Sample records for cabernet sauvignon red

  1. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    PubMed

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  3. Volatile compounds of young wines from cabernet sauvignon, cabernet gernischet and chardonnay varieties grown in the loess plateau region of china.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2010-12-10

    In order to elucidate the aroma components of wine produced in the Loess Plateau region of China, volatile compounds of young wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay varieties grown in the new ecological region were investigated for the first time in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by HS-SPME with GC-MS, a total of 45, 44 and 42 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of the three wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. According to their odor active values (OAVs), 18 volatile compounds were always present in the three wines at concentrations higher than their threshold values, but ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and isoamyl acetate were found to jointly contribute to 92.9%, 93.3%, and 98.7%, of the global aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. These odorants are associated with "fruity'' and ''ripe fruit'' odor descriptors.

  4. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Influence of closure, phenolic levels and microoxygenation on Cabernet Sauvignon wine composition after 5 years' bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Han, Guomin; Ugliano, Maurizio; Currie, Bruce; Vidal, Stéphane; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Wine aging is generally limited by the amount of oxidation, which is dependent on the amount of oxygen entering via the closure. Cabernet Sauvignon wine is well known for its high concentration of tannin, making it an ideal red wine for aging. The impact of closure type after 5 years' bottle aging has been investigated on a 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, treated with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and micro-oxygenation (Mox). Two oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions (16 and 5 µg per day) into 375 mL bottles were obtained by using different synthetic stoppers. Color was evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry, carbonyls by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization, phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography and sulfur dioxide by the aspiration method. Closure type strongly influenced color parameters involving SO2 bleaching and some phenolics, particularly quercetin, were affected, but there was little effect on carbonyls other than acetaldehyde. PVPP treatment afforded wines with the lowest levels of phenolics and color density, but highest acetaldehyde. Few effects of Mox could be detected. Closure OTR strongly affects sulfur dioxide levels - the primary antioxidant in wine - in aged wine, but phenolic levels substantially alter the secondary reactions of oxidative aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  7. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  8. Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-07-25

    The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  9. Isohydrodynamic behavior in deficit-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec and its relationship between yield and berry composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationships between indicators of water status, yield and berry attributes at harvest were evaluated over four seasons in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grapevines under sustained levels of water deficit to identify options for optimizing irrigation strategies under arid conditions....

  10. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Prefermentative Addition of Gallic Acid on the Phenolic Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid in Cabernet Sauvignon red winemaking was performed. The influence of gallic acid addition on wine phenolic composition, the ratio of copigmentation, and the color parameters were monitored throughout the winemaking process. The results showed that the prefermentative addition of gallic acid enhanced the extraction of total anthocyanins and the copigmentation effect, producing wines with more darkness, redness, yellowness, and saturation. Moreover, the addition of gallic acid contributed to the concentration of total phenolic acids. However, it had a negative effect on the concentrations of flavonols and flavan-3-ols in the final wines. Thus, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid at appropriate levels might be a promising enological technology to obtain wines with high color quality and aging potential. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan-Lun; Liu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2016-10-12

    The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  13. Effect of micro-oxygenation on sensory characteristics and consumer preference of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    PubMed

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Plumejeau, François; Maury, Chantal; Versari, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L(-1) month(-1) ), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L(-1) month(-1) dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  15. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Fang; Li, Jing-Ming

    2017-06-02

    Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon ( Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content. This technique increased ester contents, as well as decreasing the amount of volatile acids. Higher alcohol contents were also increased, but within an acceptable content range. All taken into consideration, the freeze concentration treated wine showed better fragrance characters according to sensory evaluation. The non-anthocyanin composition was altered by this application, however, the difference disappeared after the aging process. Fortunately, sensory evaluation showed that the treated wine possessed better mouthfeel properties. Anthocyanin contents were enhanced, and effectively stabilized the fresh wine color attributes, resulting in an improvement in appearance of the treated wine. All results considered, it can be concluded that freeze concentration treatment could be a good choice to improve wine quality.

  17. Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines.

    PubMed

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. The HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L(-1)) than EC1118 (390 g L(-1)) during alcoholic fermentation, but the concentration equalized during the aging period (424 and 417 g L(-1) respectively). All aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than the EC1118 wines by the panel of tasters after alcoholic fermentation. In general, the HPS wines showed better physicochemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all aging techniques contributed to improve wine quality, but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed the best wine to be obtained, because it depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Chemical, chromatic, and sensory attributes of 6 red wines produced with prefermentative cold soak.

    PubMed

    Casassa, L Federico; Bolcato, Esteban A; Sari, Santiago E

    2015-05-01

    Six red grape cultivars, Barbera D'Asti, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Syrah, were produced with or without prefermentative cold soak (CS). Cold soak had no effect on the basic chemical composition of the wines. At pressing, CS wines were more saturated and with a higher red component than control wines. After 1 year of bottle aging, CS wines retained 22% more anthocyanins than control wines, but tannins and total phenolics remained unaffected. Both saturation and the red component of colour were slightly higher in CS wines. From a sensory standpoint, CS only enhanced colour intensity in Barbera D'Asti and Cabernet Sauvignon wines, whereas it diminished colour intensity in Pinot Noir. Cold soak had no effect on perceived aroma, bitterness, astringency, and body of the wines. Principal Component Analysis suggested that the outcome of CS is contingent upon the specific cultivar to which the CS technique is applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids during Cabernet Sauvignon wine ageing based on a simultaneous analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; Lan, Yi-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xiang, Xiao-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids are the important flavour-related components in wines. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a method that could simultaneously analyse these compounds in wine based on silylation derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and apply this method to the investigation of the changes of these compounds and speculate upon their related influences on Cabernet Sauvignon wine flavour during wine ageing. This work presented a new approach for wine analysis and provided more information concerning red wine ageing. This method could simultaneously quantitatively analyse 2 monosaccharides, 8 organic acids and 13 amino acids in wine. A validation experiment showed good linearity, sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Multiple derivatives of five amino acids have been found but their effects on quantitative analysis were negligible, except for methionine. The evolution pattern of each category was different, and we speculated that the corresponding mechanisms involving microorganism activities, physical interactions and chemical reactions had a great correlation with red wine flavours during ageing. Simultaneously quantitative analysis of monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids in wine was feasible and reliable and this method has extensive application prospects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Steenwerth, Kerri L

    2011-08-01

    This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino acids recalculated as YAN), sugars, and organic acids in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8. A significant difference was observed for some of the free amino acids between rootstocks. In both sample preparation methods (juiced or chemically extracted), 110R rootstock grapes were significantly higher in SER, GLN, THR, ARG, VAL, ILE, LEU, and YAN than were 420A rootstock grapes. Differences in individual free amino acid profiles and concentrations were observed between the two sample preparations, which indicate that care should be taken when comparing values from dissimilar methods. No significant differences among vineyard floor treatments were detected, which suggests that mowing offers vineyard managers a sustainable practise, alternative to tilling, without negatively affecting grape nitrogen compounds, sugars, or organic acids. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    PubMed

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  3. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2011-11-09

    The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation.

  5. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wines in contact with oak wood: the impact of the variety (Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon), format (barrels, chips and staves) and aging time on the phenolic composition.

    PubMed

    Laqui-Estaña, Jaime; López-Solís, Remigio; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2018-06-13

    This study characterized the flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenolic composition of Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon wines that were in contact with barrels, chips and staves during a 12-month aging period. The wines were evaluated by spectrophotometric (for total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins, colorant intensity, hue, CIElab parameters and fractionation into mono-, oligo- and polymer of proanthocyanidins) and HPLC-DAD analyses (for ellagitannins, gallotannins, anthocyanins and low molecular weight phenols). Wines in contact with oak wood presented a strong enrichment with non-flavonoid compounds, such as caffeic, gallic, ellagic acids and ellagitannins. Wines in contact with staves stood out for the increased presence of total phenols, vanillic acid and higher color intensity, while wines aged in contact with chips showed large contents of proanthocyanidin gallates. Wines aged in barrels exhibited high contents of ellagitannins and ethyl gallates. The effect of wood on the phenolic composition was mostly associated to the original and intrinsic characteristics of each grape variety. Extraction of phenolic compounds from oak wood during wine aging is closely related to the wood format, grape variety (Carménère or Cabernet Sauvignon) and aging time. The final effect of wood on wine would be related not just to the transference of polyphenols from wood but also to structural modifications of grape polyphenols. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical and sensory evaluation of Bordeaux wines (Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot) and correlation with wine age.

    PubMed

    Chira, Kleopatra; Pacella, Nicola; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-06-15

    Wine quality study was carried out with 24 vintages of Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS) and 7 vintages of Merlot (M) produced by two different Bordeaux wine-growing areas. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV-Fluo. Percentage of galloylation (%G), of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) were also determined. Total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, total tannins, hue, CI (colour intensity), titratable acidity, ethanol level and pH were evaluated. Sensory analysis concerning astringency and bitterness intensity was also performed. Total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, total tannins, tannin monomers, hue, CI, % G, % P, mDP and astringency intensity differentiate both wines (M and CS) according to vintage. Correlations between wine age and: mDP, hue, astringency and tannin monomers (C+EC) are obtained. Qualitative tannin characterisation is established by correlation between astringency and mDP (R(2)=0.509, p=0.051, CS; R(2)=0.780, p=0.000M). In addition, mDP decreases significantly during ageing (R(2)=0.796, p=0.000; CS and R(2)=0.946, p=0.000; M). Scale patterns between wine mDP and tannin perception (astringency) are proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting the composition of red wine blends using an array of multicomponent Peptide-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Eman; Hopfer, Helene; Navarro, Andrea; Ritzer, Maxwell S; Mahmood, Lina; Fredell, Morgan; Cubley, Ashley; Bolen, Jessica; Fattah, Rabia; Teasdale, Katherine; Lieu, Linh; Chua, Tedmund; Marini, Federico; Heymann, Hildegarde; Anslyn, Eric V

    2015-05-20

    Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine.

  9. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    PubMed

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  10. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  11. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diane M.; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C.; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore. PMID:19359488

  13. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla).

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Skinkis, Patricia A; Wilson, John H; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2015-06-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment.

  14. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  16. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  17. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  18. Repercussion of the phytosanitary treatments on various models of foliage management in a Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard (I note).

    PubMed

    Spera, G; Moretti, S; Casadei, G

    2004-01-01

    This study is the first communication about the repercussion of several phytosanitary treatments in three different training systems, differently managed in foilage, in relation to the usual phytopatologies: botrytis, acid rot, grape mildew and oldium. Particular attention to residuals of the products supplied on the foilage and present in ground and wine is paid. The considered foilage management systems are among those more spread and effective ones for a good quality wine production for Cabernet Sauvignon variety (clone R5). 11. Cordon Spur of Conegliano (C.S.C); 12. Simple Free Espalier Curtain (S.C.S.L); 13. Lyra (Lyra). The phytosanitary interventions for the foilage management systems have been compared between the company's ordinary plan and one with various and numerous active principles. The CG-ECD with Multiresidual analysis has determined the active principles residuals in the ground and in the wines. The characteristics of the wines have been determined by physical- chemical analysis; their organoleptic quality has been valued by panels of producers, oenologists, consumers and restaurant staff. The results point out a difference among the trials for the different presence of residuals. The foilage management justifies the diversity of the analytical composition of the wines. There is a substantial uniformity of judgements for the organoleptic quality. In conclusion, in this prove the judgement on the economic quality highlights the uselessness of the use of more incisive and radical active principles.

  19. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  20. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The combined effects of storage temperature and packaging on the sensory, chemical, and physical properties of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Helene; Buffon, Peter A; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-04-03

    A Californian Cabernet Sauvignon was stored for 6 months at three different constant temperatures to study the combined effects of storage temperature and packaging configuration. Glass bottles with natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw cap closure, as well as two Bag-in-Box treatments, were used in the experiment. A trained sensory panel was able to detect significant changes in aroma, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and color attributes among the samples, differences that were found also with various chemical and physical measurements (volatile profile, polyphenol pattern, enological parameters, color space). Additionally, two commonly used polyphenol assays were compared to each other in terms of their ability to detect the changes in the polyphenol profile. Generally, sample changes were more pronounced due to the different storage temperatures, with 30 sensory attributes differing significantly among the three different storage temperatures, while only 17 sensory attributes showed a significant packaging effect. With increasing storage temperature the packaging effect became more pronounced, resulting in the largest changes in the Bag-in-Box samples stored at the highest temperature of 40 °C. At the highest storage temperature, all wines showed oxidized characters, independent of the wine packaging configurations, but to a varying degree. Generally, wines that received highest oxygen amounts and storage temperatures were much lighter, less red, and more brown-yellow at the end of the 6-month storage period, compared to their counterparts stored at 10 °C. These changes in color and polyphenols, respectively, were also detected with the two spectrophotometric assays. With increasing storage temperature both assays measured reduced concentrations in total phenols and total anthocyanins, while total tannins, degree of ionized anthocyanins, and color density increased. Various volatile compounds differed significantly among the samples, with largest relative

  2. Phenolic composition and mouthfeel characteristics resulting from blending Chilean red wines.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Avilés-Gálvez, Pamela; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2014-03-15

    The blending of wine is a common practice in winemaking to improve certain characteristics that are appreciated by consumers. The use of some cultivars may contribute phenolic compounds that modify certain characteristics in blended wines, particularly those related to mouthfeel. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Carménère, Merlot and Cabernet Franc on the phenolic composition, proanthocyanidin profile and mouthfeel characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon blends. Significant differences in chemical composition were observed among the monovarietal wines. Separation using Sep-Pak C₁₈ cartridges revealed differences in the concentration but not in the proportion of various proanthocyanidins. Blending reduced polyphenol concentration differences among the various monovarietal wines. Although no major overall differences were observed after blending the monovarietal wines, this oenological practice produced clear differences in mouthfeel characteristics in such a way that the quality of the perceived astringency was different. This study showed that the use of a particular wine variety (Cabernet Sauvignon) in a higher proportion in wine blending produced blends that were less differentiable from the monovarietal wine, owing to a suppression effect, producing an apparent standardization of the wines regarding chemical composition. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Phenolic Analysis and Theoretic Design for Chinese Commercial Wines' Authentication.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines' varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines. The phenolic data of 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines was processed with different statistical tools for varietal, regional, and vintage differentiation. A promising theoretical design was summarized, which might be helpful for wine authentication in practical situation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cabernet sauvignon grape cells exposed to thermal stresses reveals alterations in sugar and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    George, Iniga S; Pascovici, Dana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are a valuable fruit crop and wine production is a major industry. Global warming and expanded range of cultivation will expose grapes to more temperature stresses in future. Our study investigated protein level responses to abiotic stresses, with particular reference to proteomic changes induced by the impact of four different temperature stress regimes, including both hot and cold temperatures, on cultured grape cells. Cabernet Sauvignon cell suspension cultures grown at 26°C were subjected to 14 h of exposure to 34 and 42°C for heat stress, and 18 and 10°C for cold stress. Cells from the five temperatures were harvested in biological triplicates and label-free quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed. A total of 2042 non-redundant proteins were identified from the five temperature points. Fifty-five proteins were only detected in extreme heat stress conditions (42°C) and 53 proteins were only detected at extreme cold stress conditions (10°C). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of differentially expressed proteins provided insights into the metabolic pathways that are involved in temperature stress in grape cells. Sugar metabolism displayed switching between alternative and classical pathways during temperature stresses. Additionally, nine proteins involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were greatly increased in abundance at extreme cold stress, and were thus found to be cold-responsive proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000977 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000977). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Utilization of a freeze-thaw treatment to enhance phenolic ripening and tannin oxidation of grape seeds in red (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Cola, Gabriele; VanderWeide, Josh; Murad, Patrick; Failla, Osvaldo; Sabbatini, Paolo

    2018-09-01

    Phenolic ripening represents a major interest for quality wine producers. Nevertheless, climatic or genotypical limitations can often prevent optimal maturation process. During winemaking seeds can be easily separated and technologically processed to improve their quality. Relying on the key role of oxidation for phenolic ripening, a freeze-thaw treatment was proposed to improve the fruit quality for potential use in challenging growing conditions. The experiment was carried on in two distinctive viticultural areas, Michigan and Italy. Five cultivars (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir and Chambourcin) and six cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese, Syrah, Croatina, Barbera and Nebbiolo) were used in Michigan and Italy, respectively. Samples were collected at different phenological stages, to describe the natural ripening process and grape seeds were characterized before and after a freeze-thaw treatment. Colorimetric and spectrophotometric data highlighted similarities among natural and artificial seed ripening promising future applications for the wine industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of extended maceration and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines: characterization of proanthocyanidin distribution, anthocyanin extraction, and chromatic properties.

    PubMed

    Casassa, L Federico; Larsen, Richard C; Beaver, Christopher W; Mireles, Maria S; Keller, Markus; Riley, William R; Smithyman, Russell; Harbertson, James F

    2013-07-03

    The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ~73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution.

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    PubMed

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  9. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    PubMed

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of major Australian red wines throughout the winemaking process.

    PubMed

    Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J

    2010-09-22

    Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (<10%). The evolution of phenolic contents and the respective antioxidant activities in wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.

  11. Distribution of resveratrol and stilbene synthase in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and the effect of UV-C on its accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ke; Yang, Hao-Ru; Wen, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Current research indicated that the resveratrol was mainly accumulated in the skin of grape berry, however, little is yet known about the distribution of resveratrol, as well as the regulation mechanism at protein level and the localization of stilbene synthase (malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.95; STS), a key enzyme of resveratrol biosynthesis, in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Resveratrol, whose constitutive level ranged from 0.2 mg kg(-1) FW to 16.5 mg kg(-1) FW, could be detected in stem, axillary bud, shoot tip, petiole, root and leaf of grape plants. Among them, stem phloems presented the most abundant of resveratrol, and the leaves presented the lowest. Interestingly, the level of STS mRNA and protein were highest in grape leaves. And the analysis of immunohistochemical showed the tissue-specific distribution of STS in different organs, presenting the similar results compared with the amount of protein. And the subcellular localization revealed that the cell wall in different tissues processed the most golden particles representing STS. Subjecting to UV-C irradiation, resveratrol and STS were both intensely stimulated in grape leaves, with the similar response pattern. Results above indicated that distribution of resveratrol and STS in grape was organ-specific and tissue-specific. And the accumulation of resveratrol induced by UV-C was regulated by transcriptional and translational level of STS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic characterization of wines by grape varieties and production areas.

    PubMed

    Son, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ki Myong; van den Berg, Frans; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2008-09-10

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic differences in wines produced from different grape varieties and different regions. A significant separation among wines from Campbell Early, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Shiraz grapes was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The metabolites contributing to the separation were assigned to be 2,3-butanediol, lactate, acetate, proline, succinate, malate, glycerol, tartarate, glucose, and phenolic compounds by PCA and PLS-DA loading plots. Wines produced from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes harvested in the continental areas of Australia, France, and California were also separated. PLS-DA loading plots revealed that the level of proline in Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines was higher than that in Australian and French Cabernet Sauvignon, Australian Shiraz, and Korean Campbell Early wines, showing that the chemical composition of the grape berries varies with the variety and growing area. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate statistical data sets in determining wine quality and product origin.

  13. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries. PMID:28469625

  14. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher M.; Wallingford, Anna K.; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  15. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. In addition, data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim ofmore » this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic

  16. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as “microbial terroir.” The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi. PMID

  17. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-11-30

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. In addition, data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim ofmore » this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic

  18. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    PubMed

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p < 0.05) in seed tannin extracts, whereas in skin tannin extracts, significant differences were observed for %G and %P (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that grape variety influenced neither astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  19. Understanding the Relationship between Red Wine Matrix, Tannin Activity, and Sensory Properties.

    PubMed

    Watrelot, Aude A; Byrnes, Nadia K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Kennedy, James A

    2016-11-30

    One major red wine mouthfeel characteristic, astringency, is derived from grape-extracted tannins and is considered to be a result of interaction with salivary proteins and the oral mucosa. To improve our understanding of the role that the enthalpy of interaction of tannin with a hydrophobic surface (tannin activity) has in astringency perception, a chromatographic method was used to determine the tannin concentration and activity of 34 Cabernet Sauvignon wines, as well as sensory analysis done on 13 of those wines. In addition, astringency-relevant matrix parameters (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol, glucose, and fructose) were measured across all wines. Tannin activity was not significantly correlated with any matrix variables, and the perception of drying and grippy was not correlated with tannin concentration and activity. However, ethanol content was well related to mouthfeel attributes and appeared to drive perceived drying. Although fructose and glucose content were well correlated, they did not drive the perception of sweetness, which is explained by the well-known mixture suppression effect.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of polyphenolic fractions from selected Moroccan red wines.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Basile, Adriana; Novellino, Ettore

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fractionated red wines from Morocco. The results obtained revealed that the wine samples were characterized by a higher phytochemical concentration than the same variety of wines with a different geographical origin and other more consumed red wines, confirming what was reported in a previous authors' work. The most phenolic-rich fractions were the ones containing phenolic acids and quercetin glucoronides from Syrah and Merlot wine samples while Cabernet Sauvignon exhibited the highest monomeric anthocyanin content. The antioxidant activity of wine extracts was tested by ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl assays. Samples revealed a higher reducing capacity than radical scavenging property and a good correlation between antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content values. As regards the antimicrobial properties, each fraction exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne microorganisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. In consideration of the scarcity of data regarding composition and biological properties of Moroccan red wines, the present study may represent a valuable reference for wine consumers and producers. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    PubMed

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions.

  2. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8’-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0–2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  3. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Lauren M; Lee, Jungmin; Osborne, James P; Chescheir, Stuart C; Edwards, Charles G

    2013-11-27

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize nonesterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p-coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines from Washington and Oregon were inoculated with B. bruxellensis, while hydroxycinnamic acids were monitored by HPLC. Besides consuming p-coumaric and ferulic acids, strains I1a, B1b, and E1 isolated from Washington wines metabolized 40-50% of caffeic acid, a finding in contrast to strains obtained from California wines. Higher molar recoveries of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol synthesized from p-coumaric and ferulic acids, respectively, were observed in Washington Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah but not Merlot. This finding suggested that Brettanomyces either (a) utilized vinylphenols formed during processing of some wines or (b) metabolized other unidentified phenolic precursors. None of the strains of Brettanomyces studied metabolized caftaric or p-coutaric acids present in wines from Washington or Oregon.

  4. Influence of plant water status on the production of C13-norisoprenoid precursors in Vitis vinifera L. Cv. cabernet sauvignon grape berries.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Dry, Peter R; Loveys, Brian R

    2007-05-30

    The influence of irrigation strategy on grape berry carotenoids and C13-norisoprenoid precursors was investigated for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Two irrigation treatments were compared, one in which vines received reduced irrigation applied alternately to either side of the vine (partial rootzone drying, PRD) and a second control treatment in which water was applied to both sides of the vine. Over the two years of the experiments, PRD vines received on average 66% of the water applied to the controls. Initially, the PRD treatment did not alter midday leaf (psiL) and stem (psiS) water potential relative to the control, but decreased stomatal conductance (gs). Continued exposure to the PRD treatment resulted in treated grapevines experiencing hydraulic water deficit relative to the control treatment and induced lowered midday psiL and psiS, which was also reflected in decreased berry weight at harvest. In both irrigation treatments, the most abundant grape berry carotenoids, beta-carotene and lutein, followed the developmental pattern typical of other grape varieties, decreasing post-veraison. At certain points in time, as the fruit approached maturity, the concentration of these carotenoids was increased in fruit of PRD-treated vines relative to the controls. This effect was greater for lutein than for beta-carotene. PRD consistently caused increases in the concentration of hydrolytically released C13-norisoprenoids beta-damascenone, beta-ionone, and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene in fruit at harvest (24 degrees Brix) over two seasons. The effect of the PRD treatment on the concentration of hydrolytically released C13-norisoprenoids was greater in the second of the two seasons of the experiment and was also reflected in an increase in total C13-norisoprenoid content per berry. This suggests that the increases in the concentration of the C13-norisoprenoids in response to PRD were independent of water deficit induced changes in berry size and

  5. Quantitative analysis of Bordeaux red wine precipitates by solid-state NMR: Role of tartrates and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shipra; Iturmendi, Nerea; Grelard, Axelle; Moine, Virginie; Dufourc, Erick

    2016-05-15

    Stability of wines is of great importance in oenology matters. Quantitative estimation of dark red precipitates formed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from Bordeaux region for vintages 2012 and 2013 was performed during the oak barrel ageing process. Precipitates were obtained by placing wine at -4°C or 4°C for 2-6 days and monitored by periodic sampling during a one-year period. Spectroscopic identification of the main families of components present in the precipitate powder was performed with (13)C solid-state CPMAS NMR and 1D and 2D solution NMR of partially water re-solubilized precipitates. The study revealed that the amount of precipitate obtained is dependent on vintage, temperature and grape variety. Major components identified include potassium bitartrate, polyphenols, polysaccharides, organic acids and free amino acids. No evidence was found for the presence of proteins. The influence of main compounds found in the precipitates is discussed in relation to wine stability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    PubMed

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  7. Developmental Response of a Resistance-Breaking Population of Meloidogyne arenaria on Vitis spp.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Safdar A; McKenry, M V

    2002-03-01

    Pre- and post-infection resistance mechanisms expressed by Vitis rootstocks RS-9 and Teleki 5C against second-stage juveniles (J2) of resistance-breaking populations of Meloidogyne arenaria were observed and correlated with juvenile development and nematode reproduction. Cabernet Sauvignon grape was used as a susceptible control for comparison. Similar numbers of J2 penetrated Teleki 5C and Cabernet Sauvignon roots. Root-tip necrosis, a hypersensitive reaction, occurred in both rootstocks but was effective in reducing J2 penetration only in RS-9 roots. Juvenile development occurred in roots of all three rootstocks by 13 days after inoculation, with the highest number of swollen juveniles present in Cabernet Sauvignon roots. Cortical necroses restricted the ability of J2 to reach vascular bundles, thereby restricting access to successful feeding sites and leading to dead or underdeveloped juveniles in RS-9 roots. At 35 days after inoculation, only 5% and 25% of the initial inoculum in RS-9 and Teleki 5C roots, respectively, reached the adult stage compared to 32% in Cabernet roots. Giant cells were of sufficient size to support nematode development to maturity in Cabernet. Cell necrosis and underdeveloped giant cells were apparent in the resistant rootstocks, which delayed development of adults and limited egg production. Inadequate development of giant cells may provide long-term population reductions in woody-rooted perennial crops.

  8. Effect of the prefermentative addition of five enological tannins on anthocyanins and color in red wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Liang, Na-Na; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in "Cabernet Sauvignon wines" at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives. The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. 76 FR 66625 - Approval of Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... commercial potential of the variety, such as the acreage planted and its location or market studies. Section... required to be marketed as ``Durif,'' a name he notes has little market presence. In response to the last... the names Sauvignon gris, Valvin Muscat, and Cabernet Diane are misleading. Sauvignon gris, a pink...

  10. Occurrence of Brettanomyces/Dekkera in Brazilian red wines and its correlation with ethylphenols.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Larissa Dias; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Brettanomyces/Dekkera can cause important spoilage in wines, with the production of ethylphenols and other off-flavor compounds. This study aimed at determining the presence of this yeast and the ethylphenols produced by them in Brazilian red wines, establishing their relationship with other chemical characteristics. Isolates of Brettanomyces/Dekkera were quantified by plating 126 samples of dry red wine in selective culture medium, while ethylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and GC/FID. Free and total SO2, alcohol, total dry extract, residual sugar, total and volatile acidity, and pH were also determined. Brettanomyces/Dekkera was present in 27% of samples. Ethylphenols were detected in most samples, with amounts higher than the threshold limit of 426 μg/L found in 46.03% of samples. The majority of wine samples showed inadequate levels of SO2 and residual sugars, facts that might facilitate microbial spoilage. The passage in barrels and the grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot), did not show any influence on the levels of contamination or ethylphenols contents. The prevalence of Brettanomyces/Dekkera and the concentrations of ethylphenols were high considering the sensory impact they can cause. The growth of Brettanomyces/Dekkera was dependent on the levels of SO2 and alcohol of wines. Knowledge of the contamination, the presence of ethylphenols, and their relationship with the chemical characteristics of wines can entice effective measures to prevent Brettanomyces/Dekkera and contribute to improve the general quality of Brazilian red wines.

  11. Protection capacity against low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant potential of some organic and non-organic wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice; Delen Akçay, Yasemin; Güvenç, Ulgar; Yildirim Sözmen, Eser

    2004-08-01

    Current research suggests that phenolics from wine may play a positive role against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Considering the effects of different wine-making techniques on phenols and the wine consumption preference influencing the benefical effects of the product, organically and non-organically produced wines were obtained from the grapes of Vitis vinifera origin var: Carignan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Columbard and Semillon. Levels of total phenols [mg/l gallic acid equivalents (GAE)], antioxidant activity (%) and inhibition of LDL oxidation [%, inhibition of diene and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] were determined. Some phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrochemical detection carried at +0.65 V (versus Ag/AgCl, 0.5 microA full scale). The highest concentrations of gallic, syringic and ferulic acids were found in organic Cabernet Sauvignon; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in organic Carignan and p-coumaric and vanillic acids in non-organic Merlot wine. High levels of antioxidant activity (AOA), inhibition of LDL oxidation and total phenol levels were found in non-organic Merlot (101.950% AOA; 88.570% LDL-diene; 41.000% LDL-MDA; 4700.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon (92.420% AOA; 91.430% LDL-diene; 67.000% LDL-MDA; 3500.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) grape varieties. Concentrations of some individual phenolic constituents (ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic) are correlated with high antioxidant activity and inhibition of LDL oxidation. The best r value for all examined characteristics was determined for gallic acid, followed by 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Negative correlation of vanillic with MDA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid with LDL were

  12. Comparison of Aquitaine and Rioja Red Wines: Characterization of Their Phenolic Composition and Evolution from 2000 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Quaglieri, Cindy; Prieto-Perea, Noelia; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Rasines-Perea, Zurine; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2017-01-24

    Wine chemical analysis was carried out on 194 commercial blended red wines produced by two major wine-growing areas-the Aquitaine (France) and Rioja (Spain) regions-in order to compare the wines of both regions. Anthocyanins and derived pigments, tannins and derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry using the electrospray ionization interface). Mean degree of polymerization (mDP) was determined. The influence of the wine-growing region and the predominance of the properties of some grape varieties used are confirmed by the significant differences observed between both regions. Rioja and Bordeaux "generic" (Bordeaux and Bordeaux-Supérieur appellations) red wines showed the highest anthocyanic content and the highest mDP, as these wines are in a majority made from Merlot (Bordeaux "generic") and Tempranillo (Rioja). On the contrary, Bordeaux "specific" regions (Blayais, Médoc, Graves, and Libournais) showed the red wines with the highest total phenolic content and tannin concentration, as the predominant grape variety used is Cabernet Sauvignon. A principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) suggesting patterns between the chemical parameters and the distribution of the red wines in three groups were proposed. The comparison of the two wine-growing areas also reveals some similarities between the various grape varieties used. A general effect of a progressive decrease in anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derived pigment and tannins is observed for older wines.

