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Sample records for cacao

  1. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cacao beans. The cacao shell content is not more than 1.75 percent by weight, calculated on an alkali... beans from which they are prepared, may be processed by heating with one or more of the optional alkali ingredients specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (3) The cacao nibs, or the cacao beans from...

  2. The genome of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Argout, Xavier; Salse, Jerome; Aury, Jean-Marc; Guiltinan, Mark J; Droc, Gaetan; Gouzy, Jerome; Allegre, Mathilde; Chaparro, Cristian; Legavre, Thierry; Maximova, Siela N; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Fouet, Olivier; Poulain, Julie; Ruiz, Manuel; Roguet, Yolande; Rodier-Goud, Maguy; Barbosa-Neto, Jose Fernandes; Sabot, Francois; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty Siva S; Schuster, Stephan C; Carlson, John E; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Dievart, Anne; Kramer, Melissa; Gelley, Laura; Shi, Zi; Bérard, Aurélie; Viot, Christopher; Boccara, Michel; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Guignon, Valentin; Sabau, Xavier; Axtell, Michael J; Ma, Zhaorong; Zhang, Yufan; Brown, Spencer; Bourge, Mickael; Golser, Wolfgang; Song, Xiang; Clement, Didier; Rivallan, Ronan; Tahi, Mathias; Akaza, Joseph Moroh; Pitollat, Bertrand; Gramacho, Karina; D'Hont, Angélique; Brunel, Dominique; Infante, Diogenes; Kebe, Ismael; Costet, Pierre; Wing, Rod; McCombie, W Richard; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Quetier, Francis; Panaud, Olivier; Wincker, Patrick; Bocs, Stephanie; Lanaud, Claire

    2011-02-01

    We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. This assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of these genes anchored on the 10 T. cacao chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example, flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for T. cacao improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten T. cacao chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions.

  3. Molecular fingerprinting of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genetic resources in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic ranking 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. Dominican cacao genetic resources are maintained, propagated and distributed nationally out of the IDIAF’s Mata Larga research stations. T...

  4. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  5. Population structure and molecular characterization of Nigerian field genebank collections of cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last 130 years since cacao introduction into Nigeria, genetic variability in cacao cultivated which has increased as a result of further introduction and breeding activities, remain largely unknown. To determine the genetic diversity and population structure of cacao populations, 13 cacao ...

  6. Building genomic resources for Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao L (cacao: Malvaceae) is a small tree endemic to the Amazonian rain forest, where it most likely evolved. Cacao persists in populations of naturally outcrossing and inbreeding plants, as it is a species with a complex system of self-incompatibility, where only a fraction of the popul...

  7. Genetic characterization of the cacao cultivar CCN 51: its impact and significance on global cacao improvement and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical growing regions of the world and particularly for small cacao farmers. Cacao production in the Americas constitutes ˜13.0% of global production. Ecuador is the second-largest cacao producer in South America and its Nacional beans are...

  8. A new glycosylated dihydrophaseic acid from cacao germs (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Sannohe, Yumiko; Gomi, Shuichi; Murata, Takashi; Ohyama, Makoto; Yonekura, Kumiko; Kanegae, Minoru; Koga, Jinichiro

    2011-01-01

    Cacao beans are composed of cacao nibs and germs. Although numerous chemical and physiological studies on cacao nib compounds have been reported, there is little information on cacao germ compounds. We therefore analyzed an extract from the cacao germ, and found two compounds that were specific to the germ. One of these two compounds was identified as the new glycosylated abscisic acid metabolite, dihydrophaseic acid-4'-O-6″-(β-ribofuranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside, and the other as the known compound, dihydrophaseic acid-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  9. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cacao nibs. 163.110 Section 163.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Description. (1) Cacao nibs is the food prepared by removing the shell from cured, cleaned, dried, and...

  10. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cacao nibs. 163.110 Section 163.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Description. (1) Cacao nibs is the food prepared by removing the shell from cured, cleaned, dried, and...

  11. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cacao nibs. 163.110 Section 163.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Description. (1) Cacao nibs is the food prepared by removing the shell from cured, cleaned, dried, and...

  12. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cacao nibs. 163.110 Section 163.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Description. (1) Cacao nibs is the food prepared by removing the shell from cured, cleaned, dried, and...

  13. Cryopreservation of immature embryos of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Pence, V C

    1991-06-01

    Immature, white zygotic embryos of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) retained the ability to produce callus and to undergo somatic embryogenesis after slow hydrated freezing and desiccated fast freezing in liquid nitrogen. The highest rate of somatic embryogenesis occurred in embryos which were precultured on a medium containing 3% sucrose, frozen slowly with cryoprotectants before exposure to liquid nitrogen, and recovered on a medium containing 3 mg/liter NAA. Embryos precultured on media containing sucrose increasing to 21% had a higher rate of survival but were less embryogenic after freezing. These results suggest that immature embryos might be used for long-term germplasm storage of T. cacao germplasm.

  14. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec.

    PubMed

    Powis, Terry G; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-05-24

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use--spanning more than 34 centuries--as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power.

  15. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-01-01

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power. PMID:21555564

  16. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas.

    PubMed

    Motamayor, J C; Risterucci, A M; Lopez, P A; Ortiz, C F; Moreno, A; Lanaud, C

    2002-11-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum. To gain further insight into the origin and genetic basis of Criollo cacao from Central America, RFLP and microsatellite analyses were performed on a sample that avoided mixing pure Criollo individuals with individuals classified as Criollo but which might have been introgressed with Forastero genes. We distinguished these two types of individuals as Ancient and Modern Criollo. In contrast to previous studies, Ancient Criollo individuals formerly classified as 'wild', were found to form a closely related group together with Ancient Criollo individuals from South America. The Ancient Criollo trees were also closer to Colombian-Ecuadorian Forastero individuals than these Colombian-Ecuadorian trees were to other South American Forastero individuals. RFLP and microsatellite analyses revealed a high level of homozygosity and significantly low genetic diversity within the Ancient Criollo group. The results suggest that the Ancient Criollo individuals represent the original Criollo group. The results also implies that this group does not represent a separate subspecies and that it probably originated from a few individuals in South America that may have been spread by man within Central America.

  17. Biodiversity and biogeography of the cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in tropical America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of frosty pod rot, which occurs on the neotropical rainforest genera Theobroma and Herrania. While this basidiomycete has had devastating effects on the commercially important cacao tree (T. cacao) in tropical America, where it is confined, little is known ...

  18. Coordinated regulation of polyamine biosynthesis in Theobroma cacao (cacao) tissues responding to stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the relationship between polyamine synthesis and various stress treatments in cacao (Theobroma cacao). Polyamines (PAs) have been associated with the response to drought and many other biotic and abiotic stresses in plants in addition to their roles in physiological and developmental...

  19. Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, John S.; Joyce, Rosemary A.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; McGovern, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds. PMID:18024588

  20. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  1. Horticultural traits associated with cacao accessions recommended for Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important agricultural product from which the international chocolate industry is based upon. Increasing demand for chocolate, especially in emerging markets in Asia, coupled with reduced worldwide production has led to shortfalls in cacao ‘bean’ supplies. Deficits...

  2. Genetic comparison of two related fungal pathogens of Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the source of cocoa and cocoa butter, which are used in the manufacturing of chocolate. Cacao production in South America is limited mainly by two fungal pathogens, Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa. These pathogens cause frost pod rot (FPR) and Witches’ ...

  3. Evaluating Theobroma grandiflorum for comparative genomic studies with Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao) are the source of cocoa, the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry. Cacao’s two most important traits are its unique seed storage triglyceride (cocoa butter) and the flavor of its fermented beans (chocolate). The genome of T. cacao is bei...

  4. Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization.

    PubMed

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Tarka, Stanley M; Powis, Terry G; Valdez, Fred; Hester, Thomas R

    2002-07-18

    The Maya archaeological site at Colha in northern Belize, Central America, has yielded several spouted ceramic vessels that contain residues from the preparation of food and beverages. Here we analyse dry residue samples by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, and show that chocolate (Theobroma cacao) was consumed by the Preclassic Maya as early as 600 bc, pushing back the earliest chemical evidence of cacao use by some 1,000 years. Our application of this new and highly sensitive analytical technique could be extended to the identification of other ancient foods and beverages.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from Theobroma cacao expressed sequence tags associated with witches' broom disease in cacao.

    PubMed

    Lima, L S; Gramacho, K P; Carels, N; Novais, R; Gaiotto, F A; Lopes, U V; Gesteira, A S; Zaidan, H A; Cascardo, J C M; Pires, J L; Micheli, F

    2009-07-14

    In order to increase the efficiency of cacao tree resistance to witches' broom disease, which is caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae), we looked for molecular markers that could help in the selection of resistant cacao genotypes. Among the different markers useful for developing marker-assisted selection, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of sequence difference between alleles and can be easily detected by in silico analysis from expressed sequence tag libraries. We report the first detection and analysis of SNPs from cacao-M. perniciosa interaction expressed sequence tags, using bioinformatics. Selection based on analysis of these SNPs should be useful for developing cacao varieties resistant to this devastating disease.

  6. Breeding for disease resistance in cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao production must increase in order to meet the projected rise in the demand for chocolate. Approximately one-third of global production is lost annually to diseases and insects. Four diseases account for the greatest losses worldwide: black pod, caused by four Phytophthora spp; witches’ broom...

  7. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  8. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  9. Coffee vs. Cacao: A Case Study from the Vietnamese Central Highlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Dang Thanh; Shively, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Nam, the vice chair of a village in Dak Lak province of Vietnam, was keen to protect farmers in his village from the sharp decline in prices of coffee ("Coffea canephora" Pierre ex Froehner). He did this by encouraging farmers in his village to plant cacao ("Theobroma cacao" L. subsp. "cacao"). Cacao was suitable to the soil and climate of the…

  10. Verification of genetic identity of introduced cacao germplasm in Ghana using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes is important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) breeding, germplasm conservation and seed propagation. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers an effective way to use a high-throughput genotyping system for cacao gen...

  11. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26657007

  12. Origin, dispersal and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is cultivated globally as the unique source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industries. In spite of its economical importance, cocoa was and continues to be dominantly produced in low-input and low-output systems. Production constraints, including depletio...

  13. Design and implementation of the cacao genome database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Genome Database (CGD, www.cacaogenomedb.org) is being developed to provide a comprehensive data mining resource of genomic, genetic and breeding data for Theobroma cacao. Designed using Chado and a collection of Drupal modules, known as Tripal, CGD currently contains the genetically anchor...

  14. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  15. Genetic diversity and structure of farm and genebank accessions of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon revealed by microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of 400 accessions collected in cacao farms, 95 genebank and 31 reference accessions was analyzed using 12 microsatelitte markers. The genebank and reference accessions were sub-divided into 12 accession groups (AG) that belong to the traditional cacao genetic groups (GG) Lower ...

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure in wild stands of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims The native cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana represent an important fraction of genetic diversity of this species. Several scientific surveys have led to the collection of germplasm accessions from south-eastern French Guiana, which provides an ideal opportunit...

  17. Development of a high throughput SNP assay for marker-assisted breeding of Theobroma cacao in cacao producing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two commercially important diseases of Theobroma cacao are witches' broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa) and frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri). Dr. Raymond Schnell is coordinating a major international breeding program for disease resistance in cacao in countries such as Ecuador and Ghana where labora...

  18. Trichoderma species form endophytic associations within Theobroma cacao trichomes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Bryan A; Strem, Mary D; Wood, Delilah

    2009-12-01

    Trichoderma species are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. Recent studies demonstrate that Trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of Theobroma cacao (cacao) in what has been characterized as an endophytic relationship. Trichoderma species can be re-isolated from surface sterilized cacao stem tissue, including the bark and xylem, the apical meristem, and to a lesser degree from leaves. SEM analysis of cacao stems colonized by strains of four Trichoderma species (Trichoderma ovalisporum-DIS 70a, Trichoderma hamatum-DIS 219b, Trichoderma koningiopsis-DIS 172ai, or Trichoderma harzianum-DIS 219f) showed a preference for surface colonization of glandular trichomes versus non-glandular trichomes. The Trichoderma strains colonized the glandular trichome tips and formed swellings resembling appresoria. Hyphae were observed emerging from the glandular trichomes on surface sterilized stems from cacao seedlings that had been inoculated with each of the four Trichoderma strains. Fungal hyphae were observed under the microscope emerging from the trichomes as soon as 6h after their isolation from surface sterilized cacao seedling stems. Hyphae were also observed, in some cases, emerging from stalk cells opposite the trichome head. Repeated single trichome/hyphae isolations verified that the emerging hyphae were the Trichoderma strains with which the cacao seedlings had been inoculated. Strains of four Trichoderma species were able to enter glandular trichomes during the colonization of cacao stems where they survived surface sterilization and could be re-isolated. The penetration of cacao trichomes may provide the entry point for Trichoderma species into the cacao stem allowing systemic colonization of this tissue.

  19. Sequencing the Cacao Genome: Overall Strategy and SNP Discovery for Cacao Improvement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On June 26, 2008, the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Mars, Incorporated, and IBM announced that they are combining their scientific resources to sequence and analyze the entire genome of Theobroma cacao L., an understory tree from the Amazon basin w...

  20. Genetic diversity of naturalized cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of genetically diverse cacao with disease resistance, high productivity and desirable organoleptic traits is vitally important to the agricultural crop’s long-term sustainability. Environmental changes, pests and diseases as well as nation’s sovereign property rights have led to a de...

  1. Genome Size Evolution in Theobroma cacao: Recent Sequencing of Two Cacao Genomes of Different Size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  2. The interaction of Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease, during parthenocarpy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of Theobroma cacao L. flower cushions by Moniliophthora perniciosa induces parthenocarpy. Healthy and parthenocarpic immature cacao pods were obtained from seven cacao clones. Microscopic observations of parthenocarpic pods confirmed fruits lack viable seed. Septate mycelium colonized part...

  3. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2009-02-17

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo Bonito and deposited in caches at the site. This first known use of cacao drinks north of the Mexican border indicates exchange with cacao cultivators in Mesoamerica in a time frame of about A.D. 1000-1125. The association of cylinder jars and cacao beverages suggests that the Chacoan ritual involving the drinking of cacao was tied to Mesoamerican rituals incorporating cylindrical vases and cacao. The importance of Pueblo Bonito within the Chacoan world likely lies in part with the integration of Mesoamerican ritual, including critical culinary ingredients.

  4. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo Bonito and deposited in caches at the site. This first known use of cacao drinks north of the Mexican border indicates exchange with cacao cultivators in Mesoamerica in a time frame of about A.D. 1000–1125. The association of cylinder jars and cacao beverages suggests that the Chacoan ritual involving the drinking of cacao was tied to Mesoamerican rituals incorporating cylindrical vases and cacao. The importance of Pueblo Bonito within the Chacoan world likely lies in part with the integration of Mesoamerican ritual, including critical culinary ingredients. PMID:19188605

  5. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Honduras and Nicaragua as revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the main source for chocolate with an annual production of four million tons worldwide. This Neotropical tree crop was domesticated in Mesoamerica as far back as 3,000 years ago. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure in farmer varieties of cacao in the...

  6. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  7. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  8. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  9. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  10. STATUS OF CACAO WITCHES' BROOM: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Purdy, L H; Schmidt, R A

    1996-01-01

    Origins of Theobroma cacao and Crinipellis perniciosa occurred in the Amazon Basin region of South America, and their interaction, the witches' broom disease, was first described in the late 1700s. The 100 years of scientific investigations of witches' broom of cacao that began in the 1890s developed the present state of knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of witches' broom that are discussed. Recommended management to reduce the deleterious effects of witches' broom on cacao production include the use of phytosanitation (removal of diseased plant parts), applications of chemical fungicides, and the use of host resistance. At present, there is a paucity of resistant planting materials, and efforts to evaluate germplasm for resistance to witches' broom are described. Research topics to augment present knowledge about witches' broom of cacao are presented with the hope that disease management can be improved.

  11. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  12. Dispersion models and sampling of cacao mirid bug Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Theobroma Cacao in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bisseleua, D H B; Vidal, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of Sahlbergella singularis Haglung, a major pest of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao) (Malvaceae), was studied for 2 yr in traditional cacao forest gardens in the humid forest area of southern Cameroon. The first objective was to analyze the dispersion of this insect on cacao trees. The second objective was to develop sampling plans based on fixed levels of precision for estimating S. singularis populations. The following models were used to analyze the data: Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, the Nachman model, and the negative binomial distribution. Our results document that Taylor's power law was a better fit for the data than the Iwao and Nachman models. Taylor's b and Iwao's β were both significantly >1, indicating that S. singularis aggregated on specific trees. This result was further supported by the calculated common k of 1.75444. Iwao's α was significantly <0, indicating that the basic distribution component of S. singularis was the individual insect. Comparison of negative binomial (NBD) and Nachman models indicated that the NBD model was appropriate for studying S. singularis distribution. Optimal sample sizes for fixed precision levels of 0.10, 0.15, and 0.25 were estimated with Taylor's regression coefficients. Required sample sizes increased dramatically with increasing levels of precision. This is the first study on S. singularis dispersion in cacao plantations. Sampling plans, presented here, should be a tool for research on population dynamics and pest management decisions of mirid bugs on cacao.

  13. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  14. Optimization of a SNP assay for Genotyping Theobroma cacao under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical tree crop Theobroma cacao L. is grown commercially for its beans, which are used in the production of cocoa butter and chocolate. Although the upper Amazon region is the center of origin for cacao, 70% of the world’s supply of cacao beans currently comes from small farms in West Africa...

  15. Impact Of Selfing On The Inference Of Demographic History From Whole Genomes In Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao L (cacao: Malvaceae) is a small tree found naturally in the Amazonian rain forest. An interesting feature of cacao is that it persists in populations of naturally outcrossing and inbreeding plants, as it is a species with a complex system of self-incompatibility, where a fraction of...

  16. Concentration of Cadmium in Cacao Beans and its Relationship with Soil Cadmium in Southern Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg-1 established by the European Union) has raised concerns of safety in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate (dark chocolate). Currently, little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil,...

  17. Development and characterization of microsatellites for the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora roreri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao is an important cash crop in Central and South America and a valuable food commodity in the United States and the global economy. The fungus Moniliophthora roreri infects and destroys cacao fruits and threatens the production of cacao in South and Central America and the Caribbean. To understa...

  18. Genetic diversity, population structure, conservation and utilization of Theobroma cacao L., genetic resources in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic, which ranks 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. In an effort to identify propagation mistakes, and estimate genetic diversity and population structure in cacao germplasm accessions a...

  19. Genetic identity, ancestry and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Aceh, Indonesia revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the source of cocoa powder and butter used for chocolate and this species originated in the rainforests of South America. Indonesia is the 3rd largest cacao producer in the world with an annual cacao output of 0.55 million tons. Knowledge of on-farm genetic diversity is...

  20. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  1. Trichoderma species form endophytic associations within Theobroma cacao trichomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma species used in biological control of plant disease are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. Recent studies demonstrate that Trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of Theobroma cacao ...

  2. Characterization of naturalized cacao populations in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to the headwaters of the Amazon River, cacao is an important agricultural tree crop produced in tropical regions around the world. Its raw product, the seed or ‘beans’, is the source for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry. The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Mayag...

  3. Cacao diseases: A history of old enemies and new encounters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book reviews the current knowledge of cacao pathogens and their management methods. Topics discussed include the history, biology, and genetic diversity of Moniliophthora (causing witches’ broom and frosty pod rot) and Phytophthora species (causing black pod rot) that cause diseases resulting i...

  4. Variability of butterfat content in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): combination and correlation with other seed-derived traits at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocoa butterfat and cocoa powder are key economic products from the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.). In this study, 323 accessions from the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were analysed for bean number (BNO), bean size as bean length x bean width (BLW), bean mass (BM), bean mass per fruit (BM...

  5. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  6. Five-year agronomic and phenotypic data summary for a replicated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of genetic diversity found in centers of origin necessitates the establishment of ex situ germplasm collections for long-term conservation. Cacao genetic resources have been acquired, preserved and evaluated at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Mayaguez (TARS), Puerto Rico...

  7. Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweet potato, cacao and sycamore.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Christine J Baker; Harrington, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a large, diverse complex of species that cause wilt-type diseases of many economically important plants. Previous studies have shown that isolates in three monophyletic lineages within the Latin American clade of C. fimbriata are host-specialized to cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively. We paired testers of opposite mating type from isolates of these lineages to find intersterility groups. Two intersterility groups corresponded to the sweet potato and sycamore lineages, respectively. The cacao lineage contained two intersterility groups, corresponding to two genetic sublineages centered in western Ecuador and Brazil/Costa Rica/Colombia. Six isolates from cacao that were not members of the cacao lineage and were not pathogenic to cacao in an earlier study also were intersterile with members of the two cacao intersterility groups. Some pairings between testers from different lineages or sublineages yielded perithecia from which a few abnormal progeny could be recovered, typical of interspecific hybrids. These progeny showed abnormal segregation of the MAT-2 gene and mycelial morphology, showing that they were indeed the result of crosses. Isolates of the sweet potato, cacao, and sycamore lineages were indistinguishable morphologically except for the presence or absence of a doliform (barrel-shaped) conidial state and minor differences in size of perithecial bases and necks and ascospores. C. fimbriata originally was described from sweet potato. We describe the cacao pathogen as a new species, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta and we raise the sycamore pathogen from a form to species Ceratocystis platani.

  8. Crude cacao Theobroma cacao extract reduces mutagenicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene through inhibition of CYP1A activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Marumi; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi

    2009-08-01

    Polyphenols have been shown to have potent antioxidant activity, and therefore, food containing polyphenols is expected to contribute to the prevention of cancer. However, food contains not only polyphenols but also various other constituents. We used the Ames test to investigate the effects of crude extracts of whole cacao products, which are known to be rich in polyphenols, on the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in S. typhimurium strain TA 102. B[a]P induces mutagenicity by metabolic activation and t-BuOOH induces it by generation of free radicals. While white chocolate did not modulate the numbers of revertant colonies produced by B[a]P treatment, milk chocolate and cacao powder extracts did. On the other hand, surprisingly, none of the cacao products tested affected the number of revertant colonies when t-BuOOH was used as the mutagen. At maximum concentration (13.25 mg cacao powder/ml), the crude cacao powder extract reduced ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity to 17.4% of the control, suggesting that whole cacao products inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A activity. In conclusion, inhibition of CYP1A activity by cacao products may prevent DNA damage by reducing metabolic activation of carcinogens.

  9. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats in genotype identification and diversity assessment of cacao germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes in an efficient manner is especially important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm conservation and breeding. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers the opportunity to use a high throughput genotyping syste...

  10. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  11. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses

    PubMed Central

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1–1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity. PMID:26927428

  12. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    PubMed

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  13. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    PubMed

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity. PMID:26927428

  14. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

  15. Macro and micro nutrient uptake parameters and use efficiency in cacao genotypes influenced by deficient to excess levels of soil K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop for many of the tropical countries. Adequate levels of soil K are essential for good growth and achieving high cocoa bean yields. Soils under cacao invariably have low levels of plant available K to support good cacao growth. Growth chamber ex...

  16. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  17. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  18. Expression analysis of transcription factors from the interaction between cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, M A; Hora, B T; Dias, C V; Santos, G C; Gramacho, K P; Cascardo, J C M; Gesteira, A S; Micheli, F

    2010-07-06

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most important tropical crops; however, production is threatened by numerous pathogens, including the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease. To understand the mechanisms that lead to the development of this disease in cacao, we focused our attention on cacao transcription factors (TFs), which act as master regulators of cellular processes and are important for the fine-tuning of plant defense responses. We developed a macroarray with 88 TF cDNA from previously obtained cacao-M. perniciosa interaction libraries. Seventy-two TFs were found differentially expressed between the susceptible (Catongo) and resistant (TSH1188) genotypes and/or during the disease time course--from 24 h to 30 days after infection. Most of the differentially expressed TFs belonged to the bZIP, MYB and WRKY families and presented opposite expression patterns in susceptible and resistant cacao-M. perniciosa interactions (i.e., up-regulated in Catongo and down-regulated in TSH1188). The results of the macroarray were confirmed for bZIP and WRKY TFs by real-time PCR. These differentially expressed TFs are good candidates for subsequent functional analysis as well as for plant engineering. Some of these TFs could also be localized on the cacao reference map related to witches' broom resistance, facilitating the breeding and selection of resistant cacao trees.

