition on 7.1 cm2 leek leaf discs at a 15° angle with the spray nozzle. Although the number of living nematodes observed on leek after 240 min of exposure was not significantly different between the low-volume application (548 L ha(-1) ) and the high-volume application (1095 L ha(-1) ), a greater infectivity was obtained in the latter application. The higher number of droplets deposited on the leek discs in the high-volume application may have stimulated nematode movement. No significant effect of spray volume was observed on the relative deposition of Steinernema carpocapsae on the bottom side of cauliflower and savoy cabbage leaf discs. In spite of the low S. carpocapsae deposition on the bottom side of the savoy cabbage discs, high infectivity was obtained against G. mellonella. Using the lowest spray volume on savoy cabbage, infectivity decreased with increasing exposure time, while infectivity was not affected by exposure time when a spray volume of 730 L ha(-1) or more was used. Spray volume is an important application parameter, as it affects nematode infectivity. Future research should investigate the effect of spray volume in the field and its influence on the effect of adjuvants. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Japan’s Battle of Okinawa, April-June 1945 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 18)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    and close combat to prevail over its lightly armed adversaries, the Chinese and Euro- pean colonial garrisons. Beginning with Guadalcanal, however...Army on 8 July 1944. 55 Cho drank generously and when intoxicated would perform a dance with his samurai sword. He liked having fine cuisine and good...the sentries outside managed to forage some tomatoes and Chinese cabbage from neighboring gardens. Beer and sake were plentiful, and the commander’s

  19. Characterisation of taste-active extracts from raw Brassica oleracea vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zabaras, Dimitrios; Roohani, Mahshid; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Cochet, Maeva; Delahunty, Conor M

    2013-04-25

    Chemical and sensory characterisation of whole and fractionated myrosinase-free extracts from selected Australian-grown, raw Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and red cabbage) was carried out to determine the contribution of key phytochemicals (i.e. glucosinolates, free sugars, phenolics) to the taste profiles of these vegetables. Glucosinolate (GS) and phenolic profiles were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Ten glucosinolates (GS) were quantified across the vegetables investigated. Brussels sprouts (186.3 μg g(-1) FW) followed by broccoli (164.1 μg g(-1) FW) were found to contain the most GS. The phenolic profiles of all samples were dominated by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. As expected, red cabbage was the only vegetable with a significant anthocyanin signal (574.0 μg g(-1) FW). Red cabbage (26.7 mg g(-1) FW) and cauliflower (18.7 mg g(-1) FW) were found to contain a higher concentration of free sugars than Brussels sprouts (12.6 mg g(-1) FW) and broccoli (10.2 mg g(-1) FW). Descriptive sensory analysis of the whole extracts found sweetness (cauliflower and red cabbage sweeter than broccoli and Brussels sprouts) and bitterness (Brussels sprouts more bitter than others) as the most discriminating attributes. A hydrophilic fraction with sweetness, umami and saltiness as the main attributes was the most taste active fraction across all Brassica whole extracts. Sub-fractionation showed that this fraction was also bitter but the presence of sugars counteracted bitterness. Several components within each extract were found to contribute to the bitterness of whole Brassica extracts. The total and individual GS content alone could not explain the perceived bitterness of these extracts. Phenolics and/or other components are likely to be contributing to the bitterness associated with these vegetables.

  20. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  1. 40 CFR 180.183 - Disulfoton; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equivalent of disulfoton, in or on the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Bean, lima 0.75 12/31/13 Bean, snap, succulent 0.75 12/31/13 Broccoli 0.75 12/31/13 Brussels sprouts 0.75 12/31/13 Cabbage 0.75 12/31/13 Cauliflower 0.75 12/31/13 Coffee, green bean 0.2 6/30/14 Cotton...

  2. 40 CFR 180.183 - Disulfoton; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equivalent of disulfoton, in or on the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Bean, lima 0.75 12/31/13 Bean, snap, succulent 0.75 12/31/13 Broccoli 0.75 12/31/13 Brussels sprouts 0.75 12/31/13 Cabbage 0.75 12/31/13 Cauliflower 0.75 12/31/13 Coffee, green bean 0.2 6/30/14 Cotton...

  3. 40 CFR 180.183 - Disulfoton; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equivalent of disulfoton, in or on the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Bean, lima 0.75 12/31/13 Bean, snap, succulent 0.75 12/31/13 Broccoli 0.75 12/31/13 Brussels sprouts 0.75 12/31/13 Cabbage 0.75 12/31/13 Cauliflower 0.75 12/31/13 Coffee, green bean 0.2 6/30/14 Cotton...

  4. 40 CFR 180.183 - Disulfoton; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equivalent of disulfoton, in or on the commodity. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Bean, lima 0.75 12/31/13 Bean, snap, succulent 0.75 12/31/13 Broccoli 0.75 12/31/13 Brussels sprouts 0.75 12/31/13 Cabbage 0.75 12/31/13 Cauliflower 0.75 12/31/13 Coffee, green bean 0.2 6/30/14 Cotton...

  5. Historical Geography of the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    of the trees, shrubs and vines of Alabama with their economic properties and local distribution. University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. *1943 Forests of...elements in common with the prairies of the Midwest (Clark, 1972). In areas in which the soil is relatively deep a rich forest develops similar to that...common in the forest include swamp privet, red bay, water elm, American elm, cabbage palm, sugarberry, and rattan vine . The combination of dense

  6. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkug; Park, Dongsuk; Seol, Youngjoo; Hahn, Jangho

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage.