  13. Red wine-cisapride interaction: comparison with grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Offman, E M; Freeman, D J; Dresser, G K; Munoz, C; Bend, J R; Bailey, D G

    2001-07-01

    Our objective was to compare the interactions of red wine and grapefruit juice with cisapride. The oral pharmacokinetics of cisapride, its norcisapride metabolite, and electrocardiographic QTc interval were determined over a 24-hour period after administration of cisapride 10 mg with 250 mL grapefruit juice, red wine (cabernet sauvignon), or water in a randomized 3-way crossover study in 12 healthy men. The cisapride area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma drug concentration after single-dose administration (C(max)) with grapefruit juice were 151% (P <.01) and 168% (P <.001), respectively, of those with water. The increase in cisapride AUC and C(max) was variable among individuals; however, cisapride AUC and C(max) were enhanced by the same proportion. The time to reach maximum concentration after drug administration (t(max)) and the apparent elimination half-life (t((1/2)) for cisapride and the pharmacokinetics of norcisapride were not altered. Norcisapride/cisapride ratios were reduced. Cisapride AUC and C(max) with red wine were 115% (difference not statistically significant) and 107% (difference not statistically significant), respectively, of those with water. The cisapride t(max) was slightly longer. Cisapride t((1/2)) and norcisapride pharmacokinetics were not different. The norcisapride/cisapride ratio at cisapride C(max) was lower. One subject had a doubling in cisapride AUC and C(max) and a decrease in norcisapride/cisapride ratios with red wine and also had the largest interaction with grapefruit juice. QTc interval was unchanged in all treatment groups and individuals. A single glass of grapefruit juice produced an individual-dependent variable increase in the systemic availability of cisapride by inhibition of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity. The identical volume of red wine caused only minor changes in cisapride pharmacokinetics despite some inhibition of CYP3A4 in most individuals. However, even this

  14. Occurrence of Brettanomyces/Dekkera in Brazilian red wines and its correlation with ethylphenols

    PubMed Central

    de Ávila, Larissa Dias; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Brettanomyces/Dekkera can cause important spoilage in wines, with the production of ethylphenols and other off-flavor compounds. This study aimed at determining the presence of this yeast and the ethylphenols produced by them in Brazilian red wines, establishing their relationship with other chemical characteristics. Isolates of Brettanomyces/Dekkera were quantified by plating 126 samples of dry red wine in selective culture medium, while ethylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and GC/FID. Free and total SO2, alcohol, total dry extract, residual sugar, total and volatile acidity, and pH were also determined. Brettanomyces/Dekkera was present in 27% of samples. Ethylphenols were detected in most samples, with amounts higher than the threshold limit of 426 μg/L found in 46.03% of samples. The majority of wine samples showed inadequate levels of SO2 and residual sugars, facts that might facilitate microbial spoilage. The passage in barrels and the grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot), did not show any influence on the levels of contamination or ethylphenols contents. The prevalence of Brettanomyces/Dekkera and the concentrations of ethylphenols were high considering the sensory impact they can cause. The growth of Brettanomyces/Dekkera was dependent on the levels of SO2 and alcohol of wines. Knowledge of the contamination, the presence of ethylphenols, and their relationship with the chemical characteristics of wines can entice effective measures to prevent Brettanomyces/Dekkera and contribute to improve the general quality of Brazilian red wines. PMID:24159287

  15. Lowering the alcohol content of red wine does not alter its cardioprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Kim; Blackhurst, Dee; Albertyn, Zulfah; Marais, David; Lecour, Sandrine

    2012-05-23

    Many epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies suggest that chronic and moderate consumption of red wine benefits cardiovascular health, because of the alcoholic content or the polyphenols/flavonoids. The antioxidant and cardioprotective properties of a French red wine (cabernet sauvignon, 12% alcohol by volume) were compared with those of the same wine subjected to reverse osmosis for partial removal of alcohol (6% alcohol by volume). Antioxidant capacity was assessed in vitro using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. To test the cardioprotective effect of 12% v. 6% wine, the drinking water of rats used for controls was supplemented with red wine (12% or 6%). After 10 days, hearts were isolated on a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 minutes of global ischaemia plus 30 minutes of reperfusion (I/R). No differences in antioxidant capacity were observed between wine of 12% and 6% alcohol content (n=8 per group). Control hearts subjected to I/R presented a rate pressure product (heart rate x left ventricular developed pressure, expressed as a percentage of baseline value) of 16±4% (mean±standard error). Pretreatment with wine 12% or 6% improved the rate pressure product to 40±6% and 43±6%, respectively (p<0.05 v. control). Our findings suggest that the reduction of alcohol content from 12% to 6% in wine did not alter its antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Moderate and regular consumption of lower alcohol content wines may confer beneficial effects without the risks associated with traditional wines of higher alcohol content.

  16. Reduced Production of Higher Alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Red Wine Fermentation by Simultaneously Overexpressing BAT1 and Deleting BAT2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Huang, Shiyong; Du, Liping; Tang, Ping; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-08-16

    In red wine, the contents of higher alcohols and ethyl carbamate (EC) are two significant health concerns. To reduce the production of higher alcohols by wine yeast YZ22 with low production of EC, one BAT2 was replaced by a BAT1 expression cassette first and then another BAT2 was deleted to obtain the mutant SYBB3. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression level of BAT1 in SYBB3 improved 28 times compared with that in YZ22. The yields of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol produced by mutant SYBB3 reduced by 39.41% and 37.18% compared to those by the original strain YZ22, and the total production of higher alcohols decreased from 463.82 mg/L to 292.83 mg/L in must fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. Meanwhile, there were no obvious differences on fermentation characteristics of the mutant and parental strain. This research has suggested an effective strategy for decreasing production of higher alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. PMID:25018758

  18. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Carménère grape and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Kennedy, James A; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-05-02

    A formal compositional study of the proanthocyanidins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carménère was conducted in this work. We first characterized the polymeric proanthocyanidins of Carménère skins, seeds, and wines. In addition, the wine astringency was analyzed and compared with Cabernet Sauvignon. Although Carménère wines had a higher proanthocyanidin concentration and mean degree of polymerization than Cabernet Sauvignon wines, the former wines were perceived as less astringent. The low seed/skin proportion in Carménère wines as compared to other varieties, as evidenced by the reduced number of seeds per berry and the higher amount of epigallocatechin subunits of Carménère wine proanthocyanidins, could explain this apparent paradox.

  19. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    PubMed

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different enological practices on skin and seed proanthocyanidins in three varietal wines.

    PubMed

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Fernández-Fernández, Jose I; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2010-11-10

    Proanthocyanidins are important for wine quality since they participate in astringency, bitterness and color. Given the localization of proanthocyanidins in the berry (skin and seeds), different methods have been developed that help to modulate the release of these phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of two low prefermentative temperature techniques (cold soak and must freezing with dry ice) and the use of macerating enzymes has been studied during the vinification of three different varietal wines (Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon) to assess their influence on wine proanthocyanidin concentration and composition. Syrah wines showed the lowest proanthocyanidin content, together with the lowest mDP and the highest percentage of galloylation in its proanthocyanidins. Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed similar proanthocyanidin concentration. The application of the low temperature prefermentative maceration (cold soak) was the most effective treatment, increasing the proanthocyanidin concentration in Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines although neither of the treatments had any effect on Syrah wines. As regards the effect of the different treatments on the proanthocyanidin composition, the results seem to indicate that the observed increases were mainly due to an increase in seed proanthocyanidins, even in the case of cold soak treatments, which occur in the absence of ethanol, suggesting that ethanol is not so crucial in the extraction of seed proanthocyanidins.

  1. Cu, Zn and Mn uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine: effect of soil metal content and plant vigor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, María Paz

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of leaf thinning on micronutrient (Cu, Zn and Mn) uptake and distribution in grape tissues, in a 16 year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The analysis was carried out in two plots with differences in vigor (P1- high and P2-low) grown in calcareous soils. Vigour was analysed by the NDVI values. In each plot, two treatments (with and without leaf thinning after bloom) were applied. Total and the CaCl2-DTPA extractable fraction of these micronutrients were evaluated. Nutrient concentration in petiole were evaluated from veraison to harvest as well as the concentration of those elements in seeds and skins at ripening and in wines elaborated with grapes grown in each plot and treatment in 2013. Their relationships were evaluated. The soil extractable fraction did not give a good correlation with petiole concentrations. However, Mn in petiole was strongly correlated with soil total Mn. Cu and Zn had higher concentration at veraison than at harvest, while for Mn it was the opposite. Cu concentration in petiole and seeds was greater in the most vigorous plots, but there were not clear differences between treatments. Cu in seeds and skins correlated significantly but there was not correlation with Cu in petiole. Zn concentration in skins was quite similar in both plots, but with higher values in vines without leaf thinning. Zn concentrations in skins were correlated with Zn in petiole but no significant correlation was found with Zn in seeds. Higher concentrations were found in the no thinning treatment in skins. For Mn, petiole concentrations were greater in the high vigorous plot and in the leaf thinning treatment. However, petiole Zn concentrations were greater in the less vigorous plot and without clear effect of leaf thinning. Mn concentration in skins was greater in the less vigorous vines in both treatments and it was inversely correlated with Mn in seeds, but there were no significant correlation between them and Mn in petiole

  2. Volatile profiles and chromatic characteristics of red wines produced with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-07-01

    The use of mixed fermentations with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is gaining attention in recent years due to their ability to modulate the metabolites production of enological interest. In the present study, four of the most popular planted red grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir and Shiraz) were fermented using the aforementioned species and two different inoculation protocols (inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 and 48 h from the Starm. bacillaris inoculation), in order to evaluate their impact on the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics of wines. Analysis from chemical composition showed that titratable acidity and glycerol content exhibited marked differences among wines after fermentation. For volatile compounds, mixed fermented wines using an inoculation delay of 48 h led to reduction of volatile compounds (mainly esters). A shorter 24 h delay produced wines with higher values of color intensity than pure fermented wines. The differences observed between the inoculation protocols can be explained by the growth dynamics of both species during fermentation. These findings suggest that mixed fermentations posed a great potential in reducing metabolites which are considered negative for wine quality (mainly ethyl acetate and volatile fatty acids) and with an improvement of the chromatic profile of the wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Free radical scavenging of grape pomace extracts from Cabernet sauvingnon (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    de Campos, Luanda M A S; Leimann, Fernanda V; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2008-11-01

    Pressed grape pomace obtained from the wine production of Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vintage was dried until 9.8% moisture content, ground and submitted to extraction of soluble components from different extraction techniques. Low pressure extractions were performed with ethanol maceration followed by fractionation with n-hexane, dichloromethane, butanol and ethyl acetate. These solvents were furthermore applied for soxhlet extraction. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was also performed to obtain grape pomace extracts by using pure CO2 and CO2 with ethanol as co-solvent in concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%w/w. The operating condition used in high pressure extractions was 150bar and 40 degrees C. The antioxidant activity of the grape pomace extracts was determined considering the free radical scavenging assay using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and was correlated with the total phenol content determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results obtained in DPPH tests indicate the highest antioxidant activity of 96.6+/-0.3%AA, with an IC50 value of 13+/-1, for the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate in solid-liquid extraction. The highest yield values were achieved in soxhlet extraction with ethanol (13.2%w/w) and with butanol (12.2%w/w), and also by SFE with 15% ethanol (9.2%w/w). The lipophilic composition of grape pomace extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the identification of components like linoleic acid and ethyl linoleate, with important therapeutic activities.

  4. Berry skin development in Norton grape: distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad B; Howard, Susanne; Chen, Shangwu; Wang, Yechun; Yu, Oliver; Kovacs, Laszlo G; Qiu, Wenping

    2011-01-10

    The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon. Transcriptional patterns of MYB5A and

  5. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon. Transcriptional

  6. Influence of the dominance of must fermentation by Torulaspora delbrueckii on the malolactic fermentation and organoleptic quality of red table wine.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Manuel; Velázquez, Rocío; Maqueda, Matilde; Zamora, Emiliano; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Hernández, Luis M

    2016-12-05

    Torulaspora delbrueckii can improve wine aroma complexity, but its impact on wine quality is still far from being satisfactory at the winery level, mainly because it is easily replaced by S. cerevisiae yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were selected to overcome this problem. These strains killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and dominated fermentation better than T. delbrueckii non-killer strains when they were single-inoculated into crushed red grape must. All the T. delbrueckii wines, but none of the S. cerevisiae wines, underwent malolactic fermentation. Putative lactic acid bacteria were always found in the T. delbrueckii wines, but none or very few in the S. cerevisiae wines. Malic acid degradation was the greatest in the wines inoculated with the killer strains, and these strains reached the greatest dominance ratios and had the slowest fermentation kinetics. The T. delbrueckii wines had dried-fruit/pastry aromas, but low intensities of fresh-fruit aromas. The aroma differences between the T. delbrueckii and the S. cerevisiae wines can be explained by the differences that were found in the amounts of some fruity aroma compounds such as isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and some lactones. This T. delbrueckii effect significantly raised the organoleptic quality scores of full-bodied Cabernet-Sauvignon red wines inoculated with the killer strains. In particular, these wines were judged as having excellent aroma complexity, mouth-feel, and sweetness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. Objective To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Design Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Results Screening of ~150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ~1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Conclusions Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. PMID:24052273

  8. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R; Verkman, A S

    2014-07-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Screening of ∼150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ∼1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Ripening-induced changes in grape skin proanthocyanidins modify their interaction with cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Kennedy, James A

    2011-03-23

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated from the skins of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at different stages of grape development in order to study the effect of proanthocyanidin modification on the interaction with grape cell wall material. After veraison, the degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization increased, and thereafter was variable between 24 and 33 subunits as ripening progressed. Affinity of skin cell wall material for proanthocyanidin decreased with proanthocyanidin ripeness following veraison. A significant negative relationship (R2=0.93) was found for average proanthocyanidin molecular mass and the proportion of high molecular mass proanthocyanidin adsorbed by skin cell wall material. This indicated that as proanthocyanidin polymerization increased, the affinity of a component of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins for skin cell wall material declined. This phenomenon was only associated with skin proanthocyanidins from colored grapes, as high molecular mass proanthocyanidins of equivalent subunit composition from colorless mutant Cabernet Sauvignon grapes had a higher affinity for skin cell wall material.

  10. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-12-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R (2) = 0.96, P < 0.0001. The kinetics of caffeic acid formation with time in response to initial p-coumaric acid levels and at different grape skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K (m) of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid.

  11. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine.

    PubMed

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-20

    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  12. Comparative analytical study of the selected wine varieties grown in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Neda O; Novaković, Miroslav M; Pejin, Boris; Mutić, Jelena J; Vajs, Vlatka E; Pajović, Snežana B; Tešević, Vele V

    2017-08-01

    Samples of the selected red wine varieties grown in Montenegro (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Vranac; vintages 2010-2012) were compared according to total phenolic content, anti-DPPH radical activity, phenolic profile and elemental composition. All the samples showed profound anti-DPPH radical activity, due to high content of total phenolic compounds (R = 0.92). The most abundant phenolics were catechin and gallic acid with the highest values recorded for Merlot 2012 (43.22 and 28.65 mg/L, respectively). In addition to this, the content of essential elements including the potentially toxic ones was within healthy (safe) level for all the samples analysed. This study has actually pointed out Merlot wine variety as the best quality one, though all three varieties may be used as safe and health-promoting nutritional products.

  13. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.

    PubMed

    Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

    2013-12-01

    Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Penetration and development of Meloidogyne arenaria on two new grape rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Safdar A; McKenry, M V

    2002-06-01

    Penetration, development, and reproduction of a virulent 'Harmony' population of Meloidogyne arenaria was studied on two nematode-resistant grape rootstocks 10-17A and 6-19B. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was used as a susceptible control for comparison. Plants were inoculated with 100 freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria. Greater numbers of J2 penetrated roots of 'Cabernet' than 10-17A, and none penetrated roots of 6-19B 4 days after inoculation (DAI). At 7 DAI, vermiform J2 advanced to sausage-shaped J2 in roots of 'Cabernet,' penetrated roots of 6-19B, and had egressed from roots of 10-17A. Resistant rootstocks expressed hypersensitive responses to penetrating J2 along the root epidermis, among the cortical cells, and along the differentiating vascular bundles. At 13 DAI, 68% of the J2 had attained globose stage in roots of 'Cabernet,' whereas there was no development of vermiform J2 in roots of the other two rootstocks. The nematodes reproduced only in roots of 'Cabernet.' Lack of development of J2 in roots of the two resistant grape rootstocks might be the result of a hypersensitive response to J2 feeding.

  16. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Reproductive Variability of Field Populations of Meloidogyne spp. on Grape Rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Anwar, S A; McKenry, M V; Faddoul, J

    2000-09-01

    Variability in penetration, development, and reproduction of two resistance-breaking field pathotypes (pt.) of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and a population of mixed Meloidogyne spp. virulent to grape hosts were compared on two resistant Vitis rootstocks 'Freedom' and 'Harmony' in separate tests. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was included as a susceptible host to all four nematode populations. Secondstage juveniles (J2) of the mixed population failed to penetrate Freedom roots. By contrast, 6% of J2 in the M. incognita population penetrated Freedom roots but did not develop beyond the swollen J2 stage. The two resistance-breaking populations of M. arenaria differed in their virulence except on susceptible roots of Cabernet Sauvignon. More J2 of M. arenaria pt. Freedom penetrated Freedom roots and reached adult stage than did M. arenaria pt. Harmony. Later life stages of M. arenaria pt. Freedom occurred earlier and in greater numbers in Harmony roots than did M. arenaria pt. Harmony. Reproduction of M. arenaria pt. Freedom was greater in Freedom and Harmony roots than M. arenaria pt. Harmony. Thus, one population of M. arenaria is highly virulent and the other is moderately virulent.

  18. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    PubMed

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Isolation and Detection for RNA Biomarkers for TBI Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    V., Grape and wine sensory attributes correlate with pattern- based discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon wines by a peptidic sensor array, Tetrahedron... wine samples. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) was used for the correlation of wine sensory attributes to the peptide-based receptor...responses. Data analysis was done using the software XLSTAT Addinsoft, NewYork) and R.Absorbance values due to wine without the sensing ensembles were

  20. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  2. Poor interoperability of the Adams-Harbertson method for analysis of anthocyanins: comparison with AOAC pH differential method.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Larry M; Kuhlman, Benjamin J; McKesson, Doug W; McCloskey, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The poor interoperability of anthocyanin glycosides measurements by two pH differential methods is documented. Adams-Harbertson, which was proposed for commercial winemaking, was compared to AOAC Official Method 2005.02 for wine. California bottled wines (Pinot Noir, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) were assayed in a collaborative study (n=105), which found mean precision of Adams-Harbertson winery versus reference measurements to be 77 +/- 20%. Maximum error is expected to be 48% for Pinot Noir, 42% for Merlot, and 34% for Cabernet Sauvignon from reproducibility RSD. Range of measurements was actually 30 to 91% for Pinot Noir. An interoperability study (n=30) found Adams-Harbertson produces measurements that are nominally 150% of the AOAC pH differential method. Large analytical chemistry differences are: AOAC method uses Beer-Lambert equation and measures absorbance at pH 1.0 and 4.5, proposed a priori by Flueki and Francis; whereas Adams-Harbertson uses "universal" standard curve and measures absorbance ad hoc at pH 1.8 and 4.9 to reduce the effects of so-called co-pigmentation. Errors relative to AOAC are produced by Adams-Harbertson standard curve over Beer-Lambert and pH 1.8 over pH 1.0. The study recommends using AOAC Official Method 2005.02 for analysis of wine anthocyanin glycosides.

  3. Radicinin from Cochliobolus sp. inhibits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas J; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Roper, M Caroline; Reader, Jordan M; Steinhaus, Matthew J; Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Vosburg, David A; Maloney, Katherine N

    2015-08-01

    The fastidious phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, poses a substantial threat to many economically important crops, causing devastating diseases including Pierce's Disease of grapevine. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) planted in an area under Pierce's Disease pressure often display differences in disease severity and symptom expression, with apparently healthy vines growing alongside the dying ones, despite the fact that all the vines are genetic clones of one another. Under the hypothesis that endophytic microbes might be responsible for this non-genetic resistance to X. fastidiosa, endophytic fungi were isolated from vineyard cvs. 'Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grown under high Pierce's Disease pressure. A Cochliobolus sp. isolated from a Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine inhibited the growth of X. fastidiosa in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of an organic extract of Cochliobolus sp. yielded the natural product radicinin as the major active compound. Radicinin also inhibited proteases isolated from the culture supernatant of X. fastidiosa. In order to assess structure-activity relationships, three semi-synthetic derivatives of radicinin were prepared and tested for activity against X. fastidiosa in vitro. Assay results of these derivatives are consistent with enzyme inactivation by conjugate addition to carbon-10 of radicinin, as proposed previously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic diversity and geographical dispersal in grapevine clones revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Ximena; Pelsy, Frédérique; Merdinoglu, Didier; Hinrichsen, Patricio

    2006-11-01

    Intravarietal genetic diversification associated with geographical dispersal of a vegetatively propagated species was studied using grapevine Vitis vinifera L. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as a model. Fifty-nine clonal samples obtained from 7 countries (France, Chile, Spain, Australia, Hungary, USA, and Italy) were analyzed using 84 microsatellite markers. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite loci (21.4%) were detected, finding 22 different genotypes in the population analyzed with a genetic similarity of over 97%. The presence of chimeric clones was evidenced at locus VMC5g7 by means of a segregation analysis of descendants by self-pollination of a triallelic Chilean clone and by somatic embryogenesis analysis, showing a mutation in L2 cell layer. Only 2 clones (obtained from France and Australia) presented the ancestral genotype, and the most divergent genotype was exhibited by another French clone, which had accumulated 5 somatic mutations. The 2 largest populations considered (from France and Chile) showed a clear divergency in the polymorphisms detected. These antecedents enabled the tracing of geographical dispersal with a phylogenetic hypothesis supporting France as the center of origin of diversification of Cabernet Sauvignon. The results obtained could help to explain diversification processes in other grapevine cultivars. The possibility that this kind of genetic variability occurs in other vegetatively propagated species is discussed, focusing on possible fingerprinting applications.

  5. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Marconi, Raffaella; Nonis, Alberto; Peterlunger, Enrico; Paillard, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Testolin, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    Background Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Results Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. Conclusion We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between

  7. Characterization of pigments from different high speed countercurrent chromatography wine fractions.

    PubMed

    Salas, Erika; Dueñas, Montserrat; Schwarz, Michael; Winterhalter, Peter; Cheynier, Véronique; Fulcrand, Hélène

    2005-06-01

    A red wine, made from Cabernet Sauvignon (60%) and Tannat (40%) cultivars, was fractionated by high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The biphasic solvent system consisting of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (2/2/1/5, acidified with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) was chosen for its demonstrated efficiency in separating anthocyanins. The different native and derived anthocyanins were identified on the basis of their UV-visible spectra, their elution time on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their mass spectra, before and after thiolysis. The HSCCC method allowed the separation of different families of anthocyanin-derived pigments that were eluted in different fractions according to their structures. The hydrosoluble fraction was almost devoid of native anthocyanins. Further characterization (glucose quantification, UV-visible absorbance measurements) indicated that it contained flavanol and anthocyanin copolymers in which parts of the anthocyanin units were in colorless forms. Pigments in the hydrosoluble fraction showed increased resistance to sulfite bleaching and to the nucleophilic attack of water.

  8. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  9. Melatonin is synthesised by yeast during alcoholic fermentation in wines.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Troncoso, Ana M; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2011-06-15

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland. Its biological properties are related to the circadian rhythm. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) accepted the health claim related to melatonin and the alleviation of subjective feelings of jet lag. This molecule has been detected in some foods. In this work, 13 grape varieties were studied; 7 monovarietal wines were produced in an experimental winery under strictly controlled conditions and were sampled in different steps. The grape varieties used to make the wines were: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Tempranillo, Tintilla de Rota, Palomino Fino and Alpha red. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) unequivocally confirmed the presence of melatonin in wines. The main contribution of this paper is the results that clearly show that melatonin is synthesised during the winemaking process, specifically after the alcoholic fermentation. Indeed, melatonin is absent in grapes and musts and is formed during alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Geana, Elisabeta I.; Dinca, Oana R.; Ionete, Roxana E.; Artem, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans-resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine. PMID:27904334

  11. Wine Chemical Composition and Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Cabernet Franc Clones.

    PubMed

    Popovic-Djordjevic, Jelena; Pejin, Boris; Dramicanin, Aleksandra; Jovic, Sonja; Vujovic, Dragan; Zunic, Dragoljub; Ristic, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Three clones of Cabernet Franc (Nos. 02, 010 and 012) were selected in the last phase of clonal selection in Serbia. Wines made from each clone were assessed for quality parameters and taste during five consecutive vintages (2008-2012) and compared to the standard. The wine quality was determined based on the following parameters: alcohol, total extract, anthocyanins, tannins, pH, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters and reducing sugars, relative density, ash, colour, tonality, and tasting score. In the last year of the study, grapes and wines of Cabernet Franc clones and a standard were subjected to a chemical analysis of their phenolic composition, resveratrol and radical scavenging activity. In the last year of the study, grapes and wines of Cabernet Franc clones and a standard were subjected to a chemical analysis of their phenolic composition, resveratrol and radical scavenging activity. Chemical analyses of grapes and wines along with sensory and radical scavenging activity evaluations were done according to the standard procedures. The wines of the clone No. 010 showed some superior properties compared to the other two clones and the standard; in five-year period the average concentration of anthocyanins (179±3.8 mg/L) and polyphenolics (1.85±0.02 g/L) was significantly higher than in wines of clones and the standard, (168-173 mg/L and 1.63-1.74 g/L for anthocyanins and phenolics, respectively). Furthermore, the same clone had a higher alcohol content (13.97±0.03%) in each year of the study, which indicated that it ripened faster than other clones (13.06-13.08 %) and compared to the standard (13.04±0.07%). This finding suggested that the clone No. 010 could possibly have a significant economic impact and further increase popularity of Cabernet Franc in a cooler climate viticultural region. It was also found to have the highest contents of aldehydes (488±1.54 mg/L) and esters (322±0.71 mg/L) compared to aldehydes (452-467 mg/L) and

  12. Volatile components of grape pomaces from different cultivars of Sicilian Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Ruberto, Giuseppe; Renda, Agatino; Amico, Vincenzo; Tringali, Corrado

    2008-01-01

    The volatile components of grape pomace coming from the processing of some of the most important varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in Sicily, namely Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese, Frappato and Cabernet Sauvignon, have been determined by gas-chromatography (GC) and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). According to the winemaking procedure that entails the removal of stalks before fermentation, two kinds of grape pomace are obtained. The first consists of skins, pulp residues and seeds, the proper grape pomace, which is partially used for grappa, a typical Italian spirit, and alcohol production, the second consists almost exclusively of stalks. On the whole, 38 components have been characterized in the samples of grape pomaces, with Frappato cv. showing the richest composition; instead, 88 components have been detected in the stalks of Frappato, Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. In order to make a comparison between the grape varieties easier, the volatile components detected in the two sets of samples (grape pomaces and stalks) have been grouped in different classes. Significant differences among varieties have been detected and statistical treatment of data is also reported. This study is part of a wider project aimed at the possible exploitation of the main agro-industrial by-products. At the same time it is one of the first reports on the volatile components of this waste material.

  13. Feature extraction and selection from volatile compounds for analytical classification of Chinese red wines from different varieties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Li; Gao, Nianfa; Wang, Depei; Gao, Qiang; Jiang, Shengping

    2010-03-10

    This work was undertaken to evaluate whether it is possible to determine the variety of a Chinese wine on the basis of its volatile compounds, and to investigate if discrimination models could be developed with the experimental wines that could be used for the commercial ones. A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) procedure was used to determine the volatile compounds and a blind analysis based on Ac/Ais (peak area of volatile compound/peak area of internal standard) was carried out for statistical purposes. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were used to process data and to develop discriminant models. Only 11 peaks enabled to differentiate and classify the experimental wines. SLDA allowed 100% recognition ability for three grape varieties, 100% prediction ability for Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Gernischt wines, but only 92.31% for Merlot wines. A more valid and robust way was to use the PCA scores to do the discriminant analysis. When we performed SLDA this way, 100% recognition ability and 100% prediction ability were obtained. At last, 11 peaks which selected by SLDA from raw analysis set had been identified. When we demonstrated the models using commercial wines, the models showed 100% recognition ability for the wines collected directly from winery and without ageing, but only 65% for the others. Therefore, the varietal factor was currently discredited as a differentiating parameter for commercial wines in China. Nevertheless, this method could be applied as a screening tool and as a complement to other methods for grape base liquors which do not need ageing and blending procedures. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography separation of red wine anthocyanins on a mixed-mode ion-exchange reversed-phase and on a reversed-phase column.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Carola; Mardones, Claudia; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-09-03

    Anthocyanins, which confer the characteristic color to red wine, can be used as markers to classify wines according to the grape variety. It is a complex separation that requires very high chromatographic efficiency, especially in the case of aged red wines, due to the formation of pyranoanthocyanins. A coelution between these kinds of compounds can affect the R(ac/coum) ratio of aged wines, and might lead to false results when classifying the wine variety. In 2007, the use of a novel mixed-mode ion-exchange reversed-phase column was reported to separate anthocyanins extracted from grapes of Vitis labrusca with different selectivity than C-18 columns. In the present work, the separation of anthocyanins including pyranoanthocyanins in young and aged Cabernet Sauvignon wines and other varieties is evaluated. The most interesting contributions of this research are the different elution order and selectivity obtained for anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins (only formed in wine), compared with those observed in C-18 stationary phases. Also interesting is the separation of the polymeric fraction, which elutes as a clearly separated peak at the chromatogram's end. However, a comparison with a high efficiency C-18 column with the same dimensions and particle size demonstrated that the tested mixed-mode column shows broader peaks with a theoretical plate number below 8000, for malvidin-3-glucoside peak, while it can be up to 10 times higher for a high efficiency C-18 column, depending on the column manufacturer. Under the tested conditions, in mixed-mode phase, the analysis time is almost twice that of a C-18 column with the same dimensions and particle size. A mixed-mode phase with increased efficiency should provide an interesting perspective for separation of anthocyanins in wine, due to its improved selectivity, combined with a useful role in a second-dimension separation in preparative anthocyanin chromatography. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlating wine quality indicators to chemical and sensory measurements.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-05-12

    Twenty-seven commercial Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different quality categories were analyzed with sensory and chemical methods. Correlations between five quality proxies-points awarded during a wine competition, wine expert scores, retail price, vintage, and wine region-were correlated to sensory attributes, volatile compounds, and elemental composition. Wine quality is a multi-faceted construct, incorporating many different layers. Depending on the quality proxy studied, significant correlations between quality and attributes, volatiles and elements were found, some of them previously reported in the literature.