  19. Association mapping of fruit, seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An association mapping approach was employed to find markers for color, size, girth and mass of fruits; seed number and butterfat content; and resistance to black pod and witches’ broom diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  20. Diallel analysis and growth parameters as selection tools for drought tolerance in young Theobroma cacao plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This study was aimed to estimate the combining ability, through diallel crosses, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomiz...

  1. A SNP assay for genotyping Theobroma cacao suitable for use under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical tree crop Theobroma cacao L. is grown commercially for its beans, which are used in the production of cocoa butter and chocolate. Although the upper Amazon region of South America is the center of origin for cacao, 70% of the world’s supply of cocoa beans currently comes from small far...

  2. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches’ Broom Disease of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches’ Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao’s meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle d...

  3. Iron sources effects on growth, physiological parameters and nutrition of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity and sustainability of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in tropical soils are affected by deficiency of micronutrients. Iron deficiency is one of the main yield limiting constraints, especially in highly weathered, coarse textured and leached soils. To correct iron deficiency, different form...

  4. Nitrogen forms and levels influence on growth and nutrition of cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium and nitrate are the major forms of N present in tropical soils. A climatically controlled growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess the influence of forms (NO3-, NH4+, and mix of NO3- + NH4+) and levels (1.5 to 12.0 mM) of N on the growth and nutrition of cacao (Theobroma cacao L). ...

  5. Influence of Cacao Genotypes on Soil Rhizosphere Biological Parameters Under Agro Forestry System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interactions of management systems and cacao genotypes have profound influence on the diversity of soil micro-fauna in the rhizosphere; and such changes may provide benefits to plant growth and development. Field experiment was established at Tarapoto, Peru during 2004 with 60 cacao genotypes in an ...

  6. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  7. Factors influencing the survival of developing embryos of theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) in cryogenic storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao, Theobroma cacao L., is native to tropical South American rainforests and is the source of chocolate. Ex situ conservation of this economically important species and its relatives is imperative to prevent genetic erosion resulting from diminished suitable habitat and increased pressure from a...

  8. Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L)

    PubMed Central

    Motamayor, Juan C.; Lachenaud, Philippe; da Silva e Mota, Jay Wallace; Loor, Rey; Kuhn, David N.; Brown, J. Steven; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous collecting expeditions of Theobroma cacao L. germplasm have been undertaken in Latin-America. However, most of this germplasm has not contributed to cacao improvement because its relationship to cultivated selections was poorly understood. Germplasm labeling errors have impeded breeding and confounded the interpretation of diversity analyses. To improve the understanding of the origin, classification, and population differentiation within the species, 1241 accessions covering a large geographic sampling were genotyped with 106 microsatellite markers. After discarding mislabeled samples, 10 genetic clusters, as opposed to the two genetic groups traditionally recognized within T. cacao, were found by applying Bayesian statistics. This leads us to propose a new classification of the cacao germplasm that will enhance its management. The results also provide new insights into the diversification of Amazon species in general, with the pattern of differentiation of the populations studied supporting the palaeoarches hypothesis of species diversification. The origin of the traditional cacao cultivars is also enlightened in this study. PMID:18827930

  9. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents. PMID:26947442

  10. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents. PMID:26947442

  11. Foraging ecology of howler monkeys in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation in Comalcalco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Naranjo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2006-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that primate populations may persist in neotropical fragmented landscapes by using arboreal agroecosystems, which may provide temporary habitats, increased areas of vegetation, and connectivity, among other benefits. However, limited data are available on how primates are able to sustain themselves in such manmade habitats. We report the results of a 9-month-long investigation of the feeding ecology of a troop of howler monkeys (n = 24) that have lived for the past 25 years in a 12-ha cacao plantation in the lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. A vegetation census indicated the presence of 630 trees (> or =20 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) of 32 shade species in the plantation. The howlers used 16 plant species (13 of which were trees) as sources of leaves, fruits, and flowers. Five shade tree species (Ficus cotinifolia, Pithecellobium saman, Gliricidia sepium, F. obtusifolia, and Ficus sp.) accounted for slightly over 80% of the total feeding time and 78% of the total number trees (n = 139) used by the howlers, and were consistently used by the howlers from month to month. The howlers spent an average of 51% of their monthly feeding time exploiting young leaves, 29% exploiting mature fruit, and 20% exploiting flowers and other plant items. Monthly consumption of young leaves varied from 23% to 67%, and monthly consumption of ripe fruit varied from 12% to 64%. Differences in the protein-to-fiber ratio of young vs. mature leaves influenced diet selection by the monkeys. The howlers used 8.3 ha of the plantation area, and on average traveled 388 m per day in each month. The howlers preferred tree species whose contribution to the total tree biomass and density was above average for the shade-tree population in the plantation. Given the right conditions of management and protection, shaded arboreal plantations in fragmented landscapes can sustain segments of howler monkey populations for many decades. PMID:16429417

  12. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

  13. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    PubMed

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (p<0.05). As the puffing pressure increased, the amount of total polyphenols and total flavonoids decreased. The antioxidant capacity of cacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity.

  14. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity.

  15. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity. PMID:26070980

  16. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    PubMed

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (p<0.05). As the puffing pressure increased, the amount of total polyphenols and total flavonoids decreased. The antioxidant capacity of cacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26471657

  17. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity. PMID:26070980

  18. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate.

  19. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate. PMID:27020745

  20. Anxiolytic effects of short- and long-term administration of cacao mass on rat elevated T-maze test.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Yasushi; Okano, Yasuyo; Terashima, Takehiko; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrated the effects of short- and long-term administration of cacao mass on anxiety in the elevated T-maze test, which is an animal model of anxiety. In the first study, we administered cacao mass (100 mg/100 g body weight) per os and immediately performed the elevated T-maze test. Short-term cacao mass significantly abolished delayed avoidance latency compared with the control but did not change escape latency. This result suggested that cacao mass administration reduced conditional fear-relating behavior. Short-term cacao mass administration did not affect the concentration of brain monoamines, emotion-related neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine, in the rat brain. In the next study, we fed a cacao mass-containing diet to rats for 2 weeks and performed the elevated T-maze test. Contrary to short-term administration, chronic consumption of cacao mass tended to increase avoidance latency and did not change escape latency. Brain serotonin concentration and its turnover were enhanced by chronic consumption of cacao mass. These results suggested that chronic consumption of cacao did not affect fear-related behavior but was involved in brain monoamine metabolism. In conclusion, we suggest that short-term cacao mass consumption showed an anxiolytic effect but chronic consumption did not.

  1. Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Pomella, Alan William V; Costa, Heron Salazar; Bezerra, José Luiz; Loguercio, Leandro L; Pereira, José O

    2010-01-01

    The endophytic niches of plants are a rich source of microbes that can directly and indirectly promote plant protection, growth and development. The diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and branches of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees growing in the Amazon region of Brazil was assessed. The collection of fungal endophytic isolates obtained was applied in field experiments to evaluate their potential as biocontrol agents against Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of the black-pod rot disease of cacao, one of the most important pathogens in cocoa-producing regions worldwide. The isolated endophytic fungi from 60 traditional, farmer-planted, healthy cacao and 10 cupuaçu plants were cultured in PDA under conditions inducing sporulation. Isolates were classified based upon the morphological characteristics of their cultures and reproductive structures. Spore suspensions from a total of 103 isolates that could be classified at least up to genus level were tested against P. palmivora in pods attached to cacao trees in the field. Results indicated that ∼70% of isolates showed biocontrol effects to a certain extent, suggesting that culturable endophytic fungal biodiversity in this system is of a mostly mutualistic type of interaction with the host. Eight isolates from genera Trichoderma (reference isolate), Pestalotiopsis, Curvularia, Tolypocladium and Fusarium showed the highest level of activity against the pathogen, and were further characterized. All demonstrated their endophytic nature by colonizing axenic cacao plantlets, and confirmed their biocontrol activity on attached pods trials by showing significant decrease in disease severity in relation to the positive control. None, however, showed detectable growth-promotion effects. Aspects related to endophytic biodiversity and host-pathogen-endophyte interactions in the environment of this study were discussed on the context of developing sustainable strategies

  2. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  3. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  4. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids. PMID:25299086

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  7. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  8. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum

    SciTech Connect

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-04-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

  9. Production and Robustness of a Cacao Agroecosystem: Effects of Two Contrasting Types of Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation. PMID:24312469

  10. Production and robustness of a Cacao agroecosystem: effects of two contrasting types of management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation.

  11. Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kathrin; Geisler, Simon; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory properties of cacao, fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae), are well documented, and therapeutic applications are described for gastrointestinal, nervous, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Most, if not all of these disease conditions involve inflammation or immune activation processes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan breakdown by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and neopterin formation are deeply involved in their pathogenesis. Neopterin concentrations and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an estimate of IDO activity) are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with virus infections, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, neurodegeneration, and coronary artery disease. Moreover, higher neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations are indicative for poor prognosis. When investigating the effect of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO, and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The effects observed in the cell-based assays are associated with the antioxidant activity of the cacao extracts as determined by the cell-free oxygen radical absorption capacity assay. The influence of cacao extracts on IDO activity could be of particular relevance for some of the beneficial health effects ascribed to cacao: tryptophan breakdown by IDO is strongly involved in immunoregulation, and the diminished availability of tryptophan limits the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could thus be relevant not only for immune system restoration in patients, but also contribute to mood elevation and thereby improve quality of life. However, the available data thus far are merely in vitro only and future studies need to investigate the influence of cacao on

  12. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Pathological observations showed that accumulation of cholesterol crystals in the plaque area was greater in the control group compared with the 0.40 % cacao polyphenol group (p < 0.05). Immunochemical staining in the 0.25 and 0.40 % groups showed that expression of the cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and production of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal, hexanoyl-lysine, and dityrosine) were reduced in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:24374929

  13. Theobroma cacao cystatins impair Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth and are involved in postponing cell death symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; da Silva Santiago, André; dos Santos, Lívia Santana; Micheli, Fabienne; Margis, Rogério; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio Cézar

    2010-11-01

    Three cystatin open reading frames named TcCys1, TcCys2 and TcCys3 were identified in cDNA libraries from compatible interactions between Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Moniliophthora perniciosa. In addition, an ORF named TcCys4 was identified in the cDNA library of the incompatible interaction. The cDNAs encoded conceptual proteins with 209, 127, 124, and 205 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 24.3, 14.1, 14.3 and 22.8 kDa, respectively. His-tagged recombinant proteins were purified from Escherichia coli expression, and showed inhibitory activities against M. perniciosa. The four recombinant cystatins exhibited K(i) values against papain in the range of 152-221 nM. Recombinant TcCYS3 and TcCYS4 immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose were efficient to capture M. perniciosa proteases from culture media. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant TcCYS4 detected that the endogenous protein was more abundant in young cacao tissues, when compared with mature tissues. A ~85 kDa cacao multicystatin induced by M. perniciosa inoculation, MpNEP (necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein) and M. perniciosa culture supernatant infiltration were detected by anti-TcCYS4 antibodies in cacao young tissues. A direct role of the cacao cystatins in the defense against this phytopathogen was proposed, as well as its involvement in the development of symptoms of programmed cell death.

  14. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Pathological observations showed that accumulation of cholesterol crystals in the plaque area was greater in the control group compared with the 0.40 % cacao polyphenol group (p < 0.05). Immunochemical staining in the 0.25 and 0.40 % groups showed that expression of the cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and production of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal, hexanoyl-lysine, and dityrosine) were reduced in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  15. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  16. Effects of cacao liquor polyphenols on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Itoh, Fumi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Osakabe, Naomi; Kurosawa, Tohru; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown that polyphenols can reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. This study tested the hypothesis that cacao liquor polyphenols have the properties to restore the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function in an animal model of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Male Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolaemic rabbits were housed in individual cages in a room where a 12-hr light:dark cycle (lights-on at 8:00 and lights-off at 20:00) was maintained. At 3 months of age, they were divided into two groups (standard diet and cacao liquor polyphenol) and the animals received 100 g of the respective diets per day and were provided with tap water ad libitum. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetry system. To clarify the autonomic nervous function, power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic nervous tone were measured. After 6 months of dietary administration of cacao liquor polyphenols, heart rate and blood pressure were lowered but plasma lipid concentrations were unchanged. The area of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in the cacao liquor polyphenol group was significantly smaller than that in the standard diet group. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability in the rabbits in the standard diet group was significantly decreased with ageing, but that in the cacao liquor polyphenol group was not different between short-term and long-term treatment. Moreover, cacao liquor polyphenols preserved parasympathetic nervous tone, although that in the standard diet group was significantly decreased with ageing. We conclude that cacao liquor polyphenols may play an important role to protect cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions.

  17. POPULATION OF HELICOTYLENCHUS sp AND APHELENCHUS sp NEMATODES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) UNDER TRADITIONAL AND IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematode population associated with cocoa rhizosphere was investigated at field experiment at Tropical Crop Institute (ICT) Tarapoto, San Martin-Peru. This study was carried out under two cacao management systems: traditional management system (ST) and under improved forest management system (SBB). ...

  18. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  19. Chemical speciation of cadmium: an approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the safety of chocolate consumption. Accumulation of Cd cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been reported to relate soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation was conducted to identify available Cd poo...

  20. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  1. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  2. Yield performance and bean quality traits of cacao propagated by grafting and somatic embryo-derived cuttings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) has great potential as a component of a small tropical farming system. It adapts to a wide range of soils of climatic conditions, grows well under minimum tillage, adapts to temporary intercropping, has the potential of being sold in local and export markets and the pods are ...

  3. Involvement of calcium oxalate degradation during programmed cell death in Theobroma cacao tissues triggered by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease of Theobroma cacao, significantly affected cacao production in South America and Caribbean countries. Host colonization by the pathogen exhibits a concerted succession of symptoms, starting with hypertrophic growth and ‘‘broom’’ f...

  4. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Methods Differential extraction of proteins from unfermented and semi-fermented-dry cacao seeds was performed and characterized by SDS-PAGE and FPLC size-exclusion chromatography. Antitumor activity was evaluated against murine lymphoma L5178Y in BALB/c mice (6 × 104 cells i.p.), with a treatment oral dose of 25 mg/kg/day of each protein fraction, over a period of 15 days. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS+ and ORAC-FL assays. Results Albumin, globulin and glutelin fractions from both cacao seed type were obtained by differential solubility extraction. Glutelins were the predominant fraction. In the albumin fraction, polypeptides of 42.3 and 8.5 kDa were found in native conditions, presumably in the form of two peptide chains of 21.5 kDa each one. The globulin fraction presented polypeptides of 86 and 57 kDa in unfermented cacao seed that produced the specific-cacao aroma precursors, and after fermentation the polypeptides were of 45 and 39 kDa. The glutelin fraction presented proteins >200 kDa and globulins components <100 KDa in lesser proportion. Regarding the semifermented-dry cacao seed, it was observed that the albumin fraction showed antitumoral activity, since it caused significant decreases (p < 0.05) in the ascetic fluid volume and packed cell volume, inhibiting cell growth in 59.98 ± 13.6% at 60% of the population; while the greatest antioxidant capacity due to free radical scavenging capacity was showed by the albumin and glutelin fraction in both methods assayed. Conclusion This study is the first report on

  5. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree) are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Results Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS) II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105) span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map assembly. A comparison between

  6. Proteome analysis during pod, zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Kaiser, Edward; Maximova, Siela N; Laremore, Tatiana; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Two dimensional electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS were performed in order to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with maturation of cacao zygotic and somatic embryos. The cacao pod proteome was also characterized during development. The recently published cacao genome sequence was used to create a predicted proteolytic fragment database. Several hundred protein spots were resolved on each tissue analysis, of which 72 variable spots were subjected to MS analysis, resulting in 49 identifications. The identified proteins represent an array of functional categories, including seed storage, stress response, photosynthesis and translation factors. The seed storage protein was strongly accumulated in cacao zygotic embryos compared to their somatic counterpart. However, sucrose treatment (60 g L(-1)) allows up-regulation of storage protein in SE. A high similarity in the profiles of acidic proteins was observed in mature zygotic and somatic embryos. Differential expression in both tissues was observed in proteins having high pI. Several proteins were detected exclusively in fruit tissues, including a chitinase and a 14-3-3 protein. We also identified a novel cacao protein related to known mabinlin type sweet storage proteins. Moreover, the specific presence of thaumatin-like protein, another sweet protein, was also detected in fruit tissue. We discuss our observed correlations between protein expression profiles, developmental stage and stress responses.

  7. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  8. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (F ST = 0) and SAMOVA (F ST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding.

  9. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (FST = 0) and SAMOVA (FST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding. PMID:27076998

  10. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  11. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  12. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  13. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex280/Em320 nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products. PMID:21297935

  14. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  15. Increasing the efficiency of traditional cacao breeding using whole genome sequencing information.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unfortunately, 80% of the genotypes from the "hybrid seeds" are unproductive in farmers' fields. In 1999 the USDA and Mars Inc. initiated a Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) program for cacao that has reduces many of the problems in traditional breeding. One limitation of the MAS program is the distan...

  16. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  17. Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...

  18. Novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain PR-1 extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2013-08-01

    Members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are well-known markers of plant defence responses, forming part of the arsenal of the secreted proteins produced on pathogen recognition. Here, we report the identification of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) PR-1s that are fused to transmembrane regions and serine/threonine kinase domains, in a manner characteristic of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). These proteins (TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g) were named PR-1 receptor kinases (PR-1RKs). Phylogenetic analysis of RLKs and PR-1 proteins from cacao indicated that PR-1RKs originated from a fusion between sequences encoding PR-1 and the kinase domain of a LecRLK (Lectin Receptor-Like Kinase). Retrotransposition marks surround TcPR-1f, suggesting that retrotransposition was involved in the origin of PR-1RKs. Genes with a similar domain architecture to cacao PR-1RKs were found in rice (Oryza sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and a nonphototrophic bacterium (Herpetosiphon aurantiacus). However, their kinase domains differed from those found in LecRLKs, indicating the occurrence of convergent evolution. TcPR-1g expression was up-regulated in the biotrophic stage of witches' broom disease, suggesting a role for PR-1RKs during cacao defence responses. We hypothesize that PR-1RKs transduce a defence signal by interacting with a PR-1 ligand.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of early somatic and zygotic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Noah, Alexandre Mboene; Niemenak, Nicolas; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Haase, Christin; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Winkelmann, Traud; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-14

    Somatic embryogenesis can efficiently foster the propagation of Theobroma cacao, but the poor quality of resulted plantlet hinders the use of this technique in the commercial scale. The current study has been initiated to systematically compare the physiological mechanisms underlying somatic and zygotic embryogenesis in T. cacao on the proteome level. About 1000 protein spots per fraction could be separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/SDS PAGE. More than 50 of the protein spots clearly differed in abundance between zygotic and somatic embryos: 33 proteins spots were at least 3-fold higher in abundance in zygotic embryos and 20 in somatic embryos. Analyses of these protein spots differing in volume by mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of 68 distinct proteins. Many of the identified proteins are involved in genetic information processing (21 proteins), carbohydrate metabolism (11 proteins) and stress response (7 proteins). Somatic embryos especially displayed many stress related proteins, few enzymes involved in storage compound synthesis and an exceptional high abundance of endopeptidase inhibitors. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which was accumulated more than 3-fold higher in zygotic embryos, represents a prominent enzyme in the storage compound metabolism in cacao seeds. Implications on the improvement of somatic embryogenesis in cacao are discussed.

  20. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain 629, an Endophyte from Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Marbach, Phellippe P. A.; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; De Souza, Jorge T.; Roque, Milton R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 629 is an endophyte isolated from Theobroma cacao L. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3.9 Mb) of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 629 containing 16 contigs (3,903,367 bp), 3,912 coding sequences, and an average 46.5% G+C content. PMID:26586881

  1. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  2. Altered physiology, cell structure and gene expression of Theobroma cacao seedlings submitted to Cu toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao seedlings from the genotype CCN 51 were grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg Cu L-1) in nutrient solution. When doses were equal or higher than 8 mg Cu L-1, after 24 h of treatment application, leaf gas exch...

  3. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  4. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain 629, an Endophyte from Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    SantAnna, Brena M M; Marbach, Phellippe P A; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; De Souza, Jorge T; Roque, Milton R A; Queiroz, Artur T L

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 629 is an endophyte isolated from Theobroma cacao L. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3.9 Mb) of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 629 containing 16 contigs (3,903,367 bp), 3,912 coding sequences, and an average 46.5% G+C content. PMID:26586881

  5. Towards The Identification Of Candidate Genes Involved In Witches' Broom Disease Resistance In Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  6. The impact of SNP fingerprinting and parentage analysis on the effectiveness of variety recommendations in cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence for the impact of mislabeling and/or pollen contamination on consistency of field performance has been lacking to reinforce the need for strict adherence to quality control protocols in cacao seed garden and germplasm plot management. The present study used SNP fingerprinting at 64 loci to ...

  7. Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) germplasm collection from Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao L. with its center of diversity in Central and South America was first introduced to West Africa in the mid-19th century and today the region produces 70% of the world's cocoa. Several distinct cocoa types have been introduced, cultivated and intercrossed across the region. Also, bi-...

  8. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  9. DYNAMICS OF NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN CACAO GROWN UNDER TRADIONALLY SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT IN PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nature of crops and management systems greatly influences population dynamics of parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes in soil. An experiment was undertaken at Tropical Crop Research institute (ICT), Tarapoto, Peru to assess the population dynamics of nematodes in a Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)-Banana ...

  10. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. PMID:26172587

  11. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  12. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002

  13. Cacao polyphenols influence the regulation of apolipoprotein in HepG2 and Caco2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akiko; Natsume, Midori; Osakabe, Naomi; Kawahata, Keiko; Koga, Jinichiro

    2011-02-23

    Cocoa powder is rich in polyphenols, such as catechins and procyanidins, and has been shown to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and atherogenesis in a variety of models. Human studies have also shown daily intake of cocoa increases plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decreases LDL levels. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects of cocoa on cholesterol metabolism have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of cacao polyphenols on the production of apolipoproteins A1 and B in human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal Caco2 cell lines. The cultured HepG2 cells or Caco2 cells were incubated for 24 h in the presence of cacao polyphenols such as (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2. The concentration of apolipoproteins in the cell culture media was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunoassay, and the mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR. Cacao polyphenols increased apolipoprotein A1 protein levels and mRNA expression, even though apolipoprotein B protein and the mRNA expression were slightly decreased in both HepG2 cells and Caco2 cells. In addition, cacao polyphenols increased sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and activated LDL receptors in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols may increase the production of mature form SREBPs and LDL receptor activity, thereby increasing ApoA1 and decreasing ApoB levels. These results elucidate a novel mechanism by which HDL cholesterol levels become elevated with daily cocoa intake.