  7. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage. PMID:21887015

  8. Media Teleconference: NOAA climate forecaster to discuss status of El Niño

    Science.gov Websites

    Media Contact NOAA HQ John Ewald 240-429-6127 NOAA NCEI Katy Matthews 828-257-3136 NASA GISS Michael Cabbage/ Leslie McCarthy 212-678-5516 / 5507 NASA HQ Steve Cole 202-358-0918 Wednesday: NOAA, NASA to experts from NOAA and NASA will announce new data on 2015 global temperatures during a media

  9. Results of Several Years Experiments on the Absorption of Radioactive Strontium and Cesium by Cultivated Plants; COMPTE RENDU D'EXPERIENCES DE PLUSIEURS ANNEES SUR L'ABSORPTION DU STRONTIUM ET DU CESIUM RADIOACTIES PAR DES PLANTES CULTIVEES

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. et al.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by vines, permanent pasture, potatoes, green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, and beans in France in 1960 is presented. The strontium coefficient has varied very little from one year to the next and that of cesium has slightly diminished. The values obtained suggest that the concentrations in irrigation water should not exceed one fifth of the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. (auth)

  10. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Breast Cancer a Novel Application of an Etiologic Theory for Allergies, Asthma, and Other Immune Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    REFERENCE YEAR-2] and [REFERENCE YEAR], on average, how many days per month did you eat the following kinds of foods: Q68. Yogurt (not the frozen...kind)? days/month Q69. Kim chee or sauerkraut ( fermented cabbage) days/month Q70. Lactobacillus or probiotic supplements...entre [AÑO DE REFERENCIA-2] y [AÑO DE REFERENCIA]: Q68. Yogurt (no del tipo congelado)? días / mes Q69. Kim chee o chukrut (repollo

  11. Management of Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Using Turnip as a Trap Crop.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan; Rhodes, Elena; Liburd, Oscar; Fadamiro, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetable crops in organic production systems. Very few organically acceptable management options are currently available for this pest. Field studies were conducted at a research station in Alabama and at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Florida to investigate the effectiveness of turnip, Brassica rapa rapa, as a trap crop for M. ochroloma. In the research station trial with cabbage planted as the cash crop, perimeter planting of turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced beetle numbers and crop damage below levels recorded in the control. During the first season of our on-farm trial, with napa cabbage and mustard as the cash crops, using turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced both beetle numbers and cash crop damage below levels found in the control plots, but economic damage was still high. In the second season, beetle populations were too low for significant differences in damage levels to occur between the trap crop and control plots. Together, these results suggest that turnip planted as a trap crop can be an effective control tactic for cruciferous crops, like cabbage, that are much less attractive to M. ochroloma than turnip. In crops, like mustard and napa cabbage, that are equally or only slightly less attractive than turnip, planting turnip as a trap crop would have to be used in combination with other tactics to manage M. ochroloma. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Veggies in Space: Salad Crop Production on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently testing Veggie, a low mass, low energy, salad crop production system on the International Space Station (ISS). Veggie grows crops with LED lights using ISS cabin air and passive watering that has presented challenges in microgravity. Initial tests included red romaine lettuce and zinnia, with testing of Chinese cabbage, and tomatoes planned. A goal is to add supplemental salad foods to the astronaut diet as we prepare for a future journey to Mars.

  13. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Spline-Based Parameter Estimation Techniques for Two-Dimensional Convection and Diffusion Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    brassicae ) were related at a point adjacent to and downwind from a cabbage ( brassica ) crop (9]. Although Wright [161 had rejected anemotaxis as a...tunnel experiments by Coaker and Smith [71 indicated that female E. brassicae do fly upwind in the presence of brassica odor. To resolve this issue Hawkes...sought to calculate dispersal rates of E. Brassicae released from a point exposed to brassica odor. When recapture data suggested random dispersal

  15. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  16. Mayolenes: Labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae)

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Scott R.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A.; Renwick, J. Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature. PMID:11997469

  17. Coping Flexibility: Influencing Appraisals of Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-25

    organism was exposed to fear- inducing stimuli (Cannon and de la Paz, 1911 ). The substance Wsympathin", later to be named epinephrine, was identified...coping repertoire must playa role in this process. Rigid application of problem-focused coping across controllable and uncontrollable situations may...cabbage :e a splice C a steak D a paper box .::. a fish 3. To stop severe bleeding A a razor blade B a lima bean C a light bulb D a shoe E

  18. VEG-03

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-11

    iss053e143976 (Nov. 11, 2017) --- Red lettuce is pictured being cultivated inside the Veggie facility for the Veg-03 botany experiment. Future long-duration space missions will look to have crew members grow their own food, so understanding how plants respond to microgravity is an important step toward that goal. Veg-03 uses the Veggie plant growth facility to cultivate a type of cabbage, lettuce and mizuna which are harvested on-orbit with samples returned to Earth for testing.

  19. VEG-03

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-14

    iss053e180041 (Nov. 14, 2017) --- Mizuna is pictured being cultivated inside the Veggie facility for the Veg-03 botany experiment. Future long-duration missions will look to have crew members grow their own food, so understanding how plants respond to microgravity is an important step toward that goal. Veg-03 uses the Veggie plant growth facility to cultivate a type of cabbage, lettuce and mizuna which are harvested on-orbit with samples returned to Earth for testing.