  16. Modified magnetic nanoparticles in an electrochemical method for the ochratoxin A determination in Vitis vinifera red grapes tissues.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Baldo, Martín A; Bertolino, Franco A; Messina, Germán A; Sanz, Maria I; Raba, Julio

    2010-12-15

    This work described the development and characterization of an electrochemical method using square wave voltammetry (SWV) combined with the use of modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which had shown a rapid and sensitive determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Syrah) post-harvest tissues. The wine grapes were inoculated with Aspergillus ochraceus to obtain OTA in artificially infected samples. The OTA was directly determined using square-wave voltammetry. The current obtained is directly proportional to the concentration of OTA present in the samples. This method has been used for OTA determination in wine grapes and it was validated against a commercial ELISA test kit. The limits of detection calculated for electrochemical detection and the ELISA were 0.02 and 1.9 μg kg(-1), respectively and the coefficients of variation for accuracy and precision dates were below 5.5%. This method promises to be suitable for the detection and quantification of OTA in apparently healthy fruits post-harvest for assuring safety and quality of food as well as consumer's health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid measurement of methyl cellulose precipitable tannins using ultraviolet spectroscopy with chemometrics: application to red wine and inter-laboratory calibration transfer.

    PubMed

    Dambergs, Robert G; Mercurio, Meagan D; Kassara, Stella; Cozzolino, Daniel; Smith, Paul A

    2012-06-01

    Information relating to tannin concentration in grapes and wine is not currently available simply and rapidly enough to inform decision-making by grape growers, winemakers, and wine researchers. Spectroscopy and chemometrics have been implemented for the analysis of critical grape and wine parameters and offer a possible solution for rapid tannin analysis. We report here the development and validation of an ultraviolet (UV) spectral calibration for the prediction of tannin concentration in red wines. Such spectral calibrations reduce the time and resource requirements involved in measuring tannins. A diverse calibration set (n = 204) was prepared with samples of Australian wines of five varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Merlot, Pinot Noir, and Durif), from regions spanning the wine grape growing areas of Australia, with varying climate and soils, and with vintages ranging from 1991 to 2007. The relationship between tannin measured by the methyl cellulose precipitation (MCP) reference method at 280 nm and tannin predicted with a multiple linear regression (MLR) calibration, using ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 250, 270, 280, 290, and 315 nm, was strong (r(2)val = 0.92; SECV = 0.20 g/L). An independent validation set (n = 85) was predicted using the MLR algorithm developed with the calibration set and gave confidence in the ability to predict new samples, independent of the samples used to prepare the calibration (r(2)val = 0.94; SEP = 0.18 g/L). The MLR algorithm could also predict tannin in fermenting wines (r(2)val = 0.76; SEP = 0.18 g/L), but worked best from the second day of ferment on. This study also explored instrument-to-instrument transfer of a spectral calibration for MCP tannin. After slope and bias adjustments of the calibration, efficient calibration transfer to other laboratories was clearly demonstrated, with all instruments in the study effectively giving identical results on a transfer set.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  19. Pectic-β(1,4)-galactan, extensin and arabinogalactan–protein epitopes differentiate ripening stages in wine and table grape cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John P.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cell wall changes in ripening grapes (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to involve re-modelling of pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose networks. Newer experimental techniques, such as molecular probes specific for cell wall epitopes, have yet to be extensively used in grape studies. Limited general information is available on the cell wall properties that contribute to texture differences between wine and table grapes. This study evaluates whether profiling tools can detect cell wall changes in ripening grapes from commercial vineyards. Methods Standard sugar analysis and infra-red spectroscopy were used to examine the ripening stages (green, véraison and ripe) in grapes collected from Cabernet Sauvignon and Crimson Seedless vineyards. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) analysis was performed on cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) and NaOH extracts of alcohol-insoluble residue sourced from each stage using sets of cell wall probes (mAbs and CBMs), and the datasets were analysed using multivariate software. Key Results The datasets obtained confirmed previous studies on cell wall changes known to occur during grape ripening. Probes for homogalacturonan (e.g. LM19) were enriched in the CDTA fractions of Crimson Seedless relative to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Probes for pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan (mAb LM5), extensin (mAb LM1) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs, mAb LM2) were strongly correlated with ripening. From green stage to véraison, a progressive reduction in pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan epitopes, present in both pectin-rich (CDTA) and hemicellulose-rich (NaOH) polymers, was observed. Ripening changes in AGP and extensin epitope abundance also were found during and after véraison. Conclusions Combinations of cell wall probes are able to define distinct ripening phases in grapes. Pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan epitopes decreased in abundance from green stage to véraison berries. From véraison there was an increase in abundance of

  20. Light response and potential interacting proteins of a grape flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Ze; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), a member of cytochrome P450 protein family, introduces B-ring hydroxyl group in the 3' position of the flavonoid. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a F3'H gene (VviF3'H), which contains an open reading frame of 1530 bp encoding a polypeptide of 509 amino acids, was cloned and characterized from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. VviF3'H showed high homology to known F3'H genes, especially F3'Hs from the V. vinifera reference genome (Pinot Noir) and lotus. Expression profiling analysis using real-time PCR revealed that VviF3'H was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues including berries, leaves, flowers, roots, stems and tendrils, suggesting its important physiological role in plant growth and development. Moreover, the transcript level of VviF3'H gene in grape berries was relatively higher at early developmental stages and gradually decreased during véraison, and then increased in the mature phase. In addition, the promoter of VviF3'H was isolated by using TAIL-PCR. Yeast one-hybrid screening of the Cabernet Sauvignon cDNA library and subsequent in vivo/vitro validations revealed the interaction between VviF3'H promoter and several transcription factors, including members of HD-Zip, NAC, MYB and EIN families. A transcriptional regulation mechanism of VviF3'H expression is proposed for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Accumulation of miRNAs Differentially Modulated by Drought Stress Is Affected by Grafting in Grapevine1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Marco; Vitulo, Nicola; Incarbone, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is routinely grafted, and rootstocks inducing drought tolerance represent a source for adapting vineyards to climate change in temperate areas. Our goal was to investigate drought stress effects on microRNA (miRNA) abundance in a drought-resistant grapevine rootstock, M4 (Vitis vinifera × Vitis berlandieri), compared with a commercial cultivar, Cabernet Sauvignon, using their autografts and reciprocal grafts. RNA extracted from roots and leaves of droughted and irrigated plants of different graft combinations was used to prepare cDNA libraries for small RNA sequencing and to analyze miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Measurements of leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, and root hydraulic conductance attested that, under irrigation, M4 reduced water loss in comparison with cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon mostly through nonhydraulic, root-specific mechanisms. Under drought, stomatal conductance decreased at similar levels in the two genotypes. Small RNA sequencing allowed the identification of 70 conserved miRNAs and the prediction of 28 novel miRNAs. Different accumulation trends of miRNAs, observed upon drought and in different genotypes and organs, were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Corresponding target transcripts, predicted in silico and validated by RT-qPCR, often showed opposite expression profiles than the related miRNAs. Drought effects on miRNA abundance differed between the two genotypes. Furthermore, the concentration of drought-responsive miRNAs in each genotype was affected by reciprocal grafting, suggesting either the movement of signals inducing miRNA expression in the graft partner or, possibly, miRNA transport between scion and rootstock. These results open new perspectives in the selection of rootstocks for improving grapevine adaptation to drought. PMID:28235889

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    PubMed Central

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  4. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81–10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00–1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37–80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines. PMID:27732619

  5. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  6. Exploration of consumer perception of Sauvignon Blanc wines with enhanced aroma properties using two different descriptive methods.

    PubMed

    Lezaeta, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Næs, Tormod; Varela, Paula

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' perception of a complex set of stimuli as aromatically enriched wines. For that, two consumer based profiling methods were compared, concurrently run with overall liking measurements: projective mapping based on choice or preference (PM-C), a newly proposed method, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions with an ideal sample, a more established, consumer-based method for product optimization. Reserve bottling and regular bottling of Sauvignon Blanc wines from three wineries were aromatically enriched with natural aromas collected by condensation during wine fermentation. A total of 144 consumers were enrolled in the study. The results revealed that both consumer-based highlighted the positive effect of aromatic enrichment on consumer perception and acceptance. However, PM-C generated a very detailed description, in which consumers focused less on the sensory aspects and more on the usage, attitudes, and reasons behind their choices. Providing a deeper understanding of the drivers of liking/disliking of enriched Sauvignon Blanc wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water deficits accelerate ripening and induce changes in gene expression regulating flavonoid biosynthesis in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Castellarin, Simone D; Matthews, Mark A; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Gambetta, Gregory A

    2007-12-01

    Water deficits consistently promote higher concentrations of anthocyanins in red winegrapes and their wines. However, controversy remains as to whether there is any direct effect on berry metabolism other than inhibition of growth. Early (ED) and late (LD) season water deficits, applied before or after the onset of ripening (veraison), were imposed on field grown Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon", and the responses of gene expression in the flavonoid pathway and their corresponding metabolites were determined. ED accelerated sugar accumulation and the onset of anthocyanin synthesis. Both ED and LD increased anthocyanin accumulation after veraison. Expression profiling revealed that the increased anthocyanin accumulation resulted from earlier and greater expression of the genes controlling flux through the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including F3H, DFR, UFGT and GST. Increases in total anthocyanins resulted predominantly from an increase of 3'4'5'-hydroxylated forms through the differential regulation of F3'H and F3'5'H. There were limited effects on proanthocyanidin, other flavonols, and on expression of genes committed to their synthesis. These results demonstrate that manipulation of abiotic stress through applied water deficits not only modulates compositional changes during berry ripening, but also alters the timing of particular aspects of the ripening process.

  8. Fingerprints for main varieties of argentinean wines: terroir differentiation by inorganic, organic, and stable isotopic analyses coupled to chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Di Paola-Naranjo, Romina D; Baroni, Maria V; Podio, Natalia S; Rubinstein, Hector R; Fabani, Maria P; Badini, Raul G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Hector A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gallegos, Ernesto; Gautier, Eduardo; Peral-Garcia, Pilar; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2011-07-27

    Our main goal was to investigate if robust chemical fingerprints could be developed for three Argentinean red wines based on organic, inorganic, and isotopic patterns, in relation to the regional soil composition. Soils and wines from three regions (Mendoza, San Juan, and Córdoba) and three varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, and Syrah) were collected. The phenolic profile was determined by HPLC-MS/MS and multielemental composition by ICP-MS; (87)Sr/(86)Sr and δ(13)C were determined by TIMS and IRMS, respectively. Chemometrics allowed robust differentiation between regions, wine varieties, and the same variety from different regions. Among phenolic compounds, resveratrol concentration was the most useful marker for wine differentiation, whereas Mg, K/Rb, Ca/Sr, and (87)Sr/(86)Sr were the main inorganic and isotopic parameters selected. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) using two studied matrices (wine and soil) shows consensus between them and clear differences between studied areas. Finally, we applied a canonical correlation analysis, demonstrating significant correlation (r = 0.99; p < 0.001) between soil and wine composition. To our knowledge this is the first report combining independent variables, constructing a fingerprint including elemental composition, isotopic, and polyphenol patterns to differentiate wines, matching part of this fingerprint with the soil provenance.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and determination of PR

  11. Discovery and molecular characterization of a novel enamovirus, Grapevine enamovirus-1.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcos Fagundes; Al Rwahnih, Maher; Blawid, Rosana; Nagata, Tatsuya; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we describe a novel putative Enamovirus member, Grapevine enamovirus-1 (GEV-1), discovered by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). A limited survey using HTS of 17 grapevines (Vitis spp.) from the south, southeast, and northeast regions of Brazil led to the detection of GEV-1 exclusively on southern plants, infecting four grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Semillon, CG 90450, and Cabernet franc) with a remarkable identity of around 99% at the nucleotide level. This novel virus was only detected in multiple-virus infected plants exhibiting viral-like symptoms. GEV-1 was also detected on a cv. Malvasia Longa by RT-PCR. We performed graft-transmissibility assays on GEV-1. The organization, products, and cis-acting regulatory elements of GEV-1 genome are also discussed here. The near complete genome sequence of GEV-1 was obtained during the course of this study, lacking only part of the 3' untranslated terminal region. This is the first report of a virus in the family Luteoviridae infecting grapevines. Based on its genomic properties and phylogenetic analyses, GEV-1 should be classified as a new member of the genus Enamovirus.

  12. [Traceability of Wine Varieties Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Cyclic Voltammetry].

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-hua; Li, Jing-ming; Li, Jun-hui; Zhang, Lu-da; Zhao, Long-lian

    2015-06-01

    To achieve the traceability of wine varieties, a method was proposed to fuse Near-infrared (NIR) spectra and cyclic voltammograms (CV) which contain different information using D-S evidence theory. NIR spectra and CV curves of three different varieties of wines (cabernet sauvignon, merlot, cabernet gernischt) which come from seven different geographical origins were collected separately. The discriminant models were built using PLS-DA method. Based on this, D-S evidence theory was then applied to achieve the integration of the two kinds of discrimination results. After integrated by D-S evidence theory, the accuracy rate of cross-validation is 95.69% and validation set is 94.12% for wine variety identification. When only considering the wine that come from Yantai, the accuracy rate of cross-validation is 99.46% and validation set is 100%. All the traceability models after fusion achieved better results on classification than individual method. These results suggest that the proposed method combining electrochemical information with spectral information using the D-S evidence combination formula is benefit to the improvement of model discrimination effect, and is a promising tool for discriminating different kinds of wines.

  13. Combined Effects of Early Season Leaf Removal and Climatic Conditions on Aroma Precursors in Sauvignon Blanc Grapes.

    PubMed

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Falchi, Rachele; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Škvarč, Branka; Butinar, Lorena; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Bubola, Marijan; Sabbatini, Paolo; Lisjak, Klemen; Vanzo, Andreja

    2017-09-27

    Early leaf removal around the cluster zone is a common technique applied in cool climate viticulture, to regulate yield components and improve fruit quality. Despite the increasing amount of information on early leaf removal and its impact on total soluble solids, anthocyanins, and polyphenols, less is known regarding aroma compounds. In order to verify the hypothesis that defoliation, applied before or after flowering, could impact the biosynthesis of thiol precursors, we performed a two year (2013 and 2014) experiment on Sauvignon blanc. We provided evidence that differential accumulation of thiol precursors in berries is affected by the timing of defoliation, and this impact was related to modifications in the biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the possible interaction between leaf removal treatment and seasonal weather conditions, and its effect on the biosynthesis of volatile precursors are discussed. Our results suggested that in Sauvignon blanc the relative proportion of 4-S-glutathionyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (G-4MSP) and 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol (G-3SH) precursors can be affected by defoliation, and this could be related to the induction of two specific genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases (VvGST3 and VvGST5), while no significant effects on basic fruit chemical parameters, polyphenols, and methoxypyrazines were ascertained under our experimental conditions.

  14. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-01-23

    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  15. Effect of inert gas and prefermentative treatment with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone on the phenolic composition of Chilean Sauvignon blanc wines.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Parraguez, Jenny; López-Solís, Remigio; Laurie, V Felipe; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2013-06-01

    Sauvignon blanc wines are produced under a wide variety of winemaking conditions, some of which include different fruit-ripening levels, cold soaks and the use of fining agents and inert gases. Anecdotal evidence suggests that sensory variations among these wines may have to do with their phenolic composition and concentration. Therefore the aim of this work was to study the effects of different winemaking conditions typically used in Chile on the phenolic composition and concentration of Sauvignon blanc wines. The use of an inert gas (CO2) in winemaking produced differences in the proportion of proanthocyanidin fractions. A higher concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers resulted from winemaking in the presence of inert gas. This condition also produced a higher content of total phenols and low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds. Low doses of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) in the prefermentative treatments produced wines with a higher content of phenolic compounds. Under these conditions a higher content of polymeric proanthocyanidins was observed. Different winemaking conditions modified the concentration and proportion of proanthocyanidin fractions and the global phenolic composition of the resulting white wines. This should be taken into account by the wineries producing these wines. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Climate's Role in Terroir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    The marriage between a given winegrape cultivar planted in its ideal climate, over favorable topography and physical soil characteristics, combine to create the potential to produce fine wine. The French term terroir embodies this potential as a holistic concept that relates to both environmental and cultural factors that together influence the grape growing to wine production continuum. While the landscape, geology, soil, and climate strongly interact to influence the vine's balance of nutrients and water, climate is clearly of prevailing importance in that it limits where grapes can be grown at both the global and site scale. This talk will review the nature of climate's role in terroir through a discussion of the structure of climate in wine regions globally and how this structure influences cultivar suitability. Furthermore, the talk will use two of the most commonly planted red wine cultivars as examples - Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon - providing details on the historic, current, and future climate structure of wine regions growing these cultivars. In general the examination reveals that cool climate cultivars tend to have a narrower climate niche for high quality wine production, than do warmer climate cultivars, with less range of adaptation. Furthermore, the range of the climate suitability of these two cultivars shows that potentially new terroirs for each are waiting to be found.

  17. Compatible GLRaV-3 viral infections affect berry ripening decreasing sugar accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Vega, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Cramer, Grant R; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-10-01

    Virus infections in grapevine cause important economic losses and affect fruit quality worldwide. Although the phenotypic symptoms associated to viral infections have been described, the molecular plant response triggered by virus infection is still poorly understood in Vitis vinifera. As a first step to understand the fruit changes and mechanisms involved in the compatible grapevine-virus interaction, we analyzed the berry transcriptome in two stages of development in the red wine cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon infected with Grapevine leaf-roll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3). Analysis of global gene expression patterns indicate incomplete berry maturation in infected berries as compared to uninfected fruit suggesting viral infection interrupts the normal berry maturation process. Genes with altered expression in berries harvested from GLRaV-3-infected vines as compared to uninfected tissue include anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism genes. The reduction in transcript accumulation for sugar and anthocyanin metabolism during fruit development is consistent with a dramatic reduction in anthocyanin biosynthesis as well as reduced sugar levels in berries, a hallmark phenotypic change observed in virus infected grapevines. Analysis of key regulatory factors provides a mechanism for the observed gene expression changes. Our results provide insight into commonly observed phenotypic alterations in virus infected vines and the molecular mechanisms associated with the plant response to the virus during berry ripening.

  18. Low source-sink ratio reduces reserve starch in grapevine woody canes and modulates sugar transport and metabolism at transcriptional and enzyme activity levels.

    PubMed

    Silva, Angélica; Noronha, Henrique; Dai, Zhanwu; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2017-09-01

    Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation. Starch concentration was significantly higher in canes from 6L (42.13 ± 1.44 mg g DW -1 ) and 12L (43.50 ± 2.85 mg g DW -1 ) than in 2L (22.72 ± 3.10 mg g DW -1 ) plants. Moreover, carbon limitation promoted a transcriptional adjustment of genes involved in starch metabolism in grapevine woody tissues, including a decrease in the expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate translocator, VvGPT1. Contrarily, the transcript levels of the gene coding the catalytic subunit VvAGPB1 of the VvAGPase complex were higher in canes from 2L plants than in 6L and 12L, which positively correlated with the biochemical activity of this enzyme. Sucrose concentration increased in canes from 2L to 6L and 12L plants, and the amount of total phenolics followed the same trend. Expression studies showed that VvSusy transcripts decreased in canes from 2L to 6L and 12L plants, which correlated with the biochemical activity of insoluble invertase, while the expression of the sugar transporters VvSUC11 and VvSUC12, together with VvSPS1, which codes an enzyme involved in sucrose synthesis, increased. Thus, sucrose seems to control starch accumulation through the adjustment of the cane sink strength.

  19. Indications of the prominent role of elemental sulfur in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol in Sauvignon blanc wine.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Leandro Dias; Vannevel, Sebastian; Buica, Astrid; Callerot, Suzanne; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A; du Toit, Wessel J

    2017-08-01

    Elemental sulfur is a fungicide traditionally used to control Powdery Mildew in the production of grapes. The presence of sulfur residues in grape juice has been associated with increased production of hydrogen sulfide during fermentation, which could take part in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol. This work examines whether elemental sulfur additions to Sauvignon blanc juice can increase the levels of sought-after varietal thiols. Initial trials were performed in South Africa and indicated a positive impact of sulfur on the levels of thiols. Further experiments were then carried out with New Zealand Sauvignon blanc and confirmed a positive relationship between elemental sulfur additions and wine varietal thiols. The formation of hydrogen sulfide was observed when the addition of elemental sulfur was made to clarified juice, along with an increase in further reductive sulfur compounds. When the addition of sulfur was made to pressed juice, prior to clarification, the production of reductive sulfur compounds was drastically decreased. Some mechanistic considerations are also presented, involving the reduction of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A novel extracellular β-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii: yield prediction, evaluation and application for aroma enhancement of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Yan; Li, Jiming

    2012-08-01

    The production and application of novel β-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii were studied. The β-glucosidase yield was improved by response surface methodology, and the optimal media constituents were determined to be dextrin 4.67% (w/v), yeast extract 2.99% (w/v), MgSO(4) 0.01% (w/v), and K(2) HPO(4) 0.02% (w/v). As a result, β-glucosidase production was enhanced from 123.72 to 215.66 U/L. The effects of different enological factors on the activity of β-glucosidases from T. asahii were investigated in comparison to commercial enzymes. β-Glucosidase from T. asahii was activated in the presence of sugars in the range from 10% to 40% (w/v), with the exception of glucose (slight inhibition), and retained higher relative activities than commercial enzymes under the same conditions. In addition, ethanol, in concentrations between 5% and 20% (v/v), also increased the β-glucosidase activity. Although the β-glucosidase activity decreased with decreasing pH, the residual activity of T. asahii was still above 50% at the average wine pH (pH 3.5). Due to these properties, extracellular β-glucosidase from T. asahii exhibited a better ability than commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing aromatic precursors that remained in young finished wine. The excellent performs of this β-glucosidase in wine aroma enhancement and sensory evaluation indicated that the β-glucosidase has a potential application to individuate suitable preparations that can complement and optimize grape or wine quality during the winemaking process or in the final wine. The present study demonstrated the usefulness of response surface methodology based on the central composite design for yield enhancement of β-glucosidase from T. asahii. The investigation of the primary characteristics of the enzyme and its application in young red wine suggested that the β-glucosidase from T. asahii can provide more impetus for aroma improvement in the future. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Sensory representation of typicality of Cabernet franc wines related to phenolic composition: impact of ripening stage and maceration time.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Yves; Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Barbeau, Gérard; Cheynier, Véronique

    2012-06-30

    Phenolics are responsible for important sensory properties of red wines, including colour, astringency, and possibly bitterness. From a technical viewpoint, the harvest date and the maceration duration are critical decisions for producing red wine with a distinctive style. But little is known about the evolution of phenolics and of their extractability during ripening to predict the composition of the wine and related sensory properties. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the sensory profile of the wines and (i) the ripening stage of the berries (harvest date) and (ii) the extraction time (maceration duration). Phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of Vitis Vinifera var. Cabernet franc were measured in grapes and in wines from two stages of maturity and with two maceration durations. Phenolic composition was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, after fractionation and thiolysis for proanthocyanidins. The distinctive style of wines was investigated by descriptive analysis (trained panel), Just About Right profiles and typicality assessment (wine expert panel). Relationships between phenolics and sensory attributes were established by multidimensional analysis, and phenolics were classified according to sensory data by ANOVA and PLS regressions. Astringency, bitterness, colour intensity and alcohol significantly increased with ripening and astringency and colour intensity increased with maceration time. Grape anthocyanins increased and thiolysis yield significantly decreased with ripening. In wine, proanthocyanidins increased, and mean degree of polymerisation and thiolysis yield decreased with longer extraction time. The high impact of harvest date on the sensory profiles could be due to changes in anthocyanin and sugar contents, but also to an evolution of proanthocyanidins. Moreover, proanthocyanidin composition was affected by maceration time as suggested by the decrease of thiolysis yield. Our

  2. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Red Wine Samples Using the Union College Pelletron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott

    2010-11-01

    A 1-megavolt tandem electrostatic Pelletron particle accelerator housed at Union College was used to measure the elemental composition and concentration of homemade Cabernet and Merlot red wine samples. A beam of 1.8-MeV protons directed at an approximately 12-μm thin Mylar substrate onto which 8-μL of concentrated red wine was dried caused inner shell electrons to be ejected from the target nuclei and these vacancies are filled through electronic transitions of higher orbital electrons accompanied by the production of an x-ray photon characteristic of the elemental composition of the target. This is the PIXE Method. Data on the intensity versus energy of the x-rays were collected using an Amptek silicon drift detector and were analyzed to determine the elemental composition and the samples were found to contain P, S, K, Cl, Ca, Sc, Mn, Al, Fe, & Co. Elemental concentrations were determined using the analysis package GUPIX. It is hypothesized that the cobalt seen is a direct result of the uptake by the grapes and as a product of the fermentation process a complex of vitamin B12 is produced.

  4. Disentangling dormancy and cold-hardiness in wine grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold-hardiness of bud and cane tissue was monitored throughout para, endo and ecodormancy in field-grown vines using differential thermal analysis to generate lethal temperature exotherms (LTE). Deacclimation and re-acclimation rates were measured during ecodormancy to determine the depth of dorm...

  5. Dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dormancy and cold hardiness influence grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) susceptibility to cold injury, which is a major cause of economic loss in high latitude growing regions. The objectives of this study were to compare dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars considered more (C...

  6. Remarkable proanthocyanidin adsorption properties of monastrell pomace cell wall material highlight its potential use as an alternative fining agent in red wine production.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Marín, Fátima; Molero, Noelia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2015-01-21

    The existence of interactions between the polysaccharides of vegetal cell walls and proanthocyanins makes this cell wall material an interesting option for its use as a fining agent to reduce the level of proanthocyanins in wines. Pomace wastes from the winery are widely available and a source of cell wall material, and the identification of varieties whose pomace cell walls present high proanthocyanin binding capacity and of processing methods that could enhance their adsorption properties could be of great interest. This study compared the proanthocyanin adsorption properties of pomace cell wall material from three different grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), and the results were compared with those obtained using fresh grape cell walls. Also, the effect of the vinification method has been studied. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution after reaction with the cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the adsorbed and nonadsorbed compounds. A highlight of this study was the observation that Monastrell pomace cell wall material showed a strong affinity for proanthocyanidins, with values similar to that obtained for fresh grapes cell walls, and a preferential binding of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins, so these pomace cell walls could be used in wines to reduce astringency. The use of maceration enzymes during vinification had little effect on the retention capacity of the pomace cell walls obtained from this vinification, although an increase in the retention of low molecular mass proanthocyanidins was observed, and this might have implications for wine sensory properties.

  7. A comparison of the effect of macerating enzymes and pulsed electric fields technology on phenolic content and color of red wine.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, E; Saldaña, G; Condón, S; Alvarez, I; Raso, J

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the addition of 2 enzymatic preparations and the application of a pulsed electric fields treatment (PEF) on the phenolic content and color of Cabernet Sauvignon wine has been compared. The evolution of color intensity (CI), anthocyanic content (AC), and total polyphenol index (TPI) from crushing to 3 mo of aging in bottle was studied. The results demonstrated that both treatments promoted greater extraction of phenolic compounds, compared to the untreated wine. However, PEF technology was more effective. After 3 mo of storage, CI, AC, and TPI were 28%, 26%, and 11%, respectively, higher in PEF-wine than in control wine. By contrast, while both enzymatic preparations increased the CI of the wine around 5%, only one of them increased the AC and TPI by 11% and 3%, respectively, in comparison with the control. After 3 mo of aging in bottle, the phenolic composition was also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The content of nonanthocyanic families was higher in PEF-wine than in the rest of the wines. In wines treated by enzymes, only an increase in phenolic acids and flavonols with respect to the control was detected. Practical Application: Pulsed electric fields is a novel food processing technology that poses a very promising future to the enological field, due to its capacity to improve the mass transfer phenomenon. The continuous development of this technology allows nowadays the application of treatments at the semi-industrial scale. In this article, it has been demonstrated that the application of a PEF treatment to the grape pomace before maceration/fermentation is more effective, in terms of color intensity and phenolic content, than the addition of macerating enzymes.