  14. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (F ST = 0) and SAMOVA (F ST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding. PMID:27076998

  15. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1) that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS)). To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NPR1

  16. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  17. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  18. Lanthanide Label Array Method for Identification and Adulteration of Honey and Cacao.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Harri; Peltomaa, Riikka; Pihlasalo, Sari

    2015-07-01

    A generic, cost-effective, and simple method has been developed to fingerprint liquids to differentiate food brands and ingredients. The method is based on a label array using nonspecific long lifetime unstable luminescent lanthanide labels. The interaction between the liquid sample and the label is typically detrimental to the luminescence of the unstable chelate leading to a sample-dependent luminescence-intensity array. The label-array method is a unique approach as the array of unstable chelates is extremely inexpensive to produce and possesses high sensitivity due to spectral as well as unstable structural properties of the lanthanide label. The global method has been applied to distinguish commercial honey and cacao brands to demonstrate its feasibility as honey and cacao are among the most adulterated food products. PMID:26102618

  19. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  20. Lanthanide Label Array Method for Identification and Adulteration of Honey and Cacao.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Harri; Peltomaa, Riikka; Pihlasalo, Sari

    2015-07-01

    A generic, cost-effective, and simple method has been developed to fingerprint liquids to differentiate food brands and ingredients. The method is based on a label array using nonspecific long lifetime unstable luminescent lanthanide labels. The interaction between the liquid sample and the label is typically detrimental to the luminescence of the unstable chelate leading to a sample-dependent luminescence-intensity array. The label-array method is a unique approach as the array of unstable chelates is extremely inexpensive to produce and possesses high sensitivity due to spectral as well as unstable structural properties of the lanthanide label. The global method has been applied to distinguish commercial honey and cacao brands to demonstrate its feasibility as honey and cacao are among the most adulterated food products.

  1. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  2. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-02-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  3. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. Results We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. Conclusions We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits. PMID:23731509

  4. Diallel Analysis and Growth Parameters as Selection Tools for Drought Tolerance in Young Theobroma cacao Plants.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Emerson Alves; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Ahnert, Dario; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought regime, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by decreasing the amount of water application until ΨWL reached -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for most morphological attributes analyzed regarding progenies, water regime and their interactions. The results of the joint diallel analysis revealed significant effects between general combining ability (GCA) x water regimes and between specific combining ability (SCA) x water regimes. The SCA 6 genetic material showed high general combining ability for growth variables regardless of the water regime. In general, the water deficit influenced the production of biomass in most of the evaluated T. cacao crosses, except for SCA-6 x IMC-67, Catongo x SCA, MOC-01 x Catongo, Catongo x IMC-67 and RB-40 x Catongo. Multivariate analysis showed that stem diameter (CD), total leaf area (TLA), leaf dry biomass (LDB), stem dry biomass (SDB), root dry biomass (RDB), total dry biomass (TDB), root length (RL), root volume (RV), root diameter (RD) <1 mm and 1 <(RD) <2 mm were the most important growth parameters in the separation of T. cacao genotypes in to tolerant and intolerant to soil water deficit. PMID:27504627

  5. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  6. Altered physiology, cell structure, and gene expression of Theobroma cacao seedlings subjected to Cu toxicity.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vânia L; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, Jadiel de S; Mangabeira, Pedro A O; de Jesus, Raildo M; Pirovani, Carlos P; Ahnert, Dário; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro L

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Theobroma cacao CCN 51 genotype were grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg Cu L(-1)) in nutrient solution. When doses were equal or higher than 8 mg Cu L(-1), after 24 h of treatment application, leaf gas exchange was highly affected and changes in chloroplasts thylakoids of leaf mesophyll cells and plasmolysis of cells from the root cortical region were observed. In addition, cell membranes of roots and leaves were damaged. In leaves, 96 h after treatments started, increases in the percentage of electrolyte leakage through membranes were observed with increases of Cu in the nutrient solution. Moreover, there was an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in roots due to lipid peroxidation of membranes. Chemical analysis showed that increases in Cu concentrations in vegetative organs of T. cacao increased with the increase of the metal in the nutrient solution, but there was a greater accumulation of Cu in roots than in shoots. The excess of Cu interfered in the levels of Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, K, and Ca in different organs of T. cacao. Analysis of gene expression via RTq-PCR showed increased levels of MT2b, SODCyt, and PER-1 expression in roots and of MT2b, PSBA, PSBO, SODCyt, and SODChI in leaves. Hence, it was concluded that Cu in nutrient solution at doses equal or above 8 mg L(-1) significantly affected leaf gas exchange, cell ultrastructure, and transport of mineral nutrients in seedlings of this T. cacao genotype. PMID:23888348

  7. Differential gene expression by Moniliophthora roreri while overcoming cacao tolerance in the field.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Bryan A; Melnick, Rachel L; Strem, Mary D; Crozier, Jayne; Shao, Jonathan; Sicher, Richard; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Ali, Shahin S; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel

    2014-09-01

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) of Theobroma cacao (cacao) is caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora roreri. Cacao clones tolerant to FPR are being planted throughout Central America. To determine whether M. roreri shows a differential molecular response during successful infections of tolerant clones, we collected field-infected pods at all stages of symptomatology for two highly susceptible clones (Pound-7 and CATIE-1000) and three tolerant clones (UF-273, CATIE-R7 and CATIE-R4). Metabolite analysis was carried out on clones Pound-7, CATIE-1000, CATIE-R7 and CATIE-R4. As FPR progressed, the concentrations of sugars in pods dropped, whereas the levels of trehalose and mannitol increased. Associations between symptoms and fungal loads and some organic and amino acid concentrations varied depending on the clone. RNA-Seq analysis identified 873 M. roreri genes that were differentially expressed between clones, with the primary difference being whether the clone was susceptible or tolerant. Genes encoding transcription factors, heat shock proteins, transporters, enzymes modifying membranes or cell walls and metabolic enzymes, such as malate synthase and alternative oxidase, were differentially expressed. The differential expression between clones of 43 M. roreri genes was validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression profiles of some genes were similar in susceptible and tolerant clones (other than CATIE-R4) and varied with the biotrophic/necrotropic shift. Moniliophthora roreri genes associated with stress metabolism and responses to heat shock and anoxia were induced early in tolerant clones, their expression profiles resembling that of the necrotrophic phase. Moniliophthora roreri stress response genes, induced during the infection of tolerant clones, may benefit the fungus in overcoming cacao defense mechanisms.

  8. Analysis of catechins in Theobroma cacao beans by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto; Furlanetto, Sandra; Pinzauti, Sergio; Cavrini, Vanni

    2006-04-21

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the quantitation of polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (catechin monomers) and the methylxanthine theobromine in Theobroma cacao beans. Owing to the poor stability of catechin monomers in alkaline conditions, a 50 mM Britton-Robinson buffer at a pH 2.50 was preferred as the background electrolyte. Under these conditions, the addition of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) at a concentration of 12 mM to the SDS micellar solution (90 mM), resulted in a cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) endowed with two peculiar advantages compare to the conventional MEKC: (i) strong improvement of separation of the most important phytomarkers of T. cacao and (ii) enantioselectivity toward (+/-)-catechin. In particular, separation of methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine), procyanidin dimers B1 and B2, and catechins (epicatechin and catechin) was obtained simultaneously to the enantioseparation of racemic catechin within 10min. The enantioselectivity of the method makes it suitable in evaluation of possible epimerisation at the C-2 position of epicatechin monomer potentially occurring during heat processing and storage of T. cacao beans. The extraction procedure of the phytomarkers from the beans was approached using ultrasonic bath under mild conditions optimized by a multivariate strategy. The method was validated for robustness, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, range, accuracy and precision and it was applied to T. cacao beans from different countries; interestingly, the native enantiomer (+)-catechin was found in the beans whereas, for the first time we reported that in chocolate, predominantly (-)-catechin is present, probably yielded by epimerisation of (-)-epicatechin occurred during the manufacture of chocolate.

  9. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-14

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  10. Altered physiology, cell structure, and gene expression of Theobroma cacao seedlings subjected to Cu toxicity.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vânia L; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, Jadiel de S; Mangabeira, Pedro A O; de Jesus, Raildo M; Pirovani, Carlos P; Ahnert, Dário; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro L

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Theobroma cacao CCN 51 genotype were grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg Cu L(-1)) in nutrient solution. When doses were equal or higher than 8 mg Cu L(-1), after 24 h of treatment application, leaf gas exchange was highly affected and changes in chloroplasts thylakoids of leaf mesophyll cells and plasmolysis of cells from the root cortical region were observed. In addition, cell membranes of roots and leaves were damaged. In leaves, 96 h after treatments started, increases in the percentage of electrolyte leakage through membranes were observed with increases of Cu in the nutrient solution. Moreover, there was an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in roots due to lipid peroxidation of membranes. Chemical analysis showed that increases in Cu concentrations in vegetative organs of T. cacao increased with the increase of the metal in the nutrient solution, but there was a greater accumulation of Cu in roots than in shoots. The excess of Cu interfered in the levels of Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, K, and Ca in different organs of T. cacao. Analysis of gene expression via RTq-PCR showed increased levels of MT2b, SODCyt, and PER-1 expression in roots and of MT2b, PSBA, PSBO, SODCyt, and SODChI in leaves. Hence, it was concluded that Cu in nutrient solution at doses equal or above 8 mg L(-1) significantly affected leaf gas exchange, cell ultrastructure, and transport of mineral nutrients in seedlings of this T. cacao genotype.

  11. Diallel Analysis and Growth Parameters as Selection Tools for Drought Tolerance in Young Theobroma cacao Plants

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Emerson Alves; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Ahnert, Dario; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought regime, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by decreasing the amount of water application until ΨWL reached -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for most morphological attributes analyzed regarding progenies, water regime and their interactions. The results of the joint diallel analysis revealed significant effects between general combining ability (GCA) x water regimes and between specific combining ability (SCA) x water regimes. The SCA 6 genetic material showed high general combining ability for growth variables regardless of the water regime. In general, the water deficit influenced the production of biomass in most of the evaluated T. cacao crosses, except for SCA-6 x IMC-67, Catongo x SCA, MOC-01 x Catongo, Catongo x IMC-67 and RB-40 x Catongo. Multivariate analysis showed that stem diameter (CD), total leaf area (TLA), leaf dry biomass (LDB), stem dry biomass (SDB), root dry biomass (RDB), total dry biomass (TDB), root length (RL), root volume (RV), root diameter (RD) <1 mm and 1 <(RD) <2 mm were the most important growth parameters in the separation of T. cacao genotypes in to tolerant and intolerant to soil water deficit. PMID:27504627

  12. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    PubMed Central

    Mondego, Jorge MC; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo GL; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela PT; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia BL; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis AB; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio CM; Pereira, Gonçalo AG

    2008-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem. PMID:19019209

  13. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches’ broom disease of cacao

    PubMed Central

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant–fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. PMID:25540440

  14. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    PubMed

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation.

  15. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts. PMID:25389662

  17. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population ma...

  18. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola

  19. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae.

    PubMed

    Aime, M C; Phillips-Mora, W

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao)--the source of chocolate--in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environmental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relationships of M. roreri have yet to be conclusively established. In this paper, extensive phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear gene regions (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, ITS, RPB1, and EF1-alpha) confirm that C. perniciosa and M. roreri are sister taxa that belong in the Marasmiaceae (euagarics). Furthermore, these taxa form part of a separate and distinct lineage within the family. This lineage includes the biotrophic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa comb. nov. and M. roreri, as well as one undescribed endophytic species. The sister genera to Moniliophthora are Marasmius, Crinipellis and Chaetocalathus, which consist mainly of saprotrophic litter fungi.

  20. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Andrew S.; O’Neil, Shawn T.; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  1. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  2. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees.

  3. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed.

  4. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. PMID:25618898

  5. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers' fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  6. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  7. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A.; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  8. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; van Etten, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao's distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset of 939 cacao trees genotypically characterized by means of 96 SSR markers. To assess continental diversity patterns we performed grid-based calculations of allelic richness, Shannon diversity and Nei gene diversity, and distinguished different spatially coherent genetic groups by means of cluster analysis. The highest levels of genetic diversity were observed in the Upper Amazon areas from southern Peru to the Ecuadorian Amazon and the border areas between Colombia, Peru and Brazil. On the assumption that the last glaciation (22,000-13,000 BP) had the greatest pre-human impact on the current distribution and diversity of cacao, we modeled the species' Pleistocene niche suitability and overlaid this with present-day diversity maps. The results suggest that cacao was already widely distributed in the Western Amazon before the onset of glaciation. During glaciations, cacao populations were likely to have been restricted to several refugia where they probably underwent genetic differentiation, resulting in a number of genetic clusters which are representative for, or closest related to, the original wild cacao populations. The analyses also suggested that genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of a number of other clusters seem to have been significantly affected by processes of human management and accompanying genetic bottlenecks. We discuss the implications of these results for future germplasm collection and in situ, on farm and ex situ conservation of cacao.

  9. Development of novel microsatellites from Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jurema R Q; Figueira, Antonio; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Albuquerque, Paulo

    2008-07-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of the witches' broom disease of cacao. Based on available genomic sequences, we identified 30 new microsatellite loci, which were analysed using 50 isolates from four populations sampled over a wide geographical area in Brazil, including three populations from the Amazon, the fungal putative centre of diversity, plus one from Bahia. Nine loci were polymorphic, with an average of 2.9 alleles per locus. The level of polymorphism observed was low, but these markers may allow the evaluation of pathogen diversity and the establishment of molecular standards for isolate fingerprinting to support cacao breeding.

  10. Genetic and Biological Diversity of Trichoderma stromaticum, a Mycoparasite of the Cacao Witches'-Broom Pathogen.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jorge T; Pomella, Alan W V; Bowers, John H; Pirovani, Carlos P; Loguercio, Leandro L; Hebbar, K Prakash

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The witches'-broom disease, caused by the basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa, is the most limiting factor for cacao cultivation in Brazil. Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the witches'-broom pathogen of cacao that is currently being applied in the field to manage the disease in Bahia State, Brazil. In this work, molecular and traditional methods were used to study the genetic and biological diversity of this mycoparasite. Ninety-one isolates, mostly collected from farms not sprayed with the fungus, were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), which showed that two genetic groups (I and II) of T. stromaticum occur in Bahia State. This classification of T. stromaticum into two distinct AFLP groups was also in agreement with several other characteristics, including growth on agar media at different temperatures and sporulation on infected stem segments (broom pieces) and rice grains. Group II favors higher temperatures compared with group I. The genetic and biological differences of the isolates, however, were not evident in field experiments, where sporulation was evaluated on the surface of brooms under natural conditions. Our results show that there is considerable genetic and biological diversity within T. stromaticum in Bahia and other cacao-growing regions of South America that are affected by the witches'-broom disease. This diversity could be explored in the development of efficient biological control agents against the disease. Factors that may affect the application and performance of this biocontrol agent in the field, such as sporulation on rice substrate and on the brooms and growth at various temperatures, are discussed.

  11. Molecular, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Pb Toxicity in Seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Reis, Graciele Santos Monteiro; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Almeida, Nicolle Moreira; de Castro, Andressa Vieira; Mangabeira, Pedro Antonio Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Pb is a metal which is highly toxic to plants and animals, including humans. High concentrations of Pb have been observed in beans of T. cacao, as well as in its products. In this work, we evaluated the molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in mature leaves and primary roots of seedlings of two progenies of T. cacao, obtained from seed germination in different concentrations of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g L(-1)), in the form of Pb(NO3)2. The progenies resulted from self-fertilization of Catongo and a cross of CCN-10 x SCA-6. The Pb, supplied via seminal, caused alterations in the ultrastructures of the mesophyll cells and in the amount of starch grains in the chloroplasts. The dosage of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid showed that Pb induced lipid peroxidation. The activity of guaiacol peroxidases and the expression of genes associated to synthetase of phytochelatin, SODcyt and PER increased in response to Pb. In addition, there was alteration in the expression of stress-related proteins. The progeny of CCN-10 x SCA-6 was more tolerant to Pb stress when compared to Catongo, since: (i) it accumulated more Pb in the roots, preventing its translocation to the shoot; (ii) it presented higher activity of peroxidases in the roots, which are enzymes involved in the elimination of excess of reactive oxygen species; and (iii) increased expression of the gene in the phytochelatin biosynthesis route. The results of the proteomic analysis were of paramount importance to differentiate the defense mechanisms used by both progenies of T. cacao. PMID:26146994

  12. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  13. Molecular, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Pb Toxicity in Seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Reis, Graciele Santos Monteiro; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Almeida, Nicolle Moreira; de Castro, Andressa Vieira; Mangabeira, Pedro Antonio Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Pb is a metal which is highly toxic to plants and animals, including humans. High concentrations of Pb have been observed in beans of T. cacao, as well as in its products. In this work, we evaluated the molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in mature leaves and primary roots of seedlings of two progenies of T. cacao, obtained from seed germination in different concentrations of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g L(-1)), in the form of Pb(NO3)2. The progenies resulted from self-fertilization of Catongo and a cross of CCN-10 x SCA-6. The Pb, supplied via seminal, caused alterations in the ultrastructures of the mesophyll cells and in the amount of starch grains in the chloroplasts. The dosage of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid showed that Pb induced lipid peroxidation. The activity of guaiacol peroxidases and the expression of genes associated to synthetase of phytochelatin, SODcyt and PER increased in response to Pb. In addition, there was alteration in the expression of stress-related proteins. The progeny of CCN-10 x SCA-6 was more tolerant to Pb stress when compared to Catongo, since: (i) it accumulated more Pb in the roots, preventing its translocation to the shoot; (ii) it presented higher activity of peroxidases in the roots, which are enzymes involved in the elimination of excess of reactive oxygen species; and (iii) increased expression of the gene in the phytochelatin biosynthesis route. The results of the proteomic analysis were of paramount importance to differentiate the defense mechanisms used by both progenies of T. cacao.

  14. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the sucrose transporter gene family from Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Yan, Lin; Hao, Chaoyun; Tan, Lehe; Lai, Jianxiong

    2014-08-10

    In this study, we performed cloning and expression analysis of six putative sucrose transporter genes, designated TcSUT1, TcSUT2, TcSUT3, TcSUT4, TcSUT5 and TcSUT6, from the cacao genotype 'TAS-R8'. The combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the cacao SUT genes contained exon numbers ranging from 1 to 14. The average molecular mass of all six deduced proteins was approximately 56 kDa (range 52 to 66 kDa). All six proteins were predicted to exhibit typical features of sucrose transporters with 12 trans-membrane spanning domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TcSUT2 and TcSUT4 belonged to Group 2 SUT and Group 4 SUT, respectively, and the other TcSUT proteins were belonging to Group 1 SUT. Real-time PCR was conducted to investigate the expression pattern of each member of the SUT family in cacao. Our experiment showed that TcSUT1 was expressed dominantly in pods and that, TcSUT3 and TcSUT4 were highly expressed in both pods and in bark with phloem. Within pods, TcSUT1 and TcSUT4 were expressed more in the seed coat and seed from the pod enlargement stage to the ripening stage. TcSUT5 expression sharply increased to its highest expression level in the seed coat during the ripening stage. Expression pattern analysis indicated that TcSUT genes may be associated with photoassimilate transport into developing seeds and may, therefore, have an impact on seed production.

  16. Molecular, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Pb Toxicity in Seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Graciele Santos Monteiro; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Almeida, Nicolle Moreira; de Castro, Andressa Vieira; Mangabeira, Pedro Antonio Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Pb is a metal which is highly toxic to plants and animals, including humans. High concentrations of Pb have been observed in beans of T. cacao, as well as in its products. In this work, we evaluated the molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in mature leaves and primary roots of seedlings of two progenies of T. cacao, obtained from seed germination in different concentrations of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g L-1), in the form of Pb(NO3)2. The progenies resulted from self-fertilization of Catongo and a cross of CCN-10 x SCA-6. The Pb, supplied via seminal, caused alterations in the ultrastructures of the mesophyll cells and in the amount of starch grains in the chloroplasts. The dosage of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid showed that Pb induced lipid peroxidation. The activity of guaiacol peroxidases and the expression of genes associated to synthetase of phytochelatin, SODcyt and PER increased in response to Pb. In addition, there was alteration in the expression of stress-related proteins. The progeny of CCN-10 x SCA-6 was more tolerant to Pb stress when compared to Catongo, since: (i) it accumulated more Pb in the roots, preventing its translocation to the shoot; (ii) it presented higher activity of peroxidases in the roots, which are enzymes involved in the elimination of excess of reactive oxygen species; and (iii) increased expression of the gene in the phytochelatin biosynthesis route. The results of the proteomic analysis were of paramount importance to differentiate the defense mechanisms used by both progenies of T. cacao. PMID:26146994

  17. Antimicrobial properties of two novel peptides derived from Theobroma cacao osmotin.

    PubMed

    Falcao, Loeni L; Silva-Werneck, Joseilde O; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Martins, Natalia F; Bresso, Emmanuel; Rodrigues, Magali A; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Marcellino, Lucilia H

    2016-05-01

    The osmotin proteins of several plants display antifungal activity, which can play an important role in plant defense against diseases. Thus, this protein can be useful as a source for biotechnological strategies aiming to combat fungal diseases. In this work, we analyzed the antifungal activity of a cacao osmotin-like protein (TcOsm1) and of two osmotin-derived synthetic peptides with antimicrobial features, differing by five amino acids residues at the N-terminus. Antimicrobial tests showed that TcOsm1 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits the growth of Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelium and Pichia pastoris X-33 in vitro. The TcOsm1-derived peptides, named Osm-pepA (H-RRLDRGGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at R23-K49, and Osm-pepB (H-GGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at G28-K49, inhibited growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and Pichia pastoris X-33) and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium f. sp. glycines and Colletotrichum gossypi. Osm-pepA was more efficient than Osm-pepB for S. cerevisiae (MIC=40μM and MIC=127μM, respectively), as well as for P. pastoris (MIC=20μM and MIC=127μM, respectively). Furthermore, the peptides presented a biphasic performance, promoting S. cerevisiae growth in doses around 5μM and inhibiting it at higher doses. The structural model for these peptides showed that the five amino acids residues, RRLDR at Osm-pepA N-terminus, significantly affect the tertiary structure, indicating that this structure is important for the peptide antimicrobial potency. This is the first report of development of antimicrobial peptides from T. cacao. Taken together, the results indicate that the cacao osmotin and its derived peptides, herein studied, are good candidates for developing biotechnological tools aiming to control phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:26996966

  18. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  19. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches’ broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  20. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  1. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  2. Present Spatial Diversity Patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics Reflect Genetic Differentiation in Pleistocene Refugia Followed by Human-Influenced Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; van Etten, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao’s distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset of 939 cacao trees genotypically characterized by means of 96 SSR markers. To assess continental diversity patterns we performed grid-based calculations of allelic richness, Shannon diversity and Nei gene diversity, and distinguished different spatially coherent genetic groups by means of cluster analysis. The highest levels of genetic diversity were observed in the Upper Amazon areas from southern Peru to the Ecuadorian Amazon and the border areas between Colombia, Peru and Brazil. On the assumption that the last glaciation (22,000–13,000 BP) had the greatest pre-human impact on the current distribution and diversity of cacao, we modeled the species’ Pleistocene niche suitability and overlaid this with present-day diversity maps. The results suggest that cacao was already widely distributed in the Western Amazon before the onset of glaciation. During glaciations, cacao populations were likely to have been restricted to several refugia where they probably underwent genetic differentiation, resulting in a number of genetic clusters which are representative for, or closest related to, the original wild cacao populations. The analyses also suggested that genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of a number of other clusters seem to have been significantly affected by processes of human management and accompanying genetic bottlenecks. We discuss the implications of these results for future germplasm collection and in situ, on farm and ex situ conservation of

  3. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size

  4. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class

  5. A potential role for an extracellular methanol oxidase secreted by Moniliophthora perniciosa in Witches' broom disease in cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao, is able to grow in methanol as sole carbon source. In plants, one of the main sources of methanol is the pectin present in the structure of cell walls. Pectin is composed b...

  6. Development of molecular genetic markers from a cDNA subtraction library of Frosty Pod inoculated cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been employing a candidate gene approach to identify molecular markers associated with disease resistance in Theobroma cacao. Candidate genes can be turned into molecular markers using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. As a novel approach to identifying genes associa...

