Science.gov

Sample records for cabbage soup diet

  1. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (P< 0.001); this was independent of whether data on beverage or water consumption were included. Diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005, was significantly better in soup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P < 0.05 for all). However, it was also associated with a higher intake of Na (P < 0.001). The relationship between soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  2. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  3. How to make stone soup: Is the "Paleo diet" a missed opportunity for anthropologists?

    PubMed

    Chang, Melanie L; Nowell, April

    2016-09-01

    For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years.(2) Consumers can wear Paleo clothing, download Paleo shopping and exercise apps to their smartphones, order prepackaged Paleo food, prepare it using Paleo cooking implements, or expediently buy Paleo convenience foods from Paleodiet™ vending machines(3) and "Cultured Caveman" food trucks.(4) The Paleo diet is touted by movie stars, reality TV personalities, and professional athletes, including LeBron James and the entire Miami Dolphins NFL team.(5,6) Books with titles such as The Primal Blueprint,(7) Cavewomen Don't Get Fat,(8) and Paleo Perfected(9) (the latter by the stodgy America's Test Kitchen) are legion, and many are bestsellers.

  4. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  5. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  6. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Moose soup shigellosis in Alaska.

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, B D; Beller, M

    1994-01-01

    Following a community gathering held in early September 1991, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in Galena, Alaska. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine the cause of the outbreak. A case of gastroenteritis was defined as diarrhea or at least 2 other symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring in a Galena resident within a week of the gathering. Control subjects included asymptomatic residents who either resided with an affected person or were contacted by us during a telephone survey. Of 25 case-patients, 23 had attended the gathering compared with 33 of 58 controls. Among persons who attended the gathering and from whom we obtained a food consumption history, 17 of 19 case-patients and 11 of 22 controls ate moose soup. No other foods served at the gathering were associated with illness. Ten case-patients had culture-confirmed Shigella sonnei. Many pots of moose soup were served each day, and persons attended the gathering and ate moose soup on more than 1 day. Moose soup was prepared in private homes, allowed to cool, and usually served the same day. We identified 5 women who had prepared soup for the gathering and in whose homes at least 1 person had a gastrointestinal illness occur at the time of or shortly before soup preparation. This investigation suggests that eating contaminated moose soup at a community gathering led to an outbreak of shigellosis and highlights the risk of eating improperly prepared or stored foods at public gatherings. PMID:8048226

  8. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  9. Of Cabbages and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline

    This book contains a series of engaging activities that offer students a chance to explore acids and bases using the special indicator properties of red cabbage juice. The activities allow students to discover acids and bases through their own experiments and interpretations. The skills of observing, recording results, comparing, classifying,…

  10. Decoding the Assessment Alphabet Soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The number of assessment instruments that help physics instructors evaluate the conceptual learning of their students has grown over the last twenty years. Today, the number of tests that are available begin to look like an alphabet soup, FCI, MBT, TUG-K, CSE, CSM, CSEM, DIRECT, BEMA, LOCE, FMCE, SEMCO, etc. What can these assessment tests do for you that is different from what you regularly do? How do these tests differ from the tests and other assessments you already give in class? What is meant by formative and summative assessment and why should you care? What are some of the issues associated with giving one of these assessment tests? These are the questions that will be addressed in this talk.

  11. Primordial Evolution in the Finitary Process Soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görnerup, Olof; Crutchfield, James P.

    A general and basic model of primordial evolution—a soup of reacting finitary and discrete processes—is employed to identify and analyze fundamental mechanisms that generate and maintain complex structures in prebiotic systems. The processes—ɛ-machines as defined in computational mechanics—and their interaction networks both provide well defined notions of structure. This enables us to quantitatively demonstrate hierarchical self-organization in the soup in terms of complexity. We found that replicating processes evolve the strategy of successively building higher levels of organization by autocatalysis. Moreover, this is facilitated by local components that have low structural complexity, but high generality. In effect, the finitary process soup spontaneously evolves a selection pressure that favors such components. In light of the finitary process soup's generality, these results suggest a fundamental law of hierarchical systems: global complexity requires local simplicity.

  12. Early Childhood: From Soup to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Margaret, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provided are recipes (with accompanying questions and activities) designed to help teachers and parents as they explore science and cooking with children. Recipes include those for orange soup, orange milk shakes, and yogurt. (JN)

  13. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W; Jenkins, D J; Southgate, D A; Houston, H; James, W P

    1978-01-07

    Approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, and guar gum was added to the controlled basal diet of nineteen healthy volunteers. Faecal weight increased by 12% on bran, 69% on cabbage, 59% on carrot, 40% on apple, and 20% on guar gum. These changes in faecal weight were correlated with an increased intake of pentose-containing polysaccharides from the fibre. On the basal diet there were pronounced individual differences in faecal weight, and from these the response of subjects to the fibre preparations could be predicted. Addition of fibre shortened mean transit-time through the gut and significantly diluted an inert marker in the faeces. Diet-induced changes in colonic function may explain international differences in the prevalence of colonic disease, whilst personal variation in the response to dietary fibre may determine individual susceptibility to large-bowel disease within a community.

  14. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

  15. Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) mediates redox-sensitive amelioration of dyslipidemia and hepatic injury induced by exogenous cholesterol administration.

    PubMed

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2014-01-01

    The widely used culinary vegetable, red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. capitata f. rubra), of the Brassicaceae family contains biologically potent anthocyanins and a myriad of antioxidants. Previous studies have shown that the pharmacological effects of red cabbage in vivo are redox-sensitive. The present study explored whether red cabbage modulates various histopathological and biochemical parameters in rats administered with a cholesterol-rich diet (CRD). To this end, prolonged administration of a lyophilized-aqueous extract of red cabbage (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) significantly blunted the imbalances in lipids, liver enzymes and renal osmolytes induced by the CRD. The effects of red cabbage were compared to simvastatin (30 mg/kg body weight) treated rats. Estimation of malondialdehyde and non-protein sulfhydryls revealed robust antioxidant properties of red cabbage. Histopathological analysis of livers from rats administered with red cabbage showed marked inhibition in inflammatory and necrotic changes triggered by CRD. Similarly, in vitro studies using a 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescein-based assay showed that red cabbage conferred cytoprotective effects in cultured HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study discloses the potential therapeutic effects of red cabbage in dyslipidemia as well as hepatic injury, that is at least, partly mediated by its antioxidant properties.

  16. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed…

  18. Teaching Science. The Soup-Can Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents classroom science activities to illustrate concepts of inertia, linear momentum, and friction. Students or teachers conduct races down a slope, using cans containing soups varying in mass, mass distribution, and viscosity. Students predict outcomes, compare speeds, and identify variables affecting the results. (KDFB)

  19. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  20. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  1. Effect of a barley-vegetable soup on plasma carotenoids and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tullii, Domenico; Masciangelo, Simona; Gesuita, Rosaria; Skrami, Edlira; Brugè, Francesca; Silvestri, Sonia; Orlando, Patrick; Tiano, Luca; Ferretti, Gianna

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods that provide benefits beyond their traditional nutritional value have attracted much interest. Aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional and the functional properties of a frozen ready-to-eat soup containing barley and pigmented vegetables. Both glycaemic index and the glyceamic load of ready-to-eat soup were evaluated in vivo. Moreover the bioavailability of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and the effect on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were studied in 38 volunteers whose diet was supplemented for two weeks with a daily portion (250 g) of the ready-to-eat soup. Plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) and plasma total antioxidant capacity significantly increased after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in the levels of lipids (total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol) and of markers of lipid peroxidation (oxidized low density lipoprotein and lipid hydroperoxides) in plasma of all subjects. The glyceamic index of the product was 36, therefore it could be considered a low glyceamic index food. An accurate selection of vegetable foods results in a palatable and healthy product that provides benefits on plasma lipids and lipid peroxidation (Protocol number 211525). PMID:26236103

  2. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  3. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina; Norliana, Sarian; Yibadatihan, Simayi; Abdul-Kadir, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0–1.2%) and MSG (0–1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG. PMID:27356909

  4. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  5. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  6. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  7. [Development of a soup pasta based on the taste and nutritional requirements for aged people].

    PubMed

    Morales de León, J; Mercado Godinez, M P; Cecin Salomón, P

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this project was to elaborate a soup paste product based on cereal/leguminous mixture by cold extrusion method according to the preferences and limitations of the senescent population. Formulas were obtained by a computation food mixtures program; the limitations applied were: protein quantity and quality. Selected mixtures has to contain protein values over 13.2 g/100 g and a chemical assessment of leucine, lysine and methionine-cistein not lower than 75% of the FAO/OMS 1973 recommendations, because they are the limitant aminoacids of the amaranth, the wheat and the beans, respectively. Chemical, physical, microbiological, farinografics and sensorial tests were applied to evaluate the characteristics of the mixtures. The selected mixture was made up of: 70% wheat semolina (Triticum durum), 20% beans (Phaseoulus vulgaris L) and 10% amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus). The manufactured paste allowed 20% of the nutritional requirements of the elderly people of protein, carbohydrates, calcium, iron and vitamins A, B1 and C; it was highly accepted (95%) by the elderly people and was microbiologically stable for 12 weeks period at 25 degrees C and 55% RH in cellophane packages. We can conclude that the soup paste may be a vehicle to add substances and deficient nutriments to the habitual diet of the elderly people in our country.

  8. Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake.

    PubMed

    Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-11-01

    Consuming soup can enhance satiety and reduce energy intake. Little is known about the influence on energy intake and satiety of varying the form of soup by altering the blending of ingredients. We tested the effects on meal intake of consuming different forms of soup as a preload: broth and vegetables served separately, chunky vegetable soup, chunky-pureed vegetable soup, or pureed vegetable soup. Normal-weight men and women (n = 60) came to the laboratory for lunch once a week for 5 weeks. Each week, one of four compulsory preloads, or no preload, was consumed prior to lunch. A test meal was consumed ad libitum 15 min after the soup was served. Results showed that consuming soup significantly reduced test meal intake and total meal energy intake (preload + test meal) compared to having no soup. When soup was consumed, subjects reduced meal energy intake by 20% (134+/-25 kcal; 561+/-105 kJ). The type of soup had no significant effect on test meal intake or total meal energy intake. Consuming a preload of low-energy-dense soup, in a variety of forms, is one strategy for moderating energy intake in adults.

  9. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  10. Public Opinion Polls, Chicken Soup and Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phung

    2005-01-01

    Cooking and tasting chicken soup in three different pots of very different size serves to demonstrate that it is the absolute sample size that matters the most in determining the accuracy of the findings of the poll, not the relative sample size, i.e. the size of the sample in relation to its population.

  11. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation.

  12. Of Cabbages, Science Curriculums, and Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrowski, Bernard

    1984-01-01

    Uses examples related to a head of cabbage to discuss: (1) sensory development in children; (2) the integration of sensory and cognitive involvement; and (3) a child's mode of exploring and discovering. Also discusses why science curricula need to be organized around a paradigm that is holistic. (JN)

  13. Temperature Relationships in Eastern Skunk Cabbage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Barbara J.; Halkin, Sylvia L.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is presented in which students determine where metabolic heat is primarily generated in blooming eastern skunk cabbage ("Symplocarpus foetidus") plants. Students consider how color, shape, and orientation of spathes, and stage of flower maturation, may affect metabolic heat production and retention of both metabolic and solar…

  14. No soup for starters? Autotrophy and the origins of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Maden, B E

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, several alternatives to the classical prebiotic-soup model for the origin of life have been proposed. Among these, the theory of Wächtershäuser proposes that an archaic version of the autotrophic reductive citric acid cycle, driven by pyrite formation and contained on the resulting pyrite surface, was the earliest metabolic cycle, from which the central biosynthetic pathways arose, initially without enzymes or nucleic acids.

  15. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking.

  16. Cover crop mulch and weed management influence arthropod communities in strip-tilled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Alexandria; Brainard, Daniel C; Haramoto, Erin R; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2013-04-01

    Cover crop mulch and weeds create habitat complexity in agricultural fields that may influence arthropods. Under strip-tillage systems, planting rows are tilled and preestablished cover crops can remain between rows. In field experiments conducted in Michigan in 2010 and 2011, a preestablished oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop was allowed to grow between rows of strip-tilled cabbage and killed at 0, 9-14, or 21-27 d after transplanting (DAT). The effects of herbicide intensity and oat kill date on arthropods, weeds, and crop yield were examined. Two levels of herbicide intensity (low or high) were used to manipulate habitat vegetational complexity, with low weed management intensity resulting in more weeds, particularly in 2010. Oat kill date manipulated the amount of cover crop mulch on the soil surface. Later oat kill dates were associated with higher natural enemy abundance. Reduced herbicide intensity was associated with (1) lower abundance of several key cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.) pests, and (2) greater abundance of important natural enemy species. Habitats with both later oat kill dates and reduced herbicide intensity contained (1) fewer herbivores with chewing feeding guilds and more specialized diet breadths, and (2) greater abundance of active hunting natural enemies. Oats reduced cabbage yield when oat kill was delayed past 9-14 DAT. Yields were reduced under low herbicide intensity treatments in 2010 when weed pressure was greatest. We suspect that increased habitat complexity associated with oat mulches and reduced herbicide intensity enhances biological control in cabbage, although caution should be taken to avoid reducing yields or enhancing hyperparasitism.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is due to anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbage, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four ...

  18. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  19. Writing and Retelling Multiple Ethnographic Tales of a Soup Kitchen for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dana L.; Creswell, John W.; Olander, Lisa

    An ethnographic study narrated three tales about a soup kitchen for the homeless and the near-homeless. To provide a cultural, ethnographic analysis, and share fieldwork experiences the study began with realist and confessional tales. These two tales emerged from the initial writing and presenting of the soup kitchen ethnography to qualitative…

  20. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-04-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite.

  1. Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

  2. Story of Stone Soup: a recipe to improve health disparities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C

    2010-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development.

  3. Nonequilibrium quantum mechanics: A "hot quantum soup" of paramagnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scammell, H. D.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent measurements of the lifetime (decay width) of paramagnons in quantum antiferromagnet TlCuCl3, we investigate paramagnon decay in a heat bath and formulate an appropriate quantum theory. Our formulation can be split into two regimes: (i) a nonperturbative, "hot quantum soup" regime where the paramagnon width is comparable to its energy; (ii) a usual perturbative regime where the paramagnon width is significantly lower than its energy. Close to the Neel temperature, the paramagnon width becomes comparable to its energy and falls into the hot quantum soup regime. To describe this regime, we develop a new finite frequency, finite temperature technique for a nonlinear quantum field theory; the "golden rule of quantum kinetics." The formulation is generic and applicable to any three-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet in the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Specifically, we apply our results to TlCuCl3 and find agreement with experimental data. Additionally, we show that logarithmic running of the coupling constant in the upper critical dimension changes the commonly accepted picture of the quantum disordered and quantum critical regimes.

  4. Defining the Core Microbiome in Corals' Microbial Soup.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Agreda, Alejandra; Gates, Ruth D; Ainsworth, Tracy D

    2017-02-01

    Corals are considered one of the most complex microbial biospheres studied to date, hosting thousands of bacterial phylotypes in species-specific associations. There are, however, substantial knowledge gaps and challenges in understanding the functional significance of bacterial communities and bacterial symbioses of corals. The ubiquitous nature of some bacterial interactions has only recently been investigated and an accurate differentiation between the healthy (symbiotic) and unhealthy (dysbiotic) microbial state has not yet been determined. Here we review the complexity of the coral holobiont, coral microbiome diversity, and recently proposed bacterial symbioses of corals. We provide insight into coupling the core microbiome framework with community ecology principals, and draw on the theoretical insights from other complex systems, to build a framework to aid in deciphering ecologically significant microbes within a corals' microbial soup.

  5. Molecular identity of uncoupling proteins in thermogenic skunk cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Hida, Yamato; Mori, Hitoshi; Inaba, Takehito

    2008-12-01

    Thermogenic skunk cabbage has been reported to have two types of uncoupling protein (UCP), a typical 6-transmembrane (TM) SrUCPA and an atypical 5-TM SrUCPB. To verify further the role of SrUCPs in thermogenic skunk cabbage, we examined the molecular identity of SrUCPs in more detail. Both mRNA and genomic analyses supported the presence of SrUCPA, but not SrUCPB. Furthermore, SrUCP protein purified from spadix mitochondria was identified as SrUCPA by mass spectrometry. These results clearly indicate that SrUCPA is the major expressed UCP in skunk cabbage, and the presence of atypical SrUCPB is unlikely to be associated with thermogenesis of skunk cabbage.

  6. A Head for Science: Using Cabbage to Teach Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifting, Inez Fugate

    1988-01-01

    Using ordinary household items--vinegar, ammonia, and cabbage juice--teachers can demonstrate properties of acids, bases, and neutrals. Students are encouraged to discuss results and hypothesize about experiments. A guide to the project is provided. (JL)

  7. Kinetin and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, M. V.; Ralph, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of kinetin on starch and sugar levels and on 14CO2 and 32P-orthophosphate labeling patterns of floated Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) leaf discs were investigated. Kinetin caused gross starch degradation. Neutral sugars were depressed by 30 to 40% in leaf tissue treated with kinetin for 24 hours. 14CO2 labeling of leaf discs pretreated with kinetin for 24 hours showed increased radioactivity in chloroform-soluble material and most sugar phosphates, and a 35 to 40% decrease in radioactivity in the neutral sugars, glucose, sucrose, and fructose. Incorporation into ATP was increased by 40% by kinetin. 32P-Orthophosphate uptake was inhibited 30% by kinetin. When corrected for uptake, kinetin stimulated incorporation into chloroform-soluble material but had little effect on other cell fractions. These results indicate that kinetin mobilizes starch reserves and increases the flow of sugars required for the synthesis of lipids and structural materials in floated discs. Images PMID:16657661

  8. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  9. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  10. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

    PubMed

    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile.

  11. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  12. Nutrient changes and antinutrient contents of beniseed and beniseed soup during cooking using a Nigerian traditional method.

    PubMed

    Agiang, M A; Umoh, I B; Essien, A I; Eteng, M U

    2010-10-15

    Evaluations of the effect of prolong cooking on the nutrient and antinutrient composition ofbeniseed and beniseed soup were carried out in this study. Proximate, mineral, vitamin A and C and antinutrient compositions of raw beniseed (BS-R), beniseed boiled (BSB) for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and beniseed soup (BSS) cooked for the same intervals of time were assessed. Results of the proximate composition analyses showed that raw and boiled beniseed had lower moisture content (5.39-5.51%) than beniseed soups (10.06-15.20%). Nitrogen-free extract (total carbohydrates), fats and phosphorus contents were improved in both the boiled beniseed and beniseed soup while calcium and potassium were increased in the boiled seeds and soup samples respectively. Moisture (in the raw and boiled beniseed), ash, magnesium, zinc, iron contents in both the seed and soup were unchanged in all the samples. Vitamins A and C levels of both boiled beniseed and beniseed soup samples were reduced with increase in cooking time. Beniseed soup had higher protein contents than both the raw and boiled beniseed which decreased with increase in cooking time. Beniseed samples provided good sources of energy (572.97-666.05 kcal/100 g). Except for phytate, the levels of antinutrients tested were lower in the raw and boiled beniseed than in the soup samples which decreased with increase in cooking time. The results are discussed with reference to the effect of prolonged cooking on the nutrient requirements of consumers.

  13. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  14. Spatial Models of Prebiotic Evolution: Soup Before Pizza?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, István; Czárán, Tamás; Szabó, Péter; Károlyi, György; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2003-10-01

    The problem of information integration and resistance to the invasion of parasitic mutants in prebiotic replicator systems is a notorious issue of research on the origin of life. Almost all theoretical studies published so far have demonstrated that some kind of spatial structure is indispensable for the persistence and/or the parasite resistance of any feasible replicator system. Based on a detailed critical survey of spatial models on prebiotic information integration, we suggest a possible scenario for replicator system evolution leading to the emergence of the first protocells capable of independent life. We show that even the spatial versions of the hypercycle model are vulnerable to selfish parasites in heterogeneous habitats. Contrary, the metabolic system remains persistent and coexistent with its parasites both on heterogeneous surfaces and in chaotically mixing flowing media. Persistent metabolic parasites can be converted to metabolic cooperators, or they can gradually obtain replicase activity. Our simulations show that, once replicase activity emerged, a gradual and simultaneous evolutionary improvement of replicase functionality (speed and fidelity) and template efficiency is possible only on a surface that constrains the mobility of macromolecule replicators. Based on the results of the models reviewed, we suggest that open chaotic flows (`soup') and surface dynamics (`pizza') both played key roles in the sequence of evolutionary events ultimately concluding in the appearance of the first living cell on Earth.

  15. Methylmercury in dried shark fins and shark fin soup from American restaurants.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Deepthi; Baumann, Zofia; Abercrombie, Debra L; Chapman, Demian D; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-10-15

    Consumption of meat from large predatory sharks exposes human consumers to high levels of toxic monomethylmercury (MMHg). There also have been claims that shark fins, and hence the Asian delicacy shark fin soup, contain harmful levels of neurotoxic chemicals in combination with MMHg, although concentrations of MMHg in shark fins are unknown. We measured MMHg in dried, unprocessed fins (n=50) of 13 shark species that occur in the international trade of dried shark fins as well as 50 samples of shark fin soup prepared by restaurants from around the United States. Concentrations of MMHg in fins ranged from 9 to 1720 ng/g dry wt. MMHg in shark fin soup ranged from <0.01 to 34 ng/mL, with MMHg averaging 62 ± 7% of total Hg. The highest concentrations of MMHg and total Hg were observed in both fins and soup from large, high trophic level sharks such as hammerheads (Sphyrna spp.). Consumption of a 240 mL bowl of shark fin soup containing the average concentration of MMHg (4.6 ng/mL) would result in a dose of 1.1 μg MMHg, which is 16% of the U.S. EPA's reference dose (0.1 μg MMHg per 1 kg per day in adults) of 7.4 μg per day for a 74 kg person. If consumed, the soup containing the highest measured MMHg concentration would exceed the reference dose by 17%. While shark fin soup represents a potentially important source of MMHg to human consumers, other seafood products, particularly the flesh of apex marine predators, contain much higher MMHg concentrations and can result in substantially greater exposures of this contaminant for people.

  16. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  17. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim safety zone described in 33 CFR 165.171 will be enforced on August 18, 2013... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island...

  18. Degradation dynamics of chlorfenapyr residue in chili, cabbage and soil.

    PubMed

    Ditya, Papia; Das, S P; Sarkar, P K; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole group of insecticide, [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile]used as broad spectrum insecticide/acaricide to control whitefly, thrips, caterpillars, mites, leafminers, aphids, etc., chlorfenapyr 10% SC formulation was applied on chili and cabbage twice @ 75 and 100 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. Chlorfenapyr was dissipated in chili, cabbage and soil following the first-order kinetics (logC/C(0) = -kt). The half lives of chlorfenapyr in chili, cabbage and soil were varying from 2.93 to 2.96 days, 2.98 to 3.62 days and 4.06 to 4.36 days respectively, according to the application rate.

  19. Steady, dynamic and structural deformation (three interval thixotropy test) characteristics of gluten-free Tarhana soup prepared with different concentrations of quinoa flour.

    PubMed

    Demir, M Kürşat; Kutlu, Gözde; Yilmaz, Mustafa T

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease is among the most important health problems and the most important feature of this disease is its being the only lifelong food allergy. To overcome this problem, some gluten-free and starch based food products have been generally introduced to the market; however, these products are starch based with low nutritive value. Therefore, it is important to enrich such products for individuals who are obliged to be nourished by gluten-free diet. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with quinoa flour (QF) in the production of tarhana. The objective of this work was to investigate the steady shear, viscoelastic and deformation and recovery properties (applying three interval thixotropy test (3ITT)) of gluten-free tarhana soups prepared with different concentrations of QF (40%, 50%, and 60%). It was found that the soups fitted well (R(2)  > 0.99) Ostwald de Waele model and exhibited shear thinning behavior. Besides, elastic properties dominated the viscous properties. Although the maximum deformation and recovery were determined at 40% concentration level, minimum deformation and recovery properties were specified at 60% concentration level. The results suggest that QF can be used in gluten-free tarhana formulations to enhance rheological properties.

  20. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  1. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T; Artaev, Viatcheslav B; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-09-28

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms.

  2. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xueshu; Backman, Daniel; Lebedev, Albert T.; Artaev, Viatcheslav B.; Jiang, Liying; Ilag, Leopold L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms. PMID:26412575

  3. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... result by the number of hundredweight of damaged cabbage production. 14. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable....

  4. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... result by the number of hundredweight of damaged cabbage production. 14. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable....

  5. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... result by the number of hundredweight of damaged cabbage production. 14. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable....

  6. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... result by the number of hundredweight of damaged cabbage production. 14. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable....

  7. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... improper application of control measures; (5) Earthquake; (6) Volcanic eruption; or (7) Failure of the... result by the number of hundredweight of damaged cabbage production. 14. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable....

  8. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  9. Nitrogen loss in surface runoff from Chinese cabbage fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi-Yuan, Wu; Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, He-Si

    A growth period of Chinese cabbage included seedling, rosette, anterior folding, middle folding, and posterior folding stages. To investigate characteristic of surface runoff, evolution of various nitrogen (N) forms at different growth stages, and contribution of N loss during a whole growth period to environment, 10 simulated rainfalls were applied on Chinese cabbage planted in two 2 m 2 troughs (A and B), with two replicates. Troughs A and B were designed with slopes of 14° and 21°. Five simulated rainfalls were applied in each trough. Seedling and rosette stages were with rainfall intensities of 0.65 mm min -1 and folding stages were with 1.93 mm min -1, respectively. Fertilizers were applied at seedling and anterior folding stages at rate of 103 and 103 kg N ha -1, respectively. One rainfall event lasted for approximately 20 min. Conclusions were as follows: N loss mainly occurred at rosette stage and anterior folding stage. Nitrogen loss had a close relationship with runoff volume. Percentage of NH4+-N in TN had an ascending trend with growth of Chinese cabbage while percentage of NO3--N had a descending trend. Folding stages had more percentages of undissolved N than seedling and rosette stages. Lower slope was advantageous to the concentrations of TN, NO3--N, and NH4+-N and proportion of NO3--N. Based on the results, we need to pay more attention to the NO3--N pollution in Chinese cabbage filed at lower slope.

  10. Does boiling affect the bioaccessibility of selenium from cabbage?

    PubMed

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, J Fermín

    2015-08-15

    The bioaccessible selenium species from cabbage were studied using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) which establishes conditions that simulate the gastric and gastrointestinal phases of human digestion. Samples of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown in peat fortified with different concentrations of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were analysed, and several enzymes (pepsin, pancreatin and amylase) were used in the PBET. The effect of boiling before extraction was also assayed. Selenium speciation in the PBET extracts was determined using anionic exchange and LC-ICP/MS. The selenocompounds in the extracts were Se(IV), SeMet and, mostly, Se(VI) species. The results show that the activity of the enzymes increased the concentration of the selenocompounds slightly, although the use of amylase had no effect on the results. The PBET showed the concentration of inorganic selenium in the extracts from boiled cabbage decreased as much as 4-fold while the release of SeMet and its concentration increased (up to 6-fold), with respect to raw cabbage.

  11. [Nutritional evaluation of green plantain flour dehydrated soups. Starch in vitro digestibility].

    PubMed

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E

    2001-01-01

    Previous works have shown that green plantain flour (GPF) contains a considerable amount of resistant with similar effects to dietary fiber. In order to diversify the use of this fruit the purpose of present study was to formulate and elaborate powered, dehydrated, cream type soups with green plantain flour flavored with vegetables (onion, coriander and leak) which increase the dietary fiber content of the preparation. Green plantain was peeled, cut in medium size pieces and submerged in 0.1% citric acid solution. The dehydration process was forced air-drying (80 degrees C), followed by milling. The same procedure was applied to the flavoring vegetables. To obtain the cream type soups various formulations were tried containing 50-63% resistant starch, 11.7-12% dietary fiber 6.5-6.9% protein. The mineral content of the preparations is reported. Viscosity of 1:10 (w/v) soups was 630-670 cps. In vitro starch digestibility after 6 hours was 38% with porcine amylase, increasing to 48% if the enzyme was from bacterial origin, supporting previous results that suggest resistance to hydrolysis of green plantain (GP) starch granules. In conclusion this study diversifies the use of GP and suggests that dehydrated GPF soups due to their high dietary fiber, resistant starch content and to the slow starch hydrolysis may be used in special nutrition regimes.

  12. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  13. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich…

  14. [Synergistic effect and quantification of 5'-ribonucleotides in a chicken soup].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrezy, Carla; Sangronis, Elba

    2006-09-01

    The international and national regulation permits the addition of flavour enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosinic and guanilic acids and their fosfated salts (IMP or GMP, respectively) alone or combined to dehydrated mixtures of broths and soups in order to obtain a synergistic. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine, through a sensorial panel, the synergistic effect on the flavour of a dehydrated chicken soup to which flavour enhancers were added and (2) quantify the 5'-ribonucleotides in such matrix. The intensity of the chicken flavour was determined using a previously trained 6-member panel. The 5'-ribonucleotidos were determined using the HPLC technique. The results using the panel demonstrated that the combination of GMS, IMF and GMF used potentiates significantly (p < 0.05) the flavour of the dehydrated chicken soup, which allows the use of less quantity of them to obtain the same effect on the flavour. The chemical analysis of the 5'-ribonucleotidos in the dehydrated chicken soup reflected a percentage of recovery of 93.6% for MSG and 90.5% for IMF.

  15. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  16. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn.

  17. Effect of Thickener Type on the Rheological Properties of Hot Thickened Soups Suitable for Elderly People with Swallowing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2014-01-01

    Flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups for consumption by the elderly people with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) were investigated at a serving temperature of 60°C. In this study, sea mustard soup (SMS) and dried pollock soup (DPS), which have been widely known as favorable hot soups provided in a domestic hospitals and nursing homes for dysphagic patients, were thickened with four commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based food thickeners (coded A~D) marketed in Korea. Thickened soups prepared with different thickeners showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.15~0.21). Apparent viscosity (ηa,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G′), and loss modulus (G″) demonstrated differences in rheological behaviors between the XG-based thickeners. The magnitudes of G′ were much higher than those of G″ over the entire range of frequency (ω) with the high dependence on ω, showing the rheological behavior similar to a weak gel. In general, all rheological parameter values of thickened DPS samples were higher when compared to the thickened SMS samples. These results indicate that flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups containing commercial XG-based thickeners are strongly dependent on the type of thickener and soup. PMID:25580403

  18. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults.

  19. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  20. Dissipation of flubendiamide residues in/on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2013-02-01

    Residues of fubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide were estimated in cabbage and soil using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector. The initial deposits of flubendiamide residues on cabbage were found to be 0.16 and 0.31 μg g(-1) following two applications of flubendiamide 20 WG at 12.5 (standard dose) and 25 (double dose) g a.i. ha(-1) respectively at 10-days interval. The half-life values (t(1/2)) of flubendiamide on cabbage ranged from 3.4 to 3.6 days. When flubendiamide applied at both the standard and double dose, no detectable residues were found in cabbage and soil at harvest. Thus, a waiting period of 1.63 days was suggested for the safe consumption of flubendiamide-treated cabbage. These data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this pesticide on cabbage crops in India.