  8. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  9. Non-targeted glycosidic profiling of international wines using neutral loss-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Serra, M; Larcher, R

    2018-07-06

    Many metabolites naturally occur as glycosides, since sugar moieties can be crucial for their biological activity and increase their water solubility. In the plant kingdom they may occur as glycosides or sugar esters, depending on precursor chemical structure, and in wine they have traditionally attracted attention due to their organoleptic properties, such as astringency and bitterness, and because they affect the colour and aroma of wines. A new approach directed at detailed description of glycosides in a large selection of monovarietal wines (8 samples each of Pinot Blanc, Muller Thurgau, Riesling, Traminer, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon) was developed by combining high performance liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical separation was performed on an Accucore™ Polar Premium LC column, while mass analysis was performed in negative ion mode with an non-targeted screening approach, using a Full MS/AIF/NL dd-MS 2 experiment at a resolving power of 140,000 FWHM. Over 280 glycoside-like compounds were detected, of which 133 (including low-molecular weight phenols, flavonoids and monoterpenols) were tentatively identified in the form of pentose (6), deoxyhexose (17), hexose (73), hexose-pentose (16), hexose-deoxyhexose (7), dihexose (5) and hexose ester (9) derivatives. It was not possible to univocally define the corresponding chemical structure for the remaining 149 glycosides. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed it was possible to well characterise the glycosylated profile of all red and Traminer wines, while the identified glycosides were almost entirely lacking in Pinot Blanc, Riesling and Muller Thurgau wines. Also Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p < 0.05) and Principal Component Analysis confirmed that it was possible to almost entirely distinguish the selected red wines from each other according to their glycosylated profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Five omic technologies are concordant in differentiating the biochemical characteristics of the berries of five grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ghan, Ryan; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Hochberg, Uri; Degu, Asfaw; Hopper, Daniel W; Tillet, Richard L; Schlauch, Karen A; Haynes, Paul A; Fait, Aaron; Cramer, Grant R

    2015-11-16

    Grape cultivars and wines are distinguishable by their color, flavor and aroma profiles. Omic analyses (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) are powerful tools for assessing biochemical differences in biological systems. Berry skins of red- (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir) and white-skinned (Chardonnay, Semillon) wine grapes were harvested near optimum maturity (°Brix-to-titratable acidity ratio) from the same experimental vineyard. The cultivars were exposed to a mild, seasonal water-deficit treatment from fruit set until harvest in 2011. Identical sample aliquots were analyzed for transcripts by grapevine whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray and RNAseq technologies, proteins by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Principal components analysis of each of five Omic technologies showed similar results across cultivars in all Omic datasets. Comparison of the processed data of genes mapped in RNAseq and microarray data revealed a strong Pearson's correlation (0.80). The exclusion of probesets associated with genes with potential for cross-hybridization on the microarray improved the correlation to 0.93. The overall concordance of protein with transcript data was low with a Pearson's correlation of 0.27 and 0.24 for the RNAseq and microarray data, respectively. Integration of metabolite with protein and transcript data produced an expected model of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, which distinguished red from white grapes, yet provided detail of individual cultivar differences. The mild water deficit treatment did not significantly alter the abundance of proteins or metabolites measured in the five cultivars, but did have a small effect on gene expression. The five Omic technologies were consistent in distinguishing cultivar variation. There was high concordance between transcriptomic technologies, but generally protein abundance did not correlate

  11. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lap; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Janle, Elsa M.; Wang, Jun; Gong, Bing; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lobo, Jessica; Cooper, Bruce; Wu, Qing Li; Talcott, Stephen T.; Percival, Susan S.; Simon, James E.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities. We identified accumulations of select polyphenolic metabolites in the brain. We demonstrated that, in comparison to vehicle-control treatment, one of the brain-targeted polyphenol metabolites, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, significantly reduced the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides by primary neuron cultures generated from the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Another brain-targeted metabolite, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, had no detectable effect on Aβ generation. Moreover, in an in vitro analysis using the photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) technique, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide is also capable of interfering with the initial protein-protein interaction of Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 that is necessary for the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ species. Lastly, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide treatment, compared to vehicle-control treatment, significantly improved AD-type deficits in hippocampal formation basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, possibly through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Brain-targeted quercetin-3-O-glucuronide may simultaneously modulate multiple independent AD disease-modifying mechanisms and, as such, may contribute to the benefits of dietary supplementation with red wines as an effective intervention for AD.—Ho, L., Ferruzzi, M. G

  12. Yeast diversity isolated from grape musts during spontaneous fermentation from a Brazilian winery.

    PubMed

    Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Baffi, Milla Alves; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species from a winery located in Brazil were identified by ribosomal gene-sequencing analysis. A total of 130 yeast strains were isolated from grape surfaces and musts during alcoholic fermentation from Isabel, Bordeaux, and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. Samples were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis and genomic sequencing. Thirteen species were identified: Candida quercitrusa, Candida stellata, Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sporidiobolus pararoseus. A sequential substitution of species during the different stages of fermentation, with a dominance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the beginning, and a successive replacement of species by S. cerevisiae strains at the final steps were observed. This is the first report about the yeast distribution present throughout the alcoholic fermentation in a Brazilian winery, providing supportive information for future studies on their contribution to wine quality.

  13. Non-anthocyanin polyphenolic transformation by native yeast and bacteria co-inoculation strategy during vinification.

    PubMed

    Devi, Apramita; Archana, Kodira Muthanna; Bhavya, Panikuttria Kuttappa; Anu-Appaiah, Konerira Aiyappaa

    2018-02-01

    Co-inoculation has been adapted by many wine-producing countries because it enhances the success of malolactic fermentation and reduces the fermentation cost, as well as time. However, wine phenolics have been sparsely highlighted during co-inoculation, even though polyphenols are an important parameter affecting wine colour, astringency and aroma. In the present study, we investigated the impact of co-inoculation on non-anthocyanin polyphenol profile for two different grape varieties. Co-inoculation of native yeast strain (AAV2) along with Oenococcus oeni was adapted for Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wine. It was observed that the co-inoculation had minimal yet significant impact on the phenolic composition of wines for both the grape varieties. Color loss, as well as fruity aroma development, was observed in co-inoculated wines. The wines were on a par with the commercial wine, as well as wines without malolactic fermentation, in terms of phenolic compounds and overall organoleptic acceptance. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis further suggested that the varietal influence on phenolic composition was dominating compared to inoculation strategies. Among the varieties, the inoculation strategies have significantly influenced the Cabernet wines compared to Shiraz wines. The results of the present study demonstrate that the phenolic compounds are not drastically affected by metabolic activities of malolactic bacteria during co-inoculation and, hence, are equally suitable for wine fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    PubMed

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  15. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (p<0.05). This is the first study that evaluates the toasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values.

    PubMed

    Dutra, S V; Adami, L; Marcon, A R; Carnieli, G J; Roani, C A; Spinelli, F R; Leonardelli, S; Vanderlinde, R

    2013-12-01

    We studied Brazilian wines produced by microvinification from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, vintages 2007 and 2008, from the Serra Gaúcha, Campanha and Serra do Sudeste regions, in order to differentiate them according to geographical origin by using isotope and mineral element analyses. In addition, the influence of vintage production in isotope values was verified. Isotope analysis was performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and the determination of minerals was by flame atomic absorption (FAA). The best parameters to classify the wines in the 2008 vintage were Rb and Li. The results of the δ(13)C of wine ethanol, Rb and Li showed a significant difference between the varieties regardless of the region studied. The δ(18)O values of water and δ(13)C of ethanol showed significant differences, regardless of the variety. Discriminant analysis of isotope and minerals values allowed to classify approximately 80% of the wines from the three regions studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurements of the effects of wine maceration with oak chips using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosario M; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Legin, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    The use of oak products as a cheaper alternative to expensive wood barrels was recently permitted in Europe, which led to a continuous increase in the use of oak chips and staves in winemaking. The feasibility of the potentiometric electronic tongue as a tool for monitoring the effects of wine maceration with oak chips was evaluated. Four types of commercially available oak chips subjected to different thermal treatments and washing procedures and their mixture were studied. Ethanolic extracts of the chips were analysed using electrospray mass spectrometry and 28 phenolic and furanic compounds were identified. The electronic tongue comprising 22 potentiometric chemical sensors could distinguish artificial wine solutions and Cabernet Sauvignon wine macerated with different types of oak chips, quantify total and non-flavonoid phenolic content, as well as the concentrations of added oak chips. Using measurements at two pH levels, 3.2 and 6.5, improved the accuracy of quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  20. Reduction of Dihydrokaempferol by Vitis vinfera Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase to Produce Orange Pelargonidin-Type Anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Sha; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-04-04

    Vitis vinifera has been thought to be unable to produce pelargonidin-type anthocyanins because its dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) does not efficiently reduce dihydrokaempferol. However, in this study, pelargonidin 3- O-glucoside was detected in the skins of V. vinifera 'Pinot Noir', 'Cabernet Sauvignon', and 'Yan73', as well as in the flesh of 'Yan73' by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Additionally, pelargonidin 3- O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside was detected in 'Yan73' skin and flesh for the first time. To further confirm the presence of pelargonidin-type anthocyanins in these grape cultivars, their DFRs were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. An enzyme-activity analysis revealed that V. vinifera DFR can reduce dihydrokaempferol to produce leucopelargonidin, although it prefers dihydroquercetin and dihydromyricetin as substrates. Thus, the existence of a pelargonidin-based anthocyanin-biosynthetic pathway was confirmed in V. vinifera via mass-spectrometric and enzymatic methods and redirected anthocyanin biosynthesis in V. vinifera L. cultivars.

  1. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  2. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  4. Chiral Polyfunctional Thiols and Their Conjugated Precursors upon Winemaking with Five Vitis vinifera Sauvignon blanc Clones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Capone, Dimitra L; Tondini, Federico A; Jeffery, David W

    2018-05-09

    Five co-located clones of Sauvignon blanc grapes were fermented under controlled conditions at laboratory-scale to investigate the impact of yeast strain, commercial enzyme, or nutrient addition on the concentrations of enantiomers of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3-SH) and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3-SHA) in resulting wines. The relationship of these enantiomers with the odorless 3-SH precursors present in diastereomeric forms in grape juice was also examined. Possible variations may have existed due to clone type, not only for the diastereomers of 3-SH precursors in juices but also for the enantiomers of 3-SH and 3-SHA in the resulting wines, although there was no obvious stereochemical relationship between precursors and free thiols. From a flavor enhancement perspective, the use of a commercial enzyme in the juice significantly enhanced 3-SH production for some clones. In contrast, less impact on the production of 3-SH and 3-SHA was seen as a result of yeast strain and nutrient regardless of clone type.

  5. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

  6. Prediction of problematic wine fermentations using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Román, R César; Hernández, O Gonzalo; Urtubia, U Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used for the recognition of non-linear patterns, a characteristic of bioprocesses like wine production. In this work, ANNs were tested to predict problems of wine fermentation. A database of about 20,000 data from industrial fermentations of Cabernet Sauvignon and 33 variables was used. Two different ways of inputting data into the model were studied, by points and by fermentation. Additionally, different sub-cases were studied by varying the predictor variables (total sugar, alcohol, glycerol, density, organic acids and nitrogen compounds) and the time of fermentation (72, 96 and 256 h). The input of data by fermentations gave better results than the input of data by points. In fact, it was possible to predict 100% of normal and problematic fermentations using three predictor variables: sugars, density and alcohol at 72 h (3 days). Overall, ANNs were capable of obtaining 80% of prediction using only one predictor variable at 72 h; however, it is recommended to add more fermentations to confirm this promising result.

  7. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  8. Regulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry using exogenous 24-epibrassinolide for enhanced phenolics content and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhu-mei; Zhang, Zhen-wen; Huo, Shan-shan; Luan, Li-ying; Gao, Xiang; Ma, Li-na; Fang, Yu-lin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins and phenolics content of Vitis vinifera grape berry (cvs. Yan 73 and Cabernet Sauvignon). The grapevine clusters were sprayed with 0 (control), 0.10, 0.40, or 0.80 mg/l of 24-epibrassinolide during veraison, respectively. The EBR application increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the content of total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins, individual anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of matured grape skins in both varieties. The application also increased the content of flavonoids and anthocyanins in Yan73 pulp. Compared to the other treatments, the treatment of EBR at 0.40 mg/l had significantly higher level than the control in all above assays. Our results indicated that the exogenous EBR treatment can significantly promote grape ripening and enhance anthocyanins and other phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity in the grape skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis from seeds in a broad range of Vitis vinifera L. varieties: rescue of true-to-type virus-free plants.

    PubMed

    San Pedro, Tània; Gammoudi, Najet; Peiró, Rosa; Olmos, Antonio; Gisbert, Carmina

    2017-11-29

    Somatic embryogenesis is the preferred method for cell to plant regeneration in Vitis vinifera L. However, low frequencies of plant embryo conversion are commonly found. In a previous work we obtained from cut-seeds of a grapevine infected with the Grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3), high rates of direct regeneration, embryo plant conversion and sanitation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure for regeneration of other grapevine varieties which include some infected with one to three common grapevine viruses (GLRaV-3, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV)). As grapevine is highly heterozygous, it was necessary to select from among the virus-free plants those that regenerated from mother tissues around the embryo, (true-to-type). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were achieved in a first experiment, using cut-seeds from the 14 grapevine varieties Airén, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Mencía, Merlot, Monastrell, Petit Verdot, Pinot Blanc (infected by GFLV and GFkV), Pinot Gris, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tempranillo (infected by GFLV), and Verdil. All regenerated plants were confirmed to be free of GFkV whereas at least 68% sanitation was obtained for GFLV. The SSR profiles of the virus-free plants showed, in both varieties, around 10% regeneration from mother tissue (the same genetic make-up as the mother plant). In a second experiment, this procedure was used to sanitize the varieties Cabernet Franc, Godello, Merlot and Valencí Blanc infected by GLRaV-3, GFkV and/or GFLV. Cut-seeds can be used as explants for embryogenesis induction and plant conversion in a broad range of grapevine varieties. The high regeneration rates obtained with this procedure facilitate the posterior selection of true-to-type virus-free plants. A sanitation rate of 100% was obtained for GFkV as this virus is not seed-transmitted. However, the presence of GLRaV-3 and GFLV in

  10. The common transcriptional subnetworks of the grape berry skin in the late stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Ghan, Ryan; Petereit, Juli; Tillett, Richard L; Schlauch, Karen A; Toubiana, David; Fait, Aaron; Cramer, Grant R

    2017-05-30

    Wine grapes are important economically in many countries around the world. Defining the optimum time for grape harvest is a major challenge to the grower and winemaker. Berry skins are an important source of flavor, color and other quality traits in the ripening stage. Senescent-like processes such as chloroplast disorganization and cell death characterize the late ripening stage. To better understand the molecular and physiological processes involved in the late stages of berry ripening, RNA-seq analysis of the skins of seven wine grape cultivars (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon) was performed. RNA-seq analysis identified approximately 2000 common differentially expressed genes for all seven cultivars across four different berry sugar levels (20 to 26 °Brix). Network analyses, both a posteriori (standard) and a priori (gene co-expression network analysis), were used to elucidate transcriptional subnetworks and hub genes associated with traits in the berry skins of the late stages of berry ripening. These independent approaches revealed genes involved in photosynthesis, catabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. The transcript abundance of most photosynthetic genes declined with increasing sugar levels in the berries. The transcript abundance of other processes increased such as nucleic acid metabolism, chromosome organization and lipid catabolism. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified 64 gene modules that were organized into 12 subnetworks of three modules or more and six higher order gene subnetworks. Some gene subnetworks were highly correlated with sugar levels and some subnetworks were highly enriched in the chloroplast and nucleus. The petal R package was utilized independently to construct a true small-world and scale-free complex gene co-expression network model. A subnetwork of 216 genes with the highest connectivity was elucidated, consistent with the module results

  11. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  12. UHPLC-MS/MS determination of varietal thiol precursors in Sauvignon Blanc grapes.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Andreja; Janeš, Lucija; Požgan, Franc; Velikonja Bolta, Špela; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lisjak, Klemen

    2017-10-13

    Varietal thiol precursors in grapes are subject to metabolic changes during post-harvest treatments. Metabolic activity should therefore be limited after sampling to understand their biosynthesis in the berry and genetic regulation. In this study, berries were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after harvesting, transported in dry ice, stored briefly at -80 °C, cryo-milled and extracted without being thawed in cold methanol in a ratio of 1:4 (w/v). A UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of the thiol precursors 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol (G3MH), 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol (Cys3MH), 4-S-glutathionyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (G4MMP) and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (Cys4MMP), glutathione, oxidized glutathione and L-methionine in grapes was developed. Reference material was provided through synthesis of precursors and their deuterium labelled analogues. The average thiol precursor content in grapes in 2013-15 was in the range 8-16 μg kg -1 for G3MH, 1-6 μg kg -1 for Cys3MH, 1-4 μg kg -1 for Cys4MMP and 0.3 μg kg -1 for G4MMP. In 2013 and 2014, the highest precursor content in mature Sauvignon Blanc grapes from vineyards located in Italy regarded G3MH, followed by Cys3MH, Cys4MMP and G4MMP. In 2015, G3MH was again the most abundant precursor, but followed by Cys4MMP, Cys3MH and G4MMP.

  13. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Sandionigi, Anna; Guzzetti, Lorenzo; Galimberti, Andrea; Grando, Maria S; Tardaguila, Javier; Labra, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc) at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI), Italian Alps (AI), and Northern Spain (NS)]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS), and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus , Methylobacterium , Sphingomonas , and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples). Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome composition and

  14. Quantitating Volatile Phenols in Cabernet Franc Berries and Wine after On-Vine Exposure to Smoke from a Simulated Forest Fire.

    PubMed

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-01-24

    Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity. An increase in total VPs after primary fermentation suggested the existence of VP-conjugates other than the acid-labile VP-glycosides already reported. This conclusion was supported with base hydrolysis on the same samples. Relative to published results, the data suggested a multifactorial regional identity for smoke-taint and they inform efforts to produce a predictive model for perceptible smoke-taint in wine based on the chemical composition of smoke-exposed berries.

  15. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-09

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms.

  16. Changes in the volatile compound production of fermentations made from musts with increasing grape content.

    PubMed

    Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K

    2010-01-27

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice. Model must systems have proven to be ideal for studies into the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To clarify the contribution of grape juice to the production of wine volatiles, we have employed a model must system spiked with increasing amounts of grape juice (Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon). The resulting fermented wines were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and the data obtained grouped using ANOVA and cluster analyses to reveal those compounds that varied in concentration with reproducible trends relative to juice concentration. Such grouping highlights those compounds that are grape-dependent or for which production is modulated by grape composition. In some cases, increasing the proportion of grape juice in the fermentations stimulated the production of certain esters to levels between 2- and 140-fold higher than those seen in fermentations made with model grape juice media alone. The identification of the grape components responsible for the increased production of these wine volatiles will have implications for the impact of grape production and enology on wine flavor and aroma.

  17. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Martin-Pedrosa, Fernando; del Valle, Isabel; de Saja, Jose Antonio; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2015-01-01

    An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. PMID:26610494

  18. Isolation and characterization of a Vitis vinifera transcription factor, VvWRKY1, and its effect on responses to fungal pathogens in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Marchive, Chloé; Mzid, Rim; Deluc, Laurent; Barrieu, François; Pirrello, Julien; Gauthier, Adrien; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Regad, Farid; Cailleteau, Bernard; Hamdi, Saïd; Lauvergeat, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    Pathogen attack represents a major problem for viticulture and for agriculture in general. At present, the use of phytochemicals is more and more restrictive, and therefore it is becoming essential to control disease by having a thorough knowledge of resistance mechanisms. The present work focused on the trans-regulatory proteins potentially involved in the control of the plant defence response, the WRKY proteins. A full-length cDNA, designated VvWRKY1, was isolated from a grape berry library (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). It encodes a polypeptide of 151 amino acids whose structure is characteristic of group IIc WRKY proteins. VvWRKY1 gene expression in grape is regulated in a developmental manner in berries and leaves and by various signal molecules involved in defence such as salicylic acid, ethylene, and hydrogen peroxide. Biochemical analysis indicates that VvWRKY1 specifically interacts with the W-box in various nucleotidic contexts. Functional analysis of VvWRKY1 was performed by overexpression in tobacco, and transgenic plants exhibited reduced susceptibility to various fungi but not to viruses. These results are consistent with a possible role for VvWRKY1 in grapevine defence against fungal pathogens.

  19. A Leafhopper-Transmissible DNA Virus with Novel Evolutionary Lineage in the Family Geminiviridae Implicated in Grapevine Redleaf Disease by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2013-01-01

    A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s) associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD). High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV), and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh) from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms. PMID:23755117

  20. Red urine from red deer grazed on pure red clover swards.

    PubMed

    Niezen, J H; Barry, T N; Wilson, P R; Lane, G

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-four red deer hinds with their calves were released on to a newly established pure red clover sward and, 2 days later, red staining of the tail, perineum and hocks was observed. This was presumed to be of urinary origin. Observation of micturition showed that when urine was passed, it was a normal straw colour but it turned scarlet-red about 1 hour after exposure to air. Midstream urine remained the normal colour when held under a pure nitrogen atmosphere immediately after micturition, but it turned red when held in air in the dark, suggesting that the colour change was due to an oxidative rather than a photosensitive reaction. All deer grazing red clover were affected but this did not occur in deer grazing ryegrass/white clover swards. No adverse effects were observed in the deer grazing the red clover, and calf growth was significantly higher than on ryegrass/white clover, suggesting that the red urine had no effect on health or productivity. Blood and urine analyses showed no signs of haemolysis, haematuria or haemoglobinuria. Preliminary chemical analyses suggest that the compounds involved are not those found in the urine of sheep grazing oestrogenic clover. The nature of the compounds have yet to be determined.

  1. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure1

    PubMed Central

    du Plessis, Kari; Jacobson, Dan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  2. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  3. Transmission competency of single-female Xiphinema index lines for Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    PubMed

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Van-Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Lemaire, Olivier; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is vectored specifically from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Limited information is available on the vector competency of X. index populations from diverse geographical origins. We determined the transmissibility of two GFLV strains showing 4.6% amino acid divergence within their coat protein (e.g., strains F13 and GHu) by seven clonal lines of X. index developed from seven distinct populations from the Mediterranean basin (Cyprus, southern France, Israel, Italy, and Spain), northern France, and California. X. index lines derived from single adult females were produced on fig (Ficus carica) plants to obtain genetically homogenous aviruliferous clones. A comparative reproductive rate analysis on Vitis rupestris du Lot and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon showed significant differences among clones, with the single-female Cyprus line showing the highest rate (30-fold the initial population) and the Spain and California lines showing the lowest rate (10-fold increase), regardless of the grapevine genotype. However, there was no differential vector competency among the seven X. index lines for GFLV strains F13 and GHu. The implications of our findings for the dynamic of GFLV transmission in vineyards and screening of Vitis spp. for resistance to GFLV are discussed.

  4. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Alexander W; Adams, Douglas O; Laurie, V Felipe; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2012-10-17

    Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl-(13)C(6)-alanine (Phe(13)), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC-DAD-MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe(13) in the vineyard. Phe(13) was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 System as a Valuable Genome Editing Tool for Wine Yeasts with Application to Decrease Urea Production

    PubMed Central

    Vigentini, Ileana; Gebbia, Marinella; Belotti, Alessandra; Foschino, Roberto; Roth, Frederick P.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive repertoire of molecular tools is available for genetic analysis in laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae. Although this has widely contributed to the interpretation of gene functionality within haploid laboratory isolates, the genetics of metabolism in commercially-relevant polyploid yeast strains is still poorly understood. Genetic engineering in industrial yeasts is undergoing major changes due to Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) engineering approaches. Here we apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to two commercial “starter” strains of S. cerevisiae (EC1118, AWRI796), eliminating the CAN1 arginine permease pathway to generate strains with reduced urea production (18.5 and 35.5% for EC1118 and AWRI796, respectively). In a wine-model environment based on two grape musts obtained from Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon cultivars, both S. cerevisiae starter strains and CAN1 mutants completed the must fermentation in 8–12 days. However, recombinant strains carrying the can1 mutation failed to produce urea, suggesting that the genetic modification successfully impaired the arginine metabolism. In conclusion, the reduction of urea production in a wine-model environment confirms that the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been successfully established in S. cerevisiae wine yeasts. PMID:29163459

  6. Evaluation of a decision support strategy for the control of powdery mildew, Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., in grapevine in the central region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Gómez, Héctor; Araya-Alman, Miguel; Pañitrur-De la Fuente, Carolina; Verdugo-Vásquez, Nicolás; Lolas, Mauricio; Acevedo-Opazo, César; Gary, Christian; Calonnec, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The primary strategy to control powdery mildew in Chilean vineyards involves periodic fungicide spraying, which may lead to many environmental and human health risks. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and economic feasibility of a novel decision support strategy (DSS) to limit the number of treatments against this pathogen. An experiment was conducted between the 2010 and 2013 seasons in two irrigated vine fields, one containing a cultivar of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and the other a cultivar of Chardonnay (CH). The results showed that the DSS effectively controlled powdery mildew in CS and CH vine fields, as evidenced by a disease severity lower than 3%, which was lower than that observed in untreated vines (approximately 10 and 40% for CS and CH respectively). The DS strategy required the application of only 2-3 fungicide treatments per season in key vine phenological stages, and the cost fluctuated between $US 322 and 415 ha -1 , which was 40-60% cheaper than the traditional strategy employed by vine growers. The decision support strategy evaluated in this trial allows a good control of powdery mildew for various types of epidemic with an early and late initiation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Argentinean cultivars of Vitis vinifera grow better than European ones when cultured in vitro under salinity.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Juan B; Ponce, María T; Guzmán, Javier; Cirrincione, Miguel A

    2006-04-01

    Argentinean Vitis vinifera cultivars although originated from Europe, have clear ampelographic and genotypic differences as compared with the European cultivars currently used in wine making. In vitro evaluation of salt tolerance has been used in many species. Our hypothesis was that Argentinean cultivars are more tolerant to salinity than European ones. Three European cultivars, Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay and four Argentincan cultivars, Cereza, Criolla Chica, Pedro Gimcnez and Torrontes Riojano were tested by in vitro culture. Treatments included: 1) Control, 2) 60 mEq/L of a mixture of three parts of NaCl and one part of CaCl2 and 3) 90 mEq/L of the salt mixture. Results from two experiments (I and II) are reported. No differences were found in plant survival, expressed as % of the respective control, among cultivars. Leaf area, leaf, stem and total dry matter (DM) in Experiment I and leaf area, leaf number and leaf, stem, root and total DM in Experiment II, were higher in Argentinean cultivars than in European ones. We conclude that Argentinean cultivars show better performance in growing under salinity, especially in the highest salt concentration. Differences among cultivars, inside each group, were found for most of the measured variables.

  8. Effect of freeze-drying and oven-drying on volatiles and phenolics composition of grape skin.

    PubMed

    de Torres, C; Díaz-Maroto, M C; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Pérez-Coello, M S

    2010-02-15

    Grape skins are the part of the fruit with the highest amount of volatile and polyphenolic compounds. Volatile compounds give the fruit and other grape derivatives their flavour. Polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the colour of the fruit, juice and wine, and also act as very important natural antioxidant compounds. Dehydration is a method used to prevent the damage of these compounds over time. Nevertheless, in the case of volatile compounds, removing water can cause compound degradation or the evaporation of such compounds. This work studied two drying methods, freeze-drying and oven-drying, at 60 degrees C, as skin preservation methods. The skins from two grape varieties, Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon, were dried. Many volatile compounds, which are of interest in the aroma profile, were identified in both varieties as terpenes (linalool, etc.), sesquiterpenes (farnesol), norisoprenoids (vitispirane, etc.), C(6) alcohols (1-hexanol, etc.), etc., and their amount decreased significantly with the oven-drying method, in contrast to the freeze-drying method. Both phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonols, were identified in fresh and dehydrated samples, thus resulting in the freeze-drying method being less aggressive than oven-drying methods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-17

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  10. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Young, Philip R.; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A.; du Plessis, Kari

    In this paper, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berrymore » stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Finally, taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries.« less

  11. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure

    DOE PAGES

    Young, Philip R.; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A.; du Plessis, Kari; ...

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berrymore » stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Finally, taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries.« less

  12. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    PubMed

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    PubMed

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  15. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  16. A Preliminary Study of Aroma Composition and Impact Odorants of Cabernet Franc Wines under Different Terrain Conditions of the Loess Plateau Region (China).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2018-05-05

    Due to its appropriate climate characteristics, the Loess Plateau region is considered to be one of the biggest optimal regions for producing high-quality mountain wine in China. However, the complex landform conditions of vineyards are conducive to the formation of mountainous microclimates, which ultimately influence the wine quality. This study aimed to elucidate the influences of three terrain conditions of the Loess Plateau region on the aroma compounds of Cabernet Franc wines by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 40, 36 and 35 volatiles were identified and quantified from the flat, lower slope and higher slope vineyards, respectively. Esters were the largest group of volatiles, accounting for 54.6⁻56.6% of total volatiles, followed by alcohols. Wines from the slope lands had the higher levels of aroma compounds than that from flat land. According to their aroma-active values (OAVs), ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate were the most powerful compounds among the eight impact odorants, showing only quantitative but not qualitative differences between the three terrain wines. The shapes of the OAVs for three terrain wines were very similar.

  17. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  20. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    PubMed Central

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  1. Unravelling the geometry of data matrices: effects of water stress regimes on winemaking.