  7. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  8. Genetic identity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world and 71% of its production is from Sulawesi Island. Knowledge about the genetic background of farmer selections is highly important for effective identification and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. Mor...

  9. Carbon stock and available nutrients in soils under “cacao-cabruca” system in southeast areas of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agroecosytems, the efficient nutrient cycling is considered responsible for plant nutrition; however it is important to consider the amount of total available nutrients. Experiments were undertaken to quantify the carbon stock and available nutrients in cacao plantation grown under tree shade of ...

  10. Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

  11. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    PubMed

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  12. Biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation of theobromine in developing Theobroma cacao fruits.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Koyama, Yoko; Nagai, Chifumi; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in Theobroma cacao fruits at differing growth stages: Stage A (young small fruit, fresh weight, ca. 2 g); stage B (medium size fruit, fresh weight, ca. 100 g) and stage C (large size, fresh weight, ca. 500 g). The major purine alkaloid in stage A fruits (mainly pericarp) was theobromine (0.7 micromol g(-1) fresh weight), followed by caffeine (0.09 micromol g(-1) fresh weight). The theobromine content of the pericarp decreased sharply with tissue age, and the caffeine content decreased gradually. A large amount of theobromine (22 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) had accumulated in seeds (mainly cotyledons) of stage C fruits. Theobromine was found also in the seed coat and placenta. Tracer experiments with [8-(14)C]adenine show that the major sites of theobromine synthesis are the young pericarp and cotyledons of T. cacao fruits. Limited amounts of purine alkaloids may be transported from the pericarp to seed tissue, but most purine alkaloids that accumulated in seeds appeared to be synthesised in cotyledons. Degradation of [8-(14)C]theobromine and [8-(14)C]caffeine to CO2 via 3-methylxanthine and ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid) was detected only in the pericarp of stage C fruits.

  13. Differential expression of the lethal gene Luteus-Pa in cacao of the Parinari series.

    PubMed

    Rehem, B C; Almeida, A-A F; Figueiredo, G S F; Gesteira, A S; Santos, S C; Corrêa, R X; Yamada, M M; Valle, R R

    2016-01-01

    The recessive lethal character Luteus-Pa is found in cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes of the Parinari series (Pa) and is characterized by expression of leaf chlorosis and seedling death. Several genotypes of the Pa series are bearers of the gene responsible for the expression of the Luteus-Pa character, which can be used as a tool for determining relationships between genotypes of this group. To evaluate this phenomenon, we analyzed the differential expression of genes between mutant seedlings and wild-type hybrid Pa 30 x 169 seedlings, with the aim of elucidating the possible lethal mechanisms of the homozygous recessive character Luteus-Pa. Plant material was harvested from leaves of wild and mutant seedlings at different periods to construct a subtractive library and perform quantitative analysis using real-time PCR. The 649 sequences obtained from the subtractive library had an average length of 500 bp, forming 409 contigs. The probable proteins encoded were grouped into 10 functional categories. Data from ESTs identified genes associated with Rubisco, peroxidases, and other proteins and enzymes related to carbon assimilation, respiration, and photosystem 2. Mutant seedlings were characterized by synthesizing defective PsbO and PsbA proteins, which were overexpressed from 15 to 20 days after seedling emergence. PMID:26910005

  14. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    PubMed

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material. PMID:26985935

  15. Characterization of the legumains encoded by the genome of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Santana, Juliano Oliveira; Freire, Laís; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Fontes Soares, Virgínia Lúcia; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2016-01-01

    Legumains are cysteine proteases related to plant development, protein degradation, programmed cell death, and defense against pathogens. In this study, we have identified and characterized three legumains encoded by Theobroma cacao genome through in silico analyses, three-dimensional modeling, genetic expression pattern in different tissues and as a response to the inoculation of Moniliophthora perniciosa fungus. The three proteins were named TcLEG3, TcLEG6, and TcLEG9. Histidine and cysteine residue which are part of the catalytic site were conserved among the proteins, and they remained parallel in the loop region in the 3D modeling. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the propeptide, which is located in the terminal C region of legumains blocks the catalytic cleft. Comparing dendrogram data with the relative expression analysis, indicated that TcLEG3 is related to the seed legumain group, TcLEG6 is related with the group of embryogenesis activities, and protein TcLEG9, with processes regarding the vegetative group. Furthermore, the expression analyses proposes a significant role for the three legumains during the development of Theobroma cacao and in its interaction with M. perniciosa.

  16. Effect of cacao liquor extract on tumor marker enzymes during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, I; Koh, B K; Asmah, R

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cacao liquor extract (CLE) on tumor marker enzymes--alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities--in plasma and/or liver of hepatocarcinogenic rats, which were induced with diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 150-330 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6-8): normal control group (N), normal group + CLE (NE), cancer group (C), and cancer group + CLE (CE). Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<.05) in the specific activities of ALP, GGT, and GST between the C and N groups. However, GR activity for the C group was not significantly different compared with the N group. In the CE group, the specific activities of ALP, GGT, GST, and GR were significantly lower (P<.05) compared with the C group. The findings showed that CLE could lower the activity of tumor marker enzymes of rats during hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on the results obtained, polyphenol compounds present in the cacao liquor, extracted by using ethanol, have the potential in decreasing the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. Optimizing carbon dioxide and light levels during in vitro culture of Theobroma cacao

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira, A.; Janick, J. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    In vitro culture of axillary cotyledonary shoots of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) under increasing CO[sub 2] concentration from ambient to 24,000 ppm (culture tube levels) significantly increased total shoot elongation, number of leaves, leaf area per explant, and shoot dry and fresh weight. Although light was necessary for the CO[sub 2] response, the effect of various photon fluxes was not significant for the measured growth parameters. Net photosynthesis estimated on the basis of CO[sub 2] depletion in culture tubes increased 3.5 times from 463 to 2639 ppm CO[sub 2], and increased 1.5 times from 2,639 to 14,849 ppm CO[sub 2], but declined from 14,849 to 24,015 ppm CO[sub 2]. Ethylene concentration in culture vessels increased under enriched CO[sub 2] conditions. Depletion of nutrients (fructose, K, Ca, Mg, and P) from the medium was increased under enriched CO[sub 2] conditions.

  18. Characterization of the legumains encoded by the genome of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Santana, Juliano Oliveira; Freire, Laís; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Fontes Soares, Virgínia Lúcia; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2016-01-01

    Legumains are cysteine proteases related to plant development, protein degradation, programmed cell death, and defense against pathogens. In this study, we have identified and characterized three legumains encoded by Theobroma cacao genome through in silico analyses, three-dimensional modeling, genetic expression pattern in different tissues and as a response to the inoculation of Moniliophthora perniciosa fungus. The three proteins were named TcLEG3, TcLEG6, and TcLEG9. Histidine and cysteine residue which are part of the catalytic site were conserved among the proteins, and they remained parallel in the loop region in the 3D modeling. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the propeptide, which is located in the terminal C region of legumains blocks the catalytic cleft. Comparing dendrogram data with the relative expression analysis, indicated that TcLEG3 is related to the seed legumain group, TcLEG6 is related with the group of embryogenesis activities, and protein TcLEG9, with processes regarding the vegetative group. Furthermore, the expression analyses proposes a significant role for the three legumains during the development of Theobroma cacao and in its interaction with M. perniciosa. PMID:26691061

  19. Stable transformation of Theobroma cacao L. and influence of matrix attachment regions on GFP expression.

    PubMed

    Maximova, S; Miller, C; Antúnez de Mayolo, G; Pishak, S; Young, A; Guiltinan, M J

    2003-06-01

    We describe a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using cotyledonary explants from primary somatic embryos (SEs) and A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Transgenic plants carrying the visible marker, gene green fluorescent protein ( EGFP), the selectable marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase II ( NPTII), the class I chitinase gene from cacao ( Chi), and tobacco nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) in different combinations were successfully produced via regeneration of secondary SEs. The presence of the Chi gene or MARs did not influence the number of transgenic plants produced compared to the marker genes alone. However, the inclusion of MARs contributed to increased mean GFP expression in the population of transgenics. Additionally, the presence of MARs reduced the occurrence of gene silencing and stabilized high levels of GFP expression in lines of transgenic plants multiplied via reiterative somatic embryogenesis. Ninety-four transgenic plants were acclimated in a greenhouse and grown to maturity. Detailed growth analysis indicated that there were no differences in various growth parameters between transgenic and non-transgenic SE-derived plants. Seeds produced from two genetic crosses with one of the transgenic lines were analyzed for EGFP expression-a near-perfect 1:1 segregation was observed, indicating that this line resulted from the insertion of a single locus of T-DNA. PMID:12789505

  20. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  1. Tree Spatial Structure, Host Composition and Resource Availability Influence Mirid Density or Black Pod Prevalence in Cacao Agroforests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  2. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  3. Identification of candidate genes involved in witches’ broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers in the Americas. Protective fungicides are ineffective, and disease management involving repeated phytosanitary removals increases labor costs. The best al...

  4. Isolation and purification of functional total RNA from different organs of cacao tree during its interaction with the pathogen Crinipellis perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Micheli, Fabienne; Ferreira, Cláudia Fortes; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de Mattos

    2003-09-01

    Witches' broom disease, caused by Crinipellis perniciosa, is one of the major fungal diseases causing severe losses to cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) plantations in South America. One of the challenges associated with the understanding of the cacao and Crinipellis interaction in genomic studies is the isolation of intact nucleic acids. In this report, we describe a new, successful, and reliable procedure for the isolation of RNA from tissues of cacao tree, both infected and uninfected by Crinipellis. This protocol overcomes the problems associated with the very high amount of polyphenols and polysaccharides present in cacao organs that are not easily removed by conventional extraction procedures. The protocol requires few reagents, uses ultracentrifugation and inexpensive consumables, and can be easily applied in any laboratory. This method produced high-quality RNA that was suitable for subsequent purposes, such as reverse transcription PCR and cDNA library construction. We also report the first evidence of RNA isolation from cacao organs infected by C. perniciosa such as meristems and fruits.

  5. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits.

  6. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils. PMID:27234831

  7. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils.

  8. Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions

    PubMed Central

    Argout, Xavier; Fouet, Olivier; Wincker, Patrick; Gramacho, Karina; Legavre, Thierry; Sabau, Xavier; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Da Silva, Corinne; Cascardo, Julio; Allegre, Mathilde; Kuhn, David; Verica, Joseph; Courtois, Brigitte; Loor, Gaston; Babin, Regis; Sounigo, Olivier; Ducamp, Michel; Guiltinan, Mark J; Ruiz, Manuel; Alemanno, Laurence; Machado, Regina; Phillips, Wilberth; Schnell, Ray; Gilmour, Martin; Rosenquist, Eric; Butler, David; Maximova, Siela; Lanaud, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. T. cacao is mainly produced on smallholdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and T. cacao quality improvement are two important challenges for all actors of cocoa and chocolate production. T. cacao is seriously affected by pests and fungal diseases, responsible for more than 40% yield losses and quality improvement, nutritional and organoleptic, is also important for consumers. An international collaboration was formed to develop an EST genomic resource database for cacao. Results Fifty-six cDNA libraries were constructed from different organs, different genotypes and different environmental conditions. A total of 149,650 valid EST sequences were generated corresponding to 48,594 unigenes, 12,692 contigs and 35,902 singletons. A total of 29,849 unigenes shared significant homology with public sequences from other species. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation was applied to distribute the ESTs among the main GO categories. A specific information system (ESTtik) was constructed to process, store and manage this EST collection allowing the user to query a database. To check the representativeness of our EST collection, we looked for the genes known to be involved in two different metabolic pathways extensively studied in other plant species and important for T. cacao qualities: the flavonoid and the terpene pathways. Most of the enzymes described in other crops for these two metabolic pathways were found in our EST collection. A large collection of new genetic markers was provided by this ESTs collection. Conclusion This EST collection displays a good representation of the T. cacao transcriptome, suitable for analysis of biochemical pathways based on oligonucleotide microarrays derived from these ESTs. It will provide numerous genetic markers that will allow the construction of a high

  9. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damages in rat: inhibitory effects of cacao polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Kamei, Masanori; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the protective effect of cacao polyphenol extract (CPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats. Rats were administered CPE for 7 days and then received intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Two hours after injection, we found that CCl4 treatment significantly increased biochemical injury markers, lipid peroxides (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney rather than liver, suggesting that kidney is more vulnerable to oxidative stress under the present experimental conditions. CPE supplementation significantly reduced these changes, indicating that this compound has antioxidant properties against CCl4-induced oxidative stress. An inhibitory effect of CPE on CCl4-induced CYP2E1 mRNA degradation may provide an explanation for CPE antioxidant property. Together, these results provide quantitative evidence of the in vivo antioxidant properties of CPE, especially in terms of PCOOH and MDA levels in the kidneys of CCl4-treated rats.

  10. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacri, C. O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.; Cacao Group

    2010-02-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives à Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  11. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damages in rat: inhibitory effects of cacao polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Kamei, Masanori; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the protective effect of cacao polyphenol extract (CPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato-renal oxidative stress in rats. Rats were administered CPE for 7 days and then received intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Two hours after injection, we found that CCl4 treatment significantly increased biochemical injury markers, lipid peroxides (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney rather than liver, suggesting that kidney is more vulnerable to oxidative stress under the present experimental conditions. CPE supplementation significantly reduced these changes, indicating that this compound has antioxidant properties against CCl4-induced oxidative stress. An inhibitory effect of CPE on CCl4-induced CYP2E1 mRNA degradation may provide an explanation for CPE antioxidant property. Together, these results provide quantitative evidence of the in vivo antioxidant properties of CPE, especially in terms of PCOOH and MDA levels in the kidneys of CCl4-treated rats. PMID:25996516

  12. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-12-12

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P < 0.0001). Sampled demes sites (1- 7) in the Soconusco region did not show any evidence of clustering by geographic location, and this was supported by the Mantel test (Rxy = 0.54, P = 0.120). Individuals with high Criollo lineage planted in Soconusco farms could be an important reservoir of genes for future breeding programs searching for fine, taste, flavor, and aroma cocoa.

  13. Morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes induced by Cd toxicity in seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Castro, Andressa V; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Pirovani, Carlos P; Reis, Graciele S M; Almeida, Nicolle M; Mangabeira, Pedro A O

    2015-05-01

    Seeds from Theobroma cacao progenies derived from the self-pollination of 'Catongo'×'Catongo' and the crossing between CCN-10×SCA-6 were immersed for 24h in different Cd solutions (2; 4; 8; 16 and 32 mgL(-1)) along with the control treatment (without Cd). Shortly after, the seeds were sown in plastic tubes containing organic substrate and were grown in a greenhouse for 60 days. The treatment with Cd was observed to cause morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes in both progenies of T. cacao. There has been deformation in chloroplasts, nuclear chromatin condensation, and reduction in thickness of the mesophyll. As for 'Catongo'×'Catongo', a decrease in thickness of the epidermis was noted on the abaxial face. There has been increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in the roots of CCN-10×SCA-6, as well as in the''Catongo'×'Catongo' leaves. In the presence of Cd, CCN-10×SCA-6 showed increased expression of the genes associated with the biosynthesis of phytochelatin (PCS-1) and class III peroxidases (PER-1) in leaves, and metallothionein (MT2b), in roots. In 'Catongo'×'Catongo', there has been an increase in the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of PER-1 and cytosolic superoxide dismutase dependent on copper and zinc (Cu-Zn SODCyt) in leaves and from MT2b and PCS-1 and roots. There was higher accumulation of Cd in the aerial parts of seedlings from both progenies, whereas the most pronounced accumulation was seen in''Catongo'×'Catongo'. The increase in Cd concentration has led to lower Zn and Fe levels in both progenies. Hence, one may conclude that the different survival strategies used by CCN-10×SCA-6 made such progeny more tolerant to Cd stress when compared to''Catongo'×'Catongo'.

  14. Morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes induced by Cd toxicity in seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Castro, Andressa V; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Pirovani, Carlos P; Reis, Graciele S M; Almeida, Nicolle M; Mangabeira, Pedro A O

    2015-05-01

    Seeds from Theobroma cacao progenies derived from the self-pollination of 'Catongo'×'Catongo' and the crossing between CCN-10×SCA-6 were immersed for 24h in different Cd solutions (2; 4; 8; 16 and 32 mgL(-1)) along with the control treatment (without Cd). Shortly after, the seeds were sown in plastic tubes containing organic substrate and were grown in a greenhouse for 60 days. The treatment with Cd was observed to cause morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes in both progenies of T. cacao. There has been deformation in chloroplasts, nuclear chromatin condensation, and reduction in thickness of the mesophyll. As for 'Catongo'×'Catongo', a decrease in thickness of the epidermis was noted on the abaxial face. There has been increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in the roots of CCN-10×SCA-6, as well as in the''Catongo'×'Catongo' leaves. In the presence of Cd, CCN-10×SCA-6 showed increased expression of the genes associated with the biosynthesis of phytochelatin (PCS-1) and class III peroxidases (PER-1) in leaves, and metallothionein (MT2b), in roots. In 'Catongo'×'Catongo', there has been an increase in the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of PER-1 and cytosolic superoxide dismutase dependent on copper and zinc (Cu-Zn SODCyt) in leaves and from MT2b and PCS-1 and roots. There was higher accumulation of Cd in the aerial parts of seedlings from both progenies, whereas the most pronounced accumulation was seen in''Catongo'×'Catongo'. The increase in Cd concentration has led to lower Zn and Fe levels in both progenies. Hence, one may conclude that the different survival strategies used by CCN-10×SCA-6 made such progeny more tolerant to Cd stress when compared to''Catongo'×'Catongo'. PMID:25700096

  15. Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Bianchini, E; Bettarello, L; Sacchetti, G

    2000-03-01

    The present work analyzes the lipid fraction from seeds of wild Ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum and selected commercial varieties of Theobroma cacao from Mexico (var. Criollo) and Ecuador (var. Arriba). The lipid fraction was obtained from the seeds through supercritical fluid extraction and analysis performed by preparatory thin-layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. The results revealed that in T. subincanum the triglycerides contain fatty acids with longer chains. The melting point and peroxide and saponifiable numbers were determined for each Theobroma sample. The results lead to the conclusion that T. subincanum would produce a poorer quality butter than T. cacao. Nevertheless, the results do point toward a significant commercial use of T. subincanum for low-profile products.

  16. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with Theobroma cacao and other plants in Panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Enith I; Rehner, Stephen A; Samuels, Gary J; Van Bael, Sunshine A; Herre, Edward A; Cannon, Paul; Chen, Rui; Pang, Junfeng; Wang, Ruiwu; Zhang, Yaping; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Sha, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum interacts with numerous plant species overtly as symptomatic pathogens and cryptically as asymptomatic endophytes. It is not known whether these contrasting ecological modes are optional strategies expressed by individual Colletotrichum species or whether a species' ecology is explicitly pathogenic or endophytic. We explored this question by inferring relationships among 77 C. gloeosporioides s.l. strains isolated from asymptomatic leaves and from anthracnose lesions on leaves and fruits of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and other plants from Panamá. ITS and 5'-tef1 were used to assess diversity and to delineate operational taxonomic units for multilocus phylogenetic analysis. The ITS and 5'-tef1 screens concordantly resolved four strongly supported lineages, clades A-D: Clade A includes the ex type of C. gloeosporioides, clade B includes the ex type ITS sequence of C. boninense, and clades C and D are unidentified. The ITS yielded limited resolution and support within all clades, in particular the C. gloeosporioides clade (A), the focal lineage dealt with in this study. In contrast the 5'-tef1 screen differentiated nine distinctive haplotype subgroups within the C. gloeosporioides clade that were concordant with phylogenetic terminals resolved in a five-locus nuclear phylogeny. Among these were two phylogenetic species associated with symptomatic infections specific to either cacao or mango and five phylogenetic species isolated principally as asymptomatic infections from cacao and other plant hosts. We formally describe two new species, C. tropicale and C. ignotum, that are frequent asymptomatic associates of cacao and other Neotropical plant species, and epitypify C. theobromicola, which is associated with foliar and fruit anthracnose lesions of cacao. Asymptomatic Colletotrichum strains isolated from cacao plants grown in China included six distinct C. gloeosporioides clade taxa, only one of which is known to occur in the Neotropics.

  17. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  18. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  19. Changes in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Long Term Improved Natural and Traditional Agroforestry Management Systems of Cacao Genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  20. Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sena Gomes, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

  1. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  2. Chemical speciation of cadmium: An approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Baligar, V C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the chocolate consumption on human health. Accumulation of Cd in cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been related to soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation approach was used to identify available Cd pools in the soils and to correlate these Cd pools with bean Cd concentration and soil test indexes. The distribution of soil Cd fractions decreased in the order: oxidizable > acid-soluble > residual > reducible > water-soluble (+exchangeable). Oxidizable and acid-soluble fractions accounted for 59 and 68% of the total recoverable Cd for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble fraction was closely related to bean-Cd, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.70 and 0.81 (P < 0.01) for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble Cd was significantly correlated with 0.01 M HCl- (r = 0.99, P < 0.01) or Mehlich 3- extractable Cd (r = 0.97, P < 0.01). These results indicate that acid-soluble Cd fraction is an important part of available Cd pool. Since approximately 60% of Cd in the cacao-growing soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content. PMID:26891357

  3. Chemical speciation of cadmium: An approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Baligar, V C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the chocolate consumption on human health. Accumulation of Cd in cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been related to soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation approach was used to identify available Cd pools in the soils and to correlate these Cd pools with bean Cd concentration and soil test indexes. The distribution of soil Cd fractions decreased in the order: oxidizable > acid-soluble > residual > reducible > water-soluble (+exchangeable). Oxidizable and acid-soluble fractions accounted for 59 and 68% of the total recoverable Cd for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble fraction was closely related to bean-Cd, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.70 and 0.81 (P < 0.01) for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble Cd was significantly correlated with 0.01 M HCl- (r = 0.99, P < 0.01) or Mehlich 3- extractable Cd (r = 0.97, P < 0.01). These results indicate that acid-soluble Cd fraction is an important part of available Cd pool. Since approximately 60% of Cd in the cacao-growing soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content.

  4. Identification and mapping of conserved ortholog set(COS) II sequences of cacao and their conversion to SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in Theobroma cocoa and comparative genomics studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao is a tree cultivated in the tropics around the world for its seeds that are the source of both chocolate and cocoa butter. The cacao genome sequencing project initiated as a collaboration between USDA, Mars, Inc. and IBM has generated a great deal of transcriptome and genome sequenc...

  5. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. PMID:27136060

  6. Progressive erosion of genetic and epigenetic variation in callus-derived cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Carlos M; Wetten, Andrew C; Wilkinson, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    *Relatively little is known about the timing of genetic and epigenetic forms of somaclonal variation arising from callus growth. We surveyed for both types of change in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants regenerated from calli of various ages, and also between tissues from the source trees. *For genetic change, we used 15 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers from four source trees and from 233 regenerated plants. For epigenetic change, we used 386 methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers on leaf and explant (staminode) DNA from two source trees and on leaf DNA from 114 regenerants. *Genetic variation within source trees was limited to one slippage mutation in one leaf. Regenerants were far more variable, with 35% exhibiting at least one mutation. Genetic variation initially accumulated with culture age but subsequently declined. MSAP (epigenetic) profiles diverged between leaf and staminode samples from source trees. Multivariate analysis revealed that leaves from regenerants occupied intermediate eigenspace between leaves and staminodes of source plants but became progressively more similar to source tree leaves with culture age. *Statistical analysis confirmed this rather counterintuitive finding that leaves of 'late regenerants' exhibited significantly less genetic and epigenetic divergence from source leaves than those exposed to short periods of callus growth.