  1. A comparison of chilled and room temperature cabbage leaves in treating breast engorgement.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K L; Reiter, M; Schuster, D

    1995-09-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of chilled and room temperature green cabbage leaves in reducing the discomfort of breast engorgement in postpartum mothers. Twenty-eight lactating women with breast engorgement used chilled cabbage leaves on one breast and room-temperature cabbage leaves on the other for a two-hour period. Pre-treatment pain levels were compared with post-treatment levels for both conditions. There was no difference in the post-treatment ratings for the two treatments; mothers reported significantly less pain with both treatments. We concluded that it is not necessary to chill cabbage leaves before use.

  2. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  3. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  4. Bland diet

    MedlinePlus

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may also need a bland ...

  5. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  6. Video image processor on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP instrument is designed to obtain diffraction-limited digital images of the sun with high photometric accuracy. The Video Processor originated from the requirement to provide onboard real-time image processing, both to reduce the telemetry rate and to provide meaningful video displays of scientific data to the payload crew. This original concept has evolved into a versatile digital processing system with a multitude of other uses in the SOUP program. The central element in the Video Processor design is a 16-bit central processing unit based on 2900 family bipolar bit-slice devices. All arithmetic, logical and I/O operations are under control of microprograms, stored in programmable read-only memory and initiated by commands from the LSI-11. Several functions of the Video Processor are described, including interface to the High Rate Multiplexer downlink, cosmetic and scientific data processing, scan conversion for crew displays, focus and exposure testing, and use as ground support equipment.

  7. White Light Movies of the Solar Photosphere from the Soup Instrument on Space Lab 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    about 5 arc seconds. Movies temporally filtered to suppress the five minute oscillations show the motion moste clearly and allow an estimate of the...the motions from movies , we have utilized local correlation tracking to obtain quantitative information about the flow field perpendicular to the...AD-A280 884 June 16, 1994 Reprint WHITE-LIGHT MOVIES OF THE SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE FROM THE SOUP INSTRUMENT ON SPACE LAB 2 PE 61102F PR 2311 A.M.Title

  8. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C.

  9. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  10. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.

    PubMed

    Jung, D W; Hong, J H; Kim, K O

    2010-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were examined by descriptive analysis. Principle component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the beef soup samples and the attributes. In consumer testing, separate groups of consumers evaluated overall liking as well as the flavor intensities of beef, seasoning, and MSG. Partial least square regression was conducted to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer data. The samples containing GSH had stronger "beef flavor,"garlic flavor," and "green onion flavor" while the samples containing MSG had stronger "salty taste,"sweet taste,"MSG taste," and "potato flavor." The consumers preferred samples containing both GSH and MSG, which had higher perceived flavor intensities of beef, seasonings, MSG. This study indicates that GSH has potential as a flavor enhancer, but more tests in different food systems with additions of GSH at varying levels are required to elucidate its effectiveness as a flavor enhancer more clearly.

  11. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p < 0.05). Income was the only variable that remained associated with higher prevalence of food insecurity in the adjusted PR. Knowing the characteristics of soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  12. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals. PMID:28049996

  13. The Effects of the Habitual Consumption of Miso Soup on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Japanese Adults: A Cross-sectional Study of a Health Examination.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koji; Miyata, Kenji; Mohri, Masahiro; Origuchi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Hideo

    Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, ≥7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

  14. Decontamination of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage and cauliflower through household processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kar, Abhijit; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-04-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the residues of chlorantraniliprole on cabbage and cauliflower. Three applications of chlorantraniliprole at 10 days interval were made @ 9.25 and 18.50 g a.i. ha(-1). The samples of marketable size heads and curds of cabbage and cauliflower were collected at 0 and 1 day after the last application. QuEChERS sample preparation was used for the determination of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage heads and cauliflower curds. The residues of chlorantraniliprole were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photo diode array (PDA) detector and confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Washing of cabbage and cauliflower with tap water removed about 17%-40% of chlorantraniliprole residues. However, boiling removed 100% of chlorantraniliprole residues on cabbage and cauliflower in both the cases.

  15. Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-11-20

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops.

  16. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  17. Phenol removal by peroxidases extracted from Chinese cabbage root

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, H.I.; Jeong, Y.H.

    1995-12-31

    More than four million tons of Chinese cabbages are produced in Korea. Most of them are used as raw materials for Kimchi, but root parts of them are discarded as agricultural wastes. A trial for the application of agricultural waste to industrial waste water treatment was made as an effort to the efficient use of natural resources and to reduce water pollution problem simultaneously. Peroxidases of both solid and liquid phases were obtained from Chinese cabbage roots by using commercial juicer. The differences in peroxidase activity among the various cultivars of Chinese cabbages in Korea were little and electrophoretic patterns of various peroxidases will be discussed. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity will be discussed also. Since peroxidases are distributed into 66% in liquid (juice) and 34% in solid phase (pulp), enzymes from both phases were applied to investigate the enzymatic removal of phenol from waste water. After phenol solution at 150 ppm being reacted with liquid phase enzyme (1,800 unit/1) for 3 hours in a batch stirred reactor, 96% of phenol could be removed through polymerization and precipitation. Also, phenol could be removed from initial 120 ppm to final 5 ppm by applying solid phase enzyme in an air lift reactor (600 unit/1). Almost equivalent efficiencies of phenol removal were observed between two systems, even though only one third of the enzymes in batch stirred reactor was applied in air lift reactor. The possible reason for this phenomenon is because peroxidases exist as immobilized forms in solid phase.

  18. Supradural inflammatory soup in awake and freely moving rats induces facial allodynia that is blocked by putative immune modulators.

    PubMed

    Wieseler, Julie; Ellis, Amanda; McFadden, Andrew; Stone, Kendra; Brown, Kimberley; Cady, Sara; Bastos, Leandro F; Sprunger, David; Rezvani, Niloofar; Johnson, Kirk; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2017-03-16

    Facial allodynia is a migraine symptom that is generally considered to represent a pivotal point in migraine progression. Treatment before development of facial allodynia tends to be more successful than treatment afterwards. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of facial allodynia may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying migraine. Migraine facial allodynia is modeled by applying inflammatory soup (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2) over the dura. Whether glial and/or immune activation contributes to such pain is unknown. Here we tested if trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) glial and/or immune cells are activated following supradural inflammatory soup, and if putative glial/immune inhibitors suppress the consequent facial allodynia. Inflammatory soup was administered via bilateral indwelling supradural catheters in freely moving rats, inducing robust and reliable facial allodynia. Gene expression for microglial/macrophage activation markers, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α increased following inflammatory soup along with robust expression of facial allodynia. This provided the basis for pursuing studies of the behavioral effects of 3 diverse immunomodulatory drugs on facial allodynia. Pretreatment with either of two compounds broadly used as putative glial/immune inhibitors (minocycline, ibudilast) prevented the development of facial allodynia, as did treatment after supradural inflammatory soup but prior to the expression of facial allodynia. Lastly, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist (+)-naltrexone likewise blocked development of facial allodynia after supradural inflammatory soup. Taken together, these exploratory data support that activated glia and/or immune cells may drive the development of facial allodynia in response to supradural inflammatory soup in unanesthetized male rats.

  19. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... animal products The lacto vegetarian diet, which includes plant foods plus dairy products The lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, which includes both dairy products and eggs People who follow vegetarian diets can get ...

  20. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  1. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named “Bone Marrow (BM) Soup”, was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and “deactivated BM Soup” were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the ‘deactivated BM Soup’ was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies. PMID:26526154

  2. Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Monteiro, Sérgio; Padrão, Patrícia; Rocha, Ada; Abreu, Sandra; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Study background Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation. Methods Subjects were elderly and recruited from two public nursing homes (29 older adults, 79.7±8.9 years), and preschool children recruited from a public preschool (49 children, 4.5±1.3 years). This study took place in institutional lunchrooms. Through randomization and crossover, the subjects participated in two sensory evaluation sessions, on consecutive days, to assess perceived saltiness intensity (elderly sample) and liking (elderly and children samples) of a vegetable soup with baseline salt content and with a 30% salt reduction. Elderly rated perceived liking through a 10 cm visual analogue scale [‘like extremely’ (1) to ‘dislike extremely’ (10)] and children through a five-point facial scale [‘dislike very much’ (1) to ‘like very much’ (5)]. Results After 30% added salt reduction in vegetable soup, there were no significant differences in saltiness noted by the elderly (p=0.150), and in perceived liking by children (p=0.160) and elderly (p=0.860). Conclusions A 30% salt reduction in vegetable soup may be achieved without compromising perceived saltiness and liking in children and the elderly. PMID:25317121

  3. Altered transfer of heavy metals from soil to Chinese cabbage with film mulching.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-li; Yuan, Jin; Sheng, G Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The influence of film mulching on the migration of metals from soil to cabbage was investigated. Following a 50-day growth in field plots mulched or unmulched, root-zone soils and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) were sampled for metal analysis. Mulching slightly decreased the soil mobile (acid-extractable) Cd, but increased its transfer from root to the cabbage parts. As an essential element, Cu was readily transferred to the cabbage parts. While mulching decreased the soil mobile Zn, reduced soil pH resulted in its enhanced soil-to-root migration. This, however, did not increase the transfer of Zn within cabbage. Although mulching increased the soil mobile Pb by 200%, an increase in Pb in cabbage leaves but a decrease in stem result presumably from the enhanced foliar uptake of atmospheric Pb. This study suggests that mulching may promote the accumulation of toxic metals such as Cd and Pb in cabbage and therefore increase crop risks to human health.

  4. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges.

  5. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hong-Duck; Lim, Chae-Sung; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Sang-Ill

    2012-06-30

    The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  6. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  7. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Inducible cadmium binding complexes of cabbage and tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.; Trotter, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium complexes with apparent molecular weights of 10,000 were observed in aqueous extracts of Cd-treated cabbage (Brassica capitata L., cv. red danish) and tobacco (hybrid of Nicotiana glauca and N. langsdorffii) plants. The amount of complex (as Cd) recovered was found to be dependent on the concentration of the metal in the growth medium and the total time of exposure of plants to the metal. Induction of the complex at moderate levels of /sup 112/Cd exposure was monitored after labeling the complex with /sup 109/Cd in vitro. The constitutive nature of the ligand of the complex in cabbage and tobacco leaves was suggested when control plant extracts were exposed to /sup 109/Cd. Such extracts contained /sup 109/Cd, which eluted froom Sephadex G-50 in the region of Cd complex. Simultaneous labeling with /sup 112/Cd and /sup 35/S or /sup 32/P indicated that the complex contained sulfur but probably not phosphorus. The amount of /sup 35/S which eluted coincident with /sup 112/Cd complex increased during complex induction. No evidence was found for the presence of 10,000 molecular weight Cd complex in stem exudates (vascular sap) of Cd-treated plants. The results obtained are consistent with the presence in these tissues of a ligand which is both inducible and consitutive and binds Cd in mercaptide bonds. All of these properties and oters reported earlier, are characteristic of Cd-metallothionein formed in animals.

  9. Diet-boosting foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetable recipe ideas: Stir-fried broccoli over brown rice Collard greens with a fried egg Roasted beets ... with carrots and spinach Split pea soup Brown rice and pinto beans White bean salad with lemon ...

  10. Diet - full liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... ice cream. It also includes: Strained creamy soups Tea Juice Jell-O Milkshakes Pudding Popsicles You can ... O) Boost, Ensure, Resource, and other liquid supplements Tea or coffee with cream or milk and sugar ...

  11. Water in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the water is made during the process of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, milk, tea, coffee, soda, drinking water, and juices. Alcohol is not a good source of water because ...

  12. A comparison of chilled cabbage leaves and chilled gelpaks in reducing breast engorgement.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K L

    1995-03-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of chilled green cabbage leaves and chilled gelpaks in reducing breast engorgement in postpartum mothers. Thirty-four lactating women with breast engorgement used chilled cabbage leaves on one breast and chilled gelpaks on the other for up to eight hours. Their pain levels were established pre-treatment and compared post-treatment for both conditions. There was no difference in the post-treatment ratings for the two treatments. Mothers reported a statistically significant drop in pain with both treatments; 68 percent obtained relief within one to two hours. The majority of mothers preferred the cabbage leaves.

  13. Interactive Effects of Cabbage Aphid and Caterpillar Herbivory on Transcription of Plant Genes Associated with Phytohormonal Signalling in Wild Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yehua; Dicke, Marcel; Kroes, Anneke; Liu, Wen; Gols, Rieta

    2016-08-01

    Plants are commonly attacked by a variety of insect herbivores and have developed specific defenses against different types of attackers. At the molecular level, herbivore-specific signalling pathways are activated by plants in response to attackers with different feeding strategies. Feeding by leaf-chewing herbivores predominantly activates jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defenses, whereas feeding by phloem-sucking herbivores generally activates salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defenses. When challenged sequentially by both phloem-sucking and leaf-chewing herbivores, SA-JA antagonism may constrain the plant's ability to timely and adequately divert defense to the second herbivore that requires activation of a different defensive pathway. We investigated the effect of the temporal sequence of infestation by the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and three caterpillar species, Plutella xylostella, Pieris brassicae, and Mamestra brassicae, on the interaction between JA and SA signal-transduction pathways in three wild cabbage populations. We found no support for SA-JA antagonism, irrespective of the temporal sequence of herbivore introduction or the identity of the caterpillar species based on the transcript levels of the JA- and SA-regulated marker genes LOX and PR-1, respectively, at the examined time points, 6, 24, and 48 h. In general, infestation with aphids alone had little effect on the transcript levels of the two marker genes, whereas the three caterpillar species upregulated not only LOX but also PR-1. Transcriptional changes were different for plants from the three different natural cabbage populations.

  14. Notes from the field: Botulism caused by consumption of commercially produced potato soups stored improperly--Ohio and Georgia, 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-07-08

    In January and April 2011, CDC provided antitoxin for treatment of two persons with toxin type A botulism associated with consumption of potato soup produced by two companies. On January 28, 2011, an Ohio resident, aged 29 years, was hospitalized after 5 days of progressive dizziness, blurred vision, dysphagia, and difficulty breathing. The patient required mechanical ventilation and botulism antitoxin. On January 18, he had tasted potato soup from a bulging plastic container, noted a bad taste, and discarded the remainder. The soup had been purchased on December 7, 2010, from the refrigerated section of a local grocer, but it had been kept unrefrigerated for 42 days. He was hospitalized for 57 days and then was transferred with residual weakness to a rehabilitation facility.

  15. A solar magnetic and velocity field measurement system for Spacelab 2: The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) flew on the shuttle mission Spacelab 2 (STS-51F) in August, 1985, and collected historic solar observations. SOUP is the only solar telescope on either a spacecraft or balloon which has delivered long sequences of diffraction-limited images. These movies led to several discoveries about the solar atmosphere which were published in the scientific journals. After Spacelab 2, reflights were planned on the shuttle Sunlab mission, which was cancelled after the Challenger disaster, and on a balloon flights, which were also cancelled for funding reasons. In the meantime, the instrument was used in a productive program of ground-based observing, which collected excellent scientific data and served as instrument tests. Given here is an overview of the history of the SOUP program, the scientific discoveries, and the instrument design and performance.

  16. The Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP) used for DBS plan analysis at RARC '83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the history, functions, and usage of the program that was used to analyze the plans for direct broadcast satellite service developed in the course of the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference for ITU Region 2. Given the requirements for direct broadcast service by the administrations, the conference delegates (1) developed the appropriate technical parameters; (2) made tentative assignments to the orbit locations, frequencies, and polarizations of space stations, (3) calculated the interferences and margins of such assignments through the use of the Spectrum Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP); and (4) iterated this procedure until an acceptable plan was found.

  17. Characteristics of a cream of cheese with bacon frozen soup concentrate.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Holmes, Z A; Soeldner, A

    1981-08-01

    The starch granules of both Purity W, a modified waxy cornstarch, and wheat flour were affected by processing, refrigeration, freezing, and reheating. The major change in starch granules shown by scanning electron micrographs was the trend towards greater deformation of the starch granule and, apparently, subsequent greater homogeneity of the mixture. Sensory evaluation revealed a statistically significant difference (p of less than 0.05) only in overall acceptability of the fresh vs. the frozen soup. The other quality characteristics of texture acceptability, consistency, and syneresis were not statistically (p of less than 0.05) different.

  18. Spectrum orbit utilization program technical manual SOUP5 Version 3.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J.; Ottey, H. R.; Sawitz, P.; Zusman, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying engineering and mathematical models as well as the computational methods used by the SOUP5 analysis programs, which are part of the R2BCSAT-83 Broadcast Satellite Computational System, are described. Included are the algorithms used to calculate the technical parameters and references to the relevant technical literature. The system provides the following capabilities: requirements file maintenance, data base maintenance, elliptical satellite beam fitting to service areas, plan synthesis from specified requirements, plan analysis, and report generation/query. Each of these functions are briefly described.

  19. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  20. Cabbage leaves vs hot and cold compresses in the treatment of breast engorgement.

    PubMed

    Arora, Smriti; Vatsa, Manju; Dadhwal, Vatsla

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cold cabbage leaves and alternate hot and cold compresses in decreasing breast engorgement and pain in post-natal mothers admitted in AIIMS, New Delhi.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Tong-Kun; Duan, Wei-Ke; Ma, Qing-Hua; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ying; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The GRAS gene family is one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators. In this study, 48 GRAS genes are identified from Chinese cabbage, and they are classified into eight groups according to the classification of Arabidopsis. The characterization, classification, gene structure and phylogenetic construction of GRAS proteins are performed. Distribution mapping shows that GRAS proteins are nonrandomly localized in 10 chromosomes. Fifty-five orthologous gene pairs are shared by Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, and interaction networks of these orthologous genes are constructed. The expansion of GRAS genes in Chinese cabbage results from genome triplication. Among the 17 species examined, 14 higher plants carry the GRAS genes, whereas two lower plants and one fungi species do not. Furthermore, the expression patterns of GRAS genes exhibit differences in three tissues based on RNA-seq data. Taken together, this comprehensive analysis will provide rich resources for studying GRAS protein functions in Chinese cabbage.

  2. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress.

  3. Competitive adsorption of metals on cabbage waste from multi-metal solutions.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Vigneswaran, S; Nguyen, T V

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the adsorption capacity of the agro-waste 'cabbage' as a biosorbent in single, binary, ternary and quaternary sorption systems with Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Dried and ground powder of cabbage waste (CW) was used for the sorption of metals ions. Carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amine groups in cabbage waste were found to be the key functional groups for metal sorption. The adsorption isotherms obtained could be well fitted to both the mono- and multi-metal models. In the competitive adsorption systems, cabbage waste adsorbed larger amount of Pb(II) than the other three metals. However, the presence of the competing ions suppressed the sorption of the target metal ions. Except the case of binary system of Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Cd(II)-Cu(II), there was a linear inverse dependency between the sorption capacities and number of different types of competitive metal ions.

  4. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%.

  5. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  6. Oviposition preference, larval performance and adaptation of Trichoplusia ni on cabbage and cotton.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Xi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Most female herbivores ensure to lay eggs where their offspring can develop successfully. The oviposition preferences of females affect strategies in pest management. In this study, the performance of two cohorts of Trichoplusia ni larvae on cabbage and cotton (after they had been transferred from their original host plants) were investigated. The preferences of female moth ovipositing and larval feeding on these two host plants were observed. The results indicated that plants significantly affected oviposition preference of the female adults and development and survival of larvae of T. ni. All females preferred to lay eggs on cabbage than cotton regardless from which host they originated. The detrimental effects of cotton on the development and survival of T. ni larvae originated from cabbage (CaTn) increased with the increase of the larval age when they were transferred. In addition, the host plant change did not significantly affect the development and survival of larvae of T. ni originating from cotton (CoTn). Larvae of CaTn preferred cabbage plants as compared to cotton plants, whereas larvae of CoTn did not show a significant choice. Although the adult females preferred laying eggs on cabbage, they did not show preferences between cotton and cabbage in a Y-tube olfactometer test. The hypothesis of oviposition preference and performance of larvae was supported by the results of CaTn, whereas they not supported by those from CoTn. Based on these results, the strategy to manage this serious pest was discussed.

  7. High Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution of Thallium in Green Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Ning, Zengping; He, Libin; Xiao, Tangfu; Márton, László

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of thallium (Tl) in brassicaceous crops is widely known, but both the uptake extents of Tl by the individual cultivars of green cabbage and the distribution of Tl in the tissues of green cabbage are not well understood. Five commonly available cultivars of green cabbage grown in the Tl-spiked pot-culture trials were studied for the uptake extent and subcellular distribution of Tl. The results showed that all the trial cultivars mainly concentrated Tl in the leaves (101∼192 mg/kg, DW) rather than in the roots or stems, with no significant differences among cultivars (p = 0.455). Tl accumulation in the leaves revealed obvious subcellular fractionation: cell cytosol and vacuole > cell wall > cell organelles. The majority (∼ 88%) of leaf-Tl was found to be in the fraction of cytosol and vacuole, which also served as the major storage site for other major elements such as Ca and Mg. This specific subcellular fractionation of Tl appeared to enable green cabbage to avoid Tl damage to its vital organelles and to help green cabbage tolerate and detoxify Tl. This study demonstrated that all the five green cabbage cultivars show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of Tl-contaminated soils.

  8. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanhao; Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Cabbage-like NaInS2 microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO3)3 with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS2 architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin genes (AQPs) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Zhong, Xinmin; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Guo, Weiling; Huang, Xiaoyun

    2014-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are members of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins and play a significant role in the transportation of small molecules across membranes. However, currently little is known about the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify the AQP genes in Chinese cabbage. In total, 53 non-redundant AQP genes were identified that were located on all of the 10 chromosomes. The number of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was greater than in Arabidopsis. They were classified into four subfamilies, including PIP, TIP, NIP, and SIP. Thirty-three groups of AQP orthologous genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, but orthologs corresponding to AtNIP1;1 and AtPIP2;8 were not detected. Seventeen groups of paralogous genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. Three-dimensional models of the AQPs of Chinese cabbage were constructed using Phyre2, and ar/R selectivity filters were analyzed comparatively between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. Generally, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily, especially in the SIP subfamily. Intron loss events have occurred during the evolution of the PIP, TIP, and NIP subfamilies. The expression of AQP genes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed in different organs. Most AQP genes were downregulated in response to salt stress. This work shows that the AQP genes of Chinese cabbage have undergone triplication and subsequent biased gene loss.

  10. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods.

  11. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... eat certain foods. Some of these foods are onions, garlic, broccoli, asparagus, cabbage, fish, some cheeses, eggs, ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  12. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants.

  13. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  14. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (∼60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage.

  15. Titan's primordial soup: formation of amino acids via low-temperature hydrolysis of tholins.

    PubMed

    Neish, Catherine D; Somogyi, Arpád; Smith, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 + or - 1 K and 293 + or - 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  16. Titan's Primordial Soup: Formation of Amino Acids via Low-Temperature Hydrolysis of Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, Árpád; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-04-01

    Titan organic haze analogues, or "tholins," produce biomolecules when hydrolyzed at low temperature over long timescales. By using a combination of high-resolution mass spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation techniques, four amino acids were identified in a tholin sample that had been hydrolyzed in a 13 wt % ammonia-water solution at 253 ± 1 K and 293 ± 1 K for 1 year. These four species have been assigned as the amino acids asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid. This represents the first detection of biologically relevant molecules created under conditions thought to be similar to those found in impact melt pools and cryolavas on Titan, which are at a stage of chemical evolution not unlike the "primordial soup" of the early Earth. Future missions to Titan should therefore carry instrumentation capable of, but certainly not limited to, detecting amino acids and other prebiotic molecules on Titan's surface.

  17. Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing.

    PubMed

    Gachovska, Tanya; Cassada, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Hanna, Milford; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Snow, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using water as a solvent. Mashed cabbage was placed in a batch treatment chamber and subjected to PEF (2.5 kV/cm electric field strength; 15 micros pulse width and 50 pulses, specific energy 15.63 J/g). Extracted anthocyanin concentrations (16 to 889 microg/mL) were determined using HPLC. Heat and light stabilities of the control and PEF-treated samples, having approximately the same initial concentrations, were studied. PEF treatments enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times with a higher proportion of nonacylated forms than the control (P < 0.05). The heat and light stabilities of the PEF-treated samples and control samples were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Practical Application: An innovative pretreatment technology, pulsed electric field processing, enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times. Manufacturers of natural colors can use this technology to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage efficiently.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  20. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-04-29

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage.

  1. Genes associated with agronomic traits in non-heading Chinese cabbage identified by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genomes of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis), heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and their close relative Arabidopsis thaliana have provided important resources for studying the evolution and genetic improvement of cruciferous plants. Natural growing conditions present these plants with a variety of physiological challenges for which they have a repertoire of genes that ensure adaptability and normal growth. We investigated the differential expressions of genes that control adaptability and development in plants growing in the natural environment to study underlying mechanisms of their expression. Results Using digital gene expression tag profiling, we constructed an expression profile to identify genes related to important agronomic traits under natural growing conditions. Among three non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars, we found thousands of genes that exhibited significant differences in expression levels at five developmental stages. Through comparative analysis and previous reports, we identified several candidate genes associated with late flowering, cold tolerance, self-incompatibility, and leaf color. Two genes related to cold tolerance were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions We identified a large number of genes associated with important agronomic traits of non-heading Chinese cabbage. This analysis will provide a wealth of resources for molecular-assisted breeding of cabbage. The raw data and detailed results of this analysis are available at the website http://nhccdata.njau.edu.cn. PMID:24655567

  2. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  3. Development of non-destructive quality measurement technique for cabbage seed (Brassica campestris L) using hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cabbage (Brassica campestris L) is an important crop for Asian countries especially in Korea, Japan and China. In order to achieve uniform and high-yield rate of cabbage product, the seed lot quality needs to be controlled. Non-destructive evaluation of seed viability is an important technique for i...

  4. Use of heat stress responsive gene expression levels for early selection of heat tolerant cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Chulwook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-06-04

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), "HO", and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), "JK", by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  5. Differing Behavioural Responses of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED to Cabbage Damaged by Conspecifics and Heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hailong; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest with an extensive host range. Previous research has shown that B. tabaci is a species complex with many cryptic species or biotypes and that the two most important species are MEAM1 (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and MED (Mediterranean genetic group). MEAM1 and MED are known to differ in their preference for cabbage, Brassica oleracea, as a host plant, however, the mechanism underlying this preference is unknown. In the current study, a host choice experiment showed that MED prefers to settle and oviposit on undamaged cabbage plants rather than MED-damaged cabbage plants. However, MEAM1 prefers MED-damaged cabbage plants to undamaged plants and does not exhibit a significant preference for undamaged or MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants. On the basis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the following volatiles were released in larger quantities from Q-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants: 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, benzenemethanol, (E)-2-decenol, benzaldehyde, nonanal, acetic acid geraniol ester, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, decane, and α-longipinene. Only one volatile, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, was released in greater quantities from MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants. Our results suggest that differences in herbivore-induced host volatile release may help explain the differences between the preference of B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED for cabbage as a host. PMID:27731417

  6. Radionuclide concentration in cabbage samples due to gamma radiation in Samsun, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altıkulaç, Aydan; Gümüş, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    Establishing of radioactivity planes in foodstuff has emphasis because it allows the evaluation of population exposure to radiation by take nourishment. In this paper, the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined in cabbage samples collected from Samsun city of Turkey using a gamma ray spectrometry method with a HPGe detector. The mean concentration value of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in cabbage samples were 1.11±0.03 Bqkg-1, 1.44±0.04 Bqkg-1, 743.75±21.21 Bqkg-1 and 0.18±0.003 Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated total annual effective dose received from 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs due to cabbage samples by population of Samsun province was quite lower than the World average value as suggested by UNSCEAR.

  7. Persistence of fipronil and its risk assessment on cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Kumar, Rajinder; Kaur, Sarabjit; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Mandal, Kousik; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-05-01

    Persistence of fipronil in cabbage was studied following three applications of Jump 80 WG at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) at 7 day interval. The average initial deposits of total fipronil (fipronil and its metabolites) were 1.226 and 2.704 mg kg(-1) on the heads following 3rd application of fipronil at single and double the dosages, respectively. Desulfinyl was found to be the main metabolite followed by sulfone and sulfide. Metabolite amide was not detected in cabbage samples. Half-life periods for fipronil were found to be 3.43 and 3.21 day at single and double the application rates, respectively. Risk assessment of fipronil to the consumers was calculated on the basis of per capita 80 g consumption of cabbage and comparing it to its ADI for an adult of 55 kg which was found to be less than its ADI on 10th day at both the dosages.

  8. [Comparison of time, material and preparation costs as well as nutritive value of conventionally prepared soups and sauces and corresponding "convenience foods"].

    PubMed

    Güthe-Hausmann, M; Wirths, W

    1976-12-01

    In a survey the food and labour costs arising in connection with the preparation in feeding centers - with about a thousand dinners - of conventionally cooked soups and sauces and corresponding convenience food were determined. For soups food costs are lower for convenience food than for conventionally prepared soups. Regarding the sauces, the costs of one of the two preparation manners is not definetely more favourable than the other one. The cost scheme will shift to the disadvantage of convenience food whenever it has to be modified in default of a comparable product, as for instance in the case of béchamel-sauce and horse-radish sauce. Considering the factor time, convenience food will be unambiguously superior to conventionally cooked soups and sauces. The preparation of convenience soups takes only between one fifth and one eighth of the necessary time for the preparation of conventionally, of sauces only between one sixth and one twelfth of the required time. Soups and sauces made out of convenience food have a lower energy content than the conventionally cooked ones.

  9. Self-assembled cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures with efficient visible light photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yuanhao Zhai, Xuezhen; Zhang, Yange; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Pinjiang; Zheng, Zhi

    2013-07-15

    Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures have been synthesized by reacting In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with the alkaline sulfur aqueous solution of NaOH in a simple hydrothermal process without any shape-directing surfactants. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures are monodispersed in large quantities. The cabbage-like morphologies depend strongly on the different ratios of S powder to NaOH, the reaction temperature and reaction time. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures is discussed. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the photocatalytic superiority of the cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures is mainly due to their special surface areas and inner interconnected structural features. - Graphical abstract: Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures were facilely synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures exhibit the superiority of photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of RhB irradiation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} microstructures were facilely synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction. • Influencing parameters on the NaInS{sub 2} morphologies have been discussed in detail. • The cabbage-like NaInS{sub 2} architectures hold efficient photocatalytic performance. • The photocatalytic superiority is mainly due to their special structural features.