  20. VEG-03 Consmption Harvest no. 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-11

    iss055e001536 (March 8, 2018) --- Expedition 55 Commander Anton Shkaplerov eats a piece of lettuce harvested as part of the ongoing space crop study VEG-03. The botany experiment uses the Veggie plant growth facility to cultivate a type of cabbage, lettuce and mizuna which are harvested on-orbit with some samples consumed by astronauts and others returned to Earth for testing.

  1. Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-04-23

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" (0.80) < "applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times" (0.83) < "applying common insecticides 14 times" (1.08). The treatment "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China.

  3. Analysis of Biomethanation Process from market waste to generate bio energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, S.; Parthiban, A.; Vinod kumar, T.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this study was to incur that the biogas production from traditional market wastes which were represented by cabbage stem and carrot peeling, white mustard were under taken in a laboratory experiment. To produce biogas, the raw material such as cabbage stem and carrot peeling, white mustard and carrot peeling were mixed until C/N ratio close 30:1. Inoculums starter cow dung is put into digester then water is added until 500 liters. The initial pH is measured at throughout the experiments. The anaerobic digestion process is conducted at temperature of 30ºC and the volumes, pH of the biogas yield were observed daily. Biogas yield and cumulative biogas, total solids were analyzed 35 days. The cumulative biogas yield at the 32th day of digestion for cabbage stem and carrot peeling (exp1), white mustard and carrot peeling (exp2) were 2140 liters and 2421 liters respectively. The highest daily biogas yield is achieved on the 22st day of digestion which is found 123 liters and 141 liters respectively. In the first 10 days, the pH level is observed decrease and increase after the day of 21. Although at the end of digestion period the pH will fall down.

  4. [Determination of emamectin benzoate residue in vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Yinliang; Hu, Jiye; Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Canping; Liu, Fengmao

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate residue in cabbage and mushroom using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. Further cleanup was performed on a propylsulfonic acid solid phase extraction cartridge, followed by the derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of N-methylimidazole. The amount of derivatized emamectin benzoate was determined by fluorescence detector after separation by HPLC. The detection limit was 0.10 microg/kg for cabbage and mushroom samples. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and mushroom samples were 78.6%-84.9%. The inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and intra-day RSD were 2.7%-6.0% and 3.1%-8.9%, respectively, at the fortified levels of 1.0-20.0 microg/kg. The calibration curve of emamectin benzoate in vegetables at the concentration range of 0.002 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L was linear (r = 0.9999).

  5. Harvest time residues of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in vegetables and soil in sugarcane-based intercropping systems.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navneet; Bhullar, Makhan S

    2015-05-01

    Terminal residues of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen applied in autumn sugarcane- and vegetables-based intercropping systems were analyzed in peas (Pisum sativum), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), garlic (Allium sativum), gobhi sarson (Brassica napus), and raya (Brassica juncea). The study was conducted in winter season in 2010-2011 and in 2011-2012 at Ludhiana, India. Pendimethalin at 0.56 kg and 0.75 kg ha(-1) was applied immediately after sowing of gobhi sarson, raya, peas, garlic, and 2 days before transplanting of cabbage seedlings. Oxyfluorfen at 0.17 kg and 0.23 kg ha(-1) was applied immediately after sowing of peas and garlic and 2 days before transplanting of cabbage seedlings intercropped in autumn sugarcane. Representative samples of these vegetables were collected at 75, 90, 100, and 165 days after application of herbicides and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with diode array detector for residues. The residue level of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in mature vegetables was found to be below the limit of quantification which is 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both the herbicides. The soil samples were collected at 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after the application of their herbicides. The residues of herbicides in soil samples were found to be below the detectability limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) after 60 days in case of pendimethalin and after 45 days in case of oxyfluorfen.

  6. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  7. Glucosinolates profile and antioxidant capacity of Romanian Brassica vegetables obtained by organic and conventional agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Vicas, Simona I; Teusdea, Alin C; Carbunar, Mihai; Socaci, Sonia A; Socaciu, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The profile of glucosinolates in relation to the antioxidant capacity of five Brassica vegetables (Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, White and Red Cabbage) grown by organic and conventional agricultural practices in Transylvania region-Romania, were determined and compared. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of glucosinolates were determined by HPLC-PDA technique. The antioxidant capacity was comparatively determined by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. The highest glucosinolates levels were found in the Broccoli samples grown under conventional practices (14.24 μmol/g dry weight), glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin and neo-glucobrassicin being the major components. The total glucosinolates content was similar in Kohlrabi and Cauliflower (4.89 and 4.84 μmol/g dry weight, respectively), the indolyl glucosinolates were predominant in Kohlrabi, while the aliphatic derivatives (sinigrin and glucoiberin) were major in Cauliflower. In Cabbage samples, the aliphatic glucosinolates were predominat against indolyl derivatives, glucoraphanin and glucoiberin being the main ones in Red Cabbage. The principal component analysis was applied to discriminate among conventional and organic samples and demonstrated non-overlaps between these two agricultural practices. Meanwhile it was shown that glucosinolates may represent appropriate molecular markers of Brassica vegetables, their antioxidant capacity being higher in organic crops, without significant differences among different Brassica varieties.