  7. Relationships Between Black Pod and Witches'-Broom Diseases in Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Thevenin, J-M; Umaharan, R; Surujdeo-Maharaj, S; Latchman, B; Cilas, C; Butler, D R

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT Field observations were conducted from 1998 to 2001 at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, to evaluate 57 cacao clones for resistance to black pod (BP) and witches'-broom (WB) diseases (caused by Phytophthora sp. and Crinipellis perniciosa, respectively). Each month ripe pods were harvested and the number of healthy and diseased was recorded. The number of brooms on vegetative shoots was recorded three times a year on selected branches. Twenty-three clones showed less than 10% of infection for both BP and WB on pods. Among those, eight clones showed an absence of brooms on the observed branches: IMC 6, MAN 15/60 [BRA], PA 67 [PER], PA 195 [PER], PA 218 [PER], PA 296 [PER], PA 303 [PER], and POUND 32/A [POU]. Broad-sense heritability was estimated at 0.38 and 0.57 for WB disease on pods and shoots, respectively, and at 0.51 for BP disease. Genetic correlation between WB disease on pods and on shoots was low and estimated at 0.39, whereas the correlation between WB and BP diseases on pods was 0.48. To choose putative parents for breeding schemes, it is suggested that clones are first assessed for their level of resistance to WB on shoots, and the most promising individuals are screened for BP with a detached pods test. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the level of resistance to WB on pods can be predicted using an early test on seedlings.

  8. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches’ broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively. PMID:26949967

  9. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Micheli, Fabienne; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively.

  10. A potential role for an extracellular methanol oxidase secreted by Moniliophthora perniciosa in Witches' broom disease in cacao.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Bruno V; Teixeira, Gleidson S; Reis, Osvaldo; Barau, Joan G; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; do Rio, Maria Carolina S; Domingues, Romênia R; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Rincones, Johana; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2012-11-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao, is able to grow on methanol as the sole carbon source. In plants, one of the main sources of methanol is the pectin present in the structure of cell walls. Pectin is composed of highly methylesterified chains of galacturonic acid. The hydrolysis between the methyl radicals and galacturonic acid in esterified pectin, mediated by a pectin methylesterase (PME), releases methanol, which may be decomposed by a methanol oxidase (MOX). The analysis of the M. pernciosa genome revealed putative mox and pme genes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR performed with RNA from mycelia grown in the presence of methanol or pectin as the sole carbon source and with RNA from infected cacao seedlings in different stages of the progression of WBD indicate that the two genes are coregulated, suggesting that the fungus may be metabolizing the methanol released from pectin. Moreover, immunolocalization of homogalacturonan, the main pectic domain that constitutes the primary cell wall matrix, shows a reduction in the level of pectin methyl esterification in infected cacao seedlings. Although MOX has been classically classified as a peroxisomal enzyme, M. perniciosa presents an extracellular methanol oxidase. Its activity was detected in the fungus culture supernatants, and mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of this enzyme in the fungus secretome. Because M. pernciosa possesses all genes classically related to methanol metabolism, we propose a peroxisome-independent model for the utilization of methanol by this fungus, which begins with the extracellular oxidation of methanol derived from the demethylation of pectin and finishes in the cytosol.

  11. Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.

    PubMed

    Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings

  12. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gattward, James N; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, José O; Gomes, Fábio P; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2012-11-01

    In ecological setting, sodium (Na(+)) can be beneficial or toxic, depending on plant species and the Na(+) level in the soil. While its effects are more frequently studied at high saline levels, Na(+) has also been shown to be of potential benefit to some species at lower levels of supply, especially in C4 species. Here, clonal plants of the major tropical C3 crop Theobroma cacao (cacao) were grown in soil where potassium (K(+)) was partially replaced (at six levels, up to 50% replacement) by Na(+), at two concentrations (2.5 and 4.0 mmol(c) dm(-3)). At both concentrations, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A) increased more than twofold with increasing substitution of K(+) by Na(+). Concomitantly, instantaneous (A/E) and intrinsic (A/g(s)) water-use efficiency (WUE) more than doubled. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) exhibited a decline at 2.5 mmol dm(-3), but remained unchanged at 4 mmol dm(-3). Leaf nitrogen content was not impacted by Na(+) supplementation, whereas sulfur (S), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) contents were maximized at 2.5 mmol dm(-3) and intermediate (30-40%) replacement levels. Leaf K(+) did not decline significantly. In contrast, leaf Na(+) content increased steadily. The resultant elevated Na(+)/K(+) ratios in tissue correlated with increased, not decreased, plant performance. The results show that Na(+) can partially replace K(+) in the nutrition of clonal cacao, with significant beneficial effects on photosynthesis, WUE and mineral nutrition in this major perennial C3 crop.

  13. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  14. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Micheli, Fabienne; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively. PMID:26949967

  15. Drought effects on soil COcacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  16. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum, the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches. PMID:27790069

  17. Cacao single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers: A discovery strategy to identify SNPs for genotyping, genetic mapping and genome wide association studies (GWAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic markers in Theobroma cacao, occurring approximately once in every 200 nucleotides. SNPs, like microsatellites, are co-dominant and PCR-based, but they have several advantages over microsatellites. They are unambiguous, so that a SN...

  18. Theobroma cacao extract attenuates the development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heerim; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Son, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-02-01

    Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin. These observations occurred concomitantly with the downregulation of inflammatory markers including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, chemokine; thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine as well as the skin-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ. CE also significantly alleviated transepidermal water loss and increased skin hydration. These results suggest that CE, a natural phytochemical-rich food, has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27596387

  19. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-08-30

    In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of (133)Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of (133)Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable (133)Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs and (137)Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583Bqkg(-1) after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100BqL(-1) total (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000Bqkg(-1) and 150BqL(-1) respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash.

  20. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  1. The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars.

    PubMed

    Hale, S E; Alling, V; Martinsen, V; Mulder, J; Breedveld, G D; Cornelissen, G

    2013-06-01

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350°C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (Kd L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1±0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0±0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483±45 mg kg(-1) and 172±1 mg kg(-1) PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with Kd values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars.

  2. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.…

  3. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  4. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPARASITIC ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM WITH POTENTIAL FOR SUPRESSION OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF CACAO IN CAMEROON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative measures are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod disease in Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitism on P. megakarya. Only Trichoderma asperellum isolates 659-7, PR10, PR11, a...

  5. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-08-30

    In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of (133)Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of (133)Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable (133)Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs and (137)Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583Bqkg(-1) after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100BqL(-1) total (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000Bqkg(-1) and 150BqL(-1) respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash. PMID:25038573

  6. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  7. The Genome of the Most Widely Cultivated Cacao Type and Its Use to Identify Candidate Genes Regulating Traits: Pod Color as an Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  8. Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. Cocoa is mainly produced on small holdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and cocoa quality improvement are two impo...

  9. Characterization of Necrosis and Ethylene inducing Proteins (NEP) in the Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the Causal Agent of Witches’ Broom in Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches’ broom disease of Theobroma cacao. Analysis of the M. perniciosa draft genome led to the identification of three putative genes encoding Necrosis and Ethylene inducing Proteins (MpNEPs), which are apparently located on the sam...

  10. The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars.

    PubMed

    Hale, S E; Alling, V; Martinsen, V; Mulder, J; Breedveld, G D; Cornelissen, G

    2013-06-01

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350°C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (Kd L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1±0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0±0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483±45 mg kg(-1) and 172±1 mg kg(-1) PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with Kd values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars. PMID:23369636

  11. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].

    PubMed

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

    2008-03-01

    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield. PMID:18589574

  12. Karyotype variation in cultivars and spontaneous cocoa mutants (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, G S F; Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Araújo, I S; Zaidan, H A; Pires, J L; Ahnert, D

    2013-01-01

    Four mutant cocoa accessions with morphological changes and a cultivar sample were karyomorphologically characterized. Slides were prepared by enzymatic digestion of the root meristem and squashed in 45% acetic acid, followed by 2% Giemsa staining. The chromosome number of 2n = 20 was seen in all accessions. The karyotype formula for Cacau Comum and Cacau Rui was 2n = 20m. Submetacentric chromosomes were observed in Cacau Pucala and Cacau Jaca, both with 2n = 18m + 2sm, but the karyotype formula for Cacau Sem Vidro was 2n = 16m + 4sm. Satellites were located on the long arm of the 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs of Cacau Comum, whereas Cacau Pucala had satellites on the 6th chromosome pair. Greater karyotypic variation in Cacau Sem Vidro was found, whose 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs had satellites on the long arm and 6th and 10th pairs had satellites on the short arm. Analysis revealed a lower average chromosome length in Cacau Comum (1.53 ± 0.026 µm) and a higher length in Cacau Sem Vidro (2.26 ± 0.038 µm). ANOVA revealed significant difference (P < 0.01) for the average chromosome length and the length of chromosome pairs within and between accessions. The average chromosome lengths of mutants of Cacau Rui and Cacau Jaca were not statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The karyotypic diversity observed in this study is not necessarily associated with the changing character of the accessions analyzed, but may reflect the genetic variation observed in Theobroma cacao.

  13. The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri (Marasmiaceae) possesses biallelic A and B mating loci but reproduces clonally.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Valderrama, J R; Aime, M C

    2016-06-01

    The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri belongs to the mushroom-forming family Marasmiaceae, but it has never been observed to produce a fruiting body, which calls to question its capacity for sexual reproduction. In this study, we identified potential A (HD1 and HD2) and B (pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors) mating genes in M. roreri. A PCR-based method was subsequently devised to determine the mating type for a set of 47 isolates from across the geographic range of the fungus. We developed and generated an 11-marker microsatellite set and conducted association and linkage disequilibrium (standardized index of association, IA(s)) analyses. We also performed an ancestral reconstruction analysis to show that the ancestor of M. roreri is predicted to be heterothallic and tetrapolar, which together with sliding window analyses support that the A and B mating loci are likely unlinked and follow a tetrapolar organization within the genome. The A locus is composed of a pair of HD1 and HD2 genes, whereas the B locus consists of a paired pheromone precursor, Mr_Ph4, and receptor, STE3_Mr4. Two A and B alleles but only two mating types were identified. Association analyses divided isolates into two well-defined genetically distinct groups that correlate with their mating type; IA(s) values show high linkage disequilibrium as is expected in clonal reproduction. Interestingly, both mating types were found in South American isolates but only one mating type was found in Central American isolates, supporting a prior hypothesis of clonal dissemination throughout Central America after a single or very few introductions of the fungus from South America. PMID:26932308

  14. Molecular, physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to soil water deficit.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ivanildes C Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Anhert, Dário; Conceição, Alessandro S da; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pires, José L; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C

    2014-01-01

    Six months-old seminal plants of 36 cacao genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were subjected to two soil water regimes (control and drought) to assess, the effects of water deficit on growth, chemical composition and oxidative stress. In the control, soil moisture was maintained near field capacity with leaf water potentials (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought treatment, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by withholding additional water until ΨWL reached values of between -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. The tolerant genotypes PS-1319, MO-20 and MA-15 recorded significant increases in guaiacol peroxidase activity reflecting a more efficient antioxidant metabolism. In relation to drought tolerance, the most important variables in the distinguishing contrasting groups were: total leaf area per plant; leaf, stem and total dry biomass; relative growth rate; plant shoot biomass and leaf content of N, Ca, and Mg. From the results of these analyses, six genotypes were selected with contrasting characteristics for tolerance to soil water deficit [CC-40, C. SUL-4 and SIC-2 (non-tolerant) and MA-15, MO-20, and PA-13 (tolerant)] for further assessment of the expression of genes NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO to water deficit. Increased expression of NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO genes were found for non-tolerant genotypes, while in the majority of tolerant genotypes there was repression of these genes, with the exception of PA-13 that showed an increased expression of psbA. Mutivariate analysis showed that growth variables, leaf and total dry biomass, relative growth rate as well as Mg content of the leaves were the most important factor in the classification of the genotypes as tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive to water deficit. Therefore these variables are reliable plant traits in the selection of plants tolerant to drought.

  15. Evaluation of the Allergenicity Potential of TcPR-10 Protein from Theobroma cacao

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne; Noronha, Fátima Soares Motta; Alves, Andréa Catão; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10), obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa) and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium). The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S) were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8–12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants) via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties. PMID:22768037

  16. Molecular, Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Theobroma cacao L. Genotypes to Soil Water Deficit

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ivanildes C.; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Anhert, Dário; da Conceição, Alessandro S.; Pirovani, Carlos P.; Pires, José L.; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2014-01-01

    Six months-old seminal plants of 36 cacao genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were subjected to two soil water regimes (control and drought) to assess, the effects of water deficit on growth, chemical composition and oxidative stress. In the control, soil moisture was maintained near field capacity with leaf water potentials (ΨWL) ranging from −0.1 to −0.5 MPa. In the drought treatment, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by withholding additional water until ΨWL reached values of between −2.0 to −2.5 MPa. The tolerant genotypes PS-1319, MO-20 and MA-15 recorded significant increases in guaiacol peroxidase activity reflecting a more efficient antioxidant metabolism. In relation to drought tolerance, the most important variables in the distinguishing contrasting groups were: total leaf area per plant; leaf, stem and total dry biomass; relative growth rate; plant shoot biomass and leaf content of N, Ca, and Mg. From the results of these analyses, six genotypes were selected with contrasting characteristics for tolerance to soil water deficit [CC-40, C. SUL-4 and SIC-2 (non-tolerant) and MA-15, MO-20, and PA-13 (tolerant)] for further assessment of the expression of genes NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO to water deficit. Increased expression of NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO genes were found for non-tolerant genotypes, while in the majority of tolerant genotypes there was repression of these genes, with the exception of PA-13 that showed an increased expression of psbA. Mutivariate analysis showed that growth variables, leaf and total dry biomass, relative growth rate as well as Mg content of the leaves were the most important factor in the classification of the genotypes as tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive to water deficit. Therefore these variables are reliable plant traits in the selection of plants tolerant to drought. PMID:25541723

  17. Molecular, physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to soil water deficit.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ivanildes C Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Anhert, Dário; Conceição, Alessandro S da; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pires, José L; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C

    2014-01-01

    Six months-old seminal plants of 36 cacao genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were subjected to two soil water regimes (control and drought) to assess, the effects of water deficit on growth, chemical composition and oxidative stress. In the control, soil moisture was maintained near field capacity with leaf water potentials (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought treatment, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by withholding additional water until ΨWL reached values of between -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. The tolerant genotypes PS-1319, MO-20 and MA-15 recorded significant increases in guaiacol peroxidase activity reflecting a more efficient antioxidant metabolism. In relation to drought tolerance, the most important variables in the distinguishing contrasting groups were: total leaf area per plant; leaf, stem and total dry biomass; relative growth rate; plant shoot biomass and leaf content of N, Ca, and Mg. From the results of these analyses, six genotypes were selected with contrasting characteristics for tolerance to soil water deficit [CC-40, C. SUL-4 and SIC-2 (non-tolerant) and MA-15, MO-20, and PA-13 (tolerant)] for further assessment of the expression of genes NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO to water deficit. Increased expression of NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO genes were found for non-tolerant genotypes, while in the majority of tolerant genotypes there was repression of these genes, with the exception of PA-13 that showed an increased expression of psbA. Mutivariate analysis showed that growth variables, leaf and total dry biomass, relative growth rate as well as Mg content of the leaves were the most important factor in the classification of the genotypes as tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive to water deficit. Therefore these variables are reliable plant traits in the selection of plants tolerant to drought. PMID:25541723

  18. Isolation of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2015-07-15

    The main procyanidins, including dimeric B2 and B5, trimeric C1, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins, were isolated from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using various techniques of countercurrent chromatography, such as high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and spiral-coil LSRCCC. Furthermore, dimeric procyanidins B1 and B7, which are not present naturally in the analysed cocoa beans, were obtained after semisynthesis of cocoa bean polymers with (+)-catechin as nucleophile and separated by countercurrent chromatography. In this way, the isolation of dimeric procyanidin B1 in considerable amounts (500mg, purity>97%) was possible in a single run. This is the first report concerning the isolation and semisynthesis of dimeric to pentameric procyanidins from T. cacao by countercurrent chromatography. Additionally, the chemical structures of tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) and pentameric procyanidins (cinnamtannin A3) were elucidated on the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Interflavanoid linkage was determined by NOE-correlations, for the first time.

  19. Transcriptomics and systems biology analysis in identification of specific pathways involved in cacao resistance and susceptibility to witches' broom disease.

    PubMed

    da Hora Junior, Braz Tavares; Poloni, Joice de Faria; Lopes, Maíza Alves; Dias, Cristiano Villela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Schuster, Ivan; Sabau, Xavier; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar De Mattos; Mauro, Sônia Marli Zingaretti Di; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Bonatto, Diego; Micheli, Fabienne

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on expression analysis associated with molecular systems biology of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. Gene expression data were obtained for two cacao genotypes (TSH1188, resistant; Catongo, susceptible) challenged or not with the fungus M. perniciosa and collected at three time points through disease. Using expression analysis, we identified 154 and 227 genes that are differentially expressed in TSH1188 and Catongo, respectively. The expression of some of these genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Physical protein-protein interaction (PPPI) networks of Arabidopsis thaliana orthologous proteins corresponding to resistant and susceptible interactions were obtained followed by cluster and gene ontology analyses. The integrated analysis of gene expression and systems biology allowed designing a general scheme of major mechanisms associated with witches' broom disease resistance/susceptibility. In this sense, the TSH1188 cultivar shows strong production of ROS and elicitors at the beginning of the interaction with M. perniciosa followed by resistance signal propagation and ROS detoxification. On the other hand, the Catongo genotype displays defense mechanisms that include the synthesis of some defense molecules but without success in regards to elimination of the fungus. This phase is followed by the activation of protein metabolism which is achieved with the production of proteasome associated with autophagy as a precursor mechanism of PCD. This work also identifies candidate genes for further functional studies and for genetic mapping and marker assisted selection.

  20. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-28

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging.

  1. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; Nagai, Chifumi; Jackson, Mel C; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-16

    Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1550, and 2050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analyzed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-l-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide), and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2.

  2. High-resolution transcript profiling of the atypical biotrophic interaction between Theobroma cacao and the fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Thomazella, Daniela Paula de Toledo; Reis, Osvaldo; do Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; José, Juliana; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Negri, Victor Augusti; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-11-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree. In contrast to other hemibiotrophic interactions, the WBD biotrophic stage lasts for months and is responsible for the most distinctive symptoms of the disease, which comprise drastic morphological changes in the infected shoots. Here, we used the dual RNA-seq approach to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes of cacao and M. perniciosa during their peculiar biotrophic interaction. Infection with M. perniciosa triggers massive metabolic reprogramming in the diseased tissues. Although apparently vigorous, the infected shoots are energetically expensive structures characterized by the induction of ineffective defense responses and by a clear carbon deprivation signature. Remarkably, the infection culminates in the establishment of a senescence process in the host, which signals the end of the WBD biotrophic stage. We analyzed the pathogen's transcriptome in unprecedented detail and thereby characterized the fungal nutritional and infection strategies during WBD and identified putative virulence effectors. Interestingly, M. perniciosa biotrophic mycelia develop as long-term parasites that orchestrate changes in plant metabolism to increase the availability of soluble nutrients before plant death. Collectively, our results provide unique insight into an intriguing tropical disease and advance our understanding of the development of (hemi)biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions.

  3. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles of clonal genotypes from Theobroma cacao subjected to soil flooding.

    PubMed

    Bertolde, Fabiana Z; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Pirovani, Carlos P

    2014-01-01

    Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774). Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor.

  4. High-resolution transcript profiling of the atypical biotrophic interaction between Theobroma cacao and the fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Thomazella, Daniela Paula de Toledo; Reis, Osvaldo; do Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; José, Juliana; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Negri, Victor Augusti; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-11-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree. In contrast to other hemibiotrophic interactions, the WBD biotrophic stage lasts for months and is responsible for the most distinctive symptoms of the disease, which comprise drastic morphological changes in the infected shoots. Here, we used the dual RNA-seq approach to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes of cacao and M. perniciosa during their peculiar biotrophic interaction. Infection with M. perniciosa triggers massive metabolic reprogramming in the diseased tissues. Although apparently vigorous, the infected shoots are energetically expensive structures characterized by the induction of ineffective defense responses and by a clear carbon deprivation signature. Remarkably, the infection culminates in the establishment of a senescence process in the host, which signals the end of the WBD biotrophic stage. We analyzed the pathogen's transcriptome in unprecedented detail and thereby characterized the fungal nutritional and infection strategies during WBD and identified putative virulence effectors. Interestingly, M. perniciosa biotrophic mycelia develop as long-term parasites that orchestrate changes in plant metabolism to increase the availability of soluble nutrients before plant death. Collectively, our results provide unique insight into an intriguing tropical disease and advance our understanding of the development of (hemi)biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:25371547

  5. Analysis of Gene Expression and Proteomic Profiles of Clonal Genotypes from Theobroma cacao Subjected to Soil Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Bertolde, Fabiana Z.; Almeida, Alex-Alan F.; Pirovani, Carlos P.

    2014-01-01

    Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774). Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor. PMID:25289700

  6. Isolation of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2015-07-15

    The main procyanidins, including dimeric B2 and B5, trimeric C1, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins, were isolated from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using various techniques of countercurrent chromatography, such as high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and spiral-coil LSRCCC. Furthermore, dimeric procyanidins B1 and B7, which are not present naturally in the analysed cocoa beans, were obtained after semisynthesis of cocoa bean polymers with (+)-catechin as nucleophile and separated by countercurrent chromatography. In this way, the isolation of dimeric procyanidin B1 in considerable amounts (500mg, purity>97%) was possible in a single run. This is the first report concerning the isolation and semisynthesis of dimeric to pentameric procyanidins from T. cacao by countercurrent chromatography. Additionally, the chemical structures of tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) and pentameric procyanidins (cinnamtannin A3) were elucidated on the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Interflavanoid linkage was determined by NOE-correlations, for the first time. PMID:25722166

  7. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. Results An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Conclusions Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm. PMID:24758406

  8. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. Results The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Conclusions Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation

  9. Genomic analyses and expression evaluation of thaumatin-like gene family in the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Franco, Sulamita de Freitas; Baroni, Renata Moro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Reis, Osvaldo; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2015-10-30

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are found in diverse eukaryotes. Plant TLPs, known as Pathogenicity Related Protein (PR-5), are considered fungal inhibitors. However, genes encoding TLPs are frequently found in fungal genomes. In this work, we have identified that Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete pathogen that causes the Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao, presents thirteen putative TLPs from which four are expressed during WBD progression. One of them is similar to small TLPs, which are present in phytopathogenic basidiomycete, such as wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis. Fungi genomes annotation and phylogenetic data revealed a larger number of TLPs in basidiomycetes when comparing with ascomycetes, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in specific traits of mushroom-forming species. Based on the present data, we discuss the contribution of TLPs in the combat against fungal competitors and hypothesize a role of these proteins in M. perniciosa pathogenicity.

  10. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  11. Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Although direct radiation induced health impacts were considered benign, soil contamination with (137)Cs, due to its long-term radiological impact (30 years half-life) and its high biological availability is of a major concern in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Therefore (137)Cs reduction and immobilization in contaminated soil are recognized as important problems to be solved using suitable and effective technologies. One such thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO amendments is a promising treatment for the ultimate immobilization of simulated radionuclide (133)Cs in soil, showing low leachability and zero evaporation. Immobilization efficiencies were 88%, 95% and 96% when the (133)Cs soil was treated at 1200 °C with activated carbon, fly ash and nanometallic Ca/CaO additives. In addition, the combination of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash (1:1) enhanced the immobilization efficiency to 99%, while no evaporation of (133)Cs was observed. At lower temperatures (800 °C) the leachable fraction of Cs was only 6% (94% immobilization). Through the SEM-EDS analysis, decrease in the amount of Cs mass percent detectable on soil particle surface was observed after soil vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA. The (133)Cs soil was subjected to vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA peaks related to Ca, crystalline phases (CaCO3/Ca(OH)2), wollastonite, pollucite and hematite appeared in addition to quartz, kaolinite and bentonite, which probably indicates that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials includes Ca-associated complexes. Thus, the thermal treatment with the addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil at zero evaporation, relatively at low temperature.