  10. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm) and visible (401-650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E) was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  11. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Pang, Wenxing; Kim, Yoon-Young; Li, Xiaonan; Choi, Su Ryun; Wang, Yunbo; Sung, Chang-Keun; Im, Subin; Ramchiary, Nirala; Zhou, Guangsheng; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

  12. Comparison of Photomorphogenic Responses to UV Light in Red and White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Lercari, Bartolomeo; Sodi, Francesco; Sbrana, Cristiana

    1989-01-01

    Photoinhibition of hypocotyl growth in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., cv “Bianco Brunswick”) is controlled by UV absorbing receptor(s) and the phytochrome system, while in red cabbage (cv “Rosso Olandese tardivo invernale”) phytochrome can act without any requirement for the action of a specific UV receptor. Similar results have been obtained for the photoregulation of anthocyanin production. Twenty-four hour preirradiations with UV light or 692 nanometers light lead to the same increase in responsiveness of the system toward Pfr in a following dark period, suggesting a phytochrome promotion of subsequent light induction for both. PMID:16666761

  13. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  14. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  15. Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche

    SciTech Connect

    Samoilov, Yu.B.

    1986-05-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously.

  16. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... as soups, Jell-O, fruit-flavored ice pops, ice cream, grapes, melons, lettuce, tomatoes, and celery. Use smaller cups or glasses and turn over your cup after you have finished it. ... some juice in an ice cube tray and eat it like a popsicle ( ...

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  18. Genome-wide identification, classification, and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-03-27

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research.

  19. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Hao, Chen; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial populations, Hunter's color values (L*, a*, b*) and the sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, in order to use it as space food. Microorganisms were not detected in non-irradiated freeze-dried miyeokguk within the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/g. However, the microbial population in rehydrated miyeokguk was 7.01 log CFU/g after incubation at 35 °C for 48 h, indicating that freeze-dried miyeokguk was not sterilized by heat treatment during the preparation process. Bacteria in the freeze-dried miyeokguk were tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Ancinetobacter genomosp. using the 16S rDNA sequencing. In samples that were gamma-irradiated above 10 kGy, it was confirmed that all microorganisms were inactivated. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated at doses less than 10 kGy were not significantly altered from their baseline appearance (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that preference scores in all sensory properties decreased when freeze-dried miyeokguk was irradiated at doses greater than 10 kGy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy is sufficient to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without significant deterioration in the sensory quality, and thus, the freeze-dried and irradiated miyeokguk at 10 kGy fulfills the microbiological requirements as space food.

  20. Smart Soup, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Amyloid Pathology and Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Ding, Jianqing; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Xianglu; Ling, Yun; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Huang, Chenggang; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS), a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT), Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP) and Radix Polygalae (RP), is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease. PMID:25386946

  1. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  2. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  3. An effective workplace stress management intervention: Chicken Soup for the Soul at Work Employee Groups.

    PubMed

    Horan, Anne Puidk

    2002-01-01

    Stress is a costly and significant source of health problems and mental distress--with work cited as a primary stressor. This pilot study supports the effectiveness of a new workplace stress intervention: Chicken Soup for the Soul at Work Employee Groups. In this program, employee-participants met during nine weekly meetings to read inspirational workplace stories, comment, and share their own stories. A leader, chosen from and by the group, guided meetings. Utilizing a wait-list control group design, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or wait-list group. Participants completed pretests and posttests (Coping Resources Inventory, Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised, Job Descriptive Index, Pressure Management Indicator, survey). Statistical interaction effect for subtests was evaluated using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Participants exhibited improved total coping resources, cognitive/rational coping, state of mind, confidence and home/work balance. Participant comments and their continued participation in a similar company-sponsored program bolster these empirical results.

  4. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-10-05

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage.

  5. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  6. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  7. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS), 2 (DJ and KS), 3 (HN1, PC, and YC), and 4 (HN2 and SS). In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage. PMID:27721692

  8. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  9. Cabbage Seasonal Leaf Quality Mediating the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) Performance.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, N C; Santos, N A; Maurício, R M; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A; Campos, W G

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal variation in plant quality may be intense enough to generate predictable patterns in insect herbivore populations. In order to explain seasonal oscillations in neotropical populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), we tested the following: (1) if nutritional quality of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), a primary host plant of diamondback moth, adversely affects the performance of this insect in late spring and early summer, when populations decline and go extinct, and (2) if nutritional features of cabbage change with the seasons. We measured the performance of diamondback moth reared on leaves of cabbages grown during the four seasons of the year. Summer plants proved to be worse for the survival of the immature stages and subsequent adult fecundity, but there were no significant differences between the remaining seasons. Our results support the hypothesis that short-lived plants, grown in different seasons of the year in the tropics, have different nutritional and defensive attributes. We analyzed nutritional quality of cabbage leaves from the four seasons, but only total lipids were reduced in summer plants. Neotropical populations of diamondback moth collapse before plant quality decay in the summer. If the diamondback moth is well adapted to the seasonal deterioration of the habitat, including the reduction in the quality of host plants, it is expected that emigration happens before the mortality increases and natality decreases during the summer.

  10. Digestion of fibre polysaccharides of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage by adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, M; McNab, J M

    1989-11-01

    Characterization of the carbohydrates of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage using both colorimetric and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques permitted a detailed investigation into the extent of digestion of differing types of fibre. These digestion studies were greatly aided by the development of a rapid bioassay employing starved adult cockerels. Total collection of undigested residues, uncontaminated by food spillage, could be made from trays placed under the cockerels. Chemical analysis showed that pea hulls consisted mainly of fibre with very little available carbohydrate present, whereas more than half of freeze-dried carrot and cabbage consisted of available carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch) and consequently considerably less fibre was present. The fibre of carrot and cabbage was similarly composed of nearly equal amounts of neutral and acidic polysaccharides, whereas pea-hull fibre had four times as much neutral as acidic polysaccharides. The digestibility of total neutral polysaccharides from all three foodstuffs was extremely low. However, there appeared to be preferential digestion of polysaccharides composed of rhamnose, arabinose and galactose residues, all associated with pectic material, in contrast to the indigestibility of polysaccharides composed of fucose, xylose and glucose. Acidic polysaccharides were digested to a greater extent than neutral ones, and those of carrot and cabbage more so than pea hulls. The polysaccharides which were the most soluble were also the most digestible, but due to the arbitrariness of polysaccharide solubility, quantification of their total digestibility per se was considered not possible.

  11. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  12. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  13. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Bacterial populations of loosely and strong...

  14. EFFICACY DATA OF CYANTRANILIPROLE CONTAINING INSECTICIDE PREPARATION ON CABBAGE ROOT FLY (DELIA RADICUM LINNAEUS) IN WINTER OILSEED RAPE.

    PubMed

    Farkas, I; Molnár, I; Somlyay, I; Tóth, E

    2015-01-01

    The increasing pressure of oilseed rape pests emphasized the need to improve the insecticide portfolio, i.e. register new active ingredients with new insecticide mode of action. The tested seed treatment formulation applied at 32; 40 and 50 UAT rate of containing cyantraniliprole as active substance. 40 UAT rate gives acceptable control of the Cabbage root fly in each trial. Despite the long lasting flight and egg laying period of cabbage root fly, the standard control products and also this product give 50-65% efficacy. It is enough to reduce damage of the Cabbage root fly and prevent economical damage in oilseed rape.

  15. Analysis of Chameleonic Change of Red Cabbage Depending on Broad pH Range for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Eun Mi; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from red cabbage as a sensitizer. In this work, we investigated the adsorption characteristics and the electrochemical behavior for harvesting sunlight and electron transfer in red cabbage DSSCs under different solvents and pH. For the red cabbage dye-sensitized electrode adsorbed at pH 3.5, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.60 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Vcc) of 0.46 V, and a fill factor of 0.55, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.41%.

  16. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Kunicki, Edward; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    Brassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased content of anthocyanins and β-carotene. Ozone treatment did not significantly affect the productivity of both examined vegetables.

  17. Diverticulitis Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... skin) Eggs, fish and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no pulp Low-fiber cereals Milk, yogurt ...

  18. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Omega-3 Publication Diet and MS Research Review Paper With increasing interest in the possible role of ... for people with MS. A recent research review paper by Pavan Bhargava, MD, provides information and current ...

  19. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal proteins. A ... proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods plus ...

  20. Gout Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff Gout, a painful form of arthritis, occurs when high ... is eliminated from the body in urine. A gout diet may help decrease uric acid levels in ...

  1. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively.

  2. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5% NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance.

  3. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-01-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription–PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology. PMID:24006423

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  5. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne; McFeeters, Roger F; Fleming, Henry P; Thompson, Roger L

    2007-06-01

    Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0% to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and nonbiodegradable NaCl. The objective was to determine whether addition of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture to reduced-salt cabbage fermentations would yield sauerkraut with reproducible and acceptable chemical composition and sensory qualities. Shredded cabbage was salted with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% NaCl (wt/wt) at 2 starter culture levels, none or L. mesenteroides strain LA 81, ATCC 8293 (10(6) CFU/g). Fermentation products were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pH was measured during the initial stages of fermentation and after 10 mo storage at 18 degrees C. A trained descriptive sensory panel used category scales to rate the flavor and texture of selected sauerkrauts. A modified Kramer shear test was used to measure firmness. Cabbage fermented with L. mesenteroides consistently resulted in sauerkraut with firm texture and reduced off-flavors across all salt levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, sauerkraut quality was highly variable, with softening and off-flavors occurring as salt concentrations were decreased in natural fermentations (P < 0.05). Fermentations were rapid, with a more uniform decline in pH when starter culture was added. L. mesenteroides addition to cabbage fermentations ensured that texture and flavor quality were retained, while allowing 50% NaCl reduction. Application of this technology to commercial sauerkraut production could improve the uniformity of fermentations and substantially reduce generation of nonbiodegradable chloride waste.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an ancient and well-studied transcription factor family that functions in almost every developmental process in plants. There are a number of reports about the MADS-box family in different plant species, but systematic analysis of the MADS-box transcription factor family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is still lacking. In this study, 160 MADS-box transcription factors were identified from the entire Chinese cabbage genome and compared with the MADS-box factors from 21 other representative plant species. A detailed list of MADS proteins from these 22 species was sorted. Phylogenetic analysis of the BrMADS genes, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, showed that the BrMADS genes were categorised into type I (Mα, Mβ, Mγ) and type II (MIKC(C), MIKC*) groups, and the MIKC(C) proteins were further divided into 13 subfamilies. The Chinese cabbage type II group has 95 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis type II group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage type II genes have been retained more frequently than the type I genes. Finally, RNA-seq transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BrMADS genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner similar to Arabidopsis. Interestingly, a number of BrMIKC genes showed responses to different abiotic stress treatments, suggesting a function for some of the genes in these processes as well. Taken together, the characterization of the B. rapa MADS-box family presented here, will certainly help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and further facilitate functional studies in Chinese cabbage.

  7. Persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil, and its risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman

    2013-07-01

    Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide of semicarbazone class. It provides good to excellent control of most of the economically important lepidopterous pests and certain pests in the orders Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, and Siphonaptera. Although metaflumizone has been marketed globally for several years and got registered in India in the year 2009, specifically for the control of DBM on cabbage, to our knowledge, no food safety aspects of metaflumizone residue on cabbage have ever been reported in the literature in India or elsewhere. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the persistence of metaflumizone on cabbage and soil, vis-a-vis its risk assessment, following two spray applications of metaflumizone 220 SC (Verismo®), each at recommended and double dose of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) respectively. Initial residue deposits of metaflumizone on cabbage were 0.46 and 0.51 mg kg(-1) at recommended and 0.76 and 0.85 mg kg(-1) at double the recommended dose following the first spray and second spray application. The residues persisted beyond 5 days from both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life ranging from 1.7-2.1 days. Initial deposits of metaflumizone on soil ranged from 0.23-0.37 mg kg(-1) and degraded with a half life ranging from 4.0-4.8 days. No degradation product of metaflumizone was detected in cabbage and soil at any point of time. Soil samples collected from the treated field after 7 days were free from any residue of metaflumizone or its metabolites. A pre-harvest waiting period of 3 days after application was suggested based on calculation of theoretical maximum daily intake.

  8. [Effect of the melamine residue in soil on growth of Chinese cabbage].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-fang; Wang, De-han; Huang, Pei-zhao; Duan, Ji-xian; Ge, Ren-shan; Liu, Ming-jiang

    2010-03-01

    Soil and foliar application of melamine (ME) treatments to 'Zaoshu 5' Chinese cabbage were investigated. The ME was degraded very slowly in soil treated with different dosages (40,160 and 800 mg x kg(-1)), and 90 days later the residuals of ME were 21.1%, 15.8% and 43.6% respectively. The Chinese cabbage could take in exogenously applied ME through its root and stem leaf and accumulate it to considerable levels with the increasing applied density. In soil application test, the maximum and minimum contents of ME were 105.7 and 8.0 mg x kg(-1) in root, and 139.9 and 7.1 mg x kg(-1) in stem leaf; the ME transport occurred from root to stem leaf. In foliar application test,the maximum and minimum contents of ME were 4.3 and 0.9 mg x kg(-1) in root, and 8.5 and 3.2 mg x kg(-1) in stem leaf. In soil application test,the low level of ME (40 mg x kg(-1)) increased the biomass yield by 9.8% and the high level of ME (800 mg x kg(-1)) decreased the biomass yield by 15.9%; the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugar increased,but the content of Vitamin C decreased. Foliar application ME had no obvious significance on the growth of Chinese cabbage. The studies indicate that the residual time of ME in soil is long and the Chinese cabbage can absorb exogenously applied ME and ME can affect the growth of Chinese cabbage.

  9. Heart disease and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  10. No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss.

    PubMed

    Essed, Natasja H; Kleikers, Suzanne; van Staveren, Wija A; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and/or flavors may improve palatability and intake in elderly people. Whether this improvement is related to a decline in chemosensory sensitivity is unclear. We examined the effect of flavor-enhanced tomato soup (1,200 mg/l MSG (0.12% MSG) + 3 g/l celery powder) versus non-enhanced soup on intake and liking in 120 older adults (72+/-6 years). Olfactory and gustatory performance was measured. For the whole group, no difference in intake (198 g vs. 203 g) (P =0.97), liking (6.6 vs. 6.7) (P =0.99) and strength (7.2 vs. 7.2) (P =0.76) between the soups was found. Intake (P =0.52), liking (P =0.90) and strength (P =1.00) between the soups were not different within the low olfactory/low gustatory group. Intake and liking of the flavor-enhanced soup was not increased within elderly with low chemosensory sensitivity. Enhancing flavors to increase intake and liking may not be a uniform approach due to the heterogeneity in chemosensory losses among elderly people.

  11. MO-AB-201-03: The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Kroger, L.

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  12. From the Primitive Atmosphere to the Prebiotic Soup to the Pre-RNA World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    Organic compounds would have been produced in an earth's atmosphere that was reducing. The soup would contain amino and hydroxy acids, together with smaller amounts of purines and pyrimidines. The presence' of sugars is less likely, although they can be produced by the formose reaction from formaldehyde. However, the prebiotic synthesis of RNA has not been demonstrated. One problem is that ribose is not produced selectively over other pentoses and hexoses, except under special conditions. The second problem is that ribose is unstable, with a half-life at pH7 and 100 C of 73 minutes (44 years at 0 C). Other sugars are similarly unstable. Another problem is that there is no efficient prebiotic synthesis of polyphosphates, nor the glycosidic bond of nucleosides. This suggests that there may have been an informational macromolecule that preceded RNA. The RNA world refers to the time when RNA carried both the genetic information and the catalytic activity, and was subsequently converted to the DNA/protein world when protein synthesis began. Preceeding the RNA world was the Pre-RNA world, where a backbone different from ribose phosphate was used, and the bases may have been different from adenine, uracil, guanine and cytosine. We have shown recently that cytosine and uracil can be synthesized efficiently under prebiotic conditions using a dried lagoon model instead of the usual dilute ocean hypothesis. In addition, we have shown that uracil adds formaldehyde efficiently to give 5- hydroxymethyl uracil, which in turn adds various nucleophiles to give uracil analogs of most of the amino acids that occur in proteins. For example, the ammonia, guanidine and imidazole adducts from the analogs of lysine, arginine and histidine. This suggests that the catalytic potential of RNA may have been much more extensive than previously assumed. The major problem is finding out what was the precursor to the ribose phosphate backbone. This will be the key to developing prebiotic self

  13. Turtle groups or turtle soup: dispersal patterns of hawksbill turtles in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, J M; Abreu-Grobois, F A; Austin, T J; Broderick, A C; Bruford, M W; Coyne, M S; Ebanks-Petrie, G; Formia, A; Meylan, P A; Meylan, A B; Godley, B J

    2009-12-01

    Despite intense interest in conservation of marine turtles, spatial ecology during the oceanic juvenile phase remains relatively unknown. Here, we used mixed stock analysis and examination of oceanic drift to elucidate movements of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) and address management implications within the Caribbean. Among samples collected from 92 neritic juvenile hawksbills in the Cayman Islands we detected 11 mtDNA control region haplotypes. To estimate contributions to the aggregation, we performed 'many-to-many' mixed stock analysis, incorporating published hawksbill genetic and population data. The Cayman Islands aggregation represents a diverse mixed stock: potentially contributing source rookeries spanned the Caribbean basin, delineating a scale of recruitment of 200-2500 km. As hawksbills undergo an extended phase of oceanic dispersal, ocean currents may drive patterns of genetic diversity observed on foraging aggregations. Therefore, using high-resolution Aviso ocean current data, we modelled movement of particles representing passively drifting oceanic juvenile hawksbills. Putative distribution patterns varied markedly by origin: particles from many rookeries were broadly distributed across the region, while others would appear to become entrained in local gyres. Overall, we detected a significant correlation between genetic profiles of foraging aggregations and patterns of particle distribution produced by a hatchling drift model (Mantel test, r = 0.77, P < 0.001; linear regression, r = 0.83, P < 0.001). Our results indicate that although there is a high degree of mixing across the Caribbean (a 'turtle soup'), current patterns play a substantial role in determining genetic structure of foraging aggregations (forming turtle groups). Thus, for marine turtles and other widely distributed marine species, integration of genetic and oceanographic data may enhance understanding of population connectivity and management requirements.

  14. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  15. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P < 0.05), and was concurrently extremely positively correlated with Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P < 0.01). Soil pH increased by 1.8%-45.5% and 6.1%-54.3% in the presence of zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and

  16. Evolution of specific 3'-5'-linkages in RNA in pre-biotic soup: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaijayanti A

    2016-11-02

    This article reviews the different possibilities towards progression of the formation of DNA/RNA in the chemical world, before life, in enzyme-free conditions. The advent of deoxyribo- and ribopentose-sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides in the prebiotic soup is briefly discussed. Further, the formation of early single stranded oligomers, base-pairing possibilities and information transfer based on the stability parameters of the derived duplexes is reviewed. Each theory has its own merits and demerits which we have elaborated upon. Lastly, using clues from this literature, a possible explanation for the specific 3'-5'-linkages in RNA is proposed.

  17. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  18. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

    2010-09-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite.

  19. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant.

  20. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  1. Dietary Mechanism behind the Costs Associated with Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Shikano, Ikkei; Cory, Jenny S.

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial alleles that spread rapidly as an adaptation to a new environment are often associated with costs that reduce the fitness of the population in the original environment. Several species of insect pests have evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in the field, jeopardizing its future use. This has most commonly occurred through the alteration of insect midgut binding sites specific for Bt toxins. While fitness costs related to Bt resistance alleles have often been recorded, the mechanisms behind them have remained obscure. We asked whether evolved resistance to Bt alters dietary nutrient intake, and if reduced efficiency of converting ingested nutrients to body growth are associated with fitness costs and variation in susceptibility to Bt. We fed the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni artificial diets differing in levels of dietary imbalance in two major macronutrients, protein and digestible carbohydrate. By comparing a Bt-resistant T. ni strain with a susceptible strain we found that the mechanism behind reduced pupal weights and growth rates associated with Bt-resistance in T. ni was reduced consumption rather than impaired conversion of ingested nutrients to growth. In fact, Bt-resistant T. ni showed more efficient conversion of nutrients than the susceptible strain under certain dietary conditions. Although increasing levels of dietary protein prior to Bt challenge had a positive effect on larval survival, the LC50 of the resistant strain decreased when fed high levels of excess protein, whereas the LC50 of the susceptible strain continued to rise. Our study demonstrates that examining the nutritional basis of fitness costs may help elucidate the mechanisms underpinning them. PMID:25171126

  2. Role of intensive and extensive variables in a soup of firms in economy to address long run prices and aggregate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Gallegati, Mauro

    2017-03-01

    We review the production function and the hypothesis of equilibrium in the neoclassical framework. We notify that in a soup of sectors in economy, while capital and labor resemble extensive variables, wage and rate of return on capital act as intensive variables. As a result, Baumol and Bowen's statement of equal wages is inevitable from the thermodynamics point of view. We try to see how aggregation can be performed concerning the extensive variables in a soup of firms. We provide a toy model to perform aggregation for production and the labor income as extensive quantities in a neoclassical framework.

  3. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents.

  4. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  5. Stability of glucosinolates and glucosinolate degradation products during storage of boiled white cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Drabińska, Natalia; Narwojsz, Agnieszka; Honke, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of storage on the contents of glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products in a boiled white cabbage. A 24h storage at 4 °C resulted in a decrease in GLS content (20-40%, depending on the cooking time applied) in the edible parts. The most significant losses were observed for sinigrin (20-45%), and the least for glucobrassicin (12-32%). Storage had a diversified effect on GLS breakdown products (indole-3-acetonitrile, indole-3-carbinol, ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane released from glucobrassicin and 4-methylsulfinylbutanenitrile released from glucoiberin) in the boiled cabbage. The increase in the content of indole-3-acetonitrile, especially considerable within the first 24h of storage (and a simultaneous decrease in glucobrassicin) clearly indicates that degradation of GLS may occur during storage or cooling to 4 °C.

  6. [Variety recognition of Chinese cabbage seeds by hyperspectral imaging combined with machine learning].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Xi; Kong, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Chu; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The variety of Chinese cabbage seeds were recognized using hyperspectral imaging with 256 bands from 874 to 1,734 nm in the present paper. A total of 239 Chinese cabbage seed samples including 8 varieties were acquired by hyperspectral image system, 158 for calibration and the rest 81 for validation. A region of 15 pixel x 15 pixel was selected as region of interest (ROI) and the average spectral information of ROI was obtained as sample spectral information. Multiplicative scatter correction was selected as pretreatment method to reduce the noise of spectrum. The performance of four classification algorithms including Ada-boost algorithm, extreme learning machine (ELM), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) were examined in this study. In order to simplify the input variables, 10 effective wavelengths (EMS) including 1,002, 1,005, 1,015, 1,019, 1,022, 1,103, 1,106, 1,167, 1,237 and 1,409 nm were selected by analysis of variable load distribution in PLS model. The reflectance of effective wavelengths was taken as the input variables to build effective wavelengths based models. The results indicated that the classification accuracy of the four models based on full-spectral were over 90%, the optimal models were extreme learning machine and random forest, and the classification accuracy achieved 100%. The classification accuracy of effective wavelengths based models declined slightly but the input variables compressed greatly, the efficiency of data processing was improved, and the classification accuracy of EW-ELM model achieved 100%. ELM performed well both in full-spectral model and in effective wavelength based model in this study, it was proven to be a useful tool for spectral analysis. So rapid and nondestructive recognition of Chinese cabbage seeds by hyperspectral imaging combined with machine learning is feasible, and it provides a new method for on line batch variety recognition of Chinese cabbage seeds.

  7. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze S-heterocyclizations in cabbage phytoalexin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Andrew P; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2015-01-01

    Phytoalexins are abundant in edible crucifers and have important biological activities, yet no dedicated gene for their biosynthesis is known. Here, we report two new cytochromes P450 from Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) that catalyze unprecedented S-heterocyclizations in cyclobrassinin and spirobrassinin biosynthesis. Our results reveal the first genetic and biochemical insights into the biosynthesis of a prominent pair of dietary metabolites, and have implications for pathway discovery across >20 recently sequenced crucifers. PMID:26389737

  8. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Manan

    2010-04-30

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm formation and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Populations of loosely and strongly attached Salmonella were obtained to calculate the attachment strength (S(R)). Biofilm formation, as determined by microtiter plate assay, varied with strain and growth medium used. Salmonella Tennessee and S. Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to S. Newport, S. Negev, and S. Braenderup. Biofilm formation was also stronger when Salmonella spp. were grown in diluted TSB (1:10). S. Tennessee, which produced strong biofilms, attached to produce surfaces at significantly higher numbers than the populations of S. Negev. Overall, S. Tennessee displayed more biofilm formation in vitro and attached more strongly to lettuce than other serovars. All Salmonella serovars attached rapidly on intact and cut produce surfaces. Salmonella spp. attached to Romaine lettuce at significantly higher numbers than those attached to Iceberg lettuce or cabbage. Salmonella attached preferentially to cut surface of all produce; however, the difference between Salmonella populations attached to intact and cut surfaces was similar (P>0.05). Salmonella attachment to both intact and cut produce surfaces increased with time. The overall attachment strength of Salmonella was significantly lower on cabbage (0.12) followed by Iceberg (0.23) and Romaine lettuce (0.34). Cabbage, intact or cut, did not support attachment of Salmonella as well as Romaine lettuce. Understanding the attachment mechanisms of Salmonella to produce may be useful in developing new intervention strategies to prevent produce outbreaks.

  9. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  10. Bioactive compounds, myrosinase activity, and antioxidant capacity of white cabbages grown in different locations of Spain.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Frias, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2011-04-27

    The influence of two Spanish growing locations with well-differentiated climatic conditions (northern and eastern areas) on the main bioactive compounds, glucosinolates (GLS), total phenolic compounds (TPC), and vitamin C, as well as myrosinase activity and antioxidant capacity in five white cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) cultivars was investigated. Cabbages with the highest concentration of total GLS presented the highest vitamin C level (r = 0.75, P ≤ 0.05) and the lowest antioxidant capacity (r = -0.76, P ≤ 0.05). The cultivars with the highest vitamin C content had the lowest myrosinase activity (r = -0.89, P ≤ 0.05) and antioxidant capacity (r = -0.86, P ≤ 0.05), whereas those with the largest TPC amount showed the highest antioxidant capacity (r = 0.71, P ≤ 0.05). Cabbage cultivars grown in the northern area of Spain with low temperatures and radiation led to higher mean values of myrosinase activity (29.25 U/g dm), TPC (10.0 GAE mg/g dm), and antioxidant capacity (81.6 μmol Trolox/g dm), whereas cultivars grown in the eastern area with high temperature and radiation led to larger mean values of GLS (14.3 μmol/g dm) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/g dm). The results of this investigation provide information regarding the most suitable Spanish growing location to produce white cabbage with an optimized content of health-promoting compounds.

  11. A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Matthee, Joep; Kearney, Mary; van Elk, Kathelijn; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-09-17

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved.

  12. Experiences of food insecurity among urban soup kitchen consumers: insights for improving nutrition and well-being.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Rosemary; Trevena, Lyndal J; Quine, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Adequate nutrition is an essential determinant of health. Disadvantaged individuals within the cities of developed countries continue to have poor health, yet the role of food insecurity in such groups is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study describes such experiences among 22 randomly selected participants who participated in interviews at a charity-run soup kitchen in urban Sydney, Australia. Interviews explored four constructs of food insecurity (quantitative, qualitative, psychological, and social), identifying related barriers and coping strategies. Reliable access to food was limited. Low income; high rents; poor health; and addictions to cigarettes, alcohol, illicit drugs, and gambling were associated with dependence on charities. Poor dentition and lack of food storage and cooking facilities were important barriers to adequate nutrition. Meals were missed and quantities restricted as a coping strategy. Participants demonstrated adequate knowledge and a desire to eat healthful food. Opportunities for social interaction and trust in soup kitchen staff were important motivators of attendance. Strategies to reduce food insecurity among seriously disadvantaged city dwellers should focus less on education and more on practical solutions, such as accessing affordable healthful food for those without kitchen facilities, improving dentition, and reducing addictions. It is also important to facilitate social networks with trusted support organizations.

  13. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors.

  14. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  15. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  16. Excellent electrochemical performances of cabbage-like polyaniline fabricated by template synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chenglong; Chen, Shaoyun; Wang, Yuan; Peng, Xianghong; Zhang, Weihong; Chen, Jian

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we explore a novel route to fabricate cabbage-like polyaniline (PANI) by in situ polymerization of aniline using the hydroxylated poly (methyl methacrylate) nanospheres (i.e. PMMAsbnd OHsbnd NS) as a template. A maximum specific capacitance of 584 F/g (the current density is 0.1 A/g) is achieved at 10 mV s-1 as well as a high stability of over 3000 cycles (the decrease in the SC is ∼9.1%), which suggests the potential application of the cabbage-like polyaniline in supercapacitors. The predominant electrochemical performances of the cabbage-like polyaniline can be attributed to their large surface area and larger-scale π-π conjugated system present in the quinoid structure of the PANI molecular chain, which can drastically facilitate electron diffusion and improve the utilization of the electroactive PANI during the charge/discharge processes. Accordingly, the facility of charge transfer can decrease resistance along with the PANI molecular chain to improve the electrochemical stability and achieve high-capacitance response characteristics. The present study introduces a new synthesis method for the development of various morphology of other conducting polymer, which may find potential applications in a variety of high-performance electrochemical devices.

  17. MYB transcription factors regulate glucosinolate biosynthesis in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, HyeRan; Park, Sang Un

    2013-07-22

    In this study, we investigated the expression of seven MYB transcription factors (a total of 17 genes that included Dof1.1, IQD1-1, MYB28, MYB29, MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 and their isoforms) involved in aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate (GSL) biosynthesis and analyzed the aliphatic and indolic GSL content in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapassp. Pekinensis). MYB28 and MYB29 expression in the stem was dramatically different when compared with the levels in the other organs. MYB34, MYB122, MYB51, Dof1.1, and IQD1-1 showed very low transcript levels among different organs. HPLC analysis showed that the glucosinolates (GSLs) consisted of five aliphatic GSLs (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, and glucobrassicanapin) and four indolic GSLs (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxygluco-brassicin, and neoglucobrassicin). Aliphatic GSLs exhibited 63.3% of the total GSLs content, followed by aromatic GSL (19.0%), indolic GSLs (10%), and unknown GSLs (7.7%) in different organs of Chinese cabbage. The total GSL content of different parts (ranked in descending order) was as follows: seed > flower > young leaves > stem > root > old leaves. The relationship between GSLs accumulation and expression of GSLs biosynthesis MYB TFs genes in different organs may be helpful to understand the mechanism of MYB TFs regulating GSL biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage.