  8. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Conventional crops and organic amendments for Pb, Cd and Zn treatment at a severely contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Pichtel, J; Bradway, D J

    2008-03-01

    The ability of selected plants and amendments to treat Pb, Cd and Zn accumulations from a metalliferous waste disposal site was studied both in the greenhouse and field. Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), and a grass-legume mix (red fescue, Festuca rubra; ryegrass, Lolium perenne); and bean (Vicia faba) were grown in the greenhouse on blast furnace slag or baghouse dust amended with composted peat (CP). All plant species accumulated Pb, Cd and Zn to varying degrees. Total soil metal concentrations had a marked influence on plant uptake. Topdressing versus incorporating CP had a significant (p<0.05) effect on spinach and cabbage tissue metal concentrations. Soil Pb and Zn tended to shift towards less bioavailable forms after treatment with CP. Field plots were treated with CP, farmyard manure (FYM), or inorganic fertilizer. Dry matter production of spinach, cabbage and a grass-legume mix was greatest on either the CP or FYM treatments. Phytostabilization in combination with organic amendments may be the most appropriate technology to ensure stabilization of soil metals at this site.

  10. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  11. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New strategy for determination of anthocyanins, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Brassica oleracea liquid extract using infrared spectroscopies and multivariate regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Isadora R. N.; Roque, Jussara V.; Maia, Mariza P.; Stringheta, Paulo C.; Teófilo, Reinaldo F.

    2018-04-01

    A new method was developed to determine the antioxidant properties of red cabbage extract (Brassica oleracea) by mid (MID) and near (NIR) infrared spectroscopies and partial least squares (PLS) regression. A 70% (v/v) ethanolic extract of red cabbage was concentrated to 9° Brix and further diluted (12 to 100%) in water. The dilutions were used as external standards for the building of PLS models. For the first time, this strategy was applied for building multivariate regression models. Reference analyses and spectral data were obtained from diluted extracts. The determinate properties were total and monomeric anthocyanins, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity by ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. Ordered predictors selection (OPS) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used for feature selection before PLS regression (PLS-1). In addition, a PLS-2 regression was applied to all properties simultaneously. PLS-1 models provided more predictive models than did PLS-2 regression. PLS-OPS and PLS-GA models presented excellent prediction results with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.98. However, the best models were obtained using PLS and variable selection with the OPS algorithm and the models based on NIR spectra were considered more predictive for all properties. Then, these models provided a simple, rapid and accurate method for determination of red cabbage extract antioxidant properties and its suitability for use in the food industry.

  13. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L.; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore’s natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems. PMID:28030636

  14. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  15. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  16. Effect of Tea Saponin-Treated Host Plants on Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Larvae of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yixin; Bai, Yan; Cai, Hongjiao; Wei, Hui; Tian, Houjun; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Yong; Yang, Guang; Gu, Xiaojun; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2018-06-06

    Tea saponin (TS) is extracted from the seeds of the tea plant and is generally regarded as a safe compound that has insecticidal properties and can act synergistically with other compounds. In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared in midgut tissues of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The larvae were fed on three different host plants, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus Persi [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), or rape (Brassica campestris L. [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), that had been treated with TS. Higher SOD, POD, and CAT activities were found in DBM larvae fed on cabbage after LC20 (concentration that induced 20% larval mortality) or LC50 (concentration that induced 50% larval mortality) treatment than on the control. On rape, TS treatments led to lower SOD and CAT activities than in the control and to higher POD activities after 24 h. MDA content increased in larvae fed on rape but decreased in larvae fed on radish after 12 h. Our results indicated that DBM larvae are more susceptible to TS on rape than on cabbage and radish, suggesting that this treatment may be an economic and effective means of controlling DBM on rape.

  17. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  18. [Molecular cloning and characterization of BcMYBogu, a novel member of the MYB family involved in OguCMS in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jia-Shu; Ye, Wan-Zhi; Cui, Hui-Mei; Yu, Jian-Nong

    2007-05-01

    In the attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CMS. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) lines were obtained in Chinese cabbage after interspecific hybridization between Brassica. napus L. OguCMS and B. campestris ssp. chinensis followed by recurrent backcross with B. campestris ssp. chinensis as the pollen donor. The CMS lines were significantly characterized by the whitish anther and indehiscence of anther. The tapetal hypertrophy with excess vacuola-tion was the first observed defective soon after the tetrad stage, subsequently the microspores defected in pollen wall forma-tion, and later the cytoplasm detached from the exine wall and underwent degeneration. With aid of cDNA-AFLP and RACE approaches, we cloned the BcMYBogu(GenBank accession No: EF127861) in Chinese cabbage, which is premature expressed in early and middle stage floral buds of OguCMS lines, and predicted to encode a novel protein with a DNA binding domain: SH[AL]QKY[RF] motif at the N-terminus. Phylogenetic comparison revealed that the BcMYBogu was clustered with AtMYB32, AtMYB26 and AtMYB4, which were indicated to be involved in male sterility in Arabidopsis thaliana. The BcMYBogu transcript was detected in rosette leaves, floral buds and stems by RT-PCR analysis. Compared with the maintainer, the expression level of BcMYBogu was increased in these organs, especially in floral buds of OguCMS lines. Our investigation suggests that BcMYBogu is a new member of the MYB family involved in male sterility in Chinese cabbage.