  12. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by both the 50 and 100 ppm treatments of T. cacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. PMID:26955771

  13. Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Although direct radiation induced health impacts were considered benign, soil contamination with (137)Cs, due to its long-term radiological impact (30 years half-life) and its high biological availability is of a major concern in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Therefore (137)Cs reduction and immobilization in contaminated soil are recognized as important problems to be solved using suitable and effective technologies. One such thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO amendments is a promising treatment for the ultimate immobilization of simulated radionuclide (133)Cs in soil, showing low leachability and zero evaporation. Immobilization efficiencies were 88%, 95% and 96% when the (133)Cs soil was treated at 1200 °C with activated carbon, fly ash and nanometallic Ca/CaO additives. In addition, the combination of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash (1:1) enhanced the immobilization efficiency to 99%, while no evaporation of (133)Cs was observed. At lower temperatures (800 °C) the leachable fraction of Cs was only 6% (94% immobilization). Through the SEM-EDS analysis, decrease in the amount of Cs mass percent detectable on soil particle surface was observed after soil vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA. The (133)Cs soil was subjected to vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA peaks related to Ca, crystalline phases (CaCO3/Ca(OH)2), wollastonite, pollucite and hematite appeared in addition to quartz, kaolinite and bentonite, which probably indicates that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials includes Ca-associated complexes. Thus, the thermal treatment with the addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil at zero evaporation, relatively at low temperature. PMID:25464047

  14. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Strem, Mary D.; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNA sequencing (RNASeq)-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups). Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri. PMID:26379633

  15. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Shao, Jonathan; Strem, Mary D; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Bailey, Bryan A

    2015-01-01

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNA sequencing (RNASeq)-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups). Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri.

  16. The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b promotes growth and delays the onset of the drought response in Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hanhong; Sicher, Richard C; Kim, Moon S; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Strem, Mary D; Melnick, Rachel L; Bailey, Bryan A

    2009-01-01

    Theobroma cacao (cacao) is cultivated in tropical climates and is exposed to drought stress. The impact of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b on cacao's response to drought was studied. Colonization by DIS 219b delayed drought-induced changes in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, and green fluorescence emissions. The altered expression of 19 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (seven in leaves and 17 in roots with some overlap) by drought was detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Roots tended to respond earlier to drought than leaves, with the drought-induced changes in expression of seven ESTs being observed after 7 d of withholding water. Changes in gene expression in leaves were not observed until after 10 d of withholding water. DIS 219b colonization delayed the drought-altered expression of all seven ESTs responsive to drought in leaves by > or = 3 d, but had less influence on the expression pattern of the drought-responsive ESTs in roots. DIS 219b colonization had minimal direct influence on the expression of drought-responsive ESTs in 32-d-old seedlings. By contrast, DIS 219b colonization of 9-d-old seedlings altered expression of drought-responsive ESTs, sometimes in patterns opposite of that observed in response to drought. Drought induced an increase in the concentration of many amino acids in cacao leaves, while DIS 219b colonization caused a decrease in aspartic acid and glutamic acid concentrations and an increase in alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations. With or without exposure to drought conditions, colonization by DIS 219b promoted seedling growth, the most consistent effects being an increase in root fresh weight, root dry weight, and root water content. Colonized seedlings were slower to wilt in response to drought as measured by a decrease in the leaf angle drop. The primary direct effect of DIS 219b colonization was promotion of root growth, regardless of water status, and an

  17. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  18. Mating-type orthologous genes in the primarily homothallic Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao.

    PubMed

    Kües, Ursula; Navarro-González, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    The cacao-pathogenic Moniliophthora perniciosa C-biotype is a primarily homothallic Agaricomycete of which the genome has recently become available. Searching of the genome sequence with mating type proteins from other basidiomycetes detected one or possibly two potential genes for HD1 homeodomain transcription factors, 7 or possibly 8 genes for potential pheromone receptors and five genes for putative pheromone precursors. Apparently, the fungus possesses gene functions encoded in the tetrapolar basidiomycetes in the A and B mating loci, respectively. In the tetrapolar species, the A and B mating type genes govern formation of clamp cells at hyphal septa of the dikaryon and their fusion with sub-apical cells as well as mushroom production. The C-biotype forms fused clamp cells and also basidiocarps on mycelia germinated from basidiospores and their development might be controlled by the detected genes. It represents the first example of a primarily homothallic basidiomycete where A - and B -mating-type-like genes were found. Various strategies are discussed as how self-compatibility in presence of such genes can evolve. An A -mating-type like gene for an HD2 homeodomain transcription factor is, however, not included in the available sequence representing estimated 69% coverage of the haploid genome but there are non-mating genes for other homeodomain transcription factors of currently unknown function that are conserved in basidiomycetes and also various ascomycetes.

  19. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Moniliophthoraperniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Lima, Juliana O; Pereira, Jorge F; Rincones, Johana; Barau, Joan G; Araújo, Elza F; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Queiroz, Marisa V

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the cloning, sequence and expression analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the most important pathogen of cocoa in Brazil. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single copy of the GAPDH gene in the M. perniciosa genome (MpGAPDH). The complete MpGAPDH coding sequence contained 1,461 bp with eight introns that were conserved in the GAPDH genes of other basidiomycete species. The cis-elements in the promoter region of the MpGAPDH gene were similar to those of other basidiomycetes. Likewise, the MpGAPDH gene encoded a putative 339 amino acid protein that shared significant sequence similarity with other GAPDH proteins in fungi, plants, and metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the MPGAPDH protein with other homobasidiomycete fungi of the family Tricholomataceae. Expression analysis of the MpGAPDH gene by real-time PCR showed that this gene was more expressed (~1.3X) in the saprotrophic stage of this hemibiotrophic plant pathogen than in the biotrophic stage when grown in cacao extracts.

  20. Chemical and nutritional composition of tejate, a traditional maize and cacao beverage from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Angela; Soleri, Daniela; Wacher, Carmen; Sánchez-Chinchillas, Argelia; Argote, Rosa Maria

    2012-06-01

    Foam-topped cacao and maize beverages have a long history in Mesoamerica. Tejate is such a beverage found primarily in the Zapotec region of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Historically tejate has been ceremonially important but also as an essential staple, especially during periods of hard fieldwork. However, the nutritional contribution of traditional foods such as tejate has not been investigated. We analyzed tejate samples from three Central Valley communities, vendors in urban Oaxaca markets and one migrant vendor in California, USA for their proximate composition, amino acid content and scores, and mineral and methylxanthine content. Nutritional and chemical variation exists among tejate recipes, however, the beverage is a source of energy, fat, methylxanthines, K, Fe and other minerals although their availability due to presence of phytates remains to be determined. Tejate is a source of protein comparable to an equal serving size of tortillas, with protein quality similarly limited in both. Tejate provides the nutritional benefits of maize, and some additional ones, in a form appealing during hot periods of intense work, and year round because of its cultural significance. Its substitution by sodas and other high glycemic beverages may have negative nutritional, health and cultural consequences.

  1. Production of calcium oxalate crystals by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Cacao.

    PubMed

    Rio, Maria Carolina S do; de Oliveira, Bruno V; de Tomazella, Daniela P T; Silva, José A Fracassi da; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-04-01

    Oxalic acid has been shown as a virulence factor for some phytopathogenic fungi, removing calcium from pectin and favoring plant cell wall degradation. Recently, it was published that calcium oxalate accumulates in infected cacao tissues during the progression of Witches' Broom disease (WBD). In the present work we report that the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of WBD, produces calcium oxalate crystals. These crystals were initially observed by polarized light microscopy of hyphae growing on a glass slide, apparently being secreted from the cells. The analysis was refined by Scanning electron microscopy and the compositon of the crystals was confirmed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The production of oxalate by M. perniciosa was reinforced by the identification of a putative gene coding for oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate. This gene was shown to be expressed in the biotrophic-like mycelia, which in planta occupy the intercellular middle-lamella space, a region filled with pectin. Taken together, our results suggest that oxalate production by M. perniciosa may play a role in the WBD pathogenesis mechanism.

  2. Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

    2013-12-15

    A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)).

  3. Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

    2013-12-15

    A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)). PMID:24517011

  4. Insight into the Wild Origin, Migration and Domestication History of the Fine Flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. Variety from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador’s economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties. PMID:23144883

  5. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. Results We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Conclusions Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the

  6. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  7. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones.

  8. High-Resolution Transcript Profiling of the Atypical Biotrophic Interaction between Theobroma cacao and the Fungal Pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Thomazella, Daniela Paula de Toledo; Reis, Osvaldo; do Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; José, Juliana; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Negri, Victor Augusti; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree. In contrast to other hemibiotrophic interactions, the WBD biotrophic stage lasts for months and is responsible for the most distinctive symptoms of the disease, which comprise drastic morphological changes in the infected shoots. Here, we used the dual RNA-seq approach to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes of cacao and M. perniciosa during their peculiar biotrophic interaction. Infection with M. perniciosa triggers massive metabolic reprogramming in the diseased tissues. Although apparently vigorous, the infected shoots are energetically expensive structures characterized by the induction of ineffective defense responses and by a clear carbon deprivation signature. Remarkably, the infection culminates in the establishment of a senescence process in the host, which signals the end of the WBD biotrophic stage. We analyzed the pathogen’s transcriptome in unprecedented detail and thereby characterized the fungal nutritional and infection strategies during WBD and identified putative virulence effectors. Interestingly, M. perniciosa biotrophic mycelia develop as long-term parasites that orchestrate changes in plant metabolism to increase the availability of soluble nutrients before plant death. Collectively, our results provide unique insight into an intriguing tropical disease and advance our understanding of the development of (hemi)biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:25371547

  9. The fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa has genes similar to plant PR-1 that are highly expressed during its interaction with cacao.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Paulo J P L; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Vidal, Ramon O; do Prado, Paula F V; Reis, Osvaldo; Baroni, Renata M; Franco, Sulamita F; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Mondego, Jorge M C

    2012-01-01

    The widespread SCP/TAPS superfamily (SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7) has multiple biological functions, including roles in the immune response of plants and animals, development of male reproductive tract in mammals, venom activity in insects and reptiles and host invasion by parasitic worms. Plant Pathogenesis Related 1 (PR-1) proteins belong to this superfamily and have been characterized as markers of induced defense against pathogens. This work presents the characterization of eleven genes homologous to plant PR-1 genes, designated as MpPR-1, which were identified in the genome of Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete fungus responsible for causing the devastating witches' broom disease in cacao. We describe gene structure, protein alignment and modeling analyses of the MpPR-1 family. Additionally, the expression profiles of MpPR-1 genes were assessed by qPCR in different stages throughout the fungal life cycle. A specific expression pattern was verified for each member of the MpPR-1 family in the conditions analyzed. Interestingly, some of them were highly and specifically expressed during the interaction of the fungus with cacao, suggesting a role for the MpPR-1 proteins in the infective process of this pathogen. Hypothetical functions assigned to members of the MpPR-1 family include neutralization of plant defenses, antimicrobial activity to avoid competitors and fruiting body physiology. This study provides strong evidence on the importance of PR-1-like genes for fungal virulence on plants.

  10. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. Results TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b confirmed the importance of the cysteine residues to maintain the protein structure, and of several conserved amino acids for the catalytic activity. In the cacao genome, TcPR-4b belonged to a small multigene family organized mainly on chromosome 5. TcPR-4b RT-qPCR analysis in resistant and susceptible cacao plants infected by M. perniciosa showed an increase of expression at 48 hours after infection (hai) in both cacao genotypes. After the initial stage (24-72 hai), the TcPR-4b expression was observed at all times in the resistant genotypes, while in the susceptible one the expression was concentrated at the final stages of infection (45-90 days after infection). The recombinant TcPR-4b protein showed RNase, and bivalent ions dependent-DNase activity, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, TcPR-4b presented antifungal action against M. perniciosa, and the reduction of M. perniciosa survival was related to ROS production in fungal hyphae. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of a PR-4 showing simultaneously RNase, DNase and antifungal properties, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, we showed that the antifungal activity of TcPR-4b is directly related to RNase function. In cacao, TcPR-4b nuclease activities may be related to the establishment and maintenance of resistance, and to the PCD mechanism, in resistant and susceptible cacao genotypes, respectively. PMID:24920373

  11. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed. PMID:21794110

  12. Tc-cAPX, a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase of Theobroma cacao L. engaged in the interaction with Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causing agent of witches' broom disease.

    PubMed

    Camillo, Luciana Rodrigues; Filadelfo, Ciro Ribeiro; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2013-12-01

    The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plants signalizes the induction of several genes, including that of ascorbate peroxidase (APX-EC 1.11.1.11). APX isoenzymes play a central role in the elimination of intracellular H2O2 and contribute to plant responses to diverse stresses. During the infection process in Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora perniciosa oxidative stress is generated and the APX action recruited from the plant. The present work aimed to characterize the T. cacao APX involved in the molecular interaction of T. cacao-M. perniciosa. The peroxidase activity was analyzed in protein extracts from cocoa plants infected by M. perniciosa and showed the induction of peroxidases like APX in resistant cocoa plants. The cytosolic protein of T. cacao (GenBank: ABR68691.2) was phylogenetically analyzed in relation to other peroxidases from the cocoa genome and eight genes encoding APX proteins with conserved domains were also analyzed. The cDNA from cytosolic APX was cloned in pET28a and the recombinant protein expressed and purified (rTc-cAPX). The secondary structure of the protein was analyzed by Circular Dichroism (CD) displaying high proportion of α-helices when folded. The enzymatic assay shows stable activity using ascorbate and guaiacol as an electron donor for H2O2 reduction. The pH 7.5 is the optimum for enzyme activity. Chromatographic analysis suggests that rTc-cAPX is a homodimer in solution. Results indicate that the rTc-cAPX is correctly folded, stable and biochemically active. The purified rTc-cAPX presented biotechnological potential and is adequate for future structural and functional studies.

  13. Identification and characterization of a class III chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

    PubMed

    Souza, Catiane S; Oliveira, Bruno M; Costa, Gustavo G L; Schriefer, Albert; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Taranto, Alex G; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de M; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2009-08-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is a glucosyltransferase that converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into chitin, one of the main components of fungal cell wall. Class III chitin synthases act directly in the formation of the cell wall. They catalyze the conversion of the immediate precursor of chitin and are responsible for the majority of chitin synthesis in fungi. As such, they are highly specific molecular targets for drugs that can inhibit the growth and development of fungal pathogens. In this work, we have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Mopchs) by primer walking. The complete gene sequence is 3,443 bp, interrupted by 13 small introns, and comprises a cDNA with an ORF with 2,739 bp, whose terminal region was experimentally determined, encoding a protein with 913 aa that harbors all the motifs and domains typically found in class III chitin synthases. This is the first report on the characterization of a chitin synthase gene, its mature transcription product, and its putative protein in basidioma and secondary mycelium stages of M. perniciosa, a basidiomycotan fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

  14. Influence of freezable/non-freezable water and sucrose on the viability of Theobroma cacao somatic embryos following desiccation and freezing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jong-Yi; Sacandé, Moctar; Pritchard, Hugh; Wetten, Andy

    2009-06-01

    Encapsulated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos subjected to 0.08-1.25 M sucrose treatments were analyzed for embryo soluble sugar content, non-freezable water content, moisture level after desiccation and viability after desiccation and freezing. Results indicated that the higher the sucrose concentration in the treatment medium, the greater was the extent of sucrose accumulation in the embryos. Sucrose treatment greatly assisted embryo post-desiccation recovery since only 40% of the control embryos survived desiccation, whereas a survival rate of 60-95% was recorded for embryos exposed to 0.5-1.25 M sucrose. The non-freezable water content of the embryos was estimated at between 0.26 and 0.61 g H(2)O g(-1)dw depending on the sucrose treatment, and no obvious relationship could be found between the endogenous sucrose level and the amount of non-freezable water in the embryos. Cocoa somatic embryos could withstand the loss of a fraction of their non-freezable water without losing viability following desiccation. Nevertheless, the complete removal of potentially freezable water was not sufficient for most embryos to survive freezing.

  15. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

  16. The crystal structure of necrosis- and ethylene-inducing protein 2 from the causal agent of cacao's Witches' Broom disease reveals key elements for its activity.

    PubMed

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Barsottini, Mario Ramos de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Juliana Ferreira; Dyszy, Fabio; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Barau, Joan Grande; Garcia, Odalys; Costa-Filho, Antonio José; Ambrosio, Andre Luis Berteli; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Dias, Sandra Martha Gomes

    2011-11-15

    The necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (NEP1)-like proteins (NLPs) are proteins secreted from bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, triggering immune responses and cell death in dicotyledonous plants. Genomic-scale studies of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes the Witches' Broom disease in cacao, which is a serious economic concern for South and Central American crops, have identified five members of this family (termed MpNEP1-5). Here, we show by RNA-seq that MpNEP2 is virtually the only NLP expressed during the fungus infection. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that MpNEP2 has an expression pattern that positively correlates with the necrotic symptoms, with MpNEP2 reaching its highest level of expression at the advanced necrotic stage. To improve our understanding of MpNEP2's molecular mechanism of action, we determined the crystallographic structure of MpNEP2 at 1.8 Å resolution, unveiling some key structural features. The implications of a cation coordination found in the crystal structure were explored, and we show that MpNEP2, in contrast to another previously described member of the NLP family, NLP(Pya) from Pythium aphanidermatum, does not depend on an ion to accomplish its necrosis- and electrolyte leakage-promoting activities. Results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed the importance of a negatively charged cavity and an unforeseen hydrophobic β-hairpin loop for MpNEP2 activity, thus offering a platform for compound design with implications for disease control. Electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence assays with MpNEP2 performed in the presence of lipid vesicles of different compositions showed no sign of interaction between the protein and the lipids, implying that MpNEP2 likely requires other anchoring elements from the membrane to promote cytolysis or send death signals.

  17. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  18. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  19. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  20. Identification of a second family of genes in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, encoding necrosis-inducing proteins similar to cerato-platanins.

    PubMed

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Cabrera, Odalys García; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tiburcio, Ricardo; Lacerda, Gustavo; Pereira, Gonçalo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao. This is a dimorphic species, with monokaryotic hyphae during the biotrophic phase, which is converted to dikaryotic mycelia during the saprophytic phase. The infection in pod is characterized by the formation of hypertrophic and hyperplasic tissues in the biotrophic phase, which is followed by necrosis and complete degradation of the organ. We found at least five sequences in the fungal genome encoding putative proteins similar to cerato-platanin (CP)-like proteins, a novel class of proteins initially found in the phytopathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata. One M. perniciosa CP gene (MpCP1) was expressed in vitro and proved to have necrosis-inducing ability in tobacco and cacao leaves. The protein is present in solution as dimers and is able to recover necrosis activity after heat treatment. Transcription analysis ex planta showed that MpCP1 is more expressed in biotrophic-like mycelia than saprotrophic mycelia. The necrosis profile presented is different from that caused by M. perniciosa necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (MpNEPs), another family of elicitors expressed by M. perniciosa. Remarkably, a mixture of MpCP1 with MpNEP2 led to a synergistic necrosis effect very similar to that found in naturally infected plants. This is the first report of a basidiomycete presenting both NEP1-like proteins (NLPs) and CPs in its genome.

  1. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-03-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (p<0.01) with the following order of effectiveness: CPh>CAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the

  2. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Laconi, Erika B.; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest’s fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (p<0.01) with the following order of effectiveness: CPh>CAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Phragmanthera Incana (Schum.) Harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) and Kolanut (Cola Nitida) Trees on Fe2+ induced Lipid Oxidative Stress in Some Rat Tissues - In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Akinyemi, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence in both experimental and clinical studies has shown the participation of oxidative stress in the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. This study therefore, sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of Phragmanthera incana leaves, a mistletoe species harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and Kolanut (Cola nitida) on FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas, liver, kidney, heart and brain in vitro. The methanolic extract was prepared with 90% methanol (v/v); subsequently, the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of the extract on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in some rat tissues were determined in vitro. Incubation of the different rat tissues homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the tissues. However, the methanolic extracts of Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from both Cocoa and Kolanut trees caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of all the tissues tested in a dose-dependent manner. However, the extract of Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from kolanut trees had a better inhibitory effect on Fe2+- induced lipid peroxidation in the rat tissues homogenates than that of Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from cocoa trees. This higher inhibitory effect could be attributed to its significantly higher antioxidant properties as typified by their phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power. Therefore, oxidative stress associated with diabetes and its other complications could be potentially managed/prevented by harnessing Phragmanthera incana leaves as cheap nutraceuticals. However, Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from kolanut trees exhibited better antioxidant properties.

  4. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Nwanna, Esther E; Longe, Kuburat O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

  5. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean

    PubMed Central

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

  6. Status of cacao breeding in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into cocoa improvement has made a considerable impact on the productivity of the crop in West Africa. Much of the germplasm distributed to farmers have been of Upper Amazon origin following the realisation of their higher agronomic worth over the local Trinitario and Amelonado germplasm. Ho...

  7. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  8. Cacao Flavor through Genetics – Anatomy of Fine Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will discuss the transcript analysis of Moniliophthora roreri infected pods, which revealed a total of 3009 differentially expressed transcripts among resistant and susceptible clones. Comparison of the tolerant and susceptible clones by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome...

  9. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.

    PubMed

    Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits.

  10. Theobromine enhances absorption of cacao polyphenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Takahashi, Haruya; Suzuki, Koichiro; Hirano, Akira; Kamei, Masanori; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Several concentrations of theobromine (TB) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were coadministered to rats, and plasma EC and its metabolites were determined using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. It has been demonstrated that TB increases the absorption of EC in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa powder had a similar effect, and the mechanism involved is not thought to depend on tight junctions. PMID:25079983

  11. DYNAMICS OF FUNGAL POPULATION IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) GROWN UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PERU

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nature of crops and management systems profoundly affect fungal communities in the rhizosphere of perennial crops. Fungal populations in soil are involved in organic matter transformation and nutrient cycling. A field experiment was established during 1999 at the Tropical Crop Institute, San Martin-...

  12. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    PubMed

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation.

  13. Localization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Theobroma cacao L. Somatic Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    ALEMANNO, L.; RAMOS, T.; GARGADENEC, A.; ANDARY, C.; FERRIERE, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa breeders and growers continue to face the problem of high heterogeneity between individuals derived from one progeny. Vegetative propagation by somatic embryogenesis could be a way to increase genetic gains in the field. Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. This study was conducted to investigate the phenolic composition of cocoa flowers (the explants used to achieve somatic embryogenesis) and how it changes during the process, by means of histochemistry and conventional chemical techniques. In flowers, all parts contained polyphenolics but their locations were specific to the organ considered. After placing floral explants in vitro, the polyphenolic content was qualitatively modified and maintained in the calli throughout the culture process. Among the new polyphenolics, the three most abundant were isolated and characterized by 1H‐ and 13C‐NMR. They were hydroxycinnamic acid amides: N‐trans‐caffeoyl‐l‐DOPA or clovamide, N‐trans‐p‐coumaroyl‐l‐tyrosine or deoxiclovamide, and N‐trans‐caffeoyl‐l‐tyrosine. The same compounds were found also in fresh, unfermented cocoa beans. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non‐embryogenic conditions. Given the antioxidant nature of these compounds, they could reflect the stress status of the tissues. PMID:12933367

  14. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  15. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  16. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of po...

  17. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  18. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  19. Increasing accuracy and throughput in large-scale microsatellite fingerprinting of cacao field germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite-based DNA fingerprinting has been increasingly applied in crop genebank management. However, efficiency and cost-saving remain a major challenge for large scale genotyping, even when middle or high throughput genotyping facility is available. In this study we report on increasing the...