  18. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  19. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  20. Genistein: A Novel Anthocyanin Synthesis Promoter that Directly Regulates Biosynthetic Genes in Red Cabbage in a Light-Dependent Way

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Yantong; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Genistein (GNT), an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L) as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage. PMID:27990149

  1. Determination of residual flubendiamide in the cabbage by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Lu, Chunliang; Fan, Shuqin; Lu, Haibo; Cui, Hairong; Meng, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yizhong

    2012-11-01

    Flubendiamide, which belongs to the new chemical class of phthalic acid diamides, is widely used against lepidopteron pests in a variety of vegetable and rice pests. It provides superior plant protection against a broad range of economically important lepidopterous pests, including Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella. A determination method of flubendiamide in the cabbage was established in this paper. Flubendiamide in the cabbage was extracted with acetonitrile and ultrasonic extraction, and was purified by QuEChERS and analyzed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The results indicated that the average recovery of flubendiamide in the cabbage was 81.27%-91.45%, the coefficient of variation was 1.79%-4.81%, and the lowest detection concentration was 0.3 μg/kg. The extraction of flubendiamide from the cabbage and its analysis was in accordance with the pesticide residue criterion, i.e., simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible, stable, separatory, and convenient. It identifies and quantifies trace-level flubendiamide residues in the cabbage extracts using LC-MS/MS in the ESI negative mode coupled with the QuEChERS method.

  2. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas.

  3. Growth inhibition in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) growth exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2009-04-30

    The toxicity and effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine disruptor, on the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were studied. Etiolation occurred on leaves of Chinese cabbage plant treated with 50mg/L of DBP for 42 d. DBP even below 1mg/L had a significant effect on the concentration of chlorophyll in Chinese cabbage and the biomass showed a severe decrease under treatment with more than 30 mg/L of DBP. At a concentration below 1mg/L of DBP, no significant difference in accumulation was found, but treatments with concentration exceeding 10, 30, 50 and 100mg/L all resulted in significant accumulation of DBP. Six protein spots extracted from leaf tissue of DBP-treated Chinese cabbage displaying a differential expression are shown in 2-DE maps. According to proteome level studies, three protein spots were found to increase and were identified, respectively, as acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (acyl-ACP desaturase), root phototropism protein 3 (RPT3) and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR). The other three protein spots were found to decrease and were identified respectively as dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) and ATP synthase subunit beta. The key finding is that the other closely related plant, Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), the subspecies of Chinese cabbage, respond differently to the same chemicals.

  4. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    DOE PAGES

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; ...

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analyticalmore » methods employed and is related to [4].« less

  5. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analytical methods employed and is related to [4].

  6. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  7. Enantioselective residue dissipation of hexaconazole in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. caulorapa DC.), and soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiangyun; Wu, Changxing; Yang, Hongda; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiang

    2012-03-07

    In this study, the enantioselective dissipation behavior of hexaconazole was investigated in cucumber fruit, head cabbage, and two different types of agricultural soils. The dissipation kinetics was determined by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) chiral column. Dissipation rates of hexaconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetics; the residues of (+)-enantiomer decreased more rapidly than (-)-enantiomer in cucumber and head cabbage, resulting in relative enrichment of the (-)-form, while the two enantiomers showed similar degradation rates in the tested soils. These results indicate substantial enantioselectivity in the residue dissipation of hexaconazole enantiomers in cucumber and head cabbage; however, nonenantioselective dissipation was observed in the tested soils.

  8. Effect of post harvest radiation processing and storage on the volatile oil composition and glucosinolate profile of cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Variyar, Prasad S; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sharma, Arun

    2014-05-15

    Effect of radiation processing (0.5-2 kGy) and storage on the volatile oil constituents and glucosinolate profile of cabbage was investigated. Among the volatile oil constituents, an enhancement in trans-hex-2-enal was noted on irradiation that was attributed to the increased liberation of precursor linolenic acid mainly from monogalactosyl diacyl glycerol (MGDG). Irradiation also enhanced sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of cabbage that accounted for the enhanced allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in the volatile oils of the irradiated vegetable. During storage the content of trans-hex-2-enal increased immediately after irradiation and then returned to the basal value within 24h while the content of sinigrin and AITC increased post irradiation and thereafter remained constant during storage. Our findings on the enhancement in potentially important health promoting compounds such as sinigrin and AITC demonstrates that besides extending shelf life and safety, radiation processing can have an additional advantage in improving the nutritional quality of cabbage.

  9. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    PubMed

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts.

  10. Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in premixed sewage sludge than premixed chicken manure. Total cabbage and broccoli yields obtained from SS and CM mixed soil were both greater than those obtained from no-mulch (bare) soil. Concentration of Ni in cabbage leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF <1), while BAF values were >1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.

  11. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  12. Growing hot pepper for cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) control.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Rogers, Jami A; Hu, Yoon-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    With the public perception that synthetic pesticides leave harmful residues in crop produce for human consumption, there has been increased interest in using natural products for pest control. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper for controlling the cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is explored in this investigation. Crude extracts from fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. annuum, were prepared and tested under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal and acaricidal performance. Mortality was greatest (94%) when fruit extract of accession PI-593566 (C. annuum) was sprayed on larvae of the cabbage looper, while crude extracts of accessions PI-241675 (C. frutescens) and PI-310488 (C. annuum) were repellent to the spider mite. We investigated differences in chemical composition of the crude fruit extracts that may explain the observed differences in mortality and repellency between accessions. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry spectrometric analysis revealed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that the two capsaicinoids are not likely related to the efficacy of pepper fruit extracts. Major compounds in hot pepper fruit extracts were detected and identified as pentadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. Spectrometric analysis and toxicity to cabbage looper larvae revealed that pentadecanoic acid methyl ester is likely related to cabbage looper mortality. However, the concentration of pentadecanoic acid methyl ester in some accessions was insufficient to explain the observed mortality of cabbage looper and repellency of spider mite. Fruit extracts of accessions PI-593566 (C. annuum) and PI-241675 (C. frutescens) could be useful for managing populations of cabbage loopers and spider mites, which could reduce reliance

  13. [Extraction and analysis of profenofos residue in tomato and cabbage by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Lu, Y H; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Wen, X M

    2001-05-01

    A quick and effective extraction and clean-up method of profenofos residue in tomato and cabbage is presented. Tomato and cabbage samples were homogenized with a mixture of acetone-hexane (1:1, V/V) using a mechanical homogenizer. The resultant homogenate was cleaned-up by adding active carbon and then filtered under reduced pressure. The filter cake was extracted twice with the same solvent mixture. The filtrates were combined and transferred into a separatory funnel. The organic layer was separated and evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator. The residue was dissolved in 2 mL of acetone and transferred into a small glass vial and then determined by GC on a 5% OV-101 Chromosorb W-HP column with flame photometric detector. The results showed that this analytical method can be used for an accurate determination of profenofos residues in tomato and cabbage. The minimum detectable concentration of profenofos in samples was 0.06 mg/kg. The recoveries of profenofos in tomato and cabbage were in the range of 96.2%-105.9% and 94.7%-102.3%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.7%-4.9% and 3.7%-5.0%, respectively. The tomato and cabbage samples were collected 3 weeks after applying profenofos in the field, and the contents of profenofos were determined. The average contents of profenofos in tomato and cabbage were (13.8 +/- 0.8) mg/kg and (14.4 +/- 0.7) mg/kg, respectively.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Ming; Huang, Zhi-Nan; Duan, Wei-Ke; Ren, Jun; Liu, Tong-Kun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms and are thought to be one of the largest families of regulatory proteins. This important family of transcriptional regulators plays crucial roles in plant development. However, a systematic analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family has not been reported in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 230 bHLH transcription factors were identified from the whole Chinese cabbage genome and compared with proteins from other representative plants, fungi and metazoans. The Chinese cabbage bHLH (BrabHLH) gene family could be classified into 24 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of BrabHLHs along with bHLHs from Arabidopsis and rice indicated 26 subfamilies. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns and interaction networks of BrabHLHs were analyzed. Distribution mapping showed that BrabHLHs were non-randomly located on the ten Chinese cabbage chromosomes. One hundred and twenty-four orthologous bHLH genes were identified between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, and the interaction networks of the orthologous genes were constructed in Chinese cabbage. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that expressions of BrabHLH genes varied widely under different abiotic stress treatments for different times. Thus, this comprehensive analysis of BrabHLHs represents a rich resource, aiding the elucidation of the roles of bHLH family members in plant growth and development. Furthermore, the comparative genomics analysis deepened our understanding of the evolution of this gene family after a polyploidy event.

  15. High-throughput sequencing discovery of conserved and novel microRNAs in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengde; Li, Libin; Liu, Lifeng; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Yihui; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Gao, Jianwei

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. miRNAs have been extensively analyzed in a few model plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and Populus, and partially investigated in other non-model plant species. However, only a few conserved miRNAs have been identified in Chinese cabbage, a common and economically important crop in Asia. To identify novel and conserved miRNAs in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) we constructed a small RNA library. Using high-throughput Solexa sequencing to identify microRNAs we found 11,210 unique sequences belonging to 321 conserved miRNA families and 228 novel miRNAs. We ran a Blast search with these sequences against the Chinese cabbage mRNA database and found 2,308 and 736 potential target genes for 221 conserved and 125 novel miRNAs, respectively. The BlastX search against the Arabidopsis genome and GO analysis suggested most of the targets were involved in plant growth, metabolism, development and stress response. This study provides the first large scale-cloning and characterization of Chinese cabbage miRNAs and their potential targets. These miRNAs add to the growing database of new miRNAs, prompt further study on Chinese cabbage miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in Chinese cabbage.

  16. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism.

  17. Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in Chinese cabbages (Brassica chinensis).

    PubMed

    Obono Mba, Felicite; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Qiu, Hai-Jie

    2007-09-15

    To test the effects of Salicylic Acid (SA) on physiological changes of plants under cadmium stress one cultivar of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) cadmium resistance, Changkenxiaobaicai (tolerance) were studied with pots cultures. Like other organisms Plants have adaptatives mechanisms whereby they are able to respond to both nutrient deficiency and toxicities. Plants materials were originated from the vegetable market in Wuhan, Hubei China. The seeds were tested on the pot cultures in the green house. The results of our experiments were quite different between the treatments. The combined treatment Cd 5 ppm + SA 500 mmol L(-1) during our experiment showed that the activity of peroxidase and superoxidase dismutase in the cabbages were induced, the total chlorophyll content increased significally by 25.38%, chl a/b about 43.01% and total biomass about 41.67%, both in comparison with the control. The soluble sugar content increased significantly to about 25.47% in comparison with the control. The electrolyte leakages were less affected. Under SA treatment only, the chlorophyll content, chl a/b content increased to about 18.85%, in comparison with the control. Plant biomass increased about 18.90% with the addition of SA in the culture. SA treatment can increase or decrease the Chinese cabbages metabolism. Plants were exposed to 5 ppm CdCl2 for 5 days under natural light. Then they were cultivated with Hoagland nutrient solution, which served as control, nutrient solution supplemented with 5 ppm CdCl2. Five days after Cd treatment, seedlings were harvested. The experiment was performed in triplicate.

  18. Impacts of spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than λ-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to λ-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies.

  19. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  20. HPLC/UV analysis of chlorfenapyr residues in cabbage and soil to study the dynamics of different formulations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongsong; Chen, Jiuxin; Wang, Yuelong; Liang, Ji; Chen, Lihua; Lu, Yitong

    2005-11-01

    The chlorfenapyr analysis method of residue, its degradation and final residue in soil and cabbage were studied. Residues of chlorfenapyr were extracted from soil and cabbage with acetone/water, purified by liquid/liquid partition and chromatographic column, concentrated to a small volume, and then determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The mean accuracy of analytical method were 93.3% and 90.6% in soil and cabbage, respectively; the precision (repeatability) in cabbage ranging from 1.7% to 11.8%, in soil ranging from 2.8% to 11.2%; the precision (reproducibility) in cabbage ranged from 2.2% to 12.1%, in soil it ranged from 2.4% to 11.5%. The minimum detectable amount of chlorfenapyr was 0.65 ng, the minimum detectable concentration was 0.0162 mg kg-1. The degradation of chlorfenapyr formulations in soil and cabbage was determined. The results showed that chlorfenapyr nanoformulation and suspension concentration degradation in soil coincided with C=0.2538 e-0.1612t, C=0.537 e-0.1754t, respectively; the half-lives were about 4.3 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Two kinds of chlorfenapyr formulation degradation in cabbage coincided with C=4.0431 e-0.3103t, C=6.9611 e-0.2686t respectively; the half-lives were about 2.2 d and 2.6, d, respectively. When chlorfenapyr formulations were applied according to the double recommended dose, the final residues in cabbage were much lower than the USA EPA's maximum residue limit of 1 mg kg-1 in vegetables. The degradation rate of chlorfenapyr nanoformulation was faster than that of suspension concentration, and the former residue was also less in soil. Therefore, a harvest interval should be more than 5 d, and a dosage of 900 mL/hm2 was suggested for chlorfenapyr suspension concentration, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. Chlorfenapyr nanoformulation was safer than suspension concentration, its harvest interval and dosage can attain a high level.

  1. Effects of floral thermogenesis on pollen function in Asian skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Yuka; Onda, Yoshihiko; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2009-08-23

    The effects of temperature on pollen germination and pollen tube growth rate were measured in vitro in thermogenic skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius Schott ex Tzvelev, and related to floral temperatures in the field. This species has physiologically thermoregulatory spadices that maintain temperatures near 23 degrees C, even in sub-freezing air. Tests at 8, 13, 18, 23, 28 and 33 degrees C showed sharp optima at 23 degrees C for both variables, and practically no development at 8 degrees C. Thermogenesis is therefore a requirement for fertilization in early spring. The narrow temperature tolerance is probably related to a long period of evolution in flowers that thermoregulate within a narrow range.

  2. Diets supplemented with chickpea or its main oligosaccharide component raffinose modify faecal microbial composition in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W M U; Hill, J E; Zello, G A; Tyler, R T; Dahl, W J; Van Kessel, A G

    2010-06-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with either chickpea or its main oligosaccharide raffinose on the composition of the faecal microbial community were examined in 12 healthy adults (18-65 years) in a randomised crossover intervention study. Subjects consumed their usual diet supplemented with soups and desserts that were unfortified, or fortified with either 200 g/d of canned chickpeas or 5 g/d of raffinose for 3 week periods. Changes in faecal bacterial populations of subjects were examined using 16S rRNA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and clone libraries generated from the diet pools. Classification of the clone libraries and T-RFLP analysis revealed that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, reported to be an efficient butyrate producer and a highly metabolically active bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota, was more abundant in the raffinose diet and the chickpea diet compared to the control diet. However, no significant difference was observed in the faecal total short chain fatty acid concentration or in the levels of the components (butyrate, acetate and propionate) with the chickpea diet or the raffinose diet compared to the control diet. Bifidobacterium species were detected by T-RFLP in all three diet groups and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed a marginal increase in 16S rRNA gene copies of Bifidobacterium with the raffinose diet compared to control (P>0.05). The number of individuals showing TRFs for the Clostridium histolyticum - Clostridum lituseburense groups, which include pathogenic bacteria species and putrefactive bacteria, were lower in the chickpea diet compared to the other two treatments. Diet appeared to affect colonisation by a high ammonia-producing bacterial isolate which was detected in 83%, 92% and 42% of individuals in the control, raffinose and chickpea groups, respectively. Our results indicate that chickpea and raffinose have the potential to modulate the intestinal microbial

  3. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  4. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  5. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  6. The dose-dependent influence of zinc and cadmium contamination of soil on their uptake and glucosinolate content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba).

    PubMed

    Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Bączek-Kwinta, Renata; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Anna; Huk, Anna; Manikowska, Anna; Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between the ability to accumulate heavy metals (represented by Cd and Zn) and to synthesize bioactive compounds (represented by glucosinolates [GLS]) was investigated in two cabbage cultivars. Plants were grown in the greenhouse of a phytotron under controlled conditions in soils spiked with two different Zn or Cd concentrations. The measurements of Cd and Zn contents in soil and cabbage (leaf) samples were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas GLS levels in cabbage were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranges of metal contents in soil were 80 to 450 mg/kg dry weight for Zn and 0.3 to 30 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, whereas the levels of accumulated Zn and Cd in cabbage amounted to 15 to 130 and 0.02 to 3 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. After initial symptoms of toxicity, during a later stage of growth, the plants exhibited very good tolerance to both metals. Enhanced biosynthesis of GLS was observed in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to the heavy metals. The GLS content in Zn-exposed cabbage rose from 3.2 to 12 µmol/g dry weight, and the corresponding values for Cd-treated plants were 3.5 to 10 µmol/g dry weight. Thus, the increased soil contamination by metals caused greater accumulation in cabbage, as well as stimulation of GLS biosynthesis. The results obtained point to the high phytoremediation and biofumigation potential of white cabbage.

  7. Comparative persistence of thiacloprid in Bt-transgenic cabbage (Brassica oleracea cv. capitata) vis-à-vis non-transgenic crop and its decontamination.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis; Niwas, Ram; Gopal, Madhuban

    2012-11-01

    Thiacloprid is a systemic neonicotinoid. The study hypothesized that difference may be seen in the rate of dissipation of thiacloprid when applied on non-transgenic and transgenic cabbage. Thiacloprid was estimated by HPLC. Half life of thiacloprid in transgenic as well as in normal cabbage ranged between 12.3-13.1 days in two doses of application. Under field condition, after 15 days, 59.2% and 54.3% dissipation was recorded at lower and higher rates of application in transgenic cabbage, where as the insecticide dissipated 57.5% and 59.1% for single dose and double dose application, respectively in non-transgenic cabbage. The study establishes that there is no significant difference in dissipation of a systemic pesticide in transgenic versus non-transgenic cabbage. Decontamination of thiacloprid contaminated cabbage was carried out by different chemical treatments. The application of 0.5% NaHCO(3) (an edible alkali) may be recommended for decontamination. Thiacloprid residues in the day-3 field samples of cabbage could be reduced below Japanese MRL (1.0 mg kg(-1)) by treating with 0.5% NaHCO(3) solution for 1 h.

  8. Regulation of growth-blocking peptide expression during embryogenesis of the cabbage army worm

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Shiroh; Hayakawa, Yoichi . E-mail: hayakayo@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-07

    Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is an insect cytokine with diverse biological functions. Northern blot analysis revealed high heterogeneity in the size distribution of GBP mRNAs as well as in the tissues where they are detected. The s patio-temporal transcription pattern is dynamic, especially during embryogenesis. Gel shift assays demonstrated that the cabbage army worm embryo nuclear extract specifically binds to a 178-bp element, at position +234 to +411 from the transcription start site of the 1.3 kb GBP transcript, in which two Drosophila Deformed (DfD) binding sites are repeated in tandem. The specific binding between this element and Dfd was demonstrated using recombinant cabbage armyworm Dfd protein. Silencing the Dfd expression in embryos by treating with DfD double-stranded RNA did not reduce the expression level of GBP, but ectopic GBP expression was observed in the lateral region of the embryo, suggesting that DD could serve as a transcriptional repressor for the GBP gene.

  9. Lessons from the Far End: Caterpillar FRASS-Induced Defenses in Maize, Rice, Cabbage, and Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ray, Swayamjit; Basu, Saumik; Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Acevedo, Flor E; Louis, Joe; Felton, Gary W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2016-11-01

    Plant defenses to insect herbivores have been studied in response to several insect behaviors on plants such as feeding, crawling, and oviposition. However, we have only scratched the surface about how insect feces induce plant defenses. In this study, we measured frass-induced plant defenses in maize, rice, cabbage, and tomato by chewing herbivores such as European corn borer (ECB), fall armyworm (FAW), cabbage looper (CL), and tomato fruit worm (TFW). We observed that caterpillar frass induced plant defenses are specific to each host-herbivore system, and they may induce herbivore or pathogen defense responses in the host plant depending on the composition of the frass deposited on the plant, the plant organ where it is deposited, and the species of insect. This study adds another layer of complexity in plant-insect interactions where analysis of frass-induced defenses has been neglected even in host-herbivore systems where naturally frass accumulates in enclosed feeding sites over extended periods of time.

  10. Characterization of a Cadmium-Binding Complex of Cabbage Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical nature of a principal, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves (Wagner and Trotter 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 804-809) was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16663927

  11. Shelf life extension of minimally processed ready-to-cook (RTC) cabbage by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (0.5-2.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4-15 °C) storage was attempted to increase shelf life of ready-to-cook shredded cabbage wrapped in cling films. A maximum extension in shelf life of 8 days, while retaining the microbial and sensory quality, was obtained with an irradiation dose of 2 kGy and storage at 10 °C. Gamma irradiation also inhibited browning of shredded cabbage at their cut edges resulting in enhanced visual appeal. An increase in total antioxidant activity was observed with respect to DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability while the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing property remained unaffected with irradiation. Total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C content remained unchanged due to irradiation. No significant migration of additives from cling films into stimulant water was observed up to a radiation dose of 2 kGy thus demonstrating the feasibility of such films for above applications.

  12. [Research on discrimination of cabbage and weeds based on visible and near-infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu

    2013-05-01

    The automatic identification of weeds forms the basis for precision spraying of crops infest. The canopy spectral reflectance within the 350-2 500 nm band of two strains of cabbages and five kinds of weeds such as barnyard grass, setaria, crabgrass, goosegrass and pigweed was acquired by ASD spectrometer. According to the spectral curve characteristics, the data in different bands were compressed with different levels to improve the operation efficiency. Firstly, the spectrum was denoised in accordance with the different order of multiple scattering correction (MSC) method and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing method set by different parameters, then the model was built by combining the principal component analysis (PCA) method to extract principal components, finally all kinds of plants were classified by using the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) taxonomy and the classification results were compared. The tests results indicate that after the pretreatment of the spectral data with the method of the combination of MSC and SG set with 3rd order, 5th degree polynomial, 21 smoothing points, and the top 10 principal components extraction using PCA as a classification model input variable, 100% correct classification rate was achieved, and it is able to identify cabbage and several kinds of common weeds quickly and nondestructively.

  13. [Calcium distribution in fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile Chinese cabbage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao-Tian; Yang, Yan-Hong; Qiu, Yi-Lan; Ge, Li-Li; Tian, Hui-Qiao

    2005-12-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) to probe the relation between Ca(2+) and fertility and sterility of anthers of the cabbage. During fertile anther development, calcium granules increase in number in anther wall cells after meiosis, and then appeared also in locule, suggesting a calcium influx into locule from anther wall cells (Plate I-4). Then the number of calcium granules in microspore cytoplasm also increased at early stage (Plate II-1), accumulated mainly on the membrane of small vacuoles which were fusing to form big ones to make a polarity in the cell and to prepare asymmetric division of microspore (Plate II-3,4). After microspore division and the big vacuole decomposition, many calcium granules accumulated again on the membrane of the vacuoles (Plate III-1,2), displaying calcium regulates vacuole formation and decomposition during pollen development. In sterile anthers, abnormal distribution of calcium granules first appeared in callus wall of microspore mother cell (Plate IV-1). However, only a few calcium granules appeared in early microspores, which then could not form small vacuoles and finally a big vacuole (Plate IV-2,3). The aborting microspores degenerate by cytoplasm shrinking (Plate IV-5,6). The difference pattern of distribution of calcium granules between the fertile and sterile anthers indicates that anomalies in the distribution of calcium accumulation are correlated with the failure of pollen development and pollen abortion.

  14. Multivariate analysis of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) phenolics: influence of fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Carla; Pereira, David M; Pereira, José A; Bento, Albino; Rodrigues, M Angelo; Dopico-García, Sonia; Valentão, Patrícia; Lopes, Graciliana; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-03-26

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of fertilization level on the phenolic composition of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external and internal leaves. Eight different plots were constituted: a control without fertilization, one with organic matter, and six experiments with conventional fertilizers (nitrogen, boron, and sulfur, two levels each). The phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD. External and internal leaves revealed distinct qualitative composition. In the internal leaves were found 15 phenolics (5 kaempferol and 10 cinnamic acid derivatives), whereas the external leaves presented 3- p-coumaroylquinic acid and 13 kaempferol derivatives. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to assess the relationships between phenolic compounds, agronomical practices, and harvesting time. Samples obtained with conventional practices were quite effectively separated from organic samples, for both types of leaves. In general, samples developed without any fertilization presented the highest phenolics amounts: external and internal leaves contained 1.4- and 4.6-fold more phenolic compounds than the ones that received conventional fertilizer, respectively, and the internal leaves presented 2.4 times more phenolics than the ones grown with organic amendment. Additionally, samples from organic production exhibited higher total phenolics content than those from conventional practices, collected at the same time. Samples harvested first were revealed to be distinct from the ones collected later. The results show that it is possible to grow tronchuda cabbage without excess fertilizers, with highest amounts of phenolics and reduced environment contamination.

  15. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr.

  16. Gluten-Free Diet Guide for Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pasta Roux Sauces Soup Base Stuffing Self-basting Poultry Imitation Bacon/seafood Soy Sauce Marinades Thickeners Herbal ... or Sweet Potato Corn Lettuce, etc. MEAT, FISH, POULTRY Fresh Beef Fresh Pork Fresh Poultry (caution: self ...

  17. Solar production of industrial process hot water: operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility. Final report, September 1, 1979-December 10, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kull, J. I.; Niemeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility designed by Acurex Corporation and installed (November 1977) at the Campbell Soup Company Sacramento, California canning plant is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation 99% of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large-scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment for the Campbell Soup solar facility is provided. (WHK)

  18. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horst, M A; Ong, T P; Jordão, A A; Vannucchi, H; Moreno, F S; Lajolo, F M

    2010-03-01

    The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito's hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group). Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats). Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05) placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL). The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05) among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05) DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 +/- 7.8 microm) and kale- (110.8 +/- 10.0 microm) treated animals compared with control (120.9 +/- 12.7 microm), as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 +/- 0.3 microg/g) or kale (4 +/- 0.2 microg/g) resulted in increased (P < 0.05) hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 +/- 0.07 microg/g). Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  19. Cover crop mulches influence biological control of the imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L., Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in cabbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing structural complexity within crop fields can provide a way to manipulate pest abundance and biological control in agroecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of cover crop mulches in cabbage on the structure and function of an insect food web, investigating the role of cover crop species,...

  20. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  1. Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Gan; Pan, Yun-Yu; Christie, Peter; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.).

  2. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  3. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  4. First Report of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Broccoli and Cabbage Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May 2009, leaf spot and leaf blight symptoms were observed on broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on several farms in Lexington County, the major brassica-growing region of South Carolina. Affected areas ranged from scattered disease foci within fiel...

  5. Interactive Effects of Soil ph, Halosulfuron Rate, and Application Method on Carryover to Turnip Green and Cabbage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH; maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO...

  6. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  7. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype. PMID:28265282

  8. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype.

  9. Spatially-Optimized Sequential Sampling Plan for Cabbage Aphids Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Canola Fields.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The cabbage aphid is a significant pest worldwide in brassica crops, including canola. This pest has shown considerable ability to develop resistance to insecticides, so these should only be applied on a "when and where needed" basis. Thus, optimized sampling plans to accurately assess cabbage aphid densities are critically important to determine the potential need for pesticide applications. In this study, we developed a spatially optimized binomial sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields. Based on five sampled canola fields, sampling plans were developed using 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 proportions of plants infested as action thresholds. Average sample numbers required to make a decision ranged from 10 to 25 plants. Decreasing acceptable error from 10 to 5% was not considered practically feasible, as it substantially increased the number of samples required to reach a decision. We determined the relationship between the proportions of canola plants infested and cabbage aphid densities per plant, and proposed a spatially optimized sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields, in which spatial features (i.e., edge effects) and optimization of sampling effort (i.e., sequential sampling) are combined. Two forms of stratification were performed to reduce spatial variability caused by edge effects and large field sizes. Spatially optimized sampling, starting at the edge of fields, reduced spatial variability and therefore increased the accuracy of infested plant density estimates. The proposed spatially optimized sampling plan may be used to spatially target insecticide applications, resulting in cost savings, insecticide resistance mitigation, conservation of natural enemies, and reduced environmental impact.

  10. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  12. Enhancement of tolerance to soft rot disease in the transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin.

    PubMed

    Vanjildorj, Enkhchimeg; Song, Seo Young; Yang, Zhi Hong; Choi, Jae Eul; Noh, Yoo Sun; Park, Suhyoung; Lim, Woo Jin; Cho, Kye Man; Yun, Han Dae; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2009-10-01

    We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (protease inhibitor II from potato). Five transgenic lines were selected by growth on hygromycin-containing medium (3.7% transformation efficiency). Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated into the genome. Among these five transgenic lines, single copy number integrations were observed in four lines and a double copy number integration was observed in one transgenic line. Northern blot analysis confirmed that pinIISP-aii fusion gene was expressed in all the transgenic lines. Soft rot disease tolerance was evaluated at tissue and seedling stage. Transgenic plants showed a significantly enhanced tolerance (2-3-fold) to soft rot disease compared to wild-type plants. Thus, expression of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii reduces susceptibility to soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. We conclude that the recombinant AHL-lactonase, encoded by aii, can effectively quench bacterial quorum-sensing and prevent bacterial population density-dependent infections. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the transformation of Chinese cabbage inbred line Kenshin, and the first to describe the effect of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii on enhancement of soft rot disease tolerance.

  13. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light.

    PubMed

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  14. Effect of diet on the hepatotoxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (FireMaster PB-6).

    PubMed

    Babish, J G; Stoewsand, G S; Lisk, D J

    1978-04-01

    The consumption of diets formulated with Cruciferae vegetables, e.g., cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, has been shown to result in a stimulation of the intestinal and hepatic microsomal enzyme systems in rats. This study was designed to determine if this increase in intestinal and hepatic microsomal enzyme activity affected the hepatic response to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). After three weeks of consuming either a semipurified or 25% cauliflower leaf-supplemented diet (CLD), male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for an additional 20 days on their respective diets containing either 0, 1, or 50 ppm PBB. A significant decrease in body weights, but not feed efficiency, was observed over all levels of PBB in animals consuming CLD compared to semipurified diets; consumption of up to 50 ppm of PBB had no effect on body weights with either diet. Relative liver weights (RLW), hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), N- and O-demethylase, as well as intestinal AHH were all increased in CLD-consuming animals before the addition of PBB. While PBB supplementation alone resulted in increased RLW, hepatic AHH, N- and O-demethylase, microsomal protein, and cytochrome P-450, rats consuming cauliflower diets + PBB had even higher RLW and N- and O-demethylase activity and microsomal protein concentrations. Hepatic PBB residue and total hepatic lipids were significantly reduced in CLD groups receiving 50 ppm PBB. These results suggest that the antitoxic effects of certain vegetables are related to more rapid metabolism and excretion of xenobiotic compounds.

  15. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  16. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab. [Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  17. Highly efficient adsorption of cationic dye by biochar produced with Korean cabbage waste.