    PubMed

    Fushing, Hsieh; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark A; Koehl, Patrice

    2015-10-06

    A new method is proposed for unravelling the patterns between a set of experiments and the features that characterize those experiments. The aims are to extract these patterns in the form of a coupling between the rows and columns of the corresponding data matrix and to use this geometry as a support for model testing. These aims are reached through two key steps, namely application of an iterative geometric approach to couple the metric spaces associated with the rows and columns, and use of statistical physics to generate matrices that mimic the original data while maintaining their inherent structure, thereby providing the basis for hypothesis testing and statistical inference. The power of this new method is illustrated on the study of the impact of water stress conditions on the attributes of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' Grapes, Juice, Wine and Bottled Wine from two vintages. The first step, named data mechanics, de-convolutes the intrinsic effects of grape berries and wine attributes due to the experimental irrigation conditions from the extrinsic effects of the environment. The second step provides an analysis of the associations of some attributes of the bottled wine with characteristics of either the matured grape berries or the resulting juice, thereby identifying statistically significant associations between the juice pH, yeast assimilable nitrogen, and sugar content and the bottled wine alcohol level. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Up-regulated transcripts in a compatible powdery mildew-grapevine interaction.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Csaba; Fung, Raymond W M; Szabó, Zoltán; Qiu, Wenping; Chang, Le; Schachtman, Daniel P; Kovács, László G

    2009-08-01

    Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are obligate biotrophic pathogens that invade susceptible plant cells without triggering cell death. This suggests a highly adept mechanism of parasitism which enables powdery mildews to avoid detection or evade defenses by their host. To better understand this plant-pathogen interaction, we employed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), differential hybridization and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR for the identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genes that were specifically up-regulated in response to the grape powdery mildew Erysiphe necator Schwein. We identified 25 grapevine transcripts that increased in abundance upon infection in leaves of the susceptible host V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon. Despite the compatible interaction between the pathogen and plant, several of the E. necator-induced transcripts represented typical defense response genes. Among the transcripts identified were those that encoded a leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine kinase-like receptor, an MYB transcription factor, and two ubiquitination-associated proteins, indicating the stimulation of intracellular signal transduction and regulatory functions. A number of genes characteristic of senescence processes, including metallothioneins, a deoxyribonuclease, an aspartyl protease and a subtilase-like serine protease, also were identified. These transcripts expanded the list of previously identified E. necator-responsive grapevine genes and facilitated a more comprehensive view of the molecular events that underlie this economically important plant-pathogen interaction.

  3. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    PubMed

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-04-29

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  4. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achievedmore » without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.« less

  5. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  6. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    PubMed

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  8. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established to ensure the... Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn across latitude 46[deg]20'00'' N, including...

  10. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH) 2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  11. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  12. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  13. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE 'Red Eye' Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate assessments

  14. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE ‘Red Eye’ Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate

  15. Certification procedures for sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80).

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W; Fagan, C; Kiernan, J A; Wickersham, T W

    2011-06-01

    Sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80) is a polyazo dye used principally in staining methods for collagen and amyloid. For certification by the Biological Stain Commission, a sample of the dye must exhibit an absorption spectrum of characteristic shape with a maximum at 528-529 nm, a small shoulder near 500 nm and narrow peaks at 372, 281-282 and 230-235 nm. Spot tests (color changes with addition of concentrated H(2)SO(4) or HCl and subsequent dilution or neutralization) also are applied. The dye must perform satisfactorily in the picro-sirius red method for collagen by providing red staining of all types of collagen with yellow and green birefringence of fibers. Llewellyn's alkaline sirius red method applied to tissue known to contain amyloid must show red coloration of the products with green birefringence. Dye content, which does not influence significantly the staining properties of sirius red F3B, is not assayed.

  16. Registration of ‘Red Cedar’ dark red kidney bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red Cedar’ dark red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2017 as an upright, full-season cultivar that possesses excellent canning quality, tolerance to common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (S...

  17. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  18. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  19. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... body's tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow ... 2 days. The body makes about two million red blood cells every second. Blood is made up of both cellular and liquid components. ...

  20. Identification and functional characterisation of an allene oxide synthase from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. Sauvignon blanc).

    PubMed

    Dumin, Walftor; Rostas, Michael; Winefield, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is known to be an important phytohormone that orchestrates plant defence mechanisms against a range of herbivores and pathogens. Studies have suggested allene oxide synthase (AOS; E.C 4.2.1.92), the first committed step in JA biosynthesis, is essential for JA biosynthesis, yet clear evidence of its role as a biosynthetic regulatory point is lacking, in the main due to conflicting results derived from transgenic studies. However other studies lend support to a biosynthetic regulatory role for AOS. These studies have suggested that certain amino acid substitutions can increase the biosynthetic capacity of the enzyme and consequently improve pathogen tolerance in plants. To explore the role of AOS in Grapevine we isolated and functionally characterised this enzyme for the first time from Vitis vinifera L. Sauvignon blanc. The cloned AOS consisted of a single 1563 bp open reading frame. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the cloned gene (VvAOS) was highly conserved compared to those from other species. Complementation of an Arabidopsis AOS null mutant (aos) with VvAOS recovered the male sterile mutant phenotype and confirmed its function. Transcript analysis showed that VvAOS was wound responsive in leaves and was detectable in most tissues, with the highest levels of transcript in the mesocarp (pulp) of mature berries. Sub-cellular localisation of the VvAOS protein indicated that VvAOS is associated with the chloroplast membrane. Unexpectedly high levels of VvAOS transcript in complemented aos lines did not lead to predicted increases in JA. We have functionally characterised the sole AOS from Grapevine. Patterns of transcript accumulation in grapevine suggest roles in growth, development as well as an important role for JA in fruit ripening. Expression of VvAOS in Arabidopsis suggest complex epigenetic interactions between transgenic and endogenous AOS alleles, providing a possible explanation for why transgenic studies of AOS have

  1. Biological studies of Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on grapevine cultivars.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; Aponte, Orlando; Morales, José; Sanabria, María E; García, Grisaly

    2008-06-01

    Life cycle, fecundity and longevity of the avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst), were studied on six grapevine cultivars (Tucupita, Villanueva, Red Globe, Sirah, Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc), under laboratory conditions at 27 +/- 2 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH, and L12:D12 photoperiod. Mite-infested leaves were collected from vineyards, placed in paper bags and taken to the laboratory. A laboratory mite culture was established using the grape cultivar Criolla Negra as host plant. To elucidate potential effects on avocado brown mite parameters, we assessed levels of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols, of leaves of the six grape cultivars, as well as the thickness of the adaxial cuticle-epidermis. The life cycle of O. punicae differed among cultivars with average values ranging between 8.2 days on Tucupita leaves and 9.1 days on Sirah. Relatively high fecundity was found on Tucupita leaves (2.8 eggs/female/day) during 11.4 oviposition days, while low fecundity values occurred on Sirah and Villanueva leaves, with 0.9 and 1.8 eggs/female/day during 7.9 and 6.7 days, respectively. Average longevity of O. punicae females ranged from 8.1 to 17.5 days on Sirah and Sauvignon leaves, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r (m)) was highest on Sauvignon (0.292) and Tucupita (0.261), and lowest on Sirah (0.146) and Villanueva (0.135). Although significant differences in cuticle-epidermis thickness were detected among the six cultivars, it seemed not to affect mite parameters. Secondary metabolite content also varied between the cultivars. Generally, increasing flavonoid content coincided with decreasing reproductive parameters. The natural plant resistance observed in this study could be useful in the development of an integrated pest management program for mite pests in grape production.

  2. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  3. Changes in Winegrape Phenology and Relationships with Climate and Wine Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G.

    2004-12-01

    During the phenological cycle of winegrapes, the timing of specific events and the length between the events are critical to the production of quality fruit and wine. In addition, winegrapes are typically grown in climates that optimize the ripening characteristics for specific varieties. These narrow geographical zones place the production of wine at a greater risk from climate variability and change than other more broadly based agricultural crops. To analyze the relationships between phenology, climate, and wine quality, data from three prominent regions in France-Bordeaux, Burgundy, and Champagne-are used. Long-term phenological data for bud break, flowering, veraison, and harvest dates for Pinot Noir in Burgundy and Champagne and for Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon are examined for trends, climatic influences, and the general effects on wine quality. The results reveal significantly earlier events (6-14 days) with shorter intervals between events (5-12 days) across all regions. In addition, warmer growing seasons have clearly influenced these changes in the phenological cycle of winegrapes in France. Furthermore, changes in phenology and growing season temperatures are related to better fruit composition and increases in vintage ratings over the last 30-40 years. However, some of the warmest growing seasons, with very early phenology and short intervals, have resulted in lower quality. The results point to potential threshold issues whereby any further warming will likely compromise the phenological characteristics, ripening profiles, and wine quality of the varieties currently being grown.

  4. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  5. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  6. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Boas, F E; Forman, L; Beutler, E

    1998-03-17

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells.

  7. Identification of S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione and its bisulfite adduct in grape juice from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc as new potential precursors of 3SH.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Böcker, Caroline; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Moine, Virginie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-05-15

    Two main precursors (S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-glutathione) of 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH, formerly named 3-mercaptohexanol) have been identified so far in grape juice but a correlation between precursor concentrations in grape juices and 3SH concentrations in wines is not always observed. This suggests that there may be other compounds associated with the aromatic potential. In this work, S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione (Glut-3SH-Al) and its bisulfite (Glut-3SH-SO3) adduct were identified in Sauvignon blanc grape juice by liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform mass spectrometry experiments. A partial purification of the compounds was carried out by Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) on the reverse phase using 5L of grape juice. The addition of synthetized Glut-3SH-Al and Glut-3SH-SO3 in the synthetic medium induced a significant release of 3SH after fermentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Glut-3SH-Al and its bisulfite adduct are present in grape juice and could be considered as new direct 3SH precursors with molar conversion yields close to 0.4%. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  9. Characterization of the heterooligomeric red-type rubisco activase from red algae

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Nitin; Tsai, Yi-Chin Candace; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) is inhibited by nonproductive binding of its substrate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and other sugar phosphates. Reactivation requires ATP-hydrolysis–powered remodeling of the inhibited complexes by diverse molecular chaperones known as rubisco activases (Rcas). Eukaryotic phytoplankton of the red plastid lineage contain so-called red-type rubiscos, some of which have been shown to possess superior kinetic properties to green-type rubiscos found in higher plants. These organisms are known to encode multiple homologs of CbbX, the α-proteobacterial red-type activase. Here we show that the gene products of two cbbX genes encoded by the nuclear and plastid genomes of the red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae are nonfunctional in isolation, but together form a thermostable heterooligomeric Rca that can use both α-proteobacterial and red algal-inhibited rubisco complexes as a substrate. The mechanism of rubisco activation appears conserved between the bacterial and the algal systems and involves threading of the rubisco large subunit C terminus. Whereas binding of the allosteric regulator RuBP induces oligomeric transitions to the bacterial activase, it merely enhances the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the algal enzyme. Mutational analysis of nuclear and plastid isoforms demonstrates strong coordination between the subunits and implicates the nuclear-encoded subunit as being functionally dominant. The plastid-encoded subunit may be catalytically inert. Efforts to enhance crop photosynthesis by transplanting red algal rubiscos with enhanced kinetics will need to take into account the requirement for a compatible Rca. PMID:27872295

  10. Characterization of the heterooligomeric red-type rubisco activase from red algae.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Nitin; Tsai, Yi-Chin Candace; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver

    2016-12-06

    The photosynthetic CO 2 -fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) is inhibited by nonproductive binding of its substrate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and other sugar phosphates. Reactivation requires ATP-hydrolysis-powered remodeling of the inhibited complexes by diverse molecular chaperones known as rubisco activases (Rcas). Eukaryotic phytoplankton of the red plastid lineage contain so-called red-type rubiscos, some of which have been shown to possess superior kinetic properties to green-type rubiscos found in higher plants. These organisms are known to encode multiple homologs of CbbX, the α-proteobacterial red-type activase. Here we show that the gene products of two cbbX genes encoded by the nuclear and plastid genomes of the red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae are nonfunctional in isolation, but together form a thermostable heterooligomeric Rca that can use both α-proteobacterial and red algal-inhibited rubisco complexes as a substrate. The mechanism of rubisco activation appears conserved between the bacterial and the algal systems and involves threading of the rubisco large subunit C terminus. Whereas binding of the allosteric regulator RuBP induces oligomeric transitions to the bacterial activase, it merely enhances the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the algal enzyme. Mutational analysis of nuclear and plastid isoforms demonstrates strong coordination between the subunits and implicates the nuclear-encoded subunit as being functionally dominant. The plastid-encoded subunit may be catalytically inert. Efforts to enhance crop photosynthesis by transplanting red algal rubiscos with enhanced kinetics will need to take into account the requirement for a compatible Rca.

  11. Comparative Study of Betacyanin Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius).

    PubMed

    Yong, Yi Yi; Dykes, Gary; Lee, Sui Mae; Choo, Wee Sim

    2017-03-01

    Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach. Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had 23.5 and 121.5 % more betacyanin content, respectively, than those without sub-fractionation. Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0.78-3.13 mg/mL) demonstrated a better antimicrobial activity profile than that of red pitahaya (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against nine Gram-positive bacterial strains. Similarly, the red spinach fraction (MIC values: 1.56-3.13 mg/mL) was more active than the red pitahaya fraction (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against five Gram-negative bacterial strains. This could be because of a higher amount of betacyanin, particularly amaranthine in the red spinach.

  12. Skin quality in red potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  13. A moderate dose of red wine, but not de-alcoholized red wine increases coronary flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Saraste, Antti; Toikka, Jyri O; Saraste, Markku; Raitakari, Olli T; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hartiala, Jaakko J; Viikari, Jorma; Koskenvuo, Juha W

    2007-12-01

    Red wine consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. Its cardioprotective properties may be partly related to its ability to improve endothelial function. The purpose of this randomized controlled cross-over study was to determine whether moderate doses of red wine and de-alcoholized red wine improve coronary flow velocity reserve (CFR). Using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, 176 CFR measurements were made in 22 healthy men before and after ingestion of a moderate (4.0+/-0.4 dl) and an escalating high dose (total amount 8.1+/-0.9 dl) of alcohol-containing red wine and de-alcoholized red wine, which contained similar amounts of phenolic substances. The difference in plasma antioxidant capacity was determined by colorimetric assay kit. Red wine increased CFR from 3.8+/-1.4 to 4.5+/-1.4 (p<0.01) and 4.0+/-1.2 (p=NS) after moderate and high doses, respectively; whereas de-alcoholized red wine had no significant effects on CFR (4.0+/-0.7, 4.3+/-1.3 and 4.5+/-1.4, respectively). Plasma antioxidant capacity increased significantly after high dose of red wine (27.5+/-14.7%, p<0.001), but not after de-alcoholized red wine (0.5+/-10.5%, p=NS) despite similar amounts of phenolic substances. Differences between CFR and plasma antioxidant capacities before and after drinking had no significant association. A moderate dose of red wine, but not de-alcoholized red wine increases CFR. The increase of CFR is probably mediated by other than direct antioxidant properties of polyphenols, because the simultaneous increase of CFR and plasma antioxidant capacity were not associated.

  14. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Red Teaming Agility (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    are termed “ antifragile ”. Black Swan Model for Deep Red Futures The future is dominated not by trends, but by outliers, extreme events that lie...disproportionately higher mission impact. Agility is a measure of antifragile systems Red Teaming Defined Red Teaming is a function to provide

  16. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  17. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  18. Sickle red cell-endothelium interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Dhananjay K; Finnegan, Eileen; Barabino, Gilda A

    2009-01-01

    Periodic recurrence of painful vaso-occlusive crisis is the defining feature of sickle cell disease. Among multiple pathologies associated with this disease, sickle red cell-endothelium interaction has been implicated as a potential initiating mechanism in vaso-occlusive events. This review focuses on various interrelated mechanisms involved in human sickle red cell adhesion. We discuss in vitro and microcirculatory findings on sickle red cell adhesion, its potential role in vaso-occlusion, and the current understanding of receptor-ligand interactions involved in this pathological phenomenon. In addition, we discuss the contribution of other cellular interactions (leukocytes recruitment and leukocyte-red cell interaction) to vaso-occlusion, as observed in transgenic sickle mouse models. Emphasis is given to recently discovered adhesion molecules that play a predominant role in mediating human sickle red cell adhesion. Finally, we analyze various therapeutic approaches for inhibiting sickle red cell adhesion by targeting adhesion molecules and also consider therapeutic strategies that target stimuli involved in endothelial activation and initiation of adhesion.

  19. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  20. Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. S.; Schuerger, A. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential irradiation source for intensive plant culture systems and photobiological research. They have small size, low mass, a long functional life, and narrow spectral output. In this study, we measured the growth and dry matter partitioning of 'Hungarian Wax' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown under red LEDs compared with similar plants grown under red LEDs with supplemental blue or far-red radiation or under broad spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Additionally, we describe the thermal and spectral characteristics of these sources. The LEDs used in this study had a narrow bandwidth at half peak height (25 nm) and a focused maximum spectral output at 660 nm for the red and 735 nm for the far-red. Near infrared radiation (800 to 3000 nm) was below detection and thermal infrared radiation (3000 to 50,000 nm) was lower in the LEDs compared to the MH source. Although the red to far-red ratio varied considerably, the calculated phytochrome photostationary state (phi) was only slightly different between the radiation sources. Plant biomass was reduced when peppers were grown under red LEDs in the absence of blue wavelengths compared to plants grown under supplemental blue fluorescent lamps or MH lamps. The addition of far-red radiation resulted in taller plants with greater stem mass than red LEDs alone. There were fewer leaves under red or red plus far-red radiation than with lamps producing blue wavelengths. These results indicate that red LEDs may be suitable, in proper combination with other wavelengths of light, for the culture of plants in tightly controlled environments such as space-based plant culture systems.

  1. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  2. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  3. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  4. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2013-01-01

    During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood's buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called “sports anemia.” This is not anemia in a clinical sense, because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume (PV). The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g., in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise. PMID:24273518

  6. Phenol red-silk tyrosine cross-linked hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Sundarakrishnan, Aswin; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Coburn, Jeannine; Chwalek, Karolina; Partlow, Benjamin; Kaplan, David L

    2016-09-15

    Phenol red is a cytocompatible pH sensing dye that is commonly added to cell culture media, but removed from some media formulations due to its structural mimicry of estrogen. Phenol red free media is also used during live cell imaging, to avoid absorbance and fluorescence quenching of fluorophores. To overcome these complications, we developed cytocompatible and degradable phenol red-silk tyrosine cross-linked hydrogels using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Phenol red added to silk during tyrosine crosslinking accelerated di-tyrosine formation in a concentration-dependent reaction. Phenol red diffusion studies and UV-Vis spectra of phenol red-silk tyrosine hydrogels at different pHs showed altered absorption bands, confirming entrapment of dye within the hydrogel network. LC-MS of HRP-reacted phenol red and N-acetyl-l-tyrosine reaction products confirmed covalent bonds between the phenolic hydroxyl group of phenol red and tyrosine on the silk. At lower phenol red concentrations, leak-proof hydrogels which did not release phenol red were fabricated and found to be cytocompatible based on live-dead staining and alamar blue assessments of encapsulated fibroblasts. Due to the spectral overlap between phenol red absorbance at 415nm and di-tyrosine fluorescence at 417nm, phenol red-silk hydrogels provide both absorbance and fluorescence-based pH sensing. With an average pKa of 6.8 and good cytocompatibiltiy, phenol red-silk hydrogels are useful for pH sensing in phenol red free systems, cellular microenvironments and bioreactors. Phenol red entrapped within hydrogels facilitates pH sensing in phenol red free environments. Leak-proof phenol red based pH sensors require covalent binding techniques, but are complicated due to the lack of amino or carboxyl groups on phenol red. Currently, there is no simple, reliable technique to covalently link phenol red to hydrogel matrices, for real-time pH sensing in cell culture environments. Herein

  7. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  8. Red Lake Forestry Greenhouse Program

    Treesearch

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2002-01-01

    In 1916, The Red Lake Indian Forest Act was created. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa in Minnesota stood alone and refused to consent to allotment. Consequently, The Red Lake Band is the only tribe in Minnesota for which a congressional act was passed to secure a permanent economic foundation for the band and its future.

  9. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  10. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation.

  11. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  16. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... information will be used by the Red Cross only to locate individuals and families, to answer inquiries from...

  17. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  18. Photooxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin: implications of exposing the Amplex Red assay to light

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; Summers, Fiona A.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H2O2, relies on the reaction of H2O2 and colorless, nonfluorescent Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form colored, fluorescent resorufin, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. In the absence of H2O2 and HRP, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Amplex Red changed during exposure to ambient room light or instrumental excitation light, clearly indicating that the fluorescent product resorufin had formed. This photochemistry was initiated by trace amounts of resorufin that are present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies demonstrated that superoxide radical was an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H2O2 were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process will result in a less sensitive assay for H2O2 under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. PMID:22765927

  19. Photooxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin: implications of exposing the Amplex Red assay to light.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baozhong; Summers, Fiona A; Mason, Ronald P

    2012-09-01

    The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H(2)O(2), relies on the reaction of H(2)O(2) and colorless, nonfluorescent Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form colored, fluorescent resorufin, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. In the absence of H(2)O(2) and HRP, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Amplex Red changed during exposure to ambient room light or instrumental excitation light, clearly indicating that the fluorescent product resorufin had formed. This photochemistry was initiated by trace amounts of resorufin that are present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies demonstrated that superoxide radical was an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H(2)O(2) were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process will result in a less sensitive assay for H(2)O(2) under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  1. The impact of red light cameras (photo-red enforcement) on crashes in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Red light running is a significant public health concern, killing more than 800 people and injuring 200,000 in the United States per year (Retting et al., 1999a; Retting and Kyrychenko, 2002). To reduce red light running in Virginia, six jurisdiction...

  2. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  3. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.

  4. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  5. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Deshpande, Alina

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  6. Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    This view of Jupiter Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by NASA Galileo spacecraft. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. The image was taken on June 26, 1996. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00296

  7. New insight into the unresolved HPLC broad peak of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed polymeric tannins by combining CPC and Q-ToF approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Alessandra Paissoni, Maria; Jourdes, Michäel; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-05-30

    Polymeric tannins from grapes have always been reported as an unresolved broad peak in HPLC chromatograms, and this has severely limited their identification to date. This study aimed to disassemble this broad peak and explore the polymeric tannin molecules inside. By applying centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), an efficient separation approach was developed to split the broad peak of grape seed tannins into fractions. Then, the fractions were analyzed by Q-ToF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to determine the corresponding structures of the tannins. The results suggest that grape seed polymeric tannins were eluted consecutively according to their degree of polymerization (DP). Condensed tannins identified in wine grape seed have a range of DP and degree of galloylation (DG) up to 20 and 11, respectively. The molecular mass of the largest molecule detected was 6067. To our knowledge, this is the first report to offer an insight into the broad peak of polymeric tannins found with HPLC and to characterize the tannins with a DP up to 20 as shown by HRMS and MS/MS data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  9. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    PubMed Central

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  10. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    PubMed

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra crispata...

  13. Rejuvenation of allogenic red cells: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Aujla, H; Woźniak, M; Kumar, T; Murphy, G J

    2018-06-04

    To review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the effects of red cell rejuvenation in vivo and in vitro and to assess the potential risks and benefits from their clinical use. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of the intervention of red cell rejuvenation using a red cell processing solution containing inosine, pyruvate, phosphate and adenine. Outcomes of interest in vitro were changes in red cell characteristics including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), deformability and the accumulation of oxidized lipids and other reactive species in the red cell supernatant. Outcomes in vivo were 24-h post-transfusion survival and the effects on oxygen delivery, organ function and inflammation in transfused recipients. The literature search identified 49 studies evaluating rejuvenated red cells. In vitro rejuvenation restored cellular properties including 2,3-DPG and ATP to levels similar to freshly donated red cells. In experimental models, in vivo transfusion of rejuvenated red cells improved oxygen delivery and myocardial, renal and pulmonary function when compared to stored red cells. In humans, in vivo 24-h survival of rejuvenated red cells exceeded 75%. In clinical studies, rejuvenated red cells were found to be safe, with no reported adverse effects. In one adult cardiac surgery trial, transfusion of rejuvenated red cells resulted in improved myocardial performance. Transfusion of rejuvenated red cells reduces organ injury attributable to the red cell storage lesion without adverse effects in experimental studies in vivo. The clinical benefits of this intervention remain uncertain. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  15. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    PubMed

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  16. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin

    PubMed Central

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G.; Khafaji, Mawya A.; Mughal, Muhammad K.; Naylor, Claire E.; Shore, Angela C.; Gooding, Kim M.; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J.; Titball, Richard W.; Winlove, C. Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. PMID:26984406

  17. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  18. Understanding the Red Sea nutrient cycle - a first look into nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Roslinda; Arrieta, Jesus; Alam, Intikhab; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Red Sea is an elongated and semi-enclosed system bordered by Africa and Saudi Arabia. Positioned in an arid, tropical zone, the system receives high solar irradiance and heat flux, extensive evaporation, low rainfall and therefore high salinity. These harsh environmental conditions has set the Red Sea to be one of the fastest warming and saltiest ecosystem in the world. Although nutrients are known to be at very low concentrations, the ultimately limiting nutrient in the system is still undefined. Therefore, like most other oligotrophic systems, we regard the Red Sea as being nitrogen-limited and we foresee nitrogen fixation as the most probable bottleneck in the Red Sea nitrogen budget. On the basis of metagenomes from pelagic microbial communities along the Red Sea, we looked into the distribution of nitrogenase, an enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation, in this system and provide a first insight into the microbial community that is involved in the process. The implications of this study will not only help improve our understanding of the Red Sea nutrient regime, but may also hint on future ocean responses to rising climates.

  19. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  20. red - an R package to facilitate species red list assessments according to the IUCN criteria

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red – IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO), Area of Occupancy (AOO), mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments. PMID:29104439

  1. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  6. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  7. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  8. Red gaming in support of the war on terrorism : Sandia Red Game report.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group (ACG) at Sandia National Laboratories is exploring the use of Red Teaming to help intelligence analysts with two key processes: determining what a piece or pieces of information might imply and deciding what other pieces of information need to be found to support or refute hypotheses about what actions a suspected terrorist organization might be pursuing. In support of this effort, the ACG hosted a terrorism red gaming event in Albuquerque on July 22-24, 2003. The game involved two 'red teams' playing the roles of two terrorist cells - one focused on implementing an RDD attackmore » on the DC subway system and one focused on a bio attack against the same target - and two 'black teams' playing the role of the intelligence collection system and of intelligence analysts trying to decide what plans the red teams might be pursuing. This exercise successfully engaged human experts to seed a proposed compute engine with detailed operational plans for hypothetical terrorist scenarios.« less

  9. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  10. Identification of cyanobacteriochromes detecting far-red light

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λ max = 725–755 nm)/orange (λ max = 590–600 nm) and far-red/red (λ max = 615–685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and canmore » be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/ or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. In conclusion, this work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.« less

  11. Identification of cyanobacteriochromes detecting far-red light

    DOE PAGES

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2016-06-13

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λ max = 725–755 nm)/orange (λ max = 590–600 nm) and far-red/red (λ max = 615–685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and canmore » be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/ or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. In conclusion, this work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.« less

  12. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rozo, E.

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshiftmore » range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10 -3 (h -1Mpc) -3, and a median photo-z bias (z spec z photo) and scatter (σ z=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.« less

  13. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  14. Red clothing increases perceived dominance, aggression and anger

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Diana; Burt, D. Michael; Hill, Russell A.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence and intensity of red coloration correlate with male dominance and testosterone in a variety of animal species, and even artificial red stimuli can influence dominance interactions. In humans, red stimuli are perceived as more threatening and dominant than other colours, and wearing red increases the probability of winning sporting contests. We investigated whether red clothing biases the perception of aggression and dominance outside of competitive settings, and whether red influences decoding of emotional expressions. Participants rated digitally manipulated images of men for aggression and dominance and categorized the emotional state of these stimuli. Men were rated as more aggressive and more dominant when presented in red than when presented in either blue or grey. The effect on perceived aggression was found for male and female raters, but only male raters were sensitive to red as a signal of dominance. In a categorization test, images were significantly more often categorized as ‘angry’ when presented in the red condition, demonstrating that colour stimuli affect perceptions of emotions. This suggests that the colour red may be a cue used to predict propensity for dominance and aggression in human males. PMID:25972401

  15. Flaring Red Dwarf Star (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-06

    This illustration shows a red dwarf star orbited by a hypothetical exoplanet. Red dwarfs tend to be magnetically active, displaying gigantic arcing prominences and a wealth of dark sunspots. Red dwarfs also erupt with intense flares that could strip a nearby planet's atmosphere over time, or make the surface inhospitable to life as we know it. By mining data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) spacecraft, a team of astronomers identified dozens of flares at a range of durations and strengths. The team measured events with less total energy than many previously detected flares from red dwarfs. This is important because, although individually less energetic and therefore less hostile to life, smaller flares might be much more frequent and add up over time to produce a cumulative effect on an orbiting planet. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21473

  16. Experience Reverses the Red Effect among Chinese Stockbrokers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green) impaired Chinese college students’ performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect), but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect. PMID:24586587

  17. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green) impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect), but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  18. In vivo studies of sickle red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Dhananjay K; Fabry, Mary E

    2004-03-01

    The defining clinical feature of sickle cell anemia is periodic occurrence of painful vasoocclusive crisis. Factors that promote trapping and sickling of red cells in the microcirculation are likely to trigger vasoocclusion. The marked red cell heterogeneity in sickle blood and abnormal adhesion of sickle red cells to vascular endothelium would be major disruptive influences. Using ex vivo and in vivo models, the authors show how to dissect the relative contribution of heterogeneous sickle red cell classes to adhesive and obstructive events. These studies revealed that (1) both rheological abnormalities and adhesion of sickle red cells contribute to their abnormal hemodynamic behavior, (2) venules are the sites of sickle cell adhesion, and (3) sickle red cell deformability plays an important role in adhesive and obstructive events. Preferential adhesion of deformable sickle red cells in postcapillary venules followed by selective trapping of dense sickle red cells could result in vasoocclusion. An updated version of this 2-step model is presented. The multifactorial nature of sickle red cell adhesion needs to be considered in designing antiadhesive therapy in vivo.

  19. [Separation and identification of red pigments in natural red yolk of duck's eggs by HPLC-MS-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangzhong; Zhang, Min; Peng, Guanghua; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shenghua

    2004-05-01

    The natural red yolk of duck's eggs is produced by the laying duck in the lake areas in southward of China. In the laying duck breeding areas such as Honghu, Jianli, Xiantao, Tianmen and Hanchuan citys in Hubei Province, the culturists are used to feeding fresh pondweeds to the laying ducks. The yolk of duck's eggs is natural red with the chrominance reaching up to and/or above RCF (Roche Yolk Color Fan) 15. The red pigment components of natural red yolk of duck's eggs were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and high resolution electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Four isomers of red pigments were separated by HPLC on a RP-C18 column with methanol-water (99.5:0.5, v/v) as mobile phase. The lambda(max) of the four components were 482, 488, 496, 501 nm, respectively, and all of them were single peak on chromatogram. They had the same molecular mass (Mr = 562), and had the same fragment peaks of MS2 with rhodoxanthin. The molecular formula of red pigments was determined as C40H50O2 by high resolution EI-MS. The results indicate that the red pigment is rhodoxanthin, and they are all cis-isomers of rhodoxanthin.