  19. Analysis of triterpenoids and phytosterols in vegetables by thin-layer chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naumoska, Katerina; Vovk, Irena

    2015-02-13

    Three TLC methods were used for an initial screening of some common plant triterpenoids and phytosterols in cuticular wax extracts of different vegetables (zucchini, eggplant, tomato, red pepper, mangold, spinach, lettuce, white-colored radicchio di Castelfranco, raddichio Leonardo, white cabbage, red cabbage and savoy cabbage). The preliminary experiments showed that the studied vegetables are potential sources of triterpenoids and phytosterols. To identify the compounds present in the extracts with high certainty, the first TLC-MS(2) method was developed for the analysis of eight triterpenoids (lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, cycloartenol, cycloartenol acetate, lupeol acetate, lupenone and friedelin) and two phytosterols (β-sitosterol and stigmasterol). This method takes the advantages of: (1) a satisfactory separation of the target compounds; (2) their differentiation according to the band colors; and (3) the potential of their discrimination by the acquired first-order mass (MS) and product ion (MS(2)) spectra. Since the closely eluting compounds have complex and similar MS(2) spectra, distinguishing between them was possible by the proposed characteristic ions. Using a custom-built mass spectral library, the head to tail MS(2) spectra comparison of sample test solution zones and standard aided the compound identification. In addition to the molecular mass information, the developed atmospheric pressure chemical ionization method (APCI) in positive ion mode provided structural information, regarding the presence of functional group in the molecule. This approach resulted in many positively assigned compounds in the investigated vegetable waxes, from which more than a half are reported for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing copper thresholds for phytotoxicity and potential dietary toxicity in selected vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-E; Long, Xin-Xian; Ni, Wu-Zhong; Ye, Zhen-Qian; He, Zhen-Li; Stoffella, Peter J; Calvert, David V

    2002-11-01

    Copper pollution in soils is widespread, and its accumulation in crop products could pose a risk on human health. In this paper, bioavailability of added copper (Cu) and critical Cu concentrations in a vegetable garden soil was evaluated for Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), and celery (Apiumg graveolens L. var. dulce DC) based on human dietary toxicity. The availability of added Cu in the soil decreased with incubation time, and had minimal change after 10-12 weeks. After incubated for 12 weeks, about 60% of added Cu was not extractable by DTPA. The same crops were also grown in sand culture to determine their responses to solution Cu. Shoot growth was significantly inhibited at Cu concentrations above 10 mg kg(-1) in the solution or above 150 mg kg(-1) (DTPA-Cu) in the soil. The sensitivity of the crops to Cu toxicity differed among the three vegetable crops. Copper concentration in shoots and edible parts varied with Cu supply levels and type of the vegetables. Negative correlations (r=-0.90-0.99**) were noted between Cu concentration in shoots and fresh matter yields, but Cu concentrations in the edible parts were positively correlated with available and total Cu in the soil (r=0.91-0.99**). The critical tissue Cu concentrations at 10% shoot DM reduction were 19.4, 5.5, 30.9 mg kg(-1) for Chinese cabbage, pakchoi, and celery, respectively. Based on the threshold of human dietary toxicity for Cu (10 mg kg(-1)), the critical concentrations of total and available Cu in the soil were 430 and 269 mg kg(-1) for pakchoi, 608 and 313 mg kg(-1) for celery, and 835 and 339 mg kg(-1) for Chinese cabbage, respectively.

  1. Contrasting effects of landscape composition on crop yield mediated by specialist herbivores.

    PubMed

    Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo; Nault, Brian A; Poveda, Katja

    2018-04-01

    Landscape composition not only affects a variety of arthropod-mediated ecosystem services, but also disservices, such as herbivory by insect pests that may have negative effects on crop yield. Yet, little is known about how different habitats influence the dynamics of multiple herbivore species, and ultimately their collective impact on crop production. Using cabbage as a model system, we examined how landscape composition influenced the incidence of three specialist cruciferous pests (aphids, flea beetles, and leaf-feeding Lepidoptera), lepidopteran parasitoids, and crop yield across a gradient of landscape composition in New York, USA. We expected that landscapes with a higher proportion of cropland and lower habitat diversity would lead to an increase in pest pressure of the specialist herbivores and a reduction in crop yield. However, results indicated that neither greater cropland area nor lower landscape diversity influenced pest pressure or yield. Rather, pest pressure and yield were best explained by the presence of non-crop habitats (i.e., meadows) in the landscape. Specifically, cabbage was infested with fewer Lepidoptera in landscapes with a higher proportion of meadows likely resulting from increased parasitism. Conversely, cabbage was infested with more flea beetles and aphids as the proportion of meadows in the landscape increased, suggesting that these pests benefit from non-crop habitats. Furthermore, path analysis confirmed that these landscape-mediated effects on pest populations can have either positive or negative cascading effects on crop yield. Our findings illustrate how different pest species within the same cropping system show contrasting responses to landscape composition with respect to both the direction and spatial scale of the relationship. Such tradeoffs resulting from the complex interaction between multiple-pests, natural enemies, and landscape composition must be considered, if we are to manage landscapes for pest suppression

  2. BcMF11, a novel non-coding RNA gene from Brassica campestris, is required for pollen development and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiang-Hua; Cao, Jia-Shu; Wang, Cheng-Gang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : BcMF11 as a non-coding RNA gene has an essential role in pollen development, and might be useful for regulating the pollen fertility of crops by antisense RNA technology. We previously identified a 828-bp full-length cDNA of BcMF11, a novel pollen-specific non-coding mRNA-like gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino). However, little information is known about the function of BcMF11 in pollen development. To investigate its exact biological roles in pollen development, the BcMF11 cDNA was antisense inhibited in transgenic Chinese cabbage under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter BcA9 and a constitutive promoter CaMV 35S. Antisense RNA transgenic plants displayed decreasing expression of BcMF11 and showed distinct morphological defects. Pollen germination test in vitro and in vivo of the transgenic plants suggested that inhibition of BcMF11 decreased pollen germination efficiency and delayed the pollen tubes' extension in the style. Under scanning electron microscopy, many shrunken and collapsed pollen grains were detected in the antisense BcMF11 transgenic Chinese cabbage. Further cytological observation revealed abnormal pollen development process in transgenic plants, including delayed degradation of tapetum, asynchronous separation of microspore, and aborted development of pollen grain. These results suggest that BcMF11, as a non-coding RNA, plays an essential role in pollen development and male fertility.