    PubMed

    Sewu, Divine D; Boakye, Patrick; Woo, Seung H

    2017-01-01

    Biochar was produced from Korean cabbage (KC), rice straw (RS) and wood chip (WC) and the use as alternative adsorbents to activated carbon (AC) in wastewater treatment was investigated. Congo red (CR) and crystal violet (CV) were used as a model anionic and cationic dye, respectively. Initial solution pH had little effect on CR and CV adsorption onto all biochars except for AC on CR. The isotherm models and kinetic data showed that adsorption of CR and CV onto all biochars were dominantly by chemisorption. All biochars had lower adsorption capacity for CR than AC. KC showed higher Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity (1304mg/g) than AC (271.0mg/g), RS (620.3mg/g) and WC (195.6mg/g) for CV. KC may be a good alternative to conventional AC as cheap, superb and industrially viable adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes in wastewater.

  18. Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA is aminoacylated in vivo in Chinese cabbage leaves

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S.; Chapeville, F.; Haenni, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains a tRNA-like structure as an integral part of its genome. This structure is located at the extreme 3' end of the viral RNA and is the acceptor of valine after 3'-terminal adenylation. It is known that in vitro (with bacterial, yeast, or plant systems) and in vivo (upon microinjection into Xenopus laevis oocytes) a series of tRNA-specific enzymes can recognize this structure in the viral RNA. We report that TYMV RNA is valylated and consequently adenylated in vivo in its natural host, Chinese cabbage leaves. This suggests that the acylated form of the viral RNA could play an important role in the life-cycle of the virus. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:16453426

  19. Metabolic interplay between cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and mitochondrial alternative oxidase in thermogenic skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Md. Abu; Umekawa, Yui; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) blooms in early spring and its inflorescence, referred to as the spadix, can produce enough heat to melt snow. Here, we investigated glycolytic carbon flow at the PEP branch-point in thermogenic spadices. Our analyses revealed that petals and pistils in thermogenic florets exhibited higher expression of SrPEPC and SrAOX transcripts than those of SrPK, SrPEPCK, and SrPEPtase. Moreover, enzymatic analyses showed high activities of PEPC in the extracts from thermogenic florets. Finally, mitochondria from thermogenic florets showed low respiratory activities when pyruvate was used as a substrate, although a significant malate-mediated cyanide-insensitive respiration was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that PEP metabolism, primarily catabolized by PEPC, plays a critical role in thermogenesis in S. renifolius. PMID:27739913

  20. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Feng, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm Hellula undalis includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (nad1-6, cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad4L and cob), two ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S) and 19 transfer RNAs, which is 14,678 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common types found in most of the other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, while cox1 uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, while others use the incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2 and nad4).

  1. Chemical Control of Nematodes and Soil-borne Plant-Pathogenic Fungi on Cabbage Tranplants

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; McCarter, S. M.; Jaworski, C. A.; Williamson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Six general-purpose fumigants and one fungicide were applied by different methods and evaluated for control of nematode-fungus complexes on cabbage grown for transplant production. All chemicals reduced populations of nematodes and soil-borne fungi but varied greatly in effectiveness. Methyl bromide + chloropicrin (98% methyl bromide + 2% chloropicrin) (MBR-CP gas), DD + methyl isothiocyanate (DD-MENCS), methyl bromide + chloropicrin (67% methyl bromide + 31.75% cbloropicrin) (MBR-CP gel), and chloropicrin were more effective than sodium methyl dithiocarbamate (metham), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), and potassium N-hydroxy-methyl-N-methyldithiocarbamate (Bunema) against Meloidogyne incognita. Populations of Pythium spp. and Fusarium spp. were reduced markedly by all treatments except PCNB. Plant growth, uniformity, and yield were greater when nematodes and fungi were controlled. PMID:19305547

  2. Myosuppressin is involved in the regulation of pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Nobuto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest, is common in insects, enabling them to survive adverse seasons. It is well established that pupal diapause is regulated by ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic glands (PGs), with cessation of ecdysteroid secretion after pupal ecdysis leading to pupal diapause. A major factor regulating the gland activity is prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted from the brain. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the cessation of PTTH release after pupal ecdysis resulted in the inactivation of the PGs, leading to pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. Here we show that a neuropeptide myosuppressin also contributes to the inactivation of PGs at the initiation of diapause. Myosuppressin suppresses PTTH-stimulated activation of the PGs in vitro. Concentrations of myosuppressin in the hemolymph after pupal ecdysis are higher in diapause pupae than in nondiapause pupae. PMID:28139750

  3. Modeling of the thermoregulation system in the skunk cabbage: Symplocarpus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken; Ito, Takanori; Onda, Yoshihiko; Endo, Takehiro; Chiba, Shigeki; Ito, Kikukatsu; Osada, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the thermoregulation system of the spadix of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus which regulates its internal temperature at around 20 degrees C during flowering even when the ambient air temperature drops below freezing. From the temperature responses of the spadix to changing ambient air temperature, we assumed that the thermoregulation system of the spadix is probably one of negative feedback control. The feedback signals are based on the rate of temperature change of the spadix over time. A signal is factored into the biochemical energy generator, and becomes biochemical energy, some of which becomes heat. Comparing our proposed model temperature responses and those of the living spadix, we found good agreement. In the process of engineering the model, the existence of two regulatory pathways in the thermoregulation system was simulated, and our proposed model appears to provide the necessary elements to explain the fundamental mechanism of the thermoregulation system of S. foetidus.

  4. Modeling of the thermoregulation system in the skunk cabbage: Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ken; Ito, Takanori; Onda, Yoshihiko; Endo, Takehiro; Chiba, Shigeki; Ito, Kikukatsu; Osada, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the thermoregulation system of the spadix of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus which regulates its internal temperature at around 20°C during flowering even when the ambient air temperature drops below freezing. From the temperature responses of the spadix to changing ambient air temperature, we assumed that the thermoregulation system of the spadix is probably one of negative feedback control. The feedback signals are based on the rate of temperature change of the spadix over time. A signal is factored into the biochemical energy generator, and becomes biochemical energy, some of which becomes heat. Comparing our proposed model temperature responses and those of the living spadix, we found good agreement. In the process of engineering the model, the existence of two regulatory pathways in the thermoregulation system was simulated, and our proposed model appears to provide the necessary elements to explain the fundamental mechanism of the thermoregulation system of S. foetidus.

  5. Metabolic interplay between cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and mitochondrial alternative oxidase in thermogenic skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Md Abu; Umekawa, Yui; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2016-11-01

    Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) blooms in early spring and its inflorescence, referred to as the spadix, can produce enough heat to melt snow. Here, we investigated glycolytic carbon flow at the PEP branch-point in thermogenic spadices. Our analyses revealed that petals and pistils in thermogenic florets exhibited higher expression of SrPEPC and SrAOX transcripts than those of SrPK, SrPEPCK, and SrPEPtase. Moreover, enzymatic analyses showed high activities of PEPC in the extracts from thermogenic florets. Finally, mitochondria from thermogenic florets showed low respiratory activities when pyruvate was used as a substrate, although a significant malate-mediated cyanide-insensitive respiration was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that PEP metabolism, primarily catabolized by PEPC, plays a critical role in thermogenesis in S. renifolius.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of homeothermic temperature control in skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takanori; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2005-11-01

    Certain primitive plants undergo orchestrated temperature control during flowering. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, has been demonstrated to maintain an internal temperature of around 20 °C even when the ambient temperature drops below freezing. However, it is not clear whether a unique algorithm controls the homeothermic behavior of S. foetidus, or whether such an algorithm might exhibit linear or nonlinear thermoregulatory dynamics. Here we report the underlying dynamics of temperature control in S. foetidus using nonlinear forecasting, attractor and correlation dimension analyses. It was shown that thermoregulation in S. foetidus was governed by low-dimensional chaotic dynamics, the geometry of which showed a strange attractor named the “Zazen attractor.” Our data suggest that the chaotic thermoregulation in S. foetidus is inherent and that it is an adaptive response to the natural environment.

  7. Sojourner Rover View of Well-Rounded Pebbles in Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner Rover image of rounded 4-cm-wide pebble (lower center) and excavation of cloddy deposit of Cabbage Patch at lower left. Note the bright wind tails of drift material extending from small rocks and the wheel track from upper right to lower left.

    Well-rounded objects, like the one in this image, were not seen at the Viking sites. These are thought to be pebbles liberated from sedimentary rocks composed of cemented silts, sands and rounded fragments; such rocks are called conglomerates.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  9. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  10. Developmental changes and organelle biogenesis in the reproductive organs of thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Sato, Mayuko; Masuko, Hiromi; Hida, Yamato; Toyooka, Kiminori; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2009-01-01

    Sex-dependent thermogenesis during reproductive organ development in the inflorescence is a characteristic feature of some of the protogynous arum species. One such plant, skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), can produce massive heat during the female stage but not during the subsequent male stage in which the stamen completes development, the anthers dehisce, and pollen is released. Unlike other thermogenic species, skunk cabbage belongs to the bisexual flower group. Although recent studies have identified the spadix as the thermogenic organ, it remains unclear how individual tissues or intracellular structures are involved in thermogenesis. In this study, reproductive organ development and organelle biogenesis were examined during the transition from the female to the male stage. During the female stage, the stamens exhibit extensive structural changes including changes in organelle structure and density. They accumulate high levels of mitochondrial proteins, including possible thermogenic factors, alternative oxidase, and uncoupling protein. By contrast, the petals and pistils do not undergo extensive changes during the female stage. However, they contain a larger number of mitochondria than during the male stage in which they develop large cytoplasmic vacuoles. Comparison between female and male spadices suggests that mitochondrial number rather than their level of activity correlates with thermogenesis. Their spadices, even in the male, contain a larger amount of mitochondria that had greater oxygen consumption, compared with non-thermogenic plants. Taken together, our data suggest that the extensive maturation process in stamens produces massive heat through increased metabolic activities. The possible mechanisms by which petal and pistil metabolism may affect thermogenesis are also discussed.

  11. Genome sequence of a recombinant brassica yellows virus infecting Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Zhao, Fumei; Kim, Kil Hyun; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-02-01

    RNA from a Chinese cabbage plant (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) showing leaf malformation and mottling was labeled and hybridized to a DNA chip capable of detecting plant viruses and viroids. Probes specific for beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) and beet western yellows virus (BWYV) yielded positive results, suggesting that the plant was infected by a polerovirus. Primers designed from the sequences of the positive probes were used to amplify and sequence one portion of the viral genome. This sequence showed a 90 % or greater identity to several poleroviruses, including BMYV, BWYV, beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and turnip yellows virus (TuYV). The complete genome sequence of the Chinese cabbage-infecting polerovirus consisted of 5,666 nt and was most closely related to brassica yellows virus (BrYV; 94 % identity). The virus was named BrYV-Cheongsong (BrYV-CS). However, ORF3, ORF4 and the 5' half of ORF5 of BrYV-CS were more closely related to those of TuYV, BWYV, BChV and BMYV than to those of BrYV. Interestingly, a recombination event (positions 3531-4819 in BrYV-CS) was detected when this sequence was aligned with those of BrYV and TuYV. This region showed the highest sequence identity to that of TuYV (94 % identity) and had greater than 93 % identity to those of BWYV, BChV and BMYV, but it shared only 81 % identity with that of BrYV. Taken together, the genomes of BrYV-CS and BrYV are closely related. However, the structural genes in the 3' half of the genome of BrYV-CS are more closely related to those of other poleroviruses.

  12. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  13. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  14. Genome-wide analysis and expression patterns of ZF-HD transcription factors under different developmental tissues and abiotic stresses in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenli; Wu, Peng; Li, Ying; Hou, XiLin

    2016-06-01

    The ZF-HD gene family plays an important role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the function of the ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage remains largely unknown. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence has been determined, and more than forty thousand proteins have been identified to date. In this study, 31 ZF-HD genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. We show here that the BraZF-HD genes could be categorized into ZHD and MIF subfamilies. Among them, ZHD genes are plant-specific, nearly all intronless, and related to MINI ZINC FINGER genes that possess only the zinc finger. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZHDs have expanded considerably during angiosperm evolution. In addition, the ZHD group has 24 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis ZHD group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage ZHD genes have been retained more frequently than other group genes. Real-time PCR analysis showed that most of BraZF-HD genes are preferentially expressed in flower. Furthermore, most of these genes are significantly induced under photoperiod or vernalization conditions, as well as abiotic stresses. Thereby implying that they may play important roles in these processes. This study provides insight into the evolution of ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage genome and may aid efforts to further characterize the function of these predicted ZF-HD genes in flowering and resistance.

  15. Effects of spray application of lanthanum and cerium on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L) based on different seasons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian Jun; Ren, Yan Jun; Yan, Li Ying

    2014-09-01

    The use of single light rare earth elements in agriculture was studied using the application of single rare earth elements (La and Ce) to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in field plot experiments where the soil conditions remained the same but the season (spring or autumn) in which application occurred was altered. The results showed that the Chinese cabbage's nutrition quality between the two seasons had obvious differences. When planted in the autumn, the soluble sugar and vitamin C content was higher, the titratable acid and nitrate content was lower, and the ratio of sugar to acid was higher, while when planted in spring, the situation was opposite. La or Ce treatments in spring and autumn promoted the growth of the Chinese cabbage, the fresh and dry weight of the stems and leaves increased, the ratio of dry to fresh weight increased, and the observed effects were greater in the Ce treatments than the La treatments. Moreover, the soluble sugar content increased and the titratable acid content decreased, which meant that the ratio of sugar to acid increased. There was an increase in the vitamin C and nitrate content in the spring Chinese cabbage, while there was a decrease in the vitamin C and nitrate content in the autumn. The levels of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni decreased. The La treatment had greater effects on the spring Chinese cabbage, while the Ce affected the autumn Chinese cabbage more.

  16. Discrimination of cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) cultivars grown in different geographical areas using ¹H NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jahan; Jung, Youngae; Song, Byeongyeol; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Do Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2013-04-15

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most popular foods in Asia and is widely cultivated in many countries for the production of lightly fermented vegetables. In this study, metabolomic analysis was performed to distinguish two cultivars of cabbage grown in different geographical areas, Korea and China, using ¹H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear discrimination between extracts of cabbage grown in Korea and China for two different cultivars (Chunmyeong and Chunjung). The major biochemicals (metabolites) that contributed to discrimination between cabbages grown in the two regions were 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), acetate, asparagine, leucine, isoleucine, O-phosphocholine, phenylacetate, phenylalanine, succinate, sucrose, tyrosine, and valine. These results suggest that the levels of the major metabolites that differ significantly between cabbages grown in these two areas were influenced by environmental factors such as climate and geology. Our study demonstrates that ¹H NMR based on metabolomics, coupled with multivariate statistics, can be applied to identify the regions of cultivation of various cabbage cultivars.

  17. Effect of boiling on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Verkerk, Ruud; Honke, Joanna

    2009-03-25

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the boiling process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. The cabbage was boiled for 5 to 60 min. Boiling resulted in a decrease of the total content of the compounds analysed. The changes were mainly caused by leaching of ascorbigen predominating in cabbage into cooking water and by its thermal hydrolysis. Ascorbigen losses resulting from thermal hydrolysis accounted for 30% after 10 min of boiling and for 90% after 60 min of boiling. One of the ascorbigen breakdown products was indole 3 carbinol; the decrease in ascorbigen content was accompanied by a drastic increase in the content of 3,3'-diindolylmethane, a condensation product of indole-3-carbinol. After 40 and 50 min of boiling, the total content of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in cabbage and cooking water was approximately 0.2 micromol/100 g and was 6-fold higher than that in uncooked cabbage. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane synthesis proceeded within the plant tissue. After 10 min of boiling, the content of free indole-3-carbinol and indole-3-acetonitrile stabilized at the level of about 80% as compared to the uncooked cabbage.

  18. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  19. Diets for constipation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sun Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation.

  20. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  1. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  2. Surface micro/nanotopography, wetting properties and the potential for biomimetic icephobicity of skunk cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2014-10-21

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is known for its two remarkable properties: superhydrophobicity and thermogenesis; however, the relationship between these two properties remains obscure. Most botanists agree that thermogenesis helps to attract pollinators, while non-wetting helps to catch pollinators and prevents contamination. Here we investigate the surface micro- and nanotopography and wetting properties of eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), another thermogenic plant, which is known for its ability to melt snow. The skunk cabbage leaves are hydrophobic but not superhydrophobic, and they have high contact angle hysteresis (similar to the rose petal effect). We develop a heat transfer model to relate icephobicity with heat transfer and discuss the biomimetic potential that both thermogenic and superhydrophobic plants may have for icephobicity in soft materials.

  3. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels.

  4. The optimisation of traditional fermentation process of white cabbage (in relation to biogenic amines and polyamines content and microbiological profile).

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Biljana R; Pezo, Lato L; Tasić, Tatjana; Šarić, Ljubiša; Kevrešan, Žarko; Mastilović, Jasna

    2015-02-01

    White cabbage heads cultivar "Futoški" and hybrid "Bravo" were investigated during fermentation process, for 50days, at different temperature regimes (16-18; 18-20; 20-22°C) and salt concentrations 1, 1.5 and 2%. The quantity of biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, serotonine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine), as well as microbiological profile (lactic acid bacteria, total number of microorganisms, yeasts and moulds and Enterobacteriaceae) have been determined during fermentation. The optimum processing conditions were determined by Response Surface Method, coupled with Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation algorithm. The optimal process parameters, regarding low biogenic amines and polyamines content, for "Futoški" cabbage was: salt concentration of 2%, at 18°C, and for hybrid "Bravo": salt concentration of 1%, at 20°C.

  5. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  6. Low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Last, Allen R; Wilson, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential health consequences of low-carbohydrate diets. Published long-term data are lacking. Short-term studies comparing traditional low-fat diets with low-carbohydrate diets found lower triglyceride levels, higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, similar low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and lower A1C levels in persons on low-carbohydrate diets. These diets induce greater weight loss at three and six months than traditional low-fat diets; however, by one year there is no significant difference in maintained weight loss. Weight loss is directly related to calorie content and the ability to maintain caloric restriction; the proportions of nutrients in the diet are irrelevant. Low-carbohydrate diets had lower dropout rates than low-fat diets in several studies, possibly because of the high protein content and low glycemic index, which can be appetite suppressing. Data indicate that low-carbohydrate diets are a safe, reasonable alternative to low-fat diets for weight loss. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of these and other approaches to weight loss.

  7. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB1=68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs.

  8. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  9. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting ... not — diet this way. Why? Let's find out. Dieting to Lose Weight All foods and many drinks ...

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  11. Isolation and gene expression analysis of a papain-type cysteine protease in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko, Hiromi; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-01-01

    Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) spadices contain abundant transcripts for cysteine protease (CP). From thermogenic spadices, we isolated SrCPA, a highly expressed CP gene that encoded a papain-type CP. SrCPA is structurally similar to other plant CPs, including the senescence-associated CPs found in aroids. The expression of SrCPA increased during floral development, and was observed in all floral tissues except for the stamens.

  12. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) AFTER CONTINUOUS SEEDLING BREEDING.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Wang, X L; Guo, M H; Zhang, Y W

    2015-08-01

    Vernalization plays a key role in the bolting and flowering of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Plants can switch from vegetative to reproductive growth and then bolt and flower under low temperature induction. The economic benefits of Chinese cabbage will decline significantly when the bolting happens before the vegetative body fully grows due to a lack of the edible value. It was found that continuous seedling breeding reduced the heading of Chinese cabbage and led to bolt and flower more easily. In the present study, two inbred lines, termed A161 and A105, were used as experiment materials. These two lines were subjected to vernalization and formed four types: seeds-seedling breeding once, seedling breeding twice, seedling breeding thrice and normal type. Differences in plant phenotype were compared. DNA methylation analysis was performed based on MSAP method. The differential fragments were cloned and analyzed by qPCR. Results showed that plants after seedling breeding thrice had a loosen heading leaves, elongated center axis and were easier to bolt and flower. It is suggested that continuous seedling breeding had a weaker winterness. It was observed that genome methylation level decreased with increasing generation. Four differential genes were identified, short for BraAPC1, BraEMP3, BraUBC26, and BraAL5. Fluorescent qPCR analysis showed that expression of four genes varied at different reproduction modes and different vernalization time. It is indicated that these genes might be involve in the development and regulation of bolting and flowering of plants. Herein, the molecular mechanism that continuous seedling breeding caused weaker winterness was analyzed preliminarily. It plays an important guiding significance for Chinese cabbage breeding.

  13. Tri-trophic effects of inter- and intra-population variation in defence chemistry of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; van Dam, Nicole M; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Bullock, James M; Gols, Rieta

    2011-06-01

    The effect of direct chemical defences in plants on the performance of insect herbivores and their natural enemies has received increasing attention over the past 10 years. However, much less is known about the scale at which this variation is generated and maintained, both within and across populations of the same plant species. This study compares growth and development of the large cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious pupal parasitoid, Pteromalus puparum, on three wild populations [Kimmeridge (KIM), Old Harry (OH) and Winspit (WIN)] and two cultivars [Stonehead (ST), and Cyrus (CYR)] of cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The wild populations originate from the coast of Dorset, UK, but grow in close proximity with one another. Insect performance and chemical profiles were made from every plant used in the experiment. Foliar glucosinolates (GS) concentrations were highest in the wild plants in rank order WIN > OH > KIM, with lower levels found in the cultivars. Caterpillar-damaged leaves in the wild cabbages also had higher GS levels than undamaged leaves. Pupal mass in P. brassicae varied significantly among populations of B. oleracea. Moreover, development time in the host and parasitoid were correlated, even though these stages are temporally separated. Parasitoid adult dry mass closely approximated the development of its host. Multivariate statistics revealed a correlation between pupal mass and development time of P. brassicae and foliar GS chemistry, of which levels of neoglucobrassicin appeared to be the most important. Our results show that there is considerable variation in quantitative aspects of defensive chemistry in wild cabbage plants that is maintained at very small spatial scales in nature. Moreover, the performance of the herbivore and its parasitoid were both affected by differences in plant quality.

  14. BrpSPL9 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis SPL9) controls the earliness of heading time in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Feijie; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2014-04-01

    The leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea ssp. gemmifera) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) comprise extremely incurved leaves that are edible vegetable products. The heading time is important for high quality and yield of these crops. Here, we report that BrpSPL9-2 (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Quantitative measurements of leaf shapes, sizes, colour and curvature indicated that heading is a late adult phase of vegetative growth. During the vegetative period, miR156 levels gradually decreased from the seedling stage to the heading one, whereas BrpSPL9-2 and BrpSPL15-1 mRNAs increased progressively and reached the highest levels at the heading stage. Overexpression of a mutated miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9-2 caused the significant earliness of heading, concurrent with shortening of the seedling and rosette stages. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed the folding time, concomitant with prolongation of the seedling and rosette stages. Morphological analysis reveals that the significant earliness of heading in the transgenic plants overexpressing BrpSPL9-2 gene was produced because the juvenile phase was absent and the early adult phase shortened, whereas the significant delay of folding in the transgenic plants overexpressing Brp-MIR156a was due to prolongation of the juvenile and early adult phases. Thus, miR156 and BrpSPL9 genes are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops.

  15. Control of Verticillium Yellows in Chinese Cabbage by the Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus LtVB3.

    PubMed

    Narisawa, K; Usuki, F; Hashiba, T

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Three hundred forty-nine fungal endophytes were obtained from a total of 1,214 root segments of eggplant, melon, barley, and Chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Three of the 349 isolates, when inoculated in axenically reared Chinese cabbage seedlings grown in petri dishes, almost completely suppressed the effects of a postinoculated and virulent strain of Verticillium longisporum. Two isolates effective against the pathogen were Phialocephala fortinii, which had been obtained from the roots of eggplant and Chinese cabbage. The third isolate was a dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus obtained from barley roots. Hyphae of P. fortinii grew along the surface of the root and formed microsclerotia on or in the epidermal layer. Hyphae of the DSE fungus heavily colonized root cells of the cortex. Seedlings grown for 1 week in the presence of the endophytes were then challenged with the Verticillium pathogen. In DSE-treated roots, some of cell walls in the epidermal and cortical layers showed cell wall appositions and thickenings, which appeared to limit the ingress of the pathogen into adjacent cells. Such marked host reactions were not observed in the root cells colonized by P. fortinii. Chinese cabbage preinoculated with the above endophytes and, for comparison, a previously reported disease-suppressive fungal endophyte, Heteroconium chaetospira, were transplanted into the field and disease symptoms were assessed. The DSE could most effectively inhibit the development of Verticillium yellows, with reductions in the percentages of external and internal disease symptoms of 84 and 88%, respectively. The protective values against the disease are extremely high compared with those of other isolates. Most of the DSE-treated plants in the plots achieved marketable quality.

  16. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  17. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production.

  18. Functional coexpression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein underlies thermoregulation in the thermogenic florets of skunk cabbage.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Kato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Yukie; Ito, Takanori; Morohashi, Miyuki; Ito, Yuka; Ichikawa, Megumi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2008-02-01

    Two distinct mitochondrial energy dissipating systems, alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP), have been implicated as crucial components of thermogenesis in plants and animals, respectively. To further clarify the physiological roles of AOX and UCP during homeothermic heat production in the thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), we identified the thermogenic cells and performed expression and functional analyses of these genes in this organism. Thermographic analysis combined with in situ hybridization revealed that the putative thermogenic cells surround the stamens in the florets of skunk cabbage and coexpress transcripts for SrAOX, encoding Symplocarpus AOX, and SrUCPb, encoding a novel UCP that lacks a fifth transmembrane segment. Mitochondria isolated from the thermogenic florets exhibited substantial linoleic acid (LA)-inducible uncoupling activities. Moreover, our results demonstrate that LA is capable of inhibiting the mitochondrial AOX pathway, whereas the proportion of pyruvate-stimulated AOX capacity was not significantly affected by LA. Intriguingly, the protein expression levels for SrAOX and SrUCPb were unaffected even when the ambient air temperatures increased from 10.3 degrees C to 23.1 degrees C or from 8.3 degrees C to 24.9 degrees C. Thus, our results suggest that functional coexpression of AOX and UCP underlies the molecular basis of heat production, and that posttranslational modifications of these proteins play a crucial role in regulating homeothermic heat production under conditions of natural ambient temperature fluctuations in skunk cabbage.

  19. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  20. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qian; Li, Jingjuan; Wang, Fengde; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%), amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5%) showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26504770

  1. Chemical elements in common vegetable components of Portuguese diets, determined by k0-INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Ventura, M. G.; Dionísio, I.; Ermakova, E.

    2006-08-01

    Vegetables play an important role in national diets, as a side dish to many a main-course fare the whole year round, and, especially in what concerns raw lettuce and tomato, with a higher seasonal rate of consumption during summer months, as associated to the traditional charcoal-grilled sardines. In March 2004, lettuces, tomatoes, carrots and cabbages of Portuguese origin (except for the carrots from one site) were purchased from large commercial areas or central markets of two central and southern regional hubs, respectively Coimbra and Évora. Even if from different growers, all vegetables had come from horticultural plots in the same general area of western Portugal, north of Lisboa. For lettuce plants, the inner leaves were separated from the external ones and processed as different samples for further analysis. In this work, the reactor and detector parameters were re-evaluated for the new IAEA k0-INAA software. Quality assessment was obtained through analysis of IAEA-359 (cabbage material) and BCR-679 (Bowen's kale). Traces of hazardous elements—namely, antimony, arsenic and bromine—could be found throughout, and, for lettuce samples, the overall results indicate that outer leaves feature higher concentrations than inner ones. Interestingly enough, vegetables from Coimbra and Évora appeared to differ from each other in their elemental levels, even if originally grown at relatively close range. Concentrations of trace elements are compared to available data from other countries' cultivars.

  2. Administration of different Lactobacillus strains in fermented oatmeal soup: in vivo colonization of human intestinal mucosa and effect on the indigenous flora.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, M L; Molin, G; Jeppsson, B; Nobaek, S; Ahrné, S; Bengmark, S

    1993-01-01

    In vivo colonization by different Lactobacillus strains on human intestinal mucosa of healthy volunteers was studied together with the effect of Lactobacillus administration on different groups of indigenous bacteria. A total of 19 test strains were administered in fermented oatmeal soup containing 5 x 10(6) CFU of each strain per ml by using a dose of 100 ml of soup per day for 10 days. Biopsies were taken from both the upper jejunum and the rectum 1 day before administration was started and 1 and 11 days after administration was terminated. The administration significantly increased the Lactobacillus counts on the jejunum mucosa, and high levels remained 11 days after administration was terminated. The levels of streptococci increased by 10- to 100-fold in two persons, and the levels of sulfite-reducing clostridia in the jejunum decreased by 10- to 100-fold in three of the volunteers 1 day after administration was terminated. In recta, the anaerobic bacterium counts and the gram-negative anaerobic bacterium counts decreased significantly by the end of administration. Furthermore, a decrease in the number of members of the Enterobacteriaceae by 1,000-fold was observed on the rectal mucosa of two persons. Randomly picked Lactobacillus isolates were identified phenotypically by API 50CH tests and genotypically by the plasmid profiles of strains and by restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8439146

  3. A first study comparing preservation of a ready-to-eat soup under pressure (hyperbaric storage) at 25°C and 30°C with refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sílvia A; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Duarte, Ricardo; Santos, Diana I; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Santos, Mauro D; Queirós, Rui P; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Hyperbaric storage (HS), storage under pressure at 25°C and 30°C, of a ready-to-eat (RTE) soup was studied and compared with refrigeration. Soup was stored at different time (4 and 8 h), temperature (4°C, 25°C, and 30°C), and pressure (0.1, 100, and 150 MPa) conditions, to compare microbial loads and physicochemical parameters. HS resulted in similar (microbial growth inhibition) to better (microbial inactivation) results compared to refrigeration, leading to equal and lower microbial loads, respectively, at the end of storage. Lower/higher pressure (100 vs. 150 MPa) and shorter/longer storage times (4 vs. 8 h) resulted in more pronounced microbial growth inhibition/microbial inactivation. Aerobic mesophiles showed less susceptibility to HS, compared to Enterobacteriaceae and yeast and molds. HS maintained generally the physicochemical parameters at values similar to refrigeration. Thus, HS with no need for temperature control throughout storage and so basically energetically costless, is a potential alternative to refrigeration.

  4. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  5. Thallium at the interface of soil and green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.): soil-plant transfer and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanlong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zhou, Guangzhu; Ning, Zengping

    2013-04-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic trace metal found in many plants, but it can accumulate at particularly high concentration in green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). The aim of this study is to explore the transfer and accumulation of Tl at the interface of rhizospheric soil and green cabbage from a long-term Tl contaminated site in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. Influencing factors such as Tl distribution in various soil fractions and physical-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soil were also investigated. Our results demonstrated that green cabbage had high accumulation of Tl, with most bioconcentration factor (BF) values exceeding 1, and up to a maximum level of 11. The enrichment of Tl in the green cabbage tissues followed a descending order, i.e. old leaves>fresh leaves>stems≈roots. The stems functioned as a channel for Tl transportation to the leaves, where most of the Tl (greater than 80%) was found to accumulate. In the rhizospheric soils, 62-95% of Tl existed in the residual fraction, while lower concentrations of Tl (on average, 1.7% of total T1 in rhizospheric soil) were found in the water and acid soluble fractions. The major fraction of labile Tl was located in the reducible fraction (9%). Our results also suggested that the uptake and enrichment of Tl in green cabbage were affected by Tl concentrations, soil water content, soil pH, soil organic material (SOM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in rhizospheric soil.