  20. Comparison of SNPs and microsatellites in identifying offtypes of cacao clones from Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing microsatellites and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over microsatellites, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We compare SNPs to m...

  1. Influence of climate and river level on the incidence of malaria in Cacao, French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profiles of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, are strongly associated with environmental conditions. An understanding of the effect of the climate on the occurrence of malaria may provide indirect insight into the anopheles mosquito vectors endemic to a particular region. The association between meteorological and hydrographical factors and the occurrence of malaria was studied in a village in French Guiana during an epidemic caused essentially by Plasmodium vivax. Methods A cohort of confirmed cases of P. vivax malaria occurring between 2002 and 2007 was studied to search for an association between the number of new infection episodes occurring each month, mean, maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, cumulative rainfall for the month and the mean monthly height of the river bordering the village, with the aid of time series. Cross-correlation analysis revealed that these meteorological factors had large effects on the number of episodes, over a study period of 12 months. Results Climatic factors supporting the continuance of the epidemic were identified in the short-term (low minimum temperatures during the month), medium-term (low maximum temperatures two months before) and long-term (low maximum temperatures nine months before and high lowest level of the river 12 months before). Cross-correlation analysis showed that the effects of these factors were greatest at the beginning of the short rainy season. Conclusion The association between the river level and the number of malaria attacks provides clues to better understand the environment of malaria transmission and the ecological characteristics of the vectors in the region. PMID:21294884

  2. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    PubMed

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation. PMID:26304435

  3. The hemibiotrophic cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa depends on a mitochondrial alternative oxidase for biotrophic development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-energy conserving ubiquinol oxidase found in most fungal genomes studied to date. With the development of fungicides containing cytochrome-dependent respiratory chain (CRC) inhibitors, a strong interest in studying AOX functions in phytopathogenic...

  4. Food Fingerprinting: Characterization of the Ecuadorean Type CCN-51 of Theobroma cacao L. Using Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Luise; Felbinger, Christine; Haase, Ilka; Rudolph, Barbara; Biermann, Bernhard; Fischer, Markus

    2015-05-13

    The cocoa type "Colección Castro Naranjal 51" (CCN-51) is known for its resistance to specific climate conditions and its high yield, but it shows a weaker flavor profile and therefore is marketed as bulk cocoa. In a previous study, the two cocoa types Arriba and CCN-51 could easily be distinguished, but differences among the CCN-51 samples were observed. This was unexpected, as CCN-51 is reported to be a clone. To confirm whether CCN-51 is a pure clone, 10 simple sequence repeats (SSR) located on the nuclear genome were used to analyze various CCN-51 samples in comparison to the cocoa varieties Arriba and Criollo. As expected, there are differences in the SSR pattern among CCN-51, Arriba, and Criollo, but a variability within the CCN-51 sample set was detected as well. The previously described sequence variation in the chloroplast genome was confirmed by a variability in the microsatellite loci of the nuclear genome for a comprehensive cultivar collection of CCN-51 of both bean and leaf samples. In summary, beneath somaclonal variation, misidentification of plant collections and also sexual reproduction of CCN-51 can be suggested.

  5. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for breakfast cocoa in § 163.112, except that the cacao...

  6. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a... that the cacao fat content is less than 10 percent by weight, as determined by the method prescribed...

  7. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for breakfast cocoa in § 163.112, except that the cacao...

  8. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a... that the cacao fat content is less than 10 percent by weight, as determined by the method prescribed...

  9. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for breakfast cocoa in § 163.112, except that the cacao...

  10. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a... that the cacao fat content is less than 10 percent by weight, as determined by the method prescribed...

  11. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for breakfast cocoa in § 163.112, except that the cacao...

  12. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a... that the cacao fat content is less than 10 percent by weight, as determined by the method prescribed...

  13. Effect of Cryopreservation and Post-Cryopreservation Somatic Embryogenesis on the Epigenetic Fidelity of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy; Marcelino Rodríguez López, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    While cocoa plants regenerated from cryopreserved somatic embryos can demonstrate high levels of phenotypic variability, little is known about the sources of the observed variability. Previous studies have shown that the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methodology imposes no significant extra mutational load since embryos carrying high levels of genetic variability are selected against during protracted culture. Also, the use of secondary rather than primary somatic embryos has been shown to further reduce the incidence of genetic somaclonal variation. Here, the effect of in vitro conservation, cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation generation of somatic embryos on the appearance of epigenetic somaclonal variation were comparatively assessed. To achieve this we compared the epigenetic profiles, generated using Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphisms, of leaves collected from the ortet tree and from cocoa somatic embryos derived from three in vitro conditions: somatic embryos, somatic embryos cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and somatic embryos generated from cryoproserved somatic embryos. Somatic embryos accumulated epigenetic changes but these were less extensive than in those regenerated after storage in LN. Furthermore, the passage of cryopreserved embryos through another embryogenic stage led to further increase in variation. Interestingly, this detected variability appears to be in some measure reversible. The outcome of this study indicates that the cryopreservation induced phenotypic variability could be, at least partially, due to DNA methylation changes. Key message: Phenotypic variability observed in cryostored cocoa somatic-embryos is epigenetic in nature. This variability is partially reversible, not stochastic in nature but a directed response to the in-vitro culture and cryopreservation. PMID:27403857

  14. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    PubMed

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), α-amylase inhibition activity, cholesterol and sodium cholate binding capacity, but less significant (>0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  15. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    PubMed

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method.

  16. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internalization of oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors’ cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants ...

  17. Assessing microsatellite linkage disequilibrium in wild, cultivated, and mapping populations of Theobroma cacao L and its impact on association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles and loci within sets of genetic data and when measured over the genomes of a species can provide important indications for how future association analyses should proceed. This information can be advantageous especially for slow-gro...

  18. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    PubMed

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. PMID:25529678

  19. 40 CFR 180.628 - Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., leafy greens, subgroup 5B 11 Bushberry, subgroup 13-07B 2.5 Cacao bean 0.08 Cacao bean, chocolate 1.5 Cacao bean, cocoa powder 1.5 Cacao bean, roasted bean 0.8 Cactus 13 Canistel 4.0 Cattle, fat 0.3 Cattle... Cherry, tart 2.0 Citrus, dried pulp 14 Coffee, green bean 0.4 Coffee, instant 2.0 Corn, field, forage...

  20. 21 CFR 163.5 - Methods of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heading “Fat in Cacao Products—Soxhlet Extraction Method—Final Action, 1973,” pp. 770-771. ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS General Provisions § 163.5 Methods of analysis. Shell and cacao fat content in... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the...

  1. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  2. 21 CFR 163.5 - Methods of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Nibs—Official Final Action,” pp. 208-210. (b) Fat content—15th ed. (1990), method 963.15, under the heading “Fat in Cacao Products—Soxhlet Extraction Method—Final Action, 1973,” pp. 770-771. ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS General Provisions § 163.5 Methods of analysis. Shell and cacao fat content...

  3. ON THE ANCESTRY OF THE ICS CLONES OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao L. or cacao is a tropical fruit tree species cultivated as the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery and cosmetic industries. The ICS (Imperial College Selections) are cacao clones of Trinidad and Tobago that were selected by F.J. Pound from 1933 to 1935 from farms ...

  4. Moniliophthora roreri Genome and Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frosty pod rot disease of cacao is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao and at this time is limited to regions in South America and Central America. Frosty pod rot is caused by a fungal pathogen Moniliophthora roreri, a basidiomycete that is closely related to another cacao pathogen that ca...

  5. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    PubMed

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions.

  6. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  7. Near infra-red characterization of changes in flavan-3-ol derivatives in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a function of fermentation temperature.

    PubMed

    Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

    2014-10-15

    Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch. PMID:25259956

  8. Near infra-red characterization of changes in flavan-3-ol derivatives in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a function of fermentation temperature.

    PubMed

    Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

    2014-10-15

    Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch.

  9. The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: a review.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and anti-free radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds.

  10. Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers in Theobroma cacao and comparison to Simple Sequence Repeat markers for genotyping of Cameroon clones.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over SSRs, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We have identifie...

  11. The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: a review.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and anti-free radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds. PMID:24915346

  12. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports

  13. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p < 0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p < 0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports

  14. Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Dillinger, T L; Barriga, P; Escárcega, S; Jimenez, M; Salazar Lowe, D; Grivetti, L E

    2000-08-01

    The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations.

  15. Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Dillinger, T L; Barriga, P; Escárcega, S; Jimenez, M; Salazar Lowe, D; Grivetti, L E

    2000-08-01

    The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations. PMID:10917925

  16. Phytophthora megakarya, a causal agent of black pod rot in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most parts of the world where Theobroma cacao is grown, Phytophthora palmivora is the major concern for causing black pod rot (BPR). Phytophthora megakarya, on the other hand, occurs only in Africa, but represents a major threat to cacao production, the countries of West Africa being the largest ...

  17. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products §...

  18. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  19. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  20. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  1. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  2. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  3. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  4. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  5. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is...

  6. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to...

  7. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous collecting expeditions of Theobroma cacao L. germplasm hae been undertaken in Latin-America. However, this germplasm has not contributed to cacao improvement because its relationship to cultivated selections was poorly understood. Germplasm labeling errors have impeded breeding and confound...

  8. How dark chocolate is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  9. Genetic Variability and Host Specialization in the Latin American Clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine J; Harrington, Thomas C; Krauss, Ulrike; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2003-10-01

    ABSTRACT The Ceratocystis fimbriata complex includes many undescribed species that cause wilt and canker diseases of many economically important plants. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences have delineated three geographic clades within Ceratocystis fimbriata. This study examined host specialization in the Latin American clade, in which a number of lineages were identified using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA. Three host-associated lineages were identified from cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively. Isolates from these three lineages showed strong host specialization in reciprocal inoculation experiments on these three hosts. Six cacao isolates from Ecuador, Trinidad, and Columbia differed genetically from other cacao isolates and were not pathogenic to cacao in inoculation tests. Further evidence of host specialization within the Latin American clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata was demonstrated in inoculation experiments in growth chambers using sweet potato, sycamore, Colocasia esculenta, coffee (Coffea arabica), and mango (Mangifera indica) plants; inoculation experiments in Brazil using Brazilian isolates from cacao, Eucalyptus spp., mango, and Gmelina arborea; and inoculation experiments in Costa Rica using Costa Rican isolates from cacao, coffee, and Xantho-soma sp. Hosts native to the Americas appeared to be colonized by only select pathogen genotypes, whereas nonnative hosts were colonized by several genotypes. We hypothesize that local populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata have specialized to different hosts; some of these populations are nascent species, and some host-specialized genotypes have been moved to new areas by humans. PMID:18944327

  10. Automatic start control for a three-phase electric motor using infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique Lima, Mario; Ramírez Arenas, Francisco; Rodríguez Pedroza, Griselda

    2006-02-01

    We introduce equipment for the automatic activation of a three-phase electric motor (1Hp, 3A, 240V AC) using 2 infrared sensors monitored by a Microchip microcontroller PIC16F62x@4Mhz for the control of a filling system. This project was carried out to Fabrica de Chocolates y Dulces Costanzo, where the automatization of cacao grain supply was required for a machine in charge of cleaning the cacao from its rind. This process demanded the monitoring of the filling level to avoid the spill of toasted cacao.

  11. Computer Series, 114: MO Theory Made Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealli, Carlo; Proserpio, Davide M.

    1990-01-01

    A collection of Molecular Orbital (MO) programs that have been integrated into routines and programs to illustrate MO theory are presented. Included are discussions of Computer Aided Composition of Atomic Orbitals (CACAO) and Walsh diagrams. (CW)

  12. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate...

  13. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate...

  14. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate...

  15. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not otherwise listed 2.0 Barley, bran, postharvest 0.05 Barley, flour, postharvest 0.05 Barley, grain, postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2...

  16. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not otherwise listed 2.0 Barley, bran, postharvest 0.05 Barley, flour, postharvest 0.05 Barley, grain, postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2...

  17. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... not otherwise listed 2.0 Barley, bran, postharvest 0.05 Barley, flour, postharvest 0.05 Barley, grain, postharvest 0.1 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 0.05 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 0.2...

  18. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., postharvest 15.0 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 45.0 Cattle, meat, dried 40 Cheese 5.0 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 20 Coconut, postharvest 40 Coffee, bean, green, postharvest 15 Corn,...

  19. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., postharvest 15.0 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 45.0 Cattle, meat, dried 40 Cheese 5.0 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 20 Coconut, postharvest 40 Coffee, bean, green, postharvest 15 Corn,...

  20. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., postharvest 15.0 Barley, pearled barley, postharvest 45.0 Cattle, meat, dried 40 Cheese 5.0 Cacao bean, roasted bean, postharvest 20 Coconut, postharvest 40 Coffee, bean, green, postharvest 15 Corn,...

  1. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chocolate liquor with one or more optional nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, and may contain one or more of... following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat; (2) Nutritive carbohydrate...

  2. Caffeine Confusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... natural chemical found in tea leaves, coffee beans, cacao (the stuff used to make chocolate), and cola ... foods and drinks, such as coffee, tea, hot cocoa, soda, chocolate, and some medicines . When humans drink ...

  3. Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

  4. 21 CFR 163.5 - Methods of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods of analysis. 163.5 Section 163.5 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS General Provisions § 163.5 Methods of analysis. Shell and cacao fat content...

  5. 21 CFR 163.5 - Methods of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methods of analysis. 163.5 Section 163.5 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS General Provisions § 163.5 Methods of analysis. Shell and cacao fat content...

  6. 21 CFR 163.5 - Methods of analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of analysis. 163.5 Section 163.5 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS General Provisions § 163.5 Methods of analysis. Shell and cacao fat content...

  7. Effects of land-use change on community composition of tropical amphibians and reptiles in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Thomas C; Iskandar, Djoko T; Motzke, Iris; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of anthropogenic land-use change on the amphibians and reptiles of the biodiverse tropical forests of Southeast Asia. We studied a land-use modification gradient stretching from primary forest, secondary forest, natural-shade cacao agroforest, planted-shade cacao agroforest to open areas in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We determined species richness, abundance, turnover, and community composition in all habitat types and related these to environmental correlates, such as canopy heterogeneity and thickness of leaf litter. Amphibian species richness decreased systematically along the land-use modification gradient, but reptile richness and abundance peaked in natural-shade cacao agroforests. Species richness and abundance patterns across the disturbance gradient were best explained by canopy cover and leaf-litter thickness in amphibians and by canopy heterogeneity and cover in reptiles. Amphibians were more severely affected by forest disturbance in Sulawesi than reptiles. Heterogeneous canopy cover and thick leaf litter should be maintained in cacao plantations to facilitate the conservation value for both groups. For long-term and sustainable use of plantations, pruned shade trees should be permanently kept to allow rejuvenation of cacao and, thus, to prevent repeated forest encroachment. PMID:20151989

  8. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  9. Oral tacrolimus oil formulations for enhanced lymphatic delivery and efficient inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Kiyo; Yoshioka, Tatsunobu; Tsutsui, Yuuki; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Oral oil formulations have been reported to deliver drugs into the lymph. Lymphatic delivery of immunomodulatory drugs can more efficiently expose the drugs to T-cells in lymph, consequently induce higher efficacy and lower side effects. In this study, effects of tacrolimus oral oil formulations on drug blood exposure, and on inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were investigated in rats. Oil formulations (sunflower oil, cacao butter, medium chain triglyceride, and palm oil) dissolving tacrolimus showed lower drug blood concentration than a solid dispersion formulation (SDF). The sunflower oil, and cacao butter formulations suppressed drug blood exposure to 50% of the SDF, and inhibited T-cell's IL-2 production similar to the SDF. In vitro digestion tests indicated that slower digestion of the oils might reduce amount and rate of tacrolimus blood absorption. The cacao butter formulations showed 3.0 times more rapid tacrolimus absorption to lymphatic fluid than the SDF. Ratio of the rate constants of absorption into lymph to that into blood was higher in oil formulations (15 times in cacao butter, 15 times sunflower oil, and 3.5 times palm oil) than in the SDF. These results indicated that the oral oil formulations might be suitable for reduced tacrolimus blood concentration for low systemic side effects, and keep high lymph concentration for high efficacy in organ transplantation patients. PMID:26748381

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, an Emergent Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Deligios, Massimo; Fraumene, Cristina; Abbondio, Marcello; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a yeast with valuable biotechnological features, has also been recorded as an emergent opportunistic pathogen that might cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of R. mucilaginosa strain C2.5t1, which was isolated from cacao seeds in Cameroon. PMID:25858834

  11. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  12. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  13. Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

  14. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other than cacao fat....

  15. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other than cacao fat....

  16. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  17. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other than cacao fat....

  18. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other than cacao fat....

  19. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  20. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  1. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  2. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat...) Safe and suitable vegetable derived oils, fats, and stearins other than cacao fat. The oils, fats,...

  3. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other than cacao fat....

  4. Wintering ovenbird from Belize recovered on Pennsylvania breeding ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    A first-winter Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) banded in a cacao plantation in central Belize on 8 February 1989 was found dead on the deck of a home on its breeding ground in northwestern Pennsylvania on 28 June 1997, tying the 9-year age record for the species.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  6. 21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 163.117 Section 163.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...

  7. 21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 163.117 Section 163.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...

  8. 21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 163.117 Section 163.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...

  9. 21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 163.117 Section 163.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...

  10. 21 CFR 163.117 - Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 163.117 Section 163.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Standardized Cacao Products § 163.117 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing. (a) Description. Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing is the food additive complying...

  11. Differential gene expression between the biotrophic-like and saprotrophic mycelia of the Witches’ broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biotrophic development of M. perniciosa, we performed DNA microarrays and EST analyses of the biotrophic and saprotrophic stages of this fungus, grown in vitro. Reads from 3 cDNAs libraries (glucose- and cacao-induced ...

  12. Differential gene expression between the biotrophic-like and saprotrophic mycelia of the Witches’ broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes Witches’ Broom disease in cacao. Marked dimorphism characterizes the biotrophic phase, which actually causes the disease symptoms, and the saprotrophic phase. A combined strategy of DNA microarray, EST and real-time PCR analyses was em...

  13. The need for an assembly pilot project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress has been rapid since the June 2008 start of the cacao genome sequencing project with the completion of the physical map and the accumulation of approximately 10x coverage of the genome with Titanium 454 sequence data of Matina1-6, the highly homozygous Amelonado tree chosen for the project....

  14. Integrating genomics into future approaches for cocoa selection and propagation in Côte d’Ivoire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Côte-d’Ivoire cocoa breeding is based on a reciprocal recurrent scheme that has been prepared with the aim of improving simultaneously the characteristics of the two main populations: Upper Amazon and Lower Amazon+ Trinitario. Resistance to Phytophtora and Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus has become th...

  15. 40 CFR 180.381 - Oxyfluorfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.381, see the List of CFR Sections..., hulls 0.1 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Avocado 0.05 Banana 0.05 Broccoli 0.05 Cabbage 0.05 Cacao bean,...

  16. 40 CFR 180.381 - Oxyfluorfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.381, see the List of CFR Sections..., hulls 0.1 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Avocado 0.05 Banana 0.05 Broccoli 0.05 Cabbage 0.05 Cacao bean,...

  17. 40 CFR 180.381 - Oxyfluorfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.381, see the List of CFR Sections..., hulls 0.1 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Avocado 0.05 Banana 0.05 Broccoli 0.05 Cabbage 0.05 Cacao bean,...

  18. 40 CFR 180.381 - Oxyfluorfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.381, see the List of CFR Sections..., hulls 0.1 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Avocado 0.05 Banana 0.05 Broccoli 0.05 Cabbage 0.05 Cacao bean,...

  19. 40 CFR 180.381 - Oxyfluorfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.381, see the List of CFR Sections..., hulls 0.1 Artichoke, globe 0.05 Avocado 0.05 Banana 0.05 Broccoli 0.05 Cabbage 0.05 Cacao bean,...

  20. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  1. iXora: Haplotype Inferencing and Trait Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  2. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  3. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Avocado 0.01 Banana 0.01 Barley, grain 0.1 Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01...

  4. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Avocado 0.01 Banana 0.01 Barley, grain 0.1 Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01...

  5. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Avocado 0.01 Banana 0.01 Barley, grain 0.1 Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01...

  6. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Avocado 0.01 Banana 0.01 Barley, grain 0.1 Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01...

  7. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.1 Avocado 0.01 Banana 0.01 Barley, grain 0.1 Cabbage, Chinese, bok choy 0.01 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.01 Cacao bean, dried bean 0.1 Cashew 0.1 Citron, citrus 0.01...

  8. Re-marriage of crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

  9. Soil Biological Parameters Influenced By Cocoa Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems have a profound influence on the soil micro-fauna and they are responsible for nutrient cycling, and add stability to the soil. At Tarapoto, Peru, two field experiments were established on acidic medium fertility Alfisol to assess the influence of management systems on cacao rhizosp...

  10. [Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds and nuts].

    PubMed

    Padilla, F C; Rincón, A M; Bou-Rached, L

    2008-09-01

    Foods from plant origin not only provide human diet with certain antioxidant vitamins (C, E and beta-carotene), but also a complex mixture of polyphenols, with antioxidant activity. Numerous studies have been focused on the protective and preventing effect of this antioxidant activity on certain degenerative illnesses such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurological diseases, cataracts and oxidative stress dysfunctions. The objective of this work was to evaluate total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds, nuts, or grains such as Theobroma cacao, Canpsiandra comosa Benth (chiga), Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench, Melicoccus bijugatus (genip). Total polyphenol content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant activity by the beta carotene/linoleate, reducing power, and the anti-radical activity methods. Results showed genip pericarp with the lowest polyphenol content (1.40 gGAE/100 g), and cacao beans with the highest (6.66 gGAE/100 g). Reducing power of cacao beans was also the highest and similar to the reducing power of 5.80 g ascorbic acid/100 g, followed by Campsiandra comosa. Moreover, Campsiandra comosa and cacao seeds presented an antioxidant activity comparable to that of the butylhydroxianisol, a synthetic antioxidant. The highest anti-radical activity was shown by Campsiandra comosa with an EC50 of 2.67 g/gDPPH. Total polyphenol content shows a good correlation with the antioxidant activity. Moreover, these seeds might have the same health beneficial effects attributed to other fruits and vegetables.

  11. The Role Of Haplotyping In Mapping The Pod Color Trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao, the source of cocoa beans for chocolate, is an important tropical agriculture commodity that is affected by a number of fungal pathogens and insect pests, as well as concerns about yield and quality. We are trying to find molecular genetic markers that are linked to disease resista...

  12. The Analytic Reconciliation of Classic Mayan Elite Pottery: Squaring Pottery Function with Form, Adornment, and Residual Contents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughmiller-Newman, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a multidisciplinary means of determining the actual content (foodstuff, non-foodstuff, or lack of contents) of Classic Mayan (A.D. 250-900) vessels. Based on previous studies that have identified the residues of foodstuffs named in hieroglyphic texts (e.g. cacao), this study is designed to further investigate foodstuff…

  13. Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. Despite the economic importance of the Ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its ...