  3. Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of vanadium(V) based on its catalytic effect on the reaction of DBM-arsenazo and potassium bromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-zhou; Zhang, Xiao-xia; Huang, Chong

    2008-03-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic-spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of trace vanadium(V), based on the catalytic effect of vanadium(V) on the oxidation of DBM-arsenazo by potassium bromate in 0.0138 mol l -1 phosphoric acid medium and at 100 °C in the presence of citric acid as activator. The absorbance is measured at 528 nm with the fixed-time method. The optimization of the operating conditions regarding concentrations of the reagents, temperature and interferences are also investigated. The working curve is linear over the concentration range 0-20 ng ml -1 of vanadium(V) with good precision and accuracy and the detection limit was down to 3.44 ng l -1. The relative standard deviation for a standard solution of 14 ng ml -1 is 0.28% ( n = 11). The apparent activity energies of the catalytic reaction and the non-catalytic reaction are 73.48, 113.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The proposed method proved highly sensitive, selective and relatively rapid for the assay of vanadium at low-level range of 0-20 ng ml -1 without any pre-concentration step. Thw method was applied to the determination of vanadium(V) in steels, rice, flour, cabbage, potato, fish, shrimp and tea samples with satisfactory results. The obtained results for the steel samples were excellent agreement with the standard reference values. The analytical results of the rice, flour, cabbage, potato, fish, shrimp and tea samples were excellent agreement with those of atomic absorption spectrometry. The recovery experiments have been made for the rice, flour, cabbage, potato, fish, shrimp and tea samples except the steels; excellent results were obtained. The relative standard deviations were over the range of 0.18-2.60% and the recoveries were over the range of 98.00-102.4%, respectively. The analytical results obtained were satisfactory.

  4. Passive Adsorption of Volatile Monoterpene in Pest Control: Aided by Proximity and Disrupted by Ozone.

    PubMed

    Mofikoya, Adedayo O; Kim, Tae Ho; Abd El-Raheem, Ahmed M; Blande, James D; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2017-11-08

    Plant volatiles mediate a range of interactions across and within trophic levels, including plant-plant interactions. Volatiles emitted by a plant may trigger physiological responses in neighboring plants or adhere to their surfaces, which, in turn, may affect the responses of the neighboring plant to herbivory. These volatiles are subject to chemical reactions during transport in air currents, especially in a polluted atmosphere. We conducted a field experiment to test for the adsorption of dispenser-released myrcene on the surfaces of cabbage plants and the effects of distance from the dispenser and elevated ozone levels (1.4× ambient) on the process. We also tested the effects of the same treatments on oviposition on cabbage plants by naturally occurring Plutella xylostella. Under low ambient ozone conditions of central Finland, there was evidence for the adsorption and re-release of myrcene by cabbage plants growing at a distance of 50 cm from myrcene dispensers. This effect was absent at elevated ozone levels. The number of eggs deposited by P. xylostella was generally lower in plots under elevated ozone compared to ambient control plots. Our results indicate that passive adsorption and re-release of a volatile monoterpene can occur in nature; however, this process is dependent upon the distance between emitter source and receiver plants as well as the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in the air. We conclude that, in the development of field-scale use of plant volatiles in modern pest control, the effects of distances and air pollution should be considered.

  5. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A.; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M.; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years. PMID:26544185

  6. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Hwang, Byung Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-10-24

    Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea . Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS) in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS) in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200), CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914) and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286), ST5b , ST5c , AOP2 , FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350) and GSL-OH (Bol033373) was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  7. Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices Determine the Rhizoctonia Anastomosis Groups Associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  8. Growth Performance and Biometric Characteristics of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Different Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), an important polyphagous insect pest, attacks ca. 300 economic crops in dozens of countries. Investigations into its growth and development performance on different host plants can provide an understanding of the potential for increase of S. litura population in the field. We measured the development time, body weight, and head capsule width of S. litura larvae reared on cabbage, taro, peanut, and sesbania, a green manure. Larvae reared on cabbage ingested a significantly higher amount of protein and completed the immature stages in a shorter period than those reared on the other three plants. The relationship between head capsule width and larval instars on these four crops fitted well with Dyar's rule, and the Dyar's ratios ranged from 1.4554 to 1.6786, although a few supernumerary instar individuals on sesbania, peanut, and taro showed lower ratios (1.0103 to 1.1330). The head capsule width among cohorts fed on different host plants varied significantly and overlapped between late instars, which could lead to a misjudgment of instar stage in the field. The growth index of S. litura on cabbage was significantly higher than on the other host plants. Larvae fed on sesbania showed the highest feeding index and a better growth index than on taro and peanut. We therefore suggest that the area-wide pest management against S. litura should take into consideration its occurrence on sesbania in intercropping seasons. Additionally, the effective management of this pest during cropping windows between all these four plants should not be ignored. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Nitric oxides and nitrous oxide fluxes from typical vegetables cropland in China: Effects of canopy, soil properties and field management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Lee, Xinqing; Fang, Shuangxi; Yuan, Juan; Huang, Daikuan