  6. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders.

  7. [Eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbages in soils].

    PubMed

    Song, Yufang; Xu, Huaxia; Ren, Liping; Gong, Ping; Zhou, Qixing

    2002-01-30

    The Eco-toxicity effects of individual Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbages (Brassica pekimensis) were tested in four types of soils (red loam soils, meadow brown soils, chestnut soils and dark brown soils) and water solution. The combined effects of heavy metals pollution were determined with meadow brown soils. Results indicated that with same concentration, the inhibition rates of heavy metals on root elongation of Chinese cabbages are stronger than that on the seed germination. The inhibition effects of heavy metals on the root elongation of Chinese cabbages in soils are much lower than that in water, indicating that soils play an important role of buffering on heavy metals pollution. Inhibition rates of heavy metals on the root elongation (IRHMRE) of Chinese cabbages are significantly negative related with the contents of organic matter (OR) and Kjedahl-nitrogen (K-N) in soils, however, there is no significant related between IRHMRE and soil pH, so does the content of T-K. In the concentrations that result in the irritated effect in the single form of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution, synergic effects are produced significantly when four heavy metals are combined. As the results, the threshold values that result in the inhibition effects on root elongation in Chinese cabbages decrease markedly.

  8. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour. PMID:26353086

  9. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  10. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 protein from white cabbage butterfly.

    PubMed

    Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Marimuthu, Satheesh Kumar; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Zhang, Wenqing; Subramanian, Selvi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, caspase-dependent apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 gene was identified and characterized from cabbage white butterfly, Pieris canidia. A thousand-fold increase in expression of pierisin-5 gene was observed from second to third instar larvae, gradually decreasing before pupation. Pierisin-5 was purified from the fifth-instar larvae and was found to exhibit cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Pierisin-5 showed growth inhibition and several morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation with programmed cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was observed after gel electrophoresis analysis. Caspase substrate assay showed further cleavage of Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting the activation of Caspase-3. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in cancer cell lines treated with pierisin-5. These findings suggest that pierisin-5 could significantly induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines and is mediated by activation of caspase-3 in the mitochondrial pathway. Phylogenetic analysis using pierisin proteins from Pierid butterflies, ADP-ribosylating toxins from bacteria, human, rat, and mouse indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer of pierisin genes from bacteria to butterflies. The single copy of pierisin gene unlike other insect toxin genes also supports lateral transfer.

  11. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  12. Genetic analysis of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a seasonal migrant in western North America

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Michelle T; Ritland, Carol E; Myers, Judith H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range migrations of many wind-borne noctuid moths will have been influenced by the expansion of agriculture that provides greater availability of food plants along the migratory route. The migratory, agricultural pest, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) over-winters in southern California and each summer migrates as far north as British Columbia. We explored the degree of genetic connectivity of populations over this migratory range. Preliminary investigation of seven mitochondrial gene regions found little to no variation among 13 populations, while partial regions of the NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 in 42 individuals revealed eight and six haplotypes, respectively. The pattern of haplotype distribution indicated genetic homogeneity of persistent populations in California but weak differentiation among populations further north. Four highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations generated 167 polymorphic bands, with heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.250 to 0.302. Pairwise FST values and clustering analyses also showed similarty among populations in California with some differentiation among populations initiated from the annual migration. Overall, some differentiation occurs among temporary, annual migratory populations but no pattern occurs with distance from the source population. Population subdivision in British Columbia associated with greenhouses has the greatest impact on genetic differentiation. PMID:25567955

  13. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  14. [Research on spectra recognition method for cabbages and weeds based on PCA and SIMCA].

    PubMed

    Zu, Qin; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of weed identification, the difference of spectral reflectance was employed to distinguish between crops and weeds. Firstly, the different combinations of Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolutional derivation and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) method were applied to preprocess the raw spectral data. Then the clustering analysis of various types of plants was completed by using principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the feature wavelengths which were sensitive for classifying various types of plants were extracted according to the corresponding loading plots of the optimal principal components in PCA results. Finally, setting the feature wavelengths as the input variables, the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification method was used to identify the various types of plants. The experimental results of classifying cabbages and weeds showed that on the basis of the optimal pretreatment by a synthetic application of MSC and SG convolutional derivation with SG's parameters set as 1rd order derivation, 3th degree polynomial and 51 smoothing points, 23 feature wavelengths were extracted in accordance with the top three principal components in PCA results. When SIMCA method was used for classification while the previously selected 23 feature wavelengths were set as the input variables, the classification rates of the modeling set and the prediction set were respectively up to 98.6% and 100%.

  15. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (p<0.05). Carotenoid bioaccessibility did not differ significantly between Prunus vs. Brassicaceae varieties, but xanthophyll was higher than carotene bioaccessibility (p<0.01). Polyphenol bioaccessibility was low (<10%), possibly compromised by the cream containing test meal. Total carotenoid cellular uptake varied between varieties (0.3-4.1%), being higher for carotenes (4.1%) than for xanthophylls (1.6%, p<0.01), and were higher for the co-culture cell model compared to Caco-2 cells (p<0.01). Total carotenoid recovery in the colonic fraction varied from 4% to 25%. Lower bioaccessibility of carotenes thus appeared to be somewhat counterbalanced by higher cellular uptake. The potential positive role of the mucus layer for cellular uptake and the fate of the colonic digesta deserve further attention in the future.

  16. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  17. Decarboxylation and transport of auxin in segments of sunflower and cabbage roots.

    PubMed

    Iversen, T H; Aasheim, T

    1970-12-01

    The movement of (14)C from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (14)C has been examined in 5 mm root segments of dark-grown seedlings of Helianthus annuus and Brassica oleracea. Contaminants from distilled water, phosphate buffer and the razor-blade cutter increase the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C, and cutting of root segments results in an activation of IAA-destroying enzymes at the cut surfaces. When these sources of errors were eliminated the following was shown: a) Both in sunflower and cabbage there is a slight acropetal flux of (14)C through the root segments into the agar receiver blocks. The amount of (14)C found in the receiver blocks increases with the lenght of the transport period. b) When the root segments, after the transport period, are cut in two equal parts and these assayed separately, the amounts of (14)C in the two parts indicate a greater acropetal than basipetal transport. c) The total radioactivity of the receiver blocks is in part due to IAA-(14)C and in part to (14)CO2, the latter being a result of enzymatic destruction of auxin. d) Addition of ferulic acid, an inhibitor of IAA oxidases, to the receiver blocks markedly inhibits the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C and thus increases the amount transported. This effect is more pronounced after a 20 hr than after a 6 hr transport period.

  18. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  19. Red cabbage anthocyanins as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Saluk, Joanna; Bijak, Michal; Posmyk, Malgorzata M; Zbikowska, Halina M

    2015-09-01

    LPS is a Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin, which is an important pro-inflammatory agent. Blood platelets take part both in inflammatory processes and in pathogenesis of septic shock following accumulation of LPS. As a platelet agonist LPS causes the intraplatelet overproduction of ROS/RNS that are responsible for adverse modifications in the structure of platelet compounds being associated with a development of platelet-dependent diseases. Existing evidence suggests that anthocyanins (ATH) are able to protect the circulatory system. The antioxidative properties of ATH are believed to be mainly responsible for their positive health effects. The main goal of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential protective properties of red cabbage ATH against oxidative damage induced by LPS in blood platelets. Exposure of platelets to LPS resulted in carbonyl group increase, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, lipid peroxidation and O2(•-) generation. We have shown that ATH extract effectively decreased oxidative stress induced by LPSs. The in silico analysis demonstrated that both cyanin and LPS were located at the same region of human TLR4-MD-2 complex. Our findings suggest that there could be two-way ATH platelet protection mechanism, by their antioxidant properties and directly by binding with TLRs.

  20. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  1. Roseomonas soli sp. nov., isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, designated 5N26(T), was isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Cells of this strain were Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods, and catalase- and urease-negative. The major fatty acids of strain 5N26(T) were C16 : 0 (7.5 %), C18 : 1 2-OH (13.4 %) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω6c and/or C18:1ω7c; 63.2%). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5N26(T) was 68.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5N26(T) was phylogenetically related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (97.0 % and 96.6 % sequence similarity, respectively). The results of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain 5N26(T) could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that this strain represented a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain 5N26(T) = KACC 16376(T) = NBRC 109097(T)) is proposed.

  2. Plant Bioelectric Potential of Hard-leaf Cabbage to Irradiation-light Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Masaki; Shao, Lixin; Oyabu, Takashi; Nanto, Hidehito

    Bioelectric potential was investigated to examine the availability of vegetable growth control. The potential is a kind of information transmitted by the vegetable and it varies markedly with one’s physiological phenomenon, light, air contaminant and insect which are external factors. Highly-efficient growth control can be made possible due to clarifying the relationship between the external factors and the potential. Vegetable can be used as a sensor in addition. A hard-leaf cabbage (Ancient specie) was adopted as a subjective plant in this study and the bioelectric potential was measured. The analysis was carried out using the summation of the potential (vm1) for one minute. The data was input every 0.1 seconds through a difference amplifier. The potential characteristic was investigated as a function of light frequency emitting from a LED panel. In addition, the potential was studied when ethyl alcohol existed and not existed as an air contaminant. As a result, it becomes obvious that the vm1 is raised when blue and red lights are irradiated. The lights mainly contribute to photosynthesis. The potential increases in the presence of ethyl alcohol which was adopted as a kind of nutrient.

  3. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  4. Evaluation of phytoavailability of heavy metals to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in rural soils.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  5. Purification of peroxidase from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Somtürk, Burcu; Kalın, Ramazan; Özdemir, Nalan

    2014-08-01

    Peroxidase was purified in a single step using 4-amino benzohydrazide affinity chromatography from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), and some important biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme were determined. The enzyme, with a specific activity of 3,550 EU/mg protein, was purified 120.6-fold with a yield of 2.9% from the synthesized affinity matrix. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 69.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. For guaiacol substrate, the K m and V max values were found as 0.048 mM and 1.46 EU/mL/min, respectively. Additionally, the IC50 and K i values for 4-amino benzohydrazide were calculated to be 1.047 and 0.702±0.05 mM, respectively, and 4-amino benzohydrazide showed noncompetitive inhibition.

  6. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  7. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops to Mamestra brassicae.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Lema, M; Soengas, P; Velasco, P

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-one cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) varieties, including 16 local varieties and five commercial hybrids, were screened for resistance to the moth Mamestra brassicae L. under natural and artificial conditions in northwestern Spain. Resistance was assessed as the proportion of damaged plants and damaged leaves, leaf feeding injury, and number of larvae present. Correlation coefficients among damage traits showed that a visual scale (general appearance rating) should be a useful indicator of resistance. Most local varieties were highly susceptible to M. brassicae, whereas the commercial hybrids tested were resistant in terms of head foliage consumption and number of larvae per plant. Performance of varieties was similar under natural and artificial infestation although some of them performed differently at each year. Three local varieties (MBG-BRS0057, MBG-BRS0074, and MBG-BRS0452) were highly susceptible at both natural and artificial infestation conditions being MBG-BRS0074 the most damaged variety. Two local varieties (MBG-BRS0402 and MBG-BRS0535) and commercial hybrids were identified as resistant or moderately resistant to M. brassicae. Among them, 'Corazón de Buey' and 'Cabeza negra' were the most resistant and produced compact heads. These varieties could be useful sources of resistance to obtain resistant varieties to M. brassicae or as donors of resistance to other Brassica crops. The possible role of leaf traits, head compactness, and leaf glucosinolate content in relation to M. brassicae resistance is discussed.

  8. Effect of the pasteurization process on the contents of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the pasteurization process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. Pasteurization was run at a temperature of 80 °C for 5-30 min. Significant changes were only observed in contents of ascorbigen and 3,3'-diindolylmethane. The total content of the compounds analyzed in cabbage pasteurized for 10-30 min was found to be decreased by ca. 20%, and the losses were due to thermal degradation of the predominating ascorbigen. Pasteurization was found not to exert any considerable effect on contents of indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-carbinol in cabbage nor did it affect contents of the compounds analyzed in juice.

  9. Microspore Induced Doubled Haploids Production from Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) Soaked Flower Buds Is an Efficient Strategy for Mutagenesis in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yin; Dai, Shuangyan; Gu, Aixia; Liu, Mengyang; Wang, Yanhua; Luo, Shuangxia; Zhao, Yujing; Wang, Shan; Xuan, Shuxin; Chen, Xueping; Li, Xiaofeng; Bonnema, Guusje; Zhao, Jianjun; Shen, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four color-related genes were identified using high resolution melting (HRM) curves of their PCR products. The greatest embryo production and seedling rates were observed when buds were treated with 0.03 to 0.1% EMS for 5 to 10 min, while EMS concentrations greater than 0.1% were lethal to the microspores. In total, 142 mutants with distinct variations in leaf shape, leaf color, corolla size, flower color, bolting time and downy mildew resistance were identified from 475 microspore culture derived Doubled Haploids. Our results demonstrate that microspore derived Doubled Haploids from EMS soaked buds represents an efficient approach to rapidly generate homozygous Chinese cabbage mutants. PMID:28018368

  10. Pyruvate-sensitive AOX exists as a non-covalently associated dimer in the homeothermic spadix of the skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Kato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Yukie; Ito, Takanori; Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Morohashi, Miyuki; Ito, Yuka; Ichikawa, Megumi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Otsuka, Minoru; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2007-12-22

    The cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase (AOX) is a homodimeric protein whose activity can be regulated by the oxidation/reduction state and by alpha-keto acids. To further clarify the role of AOX in the skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius, we have performed expression and functional analyses of the encoding gene. Among the various tissues in the skunk cabbage, SrAOX transcripts were found to be specifically expressed in the thermogenic spadix. Moreover, our data demonstrate that the SrAOX protein exists as a non-covalently associated dimer in the thermogenic spadix, and is more sensitive to pyruvate than to other carboxylic acids. Our results suggest that the pyruvate-mediated modification of SrAOX activity plays a significant role in thermoregulation in the skunk cabbage.

  11. Microspore Induced Doubled Haploids Production from Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) Soaked Flower Buds Is an Efficient Strategy for Mutagenesis in Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Dai, Shuangyan; Gu, Aixia; Liu, Mengyang; Wang, Yanhua; Luo, Shuangxia; Zhao, Yujing; Wang, Shan; Xuan, Shuxin; Chen, Xueping; Li, Xiaofeng; Bonnema, Guusje; Zhao, Jianjun; Shen, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four color-related genes were identified using high resolution melting (HRM) curves of their PCR products. The greatest embryo production and seedling rates were observed when buds were treated with 0.03 to 0.1% EMS for 5 to 10 min, while EMS concentrations greater than 0.1% were lethal to the microspores. In total, 142 mutants with distinct variations in leaf shape, leaf color, corolla size, flower color, bolting time and downy mildew resistance were identified from 475 microspore culture derived Doubled Haploids. Our results demonstrate that microspore derived Doubled Haploids from EMS soaked buds represents an efficient approach to rapidly generate homozygous Chinese cabbage mutants.

  12. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  13. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... help lower blood pressure. To follow the DASH diet for weight loss, you eat plenty of: Non-starchy vegetables and ... Waugh R, Sherwood A. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in ... loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men ...

  14. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up…

  15. Soup-Can Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randall D.

    2004-01-01

    In these studies, a vegetable can containing fluid was swung as a pendulum by supporting its end-lips with a pair of knife edges. The motion was measured with a capacitive sensor and the logarithmic decrement in free decay was estimated from computer-collected records. Measurements performed with nine different homogeneous liquids, distributed…

  16. Impact of boiling on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of green vegetables consumed in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Vinha, Ana F; Alves, Rita C; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-04-01

    The effect of boiling (10 minutes) on eleven green vegetables frequently consumed in the Mediterranean diet was evaluated. For that, some physicochemical parameters and the contents of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity, were determined in raw and boiled samples. The raw vegetables analysed in this study were good sources of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, with contents ranging from 10.6 to 255.1 mg/100 g, 0.03 to 3.29 mg/100 g and 202.9 to 1010.7 mg/100 g, respectively. Boiling promoted losses in different extensions considering both the different bioactive compounds and the distinct vegetables analysed. Contrary to phenolics (more resistant), vitamin C was the most affected compound. Boiling also originated significant losses in the antioxidant activity of the vegetables. Considering all the parameters analysed, the vegetables most affected by boiling were broccoli and lettuce. The least affected ones were collard and tronchuda cabbage.

  17. Complete genome of Pieris rapae, a resilient alien, a cabbage pest, and a source of anti-cancer proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Kinch, Lisa N; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-01-01

    The Small Cabbage White ( Pieris rapae) is originally a Eurasian butterfly. Being accidentally introduced into North America, Australia, and New Zealand a century or more ago, it spread throughout the continents and rapidly established as one of the most abundant butterfly species. Although it is a serious pest of cabbage and other mustard family plants with its caterpillars reducing crops to stems, it is also a source of pierisin, a protein unique to the Whites that shows cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To better understand the unusual biology of this omnipresent agriculturally and medically important butterfly, we sequenced and annotated the complete genome from USA specimens. At 246 Mbp, it is among the smallest Lepidoptera genomes reported to date. While 1.5% positions in the genome are heterozygous, they are distributed highly non-randomly along the scaffolds, and nearly 20% of longer than 1000 base-pair segments are SNP-free (median length: 38000 bp). Computational simulations of population evolutionary history suggest that American populations started from a very small number of introduced individuals, possibly a single fertilized female, which is in agreement with historical literature. Comparison to other Lepidoptera genomes reveals several unique families of proteins that may contribute to the unusual resilience of Pieris. The nitrile-specifier proteins divert the plant defense chemicals to non-toxic products. The apoptosis-inducing pierisins could offer a defense mechanism against parasitic wasps. While only two pierisins from Pieris rapae were characterized before, the genome sequence revealed eight, offering additional candidates as anti-cancer drugs. The reference genome we obtained lays the foundation for future studies of the Cabbage White and other Pieridae species.

  18. Complete genome of Pieris rapae, a resilient alien, a cabbage pest, and a source of anti-cancer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    The Small Cabbage White ( Pieris rapae) is originally a Eurasian butterfly. Being accidentally introduced into North America, Australia, and New Zealand a century or more ago, it spread throughout the continents and rapidly established as one of the most abundant butterfly species. Although it is a serious pest of cabbage and other mustard family plants with its caterpillars reducing crops to stems, it is also a source of pierisin, a protein unique to the Whites that shows cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To better understand the unusual biology of this omnipresent agriculturally and medically important butterfly, we sequenced and annotated the complete genome from USA specimens. At 246 Mbp, it is among the smallest Lepidoptera genomes reported to date. While 1.5% positions in the genome are heterozygous, they are distributed highly non-randomly along the scaffolds, and nearly 20% of longer than 1000 base-pair segments are SNP-free (median length: 38000 bp). Computational simulations of population evolutionary history suggest that American populations started from a very small number of introduced individuals, possibly a single fertilized female, which is in agreement with historical literature. Comparison to other Lepidoptera genomes reveals several unique families of proteins that may contribute to the unusual resilience of Pieris. The nitrile-specifier proteins divert the plant defense chemicals to non-toxic products. The apoptosis-inducing pierisins could offer a defense mechanism against parasitic wasps. While only two pierisins from Pieris rapae were characterized before, the genome sequence revealed eight, offering additional candidates as anti-cancer drugs. The reference genome we obtained lays the foundation for future studies of the Cabbage White and other Pieridae species. PMID:28163896

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the petal degeneration mutant pdm in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Zhiyong; Yao, Runpeng; Li, Danyang; Feng, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Flowering, which plays a crucial role in the growth and development of flowering plants, is a crucial point from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. The goal of this study was to examine the differences between the transcriptomes of the Chinese cabbage mutant pdm and the corresponding wild-type line 'FT'. We performed transcriptome analysis on mRNA isolated from flower buds of pdm and 'FT' using Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. A total of 117 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. Among the DEGs, we identified a number of genes involved in floral development and flowering, including an F-box protein gene, EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), and transcription factors BIGPETAL (BPE) and MYB21 (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog); differential expression of these genes could potentially explain the difference in the flowers between pdm and 'FT'. In addition, the expression patterns of 20 DEGs, including 12 floral development and flowering-related genes and eight randomly selected genes, were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were highly concordant with the RNA-Seq results. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed to better understand the functions of these DEGs. We also identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism and insertion/deletion markers, which will be a rich resource for future marker development and breeding research in Chinese cabbage. Also, our analysis revealed numerous novel transcripts and alternative splicing events. The transcriptome analysis provides valuable information for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the flowering process, and establishes a solid foundation for future genetic and functional genomic studies in Chinese cabbage.

  20. Vapor-phase toxicity of butylbenzyl phthalate to three plant species: white mustard, chinese cabbage, and white clover.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, J W; Staples, C A; Brown, D; Enste-Diefenbach, R

    2008-08-01

    During the manufacture of products containing butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), low emissions to the air may occur. Due to potential exposure of terrestrial communities to BBP vapors, phytotoxicity tests were conducted using Chinese cabbage, white mustard, and white clover. No significant effects on shoot growth were observed at the higher BBP vapor-phase concentration tested, which measured 5.7 microg/m(3). The overall practicality of vapor-phase testing of chemicals with very low vapor pressures is reviewed. These study results suggest that environmental risk from exposure to BBP vapor is negligible for plants.

  1. Induction of Red Color Formation in Cabbage Juice by Lactobacillus brevis and Its Relationship to Pink Sauerkraut1

    PubMed Central

    Stamer, J. R.; Hrazdina, G.; Stoyla, B. O.

    1973-01-01

    Membrane-filtered cabbage juice, when fermented by Lactobacillus brevis under conditions of controlled pH, frequently produced a water-soluble red pigment. The pigment, presumably responsible for imparting a highly objectionable discoloration to sauerkraut, was formed during the post logarithmic phase of growth. Color development is pH dependent (5.2 to 6.3) and can be suppressed by chemical reductants or anaerobic conditions of growth. The compound responsible for discoloration was purified and partially characterized. PMID:16349964

  2. In vivo redox state of the ubiquinone pool in the spadices of the thermogenic skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Takashi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2009-11-01

    In vivo ubiquinone (UQ) reduction levels were determined in thermogenic stigma and post-thermogenic male stages of spadices of the skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius. In contrast to Arum maculatum, in which the UQ pool is almost fully reduced during thermogenesis, the reduction levels of UQ9 and UQ10 were not affected by the thermogenic status or developmental stage of individual S. renifolius spadices. Moreover, these levels were controlled within the ranges 40-75% and 35-60%, respectively. These results suggest that the reduction state of the UQ pool per se is not primarily involved in thermoregulation in S. renifolius.

  3. The influence of female age on male mating preference and reproductive success in cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Ping; He, Hai-Min; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2014-08-01

    The influence of female age on male mating preference and reproductive success has been studied using a promiscuous cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In a simultaneous choice test, middle-aged females had significantly greater mating success than young and old females. In single pair trials, when paired with middle-aged virgin males, middle-aged females mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and fertility than young or old females, while the longevity of males was not significantly affected by female age. This study on C. bowringi suggests that middle-aged females are more receptive to mating, which can result in the highest male reproductive success.

  4. Molecular and functional properties of three different peroxiredoxin isotypes in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Jung, Young Jun; Shin, Mi Rim; Park, Jung Hoon; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Lee, Eun Seon; Kim, Kang-San; Paeng, Seol Ki; Kim, Woe Yeon; Lee, Kyun Oh; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), which are classified into three isotypes in plants, play important roles in protection systems as peroxidases or molecular chaperones. The three Prx isotypes of Chinese cabbage, namely C1C-Prx, C2C-Prx, and C-PrxII, have recently been identified and characterized. The present study compares their molecular properties and biochemical functions to gain insights into their concerted roles in plants. The three Prx isotype genes were differentially expressed in tissue- and developmental stage-specific manners. The transcript level of the C1C-Prx gene was abundant at the seed stage, but rapidly decreased after imbibitions. In contrast, the C2C-Prx transcript was not detected in the seeds, but its expression level increased at germination and was maintained thereafter. The C-PrxII transcript level was mild at the seed stage, rapidly increased for 10 days after imbibitions, and gradually disappeared thereafter. In the localization analysis using GFP-fusion proteins, the three isotypes showed different cellular distributions. C1C-Prx was localized in the cytosol and nucleus, whereas C2C-Prx and C-Prx were found mainly in the chloroplast and cytosol, respectively. In vitro thiol-dependent antioxidant assays revealed that the relative peroxidase activities of the isotypes were CPrxII > C2C-Prx > C1C-Prx. C1C-Prx and C2C-Prx, but not C-PrxII, prevented aggregation of malate dehydrogenase as a molecular chaperone. Taken together, these results suggest that the three isotypes of Prx play specific roles in the cells in timely and spatially different manners, but they also cooperate with each other to protect the plant.

  5. Safety evaluations on ethanolic extract of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Sankhari, Jayanta M; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    The present study has carried out safety evaluations on an ethanolic extract of red cabbage (RC) leaves in terms of acute and subchronic oral toxicity tests as per Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines in Swiss albino mice. Single-dose administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice did not manifest toxicity or any significant adverse behavioral alterations. Chronic administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 d also did not register any significant alterations in fluid intake, organ weights, plasma lipid profile, plasma creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine, electrolytes, and calcium levels, and the total blood count showed a nonsignificant change. However, significant reduction in body-weight gain, food intake, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin content along with higher alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and urea levels was observed in mice treated with 3000 mg/kg body weight for 28 d. Since there was no mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) could not be determined, and hence, it can be assumed that, LD(50) of RC extract is >5000 mg/kg. No observable adverse effect level dose of the RC extract was found to be 2000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, consumption of RC extract for various medicinal purposes is safe. Practical Application: RC is a popularly consumed foodstuff that has been ubiquitously reported to exert medicinal properties. It is mandatory to understand the highest permissible consumption limit of any food supplement to avoid toxicity. This study establishes the safe dose of RC. These results can be of relevance for the scientific fraternity as well as laymen who consume this vegetable or its phytochemical preparation.

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Miaomiao; Lv, Honghao; Ma, Jian; Xu, Donghui; Li, Hailong; Yang, Limei; Kang, Jungen; Wang, Xiaowu; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    FOC resistance in cabbage. PMID:26849436

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Roots.

    PubMed

    Xing, Miaomiao; Lv, Honghao; Ma, Jian; Xu, Donghui; Li, Hailong; Yang, Limei; Kang, Jungen; Wang, Xiaowu; Fang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    FOC resistance in cabbage.

  8. Paenibacillus brassicae sp. nov., isolated from cabbage rhizosphere in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Miao; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Ji; Liu, Jun; Sun, Yan-hua; Wang, Yu-jiong; Sun, Jian-guang

    2013-03-01

    A novel Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, spore-forming, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain 112(T), was isolated from cabbage rhizosphere in Beijing, China. The strain was found to grow at 10-40 °C and pH 4-11, with an optimum of 30 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain 112(T) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus. High levels of 16S rRNA gene similarities were found between strain 112(T), Paenibacillus sabinae DSM 17841(T) (97.82 %) and Paenibacillus forsythiae DSM 17842(T) (97.22 %). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 112(T) and the type strains of these two species were 10.36 and 6.28 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone was found to be menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown aminophospholipids. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 55.4 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the value of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain 112(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus brassicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 112(T) (= ACCC 01125(T) = DSM 24983(T)).

  9. Does Aphid Infestation Interfere with Indirect Plant Defense against Lepidopteran Caterpillars in Wild Cabbage?

    PubMed

    Li, Yehua; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Chamontri, Surachet; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta

    2017-04-12

    Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids. Using plants originating from three chemically distinct wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, Diadegma semiclausum switched preference for dually infested plants to preference for plants infested with Plutella xylostella hosts alone when the duration of pre-aphid infestation doubled from 7 to 14 days. Microplitis mediator, a parasitoid of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars, preferred dually-infested plants irrespective of aphid-infestation duration. Separation of the volatile blends emitted by plants infested with hosts plus aphids or with hosts only was poor, based on multivariate statistics. However, emission rates of individual compounds were often reduced in plants infested with aphids plus hosts compared to those emitted by plants infested with hosts alone. This effect depended on host caterpillar species and plant population and was little affected by aphid infestation duration. Thus, the interactive effect of aphids and hosts on plant volatile production and parasitoid attraction can be dynamic and parasitoid specific. The characteristics of the multi-component volatile blends that determine parasitoid attraction are too complex to be deduced from simple correlative statistical analyses.

  10. Microbial Community Structure of Korean Cabbage Kimchi and Ingredients with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Wook; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Hae-Won; Yang, Ji-Hee; Lee, Mi-Ai

    2016-06-28

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, the production of which involves brining of Korean cabbage, blending with various other ingredients (red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, salt-pickled seafood, etc.), and fermentation. Recently, kimchi has also become popular in the Western world because of its unique taste and beneficial properties such as antioxidant and antimutagenic activities, which are derived from the various raw materials and secondary metabolites of the fermentative microorganisms used during production. Despite these useful activities, analysis of the microbial community present in kimchi has received relatively little attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacterial community structure from the raw materials, additives, and final kimchi product using the culture-independent method. Specifically, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the 16S rRNA partial sequences of the microflora. One primer set for bacteria, 341F(GC)-518R, reliably produced amplicons from kimchi and its raw materials, and these bands were clearly separated on a 35-65% denaturing gradient gel. Overall, 117 16S rRNA fragments were identified by PCR-DGGE analysis. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc gelidum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant bacteria in kimchi. The other strains identified were Tetragenococcus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, and uncultured bacterium. Comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms could provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of kimchi and help improve its quality. PCR-DGGE analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or other species.

  11. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  12. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls.

  13. Diet Therapy Career Ladder, AFSC 926XO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    diet . On the other hand, first-termers in AFSC tend to have experience with more types of thera- peutic diets , such as gluten restricted, high...DENTAL SOFT DIET 96 95 95 DIABETIC DIET 96 95 96 k FAT CONTROLLED, CHOLESTEROL RESTRICTED DIET 91 92 92 FAT FREE TEST DIET 60 71 70 FAT RESTRICTED DIET ...ELIMINATION DIET 36 45 46 CARBOHYDRATE TEST DIET , 150GM AND 300GM 40 62 69 - GLUTEN RESTRICTED DIET 30 40 55 . HIGH POTASSIUM DIET

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Piperine, Capsaicin, and Dihydrocapsaicin in Korean Instant-Noodle (Ramyun) Soup Base Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.