  20. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  1. Ozone damage on apples. [Cortland; Red Rome; McIntosh; Red Delicious; Golden Delicious

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miller, P.M.; Rich, S.

    1968-09-01

    Exposure to high rates of ozone for 3 days produced grey to brown pitted areas around lenticles of Cortland, Red Rome, and McIntosh apples, but not on Red Delicious or Golden Delicious apples. These pits were 1 to 2 mm in diameter with a corky area extending 1 mm into the flesh. Neither light nor relative humidity influenced occurrence of the injury.

  2. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L.; Murphy, Christopher S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Piston, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We report that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as a screen of 12 variants yielded 8 that exhibit photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins can be switched into a green state, and two orange variants can be photoconverted to the far red. The orange highlighters are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibit the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent protein described to date. PMID:19363494

  3. Green above-stump weights for red oak, red maple and white birch in northern Michigan.

    Treesearch

    Helmuth M. Steinhilb; Edwin S. Miyata; Thomas R. Crow

    1983-01-01

    Presents the green weights of the above-stump portion of trees, boles, and residue for red oak, red maple, and white birch in northern Michigan. Estimating equations and green weight tables are included for the tree components of each species.

  4. Behavioral interactions of penned red and arctic foxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudzinski, D.R.; Graves, H.B.; Sargeant, A.B.; Storm, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Expansion of the geographical distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) into the far north tundra region may lead to competition between arctic (Alopex lagopus) and red foxes for space and resources. Behavioral interactions between red and arctic foxes were evaluated during 9 trials conducted in a 4.05-ha enclosure near Woodworth, North Dakota. Each trial consisted of introducing a male-female pair of arctic foxes into the enclosure and allowing them to acclimate for approximately a week before releasing a female red fox into the enclosure, followed by her mate a few days later. In 8 of 9 trials, red foxes were dominant over arctic foxes during encounters. Activity of the arctic foxes decreased upon addition of red foxes. Arctic foxes tried unsuccessfully to defend preferred den, resting, and feeding areas. Even though the outcome of competition between red and arctic foxes in the Arctic is uncertain, the more aggressive red fox can dominate arctic foxes in direct competition for den sites and other limited resources.

  5. redMaGiC: Selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.

    Here, we introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling themore » redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10 –3 (h –1 Mpc) –3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec – zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.« less

  6. redMaGiC: Selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; ...

    2016-05-30

    Here, we introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling themore » redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10 –3 (h –1 Mpc) –3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec – zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.« less

  7. Red Light-enhanced Phytochrome Pelletability

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Lee H.; Marmé, Dieter

    1976-01-01

    Red light-enhanced pelletability of phytochrome was observed in extracts of all 11 plants tested: Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Zea mays L., Cucurbita pepo L., Sinapis alba L., Pisum sativum L., Helianthus anuus L., Raphanus sativus L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Lupinus albus L. This enhanced pelletability was observed in all 11 plants following in situ irradiation (in vivo binding) but only in Sinapis and Cucurbita after irradiation of crude extracts (in vitro binding). In vivo binding was not strongly dependent upon pH and, with few exceptions, was not markedly sensitive to high salt concentration, whereas in vitro binding was completely reversed by both high pH and high salt concentration. However, both binding phenomena were observed only with a divalent cation in the extract buffer. In vivo binding was further characterized using Avena which showed an increase in pelletability from less than 10% in dark control extracts to more than 60% in extracts of red light-irradiated shoots. The half-life for binding was 40 seconds at 0.5 C and was strongly temperature-dependent, binding being complete within 5 to 10 sec at 22 C. If pelletable phytochrome in the far red-absorbing form was photoconverted back to the red-absorbing form in situ, phytochrome was released from the pelletable condition with a half-life of 25 minutes at 25 C and 100 minutes at both 13 C and 3 C. No cooperativity in red light-enhanced pelletability with respect to phytochrome-far red-absorbing form was observed. PMID:16659745

  8. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  9. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  10. The Art of Red Tide Science

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emily R.; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined “The Art of Red Tide Science,” consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  11. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  12. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  13. Fruit coloration and anthocyanin biosynthesis after bag removal in non-red and red apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulian; Che, Fei; Wang, Lixin; Meng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2013-01-25

    In the present study, evolution of apple color (L* and a/b), the accumulation of anthocyanins and the activity of the related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-Glucose: flavonoid-3-O-galactosyl transferase (UFGT), were investigated in bagged non-red apple cultivars ('Granny Smith' and 'Golden Delicious') and red apple cultivars ('Starkrimon' and 'Pink Lady'). Young fruits were bagged 40-45 days after flowering (DAF), and fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Starkrimon' were uncovered and exposed to light 120 DAF, while those of 'Granny Smith' and 'Pink Lady' were exposed for 160 DAF. Results showed that cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal) was the most abundant anthocyanin in both non-red and red cultivars. Level of anthocyanins was higher in 'Granny Smith' than in 'Golden Delicious', indicating that red color was easier to develop in green cultivar 'Granny Smith' than in yellow cultivar 'Golden Delicious' after bag removal. The cy3-gal accumulation of non-red cultivars tested was not significantly correlated with PAL, CHI and DFR activity, but was significantly correlated with UFGT activity. During the reddening of non-red apples, UFGT may be the more important factor in the anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  14. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  17. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  19. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-05

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  3. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  4. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for...

  5. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  6. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  7. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Red blood cell sedimentation of Apheresis Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodermeier, Michelle A; Byrne, Karen M; Flegel, Willy A

    2017-10-01

    Sedimentation of Apheresis Granulocyte components removes red blood cells. It is used to increase the blood donor pool when blood group-compatible donors cannot be recruited for a patient because of a major ABO incompatibility or incompatible red blood cell antibodies in the recipient. Because granulocytes have little ABO and few other red blood cell antigens on their membrane, such incompatibility lies mostly with the contaminating red blood cells. Video Clip S1 shows the process of red blood cell sedimentation of an Apheresis Granulocyte component. This video was filmed with a single smart phone attached to a commercial tripod and was edited on a tablet computer with free software by an amateur videographer without prior video experience. © 2017 AABB.

  9. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  10. Y-Chromosome Markers for the Red Fox.

    PubMed

    Rando, Halie M; Stutchman, Jeremy T; Bastounes, Estelle R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Trut, Lyudmila N; Sacks, Benjamin N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2017-09-01

    The de novo assembly of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) genome has facilitated the development of genomic tools for the species. Efforts to identify the population history of red foxes in North America have previously been limited by a lack of information about the red fox Y-chromosome sequence. However, a megabase of red fox Y-chromosome sequence was recently identified over 2 scaffolds in the reference genome. Here, these scaffolds were scanned for repeated motifs, revealing 194 likely microsatellites. Twenty-three of these loci were selected for primer development and, after testing, produced a panel of 11 novel markers that were analyzed alongside 2 markers previously developed for the red fox from dog Y-chromosome sequence. The markers were genotyped in 76 male red foxes from 4 populations: 7 foxes from Newfoundland (eastern Canada), 12 from Maryland (eastern United States), and 9 from the island of Great Britain, as well as 48 foxes of known North American origin maintained on an experimental farm in Novosibirsk, Russia. The full marker panel revealed 22 haplotypes among these red foxes, whereas the 2 previously known markers alone would have identified only 10 haplotypes. The haplotypes from the 4 populations clustered primarily by continent, but unidirectional gene flow from Great Britain and farm populations may influence haplotype diversity in the Maryland population. The development of new markers has increased the resolution at which red fox Y-chromosome diversity can be analyzed and provides insight into the contribution of males to red fox population diversity and patterns of phylogeography. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  12. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide.

  13. Assessment of the Old Red Rock Indian Line Sycamore Tree, Lake Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    miles, when reduced to a straight line , from the junction of the White Breast and Des Moines (Stiles 1911:4). George W. Harrison was instructed to...AD-A255 372 Assessment of the Old Red Rock Indian Line Sycamore Tree, Lake Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa DACW25-92-M-0414 by Leah D. Rogers Project...portion of tree 22 9. Map showing location of Red Rock line within treaty cession area of 23 1842 10. Portion of 1844 map showing incorrect placement of

  14. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be Reagent Red...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  19. Automatic red eye correction and its quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Kang, KiMin; Kim, Sang Ho

    2008-01-01

    The red eye artifacts are troublesome defect of amateur photos. Correction of red eyes during printing without user intervention and making photos more pleasant for an observer are important tasks. The novel efficient technique of automatic correction of red eyes aimed for photo printers is proposed. This algorithm is independent from face orientation and capable to detect paired red eyes as well as single red eyes. The approach is based on application of 3D tables with typicalness levels for red eyes and human skin tones and directional edge detection filters for processing of redness image. Machine learning is applied for feature selection. For classification of red eye regions a cascade of classifiers including Gentle AdaBoost committee from Classification and Regression Trees (CART) is applied. Retouching stage includes desaturation, darkening and blending with initial image. Several versions of approach implementation using trade-off between detection and correction quality, processing time, memory volume are possible. The numeric quality criterion of automatic red eye correction is proposed. This quality metric is constructed by applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for consumer opinions about correction outcomes. Proposed numeric metric helped to choose algorithm parameters via optimization procedure. Experimental results demonstrate high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in comparison with existing solutions.

  20. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  1. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  6. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  7. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  8. CNO isotopes in red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data on CNO abundance ratios in red giants and the interstellar medium (ISM) are analyzed for the implications for the production and distribution of CNO nuclides. The data included isotope abundance measurements for the atmospheres and recent ejecta of cool giants, e.g., carbon stars, S-type stars, red supergiants and oxygen-rich giants beginning an ascent of the giant branch. The contribution of intermediate-mass stars to galactic nuclear evolution is discussed after comparing red giant abundances with ISM abundances, particularly the isotopes O-16, -17 and -18. The O-12/O-18 ratios of red giants are distinctly different from those in interstellar molecular clouds. The CNO values also vary widely from the values found in the solar system.

  9. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  10. Genetic Analysis of the Biosynthesis of 2-Methoxy-3-Isobutylpyrazine, a Major Grape-Derived Aroma Compound Impacting Wine Quality1[W

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumie, Sabine; Ilg, Andrea; Réty, Stéphane; Brette, Maxime; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Decroocq, Stéphane; Léon, Céline; Keime, Céline; Ye, Tao; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Claudel, Patricia; Bordenave, Louis; Vanbrabant, Sandra; Duchêne, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Darriet, Philippe; Hugueney, Philippe; Gomès, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Methoxypyrazines (MPs) are strongly odorant volatile molecules with vegetable-like fragrances that are widespread in plants. Some grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties accumulate significant amounts of MPs, including 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), which is the major MP in grape berries. MPs are of particular importance in white Sauvignon Blanc wines. The typicality of these wines relies on a fine balance between the pea pod, capsicum character of MPs and the passion fruit/grapefruit character due to volatile thiols. Although MPs play a crucial role in Sauvignon varietal aromas, excessive concentrations of these powerful odorants alter wine quality and reduce consumer acceptance, particularly in red wines. The last step of IBMP biosynthesis has been proposed to involve the methoxylation of the nonvolatile precursor 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine to give rise to the highly volatile IBMP. In this work, we have used a quantitative trait loci approach to investigate the genetic bases of IBMP biosynthesis. This has led to the identification of two previously uncharacterized S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase genes, termed VvOMT3 and VvOMT4. Functional characterization of these two O-methyltransferases showed that the VvOMT3 protein was highly specific and efficient for 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine methylation. Based on its differential expression in high- and low-MP-producing grapevine varieties, we propose that VvOMT3 is a key gene for IBMP biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:23606597

  11. 77 FR 55693 - D&C Red No. 6 and D&C Red No. 7; Change in Specification; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 74 [Docket No. FDA-2011-C-0050] D&C Red No. 6 and D&C Red No. 7; Change in Specification; Confirmation of Effective... the requirements for D&C Red No. 6 and D&C Red No. 7 by replacing the current specification for...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  13. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of observed bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency

  14. RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptional response to blue and red light in the extremophilic red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Tardu, Mehmet; Dikbas, Ugur Meric; Baris, Ibrahim; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-11-01

    Light is one of the main environmental cues that affects the physiology and behavior of many organisms. The effect of light on genome-wide transcriptional regulation has been well-studied in green algae and plants, but not in red algae. Cyanidioschyzon merolae is used as a model red algae, and is suitable for studies on transcriptomics because of its compact genome with a relatively small number of genes. In addition, complete genome sequences of the nucleus, mitochondrion, and chloroplast of this organism have been determined. Together, these attributes make C. merolae an ideal model organism to study the response to light stimuli at the transcriptional and the systems biology levels. Previous studies have shown that light significantly affects cell signaling in this organism, but there are no reports on its blue light- and red light-mediated transcriptional responses. We investigated the direct effects of blue and red light at the transcriptional level using RNA-seq. Blue and red lights were found to regulate 35 % of the total genes in C. merolae. Blue light affected the transcription of genes involved in protein synthesis while red light specifically regulated the transcription of genes involved in photosynthesis and DNA repair. Blue or red light regulated genes involved in carbon metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Overall, our data showed that red and blue light regulate the majority of the cellular, cell division, and repair processes in C. merolae.

  15. Utilization of red mud and Pb/Zn smelter waste for the synthesis of a red mud-based cementitious material.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Cheng; Min, Xiao-Bo; Ke, Yong; Chai, Li-Yuan; Shi, Mei-Qing; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Qing-Wei; Liang, Yan-Jie; Lei, Jie; Liu, De-Gang

    2018-02-15

    A new method in which Pb/Zn smelter waste containing arsenic and heavy metals (arsenic sludge), red mud and lime are utilized to prepare red mud-based cementitious material (RCM) is proposed in this study. XRD, SEM, FTIR and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were employed to assess the physicochemical properties of RCM. In addition, ettringite and iron oxide-containing ettringite were used to study the hydration mechanism of RCM. The results show that the UCS of the RCM (red mud+arsenic sludge+lime) was higher than that of the binder (red mud+arsenic sludge). When the mass ratio of m (binder): m (lime) was 94:6 and then maintained 28days at ambient temperature, the UCS reached 12.05MPa. The red mud has potential cementitious characteristics, and the major source of those characteristics was the aluminium oxide. In the red mud-arsenic sludge-lime system, aluminium oxide was effectively activated by lime and gypsum to form complex hydration products. Some of the aluminium in ettringite was replaced by iron to form calcium sulfoferrite hydrate. The BCR and leaching toxicity results show that the leaching concentration was strongly dependent on the chemical speciation of arsenic and the hydration products. Therefore, the investigated red mud and arsenic sludge can be successfully utilized in cement composites to create a red mud-based cementitious material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Red Book through the ages.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  17. Analysis of red light violation data collected from intersections equipped with red light photo enforcement cameras

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-03-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of about 47,000 red light violation records collected from 11 intersections in the : City of Sacramento, California, by red light photo enforcement cameras between May 1999 and June 2003. The goal of this...

  18. Redding Responder phase I final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-12-19

    The Redding Responder Study was initiated as a component of the Redding Incident : Management Enhancement (RIME) Program. The goals of the RIME program are to leverage : technology and communications deployments for emergency communication providers ...

  19. Human spleen and red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  20. Best Color Image of Jupiter's Little Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This amazing color portrait of Jupiter's 'Little Red Spot' (LRS) combines high-resolution images from the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), taken at 03:12 UT on February 27, 2007, with color images taken nearly simultaneously by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The LORRI images provide details as fine as 9 miles across (15 kilometers), which is approximately 10 times better than Hubble can provide on its own. The improved resolution is possible because New Horizons was only 1.9 million miles (3 million kilometers) away from Jupiter when LORRI snapped its pictures, while Hubble was more than 500 million miles (800 million kilometers) away from the Gas Giant planet.

    The Little Red Spot is the second largest storm on Jupiter, roughly 70% the size of the Earth, and it started turning red in late-2005. The clouds in the Little Red Spot rotate counterclockwise, or in the anticyclonic direction, because it is a high-pressure region. In that sense, the Little Red Spot is the opposite of a hurricane on Earth, which is a low-pressure region - and, of course, the Little Red Spot is far larger than any hurricane on Earth.

    Scientists don't know exactly how or why the Little Red Spot turned red, though they speculate that the change could stem from a surge of exotic compounds from deep within Jupiter, caused by an intensification of the storm system. In particular, sulfur-bearing cloud droplets might have been propelled about 50 kilometers into the upper level of ammonia clouds, where brighter sunlight bathing the cloud tops released the red-hued sulfur embedded in the droplets, causing the storm to turn red. A similar mechanism has been proposed for the Little Red Spot's 'older brother,' the Great Red Spot, a massive energetic storm system that has persisted for over a century.

    New Horizons is providing an opportunity to examine an 'infant' red storm system in detail, which may help scientists

  1. Is Congo red an amyloid-specific dye?

    PubMed

    Khurana, R; Uversky, V N; Nielsen, L; Fink, A L

    2001-06-22

    Congo red (CR) binding, monitored by characteristic yellow-green birefringence under crossed polarization has been used as a diagnostic test for the presence of amyloid in tissue sections for several decades. This assay is also widely used for the characterization of in vitro amyloid fibrils. In order to probe the structural specificity of Congo red binding to amyloid fibrils we have used an induced circular dichroism (CD) assay. Amyloid fibrils from insulin and the variable domain of Ig light chain demonstrate induced CD spectra upon binding to Congo red. Surprisingly, the native conformations of insulin and Ig light chain also induced Congo red circular dichroism, but with different spectral shapes than those from fibrils. In fact, a wide variety of native proteins exhibited induced CR circular dichroism indicating that CR bound to representative proteins from different classes of secondary structure such as alpha (citrate synthase), alpha + beta (lysozyme), beta (concavalin A), and parallel beta-helical proteins (pectate lyase). Partially folded intermediates of apomyoglobin induced different Congo red CD bands than the corresponding native conformation, however, no induced CD bands were observed with unfolded protein. Congo red was also found to induce oligomerization of native proteins, as demonstrated by covalent cross-linking and small angle x-ray scattering. Our data suggest that Congo red is sandwiched between two protein molecules causing protein oligomerization. The fact that Congo red binds to native, partially folded conformations and amyloid fibrils of several proteins shows that it must be used with caution as a diagnostic test for the presence of amyloid fibrils in vitro.

  2. Red cell changes in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    How, J; Davidson, R J; Bewsher, P D

    1979-10-01

    The Coulter 'S' red cell profile was studied prospectively in 100 untreated non-anaemic hyperthyroid patients and followed up in 52 of them until they had become euthyroid with radio-iodine or carbimazole treatment. Serial haematological data were also obtained in 23 hyperthyroid patients during treatment with beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drug alone. The most significant finding was a low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) which was invariably present throughout the hyperthyroid state. Treatment with beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs did not significantly alter any of the red cell parameters. On the other hand, the MCV increased and was restored to normal with radio-iodine or carbimazole treatment although there was a lag period of about 6--8 weeks between achieving the euthyroid state and the normalisation of this red cell index. While none of the patients were aneaemic, the haemoglobin level rose significantly following effective anti-thyroid treatment. It is suggested that measurement of the MCV may have a useful role in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. 2 possible mechanisms leading to the observed red cell changes in hyperthyroidism are postulated.

  3. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500K< Teff < 10800K . Known as DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars, their oscillations are attributed to overstable g-modes excited by convective driving. The effective temperature at the blue edge of the instability strip is slightly lower than that at which a surface convection zone appears. The temperature at the red edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  4. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross will... information will be used by the Red Cross only to locate individuals and families, to answer inquiries from...

  5. Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. I. Validation of red and near infra-red marine reflectance relationships.

    PubMed

    Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G

    2013-09-09

    The present study provides an extensive overview of red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral relationships found in the literature and used to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in current atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms with the aim to improve water-leaving reflectance retrievals, ρw(λ), in turbid waters. However, most of these spectral relationships have been developed with restricted datasets and, subsequently, may not be globally valid, explaining the need of an accurate validation exercise. Spectral relationships are validated here with turbid in situ data for ρw(λ). Functions estimating ρw(λ) in the red were only valid for moderately turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) < 3.10(-3)). In contrast, bounding equations used to limit ρw(667) retrievals according to the water signal at 555 nm, appeared to be valid for all turbidity ranges presented in the in situ dataset. In the NIR region of the spectrum, the constant NIR reflectance ratio suggested by Ruddick et al. (2006) (Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179), was valid for moderately to very turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) < 10(-2)) while the polynomial function, initially developed by Wang et al. (2012) (Opt. Express 20, 741-753) with remote sensing reflectances over the Western Pacific, was also valid for extremely turbid waters (ρw(λNIR) > 10(-2)). The results of this study suggest to use the red bounding equations and the polynomial NIR function to constrain red or NIR-modeling schemes in AC processes with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where current AC algorithms fail.

  6. [Genetic diversity of red jungle fowl in China (Gallus gallus spadiceus) and red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus gallus) in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Xu, Qi; Wu, Sheng-Long; Shu, Jing-Ting; Weigend, Steffen

    2007-05-01

    Genetic diversity of red jungle fowl in China (Gallus gallus spadiceus) and red jungle fowl in Thailand (Gallus gallus gallus) was evaluated with 29 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within subspecies and genetic differentiation between subspecies were estimated. The results showed that the 168 alleles were amplified with the number of alleles per locus from 2 to 13. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) of all loci were 0.5780 and 0.53, respectively. The mean numbers of effective alleles of red jungle fowl in China and red jungle fowl in Thailand were 5.55 and 6.38. The heterozygosity and the genetic diversity of the two subspecies were high. Genetic differentiation index (FST) of these populations was 0.194 (P<0.01). Reynolds' genetic distance and gene flow between the two populations were 0.157 and 1.040, respectively. Based on these results, genetic structure and significant genetic differentiation of red jungle fowl in China were different from red jungle fowl in Thailand. The results of this study did not support to identify these red jungle fowl subspecies as the same subspecies, but supported the theory that Chinese domestic fowls have independent origin.

  7. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; van Wijk, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias. PMID

  8. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to savemore » and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.« less

  9. CNO isotopes in red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    The production and distribution of the CNO nuclides is discussed in light of observed abundance ratios in red giants and in the interstellar medium. Isotope abundances have been measured in the atmospheres and in the recent ejecta of cool giants, including carbon stars, S-type stars and red supergiants as well as in oxygen-rich giants making their first ascent of the giant branch. Several of the observations suggest revision of currently accepted nuclear cross-sections and of the mixing processes operating in giant envelopes. By comparing red giant abundances with high-quality observations of the interstellar medium, conclusions are reached about the contribution of intermediate-mass stars to galactic nuclear evolution. The three oxygen isotopes, O-16, -17 and -18, are particularly valuable for such comparison because they reflect three different stages of stellar nucleosynthesis. One remarkable result comes from observations of O-17/O-18 in several classes of red giant stars. The observed range of values for red giants excludes the entire range of values seen in interstellar molecular clouds. Furthermore, both the observations of stars and interstellar clouds exclude the isotopic ratio found in the solar system.

  10. Facial Redness Increases Men's Perceived Healthiness and Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Thorstenson, Christopher A; Pazda, Adam D; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2017-06-01

    Past research has shown that peripheral and facial redness influences perceptions of attractiveness for men viewing women. The current research investigated whether a parallel effect is present when women rate men with varying facial redness. In four experiments, women judged the attractiveness of men's faces, which were presented with varying degrees of redness. We also examined perceived healthiness and other candidate variables as mediators of the red-attractiveness effect. The results show that facial redness positively influences ratings of men's attractiveness. Additionally, perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of this effect, independent of other potential mediator variables. The current research emphasizes facial coloration as an important feature of social judgments.

  11. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  12. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  13. Volume tables for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  14. Red Thread Found on Bermuda Grass

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1966-01-01

    Red thread fungus (Corticium fuciforme (Berk.) Wakef.) was observed in 1965 and 1966 on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) on lawns in Leland, Mississippi. Red thread is a serious disease on fescues but has not previously been reported on Bermuda grass.

  15. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-07

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Differential proteomic analysis of grapevine leaves by iTRAQ reveals responses to heat stress and subsequent recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High temperature is a major environmental factor limiting grape yield and affecting berry quality. Thermotolerance includes the direct response to heat stress and the ability to recover from heat stress. To better understand the mechanism of the thermotolerance of Vitis, we combined a physiological analysis with iTRAQ-based proteomics of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon, subjected to 43°C for 6 h, and then followed by recovery at 25/18°C. Results High temperature increased the concentrations of TBARS and inhibited electronic transport in photosynthesis apparatus, indicating that grape leaves were damaged by heat stress. However, these physiological changes rapidly returned to control levels during the subsequent recovery phase from heat stress. One hundred and seventy-four proteins were differentially expressed under heat stress and/or during the recovery phase, in comparison to unstressed controls, respectively. Stress and recovery conditions shared 42 proteins, while 113 and 103 proteins were respectively identified under heat stress and recovery conditions alone. Based on MapMan ontology, functional categories for these dysregulated proteins included mainly photosynthesis (about 20%), proteins (13%), and stress (8%). The subcellular localization using TargetP showed most proteins were located in the chloroplasts (34%), secretory pathways (8%) and mitochondrion (3%). Conclusion On the basis of these findings, we proposed that some proteins related to electron transport chain of photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes, HSPs and other stress response proteins, and glycolysis may play key roles in enhancing grapevine adaptation to and recovery capacity from heat stress. These results provide a better understanding of the proteins involved in, and mechanisms of thermotolerance in grapevines. PMID:24774513

  17. Linkage maps of grapevine displaying the chromosomal locations of 420 microsatellite markers and 82 markers for R-gene candidates.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, G; Cipriani, G; Adam-Blondon, A-F; Testolin, R

    2007-05-01

    Genetic maps functionally oriented towards disease resistance have been constructed in grapevine by analysing with a simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimation of linkage 502 markers including microsatellites and resistance gene analogs (RGAs). Mapping material consisted of two pseudo-testcrosses, 'Chardonnay' x 'Bianca' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' x '20/3' where the seed parents were Vitis vinifera genotypes and the male parents were Vitis hybrids carrying resistance to mildew diseases. Individual maps included 320-364 markers each. The simultaneous use of two mapping crosses made with two pairs of distantly related parents allowed mapping as much as 91% of the markers tested. The integrated map included 420 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers that identified 536 SSR loci and 82 RGA markers that identified 173 RGA loci. This map consisted of 19 linkage groups (LGs) corresponding to the grape haploid chromosome number, had a total length of 1,676 cM and a mean distance between adjacent loci of 3.6 cM. Single-locus SSR markers were randomly distributed over the map (CD = 1.12). RGA markers were found in 18 of the 19 LGs but most of them (83%) were clustered on seven LGs, namely groups 3, 7, 9, 12, 13, 18 and 19. Several RGA clusters mapped to chromosomal regions where phenotypic traits of resistance to fungal diseases such as downy mildew and powdery mildew, bacterial diseases such as Pierce's disease, and pests such as dagger and root-knot nematode, were previously mapped in different segregating populations. The high number of RGA markers integrated into this new map will help find markers linked to genetic determinants of different pest and disease resistances in grape.

  18. Evaluation of Gene Modification Strategies for the Development of Low-Alcohol-Wine Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Kutyna, D. R.; Solomon, M. R.; Black, C. A.; Borneman, A.; Henschke, P. A.; Pretorius, I. S.; Chambers, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO2. Yeast fermentative and flavor capacity forms the biotechnological basis of a wide range of alcohol-containing beverages. Largely as a result of consumer demand for improved flavor, the alcohol content of some beverages like wine has increased. However, a global trend has recently emerged toward lowering the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages. One option for decreasing ethanol concentration is to use yeast strains able to divert some carbon away from ethanol production. In the case of wine, we have generated and evaluated a large number of gene modifications that were predicted, or known, to impact ethanol formation. Using the same yeast genetic background, 41 modifications were assessed. Enhancing glycerol production by increasing expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, GPD1, was the most efficient strategy to lower ethanol concentration. However, additional modifications were needed to avoid negatively affecting wine quality. Two strains carrying several stable, chromosomally integrated modifications showed significantly lower ethanol production in fermenting grape juice. Strain AWRI2531 was able to decrease ethanol concentrations from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 13.2% (vol/vol), whereas AWRI2532 lowered ethanol content from 15.6% (vol/vol) to 12% (vol/vol) in both Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon juices. Both strains, however, produced high concentrations of acetaldehyde and acetoin, which negatively affect wine flavor. Further modifications of these strains allowed reduction of these metabolites. PMID:22729542

  19. Generic and sequence-variant specific molecular assays for the detection of the highly variable Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Pearson, Michael N

    2013-04-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is an economically important virus, which is found in all grapevine growing regions worldwide. Its accurate detection in nursery and field samples is of high importance for certification schemes and disease management programmes. To reduce false negatives that can be caused by sequence variability, a new universal primer pair was designed against a divergent sequence data set, targeting the open reading frame 4 (heat shock protein 70 homologue gene), and optimised for conventional one-step RT-PCR and one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assays. In addition, primer pairs for the simultaneous detection of specific GLRaV-3 variants from groups 1, 2, 6 (specifically NZ-1) and the outlier NZ2 variant, and the generic detection of variants from groups 1 to 5 were designed and optimised as a conventional one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay using the plant nad5 gene as an internal control (i.e. one-step hexaplex RT-PCR). Results showed that the generic and variant specific assays detected in vitro RNA transcripts from a range of 1×10(1)-1×10(8) copies of amplicon per μl diluted in healthy total RNA from Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, the assays were employed effectively to screen 157 germplasm and 159 commercial field samples. Thus results demonstrate that the GLRaV-3 generic and variant-specific assays are prospective tools that will be beneficial for certification schemes and disease management programmes, as well as biological and epidemiological studies of the divergent GLRaV-3 populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Red-koji fermented red ginseng ameliorates high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Man; Yi, Seong Joon; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2013-10-30

    Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. In this study, we investigated the effects of red-koji fermented red ginseng (fRG) on high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to those of non-fermented red ginseng (RG). fRG (500, 250 or 125 mg/kg), RG (250 mg/kg), simvastatin (10 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg) and metformin (250 mg/kg) were orally administered from 1 week after initiation of HFD supply for 84 days. The diameter of adipocytes in periovarian and abdominal fat pads and the thickness of the abdominal fat were significantly decreased by fRG treatment, while HFD-mediated weight gain was partly alleviated by fRG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, biochemical and histomorphometrical analyses clearly indicated that fRG significantly inhibited HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy and nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. More favorable pharmacological effects on HFD-mediated metabolic disorders were also observed with fRG compared to an equal dose of RG. This finding provides direct evidence that the pharmacological activities of RG were enhanced by red-koji fermentation, and fRG could be a neutraceutical resource for the alleviation of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders.