    In China, vegetable croplands are characterized by intensive fertilization and cultivation, which produce significant nitrogenous gases to the atmosphere. In this study, nitric oxides (NO X) and nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions from the croplands cultivated with three typical vegetables had been measured in Yangtze River Delta of China from September 2 to December 16, 2006. The NO fluxes varied in the ranges of 1.6-182.4, 1.4-2901 and 0.5-487 ng Nm -2 s -1 with averages of 33.8 ± 44.2, 360 ± 590 and 76 ± 112 (mean ± SD) ngNm -2 s -1 for cabbage, garlic, and radish fields ( n = 88), respectively. N 2O fluxes from the three vegetable fields were found to occur in pulses and significantly promoted by tillage with average values of 5.8, 8.8, and 4.3 ng Nm -2 h -1 for cabbage, garlic, and radish crops, respectively. Influence of vegetables canopy on the NO emission was investigated and quantified. It was found that on cloudy days the canopy can only shield NO emission from croplands soil while on sunny days it cannot only prevent NO emission but also assimilate NO through the open leaves stomas. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that soil temperature was the most important factor in controlling NO emission, followed by fertilizer amount and gravimetric soil water content. About 1.2%, 11.56% and 2.56% of applied fertilizers N were emitted as NO-N and N 2O-N from the cabbage, garlic and radish plots, respectively.

  10. Consumption of predefined 'Nordic' dietary items in ten European countries - an investigation in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Boll, Katja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie C; Cottet, Vanessa; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; von Ruesten, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Pala, Valeria; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Asli, Lene A; Amiano, Pilar; Jakszyn, Paula; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José M; Quirós, José R; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Lena M; Johansson, Ingegerd; Wirfält, Elisabet; Drake, Isabel; Mulligan, Angela A; Khaw, Kay T; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Key, Tim; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe. Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection. Multi-centre, European study. Persons (n 36 970) aged 35-74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants. The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries. Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.

  11. Survey of nitrate and nitrite contents of vegetables grown in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, S Y; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Hong, M K; Lee, J O; Kim, C M; Song, I S

    2003-07-01

    A scientific basis for the evaluation of the risk to public health arising from excessive dietary intake of nitrate in Korea is provided. The nitrate () and nitrite () contents of various vegetables (Chinese cabbage, radish, lettuce, spinach, soybean sprouts, onion, pumpkin, green onion, cucumber, potato, carrot, garlic, green pepper, cabbage and Allium tuberosum Roth known as Crown daisy) are reported. Six hundred samples of 15 vegetables cultivated during different seasons were analysed for nitrate and nitrite by ion chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, respectively. No significant variance in nitrate levels was found for most vegetables cultivated during the summer and winter harvests. The mean nitrates level was higher in A. tuberosum Roth (5150 mg kg(-1)) and spinach (4259 mg kg(-1)), intermediate in radish (1878 mg kg(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (1740 mg kg(-1)), and lower in onion (23 mg kg(-1)), soybean sprouts (56 mg kg(-1)) and green pepper (76 mg kg(-1)) compared with those in other vegetables. The average nitrite contents in various vegetables were about 0.6 mg kg(-1), and the values were not significantly different among most vegetables. It was observed that nitrate contents in vegetables varied depending on the type of vegetables and were similar to those in vegetables grown in other countries. From the results of our studies and other information from foreign sources, it can be concluded that it is not necessary to establish limits of nitrates contents of vegetables cultivated in Korea due to the co-presence of beneficial elements such as ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol which are known to inhibit the formation of nitrosamine.

  12. Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-06

    two key elements of the U.S.-led international order that has operated since World War II—the non- use of force or coercion as a means of settling...territorial claims in the SCS using the so-called map of the nine-dash line that appears to enclose an area covering roughly 90% of the SCS. Some observers...official has used the term “cabbage strategy” to refer to a strategy of consolidating control over disputed islands by wrapping those islands, like the

  13. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. KSC-2013-3564

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-09

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Several different types of 21-day-old plants grow in analog VEGGIE pillows include, from right, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, Bright Lights Swiss chard, Cherry Bomb II radish, Tokyo Bekana Chinese cabbage and Sugar Pod II snow pea. U.S. astronauts living and working aboard the International Space Station are going to receive a newly developed Vegetable Production System VEGGIE. VEGGIE is set to launch aboard SpaceX's Dragon capsule on NASA's third Commercial Resupply Services mission targeted to launch Dec. 9 from Space Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Photo credit: NASA/Gioia Massa

  15. Translations from Communist China’s MIN-TZU T’UAN-CHIEH (Nationality Solidarity) November and December 1959 and MIN-TZU YEN-CHIU (Nationality Research) November 1959.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-03-31

    communes came and organized col- lective living, the woman laughed and in large numbers escaped the en- cumbrance of stove and children and went to the...build your arbor, ■•-•’. = To wear- clothes ’first . spin your silkj’ • ;.,; ■■■"■■’■•’-’■■ iTo build socialism, first learn culture...now has 7$0 mou which is planted in bar- ley, oats, lucerne, millet and other grains and feeds; also beans, cabbage, celery, turnips, melons, and