    PubMed

    Shim, You-Shin; Kim, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Seung-Weon

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous analytical method for piperine, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin in Korean instant-noodle soup base using HPLC was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and linearity. The HPLC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm particle size, 4.6 mm id, 250 mm length) using a UV detector fixed at 280 nm. The LOD and LOQ of the HPLC analyses ranged from 0.25 to 1.03 mg/kg. The intraday and interday precisions of the individual piperine, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin were <10.55%, and the recovery values ranged from 85.43 to 94.68%. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r(2) = 0.999) within the tested ranges. These results suggest that the analytical method in this study can be used to classify Korean instant noodles based on their levels of spiciness.

  15. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  16. Rhizosphere effect on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in manure-amended soil during cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivation under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ongeng, Duncan; Muyanja, Charles; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Springael, Dirk

    2011-09-15

    The effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) rhizosphere on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in manure-amended soils under tropical field conditions was investigated in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Three-week old cabbage seedlings were transplanted and cultivated for 120 days on manure-amended soil inoculated with 4 or 7 log CFU/g non-virulent E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Cabbage rhizosphere did not affect survival of the 4log CFU/g inocula in manure-amended soil and the two enteric bacteria were not detected on/in cabbage leaves at harvest. The 7 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in bulk soil for a maximum of 80 and 96 days, respectively, but the organisms remained culturable in cabbage rhizosphere up to the time of harvest. At 7 log CFU/g inoculum, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium contamination on cabbage leaves occurred throughout the cultivation period. Leaf surface sterilisation with 1% AgNO(3) indicated that the organisms were present superficially and in protected locations on the leaves. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, cabbage rhizosphere enhances the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in manure-amended soil at high inoculum density and is associated with long-term contamination of the leaves.

  17. Hydrogen-rich water enhances cadmium tolerance in Chinese cabbage by reducing cadmium uptake and increasing antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Cui, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to understand the specific mechanism of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. chinensis L.). Our results showed that the addition of 50% saturation HRW significantly alleviated the Cd toxic symptoms, including the improvement of both root elongation and seedling growth inhibition. These responses were consistent with a significant decrease of Cd accumulation in roots and shoots, which was further confirmed by the histochemical staining. Molecular evidence illustrated that Cd-induced up-regulations of IRT1 and Nramp1 genes, responsible for Cd absorption, were blocked by HRW. By contrast, Cd-induced up-regulation of the HMA3 gene, which regulates Cd sequestration into the root vacuoles, was substantially strengthened by HRW. Furthermore, compared with those in Cd stress alone, the expressions of HMA2 and HMA4, which function in the transportation of Cd to xylem, were repressed by co-treatment with HRW. HRW enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. These results were further confirmed by the alleviation of oxidative damage, as indicated by the decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, these results suggest that the improvement of Cd tolerance by HRW was associated with reduced Cd uptake and increased antioxidant defense capacities. Therefore, the application of HRW may be a promising strategy to improve Cd tolerance of Chinese cabbage.

  18. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression.

  19. Characterization of two PEBP genes, SrFT and SrMFT, in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius)

    PubMed Central

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko-Suzuki, Hiromi; Maekawa, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis has been found in dozens of primitive seed plants and the reproductive organs in these plants produce heat during anthesis. Thus, characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying flowering is required to fully understand the role of thermogenesis, but this aspect of thermogenic plant development is largely unknown. In this study, extensive database searches and cloning experiments suggest that thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), which is a member of the family Araceae, possesses two genes encoding phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP), FLOWERING LOCUS T (SrFT) and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (SrMFT). Functional analyses of SrFT and SrMFT in Arabidopsis indicate that SrFT promotes flowering, whereas SrMFT does not. In S. renifolius, the stage- and tissue-specific expression of SrFT was more evident than that of SrMFT. SrFT was highly expressed in flowers and leaves and was mainly localized in fibrovascular tissues. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that, within floral tissues, SrFT was co-regulated with the genes associated with cellular respiration and mitochondrial function, including ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE gene proposed to play a major role in floral thermogenesis. Taken together, these data suggest that, among the PEBP genes, SrFT plays a role in flowering and floral development in the thermogenic skunk cabbage. PMID:27389636

  20. Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.

    PubMed

    Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

  1. MicroRNA expression analysis of rosette and folding leaves in Chinese cabbage using high-throughput Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengde; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Jingjuan; Li, Libin; Liu, Lifeng; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Cuihua; Gao, Jianwei

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a global analysis of miRNA expression from rosette leaves (RLs) and folding leaves (FLs) of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) was conducted using high-throughput Solexa sequencing. In total, over 12 million clean reads were obtained from each library. Sequence analysis identified 64 conserved miRNA families in each leaf type and 104 and 95 novel miRNAs from RLs and FLs, respectively. Among these, 61 conserved miRNAs and 61 novel miRNAs were detected in both types of leaves. Furthermore, six conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two libraries. Target gene annotation suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs targeted transcription factors, F-box proteins, auxin and Ca(2+) signaling pathway proteins, protein kinases and other proteins that may function in governing leafy head formation. This study advanced our understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in regulating leafy head development in Chinese cabbage.

  2. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages-prior to and after meiosis-but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different.

  3. Live imaging technique for studies of growth and development of Chinese cabbage under microgravity in a recoverable satellite (SJ-8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiqiong; Wei, Ning; Chen, Aidi

    The live imaging techniques have been developed and applied to investigate for the first time the growth and development of Chinese cabbage for 18 d under microgravity conditions on board the Chinese SJ-8 recoverable satellite. These experiments offer insight into plant behaviors operating during plant development in space. Two automatic, preprogrammed CCD cameras were installed in the plant experimental chamber. The experimental objectives were: 1) seed germination; 2) Seedling growth; 3) Flower opening and pollination. The growth of seedlings and flowers were followed by time lapse photography at 2h intervals. Serial real-time images of the Chinese cabbage plant growth under microgravity were successfully obtained through the remote operating system. The image data obtained from space experiment, in comparison with the results from ground control (1g) and 3-D clinostat stimulate experiments, showed that the height of plant and the number of leaves were significantly reduced under the microgravity conditions, but characters of leaf arrangement and leaf shape were not altered obviously. Flower opening and expansion were inhibited by exposed to space flight condition. The petals of flowers from both SJ-8 grown plants and clinostat rotated plants couldn't fully expand before wilted.

  4. Live Imaging Technique for Studies of Growth and Development of Chinese Cabbage Under Microgravity in a Recoverable Satellite (SJ-8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui-Qiong; Wei, Ning; Chen, Ai-Di; Wang, Liu-Fa; Zheng, Wei-Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2008-08-01

    The live imaging techniques have been developed and applied to investigate for the first time the growth and development of Chinese cabbage for 18 days under microgravity conditions on board the Chinese SJ-8 recoverable satellite. These experiments offer insight into plant behaviors operating during plant development in space. Two automatic, preprogrammed CCD cameras were installed in the plant experimental chamber. The experimental objectives were: (1) seed germination; (2) seedling growth; (3) flower opening and pollination. The growth of seedlings and flowers were followed by time lapse photography at 2 h intervals. Serial real-time images of the Chinese cabbage plant growth under microgravity were successfully obtained through the remote operating system. The image data obtained from space experiment, in comparison with the results from ground control (1 g) and 3D clinostat stimulate experiments, showed that the height of plant and the number of leaves were significantly reduced under the microgravity conditions, but characters of leaf arrangement and leaf shape were not altered obviously. Flower opening and expansion were inhibited by exposed to space flight condition. The petals of flowers from both SJ-8 grown plants and clinostat rotated plants couldn't fully expand before wilted.

  5. Characterization of two PEBP genes, SrFT and SrMFT, in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko-Suzuki, Hiromi; Maekawa, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2016-07-08

    Floral thermogenesis has been found in dozens of primitive seed plants and the reproductive organs in these plants produce heat during anthesis. Thus, characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying flowering is required to fully understand the role of thermogenesis, but this aspect of thermogenic plant development is largely unknown. In this study, extensive database searches and cloning experiments suggest that thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), which is a member of the family Araceae, possesses two genes encoding phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP), FLOWERING LOCUS T (SrFT) and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (SrMFT). Functional analyses of SrFT and SrMFT in Arabidopsis indicate that SrFT promotes flowering, whereas SrMFT does not. In S. renifolius, the stage- and tissue-specific expression of SrFT was more evident than that of SrMFT. SrFT was highly expressed in flowers and leaves and was mainly localized in fibrovascular tissues. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that, within floral tissues, SrFT was co-regulated with the genes associated with cellular respiration and mitochondrial function, including ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE gene proposed to play a major role in floral thermogenesis. Taken together, these data suggest that, among the PEBP genes, SrFT plays a role in flowering and floral development in the thermogenic skunk cabbage.

  6. Association between gut microbiota and diapause preparation in the cabbage beetle: a new perspective for studying insect diapause

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Guo, Shuang; Yin, Han; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota mediate the nutritional metabolism and play important roles in human obesity. Diapausing insects accumulate large fat reserves and develop obese phenotypes in order to survive unfavorable conditions. However, the possibility of an association between gut microbiota and insect diapause has not been investigated. We used the Illumina MiSeq platform to compare gut bacterial community composition in nondiapause- (i.e. reproductive) and diapause-destined female cabbage beetles, Colaphellus bowringi, a serious pest of vegetables in Asia. Based on variation in the V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we identified 99 operational taxonomic units and 17 core microbiota at the genus level. The relative abundance of the bacterial community differed between reproductive and diapause-destined female adults. Gut microbiota associated with human obesity, including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, showed a good correlation with diapause. This association between gut microbiota and diapause in the cabbage beetle may open a new avenue for studying insect diapause, as well as developing a natural insect obesity model with which to explore the mechanisms responsible for human obesity. PMID:27934967

  7. Transcriptional reprogramming and phenotypical changes associated with growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cabbage xylem sap.

    PubMed

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Noël, Laurent D; SanCristobal, Magali; Danoun, Saida; Becker, Anke; Soreau, Paul; Arlat, Matthieu; Lauber, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Xylem sap (XS) is the first environment that xylem phytopathogens meet in planta during the early infection steps. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causative agent of Brassicaceae black rot, colonizes the plant xylem vessels to ensure its multiplication and dissemination. Besides suppression of plant immunity, Xcc has to adapt its metabolism to exploit plant-derived nutrients present in XS. To study Xcc behaviour in the early infection steps, we used cabbage XS to analyse bacterial growth. Mineral and organic composition of XS were determined. Significant growth of Xcc in XS was allowed by the rapid catabolism of amino acids, sugars and organic acids, and it was accompanied by the formation of biofilm-like structures. Transcriptome analysis of Xcc cultivated in XS using cDNA microarrays revealed a XS-specific transcriptional reprogramming compared to minimal or rich media. More specifically, up-regulation of genes encoding transporters such as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), that could be associated with nutrient acquisition and detoxification, was observed. In agreement with the aggregation phenotype, expression of genes important for twitching motility and adhesion was up-regulated in XS. Taken together, our data show specific responses of Xcc to colonization of cabbage XS that could be important for the pathogenesis process and establish XS as a model medium to study mechanisms important for the early infection events.

  8. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  9. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  10. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  11. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  12. Diets that Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menus Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese Sauce Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole ...

  13. Low-Carb Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your body needs carbohydrates as a source of fuel (energy). If you don’t eat enough carbs, your body will use stored energy from muscle or fat cells to fuel itself. In low-carb diets, only 15% to ...

  14. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoided if you are pregnant or have an eating disorder . Detox diets can be addicting. That's because there's ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can ...

  15. A changing Hausa diet.

    PubMed

    Ross, P J; Etkin, N L; Muazzamu, I

    1996-12-01

    We report results of a longitudinal study of shifting patterns of food consumption in a rural Hausa-Fulani village in northern Nigeria. While the broad outlines of diet did not change over the 12 years between two dietary surveys, important shifts occurred: a decline in the consumption of local cultigens, with a corresponding decrease in total caloric intake, as well as an embellishment of diet through the introduction of new foods. We suggest that this is best understood through the growing participation of this village in the wider economy. We juxtapose these dietary shifts to a model of disease risk that suggests, for the early period, that the coincidence of dietary elaboration and the periodicity of disease risk offered some degree of protection against malaria infection. For the more recent period, diet was no longer marked by conspicuous seasonal changes. To what extent these differences in diet patterns have affected the disease experience of this population is not yet clear.

  16. Selenium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002414.htm Selenium in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Selenium is an essential trace mineral. This means your ...

  17. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxins hang around in our digestive, lymph, and gastrointestinal systems as well as in our skin and hair ... cause dehydration, mineral imbalances, and problems with the digestive system. Detox diets don't help people lose fat. ...

  18. Gastric Bypass Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes you can make to your diet. References Bariatric surgery for severe obesity. National Institute on Diabetes and ... com/home. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Hamad G. Bariatric surgery: Postoperative and long-term management of the uncomplicated ...

  19. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  20. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  1. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K Magnus; Forshed, Jenny; Lindahl, Anna; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Olsson, Marie; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Husted, Søren

    2014-05-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83 % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products.

  2. Influence of organic and conventional growing conditions on the nutrient contents of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) during two successive seasons.

    PubMed

    Citak, Sedat; Sonmez, Sahriye

    2010-02-10

    Organically and conventionally grown white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) plants were cultivated during two successive seasons (spring and autumn) to evaluate the effects of the applications on the nutrient content of the edible part of cabbage plants. Seventeen different organic applications containing farmyard manure (FM), chicken manure (CM), and blood meal (BM) and 1 chemical fertilizer and 1 control, collectively 19 treatments, were examined under the open-field conditions. Recommendations of the best results obtained should be divided into groups in the following order regarding the mineral contents and also the seasons: 0.6 BM + 7.5 FM in the spring season, and 3.5 CM in the autumn season for N, P, and K content of cabbage. For Ca and Mg, the group division should be 1.7 CM + 0.6 BM in the spring season and 10.0 FM + 1.2 CM in the autumn season. The optimum recommendations for the micronutrients could be 5.0 FM + 1.0 BM in the spring season and 0.9 BM + 0.85 CM in the autumn season for Fe and Cu and 15.0 FM in the spring season, and 10.0 FM + 0.4 BM in the autumn season for Mn and Zn. FM and CM could be used in high rates in producing organic cabbage and could be substituted for chemical fertilizer especially in the spring season.

  3. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  4. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators.

  5. Traditional healthy Mediterranean diet: estrogenic activity of plants used as food and flavoring agents.

    PubMed

    Agradi, Elisabetta; Vegeto, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Andrea; Fico, Gelsomina; Regondi, Simona; Tomè, Franca

    2006-08-01

    The Italian-style Mediterranean diet has been defined as healthy by epidemiologists and nutritionists. Besides being low fat, the Mediterranean diet is rich in biologically active minor compounds. Among these, phytoestrogens seem to have an impact on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. It is important to understand how this occurs. The in vitro estrogenic activity of crude extracts from typical Mediterranean foods was tested using a yeast estrogen screen (YES), containing human estrogen receptor. Species belonging to Leguminosae, Apiaceae, Graminaceae, Iridaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cruciferae and Solanaceae showed the greatest number of positive responses. These species include some foods which are traditionally widely consumed, such as beans and other legumes, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots and some cereals. The highest activity was found in the more polar extracts (aqueous, methanol and chloroform: methanol) indicating that polar compounds are mainly responsible for the estrogenic activity. This is also supported by the traditional cooking practices. According to data from in vitro tests, the estrogenic activity is present in numerous plants which are commonly used as food in the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable foods rich in phytoestrogens, as in the Mediterranean tradition, may contribute to the maintenance of health status.

  6. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  7. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  8. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  9. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-03-08

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors.Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old.Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed (n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y.Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer.Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for maintaining a

  10. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on

  11. Overexpression of the Brassica rapa transcription factor WRKY12 results in reduced soft rot symptoms caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum in Arabidopsis and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Nam, H; Lee, Y M; Song, K; Choi, C; Ahn, I; Park, S R; Lee, Y H; Hwang, D J

    2014-09-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), an important vegetable crop, can succumb to diseases such as bacterial soft rot, resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. To overcome crop loss caused by bacterial soft rot, a gene from Chinese cabbage was isolated and characterised in this study. We isolated the BrWRKY12 gene from Chinese cabbage, which is a group II member of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily. The 645-bp coding sequence of BrWRKY12 translates to a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 24.4 kDa, and BrWRKY12 was exclusively localised in the nucleus. Transcripts of BrWRKY12 were induced by Pcc infection in Brassica. Heterologous expression of BrWRKY12 resulted in reduced susceptibility to Pcc but not to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis. Defence-associated genes, such as AtPDF1.2 and AtPGIP2, were constitutively expressed in transgenic lines overexpressing BrWRKY12. The expression of AtWKRY12, which is the closest orthologue of BrWRKY12, was down-regulated by Pcc in Arabidopsis. However, the Atwrky12-2 mutants did not show any difference in response to Pcc, pointing to a difference in function of WRKY12 in Brassica and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, BrWRKY12 in Chinese cabbage also exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot and increased the expression of defence-associated genes. In summary, BrWRKY12 confers enhanced resistance to Pcc through transcriptional activation of defence-related genes.

  12. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  13. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species.

  14. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.

  15. Enhanced salt appetite, diet and drinking in traditional Bedouin women in the Negev.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Micah; Saadi, Amany; Alem, Nesreen; Hendi, Khadeja

    2008-01-01

    The Negev Bedouin are desert dwellers in high summer heat and scarce shade and water. They are under pressure to cease their traditional way of life. To document, while still possible, how traditional Bedouin nutritional habits may have accommodated to these conditions, we evaluated sodium appetite, diet and drinking in Bedouin women (n=31) who still partially maintained their traditional way of life in isolated tribal encampments in the spring of 2005. Data were compared to urban Bedouin women (n=15), and to urban Jewish women (n=15) representing mainstream dietary habits in the same region, and to published data. About 60% (by energy) of the encampment diet is traditional, but this proportion is reduced in summer. Encampment Bedouin women rated concentrated salt solution as more preferred than other groups, added 40% more salt to an ideal test soup and had a approximately 50% greater absolute dietary sodium intake. The sodium content of the traditional Bedouin diet is approximately 25% higher than the Jewish women's diet. This enhanced sodium appetite is reflected in the value of salt in their folklore. The possible causes of the enhanced salt appetite are considered. In addition, dietary intake (M=3470, SE=285 kcal) was approximately 50% greater than in urban Jewish women. Fluid intake (approximately 2.4 L/d) was approximately 20% greater than Jewish women, but may have been inadequate in the exposed encampments because 8 of the 31 women reported an occurrence of dehydration, 6 of them while pregnant. Encampment women BMI (30.3+/-1.1 kg/m2) was high, and health problems were typical of populations in transition.

  16. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  17. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  18. Dynamics of Baculovirus Growth and Dispersal in Mamestra brassicae L. (LepidopteraNoctuidae) Larval Populations Introduced into Small Cabbage Plots

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Hugh F.; Allaway, Graham P.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Mamestra brassicae has been studied in larval populations of the moth introduced into small plots of cabbages. Primary dispersal of virus from single foci of infected larvae resulted from enhanced movement of the larvae, which colonized new plants logarithmically. Virus growth within the host population was quantified, and infection of young larvae in the following generation was related directly to the concentration of virus produced during the primary phase. Secondary cycling of virus resulted in dispersal of inoculum from multiple foci, and a large proportion of plants were ultimately colonized by infected larvae. The dynamics of virus growth during secondary dispersal were quantified and contrasted with results from the primary phase. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to possible control of insect pests through dispersal of virus by the host insect. PMID:16346197

  19. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s.

  20. Simultaneous determination of flubendiamide its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide residues in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Banerjee, Hemanta

    2011-10-01

    A sensitive and simple method for simultaneous analysis of flubendiamide and its metabolite desiodo flubendiamide in cabbage, tomato and pigeon pea has been developed. The residues were extracted with QuEChERS method followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent to remove co extractives, prior to analysis by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis detector. The recoveries of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide were ranged from 85.1 to 98.5% and 85.9 to 97.1% respectively with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 5% and sensitivity of 0.01 μg g(-1). The method offers a less expensive and safer alternative to the existing residue analysis methods for vegetables.

  1. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5.

  2. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals and personal care products by cabbage (Brassica campestris) from fortified and biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Holling, Cheryl S; Bailey, Jonathon L; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2012-11-01

    Human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are routinely found in biosolids from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Once land applied, the PPCPs in biosolids are potentially available for plant uptake and bioaccumulation. This study used a greenhouse model to investigate uptake of PPCPs commonly detected in biosolids by the agricultural plant Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Two series of greenhouse experiments were conducted as part of this project. In the first set of experiments, four pharmaceuticals were added to an organic matter-rich soil in environmentally relevant concentrations based on typical biosolids application rates, resulting in final soil concentrations of 2.6 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 3.1 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, 5.4 ng g(-1) salbutamol, and 0.5 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. In the second set of experiments, the cabbage was grown in soil amended with an agronomic rate of biosolids from a local WWTP. The ambient concentration of PPCPs in the biosolids resulted in final soil concentrations of 93.1 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 67.4 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, 30.3 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 433.7 ng g(-1) triclosan, and 24.7 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. After growing to maturity, the aerials of the plants were separated from roots and the two tissue types were analyzed separately. All four human pharmaceuticals were detected in both tissues in the cabbage grown in the soil fortified with the four pharmaceuticals with median concentrations of 255.4 ng g(-1) aerials and 272.9 ng g(-1) roots carbamazepine; 222.8 ng g(-1) aerials and 260.3 ng g(-1) roots sulfamethoxazole; 108.3 ng g(-1) aerials and 140.6 ng g(-1) roots salbutamol; and 20.6 ng g(-1) aerials and 53.7 ng g(-1) roots trimethoprim. Although all study compounds were present in the biosolids-amended planting soil, only carbamazepine (317.6 ng g(-1) aerials and 416.2 ng g(-1) roots), salbutamol (21.2 ng g(-1) aerials and 187.6 ng g(-1) roots), and triclosan (22.9 ng g(-1) aerials and 1220.1 ng g(-1

  3. The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum.

  4. Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Alida F; Myers, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the mainstay of non-chemical control of Lepidopteran pests, either as sprays or through the incorporation of Bt toxins into transgenic crops. Given the wide use of Bt, it is striking that currently only one pest species, Plutella xylostella, has been reported to have developed significant resistance to Bt outside the laboratory. By contrast, we report here the frequent and rapid development of resistance to B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel, Abbott) in populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, in commercial greenhouses. Resistance to Bt appears to be costly and there is a rapid decline of resistance in populations collected from greenhouses and maintained in the laboratory without selection. Management of pests resistant to Bt in vegetable greenhouses will require sporadic use of Bt-based sprays or alternatively use of sprays containing other Bt toxins. PMID:14613613

  5. High protein diets and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carapetis, Melissa; Phillips, Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    Higher protein diets are currently 'hot'. The CSIRO total wellbeing diet book has been on the bestseller list in Australia and internationally. Various other high protein diets have also had, or are getting, media attention. However, high protein diets, particularly for people with diabetes, are controversial. There are questions about effectiveness and safety, especially in the long term. As a general practitioner people will look to you for advice about what to eat. This article summarises the pros and cons of two of the popular higher protein diets--the Atkins diet and the CSIRO total wellbeing.

  6. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  7. Plant-mediated interactions between two herbivores differentially affect a subsequently arriving third herbivore in populations of wild cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kroes, A; Stam, J M; David, A; Boland, W; van Loon, J J A; Dicke, M; Poelman, E H

    2016-11-01

    Plants are part of biodiverse communities and frequently suffer from attack by multiple herbivorous insects. Plant responses to these herbivores are specific for insect feeding guilds: aphids and caterpillars induce different plant phenotypes. Moreover, plants respond differentially to single or dual herbivory, which may cascade into a chain of interactions in terms of resistance to other community members. Whether differential responses to single or dual herbivory have consequences for plant resistance to yet a third herbivore is unknown. We assessed the effects of single or dual herbivory by Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and/or Plutella xylostella caterpillars on resistance of plants from three natural populations of wild cabbage to feeding by caterpillars of Mamestra brassicae. We measured plant gene expression and phytohormone concentrations to illustrate mechanisms involved in induced responses. Performance of both B. brassicae and P. xylostella was reduced when feeding simultaneously with the other herbivore, compared to feeding alone. Gene expression and phytohormone concentrations in plants exposed to dual herbivory were different from those found in plants exposed to herbivory by either insect alone. Plants previously induced by both P. xylostella and B. brassicae negatively affected growth of the subsequently arriving M. brassicae. Furthermore, induced responses varied between wild cabbage populations. Feeding by multiple herbivores differentially activates plant defences, which has plant-mediated negative consequences for a subsequently arriving herbivore. Plant population-specific responses suggest that plant populations adapt to the specific communities of insect herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of plant defence plasticity in response to multiple insect attacks.

  8. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

    PubMed Central

    Bažok, Renata; Ceranić-Sertić, Mirna; Barčić, Jasminka Igrc; Borošić, Josip; Kozina, Antonela; Kos, Tomislav; Lemić, Darija; Čačija, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. PMID:26466723

  9. A mutualistic symbiosis between a dark septate endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira, and a nonmycorrhizal plant, Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Fumiaki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, are known to associate with most plants; however members of the Cruciferae are an exception. We investigated nutrient exchange between a dark septate endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira, and Chinese cabbage plants (Cruciferae) in vitro. Chinese cabbage could not use some amino acids, while the fungus-treated plants were able to use all of the nitrogen forms provided. To demonstrate that nitrogen transfer occurs between the fungus and the host plant, we used a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane compartment system, which restricts diffusion and mass flow of ions and allows only fungal penetration. Our results strongly suggest that H. chaetospira provided nitrogen to the plant, rather than the plant mineralizing available organic nitrogen. In addition carbon transfer from the host plant to the fungus was demonstrated with HPLC and (l3)CO2-labeling experiments. When H. chaetospira colonized host plant roots under low glucose condition, ergosterol content in culture pot (as an index of fungal biomass) increased significantly compared to the fungal treatment without a host plant. Sucrose concentration in the host root significantly decreased as a result of fungal colonization, and mannitol (a specific carbon source to fungal cells) increased in the roots. Sucrose and mannitol in the host root treated with the fungus were labeled clearly by 13C after 1C-labeled CO2 was provided to the plant. These results suggest that the fungus obtained carbon, mainly as sucrose, from the host plant. We show for the first time the existence of a fungus establishing a mutualistic association with a nonmycorrhizal Cruciferae plant.

  10. Characterization of the plant uncoupling protein, SrUCPA, expressed in spadix mitochondria of the thermogenic skunk cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Hida, Yamato; Ichikawa, Megumi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    In mammalian brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an integral inner mitochondrial membrane protein, triggers a proton leak and converts the energy generated by the resulting electron flow into heat. Although the recent finding of plant UCPs in non-thermogenic tissues has questioned their involvement in thermogenesis, there are few studies of plant UCPs in thermogenic tissues. Therefore, in this work, two cloned UCP cDNAs, SrUCPA and SrUCPB, isolated from the thermogenic spadix of skunk cabbage, were analysed. SrUCPA, not SrUCPB, was identified as the major uncoupling protein, and it was found to be integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Topological analyses indicate that the 1st and 2nd intra-matrix loops are sensitive to trypsin treatment, but the 3rd intra-matrix loop is resistant to it. Using spadix mitochondria, the uncoupling activity of SrUCPA was examined. Although SrUCPA transcripts were constitutively expressed in various tissues irrespective of thermogenic stage, the SrUCPA protein was detected only in the thermogenic tissue or stage. On the other hand, both gene and protein expression for another heat-generating protein, SrAOX, were increased specifically in the thermogenic tissue or stage. Quantitative immunoblot analysis revealed that SrUCPA was an abundant protein in spadix mitochondria, accounting for about 3% of the total mitochondrial protein in the spadix. The results suggest that specific co-expression of SrUCPA and SrAOX protein in the thermogenic tissue or stage, as well as the high expression of SrUCPA protein in spadix mitochondria, may play a role in thermogenesis of skunk cabbage.

  11. Dieting and Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly. Some ways of treating obesity, such as weight-loss surgery and very low-calorie diets (VLCDs), may increase ... of developing gallstones by promoting rapid weight loss. Weight-loss surgery is an operation on the stomach and/or ...

  12. Comparing and Contrasting Three Cultural Food Customs from Nigeria and Analyzing the Nutrient Content of Diets from These Cultures with the Aim of Proffering Nutritional Intervention.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, Omoyemi Roseline; Smith, Chris; Anang, Daniel; Musa, Haruna

    2016-11-17

    Nigeria is a multicultural country with a diverse cultural food. Most Nigerians' cultural diet is based on staple food accompanied by stew. In the South West and Eastern region (where Yorubas and Igbos are the dominant ethnic groups), staple foods are yam and cassava by-product (garri, fufu and lafun) with vegetables prepared as stew, often over cooked, thereby losing essential micronutrients. In Northern Nigeria (where the Hausas and Fulanis are the dominant ethnic groups), grains such as sorghum, millet form the main diet; these are served with palm oil based soup made with tomatoes and okra. Meat is sometimes added. Among the Hausas, meat is usually reserved for special occasions. Various types of malnutrition prevalent in developing countries such as Nigeria are iron deficiency anemia (ID/A), protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), iodine deficiency disorder (IDD). The proposed long-term measure by the Federal government of Nigeria for the resolution of these various types of malnutrition is dietary diversification. A review of the literature on Nigerian cultural diets identified gaps in knowledge with respect to the nutritional values of Nigerian ethnic diets.

  13. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Getting an X-ray Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  14. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  15. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  16. The combination of aricept with a traditional Chinese medicine formula, smart soup, may be a novel way to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yi; Yu, Hongshuang; Shen, Xiaoheng; Chen, Shengdi; Pei, Gang; Zhao, Jian; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting cognitive function in the elderly, which is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of insoluble amyloid-β plaques and neuronal loss. Modern pharmacology and drug development usually follow a single-target principle, which might contribute to the failure of most compounds in clinical trials against AD. Considering AD is a multifactorial disease, a combination therapeutic strategy that applies drugs with different mechanisms would be an alternative way. Smart Soup (SS), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula, is composed of three herbaceous plants and has been applied in the treatment of amnesia in China for hundreds of years. In this work, we studied the clinical potency of the combination of SS and Aricept in AD therapy. In the in vivo model, both longevity and locomotive activity of AD transgenic Drosophila were improved remarkably in the combined medicine treated group. We also observed less amyloid-β deposition and retarded neuronal loss following the combined drug treatment. In the retrospective cohort study, we found the combination therapy exerted better therapeutic effect on AD patients. Our study revealed that combination therapy with multiple drug targets did have a better therapeutic outcome. It provides a new strategy to develop an optimum pharmaceutical approach against AD.

  17. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation How can your diet help prevent ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  18. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  19. Ternary Cu₂SnS₃ cabbage-like nanostructures: large-scale synthesis and their application in Li-ion batteries with superior reversible capacity.