  1. Study on dealkalization and settling performance of red mud.

    PubMed

    Luo, Muxi; Qi, Xuejiao; Zhang, Yurui; Ren, Yufei; Tong, Jiacheng; Chen, Zining; Hou, Yiming; Yeerkebai, Nuerxiate; Wang, Hongtao; Feng, Shijin; Li, Fengting

    2017-01-01

    At present, the dealkalization and comprehensive utilization of red mud is a worldwide problem. Studies on the settling performance and phase transformation of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H 2 O leaching are limited. In this study, the characteristics of red mud were systematically analyzed. The average sizes of graded and initial red mud were 4.11 and 9.20 μm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectra (XRF), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) results indicated the different mineralogical phases, composition, and thermal behavior. The addition of HCl could neutralize the alkalization in the red mud slurry, and CaO could replace the Na and K. Notably, the pH of the red mud slurry had no obvious change with the increase in water washing times in a certain pH. Interestingly, soluble Al and Fe were not detected in the HCl-red mud and CaO-red mud. In addition, the settling ratio was used to express the settling performance of the red mud slurry. Their interaction mechanisms were proposed, which may include phase transformation and the changing of the size and surface area. The research provided a better understanding of the phase transformation and settling performance in the treatment of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H 2 O leaching.

  2. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    PubMed

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  3. The Nature of Red-Sequence Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashur, Lane; Barkhouse, Wayne; Sultanova, Madina; Kalawila Vithanage, Sandanuwa; Archer, Haylee; Foote, Gregory; Mathew, Elijah; Rude, Cody; Lopez-Cruz, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of the red-sequence galaxy population from a sample of 57 low-redshift galaxy clusters observed using the KPNO 0.9m telescope and 74 clusters from the WINGS dataset, indicates that a small fraction of red-sequence galaxies have a morphology consistent with spiral systems. For spiral galaxies to acquire the color of elliptical/S0s at a similar luminosity, they must either have been stripped of their star-forming gas at an earlier epoch, or contain a larger than normal fraction of dust. To test these ideas we have compiled a sample of red-sequence spiral galaxies and examined their infrared properties as measured by 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel. These IR data allows us to estimate the amount of dust in each of our red-sequence spiral galaxies. We compare the estimated dust mass in each of these red-sequence late-type galaxies with spiral galaxies located in the same cluster field but having colors inconsistent with the red-sequence. We thus provide a statistical measure to discriminate between purely passive spiral galaxy evolution and dusty spirals to explain the presence of these late-type systems in cluster red-sequences.

  4. High-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral reflectance study of selected lunar 'red spots', highland areas characterized by an absorption in the ultraviolet relative to the visible was conducted. Some red spots were suggested to be the sites of ancient highland volcanism. High-resolution spectral data of eight red spots on the western portion of the moon over the wavelength region 0.39-0.82 micron were obtained. Much spectral variation among these red spots in the magnitude as well as the wavelength position of the ultraviolet absorption were found. Spectral structure at visible and near-infrared wavelength were also identified. These spectral differences indicate that red spots do not have a single mineralogical composition, which in turn suggests that red spots may have multiple origins. Additional imaging spectroscopic observations were taken of the Herigonius red spot, a morphologically complex region northeast of Mare Humorum. These data reveal significant spectral differences among the various morphological units within the Herigonius red spot. Although some of these are likely due to the effects of the maturation process, others appear to reflect differences in mineral abundances and composition.

  5. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  6. Breeding red-winged blackbirds in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Know, C.J.; Stickley, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    Ability to establish and maintain self-sustaining breeding colonies of captive Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) would facilitate long-term studies designed to develop methods for alleviating blackbird depredations as well as provide basic life history data. To be most useful, the colonies should be established in pens near laboratory facilities; this frequently involves putting colonies in unnatural nesting habitat. This paper describes a 5-year effort at Gainesville, Florida, to induce captive Red-wings, most of them taken from the wild as nestlings and then hand-reared in our laboratory, to breed regularly under such conditions. Except for an undocumented report of two young fully reared at the London Zoo in 1913 (Prestwick per. comm.), captive Red-wings have not been induced to breed successfully under avicultural conditions. In 1969, captive Red-wings, wild-trapped as adults, were induced to breed and to rear young successfully in large pens over normal marsh and hayfield nesting habitat in Ohio (Jackson pers. comm.). Earlier, a pair of Red-wings that had been caught as adults and kept together for a year hatched two young in a 40- X 20- X 6-foot cage in Massachusetts (Wetherbee 1960, Wilson Bull. 74: 90), but the nestlings died soon after hatching.

  7. Red Storm usage model :Version 1.12.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jefferson, Karen L.; Sturtevant, Judith E.

    Red Storm is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The Red Storm Usage Model (RSUM) documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY05 Tri-Lab Level II Limited Availability Red Storm User Environment Milestone and the FY05 SNL Level II Limited Availability Red Storm Platform Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),more » and SNL. Additionally, the Red Storm Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the Tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the ASC community and have been updated in FY05 to reflect the community's needs. For each section of the RSUM, Appendix I maps the ACE requirements to the Limited Availability User Environment capabilities and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met in that particular section. The Red Storm Usage Model, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and vetted throughout the Tri-Lab community.« less

  8. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Red rainbows at sunset/sunrise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The rainbow model deveeloped at CEPAL is based on the Airy theory. The outputs show that a pure red rainbow could only observed from a hill or a mountain when the sun is below the horizon. When the sun is on the horizon, there should be a juxtaposition of a red band on the outside and of a yellow band on the inside (upper figures). However, observers report pure red bows at sea level (lower left figure). In these rare cases, it is possible to still see the sun after it has set. As sunlight passes through more and more dense atmosphere at sunset the light slows and bends closer and closer toward the normal. When the eye traces the light ray it appears to be higher in the sky (lower right figure).

  10. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  11. Red warning for air pollution in China: Exploring residents' perceptions of the first two red warnings in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hanping; Wang, Fangping; Niu, Chence; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xiaoxue

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution early warnings have been issued in China to mitigate the effects of high pollution days. Public perceptions and views about early warning signals can affect individual behaviors and play a major role in the public's response to air pollution risks. This study examined public attitudes and responses to the first two red warnings for air pollution in Beijing in 2015. An online survey was sent out, and 664 respondents (response rate = 90%) provided their perspectives on the red warnings. Descriptive statistics, sign tests and binary logit models were used to analyze the data. More than half of the respondents reported that their life and work were affected by the red warning in December 2015. In contrast to their perceptions about the second red warning period, the public thought that the first red warning should have been issued earlier and that the number of consecutive days of warnings should have been reduced. The respondents also recommended that instead of reducing the number of red warnings, the red warning emergency measures should be adjusted. Specifically, the public preferred the installation of air purifiers in schools rather than closing schools and strengthening road flushing and dust pollution controls over restrictions on driving. Data analyses were conducted to examine the affected groups and different groups' perceptions of the necessity of implementing emergency measures. The results indicated that men and more educated respondents were more likely to be affected by driving limitations, and men were less supportive of these limitations. The age and education of respondents were significantly negatively associated with the opinion that schools should be closed, whereas wealthier respondents were more supportive of school closings. The finding of a negative attitude among the public toward the first two red warnings may be used to help local governments modify protective measures and pollution mitigation initiatives to increase

  12. 75 FR 9323 - American Red Cross Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Part III The President Proclamation 8478--American Red Cross Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... American Red Cross Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation From... Red Cross Month, we honor the organizations across our country that contribute to our Nation's ongoing...

  13. Red cell exchange to mitigate a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in a patient transfused with incompatible red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Irani, Mehraboon S; Karafin, Matthew S; Ernster, Luke

    2017-02-01

    A red cell exchange was performed to prevent a potentially fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction in a patient with anti-e who was transfused with e-antigen unscreened red blood cells during liver transplant surgery. A 64-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C was scheduled to receive a liver transplant. She had a previously documented anti-e, an antibody to the Rh(e)-antigen that is known to cause delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. Pre-operatively and intra-operatively, she had massive hemorrhage which required transfusion of 34 e-antigen unscreened red blood cells (RBCs) most of which were incompatible. The hemoglobin dropped from 9.1 g/dL on post-operative day (POD)1 to 6.6 g/dL on POD6, with no evidence of blood loss. The bilirubin also increased from 5.0 mg/dL on POD 1 to 11.0 mg/dL on POD 6. As she was also becoming more hemodynamically unstable, a red cell exchange with 10 units of e-negative RBCs was performed on POD 6. She improved clinically and was extubated the following day. A few residual transfused e-positive red cells were detected after the red cell exchange until POD 13. This case illustrates how a red cell exchange can mitigate the potentially harmful effects of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by red cell antibodies. With massive intraoperative blood loss it may not be possible to have antigen-negative RBCs immediately available, particularly for the e-antigen, which is present in 98% of the donor population. The ability to perform such a procedure may be life-saving in such patients. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:59-61, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Red light running : a policy review

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-01

    There are more than 100,000 red light running crashes per year in the U.S., resulting in some 90,000 people injured and 1,000 people killed. More than half of red light running-related fatalities are pedestrians and occupants in other vehicles who ar...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  20. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p<0.0001) and affected color traits. Lightness of emulsified pork sausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p<0.01), whereas lightness with red beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (p<0.05). Redness dramatically increased with red beet powder (p<0.0001). Color by sensory evaluation also showed a significant effect from red beet addition (p<0.05), whereas the other sensory properties such as flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not affected by the addition of red beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products. PMID:26761285

  1. The NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS and REDS-II): Twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A.

    2012-01-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989–2001, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), conducted from 2004–2012, were National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The three major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as XMRV. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of HIV, HTLV I/II, HCV, HBV, WNV, CMV, HHV-8, B19V, malaria, CJD, influenza, and T. cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized: blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors’ perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, two large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these two REDS programs. In 2011, a new seven year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III), was launched. REDS-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting, and adds a third country, South Africa, to the international program. PMID:22633182

  2. C-RED One and C-RED2: SWIR high-performance cameras using Saphira e-APD and Snake InGaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gach, Jean-Luc; Feautrier, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Clop, Fabien; Lemarchand, Stephane; Carmignani, Thomas; Wanwanscappel, Yann; Boutolleau, David

    2018-02-01

    After the development of the OCAM2 EMCCD fast visible camera dedicated to advanced adaptive optics wavefront sensing, First Light Imaging moved to the SWIR fast cameras with the development of the C-RED One and the C-RED 2 cameras. First Light Imaging's C-RED One infrared camera is capable of capturing up to 3500 full frames per second with a subelectron readout noise and very low background. C-RED One is based on the last version of the SAPHIRA detector developed by Leonardo UK. This breakthrough has been made possible thanks to the use of an e-APD infrared focal plane array which is a real disruptive technology in imagery. C-RED One is an autonomous system with an integrated cooling system and a vacuum regeneration system. It operates its sensor with a wide variety of read out techniques and processes video on-board thanks to an FPGA. We will show its performances and expose its main features. In addition to this project, First Light Imaging developed an InGaAs 640x512 fast camera with unprecedented performances in terms of noise, dark and readout speed based on the SNAKE SWIR detector from Sofradir. The camera was called C-RED 2. The C-RED 2 characteristics and performances will be described. The C-RED One project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement N° 673944. The C-RED 2 development is supported by the "Investments for the future" program and the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Region, in the frame of the CPER.

  3. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  4. The red and blue galaxy populations in the GOODS field: evidence for an excess of red dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimbeni, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Trevese, D.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the evolution of the galaxy population up to z˜ 3 as a function of its colour properties. In particular, luminosity functions and luminosity densities were derived as a function of redshift for the blue/late and red/early populations. Methods: We use data from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, which have typical magnitude limits z850≤ 26 and K_s≤ 23.5 for most of the sample. About 8% of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts; the remaining have well calibrated photometric redshifts derived from the extremely wide multi-wavelength coverage in 14 bands (from the U band to the Spitzer 8~ μm band). We have derived a catalogue of galaxies complete in the rest-frame B-band, which has been divided into two subsamples according to their rest-frame U-V colour (or derived specific star formation rate) properties. Results: We confirm a bimodality in the U-V colour and specific star formation rate of the galaxy sample up to z˜ 3. This bimodality is used to compute the luminosity functions of the blue/late and red/early subsamples. The luminosity functions of the blue/late and total samples are well represented by steep Schechter functions evolving in luminosity with increasing redshifts. The volume density of the luminosity functions of the red/early populations decreases with increasing redshift. The shape of the red/early luminosity functions shows an excess of faint red dwarfs with respect to the extrapolation of a flat Schechter function and can be represented by the sum of two Schechter functions. Our model for galaxy formation in the hierarchical clustering scenario, which also includes external feedback due to a diffuse UV background, shows a general broad agreement with the luminosity functions of both populations, the larger discrepancies being present at the faint end for the red population. Hints on the nature of the red dwarf population are given on the basis of their stellar mass and spatial distributions.

  5. Red cell alloimmunization is associated with development of autoantibodies and increased red cell transfusion requirements in myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Deepak; Kutyna, Monika M.; Chhetri, Rakchha; Wee, Li Yan A.; Hague, Sophia; Nath, Lakshmi; Nath, Shriram V.; Sinha, Romi; Wickham, Nicholas; Lewis, Ian D.; Ross, David M.; Bardy, Peter G.; To, Luen Bik; Reynolds, John; Wood, Erica M.; Roxby, David J.; Hiwase, Devendra K.

    2017-01-01

    Up to 90% of patients with a myelodysplastic syndrome require red blood cell transfusion; nevertheless, comprehensive data on red cell alloimmunization in such patients are limited. This study evaluates the incidence and clinical impact of red cell alloimmunization in a large cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome registered in the statewide South Australian-MDS registry. The median age of the 817 patients studied was 73 years, and 66% were male. The cumulative incidence of alloimmunization was 11%. Disease-modifying therapy was associated with a lower risk of alloimmunization while alloimmunization was significantly higher in patients with a revised International Prognostic Scoring System classification of Very Low, Low or Intermediate risk compared to those with a High or Very High risk (P=0.03). Alloantibodies were most commonly directed against antigens in the Rh (54%) and Kell (24%) systems. Multiple alloantibodies were present in 49% of alloimmunized patients. Although 73% of alloimmunized patients developed alloantibodies during the period in which they received their first 20 red cell units, the total number of units transfused was significantly higher in alloimmunized patients than in non-alloimmunized patients (90±100 versus 30±52; P<0.0001). In individual patients, red cell transfusion intensity increased significantly following alloimmunization (2.8±1.3 versus 4.1±2.0; P<0.0001). A significantly higher proportion of alloimmunized patients than non-alloimmunized patients had detectable autoantibodies (65% versus 18%; P<0.0001) and the majority of autoantibodies were detected within a short period of alloimmunization. In conclusion, this study characterizes alloimmunization in a large cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and demonstrates a signficant increase in red cell transfusion requirements following alloimmunization, most probably due to development of additional alloantibodies and autoantibodies, resulting in subclinical

  6. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  7. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  9. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  10. Normal yield tables for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington; Floyd A. Johnson; George R. Staebler; William J. Lloyd

    1960-01-01

    Increasing interest in the management of red alder (Alnus rubra) has created a need for reliable yield information. Existing yield tables for red alder have been very useful as interim sources of information, but they are generally inadequate for current and prospective management needs. The advisory committee for the Station's Olympia...

  11. Evaluating the use of red light running photographic enforcement using collisions and red light running violations ; Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-01

    The issue of red light running (RLR) has long been a problem throughout the United States. : There is considerable debate within the general public and public agencies regarding the use of : photographic enforcement to deter red light violations. Man...

  12. Certification procedures for nuclear fast red (Kernechtrot), CI 60760.

    PubMed

    Frank, M; Dapson, Rw; Wickersham, Tw; Kiernan, Ja

    2007-02-01

    Nuclear fast red (CI 60760), also known as Kernechtrot, is commonly used in conjunction with an excess of aluminum ions as a red nuclear counterstain following histochemical procedures that yield blue products. The dye has also been used as a histochemical and colorimetric reagent for calcium. Unsatisfactory samples of nuclear fast red are encountered occasionally, and confusion has resulted from applying the name of the dye to neutral red (CI 50040), an unrelated compound with different properties. Tests for the identity and performance of nuclear fast red have been developed in the laboratory of the Biological Stain Commission. The Commission will now accept samples submitted by vendors for certification. We describe here the spectrophotometric, chromatographic and biological staining methods that are used to identify and test nuclear fast red.

  13. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    2-4 to 2-5. 15 Gregory Fontenot, “Seeing Red: Building a Red Team Capability for the Blue Force,” Military Review 85, no. 5 (2005): 7. 5 U.S...44 Slim, 551. 45 Ronald Lewin, Slim: The Standardbearer (London: Leo Cooper, Ltd.; Octopus Publishing Group, 1976), 79. Lewin notes...protecting his regime against other opportunistic external and internal threats.168 The result of Saddam’s threat analysis was his “ ring ” defense

  14. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  15. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially.more » Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.« less

  16. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  17. Success of Underplanting Northern Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney

    2004-01-01

    We summarize results of the growth and survival of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings 11 years after planting in shelterwoods in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas. Shelterwood overstories were harvested 3 years after underplanting > 4,000 northern red oak seedlings. Woody vegetation that was competing with planted seedlings received two...

  18. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  19. Planets Under a Red Sun Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-08

    This artist concept illustrates a young, red dwarf star surrounded by three planets. NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is helping to identify young, red dwarf stars that are close to us by detecting their ultraviolet light.

  20. Current husbandry situation of red pandas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ai; Ogura, Tadatoshi

    2018-03-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered semi-arboreal folivore with a specialized diet of bamboo leaves. Zoos worldwide maintain red pandas under a variety of housing environments and husbandry procedures that may affect the reproductive success and longevity of captive red pandas. The aims of the present study were to investigate how red pandas are kept in Japan and to obtain useful insights to increase their longevity by comparing the results from a questionnaire sent to Japanese zoos and those from a previous survey conducted in other countries. We received responses from 42 out of 52 zoos, holding a total of 219 individual red pandas, in Japan. The age-sex distribution indicated that red panda populations in Japan need close attention to be maintained sustainably. Of the husbandry aspects surveyed, the number of individuals in the same zoo, enclosure size, and the frequency of bamboo feeding factors indicated to affect reproductive success. Frequent monitoring of body weight, implementation of husbandry training, and bamboo feeding were also suggested as the reasons for the longevity of red pandas in Japan. Zoos were provided with sufficient physical features in on-exhibit enclosures, close monitoring for health status, and proper feeding, but other aspects of husbandry such as enclosure size and structures in off-exhibit spaces were insufficient and might compromise animal welfare. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Inhibitory effect of red koji extracts on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Yun-Chen; Ho, Ja-An Annie; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2003-07-16

    Red koji has been recognized as a cholesterol-lowering diet supplement because of it contains fungi metabolites, monacolins, which reduce cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. In this study, water extracts of red koji were loaded onto a C(18) cartridge, and the acetonitrile eluate was collected as test fraction. Red koji water extracts and its C(18) cartridge acetonitrile eluent had total phenols concentrations of 5.57 and 1.89 mg/g of red koji and condensed tannins concentrations of 2.71 and 1.20 mg/g of red koji, respectively. Both exhibited an antioxidant activity and an inhibitory activity to mushroom tyrosinase. The higher antioxidant activity of the red koji acetonitrile eluent was due to the existence of a high percentage of condensed tannins. The results from the kinetic study for inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by red koji extracts showed that the compounds in the extracts competitively inhibited the oxidation of tyrosine catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase with an ID(50) of 5.57 mg/mL.

  2. Phototoxic effects of lysosome-associated genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O.; Ryumina, Alina P.; Boulina, Maria E.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Zagaynova, Elena V.; Bogdanova, Ekaterina A.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.

    2014-07-01

    KillerRed is a unique phototoxic red fluorescent protein that can be used to induce local oxidative stress by green-orange light illumination. Here we studied phototoxicity of KillerRed targeted to cytoplasmic surface of lysosomes via fusion with Rab7, a small GTPase that is known to be attached to membranes of late endosomes and lysosomes. It was found that lysosome-associated KillerRed ensures efficient light-induced cell death similar to previously reported mitochondria- and plasma membrane-localized KillerRed. Inhibitory analysis demonstrated that lysosomal cathepsins play an important role in the manifestation of KillerRed-Rab7 phototoxicity. Time-lapse monitoring of cell morphology, membrane integrity, and nuclei shape allowed us to conclude that KillerRed-Rab7-mediated cell death occurs via necrosis at high light intensity or via apoptosis at lower light intensity. Potentially, KillerRed-Rab7 can be used as an optogenetic tool to direct target cell populations to either apoptosis or necrosis.

  3. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  4. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  5. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Project RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-09-01

    It 0,Il 1IC1I lll Examination of C’urrentI,,,,,,,,[ I prations IIR / IE IP𔃻 0 R IT - PROJECT RED HORSE 1 SEPTEMBER 1969 HQ PACAF Directorate...3 CHAPTER II RED HORSE ORGANIZATIONS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA .................. 5 Introduction...RED HORSE Combat Defense Teams....................... ...... 59 III. 555th CES (HR) Projects...................................... 62 IV. 820th CES

  6. A conceptual framework for dynamic extension of the red clearance interval as a countermeasure for red-light-running.

    PubMed

    Gates, Timothy J; Noyce, David A

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript describes the development and evaluation of a conceptual framework for real-time operation of dynamic on-demand extension of the red clearance interval as a countermeasure for red-light-running. The framework includes a decision process for determining, based on the real-time status of vehicles arriving at the intersection, when extension of the red clearance interval should occur and the duration of each extension. A zonal classification scheme was devised to assess whether an approaching vehicle requires additional time to safely clear the intersection based on the remaining phase time, type of vehicle, current speed, and current distance from the intersection. Expected performance of the conceptual framework was evaluated through modeling of replicated field operations using vehicular event data collected as part of this research. The results showed highly accurate classification of red-light-running vehicles needing additional clearance time and relatively few false extension calls from stopping vehicles, thereby minimizing the expected impacts to signal and traffic operations. Based on the recommended parameters, extension calls were predicted to occur once every 26.5cycles. Assuming a 90scycle, 1.5 extensions per hour were expected per approach, with an estimated extension time of 2.30s/h. Although field implementation was not performed, it is anticipated that long-term reductions in targeted red-light-running conflicts and crashes will likely occur if red clearance interval extension systems are implemented at locations where start-up delay on the conflicting approach is generally minimal, such as intersections with lag left-turn phasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of vine training and sunlight exposure on the 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines content in musts and wines from the Vitis vinifera variety cabernet sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Sala, Cristina; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep; Zamora, Fernando

    2004-06-02

    The influence of vine training and sunlight exposure on the 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines contents in musts and wines was studied by means of two previously reported methods based on headspace solid-phase micro-extraction. Experimental samples were monitored throughout grape ripening and wine making. 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine were identified. The 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine content decreased throughout grape ripening in all of the sample types studied. After 1 day of maceration with the skins, there was an increase, but after racking, no further increase was observed. No significant differences between samples were found during grape ripening. Wines from goblet-trained vines, however, contained significantly less 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Clusters protected from sunlight since the beginning of the veraison resulted in wines with a significantly lower content of this compound than the control samples.

  8. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Risch, Thomas S; Loeb, Susan C

    2004-12-31

    Risch, Thomas S., and Susan C. Loeb. 2004. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 504-505. Abstract: Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a significant negative impact on red-cockades woodpeckers (Picoides borealsi) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southernmore » flying squirrels directly usurp red-cockaded woodpecker s from cavities, or simply occupy cavities previously abandoned by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Ridley et al. (1997) observed the displacement of a red-cockaded woodpecker by a southern flying squirrel that was released after being captured. Observations of nocturnal displacements of red-cockaded woodpeckers by flying squirrels, however, are lacking. Due to the difficulty of observing interspecific interactions, determining the mechanisims by which flying squirrels impact red-cockaded woodpeckers is problematic.« less

  9. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  10. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-11-02

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms.

  11. 50 CFR 648.263 - Red crab possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red crab possession and landing... Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.263 Red crab possession and landing restrictions. (a) Vessels issued limited access red crab permits. (1) [Reserved] (2) Conversion to whole crab...

  12. Stratigraphic reconnaissance of the Middle Jurassic Red Glacier Formation, Tuxedni Group, at Red Glacier, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, David L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are implementing ongoing programs to characterize the petroleum potential of Cook Inlet basin. Since 2009 this program has included work on the Mesozoic stratigraphy of lower Cook Inlet, including the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group between Tuxedni and Iniskin bays (LePain and others, 2013; Stanley and others, 2013; fig. 5-1). The basal unit in the group, the Red Glacier Formation (fig. 5-2), is thought to be the principal source rock for oil produced in upper Cook Inlet, and available geochemical data support this contention (Magoon and Anders, 1992; Magoon, 1994). Despite its economic significance very little has been published on the formation since Detterman and Hartsock’s (1966) seminal contribution on the geology of the Iniskin–Tuxedni area nearly 50 years ago. Consequently its stratigraphy, contact relations with bounding formations, and source rock characteristics are poorly known. During the 2014 field season, a nearly continuous stratigraphic section through the Red Glacier Formation in its type area at Red Glacier was located and measured to characterize sedimentary facies and to collect a suite of samples for analyses of biostratigraphy, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, and sandstone composition (fig. 5-3).The poorly known nature of the Red Glacier Formation is likely due to its remote location, steep terrain, and the fact that the type section is split into two segments that are more than 3 km apart. The lower 375 m segment of the formation is on the ridge between Red Glacier and Lateral Glacier and the upper 1,009 m segment is on the ridge between Red Glacier and Boulder Creek (fig. 5-3). Structural complications in the area add to the difficulty in understanding how these two segments fit together.

  13. Red cell surface changes in cold agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Salsbury, A. J.; Clarke, J. A.; Shand, W. S.

    1968-01-01

    Surface changes in red blood cells undergoing cold agglutination have been investigated using the Cambridge Stereoscan electron microscope. On incubation of red cells with a cold agglutinin of anti-I specificity at 4°C, circular shadows on the red cell membrane developed within 2 min. At the same time the membrane showed a granularity and processes began to develop on the surface. These processes increased in length, the processes of contiguous cells became interlinked and agglutination was complete after incubation of 1 hr. On warming an agglutinated specimen, the process was reversed with separation of red cells and retraction of the finger-like processes to yield discrete red cells of normal appearance. The addition of heparin in vivo prevented agglutination but did not inhibit surface changes completely. Complement appeared to play no part in the production of cold agglutination due to these antibodies or in the reversal of agglutination by warming. The significance of the surface changes described in relation to previous information on the mechanism of agglutination, has been discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5655472

  14. Red fluorescence in reef fish: A novel signalling mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, Nico K; Anthes, Nils; Hart, Nathan S; Herler, Jürgen; Meixner, Alfred J; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Schulte, Gregor; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Sprenger, Dennis; Wucherer, Matthias F

    2008-01-01

    Background At depths below 10 m, reefs are dominated by blue-green light because seawater selectively absorbs the longer, 'red' wavelengths beyond 600 nm from the downwelling sunlight. Consequently, the visual pigments of many reef fish are matched to shorter wavelengths, which are transmitted better by water. Combining the typically poor long-wavelength sensitivity of fish eyes with the presumed lack of ambient red light, red light is currently considered irrelevant for reef fish. However, previous studies ignore the fact that several marine organisms, including deep sea fish, produce their own red luminescence and are capable of seeing it. Results We here report that at least 32 reef fishes from 16 genera and 5 families show pronounced red fluorescence under natural, daytime conditions at depths where downwelling red light is virtually absent. Fluorescence was confirmed by extensive spectrometry in the laboratory. In most cases peak emission was around 600 nm and fluorescence was associated with guanine crystals, which thus far were known for their light reflecting properties only. Our data indicate that red fluorescence may function in a context of intraspecific communication. Fluorescence patterns were typically associated with the eyes or the head, varying substantially even between species of the same genus. Moreover red fluorescence was particularly strong in fins that are involved in intraspecific signalling. Finally, microspectrometry in one fluorescent goby, Eviota pellucida, showed a long-wave sensitivity that overlapped with its own red fluorescence, indicating that this species is capable of seeing its own fluorescence. Conclusion We show that red fluorescence is widespread among marine fishes. Many features indicate that it is used as a private communication mechanism in small, benthic, pair- or group-living fishes. Many of these species show quite cryptic colouration in other parts of the visible spectrum. High inter-specific variation in red

  15. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  17. Saturn's red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This false color image, taken on November 6, 1980 from a distance of about 8 million kilometers, shows somewhat similar, although much smaller, red spot on Saturn. False color was used to make the faint spot more visible.

  18. Anger as "seeing red": evidence for a perceptual association.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor representation theory contends that people conceptualise their non-perceptual states (e.g., emotion concepts) in perceptual terms. The present research extends this theory to colour manipulations and discrete emotional representations. Two experiments (N = 265) examined whether a red font colour would facilitate anger conceptions, consistent with metaphors referring to anger to "seeing red". Evidence for an implicit anger-red association was robust and emotionally discrete in nature. Further, Experiment 2 examined the directionality of such associations and found that they were asymmetrical: Anger categorisations were faster when a red font colour was involved, but redness categorisations were not faster when an anger-related word was involved. Implications for multiple literatures are discussed.