  16. Robert H. Goddard and His Liquid-Gasoline Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Dr. Goddard's 1926 rocket configuration. Dr. Goddard's liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. It flew for only 2.5 seconds, climbed 41 feet, and landed 184 feet away in a cabbage patch. From 1930 to 1941, Dr. Goddard made substantial progress in the development of progressively larger rockets, which attained altitudes of 2400 meters, and refined his equipment for guidance and control, his techniques of welding, and his insulation, pumps, and other associated equipment. In many respects, Dr. Goddard laid the essential foundations of practical rocket technology

  17. Differences of cadmium absorption and accumulation in selected vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wu-Zhong; Yang, Xiao-E; Long, Xin-Xian

    2002-07-01

    A pot experiment and a sandy culture experiment grown with three vegetable crops of Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis L., cv. Zao-Shu 5), winter greens (B. var. rosularis Tsen et Lee, cv. Shang-Hai-Qing) and celery (A. graveolens L. var. dulce DC., cv. Qing-Qin) were conducted, respectively. The initial soil and four incubated soils with different extractable Cd (0.15, 0.89, 1.38, 1.84 and 2.30 mg Cd/kg soil) were used for the pot experiment. Five treatments were designed (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 mg Cd/L) in nutrient solution in the sandy culture experiment. Each treatment in pot and sandy culture experiments was trireplicated. The objectives of the study were to examine Cd accumulation in edible parts of selected vegetable crops, its correlation with Cd concentrations in vegetable garden soil or in nutrient solution, and evaluate the criteria of Cd pollution in vegetable garden soil and in nutrient solution based on the hygienic limit of Cd in vegetables. Cadmium concentrations in edible parts of the three selected vegetable crops were as follows: 0.01-0.15 mg/kg fresh weight for Chinese cabbage, 0.02-0.17 mg/kg fresh weight for winter greens, and 0.02-0.24 mg/kg fresh weight for celery in the pot experiment, and 0.1-0.4 mg/kg fresh weight for Chinese cabbage, 0.1-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight for winter greens, and 0.05-0.5 mg/kg fresh weight for celery in the pot experiment (except no-Cd treatment). The order of the three test vegetable crops for cadmium accumulation in the edible parts was celery > winter greens > Chinese cabbage in both the pot experiment and the sandy culture experiment. Cadmium accumulation in edible parts or roots of the vegetable crops increased with increasing of cadmium concentration in the medium (soil or nutrient solution). And cadmium concentrations in edible parts of the test vegetable crops were significantly linearly related to the Cd levels in the growth media (soil and nutrient solution). Based on the regression equations

  18. Veg-03 Pillows Preparation for Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    Inside a laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, 18 plant pillows for the Veg-03 experiment have been prepared for delivery to the International Space Station aboard the eighth SpaceX Dragon commercial resupply mission. The Veg-03 plant pillows will contain ‘Tokyo Bekana’ cabbage seeds and lettuce seeds for NASA’s third Veggie plant growth system experiment. The experiment will continue NASA’s deep space plant growth research to benefit the Earth and the agency’s journey to Mars.

  19. Rapid food decomposition by H2O2-H2SO4 for determination of total mercury by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zenebon, Odair; Sakuma, Alice M; Dovidauskas, Sergio; Okada, Isaura A; de, MaioFrancaD; Lichtig, Jaim

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of 50% H2O2-H2SO4 (3 + 1, v/v) was used for decomposition of food in open vessels at 80 degrees C. The treatment allowed rapid total mercury determination by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Cabbage, potatoes, peanuts paste, hazelnuts paste, oats, tomatoes and their derivatives, oysters, shrimps, prawns, shellfish, marine algae, and many kinds of fish were analyzed by the proposed methodology with a limit of quantitation of 0.86 +/- 0.08 microg/L mercury in the final solution. Reference materials tested also gave excellent recovery.

  20. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to measure the levels of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb) found in common vegetables (parsley, carrot, onion, lettuce, cucumber and green beans) grown in contaminated mining areas compared with those grown in reference clear area and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the daily metal intake (DImetal) and Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) for normal daily consumption of these vegetables, for male and female gender. Results Compared with the reference in contaminated areas, soil and plant contents of all analyzed metals are higher, usually over normally content for Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Particularly, in soil, higher values than intervention threshold values (ITV) were found for Cu and Pb and higher than maximum allowable limits (MAL) for Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for parsley roots and leaves, carrot roots, cabbage, lettuce and cucumber. DImetal and THQ values for male and female were calculated for each vegetable and metal and for which oral reference doses exist. The combined THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are usually below the safe level of THQ<1 for all vegetables grown in reference area. In contaminated Moldova Noua (M) area the combined THQ exceeded the safe level only for parsley roots, while in more contaminated Ruschita (R) area combined THQ exceeded the safe level for parsley and carrot roots, lettuce and cabbage. Cd and Pb, most toxic metals to humans, have an increasing prevalence in the combined THQ for leafy (cabbage and lettuce) and fruit vegetables (cucumber). In the root vegetables only Pb has an increasing prevalence in combined THQ values. In all areas female THQ is higher than male THQ. Conclusion The results of this study regarding metal contents in soils, vegetables, DImetal and THQ suggest that the consumption of some vegetables (especially parsley, carrot and cabbage and less for lettuce, cucumber and green beans) is not free of risks in these areas. The