    PubMed

    Qu, Baihua; Li, Hongxing; Zhang, Ming; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Wang, Yanguo; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2011-10-05

    In this paper, novel ternary Cu(2)SnS(3) cabbage-like nanostructures are synthesized on a large scale via a facile solvothermal route. The individual Cu(2)SnS(3) cabbage-like hierarchitecture is constructed from 2D nanosheets with thickness of about 15.6 nm. The Cu(2)SnS(3) electrodes exhibit an initial reversible capacity of 842 mAh g(-1) and still reach 621 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Such an admirable performance could be related to their 3D porous structural features as well as the high electrical conductivity induced by Cu. The electrochemical properties of the 3D hierarchical nanostructures imply its potential application in high energy density Li-ion batteries.

  20. Quantitative profiling of glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis reveals several cultivars of cabbage and kale as promising sources of sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Katsunori; Neyazaki, Makiko; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ogawa, Toshiya; Momose, Masaki

    2012-08-15

    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate well known for its potential health benefits. With the aim of finding sulforaphane supply sources, its precursor, glucoraphanin, was widely searched for among Brassica oleracea varieties. Quantitative profiling of seven glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis was performed on 6 cultivars of broccoli, 32 of cabbage and 24 cultivars of kale. The glucoraphanin levels found in three cultivars of cabbage and six cultivars of kale were comparable with, or even higher than, the highest of broccoli (119.4 mg/100g FW). The most promising group belonged to the black kale, Cavolo nero. Use of a C30 column and an ammonium formate buffer in LC-MS and a micro plate solid phase extraction technique was highly effective.

  1. Ternary Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like nanostructures: large-scale synthesis and their application in Li-ion batteries with superior reversible capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Baihua; Li, Hongxing; Zhang, Ming; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Wang, Yanguo; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, novel ternary Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like nanostructures are synthesized on a large scale via a facile solvothermal route. The individual Cu2SnS3 cabbage-like hierarchitecture is constructed from 2D nanosheets with thickness of about 15.6 nm. The Cu2SnS3 electrodes exhibit an initial reversible capacity of 842 mAh g-1 and still reach 621 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Such an admirable performance could be related to their 3D porous structural features as well as the high electrical conductivity induced by Cu. The electrochemical properties of the 3D hierarchical nanostructures imply its potential application in high energy density Li-ion batteries.

  2. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  3. Diet and growth effects in panel assessment of sheepmeat odour and flavour.

    PubMed

    Rousset-Akrim, S; Young, O A; Berdagué, J L

    1997-02-01

    The effects of sheep age and diet on several odours and flavours are described. Ram lambs raised on ewe's milk then a corn-based diet were compared with lambs raised on milk and a pasture of grass/clover, six treatments in all. A seventh treatment comprised very old ewes maintained on pasture. Fat and lean from forequarters was minced and cooked together. Cooked lean was assessed for intensity by a sensory panel for 10 flavour attributes. Four showed significant (P < 0.01) treatment effects: 'sheepmeat', 'animal', 'liver', and 'poultry'. Sheepmeat flavour was highest in the slow-grown pasture-fed lambs. Animal flavour-the flavour associated with the odour of confined livestock-showed a similar pattern with treatment. Liver flavour was highest in ewe meat, and the biochemical origin of this flavour is discussed. Eleven related odour attributes were assessed on the rendered fat with a novel olfactometer. Five attributes showed highly significant treatment effects for intensity (P < 0.001): animal and sheepmeat odours showed a similar distribution to the equivalent flavours; likewise cabbage and rancid odours were associated with the two slow-grown pasture treatments. A comparison of the odour and flavour statistics showed that the sense of smell was the more discriminating in sheepmeat assessment, and also confirmed that fat was the true source of sheepmeat odour/flavour. In respect of sheepmeat production for effective marketing, the data showed that at 90 days, a pastoral diet resulted in slightly enhanced odours when compared with a corn-based diet. By 215 days, however, many undesirable odours were exacerbated. Since these older rams were more sexually developed, a sex rather than an age effect could not be excluded. Rendered fat from this work was further used in a companion study (Yang et al., 1997. Meat Sci., 45, 183-200) in an attempt to link individual volatile compounds to odour attributes.

  4. Comparative analysis of alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and the expression of the two KIN genes from cytoplasmic male sterility cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.).

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Huang, Xiaoyun; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Wuhong; Yue, Zhichen; Lei, Juanli; Zhong, Xinmin

    2014-06-01

    The KIN genes are crucial members of the cold-regulated gene family. They play exclusive roles during the developmental processes of many organs and respond to various abiotic stresses in plants. However, little is known about the regulation of KIN gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). We carried out a genome-wide analysis to identify the KIN genes in the CMS cabbage. Two non-redundant KIN genes, named BoKIN1 (Bol021262) and BoKIN2 (Bol030498), were identified. Reverse transcriptase PCR detected alternative splicing (AS) products of BoKIN1 (four AS products) and BoKIN2 (three AS products). In addition, alternative polyadenylation (APA) was observed for BoKIN1 and BoKIN2 in the CMS cabbage, resulting in variable 3'UTRs in their transcripts. Furthermore, the transcription levels of BoKIN1-0 and BoKIN2-0, the introns of which were spliced completely, were analyzed in various organs and young leaves treated by abiotic stresses. Our data indicated that BoKIN1-0 is highly expressed in various organs, whereas BoKIN2-0 is expressed exclusively in the stamen. Our study also suggested that BoKIN1-0 was upregulated significantly in young leaves of plants exposed to abscisic acid treatment, and cold and heat stress. BoKIN1 and BoKIN2 had differential AS and APA patterns in pre-mRNA processing, and showed differences in their expression patterns and transcript levels. BoKIN1 participates widely in organ development and responds to diverse abiotic stresses, whereas BoKIN2 plays a main role in stamen development in the CMS cabbage.

  5. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions.

  6. Roles of xanthophylls and exogenous ABA in protection against NaCl-induced photodamage in rice (Oryza sativa L) and cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Su-Qin; Chen, Ming-Wei; Ji, Ben-Hua; Jiao, De-Mao; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Changes in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), content of xanthophylls and kinetics of de-epoxidation were studied in ABA-fed and non-ABA-fed leaves of rice and cabbage under NaCl stress. Salt stress induced more progressive decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), higher reduction state of PS II, and a small significant increase in NPQ in NaCl-sensitive rice plants as compared with NaCl-tolerant cabbage plants, whereas exogenously supplied ABA alleviated the decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), induced a lower reduction state of PS II, and caused higher capacity of NPQ in ABA-fed plants than in non-ABA-fed plants. As a result, there were higher activities of photosynthetic electron transport, higher capacity of energy dissipation, and lower cumulation of excess light in cabbage than in rice plants, and in ABA-fed leaves than in non-ABA-fed leaves. The effect of ABA was more efficient in cabbage than in rice plants. Addition of exogenous ABA resulted in enhancement of the size of the xanthophyll cycle pool, promotion of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle components, and a rise in the level of NPQ by altering the kinetics of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Protection from photodamage appears to be achieved by coordinated contributions by exogenous ABA and xanthophyll cycle-mediated NPQ. This variety of photoprotective mechanisms may be essential for conferring photodamage tolerance under NaCl stress.

  7. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops.

  8. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  9. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health.

  10. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production. PMID:27641709

  11. Genome-wide analysis of auxin transport genes identifies the hormone responsive patterns associated with leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-wei; Lyu, Shan-wu; Tang, Jun; Zhou, Dao-yun; Bonnema, Guusje; Xiao, Dong; Hou, Xi-lin; Zhang, Chang-wei

    2017-01-01

    Auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), pin-formed (PIN) and ATP binding cassette subfamily B (ABCB/MDR/PGP) are three families of auxin transport genes. The development-related functions of the influx and efflux carriers have been well studied and characterized in model plants. However, there is scant information regarding the functions of auxin genes in Chinese cabbage and the responses of exogenous polar auxin transport inhibitors (PATIs). We conducted a whole-genome annotation and a bioinformatics analysis of BrAUX/LAX, BrPIN, and BrPGP genes in Chinese cabbage. By analyzing the expression patterns at several developmental stages in the formation of heading leaves, we found that most auxin-associate genes were expressed throughout the entire process of leafy head formation, suggesting that these genes played important roles in the development of heads. UPLC was used to detect the distinct and uneven distribution of auxin in various segments of the leafy head and in response to PATI treatment, indicated that the formation of the leafy head depends on polar auxin transport and the uneven distribution of auxin in leaves. This study provides new insight into auxin polar transporters and the possible roles of the BrLAX, BrPIN and BrPGP genes in leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage. PMID:28169368

  12. Development of full-length cDNAs from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa Subsp. pekinensis) and identification of marker genes for defence response.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Issei; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Shin-I, Sadasu; Narusaka, Mari; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    Arabidopsis belongs to the Brassicaceae family and plays an important role as a model plant for which researchers have developed fine-tuned genome resources. Genome sequencing projects have been initiated for other members of the Brassicaceae family. Among these projects, research on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) started early because of strong interest in this species. Here, we report the development of a library of Chinese cabbage full-length cDNA clones, the RIKEN BRC B. rapa full-length cDNA (BBRAF) resource, to accelerate research on Brassica species. We sequenced 10 000 BBRAF clones and confirmed 5476 independent clones. Most of these cDNAs showed high homology to Arabidopsis genes, but we also obtained more than 200 cDNA clones that lacked any sequence homology to Arabidopsis genes. We also successfully identified several possible candidate marker genes for plant defence responses from our analysis of the expression of the Brassica counterparts of Arabidopsis marker genes in response to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. We compared gene expression of these markers in several Chinese cabbage cultivars. Our BBRAF cDNA resource will be publicly available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center and will help researchers to transfer Arabidopsis-related knowledge to Brassica crops.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-12-02

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins.

  14. A field study on the dynamic uptake and transfer of heavy metals in Chinese cabbage and radish in weak alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ai, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Bailin; Ren, Liang; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-10-01

    Vegetables and crops can take up heavy metals when grown on polluted lands. The concentrations and dynamic uptake of heavy metals vary at different growth points for different vegetables. In order to assess the safe consumption of vegetables in weak alkaline farmlands, Chinese cabbage and radish were planted on the farmlands of Baiyin (polluted site) and Liujiaxia (relatively unpolluted site). Firstly, the growth processes of two vegetables were recorded. The growth curves of the two vegetables observed a slow growth at the beginning, an exponential growth period, and a plateau towards the end. Maximum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were presented at the slow growth period and showed a downtrend except the radish shoot. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in vegetables of Baiyin were higher than those of Liujiaxia. In the meanwhile, the uptake contents continued to increase during the growth or halted at maximum at a certain stage. The maximum uptake rates were found on the maturity except for the shoot of radish which took place at the exponential growth stages of root. The sigmoid model could simulate the dynamic processes of growth and heavy metals uptake of Chinese cabbage and radish. Conclusively, heavy metals have higher bioaccumulation tendency for roots in Chinese cabbage and for shoots in radish.

  15. Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Michiyo; Uchida, Kazue; Shimada, Shin-ichi; Tomioka, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Minegishi, Toshitaka; Kawahashi, Sachie; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ∼10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods.

  16. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and

  17. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  18. Plants, diet, and health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  19. Copper exposure interferes with the regulation of the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tseng, Mei Hwei; Stuiver, C Elisabeth E; Koralewska, Aleksandra; Posthumus, Freek S; Venema, Jan Henk; Parmar, Saroj; Schat, Henk; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; De Kok, Luit J

    2010-04-15

    Exposure of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to enhanced Cu(2+) concentrations (1-10 microM) resulted in leaf chlorosis, a loss of photosynthetic capacity and lower biomass production at > or = 5 microM. The decrease in pigment content was likely not the consequence of degradation, but due to hindered chloroplast development upon Cu exposure. The Cu content of the root increased with the Cu(2+) concentration (up to 40-fold), though only a minor proportion (4%) was transferred to the shoot. The nitrate uptake by the root was substantially reduced at > or = 5 microM Cu(2+). The nitrogen content of the root was affected little at lower Cu(2+) levels, whereas that in the shoot was decreased at > or = 5 microM Cu(2+). Cu affected the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage. The total sulfur content of the shoot was increased at > or = 2 microM Cu(2+), which could be attributed mainly to an increase in sulfate content. Moreover, there was a strong increase in water-soluble non-protein thiol content in the root and, to a lesser extent, in the shoot at > or = 1 microM, which could only partially be ascribed to a Cu-induced enhancement of the phytochelatin content. The nitrate uptake by the root was substantially reduced at > or = 5 microM Cu(2+), coinciding with a decrease in biomass production. However, the activity of the sulfate transporters in the root was slightly enhanced at 2 and 5 microM Cu(2+), accompanied by enhanced expression of the Group 1 high affinity transporter Sultr1;2, and the Group 4 transporters Sultr4;1 and Sultr4;2. In the shoot, there was an induction of expression of Sultr4;2 at 5 and 10 microM Cu(2+). The expression of APS reductase was affected little in the root and shoot up to 10 microM Cu(2+). The upregulation of the sulfate transporters may be due not only to greater sulfur demand at higher Cu levels, but also the consequence of interference by Cu with the signal transduction pathway regulating the expression

  20. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese

  1. Effects of oyster shell on soil chemical and biological properties and cabbage productivity as a liming materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Do Kyoung; Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, Pil Joo

    2008-12-01

    Oyster shell, a byproduct of shellfish-farming in Korea and containing a high amount of CaCO(3), has a high potential to be used as a liming material in agriculture. However, the agricultural utilization of oyster shell is limited due to its high concentration NaCl. The oyster-shell meal collected had a low concentration of water soluble NaCl (mean 2.7 g kg(-1)), which might be a result of stacking the material for 6 months in the open field. It has a very similar liming potential with calcium carbonate, with 3.4 and 3.8 Mg ha(-1) for silt loam (SiL, pH 6.2) and sandy loam (SL, pH 5.8) to bring the soil pH to 6.5, respectively. To determine the effect of crushed oyster-shell meal on improving soil chemical and biological properties and crop plant productivity, oyster-shell meal was applied at rates of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 Mg ha(-1) before transplanting Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) in the two soils mentioned above. Soil pH was significantly increased to 6.9 and 7.4 by 16 Mg ha(-1) shell meal application (4 times higher level than the recommendation) in SiL and SL, respectively, at harvesting stage. The effect of liming was found higher in SL compared to SiL soil, probably due to the different buffering capacity of the two soils. The concentration of NaCl and EC value of soils were found slightly increased with shell meal applications, but no salt damage was observed. Oyster-shell meal application increased soil organic matter, available P, and exchangeable cations concentrations. The improved soil pH and nutrient status significantly increased the microbial biomass C and N concentrations and stimulated soil enzyme activities. With the exception of acid phosphomonoesterase (PMEase) activity, which decreased with increasing soil pH in SL but slightly increased in SiL, the activities of urease and alkali PMEase increased markedly with increasing soil pH by shell meal application. The improved soil chemical and biological properties resulted in increased crop

  2. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss.

  3. Diet and dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029

  4. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  5. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2017-02-09

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  6. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  7. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants.

  8. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  9. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    PubMed

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  10. Influence of postharvest UV-B treatment and fermentation on secondary plant compounds in white cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The influence of postharvest UV-B on its own and in combination with fermentation (e.g. sauerkraut production) on formation and degradation of bioactive compounds was investigated in white cabbage, processed according to traditional Chinese fermentation methods. The pattern of polyphenols was affected by postharvest UV-B: Newly formed coumaroylglycoside, feruloylglycoside, caffeoylglycoside (up to 1 mg/g dry matter; 4 days) and quercetintriglycoside (0.4-0.5 mg/gdm; 4 days) might be related to postharvest increase in enzyme activity in the biosynthesis. Decreasing contents were observed for the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, but the formation of the degradation products dihydroascorbigen and dihydro-4-methoxyascorbigen, which might be related to cell shrinking as mechanical damage. Fermentation resulted in deglycosidation of hydroxycinnamic acids. Newly generated cinnamic acid from coumaric acid aglycone was detected in fermented plant material combined with UV-B (50 μg/g). Glucosinolates and dihydroascorbigens were completely degraded. This study shows exemplary UV-B as a supplemental step to improve the nutritional quality of processed plants.

  11. Calcium involved in the poly(γ-glutamic acid)-mediated promotion of Chinese cabbage nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongqi; Lei, Peng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Xianju; Liang, Jinfeng; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth can reportedly be promoted by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. To reveal the mechanism of γ-PGA, we designed an experiment that investigated the effect of γ-PGA on the nitrogen metabolism of Chinese cabbage hydroponic cultured at different calcium (Ca) levels and varied exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors. The results showed that nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in leaves and roots were obviously enhanced by γ-PGA at the normal Ca(2+) level (4.0 mM). Meanwhile, γ-PGA increased the content of total nitrogen, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids in leaves. However, the promotional effect of γ-PGA on fresh weight weakened when Ca(2+) was inadequate. Moreover, γ-PGA not only induced the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) in organelles into cytoplasm, but also increased the Ca(2+)-ATPase level to modify Ca(2+) homeostasis in plant cells. In addition, exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors significantly suppressed the γ-PGA-mediated promotion of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) level, calmodulin (CaM) content, GS and glutamate dehydrogenase activities. In summary, γ-PGA accelerated the nitrogen metabolism of plants through the Ca(2+)/CaM signaling pathway, thereby improving the growth of the plant.

  12. Demonstration of cytotoxicity against wasps by pierisin-1: a possible defense factor in the cabbage white butterfly.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Totsuka, Yukari; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    The cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae, produces pierisin-1, a protein inducing apoptosis of mammalian cells. In the present study, the biological activity of pierisin-1 as a protective agent against parasitic wasps for P. rapae was examined. Pierisin-1 caused detrimental effects on eggs and larvae of non-habitual parasitoids for P. rapae, Glyptapanteles pallipes, Cotesia kariyai and Cotesia plutellae at 1-100 µg/ml, levels essentially equivalent to those found in P. rapae larvae. In contrast, eggs and larvae of the natural parasitoid of P. rapae, Cotesia glomerata proved resistant to the toxicity of pierisin-1 through inhibition of pierisin-1 penetration of the surface layer. The expression level of pierisin-1 mRNA in the larvae of P. rapae was increased by parasitization by C. plutellae, whereas it was decreased by C. glomerata. In addition, C. plutellae was associated with elevation of activated pierisin-1 in the hemolymph. From these observations, it is suggested that pierisin-1 could contribute as a defense factor against parasitization by some type of wasps in P. rapae.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38°C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g⁻¹ VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g⁻¹ VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions.

  14. Improving dyeability of modified cotton fabrics by the natural aqueous extract from red cabbage using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Ben Ticha, Manel; Haddar, Wafa; Meksi, Nizar; Guesmi, Ahlem; Mhenni, M Farouk

    2016-12-10

    The concern regarding sustainable utilization of available resources is growing due to its global importance. In this paper, the dyeability of cotton fabrics with natural colorant extracted from red cabbage was improved by applying cationic groups on cotton fibers. Modification of cotton was carried using acid tannic, Rewin Os, Denitex BC and Sera Fast as cationic agents. The dyeing process was done by ultrasonic energy. The effects of the cationising agent amount, the dye bath pH, the dyeing temperature and duration, on the sonicator dyeing quality were studied. The performances of this process were evaluated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the dyeing fastness of the coloured cotton. Besides, modified cotton fibers were characterized by morphology analysis (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and compared to untreated cotton. Moreover, a two-level full factorial design was employed to optimize the sonicator dyeing process. Mathematical model equation and statistical analysis were derived by computer simulation programming applying the least squares method using Minitab 15. Best dyeing conditions were found to be: 10%, pH 11, 60min and 100°C respectively for the Sera Fast amount, dye bath pH, dyeing duration and temperature.

  15. Residue behavior of combination formulations of insecticides in/on cabbage and their efficacy against aphids and diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suman; Sharma, Rakesh K; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Gupta, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Persistence behavior of insecticides chlorpyriphos, profenofos, triazophos, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin following the use of three combination formulations Action 505 (chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin), Roket 44EC (profenofos + cypermethrin), and Anaconda Plus (triazophos + deltamethrin) was studied in cabbage following the spray application at the recommended and double doses. Bio-efficacy of these formulations was also evaluated against mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.). The residues of different insecticides persisted for 5-8 days at low dose and 8-12 days at high dose. The residues dissipated with time and 87-100% dissipation was recorded on the 8th day. The half-life values varied from 0.4 to 1.6 days. Based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values, a safe waiting period of 1 day has been suggested for the formulations Action 505 and Roket 44EC and 3 days for Anaconda Plus at the recommended dose of application. Action (1.6 L/ha) treatment was found to be the best as it significantly reduced the diamondback moth (DBM) (~60%) and aphid population (~70%) besides giving the highest yield (170% increase over control).

  16. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186) was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99) was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps. PMID:23033896

  17. In vivo real-time monitoring of aphrodisiac pheromone release of small white cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Mathews, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The study of insect behavior is of practical importance for developing possible control methods in Integrated Pest Management. Currently, one model of butterfly mating behavior suggests that the initial location of potential mates occurs visually followed by the release of one or more short-range male aphrodisiac pheromones. This model is supported by data obtained from field observations and inferences based on the behavioral effects of chemicals extracted or isolated using indirect and offline techniques. In this study, we performed in vivo real-time monitoring of the male aphrodisiac pheromones released by the small white cabbage male butterfly (Pieris rapae Linnaeus) using confined direct analysis in real time (cDART) mass spectrometry. cDART is a new method easily adapted to the study in real time of chemicals released into the environment by virtually any insect. The major compound released by the male Pieris rapae was identified as ferrulactone. The experimental results reported here indicate that the release of ferrulactone occurs less than 1s after the male visualizes its partner, and reaches a maximum after about one half minute. This study is the first reported in vivo detection and monitoring of butterfly male aphrodisiac pheromones in real time.

  18. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the PUB family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinesis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Duan, Weike; Riquicho, Ali RamuliMaquina; Jing, Zange; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-12-01

    U-box proteins are widely distributed among eukaryotic organisms and show a higher prevalence in plants than in other organisms. Plant U-box (PUB) proteins play crucial regulatory roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Previously, 64 and 77 PUB genes have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. In this study, 101 putative PUB genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis line Chiifu-401-42) genome and compared with other 15 representative plants. By specific protein domains and a phylogenetic analysis, the B. rapa PUB (BrPUB) gene family was subdivided into 10 groups. Localization of BrPUB genes showed an uneven distribution on the ten chromosomes of B. rapa. The orthologous and co-orthologous PUB gene pairs were identified between B. rapa and A. thaliana. RNA-seq transcriptome data of different tissues revealed tissue-specific and differential expression profiles of the BrPUBs, and quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed inverse gene expression patterns of the BrPUB-ARMs in response to cold and heat stresses. Altogether, the identification, classification, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, and expression patterns of BrPUBs were predicted and analysed. Importantly, this study of BrPUBs provides a rich resource that will aid in the determination of PUB functions in plant development.

  19. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-01-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay. PMID:28181580

  20. Overexpression of a Chinese cabbage BrERF11 transcription factor enhances disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan; Dang, Fengfeng; Lin, Jing; Yu, Lu; Shi, Youliang; Xiao, Yuhua; Huang, Mukun; Lin, Jinhui; Chen, Chengcong; Qi, Aihua; Liu, Zhiqin; Guan, Deyi; Mou, Shaoliang; Qiu, Ailian; He, Shuilin

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. However, the roles and underlying mechanism of ERFs remain poorly understood, especially in non-model plants. In this study, a full length cDNA of ERF gene was isolated from the cDNA library of Chinese cabbage. According to sequence alignment, we found a highly conservative AP2/ERF domain, two nuclear localization signals, and an ERF-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. It belonged to VIIIa group ERFs sharing the highest sequence identity with AtERF11 in all of the ERFs in Arabidopsis and designated BrERF11. BrERF11-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transient expressed in onion epidermis cells localized to the nucleus. The transcript levels of BrERF11 were induced by exogenous salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Constitutive expression of BrERF11 enhanced tolerance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection in transgenic tobacco plants, which was coupled with hypersensitive response (HR), burst of H(2)O(2) and upregulation of defense-related genes including HR marker genes, SA-, JA-dependent pathogen-related genes and ET biosynthesis associated genes and downregulation of CAT1, suggesting BrERF11 may participate in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)- and effector-triggered immunity (PTI and ETI) mediated by SA-, JA- and ET-dependent signaling mechanisms.

  1. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  2. Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed. PMID:24224147

  3. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.

  4. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served.

  5. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  6. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition A A A What's in this article? CF ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  7. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  8. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A What's in this article? ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  9. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  10. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  11. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  12. Ketogenic diet in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebhaber, Gisela Maria; Riemann, Edith; Baumeister, Friedrich Albert Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of Rett syndrome with the ketogenic diet has been reported only once and showed positive effects on seizure frequency and behavior. We report a patient with Rett syndrome who was treated with the ketogenic diet for 4 years. The diet was initiated at the age of 8 years owing to the patient's refractory epilepsy and led to a 70% reduction in seizures. Treatment with the ketogenic diet was also associated with improvements in contact and behavior. Diagnosis of Rett syndrome was confirmed by molecular detection of the Ser134Cys mutation in the MECP2 gene, which has previously been described only in classic Rett syndrome. This observation demonstrates that the ketogenic diet has a positive effect on Rett syndrome.

  13. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  14. Investigation on the optimal term of one-fold insecticide application for decreasing onion thrips ( Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) damage on early white cabbage.

    PubMed

    Trdan, S; Valic, N; Bogataj, A; Znidarcic, D

    2004-01-01

    An impact of the term of one-fold insecticide application to reduce the damage of the onion thrips in early white cabbage was established. During the growing season plants were treated with insecticide (abamectin) in three different terms (treatment 1: 9 June, treatment 2: 16 June, treatment 3: 23 June, and treatment 4: untreated). On the exterior leaves of cabbage heads, treated with the insecticide, statistically significantly lower mean index of damage was determined as compared to the untreated plants. No significant differences were found between three different terms of application. The majority of the economically important damages in all of the treatments was found between the 3rd and 6th exterior leaf in the head. The highest mean weight of heads (1517.3 g) and mean net weight of heads I = mean weight of heads - weight of damaged and removed leavesl (1166.3 g) were established in plants which were treated the last. These parameters were the lowest in untreated plants (1083.3 g / 805.6 g). The yield loss due to damaged leaves removal amounted from 22.9% (treatment 2) to 25.6% (treatment 4). Based on the results obtained in this research we concluded that yield loss due to onion thrips attack in plants with one-fold insecticide application is not substantially lower as in untreated plants (though statistically significant differences between them were established), because insecticide cannot reach the interior leaves in the head. Substantial differences in the total and net weight of heads between the treatments and especially between the treated and untreated plants are explained by the fact that feeding of numerous thrips populations in the heads and on the exterior cabbage leaves negatively affects plant physiology and yield. The highest average yield in plants which were treated the last indicates a possibility that insecticide also inhibits plant growth and development to a certain extent.

  15. Three zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) play diverse roles in seed germination and plant growth under normal and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Ye Rin; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing understanding of the stress-responsive roles of zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins (RZs) in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa), the functions of RZs in cabbage (Brassica rapa) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the functional roles of the three RZ family members present in the cabbage genome, designated as BrRZ1, BrRZ2 and BrRZ3, were investigated in transgenic Arabidopsis under normal and environmental stress conditions. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all BrRZ proteins were exclusively localized in the nucleus. The expression levels of each BrRZ were markedly increased by cold, drought or salt stress and by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Expression of BrRZ3 in Arabidopsis retarded seed germination and stem growth and reduced seed yield of Arabidopsis plants under normal growth conditions. Germination of BrRZ2- or BrRZ3-expressing Arabidopsis seeds was delayed compared with that of wild-type seeds under dehydration or salt stress conditions and cold stress conditions, respectively. Seedling growth of BrRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants was significantly inhibited under salt, dehydration or cold stress conditions. Notably, seedling growth of all three BrRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants was inhibited upon ABA treatment. Importantly, all BrRZs possessed RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the three cabbage BrRZs harboring RNA chaperone activity play diverse roles in seed germination and seedling growth of plants under abiotic stress conditions as well as in the presence of ABA.

  16. QTL Analysis of Head Splitting Resistance in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) Using SSR and InDel Makers Based on Whole-Genome Re-Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Head splitting resistance (HSR) in cabbage is an important trait closely related to both quality and yield of head. However, the genetic control of this trait remains unclear. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from an intra-cross between head splitting-susceptible inbred cabbage line 79-156 and resistant line 96-100 was obtained and used to analyze inheritance and detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for HSR using a mixed major gene/polygene inheritance analysis and QTL mapping. HSR can be attributed to additive-epistatic effects of three major gene pairs combined with those of polygenes. Negative and significant correlations were also detected between head Hsr and head vertical diameter (Hvd), head transverse diameter (Htd) and head weight (Hw). Using the DH population, a genetic map was constructed with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, with a total length of 1065.9 cM and average interval length of 4.4 cM between adjacent markers. Nine QTLs for HSR were located on chromosomes C3, C4, C7, and C9 based on 2 years of phenotypic data using both multiple-QTL mapping and inclusive composite interval mapping. The identified QTLs collectively explained 39.4 to 59.1% of phenotypic variation. Three major QTLs (Hsr 3.2, 4.2, 9.2) showing a relatively larger effect were robustly detected in different years or with different mapping methods. The HSR trait was shown to have complex genetic mechanisms. Results from QTL mapping and classical genetic analysis were consistent. The QTLs obtained in this study should be useful for molecular marker-assisted selection in cabbage breeding and provide a foundation for further research on HSR genetic regulation.

  17. Evidence for inbreeding depression and pre-copulatory, but not post copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi.

  18. Evidence for Inbreeding Depression and Pre-Copulatory, but Not Post Copulatory Inbreeding Avoidance in the Cabbage Beetle Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi. PMID:24718627

  19. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects.

  20. Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides on important parasitoids of cabbage butterflies in cruciferous ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Firake, D M; Thubru, D P; Behere, G T

    2017-02-01

    Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides. Although, at 72 h after treatment, spinosad and deltamethrin were found harmful (Class-IV) and azadirachtin was moderately harmful (Class-III), whereas Btk was harmless (Class-I). Furthermore, 15-day-old residues of pesticides (except deltamethrin) were harmless to all parasitoid species under semi-field conditions. Notably, adult emergence and pupal duration in pesticide-treated cocoons were not significantly affected; however, their survival decreased after emergence except in Btk. The contact and oral toxicity trends of the pesticides were almost similar for three species of parasitoid females and pupae; however little variability was observed in toxicity to the host caterpillars parasitized by H. ebeninus (HCPHE) and C. glomerata (HCPCG). In semi-field tests, fresh residues of all the pesticides were harmful to HCPHE and HCPCG. However, action of Btk was slightly delayed and toxicity was rather low for HCPCG. In 15-day-old residues, deltamethrin and azadirachtin were slightly harmful to the parasitized caterpillars, whereas those of Btk and spinosad were harmless. Since, Btk appeared to be safe for parasitoids; it could be used for managing cabbage butterflies in brassicaceous crops.