  14. Land use change effects on trace gas fluxes in the forest margins of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Edzo; Purbopuspito, Joko; Corre, Marife D.; Brumme, Rainer; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Land use changes and land use intensification are considered important processes contributing to the increasing concentrations of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of ozone. Studies on the effects of land use changes and land use intensification on soil trace gas emissions were mostly conducted in Latin America and only very few in Asia. Here we present results from Central Sulawesi where profound changes in land use and cultivation practices take place: traditional agricultural practices like shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn agriculture are replaced by permanent cultivation systems and introduction of income-generating cash crops like cacao. Our results showed that N2O emissions were higher from cacao agroforestry (35 ± 10 μg N m-2 h-1) than maize (9 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1), whereas intermediate rates were observed from secondary forests (25 ± 11 μg N m-2 h-1). NO emissions did not differ among land use systems, ranging from 12 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1 for cacao agroforestry and secondary forest to 18 ± 2 μg N m-2 h-1 for maize. CH4 uptake was higher for maize (-30 ± 4 μg C m-2 h-1) than cacao agroforestry (-18 ± 2 μg C m-2 h-1) and intermediate rates were measured from secondary forests (-25 ± 4 μg C m-2 h-1). Combining these data with results from other studies in this area, we present chronosequence effects of land use change on trace gas emissions from natural forest, through maize cultivation, to cacao agroforestry (with or without fertilizer). Compared to the original forests, this typical land use change in the study area clearly led to higher N2O emissions and lower CH4 uptake with age of cacao agroforestry systems. We conclude that this common land use sequence in the area combined with the increasing use of fertilizer will strongly increase soil trace gas emissions. We suggest that the future hot spot regions of high N2O (and to a lesser extend NO) emissions in the tropics are those

  15. [Scolitids (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Manuel; Equihua-Martínez, Armando; Romero-Nápoles, Jesus; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; García-López, Eustolia; Bravo-Mojica, Hiram

    2009-01-01

    The Scolytidae fauna associated to the cacao agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico was studied during 2007. Adult insects were captured by using ethanol and light traps, and by direct collecting in their host plants. 3,192 specimens of 34 species belonging to 18 genera of Scolytidae were collected. Twenty-two species are new records for the State of Tabasco. The genera with more species were Xyleborus (6) and Hypothenemus (6). We conclude that the Scolytidae fauna associated to the cacao agroecosystem captured with the three trap systems are similar through the year of study. We also conclude that although the ethanol traps were more efficient, obtaining the highest species diversity, the use of other methods is important.

  16. High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617

  17. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils

    PubMed Central

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2) were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH. PMID:26397367

  18. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils.

    PubMed

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2) were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH.

  19. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils.

    PubMed

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2) were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH. PMID:26397367

  20. Oral Supplementation with Cocoa Extract Reduces UVB-Induced Wrinkles in Hairless Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Song, Dasom; Kim, Junil; Choi, Jina; Kim, Jong Rhan; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Lee, Sein; Hong, Ji Sun; Song, Dayoung; Kim, Seong-Jin; Son, Myoung-Jin; Choi, Sang-Woon; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae-Aug; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-05-01

    Cacao beans contain various bioactive phytochemicals that could modify the pathogeneses of certain diseases. Here, we report that oral administration of cacao powder (CP) attenuates UVB-induced skin wrinkling by the regulation of genes involved in dermal matrix production and maintenance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 788 genes are down- or upregulated in the CP supplemented group, compared with the UVB-irradiated mouse skin controls. Among the differentially expressed genes, cathepsin G and serpin B6c play important roles in UVB-induced skin wrinkle formation. Gene regulatory network analysis also identified several candidate regulators responsible for the protective effects of CP supplementation against UVB-induced skin damage. CP also elicited antiwrinkle effects via inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases-1 expression in both the human skin equivalent model and human dermal fibroblasts. Inhibition of UVB-induced activator protein-1 via CP supplementation is likely to affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1. CP supplementation also downregulates the expression of cathepsin G in human dermal fibroblasts. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a major in vivo metabolite of CP, showed effects similar to CP supplementation. These results suggest that cacao extract may offer a protective effect against photoaging by inhibiting the breakdown of dermal matrix, which leads to an overall reduction in wrinkle formation. PMID:26854493

  1. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  2. Pervasive effects of a dominant foliar endophytic fungus on host genetic and phenotypic expression in a tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Luis C.; Herre, Edward A.; Sparks, Jed P.; Winter, Klaus; García, Milton N.; Van Bael, Sunshine A.; Stitt, Joseph; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that macro-organisms (corals, insects, plants, vertebrates) consist of both host tissues and multiple microbial symbionts that play essential roles in their host's ecological and evolutionary success. Consequently, identifying benefits and costs of symbioses, as well as mechanisms underlying them are research priorities. All plants surveyed under natural conditions harbor foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) in their leaf tissues, often at high densities. Despite producing no visible effects on their hosts, experiments have nonetheless shown that FEF reduce pathogen and herbivore damage. Here, combining results from three genomic, and two physiological experiments, we demonstrate pervasive genetic and phenotypic effects of the apparently asymptomatic endophytes on their hosts. Specifically, inoculation of endophyte-free (E−) Theobroma cacao leaves with Colletotrichum tropicale (E+), the dominant FEF species in healthy T. cacao, induces consistent changes in the expression of hundreds of host genes, including many with known defensive functions. Further, E+ plants exhibited increased lignin and cellulose content, reduced maximum rates of photosynthesis (Amax), and enrichment of nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 isotopes. These phenotypic changes observed in E+ plants correspond to changes in expression of specific functional genes in related pathways. Moreover, a cacao gene (Tc00g04254) highly up-regulated by C. tropicale also confers resistance to pathogen damage in the absence of endophytes or their products in host tissues. Thus, the benefits of increased pathogen resistance in E+ plants are derived in part from up-regulation of intrinsic host defense responses, and appear to be offset by potential costs including reduced photosynthesis, altered host nitrogen metabolism, and endophyte heterotrophy of host tissues. Similar effects are likely in most plant-endophyte interactions, and should be recognized in the design and interpretation of genetic

  3. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification

    PubMed Central

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M.; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G.; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-01-01

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by ≈75% and species richness of forest-using species by ≈60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by ≈40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends. PMID:17360392

  4. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    PubMed

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  5. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion—the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  6. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  7. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  9. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  10. Flavan 3-ols improve metabolic syndrome risk factors: evidence and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Osakabe, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Flavan 3-ols, a type of polyphenolic substance, are distributed in a number of plant foods. Of these foods, chocolate is very rich in flavan 3-ols as flavan 3-ol monomers, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, and the oligomers as procyanidins. There is evidence that cacao products containing flavan 3-ols have the potential to contribute to the risk reduction of cardiometabolic disorders according to recent epidemiological or intervention studies. This review focuses on recent advances in research on the ability of flavan 3-ols to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as a result of improving metabolic syndrome risk factors and these mechanisms. PMID:23704807

  11. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Oscar; Vaughan, Christopher; Herrera, Geovanny; Guries, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao), pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age) varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%), Coussapoa villosa (25.6%), Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%), Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8%) and Samanea saman (5.4%). However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%), S. saman (18.5%) and N. salicifolia (16.7%). The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches.

  12. Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Ward, Timothy J.; Bravenec, Ardith D.; Ali, Syed; Kebert, Laura; Berch, Marlaina; Redman, Erin; Lyons, Patrick D.; Merewether, Jamie; Phillips, David A.; Reed, Lori S.; Woodson, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750–1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations. PMID:26372965

  13. Solute load concentrations in some streams in the Upper Osun and Owena drainage basins, central western Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeje, L. K.; Ogunkoya, O. O.; Oluwatimilehin, J. M.

    1999-12-01

    The solute load dynamics of 12 third-order streams in central western Nigeria are presented, during storm and non-storm runoff events. The relevance of the Walling and Foster model for explaining storm period solute load dynamics in the humid tropical environment was assessed and it was found that this model was generally applicable to the study area. Exceptions appear to be streams draining settlements and/or farms where fertilizers are applied heavily. The solute load ranged from 5 mg l -1 to 580 mg l -1 with streams draining basins with tree-crop plantations ( Theobroma cacao, Cola sp.) as the dominant land cover having the highest solute load.

  14. [High prevalence of antiHTLV-1 antibodies in the Boni, an ethnic group of African origin isolated in French Guiana since the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Calender, A; Strobel, M; Lefait-Robin, R; de Thé, G

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies to HTLV-1 (ELISA test using disrupted virus) were studied in different ethnic groups in French Guiana, including 135 blood donors from Cayenne, 97 Boni Blacks and 57 Wayana Indians from Maripasoula area, and 57 Hmong from Cacao village. We observed significant differences between Boni Blacks and Wayana Indians, having respectively 10.3% versus 0% of high antibody titers. The Hmong, recent refugees from Kampuchea, exhibited an intermediate level (3.5%) of infection. These results favour an African origin of HTLV-1 and raise, for the Hmong, the question of an infection acquired in Guiana.

  15. Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Ward, Timothy J; Bravenec, Ardith D; Ali, Syed; Kebert, Laura; Berch, Marlaina; Redman, Erin; Lyons, Patrick D; Merewether, Jamie; Phillips, David A; Reed, Lori S; Woodson, Kyle

    2015-09-15

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750-1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations.

  16. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Oscar; Vaughan, Christopher; Herrera, Geovanny; Guries, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao), pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age) varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%), Coussapoa villosa (25.6%), Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%), Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8%) and Samanea saman (5.4%). However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%), S. saman (18.5%) and N. salicifolia (16.7%). The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. PMID:22208090

  17. Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Ward, Timothy J; Bravenec, Ardith D; Ali, Syed; Kebert, Laura; Berch, Marlaina; Redman, Erin; Lyons, Patrick D; Merewether, Jamie; Phillips, David A; Reed, Lori S; Woodson, Kyle

    2015-09-15

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750-1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations. PMID:26372965

  18. Creation of a databank for content of antioxidants in food products by an amperometric method.

    PubMed

    Yashin, Yakov I; Nemzer, Boris V; Ryzhnev, Vadim Yu; Yashin, Alexandr Ya; Chernousova, Nina I; Fedina, Polina A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress, i.e. excessive content of reactionary, oxygen, and nitrogen compounds (ROAC), including free radicals, is one of the causes of various dangerous diseases as well as premature aging. The adverse effect of free radicals can be neutralized by antioxidants. In order to carry out antioxidant therapy, one needs to know the contents of antioxidants in food products. We have created the databank for the contents of antioxidants in 1,140 food products, beverages, etc. Apart from water-soluble antioxidants, fat-soluble antioxidants in dairy and fish products, cacao, chocolate, nuts etc. were determined for the first time using an amperometric method.

  19. Functional diversification of cerato-platanins in Moniliophthora perniciosa as seen by differential expression and protein function specialization.

    PubMed

    de O Barsottini, Mario R; de Oliveira, Juliana F; Adamoski, Douglas; Teixeira, Paulo J P L; do Prado, Paula F V; Tiezzi, Henrique O; Sforça, Mauricio L; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo V; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; de M Zeri, Ana C; Dias, Sandra M G; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Ambrosio, Andre L B

    2013-11-01

    Cerato-platanins (CP) are small, cysteine-rich fungal-secreted proteins involved in the various stages of the host-fungus interaction process, acting as phytotoxins, elicitors, and allergens. We identified 12 CP genes (MpCP1 to MpCP12) in the genome of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, and showed that they present distinct expression profiles throughout fungal development and infection. We determined the X-ray crystal structures of MpCP1, MpCP2, MpCP3, and MpCP5, representative of different branches of a phylogenetic tree and expressed at different stages of the disease. Structure-based biochemistry, in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, allowed us to define specialized capabilities regarding self-assembling and the direct binding to chitin and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) tetramers, a fungal cell wall building block, and to map a previously unknown binding region in MpCP5. Moreover, fibers of MpCP2 were shown to act as expansin and facilitate basidiospore germination whereas soluble MpCP5 blocked NAG6-induced defense response. The correlation between these roles, the fungus life cycle, and its tug-of-war interaction with cacao plants is discussed. PMID:23902259

  20. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels.

  1. Can Joint Carbon and Biodiversity Management in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes Be Optimized?

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H.; Sporn, Simone G.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential ‘win-win’ scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227–362 Mg C ha−1 to agroforests with 82–211 Mg C ha−1 showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

  2. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels. PMID:23077569

  3. Expression of an oxalate decarboxylase impairs the necrotic effect induced by Nep1-like protein (NLP) of Moniliophthora perniciosa in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leonardo F; Dias, Cristiano V; Cidade, Luciana C; Mendes, Juliano S; Pirovani, Carlos P; Alvim, Fátima C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Aragão, Francisco J L; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Costa, Marcio G C

    2011-07-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) and Nep1-like proteins (NLP) are recognized as elicitors of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, which is crucial for the pathogenic success of necrotrophic plant pathogens and involves reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine the importance of oxalate as a source of ROS for OA- and NLP-induced cell death, a full-length cDNA coding for an oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes, which converts OA into CO(2) and formate, was overexpressed in tobacco plants. The transgenic plants contained less OA and more formic acid compared with the control plants and showed enhanced resistance to cell death induced by exogenous OA and MpNEP2, an NLP of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. This resistance was correlated with the inhibition of ROS formation in the transgenic plants inoculated with OA, MpNEP2, or a combination of both PCD elicitors. Taken together, these results have established a pivotal function for oxalate as a source of ROS required for the PCD-inducing activity of OA and NLP. The results also indicate that FvOXDC represents a potentially novel source of resistance against OA- and NLP-producing pathogens such as M. perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

  4. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    PubMed

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally.

  5. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-01

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  6. Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Mejía, Luis Carlos; Kyllo, Damond; Rojas, Enith I.; Maynard, Zuleyka; Robbins, Nancy; Herre, Edward Allen

    2003-01-01

    Every plant species examined to date harbors endophytic fungi within its asymptomatic aerial tissues, such that endophytes represent a ubiquitous, yet cryptic, component of terrestrial plant communities. Fungal endophytes associated with leaves of woody angiosperms are especially diverse; yet, fundamental aspects of their interactions with hosts are unknown. In contrast to the relatively species-poor endophytes that are vertically transmitted and act as defensive mutualists of some temperate grasses, the diverse, horizontally transmitted endophytes of woody angiosperms are thought to contribute little to host defense. Here, we document high diversity, spatial structure, and host affinity among foliar endophytes associated with a tropical tree (Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae) across lowland Panama. We then show that inoculation of endophyte-free leaves with endophytes isolated frequently from naturally infected, asymptomatic hosts significantly decreases both leaf necrosis and leaf mortality when T. cacao seedlings are challenged with a major pathogen (Phytophthora sp.). In contrast to reports of fungal inoculation inducing systemic defense, we found that protection was primarily localized to endophyte-infected tissues. Further, endophyte-mediated protection was greater in mature leaves, which bear less intrinsic defense against fungal pathogens than do young leaves. In vitro studies suggest that host affinity is mediated by leaf chemistry, and that protection may be mediated by direct interactions of endophytes with foliar pathogens. Together, these data demonstrate the capacity of diverse, horizontally transmitted endophytes of woody angiosperms to play an important but previously unappreciated role in host defense. PMID:14671327

  7. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored. PMID:23673608

  8. Analysis of transferability of microsatellite primers (SSR) in wild Passiflora species and intraspecific genetic diversity in Passiflora alata.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A A; Souza, M M; Silva, G S; Melo, C A F; Corrêa, R X; Araújo, I S; Conceição, L D H C S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Passiflora L. is the most representative of Passifloraceae, with over 500 known species, among which 150-200 originated from Brazil. In addition to the great commercial importance of this genus for the fruit market, many of the species have exotic flowers with a huge diversity of colors and can thereby be exploited as ornamental plants. This study was aimed at investigating the transferability of microsatellite primers in wild Passiflora species (P. cacao, P. cincinnata, P. glandulosa, P. gibertii, and P. mucronata) and characterizing 29 P. alata accessions using microsatellite primers that were previously developed in a library enriched with microsatellites from P. edulis f. flavicarpa for P. alata. The interspecies cross-amplification rate varied, and P. cacao exhibited the highest rate of amplification, suggesting a greater degree of proximity to P. edulis. The study of intraspecific accessions in P. alata found genetic similarity, with values ranging from 0.47 to 1.00 and an average similarity of 0.74. Hence, this study revealed the intraspecific genetic variability of P. alata in the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz's Active Germplasm Bank and will lead to the adoption of mating strategies between accessions; thus making their use more suitable for breeding purposes. PMID:25117349

  9. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  10. Independent origins and incipient speciation among host-associated populations of Thielaviopsis ethacetica in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbenoun, Michael; Wingfield, Michael J; Letsoalo, Teboho; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Roux, Jolanda

    2015-11-01

    Thielaviopsis ethacetica was recently reinstated as a distinct taxon using DNA phylogenies. It is widespread affecting several crop plants of global economic importance. In this study, microsatellite markers were developed and used in conjunction with sequence data to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Th. ethacetica in Cameroon. A collection of 71 isolates from cacao, oil palm, and pineapple, supplemented with nine isolates from other countries were analysed. Four genetic groups were identified. Two of these were associated with oil palm in Cameroon and showed high genetic diversity, suggesting that they might represent an indigenous population of the pathogen. In contrast, the remaining two groups, associated with cacao and pineapple, had low genetic diversity and, most likely, represent introduced populations. There was no evidence of gene flow between these groups. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the tef1-α as well as the combined flanking regions of six microsatellite loci were consistent with population genetic analyses and suggested that Th. ethacetica is comprised of two divergent genetic lineages. PMID:26466872

  11. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    PubMed

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally. PMID:26714102

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA and RNA polymerases from a Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid reveals probable lateral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Andrade, B S; Góes-Neto, A

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic basidiomycete that causes witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Many fungal mitochondrial plasmids are DNA and RNA polymerase-encoding invertrons with terminal inverted repeats and 5'-linked proteins. The aim of this study was to carry out comparative and phylogenetic analyses of DNA and RNA polymerases for all known linear mitochondrial plasmids in fungi. We performed these analyses at both gene and protein levels and assessed differences between fungal and viral polymerases in order to test the lateral gene transfer (LGT) hypothesis. We analyzed all mitochondrial plasmids of the invertron type within the fungal clade, including five from Ascomycota, seven from Basidiomycota, and one from Chytridiomycota. All phylogenetic analyses generated similar tree topologies regardless of the methods and datasets used. It is likely that DNA and RNA polymerase genes were inserted into the mitochondrial genomes of the 13 fungal species examined in our study as a result of different LGT events. These findings are important for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between fungal mitochondrial plasmids. PMID:26535725

  13. The impact of land use change on the energy and water fluxes between atmosphere and tropical vegetation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.; Kreilein, H.; Oltchev, A.; Gravenhorst, G.

    2003-12-01

    The conversion of tropical rain forest to agriculturally used land is a widespread process throughout Indonesia. Besides the effects on the biological diversity and the hydrological functions of a forest, this also has an impact on the turbulent exchange processes between vegetation and atmosphere, the radiative properties of the surface and therefore on atmospheric boundary layer and local climate. Within the framework of the project STORMA "Stability of rain forest margins" (SFB 552, University Goettingen, financed by the German Research Foundation), the energy and water fluxes above one of the major land use types, a Cacao plantation, were investigated using the Eddy-Covariance method. Simultaneously meteorological measurements of the variables wind speed and velocity, temperature, humidity, rainfall, soil heat flux and the components of the radiation budget were performed, in order to complete the energy balance and investigate the dependencies of the turbulent exchange processes on the atmospheric boundary conditions. The measurements are being compared to a SVAT model, providing the heat flux into the vegetation. Energy balance closure is used as a means to check the quality of the measured fluxes. The comparison to measurements above undisturbed rain forest by means of the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux, the Bowen ratio, indicates a significantly different boundary layer regime of the atmosphere above the Cacao.

  14. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-01

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics. PMID:26685121

  15. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol.

  16. The history and science of chocolate.

    PubMed

    Verna, R

    2013-12-01

    This article gives an account of the origins, evolution and properties of chocolate. Chocolate is processed from the pod or cabosside of the cacao plant, grown in the tropical belt. The origins of chocolate are traced back to the Maya people who were probably the first to cultivate the cacao plant. The early chocolate drink, considered a "drink of the Gods" was mixed with cinnamon and pepper, tasting bitter and strong, and was most appreciated for its invigorating and stimulating effects than for its taste. Imported from the Americas, the softened version soon spread in Europe. From the 1800s to the 20th Century, it evolved from a drink to its current pleasurable varieties (such as fondant, Gianduja, milky and white chocolate), gaining much momentum in industry and also made great impact as a romantic item and art form. Important components in chocolate are flavonoids (antioxidants), cocoa butter, caffeine, theobromine and phenylethylamine, whereas the presence of psychoactive substances account for its pleasurable effects. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine constitutes the methylxanthines, known to enhance the action of cAMP, which plays an important role in the transmission of intracellular signals. Chocolate is noted to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, and improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which action improves the pressure, platelet function and fluidity of blood.

  17. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa. PMID:26059107

  18. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo effects of semipurified proteinase inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on midgut protease activity of Lepidopteran pest insects.

    PubMed

    Paulillo, Luis Cesar Maffei Sartini; Sebbenn, Alexandre Magno; de Carvalho Derbyshire, Maria Tereza Vitral; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; de Paula Brotto, Marco Aurélio; Figueira, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    We have characterized in vitro and in vivo effects of trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on the activity of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from Lepidopteran pest insects. The action of semipurified trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma was evaluated by the inhibition of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin activities determined by the hydrolysis of N-Benzoyl-DL-Arginine-p-Nitroanilide (BAPA) and N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pho-Phe p-Nitroanilide (S-(Ala)2ProPhe-pNA). Proteinase inhibitor activities from Theobroma cacao and T. obovatum seeds were the most effective in inhibiting trypsin-like proteins, whereas those from T. obovatum and T. sylvestre were the most efficient against chymotrypsin-like proteins. All larvae midgut extracts showed trypsin-like proteolytic activities, and the putative trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds significantly inhibited purified bovine trypsin. With respect to the influence of Theobroma trypsin inhibitors on intact insects, the inclusion of T. cacao extracts in artificial diets of velvet bean caterpillars (Anticarsia gemmatalis) and sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) produced a significant increase in the percentage of adult deformation, which is directly related to both the survival rate of the insects and oviposition.

  19. Fungal and Oomycete Diseases of Tropical Tree Fruit Crops.

    PubMed

    Drenth, André; Guest, David I

    2016-08-01

    The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops. Cultivation of monocultures derived from limited genetic diversity, environmental conditions conducive for disease development, high levels of disease incidence and severity, a lack of disease resistance in planting materials, shortages of labor, and inadequate infrastructure and investment pose significant challenges, especially for smallholder producers. The expansion of travel and trade has given rise to emerging infectious plant diseases that add further insecurity and pressure. We conclude that holistic actions are needed on multiple fronts to address the growing problem of disease in tropical fruit tree crops. PMID:27491435

  20. Global trends in vegetation phenology from 32-year GEOV1 leaf area index time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, Frédéric; Weiss, Marie; Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Phenology is a critical component in understanding ecosystem response to climate variability. Long term data records from global mapping satellite platforms are valuable tools for monitoring vegetation responses to climate change at the global scale. Phenology satellite products and trend detection from satellite time series are expected to contribute to improve our understanding of climate forcing on vegetation dynamics. The capacity of monitoring ecosystem responses to global climate change was evaluated in this study from the 32-year time series of global Leaf Area Index (LAI) which have been recently produced within the geoland2 project. The long term GEOV1 LAI products were derived from NOAA/AVHRR (1981 to 2000) and SPOT/VGT (1999 to the present) with specific emphasis on consistency and continuity. Since mid-November, GEOV1 LAI products are freely available to the scientific community at geoland2 portal (www.geoland2.eu/core-mapping-services/biopar.html). These products are distributed at a dekadal time step for the period 1981-2000 and 2000-2012 at 0.05° and 1/112°, respectively. The use of GEOV1 data covering a long time period and providing information at dense time steps are expected to increase the reliability of trend detection. In this study, GEOV1 LAI time series aggregated at 0.5° spatial resolution are used. The CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) method (Verger et al, 2013) was applied to characterize seasonal anomalies as well as identify trends. For a given pixel, CACAO computes, for each season, the time shift and the amplitude difference between the current temporal profile and the climatology computed over the 32 years. These CACAO parameters allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. Interannual variations in the timing of the Start of Season and End of Season, Season Length and LAI level in the peak of the