  19. High spectral resolution spectroscopy of the SiO fundamental lines in red giants and red supergiants with VLT/VISIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The mass-loss mechanism in red giants and red supergiants is not yet understood well. The SiO fundamental lines near 8 μm are potentially useful for probing the outer atmosphere, which is essential for clarifying the mass-loss mechanism. However, these lines have been little explored until now. Aims: We present high spectral resolution spectroscopic observations of the SiO fundamental lines near 8.1 μm in 16 bright red giants and red supergiants. Our sample consists of seven normal (i.e., non-Mira) K-M giants (from K1.5 to M6.5), three Mira stars, three optically bright red supergiants, two dusty red supergiants, and the enigmatic object GCIRS3 near the Galactic center. Methods: Our program stars were observed between 8.088 μm and 8.112 μm with a spectral resolution of 30 000 using VLT/VISIR. Results: We detected SiO fundamental lines in all of our program stars except for GCIRS3. The SiO lines in normal K and M giants as well as optically bright (i.e., not dusty) red supergiants do not show P-Cyg profiles or blueshifts, which means the absence of systematic outflows in the SiO line forming region. We detected P-Cyg profiles in the SiO lines in the dusty red supergiants VY CMa and VX Sgr, with the latter object being a new detection. These SiO lines originate in the outflowing gas with the thermal dust continuum emission seen as the background. The outflow velocities of the SiO line forming region in VY CMa and VX Sgr are estimated to be 27 km s-1 and 17 km s-1, respectively. We derived basic stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, luminosity, and mass) for the normal K-M giants and optically bright red supergiants in our sample and compared the observed VISIR spectra with synthetic spectra predicted from MARCS photospheric models. Most of the SiO lines observed in the program stars warmer than ~3400 K are reasonably reproduced by the MARCS models, which allowed us to estimate the silicon abundance as well as the 28Si/29Si and 28Si

  20. Two species in one ecosystem: management of northern bobwhite and red-cockaded woodpecker in the Red Hills

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; William E. Palmer

    2005-01-01

    Sport hunting for Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) is the reason that approximately 300,000 acres of semi-wild lands still exist in the Red Hills region of north Florida and south Georgia. Use of fire for management and relatively large (400 to 4,000 ha), contiguous land ownerships permitted populations of bobwhite and Red-cockaded Woodpecker...

  1. Training Course on the Marine Ecology of the Red Sea. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on the marine ecology of the Red Sea designed by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) in collaboration with the Marine Science Department of UNESCO for the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). It was hosted by the Marine Science Station,…

  2. Far-red light is needed for efficient photochemistry and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shuyang; van Iersel, Marc W

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of monochromatic light to drive photosynthesis drops rapidly at wavelengths longer than 685nm. The photosynthetic efficiency of these longer wavelengths can be improved by adding shorter wavelength light, a phenomenon known as the Emerson enhancement effect. The reverse effect, the enhancement of photosynthesis under shorter wavelength light by longer wavelengths, however, has not been well studied and is often thought to be insignificant. We quantified the effect of adding far-red light (peak at 735nm) to red/blue or warm-white light on the photosynthetic efficiency of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Adding far-red light immediately increased quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ PSII ) of lettuce by an average of 6.5 and 3.6% under red/blue and warm-white light, respectively. Similar or greater increases in Φ PSII were observed after 20min of exposure to far-red light. This longer-term effect of far-red light on Φ PSII was accompanied by a reduction in non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ), indicating that far-red light reduced the dissipation of absorbed light as heat. The increase in Φ PSII and complementary decrease in NPQ is presumably due to preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) by far-red light, which leads to faster re-oxidization of the plastoquinone pool. This facilitates reopening of PSII reaction centers, enabling them to use absorbed photons more efficiently. The increase in Φ PSII by far-red light was associated with an increase in net photosynthesis (P n ). The stimulatory effect of far-red light increased asymptotically with increasing amounts of far-red. Overall, our results show that far-red light can increase the photosynthetic efficiency of shorter wavelength light that over-excites PSII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene profiling of the red light signalling pathways in roots.

    PubMed

    Molas, Maria Lia; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2006-01-01

    Red light, acting through the phytochromes, controls numerous aspects of plant development. Many of the signal transduction elements downstream of the phytochromes have been identified in the aerial portions of the plant; however, very few elements in red-light signalling have been identified specifically for roots. Gene profiling studies using microarrays and quantitative Real-Time PCR were performed to characterize gene expression changes in roots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. Several factors acting downstream of phytochromes in red-light signalling in roots were identified. Some of the genes found to be differentially expressed in this study have already been characterized in the red-light-signalling pathway for whole plants. For example, PHYTOCHROME KINASE 1 (PKS1), LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), and GIGANTEA (GI) were all significantly up-regulated in roots of seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. The up-regulation of SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A RESPONSES 1 (SPA1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1-like (COP1-like) genes suggests that the PHYA-mediated pathway was attenuated by red light. In addition, genes involved in lateral root and root hair formation, root plastid development, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and hormone signalling were also regulated by exposure to red light. Interestingly, members of the RPT2/NPH3 (ROOT PHOTOTROPIC 2/NON PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3) family, which have been shown to mediate blue-light-induced phototropism, were also differentially regulated in roots in red light. Therefore, these results suggest that red and blue light pathways interact in roots of seedlings and that many elements involved in red-light-signalling found in the aerial portions of the plant are differentially expressed in roots within 1 h of red light exposure.

  4. Destruction of newly released red blood cells in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Udden, M. M.; Huntoon, C. L.; Driscoll, T.

    1996-01-01

    Space flight results in a rapid change in total blood volume, plasma volume, and red blood cell mass because the space to contain blood is decreased. The plasma volume and total blood volume decreases during the first hours in space and remain at a decreased level for the remainder of the flight. During the first several hours following return to earth, plasma volume and total blood volume increase to preflight levels. During the first few days in space recently produced red blood cells disappear from the blood resulting in a decrease in red blood cell mass of 10-15%. Red cells 12 d old or older survive normally and production of new cells continues at near preflight levels. After the first few days in space, the red cell mass is stable at the decreased level. Following return to earth the hemoglobin and red blood cell mass concentrations decrease reflecting the increase in plasma volume. The erythropoietin levels increase responding to "postflight anemia"; red cell production increases, and the red cell mass is restored to preflight levels after several weeks.

  5. Red Rot of Ponderosa Pine (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Stuart R. Andrews

    1971-01-01

    Red rot caused by the fungus Polyporus anceps Peck is the most important heart rot of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the Southwest (in Arizona and New Mexico), the Black Hills of South Dakota, and some localities in Colorado, Montana, and Idaho. It causes only insignificant losses to this species elsewhere in the West. The red rot fungus rarely attacks other...

  6. Red alder stand development and dynamics.

    Treesearch

    R.L. Deal

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes information on the development of natural pure red alder stands and dynamics of mixed alder-conifer stands. Early research on red alder growth and yield focused on developing stand volume and normal yield. tables for alder in the Pacific Northwest. Recent site-index estimation and height-growth curves were developed on a 20-year site base age....

  7. Causative Role of Grapevine Red Blotch Virus in Red Blotch Disease.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Luz Marcela; Cieniewicz, Elizabeth; Krenz, Björn; McLane, Heather; Thompson, Jeremy R; Perry, Keith Lloyd; Fuchs, Marc

    2018-05-17

    Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) has a monopartite single-stranded DNA genome and is the type species of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae. To address the etiological role of GRBV in the recently recognized red blotch disease of grapevine, infectious GRBV clones were engineered from the genome of each of the two previously identified phylogenetic clades for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated inoculations of tissue culture-grown Vitis spp. plants. Following agroinoculation and one or two dormancy cycles, systemic GRBV infection was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Vitis vinifera exhibiting foliar disease symptoms but not in asymptomatic vines. Infected rootstock genotype SO4 (V. berlandieri × V. riparia) exhibited leaf chlorosis and cupping, while infection was asymptomatic in agroinoculated 110R (V. berlandieri × V. rupestris), 3309C (V. riparia × V. rupestris), and V. rupestris. Spliced GRBV transcripts of the replicase-associated protein coding region accumulated in leaves of agroinfected vines, as shown by reverse-transcription PCR; this was consistent with systemic infection resulting from virus replication. Additionally, a virus progeny identical in nucleotide sequence to the infectious GRBV clones was recovered from agroinfected vines by rolling circle amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Concomitantly, subjecting naturally infected grapevines to microshoot tip culture resulted in an asymptomatic plant progeny that tested negative for GRBV in multiplex PCR. Altogether, our agroinoculation and therapeutic experiments fulfilled Koch's postulates and revealed the causative role of GRBV in red blotch disease.

  8. Fire effects in northeastern forests: red pine.

    Treesearch

    Cary Rouse

    1988-01-01

    Fire and red pine are closely associated. Fires can provide red pine with the mineral soil and freedom from competition it needs to become well established. Fire can also be used to control pests, increase tree growth, enhance aesthetics, and improve wildlife habitat.

  9. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I. F.; Leal, Miguel C.; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m−2 s−1). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m−2 s−1. Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m−2 s−1, and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI. PMID:24658108

  10. Effect of red clay on diesel bioremediation and soil bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Choi, Sungjong; Hong, Hyerim; Sung, Jung-Suk; Park, Woojun

    2014-08-01

    Red clay is a type of soil, the red color of which results from the presence of iron oxide. It is considered an eco-friendly material, with many industrial, cosmetic, and architectural uses. A patented method was applied to red clay in order to change its chemical composition and mineral bioavailability. The resulting product was designated processed red clay. This study evaluates the novel use of red clay and processed red clay as biostimulation agents in diesel-contaminated soils. Diesel biodegradation was enhanced in the presence of red clay and processed red clay by 4.9- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and the number of culturable bacterial cells was correlated with the amount of diesel biodegradation. The growth of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, and Cupriavidus necator was promoted by both types of red clays. Culture-independent community analysis determined via barcoded pyrosequencing indicated that Nocardioidaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Caulobacteraceae were enriched by diesel contamination. Bacterial strain isolation from naphthalene- and liquid paraffin-amended media was affiliated with enriched taxa based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity. We suggest that the biostimulating mechanism of red clay and processed red clay is able to support bacterial growth without apparent selection for specific bacterial species.

  11. Red light represses the photophysiology of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I F; Leal, Miguel C; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI.

  12. Large-scale translocation strategies for reintroducing red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Ralph Costa

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of wild birds is a potential conservation strategy for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We developed and tested 8 large-scale translocation strategy models for a regional red-cockaded woodpecker reintroduction program. The purpose of the reintroduction program is to increase the number of red-cockaded...

  13. Aerosolized red-tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Bean, Judy A; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William M; Baden, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of asthma, there is increasing concern over environmental exposures that may trigger asthma exacerbations. Blooms of the marine microalgae, Karenia brevis, cause red tides (or harmful algal blooms) annually throughout the Gulf of Mexico. K brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, called brevetoxins, which are sodium channel blockers, and possibly histamine activators. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma. Before and after 1 h spent on beaches with and without an active K brevis red-tide exposure, 97 persons >or= 12 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire and spirometry. Concomitant environmental monitoring, water and air sampling, and personal monitoring for brevetoxins were performed. Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after K brevis red-tide aerosol exposure than before exposure. Participants demonstrated small, but statistically significant, decreases in FEV(1), midexpiratory phase of forced expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly among those participants regularly using asthma medications. No significant differences were detected when there was no Florida red tide (ie, during nonexposure periods). This study demonstrated objectively measurable adverse changes in lung function from exposure to aerosolized Florida red-tide toxins in asthmatic subjects, particularly among those requiring regular therapy with asthma medications. Future studies will assess these susceptible subpopulations in more depth, as well as the possible long-term effects of these toxins.

  14. Aerosolized Red-Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Bean, Judy A.; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William M.; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increasing incidence of asthma, there is increasing concern over environmental exposures that may trigger asthma exacerbations. Blooms of the marine microalgae, Karenia brevis, cause red tides (or harmful algal blooms) annually throughout the Gulf of Mexico. K brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, called brevetoxins, which are sodium channel blockers, and possibly histamine activators. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma. Methods Before and after 1 h spent on beaches with and without an active K brevis red-tide exposure, 97 persons ≥ 12 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire and spirometry. Concomitant environmental monitoring, water and air sampling, and personal monitoring for brevetoxins were performed. Results Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after K brevis red-tide aerosol exposure than before exposure. Participants demonstrated small, but statistically significant, decreases in FEV1, midexpiratory phase of forced expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly among those participants regularly using asthma medications. No significant differences were detected when there was no Florida red tide (ie, during nonexposure periods). Conclusions This study demonstrated objectively measurable adverse changes in lung function from exposure to aerosolized Florida red-tide toxins in asthmatic subjects, particularly among those requiring regular therapy with asthma medications. Future studies will assess these susceptible subpopulations in more depth, as well as the possible long-term effects of these toxins. PMID:17218574

  15. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components.

    PubMed

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.

  16. In Brief: Red tide Web site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established the NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center to help people understand the significant red tides that are predicted to form there later this spring. The site (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/redtide) will provide a summary of the current red tide situation and its potential harmful impacts on humans and animals and will serve as a central repository of information. The site also will have direct links to news releases, changes to relevant federal fishing regulations, links to closures of shellfish waters, and links to state agency Web sites with localized information. In addition, the site will have information about NOAA's scientific response effort as well as information from several other sources including NOAA's major response partner, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). On 24 April, WHOI scientists, using forecast models developed with NOAA funding support, predicted ``that excess winter precipitation has set the stage for a harmful algal bloom similar to the historic red tide of 2005.'' That bloom shut down shellfish beds from the Bay of Fundy to Martha's Vineyard for several months.

  17. NIMS Spectral Maps of Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) instrument looks at Jupiter's Great Red Spot, in these views from June 26, 1996. NIMS studies infrared wavelengths of light that our eye cannot see. These maps are at four different infrared wavelengths, each one picked to reveal something different about the atmosphere. The top image is a false color map of a wavelength that is at the red edge of our ability to see. It shows the shapes of features that we would see with our eyes. The second map is of ammonia ice, red showing where the most ice is, blue where none exists. The differences between this and the first image are due to the amount and size of ammonia ice crystals. The third map down is from a wavelength that shows cloud heights, with the highest clouds in red, and the lowest in blue. The bottom map uses a wavelength that shows the hot Jupiter shining through the clouds. Red represents the thinnest clouds, and blue is thickest where it is more difficult to see below. Comparing the bottom two images, note that the highest clouds are in the center of the Great Red Spot, while there are relatively few clouds around the edges. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00501

  18. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  19. HOW to Identify and Minimize Red Pine Shoot Moth Damage

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; David J. Hall

    1992-01-01

    The red pine shoot moth, Dioryctria resinosella, feeds on newly expanding shoots and cones of red pine, Pinus resinosa. Damage has been reported from Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southern Ontario. The red pine shoot moth is now considered a pest due to the large increase in the number and overall acreage of red pine plantations greater than 20 years of...

  20. Red pigment from Lithospermum erythrorhizon by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Eun-Jung; Song, Young-Keun; Byun, Sang Yo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a stable red pigment was prepared from Lithospermum erythrorhizon via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 400 bar and 60 degrees C. The patch tests indicated that up to 10% of the red pigment was acceptable from a skin irritation standpoint. According to the results of the CIE LAB chromaticity test, the color difference was acceptable when compared to commercial synthetic red pigments. The light-illuminated color stability test indicated that the pigment was more stable than the red pigment extracted with ethanol. The higher stability was also demonstrated in the DPPH antioxidant activity test. The supercritical red pigment harbored elevated amounts of shikonin and derivatives, and appears to be usable as a stable red pigment for cosmetic color products.

  1. Graphitic Nitrogen Triggers Red Fluorescence in Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Holá, Kateřina; Sudolská, Mária; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Nachtigallová, Dana; Rogach, Andrey L; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2017-12-26

    Carbon dots (CDs) are a stable and highly biocompatible fluorescent material offering great application potential in cell labeling, optical imaging, LED diodes, and optoelectronic technologies. Because their emission wavelengths provide the best tissue penetration, red-emitting CDs are of particular interest for applications in biomedical technologies. Current synthetic strategies enabling red-shifted emission include increasing the CD particle size (sp 2 domain) by a proper synthetic strategy and tuning the surface chemistry of CDs with suitable functional groups (e.g., carboxyl). Here we present an elegant route for preparing full-color CDs with well-controllable fluorescence at blue, green, yellow, or red wavelengths. The two-step procedure involves the synthesis of a full-color-emitting mixture of CDs from citric acid and urea in formamide followed by separation of the individual fluorescent fractions by column chromatography based on differences in CD charge. Red-emitting CDs, which had the most negative charge, were separated as the last fraction. The trend in the separation, surface charge, and red-shift of photoluminescence was caused by increasing amount of graphitic nitrogen in the CD structure, as was clearly proved by XPS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. Importantly, graphitic nitrogen generates midgap states within the HOMO-LUMO gap of the undoped systems, resulting in significantly red-shifted light absorption that in turn gives rise to fluorescence at the low-energy end of the visible spectrum. The presented findings identify graphitic nitrogen as another crucial factor that can red-shift the CD photoluminescence.

  2. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  3. ACCRETION RATES OF RED QUASARS FROM THE HYDROGEN Pβ LINE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Glikman, Eilat

    Red quasars are thought to be an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies in dust-enshrouded phase and normal quasars. If so, they are expected to have high accretion ratios, but their intrinsic dust extinction hampers reliable determination of Eddington ratios. Here, we compare the accretion rates of 16 red quasars at z ∼ 0.7 to those of normal type 1 quasars at the same redshift range. The red quasars are selected by their red colors in optical through near-infrared (NIR) and radio detection. The accretion rates of the red quasars are derived from the Pβ line in NIR spectra, whichmore » is obtained by the SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility in order to avoid the effects of dust extinction. We find that the measured Eddington ratios (L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} ≃ 0.69) of red quasars are significantly higher than those of normal type 1 quasars, which is consistent with a scenario in which red quasars are the intermediate population and the black holes of red quasars grow very rapidly during such a stage.« less

  4. Red Flags for Low Back Pain Are Not Always Really Red: A Prospective Evaluation of the Clinical Utility of Commonly Used Screening Questions for Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ajay; Godfrey, William; Gottschalk, Michael B; Boden, Scott D

    2018-03-07

    Low back pain has a high prevalence and morbidity, and is a source of substantial health-care spending. Numerous published guidelines support the use of so-called red flag questions to screen for serious pathology in patients with low back pain. This paper examines the effectiveness of red flag questions as a screening tool for patients presenting with low back pain to a multidisciplinary academic spine center. We conducted a retrospective review of the cases of 9,940 patients with a chief complaint of low back pain. The patients completed a questionnaire that included several red flag questions during their first physician visit. Diagnostic data for the same clinical episode were collected from medical records and were corroborated with imaging reports. Patients who were diagnosed as having a vertebral fracture, malignancy, infection, or cauda equina syndrome were classified as having a red flag diagnosis. Specific individual red flags and combinations of red flags were associated with an increased probability of underlying serious spinal pathology, e.g., recent trauma and an age of >50 years were associated with vertebral fracture. The presence or absence of other red flags, such as night pain, was unrelated to any particular diagnosis. For instance, for patients with no recent history of infection and no fever, chills, or sweating, the presence of night pain was a false-positive finding for infection >96% of the time. In general, the absence of red flag responses did not meaningfully decrease the likelihood of a red flag diagnosis; 64% of patients with spinal malignancy had no associated red flags. While a positive response to a red flag question may indicate the presence of serious disease, a negative response to 1 or 2 red flag questions does not meaningfully decrease the likelihood of a red flag diagnosis. Clinicians should use caution when utilizing red flag questions as screening tools.

  5. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  6. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  7. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Miranda, Sara; Nieto, Jessica; Fernández, Gilma; Yucra, Sandra; Rubio, Julio; Yi, Pedro; Gasco, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red) were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE). Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1) region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl glucosinolate. Conclusions

  8. Comparison of lunar red spots including the crater copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Kaydash, V.; Rohacheva, L.; Korokhin, V.; Ivanov, M.; Velikodsky, Y.; Videen, G.

    2016-07-01

    The lunar red spots, Helmet, Hansteen Alpha, and the NW quadrant of the crater Copernicus, were selected for a complex comparative investigation of their characteristics measured by the spacecraft Clementine, LRO, and Chandrayaan-1. For the analysis we used the following parameters: the reflectance A(750 nm), color-ratio A(750 nm)/A(415 nm), parameter of optical micro-roughness (LRO WAC), parameters deduced from LRO Diviner data, optical maturity OMAT, abundance of FeO and TiO2 (Clementine UVVIS and LRO WAC data), oxygen content determined using Lunar Prospector data, and parameters characterizing the 0.95-μm and 2.2-μm bands of Fe2+ ions (crystal field bands), and 2.8-μm band of H2O/OH and/or Fe2+ ions. The red spots Helmet and Hansteen Alpha are considered to be extrusions of rhyolite composition, which can be attributed to the Nectarian period; we did not find contradictions of this assumption. As for the Copernicus red spot, this, perhaps, is a similar formation that has been destroyed by the impact. We demonstrate that the material of the Copernicus red spot probably has the same composition as the classical red spots Helmet and Hansteen Alpha. The distributions of the parameter of optical micro-roughness and optical maturity OMAT show that the Copernicus red anomaly was not formed during the long evolution of the lunar surface, but results from crater formation. We find several confirmations of the hypothesis that the Copernicus red spot can be a residual of a red material (possibly rhyolite) extrusion that was involved in the impact process. The red material could have been partially melted, crushed, and ejected to the crater's north-western vicinity. The described red asymmetry of the Copernicus ejecta can be related to the eccentricity, relative to the extrusion, of the impact and/or to the inclination of the impactor trajectory. The latter also is confirmed by an analysis of the region, which is based on the geological map shown in this paper.

  9. Viscoelastic Transient of Confined Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, ηmem2D ∼ 10−7 N⋅s⋅m−1. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of ηmem2D, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  10. The Little Red Spot: Closest View Yet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is a mosaic of three New Horizons images of Jupiter's Little Red Spot, taken with the spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) camera at 17:41 Universal Time on February 26 from a range of 3.5 million kilometers (2.1 million miles). The image scale is 17 kilometers (11 miles) per pixel, and the area covered measures 33,000 kilometers (20,000 miles) from top to bottom, two and one-half times the diameter of Earth.

    The Little Red Spot, a smaller cousin of the famous Great Red Spot, formed in the past decade from the merger of three smaller Jovian storms, and is now the second-largest storm on Jupiter. About a year ago its color, formerly white, changed to a reddish shade similar to the Great Red Spot, perhaps because it is now powerful enough to dredge up reddish material from deeper inside Jupiter. These are the most detailed images ever taken of the Little Red Spot since its formation, and will be combined with even sharper images taken by New Horizons 10 hours later to map circulation patterns around and within the storm.

    LORRI took the images as the Sun was about to set on the Little Red Spot. The LORRI camera was designed to look at Pluto, where sunlight is much fainter than it is at Jupiter, so the images would have been overexposed if LORRI had looked at the storm when it was illuminated by the noonday Sun. The dim evening illumination helped the LORRI camera obtain well-exposed images. The New Horizons team used predictions made by amateur astronomers in 2006, based on their observations of the motion of the Little Red Spot with backyard telescopes, to help them accurately point LORRI at the storm.

    These are among a handful of Jupiter system images already returned by New Horizons during its close approach to Jupiter. Most of the data being gathered by the spacecraft are stored onboard and will be downlinked to Earth during March and April 2007.

  11. The spectroscopic indistinguishability of red giant branch and red clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, T.; Hawkins, K.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Stellar spectroscopy provides useful information on the physical properties of stars such as effective temperature, metallicity and surface gravity. However, those photospheric characteristics are often hampered by systematic uncertainties. The joint spectro-sismo project (APOGEE+Kepler, aka APOKASC) of field red giants has revealed a puzzling offset between the surface gravities (log g) determined spectroscopically and those determined using asteroseismology, which is largely dependent on the stellar evolutionary status. Aims: Therefore, in this letter, we aim to shed light on the spectroscopic source of the offset. Methods: We used the APOKASC sample to analyse the dependencies of the log g discrepancy as a function of stellar mass and stellar evolutionary status. We discuss and study the impact of some neglected abundances on spectral analysis of red giants, such as He and carbon isotopic ratio. Results: We first show that, for stars at the bottom of the red giant branch where the first dredge-up had occurred, the discrepancy between spectroscopic log g and asteroseismic log g depends on stellar mass. This seems to indicate that the log g discrepancy is related to CN cycling. Among the CN-cycled elements, we demonstrate that the carbon isotopic ratio (12C /13C) has the largest impact on stellar spectrum. In parallel, we observe that this log g discrepancy shows a similar trend as the 12C /13C ratios as expected by stellar evolution theory. Although we did not detect a direct spectroscopic signature of 13C, other corroborating evidences suggest that the discrepancy in log g is tightly correlated to the production of 13C in red giants. Moreover, by running the data-driven algorithm (the Cannon) on a synthetic grid trained on the APOGEE data, we try to evaluate more quantitatively the impact of various 12C /13C ratios. Conclusions: While we have demonstrated that 13C indeed impacts all parameters, the size of the impact is smaller than the observed offset

  12. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON RED AND BLUE HELIUM BURNING SEQUENCES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z = 0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applyingmore » isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically, we find (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M{sub V} {approx} -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2) blue HeB stars fainter than M{sub V} {approx} -3 mag are bluer than predicted; (3) the slope of the red HeB sequence is shallower than predicted by a factor of {approx}3; and (4) the models overpredict the ratio of the most luminous blue to red HeB stars corresponding to ages {approx}< 50 Myr. Additionally, we find that for the more metal-rich galaxies in our sample (Z {approx}> 0.5 Z{sub sun}), the red HeB stars overlap with the red giant branch stars in the color-magnitude diagrams, thus reducing their usefulness as indicators of star formation for ages {approx}> 100 Myr.« less

  14. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688

  15. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in...

  16. Is dopamine behind the health benefits of red wine?

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Rafael; Covas, Maria Isabel; Pujadas, Maria Antonia; Fitó, Montserrat; Farré, Magí

    2006-08-01

    The contribution of biologically active non-nutrient chemicals to the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet is controversial because of their low dietary concentrations. Hydroxytyrosol is a dopamine metabolite, and also a very active naturally occurring phenol compound in olive oil. To examine the disposition of hydroxytyrosol in humans, given that we discovered its presence in red wine in the frame of the study. The pharmacokinetics of hydroxytyrosol from two clinical trials, designed to assess the short-term and postprandial effects of moderate doses of wine and olive oil in healthy volunteers, were compared. Despite a five-fold difference in the doses of hydroxytyrosol administered (0.35 mg for red wine and 1.7 mg for olive oil), urinary recoveries of hydroxytyrosol were higher after red wine administration. An interaction between ethanol and dopamine after red wine ingestion leading to the formation of hydroxytyrosol was observed. Biological effects after red wine ingestion should be re-examined on the basis of combined hydroxytyrosol concentrations from red wine and dopamine turnover.

  17. Red meat intake may increase the risk of colon cancer in Japanese, a population with relatively low red meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Takachi, Ribeka; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Baba, Keisuke; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Asian populations have changed from traditional to Westernized diets, with increased red meat intake. They are suggested to be particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of red meat on the development of colorectal cancers, however, few prospective studies of this putative link have been conducted. We examined associations between the consumption of red and processed meat and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer by gender in a large Japanese cohort. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to 80,658 men and women aged 45-74 years. During 758,116 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2006, 1,145 cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Higher consumption of red meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of colon cancer among women [multivariate hazard ratios (95%CIs) for the highest versus lowest quintiles (HR): 1.48 (1.01, 2.17; trend p=0.03)], as was higher consumption of total meat among men [HR=1.44 (1.06, 1.98; trend p=0.07)]. By site, these positive associations were found for the risk of proximal colon cancer among women and for distal colon cancer among men. No association was found between the consumption of processed meat and risk of either colon or rectal cancer. In conclusion, red meat intake may modestly increase the risk of colon cancer in middle-aged Japanese, although the highest quintile of red meat consumption could be considered moderate by Western standards.

  18. Control of red alder by cutting.

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Thomas C. Turpin

    1989-01-01

    Effects of tree age, month of cut, and height and angle of cut on sprouting of red alder stumps were evaluated in a study designed to develop an effective method for controlling red alder in Douglas-fir plantations. Ninety-five percent or more of alder stumps cut in June or July died by the end of the next growing season; mortality was 88, 70, and 22 percent for stumps...

  19. Ruthenium red-induced bundling of bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Santra, Manas Kumar; Beuria, Tushar K; Banerjee, Abhijit; Panda, Dulal

    2004-06-18

    The assembly of FtsZ plays a major role in bacterial cell division, and it is thought that the assembly dynamics of FtsZ is a finely regulated process. Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on microtubule polymerization, we found that a substoichiometric concentration of ruthenium red strongly increased the light-scattering signal of FtsZ assembly. Further, sedimentable polymer mass was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the presence of 2 and 10 microm ruthenium red, respectively. In addition, ruthenium red strongly reduced the GTPase activity and prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that 4-10 microm of ruthenium red produced thick bundles of FtsZ polymers. The significant increase in the light-scattering signal and pelletable polymer mass in the presence of ruthenium red seemed to be due to the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments into larger polymers rather than the actual increase in the level of polymeric FtsZ. Furthermore, ruthenium red was found to copolymerize with FtsZ, and the copolymerization of substoichiometric amounts of ruthenium red with FtsZ polymers promoted cooperative assembly of FtsZ that produced large bundles. Calcium inhibited the binding of ruthenium red to FtsZ. However, a concentration of calcium 1000-fold higher than that of ruthenium red was required to produce similar effects on FtsZ assembly. Ruthenium red strongly modulated FtsZ polymerization, suggesting the presence of an important regulatory site on FtsZ and suggesting that a natural ligand, which mimics the action of ruthenium red, may regulate the assembly of FtsZ in bacteria.

  20. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Oregon. 9.190 Section 9.190 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  1. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Oregon. 9.190 Section 9.190 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  2. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Oregon. 9.190 Section 9.190 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used for...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1303 FD&C Red No. 3. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 3 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.303(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for ingested drug used made with FD&C Red No. 3 may...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme defects...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme defects... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme defects... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme defects... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1303 FD&C Red No. 3. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 3 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.303(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for ingested drug used made with FD&C Red No. 3 may...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1303 - FD&C Red No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1303 FD&C Red No. 3. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive FD&C Red No. 3 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.303(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for ingested drug used made with FD&C Red No. 3 may...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for...